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Sample records for excitation function measurement

  1. Some light-ion excitation-function measurements on titanium, yttrium, and europium, and associated results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, H.I. Jr. [ed.; Lanier, R.G.; Mustafa, M.G.; Nuckolls, R.M.; Nagle, R.J.; O`Brien, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Frehaut, J.; Adam, A.; Philis, C. [Service de Physique et Techniques Nucleaires, Centre d`Etudes Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Boite Postale 12 (France)

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses: Fabrication of Plastic-Matrix-Encapsulated Accelerator Targets and Their Use in Measuring Nuclear Excitation Functions; Correcting Excitation Function Data in the Low Energy Region for Finite Thickness of the Target Foils, Including Effects of Straggling; Excitation Functions for the Nuclear Reactions on Titanium Leading to the Production {sup 48}V, {sup 44}Sc and {sup 47}Sc by Proton, Deuteron and Triton Irradiations at 0--35 MeV; Some Excitation Functions of Proton and Deuteron Induced Reactions on {sup 89}Y; Measurements of the Excitation Functions of the Isobaric Chain {sup 87}Y, {sup 87}Y{sup m}, {sup 87}Y{sup g} and {sup 87}Sr{sup m}; Levels in {sup 87}Y Observed in the Decay of {sup 87}Zr; and Nuclear Reaction Excitation Functions from the Irradiation of {sup 151,153}Eu with Protons And deuterons up to 35 MeV.

  2. Measurement of excitation functions in alpha induced reactions on {sup nat}Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr; Zaman, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    The excitation functions of {sup 66,67,68}Ga, {sup 62,63,65}Zn, {sup 61,64}Cu, and {sup 58,60}Co radionuclides in the {sup nat}Cu(α, x) reaction were measured in the energy range from 15 to 42 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation method at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The measured results were compared with the literature data as well as the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2013 and TENDL-2014 libraries based on the TALYS-1.6 code. The integral yields for thick targets of the produced radionuclides were also determined from the measured excitation functions and the stopping power of natural copper.

  3. Measurement of excitation functions in alpha induced reactions on natCu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun; Zaman, Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    The excitation functions of 66,67,68Ga, 62,63,65Zn, 61,64Cu, and 58,60Co radionuclides in the natCu(α, x) reaction were measured in the energy range from 15 to 42 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation method at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The measured results were compared with the literature data as well as the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2013 and TENDL-2014 libraries based on the TALYS-1.6 code. The integral yields for thick targets of the produced radionuclides were also determined from the measured excitation functions and the stopping power of natural copper.

  4. Measurement of excitation functions in alpha-induced reactions on yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Kim, Kwangsoo [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Naik, Haladhara [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Zaman, Muhammad [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung-Chul [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Tae-Young [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    The excitation functions of {sup 89g,m,90,91m,92m}Nb,{sup 88,89}Zr, and {sup 87g,m,88,90m,91m}Y from alpha-induced reactions on {sup 89}Y were measured from their respective threshold to 45 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the earlier reported data as well as with the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2013 library based on the TALYS1.6 code. Our measurements in the energy region from the threshold energy to 45 MeV are in general good agreement with the other experimental data and calculated results. The integral yields for thick target of the produced radionuclides were also deduced from their measured cross sections and the stopping power of {sup 89}Y. The measured excitation functions find importance in various practical applications including nuclear medicine and improvement of nuclear model calculations.

  5. Measurement of excitation functions in alpha-induced reactions on yttrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Kim, Kwangsoo; Naik, Haladhara; Zaman, Muhammad; Kim, Guinyun; Yang, Sung-Chul; Song, Tae-Young

    2015-01-01

    The excitation functions of 89g,m,90,91m,92mNb,88,89Zr, and 87g,m,88,90m,91mY from alpha-induced reactions on 89Y were measured from their respective threshold to 45 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the earlier reported data as well as with the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2013 library based on the TALYS1.6 code. Our measurements in the energy region from the threshold energy to 45 MeV are in general good agreement with the other experimental data and calculated results. The integral yields for thick target of the produced radionuclides were also deduced from their measured cross sections and the stopping power of 89Y. The measured excitation functions find importance in various practical applications including nuclear medicine and improvement of nuclear model calculations.

  6. Excitation function measurements and integral yields estimation for {sup nat}Zn(p,x) reactions at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, F.S. [Physics Department, Girls College of Education in Riyadh, P.O. Box 27329, Riyadh 11417 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: ferdoasalsaleh@hotmail.com; Al Mugren, K.S. [Physics Department, Girls College of Education in Riyadh, P.O. Box 27329, Riyadh 11417 (Saudi Arabia); Azzam, A. [Nuclear Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, AEA, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-10-15

    Excitation functions have been measured for a number of proton-induced nuclear reactions on natural zinc in the energy range from 27.5 MeV down to their threshold energy, using the activation method on stacked foils. Excitation functions and thick target yield for the reactions leading to the formation of {sup 67}Ga,{sup 66}Ga,{sup 68}Ga,{sup 62}Zn and {sup 65}Zn are presented and compared with earlier reported experimental data. The experimental cross-sections and the production yields are tabulated; the excitation functions and the thick target yield curves are plotted in graphs.

  7. Measurement and analysis of excitation functions and observation of mass-asymmetry effect on incomplete fusion dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid M.H.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Excitation functions for sixteen evaporation residues produced in the interaction of 20Ne with 165Ho have been measured in the projectile energy range ≈88-164 MeV, using catcher foil activation technique followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. It has been found in general that the excitation functions of evaporation residues produced via xn/pxn channels satisfactorily reproduced with the statistical model code PACE-2 after subtraction of precursor decay contribution. The significant enhancement in the measured excitation functions for the residues produced in alpha emission channels over the PACE-2 predictions has been observed. These alpha emission channels are attributed to incomplete fusion reaction process. The results indicate the occurrence of incomplete fusion involving break-up of projectile 20Ne into 4He + 16O and /or 8Be + 12C followed by fusion of one of the fragments with target nucleus 165Ho. The analysis of the present data suggest that probability of incomplete fusion increases with projectile energy. The ICF fraction FICF also increases with increasing mass-asymmetry of the entrance channel.

  8. Measurement of excitation functions for production of cerium radioisotopes by deuteron induced reactions on natural cerium for nanobioscience applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonelli, F.; Abbas, K.; Holzwarth, U.; Cydzik, I. [Inst. for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra (Italy); Huu-Tai, Chau P. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France)

    2010-07-01

    Cerium based nanoparticles would play an important role in the field of nanotechnology ranging from fuel additives to sun creams, and to various medical applications. Radiolabelled cerium can be accurately and precisely traced during each step of their applications, thanks to the sensitivity of nuclear measurement techniques. This work is focused on the study of the production of cerium radioisotopes and more precisely, as few data are available, on the determination of the excitation functions for production of cerium radioisotopes by deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural cerium. We measured the excitation functions for the nuclear reactions {sup nat}Ce(d,x){sup 139g,141,143}Ce and also for {sup nat}Ce(d,x){sup 142g}Pr in the energy range of 5 to 18.5 MeV. Theoretical simulations of these excitation functions were performed using the TALYS calculation code. We have shown that with deuteron beam irradiation, several radioisotopes of cerium can be activated and the cross section data of the relevant nuclear reactions are produced for the first time. Thick target yields of 0.1, 1.1 and 3.2 MBq/{mu}A h were reached for {sup 139g}Ce, {sup 141}Ce and {sup 143}Ce, respectively, which are sufficient for various biological studies such as cellular uptake of cerium based nanoparticles. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of excitation functions in proton induced reactions on natural copper from their threshold to 43 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Kim, Kwangsoo; Naik, Haladhara; Zaman, Muhammad; Yang, Sung-Chul; Kim, Guinyun

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the production cross-sections of the residual radionuclides from proton-induced reactions of natCu by using a stacked-foil activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique in the energy range from their respective threshold to 43 MeV at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The measured results were compared with the earlier reported data as well as with the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2013 library based on the TALYS 1.6 code. The integral yields for thick target of the investigated radio-nuclides were calculated from the measured excitation function and the stopping power of natCu.

  10. Measurement of excitation functions in proton induced reactions on natural copper from their threshold to 43 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Kim, Kwangsoo [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Naik, Haladhara [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Zaman, Muhammad [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung-Chul [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the production cross-sections of the residual radionuclides from proton-induced reactions of {sup nat}Cu by using a stacked-foil activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique in the energy range from their respective threshold to 43 MeV at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The measured results were compared with the earlier reported data as well as with the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2013 library based on the TALYS 1.6 code. The integral yields for thick target of the investigated radio-nuclides were calculated from the measured excitation function and the stopping power of {sup nat}Cu.

  11. Measurement and theoretical analysis of the excitation functions for 3He induced reactions on natSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B. M.; Al-Abyad, M.; Seddik, U.; El-Kameesy, S. U.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F.

    2015-11-01

    Excitation functions of 3He induced nuclear reactions on natSn were measured up to 26 MeV using the stacked-foil technique, utilizing the MGC-20E cyclotron of ATOMKI. Using HPGe detector the following radioisotopes were identified: 116,117,118,119g,119m,121g,121m,123mTe, 115g,116m,117,118m,120m,122g,124gSb and 113g,117mSn. The experimental results are presented for the first time in this energy range. The results of theoretical calculations based on EMPIRE and TENDL library were compared with the present data. Integral yields for some isotopes were calculated.

  12. Measurement and theoretical analysis of the excitation functions for {sup 3}He induced reactions on {sup nat}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, B.M.; Al-Abyad, M.; Seddik, U. [Physics Department (Cyclotron Facility), Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); El-Kameesy, S.U. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F. [Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen H4026 (Hungary)

    2015-11-01

    Excitation functions of {sup 3}He induced nuclear reactions on {sup nat}Sn were measured up to 26 MeV using the stacked-foil technique, utilizing the MGC-20E cyclotron of ATOMKI. Using HPGe detector the following radioisotopes were identified: {sup 116,117,118,119g,119m,121g,121m,123m}Te, {sup 115g,116m,117,118m,120m,122g,124g}Sb and {sup 113g,117m}Sn. The experimental results are presented for the first time in this energy range. The results of theoretical calculations based on EMPIRE and TENDL library were compared with the present data. Integral yields for some isotopes were calculated.

  13. Damage detection of metro tunnel structure through transmissibility function and cross correlation analysis using local excitation and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Yi, Xiaohua; Zhu, Dapeng; Xie, Xiongyao; Wang, Yang

    2015-08-01

    In a modern metropolis, metro rail systems have become a dominant mode for mass transportation. The structural health of a metro tunnel is closely related to public safety. Many vibration-based techniques for detecting and locating structural damage have been developed in the past several decades. However, most damage detection techniques and validation tests are focused on bridge and building structures; very few studies have been reported on tunnel structures. Among these techniques, transmissibility function and cross correlation analysis are two well-known diagnostic approaches. The former operates in frequency domain and the latter in time domain. Both approaches can be applied to detect and locate damage through acceleration data obtained from sensor arrays. Furthermore, the two approaches can directly utilize structural response data without requiring excitation measurement, which offers advantages in field testing on a large structure. In this research, a numerical finite element model of a metro tunnel is built and different types of structural defects are introduced at multiple locations of the tunnel. Transmissibility function and cross correlation analysis are applied to perform structural damage detection and localization, based on simulated structural vibration data. Numerical results demonstrate that the introduced defects can be successfully identified and located. The sensitivity and feasibility of the two approaches have been verified when sufficient distribution of measurement locations is available. Damage detection results of the two different approaches are compared and discussed.

  14. Production of $^{93,94,95,96}$Tc through $^{7}$Li+$^{nat}$Zr and $^{9}$Be+$^{nat}$Y reactions: Measurement of excitation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Maiti, Moumita

    2009-01-01

    For the first time two separate production routes of Tc radionuclides have been studied bombarding $^{7}$Li on $^{nat}$Zr and $^{9}$Be on $^{89}$Y. Excitation functions of the evaporation residues produced in those reactions have been measured using stacked-foil technique followed by the $\\gamma$-spectrometric studies in the energy range 37-45 MeV and 30-48 MeV respectively. Measured excitation functions have been compared with those calculated using the nuclear reaction model codes PACE-II and ALICE91. Experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical predictions. Compound nuclear reaction is the key mechanism in producing evaporation residues.

  15. Excitation functions of {sup nat}Zr + p nuclear processes up to 70 MeV: New measurements and compilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szelecsényi, F., E-mail: szele@atomki.hu [Cyclotron Application Department, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/c, Debrecen H-4026 (Hungary); Steyn, G.F. [iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, Faure, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Kovács, Z. [Cyclotron Application Department, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/c, Debrecen H-4026 (Hungary); Vermeulen, C. [Centre for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Nagatsu, K.; Zhang, M.-R.; Suzuki, K. [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku-Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Excitation functions for the formation of various radionuclides of Nb, Zr, Y and Sr in proton-induced reactions on natural zirconium were measured up to 66 MeV using the stacked-foil technique. New data are presented for {sup 89m,89g}Nb, {sup 90(m+g)}Nb, {sup 91m}Nb, {sup 92m}Nb, {sup 95m,95g}Nb, {sup 96}Nb, {sup 86}Zr, {sup 87(m+g)}Zr, {sup 88}Zr, {sup 89(0.94m+g)}Zr, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 85m,85g}Y, {sup 86m,86(0.99m+g)}Y, {sup 87m,87(0.984m+g)}Y, {sup 88}Y, {sup 90m}Y, {sup 91m}Y and {sup 85(0.87m+g)}Sr. The experimental results are compared with the available literature data as well as the evaluated theoretical predictions by means of the TALYS code, up to 70 MeV, as compiled in the TENDL-2013 library. For a number of short-lived radionuclides, i.e., {sup 85m}Y, {sup 85g}Y, {sup 86m}Y, {sup 90m}Y, {sup 91m}Y and {sup 87(m+g)}Zr, the present experimental cross sections are likely the first to be reported for their formation in {sup nat}Zr + p.

  16. Excitation functions of natZr + p nuclear processes up to 70 MeV: New measurements and compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelecsényi, F.; Steyn, G. F.; Kovács, Z.; Vermeulen, C.; Nagatsu, K.; Zhang, M.-R.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-01-01

    Excitation functions for the formation of various radionuclides of Nb, Zr, Y and Sr in proton-induced reactions on natural zirconium were measured up to 66 MeV using the stacked-foil technique. New data are presented for 89m,89gNb, 90(m+g)Nb, 91mNb, 92mNb, 95m,95gNb, 96Nb, 86Zr, 87(m+g)Zr, 88Zr, 89(0.94m+g)Zr, 95Zr, 85m,85gY, 86m,86(0.99m+g)Y, 87m,87(0.984m+g)Y, 88Y, 90mY, 91mY and 85(0.87m+g)Sr. The experimental results are compared with the available literature data as well as the evaluated theoretical predictions by means of the TALYS code, up to 70 MeV, as compiled in the TENDL-2013 library. For a number of short-lived radionuclides, i.e., 85mY, 85gY, 86mY, 90mY, 91mY and 87(m+g)Zr, the present experimental cross sections are likely the first to be reported for their formation in natZr + p.

  17. Exciting H2 Molecules for Graphene Functionalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Line; Bisson, Regis; Balog, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen functionalization of graphene by exposure to vibrationally excited H2 molecules is investigated by combined scanning tunneling microscopy, high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements and density functional theory calculations. The meas......Hydrogen functionalization of graphene by exposure to vibrationally excited H2 molecules is investigated by combined scanning tunneling microscopy, high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements and density functional theory calculations....... The measurements reveal that vibrationally excited H2 molecules dissociatively adsorb on graphene on Ir(111) resulting in nano-patterned hydrogen functionalization structures. Calculations demonstrate that the presence of the Ir surface below the graphene lowers the H2 dissociative adsorption barrier and allows...... for the adsorption reaction at energies well below the dissociation threshold of the H-H bond. The first reacting H2 molecule must contain considerable vibrational energy to overcome the dissociative adsorption barrier. However, this initial adsorption further activates the surface resulting in reduced barriers...

  18. Measurement of excitation functions for the {sup nat}Mo(d,x){sup 99}Mo and {sup nat}Mo(p,x){sup 99}Mo reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chodash, P., E-mail: chodash2@berkeley.edu [University of California, Berkeley, Department of Nuclear Engineering, 4155 Etcheverry Hall, MC 1730, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Angell, C.T. [University of California, Berkeley, Department of Nuclear Engineering, 4155 Etcheverry Hall, MC 1730, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Benitez, J. [University of California, Berkeley, Department of Nuclear Engineering, 4155 Etcheverry Hall, MC 1730, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division (United States); Norman, E.B. [University of California, Berkeley, Department of Nuclear Engineering, 4155 Etcheverry Hall, MC 1730, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Pedretti, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Shugart, H. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Swanberg, E.; Yee, R. [University of California, Berkeley, Department of Nuclear Engineering, 4155 Etcheverry Hall, MC 1730, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

    2011-10-15

    The excitation functions for proton and deuteron induced reactions on natural molybdenum for the production of {sup 99}Mo were measured. The proton induced reaction was measured in the energy range of 11.3-49.6 MeV, and the deuteron induced reaction was measured in the energy range of 9.7-58.5 MeV. Both beams were generated by the 88'' cyclotron located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The results are compared to previously published data. Thick target yields were obtained by direct measurement, in addition to being determined by integration of the measured cross sections. - Highlights: > Cross sections were measured using the stacked foil technique. > Cross sections were measured for the {sup nat}Mo(d,x){sup 99}Mo and {sup nat}Mo(p,x){sup 99}Mo reactions. > Thick target yields were determined for the {sup nat}Mo(d,x){sup 99}Mo reactions up to 59 MeV. > Thick target yields were determined for the {sup nat}Mo(p,x){sup 99}Mo reactions up to 50 MeV.

  19. Complete and incomplete fusion of $^{12}C$ with $^{165}Ho$ below 7 MeV/nucleon Measurements and analysis of excitation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S; Musthafa, M M; Bhardwaj, H D; Prasadl, R

    2000-01-01

    This experiment has been done with a view to studying complete and incomplete fusion in heavy-ion-induced reactions. Excitation functions for several reactions induced by /sup 12/C/sup 5+/ ions on /sup 165/Ho at incident energies from 55 to 80 MeV have been measured using the activation technique. The analysis of the data has been done using the codes ALICE-91 and CASCADE. The parameter F/sub theta /, the ratio of actual moment of inertia to the rigid-body value, has been found to play an important role in the calculations done by the code CASCADE. Significant contributions from both the complete and the incomplete fusion channels have been observed. Further, in the case of the reaction (C, p3n) considerable contribution from the decay of higher charge isobar precursor has been observed. (23 refs).

  20. Experimental measurements and nuclear model calculations on the excitation functions of $^{nat}Ce(^{3}He, xn)$ and $^{141}$therapeutic radionuclide $^{140}$Nd

    CERN Document Server

    Hilgers, K; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M

    2005-01-01

    For production of the therapy related Auger electron emitting neutron deficient nuclide /sup 140/Nd (T/sub fraction 1/2/=3.37d) two routes were investigated: the nuclear reaction range from 15 to 36 MeV and the reaction /sup 141/Pr(p,2n)/sup 140isotopes, namely /sup 139/Nd and /sup 141/Nd, as well as to cerium(IV)-oxide and praseodymium (III)-oxide were obtained by sedimentation and the conventional stacked-foil technique was used for cross section measurements. All the experimental data obtained in this work were compared with the results of theoretical calculations using the exciton model code ALICE-IPPE as well as with literature experimental data, if available. In general, good agreement between experimental and theoretical results was found. The theoretical thick target yields of all the product nuclides were calculated from the measured excitation functions. The theoretical thick target yield of amounts to 12 MBq/mu Acenterdoth and over the energy range E/sub p/=30rightward arrow15 Me V to 210 MBq/mu; A...

  1. Excitation energies of strontium mono-hydroxide bands measured in flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurk, J. van der; Hollander, Tj.; Alkemade, C.T.J.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments are described to yield more decisive information about the excitation energies of visible strontium monohydroxide bands appearing in flames. Excitation energy differences are derived directly from the ratio of thermal band intensities measured as a function of temperature. Absolute

  2. Photothermally excited force modulation microscopy for broadband nanomechanical property measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Ryan, E-mail: ryan.wagner@nist.gov; Killgore, Jason P. [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We demonstrate photothermally excited force modulation microscopy (PTE FMM) for mechanical property characterization across a broad frequency range with an atomic force microscope (AFM). Photothermal excitation allows for an AFM cantilever driving force that varies smoothly as a function of drive frequency, thus avoiding the problem of spurious resonant vibrations that hinder piezoelectric excitation schemes. A complication of PTE FMM is that the sub-resonance cantilever vibration shape is fundamentally different compared to piezoelectric excitation. By directly measuring the vibrational shape of the cantilever, we show that PTE FMM is an accurate nanomechanical characterization method. PTE FMM is a pathway towards the characterization of frequency sensitive specimens such as polymers and biomaterials with frequency range limited only by the resonance frequency of the cantilever and the low frequency limit of the AFM.

  3. Analyses of zonal atmospheric excitation functions and their correlation with polar motion excitation functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nastula

    Full Text Available The atmospheric influence on the Earth's, rotation can be described by the effective atmospheric angular momentum (EAAM functions. In this study we focus on the analysis of short period variations of the equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions χ1 and χ2 and their influence on similar variations of polar motion. The global objective analysis data of the Japanese Meteorological Agency for the period 1986–1992 were used to compute the EAAM excitation functions in different latitude belts. Time- and latitude-variable amplitude spectra of variations of these functions with periods shorter than 150 days, containing pressure, pressure with the inverted barometric correction, and wind terms were computed. The spectra show distinct latitude and time variations of the prograde and retrograde oscillations which reach their maxima mainly in mid-latitudes. Prograde and retrograde oscillations with periods of about 40–60 days and about 110–120 days are seen in the spectra of pressure terms of the equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions. Additionally, correlation coefficients and cross-spectra between variations of the geodetic polar motion and equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions were computed to identify the latitude belts of the globe over which atmospheric circulation changes are correlated mostly with short period variations of the polar motion excitation functions. The correlation coefficients vary in time and latitude and reach maximum values in the northern latitudes from 50°N to 60°N. In the cross-spectra between the polar motion excitation functions and pressure terms of the zonal EAAM excitation functions there are peaks of common prograde oscillations with the periods around 20, 30, 40–50, 60 and 80–150 days and of common retrograde oscillations around 20, 30, 40 and 50–70 days.

  4. Analyses of zonal atmospheric excitation functions and their correlation with polar motion excitation functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nastula

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric influence on the Earth's, rotation can be described by the effective atmospheric angular momentum (EAAM functions. In this study we focus on the analysis of short period variations of the equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions χ1 and χ2 and their influence on similar variations of polar motion. The global objective analysis data of the Japanese Meteorological Agency for the period 1986–1992 were used to compute the EAAM excitation functions in different latitude belts. Time- and latitude-variable amplitude spectra of variations of these functions with periods shorter than 150 days, containing pressure, pressure with the inverted barometric correction, and wind terms were computed. The spectra show distinct latitude and time variations of the prograde and retrograde oscillations which reach their maxima mainly in mid-latitudes. Prograde and retrograde oscillations with periods of about 40–60 days and about 110–120 days are seen in the spectra of pressure terms of the equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions. Additionally, correlation coefficients and cross-spectra between variations of the geodetic polar motion and equatorial components of the zonal EAAM excitation functions were computed to identify the latitude belts of the globe over which atmospheric circulation changes are correlated mostly with short period variations of the polar motion excitation functions. The correlation coefficients vary in time and latitude and reach maximum values in the northern latitudes from 50°N to 60°N. In the cross-spectra between the polar motion excitation functions and pressure terms of the zonal EAAM excitation functions there are peaks of common prograde oscillations with the periods around 20, 30, 40–50, 60 and 80–150 days and of common retrograde oscillations around 20, 30, 40 and 50–70 days.

  5. Coherence Measurements for Excited to Excited State Transitions in Barium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajmar, S.; Kanik, I.; Karaganov, V.; Zetner, P. W.; Csanak, G.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental studies concerning elastic and inelastic electron scattering by coherently ensembles of Ba (...6s6p (sub 1)P(sub 1)) atoms with various degrees of alignment will be described. An in-plane, linearly-polarized laser beam was utilized to prepare these target ensembles and the electron scattering signal as a function of polarization angle was measured for several laser geometries at fixed impact energies and scattering angles. From these measurements, we derived cross sections and electron-impact coherence parameters associated with the electron scattering process which is time reverse of the actual experimentally studied process. This interpretation of the experiment is based on the theory of Macek and Herte. The experimental results were also interpreted in terms of cross sections and collision parameters associated with the actual experimental processes. Results obtained so far will be presented and plans for further studies will be discussed.

  6. Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering Excitation Functions at Intermediate Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, D.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bollmann, R.; Büßer, K.; Cloth, P.; Daniel, R.; Diehl, O.; Dohrmann, F.; Engelhardt, H. P.; Ernst, J.; Eversheim, P. D.; Gasthuber, M.; Gebel, R.; Greiff, J.; Groß, A.; Groß-Hardt, R.; Heider, S.; Heine, A.; Hinterberger, F.; Igelbrink, M.; Jahn, R.; Jeske, M.; Lahr, U.; Langkau, R.; Lindlein, J.; Maier, R.; Maschuw, R.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Mosel, F.; Müller, M.; Münstermann, M.; Prasuhn, D.; Rohdjeß, H.; Rosendaal, D.; Roß, U.; von Rossen, P.; Scheid, H.; Schirm, N.; Schulz-Rojahn, M.; Schwandt, F.; Schwarz, V.; Scobel, W.; Sterzenbach, G.; Trelle, H. J.; Wellinghausen, A.; Wiedmann, W.; Woller, K.; Ziegler, R.

    1997-03-01

    Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic scattering cross sections have been measured in narrow steps for projectile momenta pp (energies Tp) from 1100 to 3300 MeV/c (500 to 2500 MeV) in the angular range 35°<=Θc.m.<=90° with a detector providing ΔΘc.m.~1.4° resolution. Measurements have been performed continuously during projectile acceleration in the cooler synchrotron COSY with an internal CH2 fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of Tp. The advantages of this experimental technique are demonstrated, and the excitation functions obtained are compared to existing cross section data. No evidence for narrow structures was found.

  7. Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering Excitation Functions at Intermediate Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisplinghoff, J.; Daniel, R.; Diehl, O.; Engelhardt, H.; Ernst, J.; Eversheim, P.; Gro-Hardt, R.; Heider, S.; Heine, A.; Hinterberger, F.; Jahn, R.; Jeske, M.; Lahr, U.; Maschuw, R.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Mosel, F.; Rohdje, H.; Rosendaal, D.; Ro, U.; Scheid, H.; Schulz-Rojahn, M.; Schwandt, F.; Schwarz, V.; Trelle, H.; Wiedmann, W.; Ziegler, R. [Inst.fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Albers, D.; Bollmann, R.; Bueer, K.; Dohrmann, F.; Gasthuber, M.; Greiff, J.; Gro, A.; Igelbrink, M.; Langkau, R.; Lindlein, J.; Mueller, M.; Muenstermann, M.; Schirm, N.; Scobel, W.; Wellinghausen, A.; Woller, K. [I. Inst.fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Cloth, P.; Gebel, R.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; von Rossen, P.; Sterzenbach, G. [Inst.fuer Kernphysik, KFA Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic scattering cross sections have been measured in narrow steps for projectile momenta p{sub p} (energies T{sub p}) from 1100 to 3300MeV/c (500 to 2500MeV) in the angular range 35{degree}{le}{Theta}{sub c.m.}{le}90{degree} with a detector providing {Delta}{Theta}{sub c.m.}{approx}1.4{degree} resolution. Measurements have been performed continuously during projectile acceleration in the cooler synchrotron COSY with an internal CH{sub 2} fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of T{sub p}. The advantages of this experimental technique are demonstrated, and the excitation functions obtained are compared to existing cross section data. No evidence for narrow structures was found. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Yield and excitation function measurements of some nuclear reactions on natural thallium induced by protons leading to the production of medical radioisotopes {sup 201}Tl and {sup 203}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, F.S.; Al-Harbi, A.A. [Girls College of Education, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Physics Dept.; Azzam, A. [Nuclear Research Center, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Physics Dept.

    2007-07-01

    Excitation functions for {sup 201}Pb, {sup 202m}Pb, {sup 203}Pb and {sup 204m}Pb radionuclides which are formed via proton induced reactions with natural thallium target have been measured from their respective threshold (E{sub thr}) to 27.5 MeV using activation technique. Natural copper foils were used to monitor the cyclotron beam. The integral yields (MBq/{mu}A h) of the produced radionuclides were calculated from the measured excitation functions. The optimum proton energy range for the production of {sup 203}Pb with low amount of impurities is (16-10 MeV) after 5 h of EOB. The experimental cross-sections for {sup nat}Tl(p,xn) reactions were compared with the cross-sections recommended by the IAEA and with earlier published data when it was possible. (orig.)

  9. Highly excited strings I: Generating function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri P. Skliros

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of a series of detailed papers on string amplitudes with highly excited strings (HES. In the present paper we construct a generating function for string amplitudes with generic HES vertex operators using a fixed-loop momentum formalism. We generalise the proof of the chiral splitting theorem of D'Hoker and Phong to string amplitudes with arbitrary HES vertex operators (with generic KK and winding charges, polarisation tensors and oscillators in general toroidal compactifications E=RD−1,1×TDcr−D (with generic constant Kähler and complex structure target space moduli, background Kaluza–Klein (KK gauge fields and torsion. We adopt a novel approach that does not rely on a “reverse engineering” method to make explicit the loop momenta, thus avoiding a certain ambiguity pointed out in a recent paper by Sen, while also keeping the genus of the worldsheet generic. This approach will also be useful in discussions of quantum gravity and in particular in relation to black holes in string theory, non-locality and breakdown of local effective field theory, as well as in discussions of cosmic superstrings and their phenomenological relevance. We also discuss the manifestation of wave/particle (or rather wave/string duality in string theory.

  10. Measurement of excitation functions of helion-induced reactions on enriched Ru targets for production of medically important 103Pd and 101mRh and some other radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, Ye; Qaim, S M

    2008-05-01

    Excitation functions were determined by the stacked-foil and induced radioactivity measurement technique for the reactions (100)Ru(alpha,n)(103)Pd, (101)Ru(alpha,2n)(103)Pd, (101)Ru((3)He,n)(103)Pd, and (102)Ru((3)He,2n)(103)Pd, producing the therapeutic radionuclide (103)Pd, and for the reactions (101)Ru((3)He,x)(101 m)Rh(Cum) and (102)Ru((3)He,x)(101 m)Rh(Cum), producing the medically interesting radionuclide (101 m)Rh. Data were also measured for the reactions (101)Ru((3)He,pn+d)(102 m,g)Rh, (102)Ru((3)He,p2n+dn+t)(102 m,g)Rh, (101)Ru((3)He,x)(101 g)Rh(Cum), (102)Ru((3)He,x)(101 g)Rh(Cum), (101)Ru((3)He,3n)(101)Pd, (102)Ru((3)He,4n)(101)Pd, (101)Ru((3)He,4n)(100)Pd, and (101)Ru((3)He,p3n+d2n+tn)(100)Rh, producing other palladium and rhodium isotopes/isomers. The energy ranges covered were up to 25 MeV for alpha-particles and up to 34 MeV for (3)He ions. The radioactivity of the radionuclide (103)Pd induced in thin metallic foils of the enriched ruthenium isotopes was measured by high-resolution X-ray spectrometry and the radioactivities of other radionuclides by gamma-ray spectrometry. The integral thick target yields of the radionuclide (103)Pd calculated from the excitation functions of the first four of the above-named reactions amount to 960, 1050, 50, and 725 kBq/microAh, respectively, at the maximum investigated energies of the incident particles. The integral thick target yields of the radionuclide (101 m)Rh amount to 16.1 and 2.9 MBq/microAh for (101)Ru and (102)Ru targets, respectively, at 34 MeV energy of incident (3)He ions. The integral yields of the other observed radionuclides were also deduced from the excitation functions of the above-mentioned respective nuclear reactions. The excitation functions and integral yields of some rare reaction products were also determined. The experimental excitation functions of some reactions are compared with the predictions of nuclear model calculations. In general, good agreement was obtained.

  11. Use of piezoelectric-excited millimeter-sized cantilever sensors to measure albumin interaction with self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols having different functional headgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gossett A; Mutharasan, Raj

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a new modality of measuring human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption continuously on CH3-, COOH-, and OH-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of C11-alkanethiols and the direct quantification of the adsorbed amount. A gold-coated piezoelectric-excited millimeter-sized cantilever (PEMC) sensor of 6-mm2 sensing area was fabricated, where resonant frequency decreases upon mass increase. The resonant frequency in air of the detection peak was 45.5 +/- 0.01 kHz. SAMs of C11-thiols (in absolute ethanol) with different end groups was prepared on the PEMC sensor and then exposed to buffer solution containing HSA at 10 microg/mL. The resonant frequency decreased exponentially and reached a steady-state value within 30 min. The decrease in resonant frequency indicates that the mass of the sensor increased due to HSA adsorption onto the SAM layer. The frequency change obtained for the HSA adsorption on CH3-, COOH-, and OH-terminated SAM were 520.8 +/- 8.6 (n = 3), 290.4 +/- 6.1 (n = 2), and 210.6 +/- 8.1 Hz (n = 3), respectively. These results confirm prior conclusions that albumin adsorption decreased in the order, CH(3) > COOH > OH. Observed binding rate constants were 0.163 +/- 0.003, 0.248 +/- 0.006, and 0.381 +/- 0.001 min(-1), for methyl, carboxylic, and hydroxyl end groups, respectively. The significance of the results reported here is that both the formation of self-assembled monolayers and adsorption of serum protein onto the formed layer can be measured continuously, and quantification of the adsorbed amount can be determined directly.

  12. Turbulence in sound excited jets - Measurements and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P. J.; Baltas, C.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the turbulent structure of an axisymmetric jet is modified by the presence of an acoustic excitation are examined. A model is described in which the excitation triggers instability waves at the jet exit. As these waves propagate downstream they extract energy from the mean flow and transfer it to the random turbulence. This results in an increase of the random turbulence levels and a more rapid mixing and spreading for the jet. Models are introduced for the Reynolds stress and the 'wave-induced stress'. It is shown that at high frequencies the presence of the instability wave may reduce the random turbulence levels. Numerical calculations are presented for both the radial and axial variation in the time-averaged properties of the flow as a function of excitation conditions. The calculations are compared with measurements of fluctuating velocity and pressure in a round jet with a Reynolds number of 375,000, based on jet diameter and exit velocity.

  13. Excitability of motor cortices as a function of emotional sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeilipoor, Naeem; Pizzolato, Fabio; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Cesari, Paola

    2013-01-01

    We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to clarify how non-verbal emotionally-characterized sounds modulate the excitability of the corticospinal motor tract (CST). While subjects were listening to sounds (monaurally and binaurally), single TMS pulses were delivered to either left or right primary motor cortex (M1), and electromyographic activities were recorded from the contralateral abductor pollicis brevis muscle. We found a significant increase in CST excitability in response to unpleasant as compared to neutral sounds. The increased excitability was lateralized as a function of stimulus valence: Unpleasant stimuli resulted in a significantly higher facilitation of motor potentials evoked in the left hemisphere, while pleasant stimuli yielded a greater CST excitability in the right one. Furthermore, TMS induced higher motor evoked potentials when listening to unpleasant sounds with the left than with the right ear. Taken together, our findings provide compelling evidence for an asymmetric modulation of CST excitability as a function of emotional sounds along with ear laterality.

  14. Complete and incomplete fusion measurement and analysis of excitation functions in sup 1 sup 2 C + sup 1 sup 2 sup 8 Te system at energies near and above the coulomb barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, M K; Prasad, R; Gupta, S; Musthafa, M M; Bhardwaj, H D; Sinha, A K

    2003-01-01

    In order to study complete and incomplete fusion in heavy ion induced reactions the experiment has been carried out for measuring excitation functions (EF's) for several reactions in the system sup 1 sup 2 C + sup 1 sup 2 sup 8 Te, in the energy range approx = 42 - 82 MeV, using activation technique. To the best of our knowledge EF's for presently measured reactions are being reported for the first time. The measured EF's have been compared with those calculated theoretically using codes CASCADE and ALICE-91. Effect of variation of parameters, of the codes, on calculated EF's has also been studied. The analysis of the present data indicates presence of contributions from incomplete fusion in some cases. In general, theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental data.

  15. Measurement of MOSFET LF Noise Under Large Signal RF Excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, A.P.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    A new measurement technique is presented that allows measurement of MOSFET LF noise under large signal RF excitation. Measurements indicate that MOSFETS exhibit a reduction in LF noise when they are cycled from inversion to accummulation and that this reduction does not depend on the frequency of

  16. Excitation function calculations for α + {sup 93}Nb nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiğit, M., E-mail: mustafayigit@aksaray.edu.tr [Aksaray University, Physics Dept., Aksaray (Turkey); Tel, E. [Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, Physics Dept., Osmaniye (Turkey); Sarpün, İ.H. [Afyon Kocatepe University, Physics Dept., Afyonkarahisar (Turkey)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, the excitation functions of alpha-induced reactions on the {sup 93}Nb target nucleus were calculated by using ALICE-ASH code. The hybrid model, Weisskopf-Ewing model and geometry dependent hybrid model in this code were used to understand the alpha-niobium interaction. The contribution on the nuclear interaction of compound and pre-compound processes, with variation of the incident alpha particle energy, was presented. Furthermore, the reaction cross sections were calculated by using different level density models such as Superfluid nuclear model, Fermi gas model and Kataria-Ramamurthy Fermi gas model. Obtaining a good agreement between the calculated and the measured cross sections, the exciton numbers and the nuclear level density models were varied. Finally, the proper choice of the exciton numbers and the nuclear level density models was found to be quite important in order to obtain the more realistic cross section values.

  17. Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging for aerodynamic and thermodynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Nathan David

    This thesis presents applications of Femtosecond Laser Electronic Excitation Tagging (FLEET) to a variety of aerodynamic and thermodynamic measurements. FLEET tagged line characteristics such as intensity, width and spectral features are investigated in various flow conditions (pressure, temperature, velocity, steadiness, etc.) and environments (gas composition) for both temporally and spatially instantaneous and averaged data. Special attention is drawn to the nature of first and second positive systems of molecular nitrogen and the ramifications on FLEET measurements. Existing laser-based diagnostic techniques are summarized and FLEET is directly compared with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in various low speed flows. Multidimensional velocity, acceleration, vorticity and other flow parameters are extracted in supersonic free jets and within an enclosed in-draft tunnel test section. Probability distribution functions of the mean and standard deviation of critical flow parameters are unveiled by utilizing a Bayesian statistical framework wherein likelihood functions are established from prior and posterior distributions. Advanced image processing techniques based on fuzzy logic are applied to single-shot FLEET images with low signal-to-noise ratio to improve image quality and reduce uncertainty in data processing algorithms. Lastly, FLEET second positive and first negative emission are considered at a wide range of pressures to correct for changes in select rovibrational peak magnitude and shape due to density from which bulk gas temperature may be extracted.

  18. New measurements of excitation functions of 186W(p,x) nuclear reactions up to 65 MeV. Production of a 178W/178mTa generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Hermanne, A.

    2017-01-01

    New experimental excitation functions for proton induced reactions on natW are presented in the 32-65 MeV energy range. The cross-sections for natW(p,xn)186,184m,184g,183, 182m,182g,181Re, natW(p,x)178W, natW(p,x)183,182, 180m, 177,176,175Ta, 175Hf and 177Lu were measured via an activation method by using a stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The results were compared with predicted values obtained with the nuclear reaction code TALYS (results taken from the TENDL 2014 and TENDL 2015 on-line libraries). Production routes of the medically relevant radionuclides 186Re, the 178W → 178Ta generator and 181W are discussed.

  19. New measurements of excitation functions of {sup 186}W(p,x) nuclear reactions up to 65 MeV. Production of a {sup 178}W/{sup 178m}Ta generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tárkányi, F.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A., E-mail: aherman@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron Department, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, (VUB), Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-01-15

    New experimental excitation functions for proton induced reactions on {sup nat}W are presented in the 32–65 MeV energy range. The cross-sections for {sup nat}W(p,xn){sup 186,184m,184g,183,} {sup 182m,182g,181}Re, {sup nat}W(p,x){sup 178}W{sup ,} {sup nat}W(p,x){sup 183,182,} {sup 180m,} {sup 177,176,175}Ta, {sup 175}Hf and {sup 177}Lu were measured via an activation method by using a stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The results were compared with predicted values obtained with the nuclear reaction code TALYS (results taken from the TENDL 2014 and TENDL 2015 on-line libraries). Production routes of the medically relevant radionuclides {sup 186}Re, the {sup 178}W → {sup 178}Ta generator and {sup 181}W are discussed.

  20. Proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions at intermediate energies: Cross sections and analyzing powers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterberger, F.; Rohdjess, H.; Altmeier, M.; Bauer, F.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Buesser, K.; Busch, M.; Colberg, T.; Diehl, O.; Dohrmann, F.; Engelhardt, H.P.; Eversheim, P.D.; Felden, O.; Gebel, R.; Glende, M.; Greiff, J.; Gross-Hardt, R.; Jahn, R.; Jonas, E.; Krause, H.; Langkau, R.; Lindemann, T.; Lindlein, J.; Maier, R.; Maschuw, R.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Meinerzhagen, A.; Naehle, O.; Prasuhn, D.; Rosendaal, D.; Rossen, P. von; Schirm, N.; Schulz-Rojahn, M.; Schwarz, V.; Scobel, W.; Trelle, H.J.; Weise, E.; Wellinghausen, A.; Woller, K.; Ziegler, R

    2000-01-31

    The EDDA experiment at the cooler synchrotron COSY measures proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions in the momentum range 0.8 - 3.4 GeV/c. In phase 1 of the experiment, spin-averaged differential cross sections were measured continuously during acceleration with an internal polypropylene (CH{sub 2}) fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of beam momentum. In phase 2, excitation functions of the analyzing power A{sub N} and the polarization correlation parameters A{sub NN}, A{sub SS} and A{sub SL} are measured using a polarized proton beam and a polarized atomic hydrogen beam target. The paper presents recent d{sigma}/d{omega} and A{sub N} data. The results provide excitation functions and angular distributions of high precision and internal consistency. No evidence for narrow structures was found. The data are compared to recent phase shift solutions.

  1. Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering Excitation Functions at Intermediate Energies: Cross Sections and Analyzing Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterberger, F.; Rohdjeß, H.; Altmeier, M.; Bauer, F.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Büßer, K.; Busch, M.; Colberg, T.; Diehl, O.; Dohrmann, F.; Engelhardt, H. P.; Eversheim, P. D.; Felden, O.; Gebel, R.; Glende, M.; Greiff, J.; Groß-Hardt, R.; Hinterberger, F.; Jahn, R.; Jonas, E.; Krause, H.; Langkau, R.; Lindemann, T.; Lindlein, J.; Maier, R.; Maschuw, R.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Meinerzhagen, A.; Nähle, O.; Prasuhn, D.; Rohdjeß, H.; Rosendaal, D.; von Rossen, P.; Schirm, N.; Schulz-Rojahn, M.; Schwarz, V.; Scobel, W.; Trelle, H. J.; Weise, E.; Wellinghausen, A.; Woller, K.; Ziegler, R.

    2000-01-01

    The EDDA experiment at the cooler synchrotron COSY measures proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions in the momentum range 0.8 - 3.4 GeV/c. In phase 1 of the experiment, spin-averaged differential cross sections were measured continuously during acceleration with an internal polypropylene (CH2) fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of beam momentum. In phase 2, excitation functions of the analyzing power AN and the polarization correlation parameters ANN, ASS and ASL are measured using a polarized proton beam and a polarized atomic hydrogen beam target. The paper presents recent dσ/dΩ and AN data. The results provide excitation functions and angular distributions of high precision and internal consistency. No evidence for narrow structures was found. The data are compared to recent phase shift solutions.

  2. Proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions at intermediate energies: Cross sections and analyzing powers

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F; Altmeier, M; Bauer, F; Bisplinghoff, J; Büsser, K; Busch, M; Colberg, T; Diehl, O; Dohrmann, F; Engelhardt, H P; Eversheim, P D; Felden, O; Gebel, R; Glende, M; Greiff, J; Gross-Hardt, R; Hinterberger, F; Jahn, R; Jonas, E; Krause, H; Langkau, R; Lindemann, T; Lindlein, J; Maier, R; Maschuw, R; Mayer-Kuckuk, T; Meinerzhagen, A; Naehle, O; Prasuhn, D; Rohdjess, H; Rosendaal, D; Von Rossen, P; Schirm, N; Schulz-Rojahn, M; Schwarz, V; Scobel, W; Trelle, H J; Weise, E; Wellinghausen, A; Woller, K; Ziegler, R

    2000-01-01

    The EDDA experiment at the cooler synchrotron COSY measures proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions in the momentum range 0.8 - 3.4 GeV/c. In phase 1 of the experiment, spin-averaged differential cross sections were measured continuously during acceleration with an internal polypropylene (CH sub 2) fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of beam momentum. In phase 2, excitation functions of the analyzing power A sub N and the polarization correlation parameters A sub N sub N , A sub S sub S and A sub S sub L are measured using a polarized proton beam and a polarized atomic hydrogen beam target. The paper presents recent d sigma/d OMEGA and A sub N data. The results provide excitation functions and angular distributions of high precision and internal consistency. No evidence for narrow structures was found. The data are compared to recent phase shift solutions.

  3. Excitability of motor cortices as a function of emotional sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Komeilipoor

    Full Text Available We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to clarify how non-verbal emotionally-characterized sounds modulate the excitability of the corticospinal motor tract (CST. While subjects were listening to sounds (monaurally and binaurally, single TMS pulses were delivered to either left or right primary motor cortex (M1, and electromyographic activities were recorded from the contralateral abductor pollicis brevis muscle. We found a significant increase in CST excitability in response to unpleasant as compared to neutral sounds. The increased excitability was lateralized as a function of stimulus valence: Unpleasant stimuli resulted in a significantly higher facilitation of motor potentials evoked in the left hemisphere, while pleasant stimuli yielded a greater CST excitability in the right one. Furthermore, TMS induced higher motor evoked potentials when listening to unpleasant sounds with the left than with the right ear. Taken together, our findings provide compelling evidence for an asymmetric modulation of CST excitability as a function of emotional sounds along with ear laterality.

  4. High precision measurements on fission-fragment de-excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberstedt, Stephan; Gatera, Angélique; Geerts, Wouter; Göök, Alf; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Vidali, Marzio; Oberstedt, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    In recent years nuclear fission has gained renewed interest both from the nuclear energy community and in basic science. The first, represented by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, expressed the need for more accurate fission cross-section and fragment yield data for safety assessments of Generation IV reactor systems. In basic science modelling made much progress in describing the de-excitation mechanism of neutron-rich isotopes, e.g. produced in nuclear fission. Benchmarking the different models require a precise experimental data on prompt fission neutron and γ-ray emission, e.g. multiplicity, average energy per particle and total dissipated energy per fission, preferably as function of fission-fragment mass and total kinetic energy. A collaboration of scientists from JRC Geel (formerly known as JRC IRMM) and other institutes took the lead in establishing a dedicated measurement programme on prompt fission neutron and γ-ray characteristics, which has triggered even more measurement activities around the world. This contribution presents new advanced instrumentation and methodology we use to generate high-precision spectral data and will give a flavour of future data needs and opportunities.

  5. Cortical Excitability Measures in Patients and Unaffected Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at St Vincent's Hospital, Victoria, Australia, measured cortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation in 157 patients with epilepsy (95 generalized and 62 focal and their asymptomatic siblings and results were compared to those of 12 controls and 20 of their siblings.

  6. Precise measurement of the sup 2 sup 7 Al(n,2n) sup 2 sup 6 sup g Al excitation function near threshold and its relevance for fusion-plasma technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wallner, A; Priller, A; Steier, P; Vonach, H; Chuvaev, S V; Filatenkov, A A; Ikeda, Y; Mertens, G; Rochow, W

    2003-01-01

    A new accurate measurement of the sup 2 sup 7 Al(n,2n) sup 2 sup 6 Al excitation function leading to the ground state of sup 2 sup 6 Al(t sub 1 sub / sub 2 =7.1 x 10 sup 5 years) in the near-threshold region (E sub t sub h =13.55 MeV) was performed, with the goal to achieve relative cross-sections with the highest accuracy possible using proven methods. In addition, the measurements were also designed to provide good absolute cross-section values, since absolute cross-sections are important for radioactive waste predictions in future fusion reactor materials. Samples of Al metal were irradiated with neutrons in the energy range near threshold (E sub n =13.5-14.8 MeV) in Vienna and St. Petersburg, and at 14.8 MeV in Tokai-mura. In addition, irradiations with neutrons of higher energies (17 and 19 MeV) were performed in Tuebingen, to obtain also cross-section values well above threshold. The amount of sup 2 sup 6 Al produced during the irradiations was measured via accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). With this...

  7. Experimental and theoretical excitation functions for natBr(p,x) reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Dawid; Nortier, Meiring; Richter, Werner

    2002-12-01

    The excitation functions for protons incident on natBr were measured from threshold up to 100 MeV by means of the stacked-foil technique. Where applicable, the measured cross-section values are compared with previously published values. Theoretical cross-sections were also calculated by means of the computer code ALICE (IPPE) for comparison purposes.

  8. Experimental excitation functions of deuteron induced reactions on natural thallium up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Rebeles, R., E-mail: radamreb@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Van den Winkel, P.; Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen H-4026 (Hungary)

    2012-10-01

    Excitation functions of deuteron induced reactions on natural thallium leading to the formation of {sup 204m,203m2+m1+g,202m,201m+g,200}Pb and {sup 202,201m+g,200m+g}Tl isotopes were determined up to 50 MeV. The cross sections were measured by an activation technique using stacked foil irradiation. The excitation functions of the investigated reactions are compared with data reported in literature and also with the theoretical results of TALYS nuclear reaction code. From the measured cross section data, the thick target yield for the medical interesting {sup 203}Pb isotope is calculated.

  9. Multi-modal highlight generation for sports videos using an information-theoretic excitability measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Taufiq; Bořil, Hynek; Sangwan, Abhijeet; L Hansen, John H.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to detect and organize `hot spots' representing areas of excitement within video streams is a challenging research problem when techniques rely exclusively on video content. A generic method for sports video highlight selection is presented in this study which leverages both video/image structure as well as audio/speech properties. Processing begins where the video is partitioned into small segments and several multi-modal features are extracted from each segment. Excitability is computed based on the likelihood of the segmental features residing in certain regions of their joint probability density function space which are considered both exciting and rare. The proposed measure is used to rank order the partitioned segments to compress the overall video sequence and produce a contiguous set of highlights. Experiments are performed on baseball videos based on signal processing advancements for excitement assessment in the commentators' speech, audio energy, slow motion replay, scene cut density, and motion activity as features. Detailed analysis on correlation between user excitability and various speech production parameters is conducted and an effective scheme is designed to estimate the excitement level of commentator's speech from the sports videos. Subjective evaluation of excitability and ranking of video segments demonstrate a higher correlation with the proposed measure compared to well-established techniques indicating the effectiveness of the overall approach.

  10. Edge Functionalization and Optical Excitations in Graphene Nanoflakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Caterina; Prezzi, Deborah; Ruini, Alice; Caldas, Marilia J.; Molinari, Elisa

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the effects of edge covalent functionalization on the opto-electronic properties of finite elongated graphene nano-flakes (GNFs). Following our previous work on nanojunctions[1], we compute mean-field ground state electronic properties and configuration-interaction UV-vis optical excitations at varying size and functionalization by means of semi-empirical methods. The character of the lowest energy excitations and the influence exerted on them both by length/width modulation and by the specific chemical properties of the terminating groups are analyzed in details. The role of local distortions spontaneously arising upon geometrical optimization is inspected. Nanoplasmonic-like features related to the spectrum of these elongated finite graphene nanostructures are also discussed. [1] C. Cocchi et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1315 (2011)

  11. Measuring viscosity with nonlinear self-excited microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouro, J.; Tiribilli, B.; Paoletti, P.

    2017-10-01

    A viscosity sensor based on the nonlinear behaviour of a microcantilever embedded in a self-excitation loop with an adjustable phase-shifter is proposed. The self-sustained oscillation frequencies of the cantilever are experimentally and theoretically investigated as functions of the fluid viscosity and of the imposed phase shift of the signal along the self-excitation loop. The sensor performance is validated experimentally using different water-glycerol solutions. In contrast to existing rheological sensors, the proposed platform can be tuned to work in two different modes: a high-sensitivity device whose oscillation frequency changes smoothly with the rheological properties of the fluid or a critical viscosity threshold detector, where, for small changes in fluid viscosity, there is a step change in oscillation frequency.

  12. Intrinsic excitability measures track antiepileptic drug action and uncover increasing/decreasing excitability over the wake/sleep cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Christian; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Freestone, Dean; Cook, Mark James; Achermann, Peter; Plenz, Dietmar

    2015-11-24

    Pathological changes in excitability of cortical tissue commonly underlie the initiation and spread of seizure activity in patients suffering from epilepsy. Accordingly, monitoring excitability and controlling its degree using antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is of prime importance for clinical care and treatment. To date, adequate measures of excitability and action of AEDs have been difficult to identify. Recent insights into ongoing cortical activity have identified global levels of phase synchronization as measures that characterize normal levels of excitability and quantify any deviation therefrom. Here, we explore the usefulness of these intrinsic measures to quantify cortical excitability in humans. First, we observe a correlation of such markers with stimulation-evoked responses suggesting them to be viable excitability measures based on ongoing activity. Second, we report a significant covariation with the level of AED load and a wake-dependent modulation. Our results indicate that excitability in epileptic networks is effectively reduced by AEDs and suggest the proposed markers as useful candidates to quantify excitability in routine clinical conditions overcoming the limitations of electrical or magnetic stimulation. The wake-dependent time course of these metrics suggests a homeostatic role of sleep, to rebalance cortical excitability.

  13. [Effect of ectopic excitation on the ventricular pump function in chicken].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharin, S N; Kibler, N A; Shmakov, D N

    2008-06-01

    The pump function of the heart ventricles was studied in chest-open anaesthetized adult female chickens under sinus rhythm and ectopic excitation of different localization. The intraventricular pressure in the right and left heart ventricles was measured by insertion of catheters through the ventricular free walls. Maximum systolic pressure, end-diastolic pressure, contractility (dP/dtmax) and relaxation (dP/dtmin) of both heart ventricles, and duration of the asynchronous contraction time of the left ventricle were analyzed. It was revealed that reduction of the pump function of the left ventricle tends to be greater under right ventricular ectopic excitation compared with left ventricular one. In comparison with the sinus rhythm, the pump function of the right ventricle was preserved to a greater extent under stimulation of the left ventricular apex and was significantly impaired under right ventricular ectopic excitation. Relaxation of both heart ventricles was more susceptible to ventricular ectopic excitation than contractility, and was more vulnerable in the right ventricle than in the left one. The direction of changes of the pump function of the heart ventricles in chickens under ventricular ectopic excitation was similar to changes of the pump function of mammalian hearts.

  14. Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobel, W.; Dohrmann, F.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Hinterberger, F.; Scobel, W.; Altmeier, M.; Bauer, F.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bissel, T.; Bollmann, R.; Busch, M.; Büßer, K.; Cloth, P.; Danie, R.; Diehl, O.; Dohrmann, F.; Engelhardt, H. P.; Ernst, J.; Eversheim, P. D.; Felden, O.; Flammer, J.; Gasthuber, M.; Gebel, R.; Greiff, J.; Groß, A.; Groß-Hardt, R.; Hebbel, K.; Hinterberger, F.; Hüskes, T.; Jahn, R.; Koch, I.; Langkau, R.; Lindemann, T.; Lindlein, J.; Maier, R.; Maschuw, R.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Pfuff, M.; Prasuhn, D.; Rohdjeß, H.; Rosendaal, D.; von Rossen, P.; Schirm, N.; Schulz-Rojahn, M.; Schwarz, V.; Scobel, W.; Steinbeck, S.; Sterzenbach, G.; Thomas, S.; Trelle, H. J.; Walker, M.; Weise, E.; Wellinghausen, A.; Woller, K.; Ziegler, R.; EDDA Collaboration at COSY; EDDA Collaboration

    1998-03-01

    Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic cross sections have been measured in narrow momentum steps Δp = 28 MeV/c in the kinetic energy range from 0.5 to 2.5 GeV and the angular range 35° ≤ Θcm ≤ 90° with a detector providing ΔΘcm ≈ 1.4° resolution and 82% solid angle coverage. Measurements have been performed continuously during projectile acceleration in the Cooler Synchrotron COSY with an internal CH 2 fiber target; background corrections were derived from measurements with a carbon fiber target and from Monte Carlo simulations of inelastic pp contributions. Particular care was taken to monitor the luminosity as a function of beam energy. The results provide excitation functions and angular distributions of unprecedented precision and internal consistency. The measured cross sections are compared to recent phase shift analyses, and their impact on the present solution SM97 [1] is discussed.

  15. Photoacoustic Doppler measurement of flow using tone burst excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinfeld, Adi; Gilead, Sharon; Eyal, Avishay

    2010-03-01

    In this paper a novel technique for flow measurement which is based on the photoacoustic (PA) Doppler effect is described. A significant feature of the proposed approach is that it can be implemented using tone burst optical excitation thus enabling simultaneous measurement of both velocity and position. The technique, which is based on external modulation and heterodyne detection, was experimentally demonstrated by measurement of the flow of a suspension of carbon particles in a silicon tube and successfully determined the particles mean velocity up to values of 130 mm/sec, which is about 10 times higher than previously reported PA Doppler set-ups. In the theoretical part a rigorous derivation of the PA response of a flowing medium is described and some important simplifying approximations are highlighted.

  16. Fission of highly excited nuclei investigated in complete kinematic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez J.L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fission is an extremely complex mechanism that requires a dynamical approach to describe the evolution of the process in terms of intrinsic and collective excitations of the nuclear constituents. In order to determine these effects a complex experimental setup was mounted at GSI, which allowed us for the first time the full identification in charge and mass of all fission fragments thanks to a magnetic separation and the use of the inverse kinematic technique. Moreover, we also measured the neutron multiplicities and the light-charged particles emitted in coincidence with fission. These complete kinematic measurements will be used to define sensitive observables to dissipative and transient effects in fission. In this manuscript we present the first results for the total fission cross sections.

  17. [Ventricular pump function under ectopic excitation of the frog heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, N A; Belogolova, A S; Vaĭkshnoraĭte, M A; Azarov, Ia E; Shmakov, D N

    2008-02-01

    The ventricular pump function under ectopic excitation of the heart was studied in decapitated and pithed adult frogs Rana temporaria (n = 21) at 18-19 degrees C. The intraventricular pressure was recorded with a catheter via ventricular wall. During pacing of the ventricular base and apex, the systolic pressure decreased (6.1 +/- 4.5 mm Hg and 8.9 +/- 5.0 mm Hg, respectively) as compared to the supraventricular rhythm (8.9 +/- 5.0 mm Hg, p < 0.05). The end-diastolic pressure decreased insignificantly both under basal and apical pacing. The systolic rate of pressure rise during dP/dtmax decreased under ventricular pacing, especially during pacing of the ventricular apex, as compared to the supraventricular rhythm (14.4 +/- 6/9 mm Hg/s and 22.1 +/- 11.2 mm Hg/s, respectively, p < 0.003). The isovolumetric relaxation (dP/dtmin) slowed during apical pacing as compared to the supraventricular rhythm (-25.1 +/- 13.6 and -35.6 +/- 18.3 mm Hg/s, respectively, p < 0.03). Ectopic excitation of the ventricular base and apex resulted in increase of the QRS duration (93 +/- 33 ms and 81 +/- 30 ms, respectively) as compared to the supraventricular rhythm (63 +/- 13 ms, p < 0.05). Thus, pacing of different ventricular areas ventricular myocardium with the ventricular pump function being reduced more obviously during the apical pacing compared to the pacing of ventricular base.

  18. Functional Assessment of Corticospinal System Excitability in Karate Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Moscatelli

    Full Text Available To investigate the involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1 in the coordination performance of karate athletes through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS.Thirteen right-handed male karate athletes (25.0±5.0 years and 13 matched non-athlete controls (26.7±6.2 years were enrolled. A single-pulse TMS was applied using a figure-eight coil stimulator. Resting motor threshold (rMT was determined. Surface electromyography was recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle. Motor evoked potential (MEP latencies and amplitudes at rMT, 110%, and 120% of rMT were considered. Functional assessment of the coordination performance was assessed by in-phase (IP and anti-phase (AP homolateral hand and foot coordination tasks performed at 80, 120, and 180 bpm.Compared to controls, athletes showed lower rMT (p<0.01, shorter MEP latency (p<0.01 and higher MEP amplitude (p<0.01, with a significant correlation (r = 0.50, p<0.01 between rMT and MEP latency. Coordination decreased with increasing velocity, and better IP performances emerged compared to AP ones (p<0.001. In general, a high correlation between rMT and coordination tasks was found for both IP and AP conditions.With respect to controls, karate athletes present a higher corticospinal excitability indicating the presence of an activity-dependent alteration in the balance and interactions between inhibitory and facilitatory circuits determining the final output from the M1. Furthermore, the high correlation between corticospinal excitability and coordination performance could support sport-specific neurophysiological arrangements.

  19. Measurement of Polarization Observables in the Electro-Excitation of the Proton to its First Excited State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, Rikki [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2003-08-01

    This thesis reports results from the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) Hall A experiment E91-011, which measured double-polarization observables in the pion electroproduction reaction from the proton. Specifically, the experiment measured the recoil proton polarization, polarized response functions, and cross section for the p($\\vec{e}$, e' $\\vec{p}$) π° reaction at a center-of-mass energy centered at W = 1232 MeV--the peak of the Δ(1232) resonance--and at a four-momentum transfer squared of Q2 = 1.0 GeV2/c2. Both the recoil proton polarization and polarized response function results will be presented in this thesis. Data were collected at Jefferson Lab, located in Newport News, Virginia during the summer of 2000. A 4.53 GeV polarized electron beam was scattered off of a cryogenic hydrogen target. The recoil proton polarization was measured in the Focal Plane Polarimeter (FPP), located in one of the two High Resolution Spectrometers (HRS) in Hall A. A maximum likelihood method was used to determine the polarized response functions directly from the measured polarizations and cross sections. A simultaneous fit of the cross sections, the recoil proton polarizations, and angular distributions of the polarized response functions will provide a determination of individual multipole amplitudes. Some of these multipole amplitudes are related to the concept of proton deformation. Both the recoil proton polarizations and polarized response functions were compared to two phenomenological models: MAID and SAID, which have all free parameters fixed, based on fits to previous world data. The measured helicity dependent observables, which are dominated by imaginary parts of Δ(1232)-resonance excitation multipole amplitudes, agree very well with the two models. The measured helicity independent observables, which are dominated by real parts of background multipole amplitudes, do not agree completely with

  20. submitter Measurement of LYSO Intrinsic Light Yield Using Electron Excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez Turtos, Rosana; Pizzichemi, Marco; Ghezzi, Alessio; Pauwels, Kristof; Auffray, Etiennette; Lecoq, Paul; Paganoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the intrinsic light yield $(LY_{int})$ of scintillating crystals, i.e. number of optical photons created per amount of energy deposited, constitutes a key factor in order to characterize and optimize their energy and time resolution. However, until now measurements of this quantity are affected by large uncertainties and often rely on corrections for bulk absorption and surface/edge state. The novel idea presented in this contribution is based on the confinement of the scintillation emission in the central upper part of a 10 mm cubic crystal using a 1.5 MeV electron beam with diameter of 1 mm. A black non-reflective pinhole aligned with the excitation point is used to fix the light extraction solid angle (narrower than total reflection angle), which then sets a light cone travel path through the crystal. The final number of photoelectrons detected using a Hamamatsu R2059 photomultiplier tube (PMT) was corrected for the extraction solid angle, the Fresnel reflection coefficient and quantum...

  1. Precise Lifetime Measurements in ^98Ru using Inverse Coulomb Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeck, D.; Werner, V.; Ilie, G.; Ahn, T.; Casperson, R.; Heinz, A.; Wiliiams, E.; Smith, M.; Bettermann, L.; Chevrier, R.; McCarthy, D.; Anagnostatou, V.

    2010-11-01

    The mass region A 90-100 is of great interest in the study of the evolution of proton-neutron collectivity from spherical to deformed nuclei. Controversial publications concerning the vibrational character of 98Ru can be found in literature [1.2]. To get a comprehensive understanding of the structure, absolute transition strengths are important. With large uncertainties in essential quantities like the B4/2 value, theoretical interpretations remain difficult. In order to reduce uncertainties, the RDDS method using inverse Coulomb excitation was used to measure lifetimes. This technique, combined with the selective reaction, yields high precision lifetimes but several corrections are required due to relativistic and deorientation effects. Analysis techniques and results will be presented. New results on the absolute transition strengths are compared to known data on other nuclei in the mass region. [1] B. Cakirli et al., PRC 70, 044312 (2004). [2] E. Williams et al., PRC 74, 024302 (2006). This work was supported by the US DOE grant no. DE-FG02-91ER-40609 and D.R. thanks for financial support by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  2. Vibroacoustic response of panels under diffuse acoustic field excitation from sensitivity functions and reciprocity principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, Christophe; Maxit, Laurent; Robin, Olivier; Berry, Alain

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims at developing an experimental method to characterize the vibroacoustic response of a panel to a diffuse acoustic field (DAF) excitation with a different laboratory setup than those used in standards (i.e., coupled rooms). The proposed methodology is based on a theoretical model of the DAF and on the measurement of the panel's sensitivity functions, which characterize its vibroacoustic response to wall plane waves. These functions can be estimated experimentally using variations of the reciprocity principle, which are described in the present paper. These principles can either be applied for characterizing the structural response by exciting the panel with a normal force at the point of interest or for characterizing the acoustic response (radiated pressure, acoustic intensity) by exciting the panel with a monopole and a dipole source. For both applications, the validity of the proposed approach is numerically and experimentally verified on a test case composed of a baffled simply supported plate. An implementation for estimating the sound transmission loss of the plate is finally proposed. The results are discussed and compared with measurements performed in a coupled anechoic-reverberant room facility following standards.

  3. Measurement of excitation energy of neutron-rich precursor fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Michelle Anthea

    Projectile fragmentation forms the basis for beam production at radioactive beam facilities such as the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), yet uncertainties remain about the specifics of the production mechanism. For example, very little is known about the excitation energy of the precursors of the observed final fragments. In the present work, isotopes of sodium, neon, and fluorine produced in the fragmentation of a 32 Mg beam at 86 MeV/nucleon in a beryllium target, ranging in mass loss from DeltaA = 3--12, were observed and the coincident neutrons were detected using the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA). Neutron hit multiplicity in MoNA was compared to output from the statistical evaporation model PACE which was passed through a GEANT4 simulation to account for detector response with a X2v analysis. The neutron hit multiplicity distributions were used to determine the mass loss and excitation energy of the precursor fragments created in the fast step of the reaction. The mass loss and excitation energy were compared to abrasion/ablation models and an internuclear cascade model, ISABEL. For sodium and neon observed fragments, a single precursor mass was found, with a wide range of high excitation energies, up to 60 MeV. Observed fluorine isotopes were also found to have high excitation energies, ranging from 40--80 MeV, but with some variation in precursor mass.

  4. Excitation functions and mass asymmetric fission barriers for compound nuclei sup 7 sup 0 sup , sup 7 sup 6 Se 24.60.Dr; 25.85.Ge; 24.75.+i; Nuclear reactions 12C(58,64Ni,X); E=6-14A MeV; Measured sigma(Z) vs E; Deduced mass asymmetric fission barriers for 70,76Se; Transition state fission rates

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, T S; Phair, L; Tso, K; McMahan, M; Hanold, K A; Wozniak, G J; Moretto, L G

    2000-01-01

    Excitation functions were measured for complex fragments with atomic number Z=5-20 emitted from the compound nuclei sup 7 sup 0 sup , sup 7 sup 6 Se produced in the reactions sup 5 sup 8 sup , sup 6 sup 4 Ni+ sup 1 sup 2 C. Mass asymmetric fission barriers were extracted by fitting the excitation functions with a transition state formalism. The extracted barriers were compared with those calculated from macroscopic nuclear models. The measured barriers for symmetric fission seem to support the hypothesis of a shape-dependent congruence energy, which doubles for fission of strongly indented saddle-point shapes. All of the measured excitation functions can be scaled onto a single straight line according to the transition state prediction.

  5. Textile Electrodes Embedded in Clothing: A Practical Alternative to Traditional Surface Electromyography when Assessing Muscle Excitation during Functional Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi L. Colyer, Polly M. McGuigan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Textile electromyography (EMG electrodes embedded in clothing allow muscle excitation to be recorded in previously inaccessible settings; however, their ability to accurately and reliably measure EMG during dynamic tasks remains largely unexplored. To quantify the validity and reliability of textile electrodes, 16 recreationally active males completed two identical testing sessions, within which three functional movements (run, cycle and squat were performed twice: once wearing EMG shorts (measuring quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteals myoelectric activity and once with surface EMG electrodes attached to the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus. EMG signals were identically processed to provide average rectified EMG (normalized to walking and excitation length. Results were compared across measurement systems and demonstrated good agreement between the magnitude of muscle excitation when EMG activity was lower, but agreement was poorer when excitation was higher. The length of excitation bursts was consistently longer when measured using textile vs. surface EMG electrodes. Comparable between-session (day-to-day repeatability was found for average rectified EMG (mean coefficient of variation, CV: 42.6 and 41.2% and excitation length (CV: 12.9 and 9.8% when using textile and surface EMG, respectively. Additionally, similar within-session repeatability (CV was recorded for average rectified EMG (13.8 and 14.1% and excitation length (13.0 and 12.7% for textile and surface electrodes, respectively. Generally, textile EMG electrodes appear to be capable of providing comparable muscle excitation information and reproducibility to surface EMG during dynamic tasks. Textile EMG shorts could therefore be a practical alternative to traditional laboratory-based methods allowing muscle excitation information to be collected in more externally-valid training environments.

  6. Motor excitability measurements: the influence of gender, body mass index, age and temperature in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, I; Diaz, A; Pinto, S; de Carvalho, M

    2014-04-01

    The technique of threshold tracking to test axonal excitability gives information about nodal and internodal ion channel function. We aimed to investigate variability of the motor excitability measurements in healthy controls, taking into account age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and small changes in skin temperature. We examined the left median nerve of 47 healthy controls using the automated threshold-tacking program, QTRAC. Statistical multiple regression analysis was applied to test relationship between nerve excitability measurements and subject variables. Comparisons between genders did not find any significant difference (P>0.2 for all comparisons). Multiple regression analysis showed that motor amplitude decreases with age and temperature, stimulus-response slope decreases with age and BMI, and that accommodation half-time decrease with age and temperature. The changes related to demographic features on TRONDE protocol parameters are small and less important than in conventional nerve conduction studies. Nonetheless, our results underscore the relevance of careful temperature control, and indicate that interpretation of stimulus-response slope and accommodation half-time should take into account age and BMI. In contrast, gender is not of major relevance to axonal threshold findings in motor nerves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolution of peripheral nerve function in humans: novel insights from motor nerve excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Michelle A; Park, Susanna B; Lin, Cindy S-Y; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2013-01-01

    While substantial alterations in myelination and axonal growth have been described during maturation, their interactions with the configuration and activity of axonal membrane ion channels to achieve impulse conduction have not been fully elucidated. The present study utilized axonal excitability techniques to compare the changes in nerve function across healthy infants, children, adolescents and adults. Multiple excitability indices (stimulus-response curve, strength-duration time constant, threshold electrotonus, current-threshold relationship and recovery cycle) combined with conventional neurophysiological measures were investigated in 57 subjects (22 males, 35 females; age range 0.46-24 years), stimulating the median motor nerve at the wrist. Maturational changes in conduction velocity were paralleled by significant alterations in multiple excitability parameters, similarly reaching steady values in adolescence. Maturation was accompanied by reductions in threshold (P motor skills during childhood, and provide unique insight into the evolution of postnatal human peripheral nerve function. Significantly, these findings bring the dynamics of axonal development to the clinical domain and serve to further illuminate pathophysiological mechanisms that occur during development.

  8. On the calculation of Δ for electronic excitations in time-dependent density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Hemanadhan; Casida, Mark E.

    2017-04-01

    Excited states are often treated within the context of time-dependent (TD) density-functional theory (DFT), making it important to be able to assign the excited spin-state symmetry. While there is universal agreement on how Δ , the difference between for ground and excited states, should be calculated in a wave-function-like formalism such as the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA), confusion persists as to how to determine the spin-state symmetry of excited states in TD-DFT. We try to clarify the origins of this confusion by examining various possibilities for the parameters (σ1 ,σ2) in the formula

  9. Excitability of Motor Cortices as a Function of Emotional Sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komeilipoor, N.; Pizzolato, F.; Daffertshofer, A.; Cesari, P.

    2013-01-01

    We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to clarify how non-verbal emotionally-characterized sounds modulate the excitability of the corticospinal motor tract (CST). While subjects were listening to sounds (monaurally and binaurally), single TMS pulses were delivered to either left or right

  10. Excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on natural copper using a medium-sized cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, F.S.; Al-Harbi, A.A. [Physics Dept., Girls Coll. of Education in Riyadh, Scientific Dept., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Azzam, A. [Nuclear Physics Dept., Nuclear Recearch Center, A.E.A, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-07-01

    Activation techniques have been used to measure the excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on natural copper from their thresholds up to 27.5 MeV. The beam current was measured using a Faraday cup with secondary electron suppression, and the radioactivity of the products was determined via high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The data were compared with the data recommended by the IAEA wherever it was possible. A comparison of the new excitation functions with the theoretical calculations reported in the literature was undertaken to check the order of agreement between them. Good agreement was found for the results of {sup 63}Zn while the theoretical calculations overestimate the cross sections for {sup 61}Cu and {sup 62}Zn. The excitation function for the reaction {sup nat}Cu(p, x){sup 61}Co was measured for the first time during this work. The integral yields of the radionuclides {sup 62.63.65}Zn, {sup 61}Cu and {sup 61}Co were calculated. {sup 63}Zn and {sup 65}Zn are produced over the whole energy range of 3 to 27.5 MeV and the yield gets saturated above 20 MeV. {sup 62}Zn, {sup 61}Cu and {sup 61}Co are produced at relatively high energies and have integral yield values between those of {sup 63}Zn and {sup 65}Zn. The relatively high yield of {sup 62}Zn is useful for the production of {sup 62}Zn/{sup 62}Cu generator system. (orig.)

  11. Experimental study of the excitation functions of deuteron induced reactions on natSn up to 40 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F.; Ditrói, F.; Hermanne, A.; Takács, S.; Király, B.; Baba, M.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2011-02-01

    Using the stacked-foil activation technique, cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions on natural Sn were measured up to 40 MeV. Excitation functions are reported for the product nuclides 111In, 113Sn, 117mSn, 125mSn, 125gSn, 115Sb, 116mSb, 117Sb, 118mSb 120mSb, 122Sb, 124Sb and 125Sb and compared with the earlier published data sets. For all excitation functions comparisons with theoretical calculations using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE, EAF and the TALYS codes were performed.

  12. A search for parameters of universal sub-barrier fusion excitation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, W.W. [Medical College of Soochow University, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow (China); Zhang, G.L. [Beihang University, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beijing (China); Wolski, R. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS, Cracow (Poland)

    2016-11-15

    Many fusion experimental data have been analyzed in terms of a simple universal function which could be used for predictions of fusion cross section below the barrier for arbitrary systems. Sub-barrier fusions based on the concept of Q -fusion value dependence were studied. It is attempted to parameterize the energy-reduced fusion excitation functions around the Coulomb barriers by an analytical phenomenological function. It was found that the speed of driving nuclei towards fusion is faster with the increase of mass asymmetry of colliding systems and those systems with a large difference of the ratio of neutrons to protons. However, a general trend with respect to total mass has not been observed. An exposition of more qualitative conclusions is hindered by apparent inconsistencies of measured fusion cross sections. (orig.)

  13. Excited States of Dicyanovinyl-Substituted Oligothiophenes from Many-Body Green's Functions Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeier, Björn; Andrienko, Denis; Ma, Yuchen; Rohlfing, Michael

    2012-03-13

    Excited states of dicyanovinyl-substituted oligothiophenes are studied using many-body Green's functions theory within the GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation. By varying the number of oligomer repeat units, we investigate the effects of resonant-antiresonant transition coupling, dynamical screening, and molecular conformations on calculated excitations. We find that the full dynamically screened Bethe-Salpeter equation yields absorption and emission energies in good agreement with experimental data. The effect of resonant-antiresonant coupling on the first singlet π → π* excitation monotonically decreases with increasing size of the molecule, while dynamical screening effects uniformly lower the excitation energies.

  14. A method of measuring Escherichia coli 0157:H7 at 1 cell/mL in 1 liter sample using antibody functionalized piezoelectric-excited millimeter-sized cantilever sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gossett A; Mutharasan, Raj

    2007-03-01

    Piezoelectric-excited millimeter-sized cantilever (PEMC) sensors immobilized with antibody specific to Escherichia coli (EC) 0157:H7 is used to detect EC at 1 cell/mL in 1 mL and 1 L samples in a batch and flow mode, respectively. Two sensor designs were used. The first design (PEMC-a) has both the piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric layer anchored, while in the second design (PEMC-b) had only the piezoelectric layer anchored. PEMC-a, used in batch mode with 1 mL sample, showed limit of detection at 10 cells/ mL using the second bending mode at 85.5 kHz in air. PEMC-b exhibited resonant frequencies at 186.5, 883.5, and 1778.5 kHz in air and 162.5, 800.0, and 1725.5 kHz in sample flow conditions. A one-liter sample containing 1000 EC cells was introduced at 1.5, 2.5, 3, and 17 ml/min, and the change in resonant frequency was monitored. The total frequency change observed for the mode at 800 kHz and sample flow rates of 1.5, 2.5, 3, and 17 mL/min were 2230+/-11, 3069 +/-47, 4686+/-97, and 7188+/-52 Hz, respectively. Each detection experiment was confirmed by exposing the sensor to a low pH solution followed by a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) rinse, which caused the release of the attached EC. The final frequency change observed was nearly identical to the value prior to EC attachment. Kinetic analysis showed that the observed binding rate constant at 1.5, 2.5, 3 mL/min were 0.009, 0.015, and 0.021 min(-1), respectively. The significance of these results is that very low concentration of pathogens in large sample volumes can be measured in a short time period without the need for filtration or enrichment.

  15. Vibration transfers to measure the performance of vibration isolated platforms on site using background noise excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segerink, Franciscus B.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2011-01-01

    This article demonstrates a quick and easy way of quantifying the performance of a vibration-isolated platform. We measure the vibration transfer from floor to table using background noise excitation from the floor. As no excitation device is needed, our setup only requires two identical sensors (in

  16. Benchmarks for electronically excited states: Time-dependent density functional theory and density functional theory based multireference configuration interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Junior, Mario R.; Schreiber, Marko; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and DFT-based multireference configuration interaction (DFT/MRCI) calculations are reported for a recently proposed benchmark set of 28 medium-sized organic molecules. Vertical excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state dipole...

  17. Modal analysis of a loaded tire with non-contact measurements and piezoelectric excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhat, Ipar; Tarazaga, Pablo A.

    2017-04-01

    The complex nature of tires requires very precise test data to model the structure accurately. The highly damped characteristics, geometric features and operational conditions of tires cause various testing difficulties that affect the reliability of the modal testing. One of the biggest challenges of tire testing is exciting the whole tire at once. Conventionally, impact hammers, shakers, and cleats are used as an excitation input. The shortcomings of these excitation methods are the directional and force inconsistency of hammer impacts, coupled dynamics of shakers and speed limitations of cleat excitation. Other challenges of modal testing of tires are the effect of added mass due to sensor placements and difficulty of vibration measurement of a rotating tire with accelerometers. In order to remedy these problems, we conduct experimental modal analysis (EMA) using a non-contact measurement technique and piezoelectric excitation. For non-contact measurement, a 3-D scanning laser doppler vibrometer (SLDV) is used. For the piezoelectric excitation, Micro Fiber Composite (MFC) patches are used due to their flexible nature and power capacity. This excitation method can also be crucial to the excitation of rotating tires since the cleat excitation is not adequate for low-speed measurements. Furthermore, the piezoelectric actuation could be used as sensors as well as noise controllers in operating conditions. For this work, we run experiments for a loaded tire in non-rotating condition. Experiments are carried out for the frequency bandwidth up to 500Hz to capture the structural behavior under high-frequency excitations and its potential coupled behavior to airborne noise.

  18. A unified homographic law for fusion excitation functions above the barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudes P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a systematics of fusion cross section data at energies above the reaction threshold to those of disappearance of fusion process. By an appropriate scaling of both cross sections and energy, a fusion excitation function common to all the data points is established. A universal description of the fusion excitation function relying on basic nuclear concepts is proposed and its dependence on the reaction cross section used for the cross section normalization is discussed.

  19. Laser-excited fluorescence for measuring atmospheric pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, R. T.

    1975-01-01

    System measures amount of given pollutant at specific location. Infrared laser aimed at location has wavelength that will cause molecules of pollutant to fluoresce. Detector separates fluorescence from other radiation and measures its intensity to indicate concentration of pollutant.

  20. Picosecond excite-and-probe absorption measurement of the 4T2 state nonradiative lifetime in ruby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, S. K.; Wang, W. B.; Petricevic, V.; Dorsinville, R.; Alfano, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    In a picosecond excite-and-probe absorption measurement, a 527-nm picosecond pulse excites the 4T2 state of the Cr(3+) ion in ruby and a 3.4-micron picosecond probe pulse monitors the growth and decay of population in the 2E state as a function of pump-probe delay. From the growth of population in the metastable 2E state, an upper limit of 7 ps for the nonradiative lifetime of the 4T2 state is determined.

  1. Lifetime measurement of excited atomic and ionic states of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. High-frequency deflection (HFD) technique with a delayed coincidence single photon counting arrangement is an efficient technique for radiative lifetime measurement. An apparatus for measurement of the radiative lifetime of atoms and molecules has been developed in our laboratory and measurements have ...

  2. Lifetime measurement of excited atomic and ionic states of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High-frequency deflection (HFD) technique with a delayed coincidence single photon counting arrangement is an efficient technique for radiative lifetime measurement. An apparatus for measurement of the radiative lifetime of atoms and molecules has been developed in our laboratory and measurements have been ...

  3. Excitation functions of (p,x) reactions on natural nickel up to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kim, Kwangsoo; Lee, Manwoo; Kim, Kyung Sook [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.k [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Production cross-sections of the residual radionuclides for the {sup nat}Ni(p,x){sup 55,56,57,58m+g}Co, {sup 56,57}Ni nuclear reactions were measured up to 40 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the reported experimental data as well as the theoretical calculations based on the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE codes. The present results are in general good agreement with the other experimental data and calculated results. The integral yields for thick target were also deduced from the measured excitation functions of the produced radionuclides. The present experimental results will play an important role in enrichment of the literature data base for proton-induced reactions on natural nickel leading to various applications.

  4. Proton and deuteron induced reactions on natGa: Experimental and calculated excitation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanne, A.; Adam-Rebeles, R.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.

    2015-09-01

    Cross-sections for reactions on natGa, induced by protons (up to 65 MeV) and deuterons (up to 50 MeV), producing γ-emitting radionuclides with half-lives longer than 1 h were measured in a stacked-foil irradiation using thin Ga-Ni alloy (70-30%) targets electroplated on Cu or Au backings. Excitation functions for generation of 68,69Ge, 66,67,68,72Ga and 65,69mZn on natGa are discussed, relative to the monitor reactions natAl(d,x)24,22Na, natAl(p,x)24,22Na, natCu(p,x)62Zn and natNi(p,x)57Ni. The results are compared to our earlier measurements, the scarce literature values and to the results of the code TALYS 1.6 (online database TENDL-2014).

  5. Excitation functions of (p,x) reactions on natural nickel up to 40 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Lee, Manwoo; Kim, Kyung Sook; Kim, Guinyun

    2011-05-01

    Production cross-sections of the residual radionuclides for the natNi(p,x) 55,56,57,58 m + g Co, 56,57Ni nuclear reactions were measured up to 40 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the reported experimental data as well as the theoretical calculations based on the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE codes. The present results are in general good agreement with the other experimental data and calculated results. The integral yields for thick target were also deduced from the measured excitation functions of the produced radionuclides. The present experimental results will play an important role in enrichment of the literature data base for proton-induced reactions on natural nickel leading to various applications.

  6. Excitation functions of proton induced reactions on natFe in the energy region up to 45 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Naik, Haladhara; Kim, Guinyun

    2014-03-01

    The excitation functions of various reaction products such as 55,56,57Co, 52Fe, 52,54Mn, and 51Cr in the natFe(p, x) reactions were measured by the stacked-foil activation technique in the energy range between their respective reaction threshold and 45 MeV at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Korea. The present experimental data were compared with the existing literature data. It was found that excitation function of 56,57Co and 51Cr from the natFe(p, x) reaction are in agreement with the literature data. However, the cross-sections for natFe(p, x)52Fe reactions are lower and those for natFe(p, x)52Mn and natFe(p, x)54Mn reactions are higher than the literature data. The reaction cross-sections of the above mentioned reaction products were also compared with those from the TENDL-2012 library based on the TALYS-1.4 program as a function of proton energy, which was reproduced the trend of the excitation functions of the experimental natFe(p, x) reaction cross-section. The integral yields for thick target of the investigated radionuclides were calculated from the excitation function.

  7. Excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on natW up to 40 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khandake, M U; Kim, K S; Lee, M W; Lee, Y S; Uddin, M S

    2007-01-01

    Excitation functions for the production of the 181,182m,182g,183,184g,186Re and 183,184Ta radionuclides from proton bombardment on natural tungsten were measured using the stacked-foil activation technique for the proton energies up to 40 MeV. A new data set has been given for the formation of the investigated radionuclides. Results are in good agreement with the earlier reported experimental data and theoretical calculations based on the ALICE-IPPE code. The thick target integral yields were also deduced from the measured excitation functions. The deduced yield values were compared with the directly measured thick target yield (TTY), and found acceptable agreement. The investigated radionuclide 186Re has remarkable applications in the field of nuclear medicine, whereas the data of 183,184gRe and 183Ta have potential applications in thin layer activation analysis and biomedical tracer studies, respectively.

  8. Investigation of Multiconfigurational Short-Range Density Functional Theory for Electronic Excitations in Organic Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubert, Mickaël; Hedegård, Erik D.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa

    2016-01-01

    -srDFT for a selected benchmark set of electronic excitations of organic molecules, covering the most common types of organic chromophores. This investigation confirms the expectation that the MC-srDFT method is accurate for a broad range of excitations and comparable to accurate wave function methods such as CASPT2......Computational methods that can accurately and effectively predict all types of electronic excitations for any molecular system are missing in the toolbox of the computational chemist. Although various Kohn-Sham density-functional methods (KS-DFT) fulfill this aim in some cases, they become...... and double excitations have been promising, it is nevertheless important that the accuracy of MC-srDFT is at least comparable to the best KS-DFT methods also for organic molecules that are typically of single-reference character. In this paper we therefore systematically investigate the performance of MC...

  9. Sum rule analysis of vector and axial-vector spectral functions with excited states in vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Hohler, Paul M.; Rapp, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    We simultaneously analyze vector and axial-vector spectral functions in vacuum using hadronic models constrained by experimental data and the requirement that Weinberg-type sum rules are satisfied. Upon explicit inclusion of an excited vector state, viz. rho', and the requirement that the perturbative continua are degenerate in vector and axial-vector channels, we deduce the existence of an excited axial-vector resonance state, a1', in order that the Weinberg sum rules are satisfied. The resu...

  10. Measurement of the Low Frequency Noise of MOSFETs under Large Signal RF Excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, A.P.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    A measurement technique [1] is presented that allows measurement of MOSFET low frequency (LF) noise under large signal RF (Radio Frequency) excitation. Measurements indicate that MOSFETS exhibit a reduction in LF noise when they are cycled from inversion to accummulation and that this reduction does

  11. Excitation functions of the proton induced nuclear reactions on natural zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M. S.; Khandaker, M. U.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, Y. S.; Lee, M. W.; Kim, G. N.

    2008-01-01

    Excitation functions for the natZr(p,xn) 90,92m,95g,96Nb, natZr(p,pxn) 88,89Zr, and natZr(p,αxn) 86,87m,87mg,88Y reactions were measured by using a stacked-foil activation technique in combination with HPGe γ-ray spectroscopy using the MC50 cyclotron at the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Korea. In this way the proton beam energy range 4-40 MeV was covered. We report new data for these processes. The data were compared with the results of precompound-hybrid model calculations, whereby only a partial agreement was obtained.

  12. Broadband discrete-level excitations for improved extraction of information in bioimpedance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Mart; Paavle, Toivo

    2014-06-01

    The implementation of bioimpedance-based methods in implantable and wearable medical devices requires simple, cheap and low energy consuming measurement settings for enabling impedance spectroscopy at a wide range of frequencies. In the present paper, such a wideband bioimpedance measurement method is discussed, which embodies two-channel impedance measurement for monitoring of the frequency-dependent phase shift between the channels (phase spectrum). In addition, the improved resolution is achieved by employing comparative measurements by introducing the predetermined reference impedance into one of the measurement channels. The proposed and analyzed measurement system uses a binary excitation signal that simplifies signal generation and processing hardware and does not need sophisticated software--low-complexity devices can be designed this way. It is shown that in particular the binary chirp excitation has some essential advantages compared with its counterparts--the maximum length sequence and binary multifrequency excitations. The spectra of chirps of the binary chirp excitation, including their discrete-level modifications, are continuous and flat at the same time. Due to the independent scalability in time and frequency domains and very high chirping rate, the chirps are especially suitable as excitation signals for wideband spectroscopy of dynamic objects with changing impedances in devices such as implantable heart monitors, pacemakers and high-throughput microfluidic lab-on-chip-type devices for performing bioimpedance-based monitoring of cells and droplets.

  13. Excitation functions for(d,x)reactions on $^{133}$Cs up to $E_d = 40$ MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Baba, M; Ignatyuk, A V

    2016-01-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of excitation functions of deuteron induced reactions the excitation functions of the $^{133}$Cs(d,x)$^{133m,133mg,131mg}$Ba, ${134,132}$Cs and $^{129m}$Xe nuclear reactions were measured up to 40 MeV deuteron energies by using the stacked foil irradiation technique and $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy of activated samples. The results were compared with calculations performed with the theoretical nuclear reaction codes ALICE-IPPE-D, EMPIRE II-D and TALYS calculation listed in the TENDL-2014 library. A moderate agreement was obtained. Based on the integral yields deduced from our measured cross sections, production of $^{131}$Cs via the $^{133}$Cs(d,4n)$^{131}$Ba $\\longrightarrow$ $^{131}$Cs reaction and $^{133}$Ba via $^{133}$Cs(d,2n) reactions is discussed in comparison with other charged particle production routes.

  14. Measurements of competing structures in neutron-deficient Pb isotopes by employing Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    Bastin, B; Kruecken, R; Larsen, A; Rahkila, P J; Srebrny, J; Clement, E; Wadsworth, R; Syed naeemul, H; Peura, P J; Siem, S; Hadynska-klek, K; Habs, D; Napiorkowski, P J; Diriken, J V J; Iwanicki, J S

    Coulomb excitation measurements to study the shape coexistence and quadrupole collectivity of the low-lying levels in neutron-deficient Pb nuclei are proposed. Even-mass $^{188−192}$Pb nuclei will be post-accelerated at REX-ISOLDE in order to measure transition probabilities and quadrupole moments for the first excited states. In combination with results obtained in lifetime measurements, this will allow the sign of the quadrupole deformation parameter to be extracted for the first time for 2$^{+}$ states in the even-mass $^{188−192}$Pb nuclei.

  15. Measurements and nuclear model calculations on proton-induced reactions on 103Rh up to 40 MeV: evaluation of the excitation function of the 103Rh(p,n)103Pd reaction relevant to the production of the therapeutic radionuclide 103Pd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudár, S; Cserpák, F; Qaim, S M

    2002-06-01

    Excitation functions were measured by the stacked-foil technique for the reactions 103Rh(p,n)103Pd, 103Rh(p,3n)101Pd and 103Rh(p,4n)100Pd from their respective thresholds up to 39.6 MeV. The radioactivity of the activation products was determined by high-resolution X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry. Statistical model calculations taking into account the precompound effects were performed for all reactions, and good agreement was found with our data. A critical evaluation of the existing and present data for the 103Rh(p,n)103Pd reaction was carried out. Recommended cross sections and integral yields for this reaction of key importance in the production of the widely used therapeutic radionuclide 103Pd are given.

  16. Excitation functions for the radionuclide46Sc produced in the irradiation of 45Sc with deuterons and 6He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skobelev, N. K.; Kulko, A. A.; Kroha, V.; Burjan, V.; Hons, Z.; Daniel, A. V.; Demekhina, N. A.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Kugler, A.; Mrázek, J.; Penionzhkevich, Yu E.; Piskoř, Š.; Šimečková, E.; Voskoboynik, E. I.

    2011-03-01

    Results of the measurements of the excitation function in the deuteron-induced reaction 45Sc(d, p)46Sc have been obtained at the energy of incident deuterons up to 11.7 MeV. In addition, data for the 45Sc(d, t)44Sc reaction were obtained. The experiments were performed using the variable energy cyclotron U-120M (NPI, Řež) and the Electrostatic Generator EG-5 (FLNP, JINR). The cross sections of the induced activities were measured using the stacked-foil technique. The measured excitation functions were similar to those observed for the 45Sc(6He, 5He*)46Sc reaction, studied at the accelerator complex for radioactive beams DRIBs (FLNR, JINR). The maximum probability of producing 46Sc was also found close to the Coulomb barriers of these reactions. The compilation of available experimental data, obtained at deuteron and 6He-energies near the Coulomb barrier, showed that the values of the cross sections at the maxima of the excitation functions obtained in (d, p) reactions and the reactions for one-neutron pickup from the 6He projectiles have a different Z-dependence.

  17. Test-retest reliability of the soleus H-reflex excitability measured during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate with what accuracy the soleus H-reflex modulation and excitability could be measured during human walking on two occasions separated by days. The maximal M-wave (Mmax) was measured at rest in the standing position. During treadmill walking every stimulu...

  18. Large Signal Excitation Measurement Techniques for Random Telegraph Signal Noise in MOSFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces large signal excitation measurement techniques to analyze random telegraph signal (RTS) noise originating from oxide-traps in MOSFETs. The paper concentrates on the trap-occupancy, which relates directly to the generated noise. The proposed measurement technique makes

  19. Large Signal Excitation Measurement Techniques for Random Telegraph Signal Noise in MOSFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, E.; Kolhatkar, J.S.; van der Wel, A.P.; Salm, Cora; Klumperink, Eric A.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces large signal excitation measurement techniques to analyze Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) noise originating from oxide-traps in MOSFETs. The paper concentrates on the trap-occupancy, which relates directly to the generated noise. The proposed measurement technique makes

  20. Using Brain Oscillations and Corticospinal Excitability to Understand and Predict Post-Stroke Motor Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Thibaut

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What determines motor recovery in stroke is still unknown and finding markers that could predict and improve stroke recovery is a challenge. In this study, we aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms of motor function recovery after stroke using neurophysiological markers by means of cortical excitability (transcranial magnetic stimulation—TMS and brain oscillations (electroencephalography—EEG. In this cross-sectional study, 55 subjects with chronic stroke (62 ± 14 yo, 17 women, 32 ± 42 months post-stroke were recruited in two sites. We analyzed TMS measures (i.e., motor threshold—MT—of the affected and unaffected sides and EEG variables (i.e., power spectrum in different frequency bands and different brain regions of the affected and unaffected hemispheres and their correlation with motor impairment as measured by Fugl-Meyer. Multiple univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of good motor function. A significant interaction effect of MT in the affected hemisphere and power in beta bandwidth over the central region for both affected and unaffected hemispheres was found. We identified that motor function positively correlates with beta rhythm over the central region of the unaffected hemisphere, while it negatively correlates with beta rhythm in the affected hemisphere. Our results suggest that cortical activity in the affected and unaffected hemisphere measured by EEG provides new insights on the association between high-frequency rhythms and motor impairment, highlighting the role of an excess of beta in the affected central cortical region in poor motor function in stroke recovery.

  1. Disagreement between capture probabilities extracted from capture and quasi-elastic backscattering excitation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargsyan, V.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Yerevan State University, Yerevan (Armenia); Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Gomes, R.P.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    Experimental quasi-elastic backscattering and capture (fusion) excitation functions are usually used to extract the s -wave capture probabilities for the heavy-ion reactions. We investigated the {sup 16}O + {sup 120}Sn, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 208}Pb systems at energies near and below the corresponding interaction barriers and concluded that the probabilities extracted from quasi-elastic data are much larger than the ones extracted from fusion excitation functions at sub and deep-sub barrier energies. This seems to be a reasonable explanation for the known disagreement observed in the literature for the nuclear potential diffuseness derived from both methods. (orig.)

  2. First Beam Transfer Function measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tambasco, Claudia; Fuchsberger, Kajetan; Lefevre, Thibaut; Pieloni, Tatiana; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Boccardi, Andrea; Gasior, Marek; Levens, Tom; Albert, Markus; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in the LHC, Beam Transfer Function (BTF) measurements have been performed. Different machine configurations have been tested to determine the safety of the BTF measurement system that results to be completely transparent on single beam. To evaluate the spread given by different Landau octupole currents, an octupole current scan was performed. The data analysis is still ongoing. The BTF measurements have been tested also for beams in collision, the first attempt at 450 GeV resulted in the excitation of the beam-beam coherent -mode, while a second attempt at 6.5 GeV did not show any signs of instability. This is still under investigation and further tests are needed also with trains of bunches.

  3. Excited states properties of organic molecules: from density functional theory to the GW and Bethe-Salpeter Green's function formalisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, C; Boulanger, P; Attaccalite, C; Duchemin, I; Blase, X

    2014-03-13

    Many-body Green's function perturbation theories, such as the GW and Bethe-Salpeter formalisms, are starting to be routinely applied to study charged and neutral electronic excitations in molecular organic systems relevant to applications in photovoltaics, photochemistry or biology. In parallel, density functional theory and its time-dependent extensions significantly progressed along the line of range-separated hybrid functionals within the generalized Kohn-Sham formalism designed to provide correct excitation energies. We give an overview and compare these approaches with examples drawn from the study of gas phase organic systems such as fullerenes, porphyrins, bacteriochlorophylls or nucleobases molecules. The perspectives and challenges that many-body perturbation theory is facing, such as the role of self-consistency, the calculation of forces and potential energy surfaces in the excited states, or the development of embedding techniques specific to the GW and Bethe-Salpeter equation formalisms, are outlined.

  4. Excitation Functions of Helion-Induced Nuclear Reactions for the Production of the Medical Radioisotope 103Pd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, Ye.; Qaim, S. M.

    2005-05-01

    Excitation functions were measured by the stacked-foil technique for the reactions 100Ru(α,n)103Pd, 101Ru(α,2n)103Pd, 101Ru(3He,n)103Pd, and 102Ru(3He,2n)103Pd for incident energies up to 25 and 34 MeV for α-particles and 3He ions, respectively. The integral thick target yields of the product radionuclide 103Pd calculated from the excitation functions of the above-named four reactions amount to 960, 1050, 50, and 725 KBq/μAh, respectively, at the maximum energy of the incident particle. The data are compared with the results of statistical model calculations and other charged particle induced reaction investigations.

  5. Excitation Functions of the Analyzing Power in pp--> Scattering from 0.45 to 2.5 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeier, M.; Bauer, F.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Busch, M.; Büßer, K.; Colberg, T.; Demirörs, L.; Diehl, O.; Engelhardt, H. P.; Eversheim, P. D.; Felden, O.; Gebel, R.; Glende, M.; Greiff, J.; Hinterberger, F.; Jonas, E.; Krause, H.; Lindemann, T.; Lindlein, J.; Maier, R.; Maschuw, R.; Meinerzhagen, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Rohdjeß, H.; Rosendaal, D.; von Rossen, P.; Schirm, N.; Schwarz, V.; Scobel, W.; Trelle, H. J.; Weise, E.; Wellinghausen, A.; Ziegler, R.

    2000-08-01

    Excitation functions AN\\(pp,Θc.m.\\) of the analyzing power in pp--> elastic scattering have been measured with a polarized atomic hydrogen target for projectile momenta pp between 1000 and 3300 MeV/ c. The experiment was performed for scattering angles 30°<=Θc.m.<=90° using the recirculating beam of the proton storage ring COSY during acceleration. The resulting excitation functions and angular distributions of high internal consistency have significant impact on the recent phase shift solution SAID SP99, in particular, on the spin triplet phase shifts between 1000 and 1800 MeV, and demonstrate the limited predictive power of single-energy phase shift solutions at these energies.

  6. Elastic proton-proton scattering: Excitation functions from 0.45 to 2.5 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterberger, F.; Bauer, F.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Büßer, K.; Busch, M.; Colberg, T.; Demirörs, L.; Dahl, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyser, O.; Felden, O.; Gebel, R.; Greiff, J.; Jonas, E.; Krause, H.; Lehmann, C.; Lindlein, J.; Maier, R.; Meinerzhagen, A.; Pauli, C.; Prasuhn, D.; Rohdjeß, H.; Rosendaal, D.; von Rossen, P.; Schirm, N.; Scobel, W.; Ulbrich, K.; Weise, E.; Wolf, T.; Ziegler, R.

    Excitation functions of the differential cross sections {dσ}/{dgw}, analyzing powers AN and spin correlation parameters ANN, ASS and ASL have been measured with internal targets at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY. Data were taken continously during the acceleration and deceleration of the internal beam for kinetic energies between 450 and 2500 MeV and scattering angles 30° ⩽ σ cm ⩽ 90°. Details of the experimental method are presented. The results provide excitation functions and angular distributions of high precision and internal consistency. No evidence for narrow structures are found. Upper limits on the coupling of narrow resonances to elastic scattering in the mass range √ s = 2.2…2.8 GeV are deduced. The data have significant impact on phase shift solutions.

  7. DETERMINATION OF THE ABSOLUTE EXCITED-STATE DENSITY OF A SODIUM TARGET BY MEANS OF BEAM DEFLECTION MEASUREMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERSEMA, WP; SCHLATMANN, AR; MORGENSTERN, R

    1994-01-01

    The average deflection of a laser excited, divergent sodium beam with a broad velocity distribution is measured by means of a Langmuir-Taylor detector and exploited for determining the absolute density of the excited state in the interaction area. Simulations of the excitation and deflection process

  8. Tsunami excitation by inland/coastal earthquakes: the Green function approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Yanovskaya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the linear theory, the representation theorem is derived for an incompressible liquid layer with a boundary of arbitrary shape and in a homogeneous gravity field. In addition, the asymptotic representation for the Green function, in a layer of constant thickness is obtained. The validity of the approach for the calculation of the tsunami wavefield based on the Green function technique is verified comparing the results with those obtained from the modal theory, for a liquid layer of infinite horizontal dimensions. The Green function approach is preferable for the estimation of the excitation spectra, since in the case of an infinite liquid layer it leads to simple analytical expressions. From this analysis it is easy to describe the peculiarities of tsunami excitation by different sources. The method is extended to the excitation of tsunami in a semiinfinite layer with a sloping boundary. Numerical modelling of the tsunami wavefield, excited by point sources at different distances from the coastline, shows that when the source is located at a distance from the coastline equal or larger than the source depth, the shore presence does not affect the excitation of the tsunami. When the source is moved towards thecoastline, the low frequency content in the excitation spectrum ecreases, while the high frequencies content increases dramatically. The maximum of the excitation spectra from inland sources, located at a distance from the shore like the source depth, becomes less than 10% of that radiated if the same source is located in the open ocean. The effect of the finiteness of the source is also studied and the excitation spectrum is obtained by integration over the fault area. Numerical modelling of the excitation spectra for different source models shows that, for a given seismic moment, the spectral level, as well as the maximum value of the spectra, decreases with increasing fault size. When the sources are located in the

  9. Calculation of excitation functions of the 54, 56, 57, 58 Fe (p, n ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 83; Issue 4. Calculation of ... The excitation functions have been compared with experimental nuclear data. ... Proton-induced reaction cross-sections provide clues to understand the nuclear structure and offers a good testing ground for ideas about nuclear forces.

  10. Measuring curvature and velocity vector fields for waves of cardiac excitation in 2-D media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Matthew W; Gray, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    Excitable media theory predicts the effect of electrical wavefront morphology on the dynamics of propagation in cardiac tissue. It specifies that a convex wavefront propagates slower and a concave wavefront propagates faster than a planar wavefront. Because of this, wavefront curvature is thought to be an important functional mechanism of cardiac arrhythmias. However, the curvature of wavefronts during an arrhythmia are generally unknown. We introduce a robust, automated method to measure the curvature vector field of discretely characterized, arbitrarily shaped, two-dimensional (2-D) wavefronts. The method relies on generating a smooth, continuous parameterization of the shape of a wave using cubic smoothing splines fitted to an isopotential at a specified level, which we choose to be -30 mV. Twice differentiating the parametric form provides local curvature vectors along the wavefront and waveback. Local conduction velocities are computed as the wave speed along lines normal to the parametric form. In this way, the curvature and velocity vector field for wavefronts and wavebacks can be measured. We applied the method to data sampled from a 2-D numerical model and several examples are provided to illustrate its usefulness for studying the dynamics of cardiac propagation in 2-D media.

  11. [Effect of ectopic excitation on pump function of the hen and dog right heart ventricle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, N A; Kharin, S N; Tsvetkova, A S; Azarov, Ia E; Shmakov, D N

    2009-01-01

    The pump function of the right heart ventricle has been studied in anesthetized dogs and hens at sinus rhythm, supraventricular rhythm, and subepicardial ectopic excitation of base and apex of the right and left ventricles. Dynamics of the ventricle intracavital pressure was recorded by transmural catheterization. The pump function of the right ventricle in hen (as compared with sinus rhythm) retained to the greater degree at stimulation of the left ventricle apex and deteriorated significantly at stimulation of the right ventricle, whereas in dog (as compared with supraventricular rhythm) it retained to the greater degree at stimulation of the left ventricle base and deteriorated at stimulation of the right ventricle apex. Changes of the pump function of the right heart ventricle at ectopic ventricle stimulation are similar in birds and mammals. Differences in changes of dog and hen pump functions under effect of location of the ectopic excitation seem to be due to morphofunctional peculiarities of heart ventricles.

  12. A narrow structure in the excitation function of eta-photoproduction off the neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Werthmueller, D; Keshelashvili, I; Aguar-Bartolome, P; Ahrens, J; Annand, J R M; Arends, H J; Bantawa, K; Beck, R; Bekrenev, V; Braghieri, A; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brudvik, J; Cherepnya, S; Demissie, B; Dieterle, M; Downie, E J; Drexler, P; Fil'kov, L V; Fix, A; Glazier, D I; Hamilton, D; Heid, E; Hornidge, D; Howdle, D; Huber, G M; Jaegle, I; Jahn, O; Jude, T C; Kaeser, A; Kashevarov, V L; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Kruglov, S P; Krusche, B; Kulbardis, A; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J D; Maghrbi, Y; Mancell, J; Manley, D M; Marinides, Z; Martinez, M; McGeorge, J C; McNicoll, E F; Metag, V; Middleton, D G; Mushkarenkov, A; Nefkens, B M K; Nikolaev, A; Novotny, R; Oberle, M; Ostrick, M; Oussena, B; Pedroni, P; Pheron, F; Polonski, A; Prakhov, S N; Robinson, J; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, T; Schumann, S; Sikora, M H; Sober, D; Starostin, A; Supek, I; Thiel, M; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Watts, D P

    2013-01-01

    The photoproduction of $\\eta$-mesons off nucleons bound in $^2$H and $^3$He has been measured in coincidence with recoil protons and recoil neutrons for incident photon energies from threshold up to 1.4 GeV. The experiments were performed at the Mainz MAMI accelerator, using the Glasgow tagged photon facility. Decay photons from the $\\eta\\rightarrow 2\\gamma$ and $\\eta\\rightarrow 3\\pi^0$ decays and the recoil nucleons were detected with an almost $4\\pi$ electromagnetic calorimeter combining the Crystal Ball and TAPS detectors. The data from both targets are of excellent statistical quality and show a narrow structure in the excitation function of $\\gamma n\\rightarrow n\\eta$. The results from the two measurements are consistent taking into account the expected effects from nuclear Fermi motion. The best estimates for position and intrinsic width of the structure are $W$ = (1670$\\pm$5) MeV and $\\Gamma$ =(30$\\pm$15) MeV. For the first time precise results for the angular dependence of this structure have been ext...

  13. Proton and deuteron induced reactions on {sup nat}Ga: Experimental and calculated excitation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A., E-mail: aherman@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Adam-Rebeles, R. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Atomki), Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-09-15

    Cross-sections for reactions on {sup nat}Ga, induced by protons (up to 65 MeV) and deuterons (up to 50 MeV), producing γ-emitting radionuclides with half-lives longer than 1 h were measured in a stacked-foil irradiation using thin Ga–Ni alloy (70–30%) targets electroplated on Cu or Au backings. Excitation functions for generation of {sup 68,69}Ge, {sup 66,67,68,72}Ga and {sup 65,69m}Zn on {sup nat}Ga are discussed, relative to the monitor reactions {sup nat}Al(d,x){sup 24,22}Na, {sup nat}Al(p,x){sup 24,22}Na, {sup nat}Cu(p,x){sup 62}Zn and {sup nat}Ni(p,x){sup 57}Ni. The results are compared to our earlier measurements, the scarce literature values and to the results of the code TALYS 1.6 (online database TENDL-2014)

  14. Quantitative Measurements of Electronically Excited CH Concentration in Normal Gravity and Microgravity Coflow Laminar Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, D.; Cao, S.; Stocker, D. P.; Takahashi, F.; Bennett, B. A. V.; Smooke, M. D.; Long, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    With the conclusion of the SLICE campaign aboard the ISS in 2012, a large amount of data was made available for the analysis of the effect of microgravity on laminar coflow diffusion flames. Previous work focused on the study of sooty flames in microgravity as well as the ability of numerical models to predict its formation in a simplified buoyancy-free environment. The current work shifts the investigation to soot-free flames, putting an emphasis on the chemiluminescence emission from electronically excited CH (CH*). This radical species is of significant interest in combustion studies: it has been shown that the electronically excited CH spatial distribution is indicative of the flame front position and, given the relatively simple diagnostic involved with its measurement, several works have been done trying to understand the ability of electronically excited CH chemiluminescence to predict the total and local flame heat release rate. In this work, a subset of the SLICE nitrogen-diluted methane flames has been considered, and the effect of fuel and coflow velocity on electronically excited CH concentration is discussed and compared with both normal gravity results and numerical simulations. Experimentally, the spectral characterization of the DSLR color camera used to acquire the flame images allowed the signal collected by the blue channel to be considered representative of the electronically excited CH emission centered around 431 nm. Due to the axisymmetric flame structure, an Abel deconvolution of the line-of-sight chemiluminescence was used to obtain the radial intensity profile and, thanks to an absolute light intensity calibration, a quantification of the electronically excited CH concentration was possible. Results show that, in microgravity, the maximum flame electronically excited CH concentration increases with the coflow velocity, but it is weakly dependent on the fuel velocity; normal gravity flames, if not lifted, tend to follow the same trend

  15. Measurements of power loss distribution in a typical stator core under PWM voltage excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutkun, N.; Moses, A. J.

    2003-06-01

    The pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter is widely used to feed small induction motors for variable speed and torque control. When a laminated stator core is energised in this way additional iron losses occur due to localised distorted flux. Flux density and power loss distribution under PWM and sinusoidal voltage excitations were measured in a typical induction motor stator core lamination at 1.3 T, 50 Hz by using a computer-aided magnetising system to set up flux distribution as would occur in a practical three-phase stator core. The iron loss increased 15-20% under PWM excitation. The loss increase under PWM excitation in the stator core laminations was 3% lower than in Epstein strips of the same electrical steel under the same conditions showing an effect of the magnetic circuit geometry.

  16. Importance of local exact exchange potential in hybrid functionals for accurate excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jaewook; Hwang, Sang-Yeon; Ryu, Seongok; Choi, Sunghwan; Kim, Woo Youn

    2016-01-01

    Density functional theory has been an essential analysis tool for both theoretical and experimental chemists since accurate hybrid functionals were developed. Here we propose a local hybrid method derived from the optimized effective potential (OEP) method and compare its distinct features with conventional nonlocal ones from the Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange operator. Both are formally exact for ground states and thus show similar accuracy for atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. For excited states, the local version yields virtual orbitals with N-electron character, while those of the nonlocal version have mixed characters between N- and (N+1)-electron orbitals. As a result, the orbital energy gaps from the former well approximate excitation energies with a small mean absolute error (MAE = 0.40 eV) for the Caricato benchmark set. The correction from time-dependent density functional theory with a simple local density approximation kernel further improves its accuracy by incorporating multi-config...

  17. Electronic Excitations of Simple Cyanine Dyes: Reconciling Density Functional and Wave Function Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Send, Robert; Valsson, O.; Filippi, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The simplest cyanine dye series [H2N(CH)nNH2]+ with n = 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 appears to be a challenge for all theoretical excited-state methods since the experimental spectra are difficult to predict and the observed deviations cannot be easily explained with standard arguments. We compute here the

  18. Vibration transfers to measure the performance of vibration isolated platforms on site using background noise excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerink, F. B.; Korterik, J. P.; Offerhaus, H. L.

    2011-06-01

    This article demonstrates a quick and easy way of quantifying the performance of a vibration-isolated platform. We measure the vibration transfer from floor to table using background noise excitation from the floor. As no excitation device is needed, our setup only requires two identical sensors (in our case, low noise accelerometers), a data acquisition system, and processing software. Background noise excitation from the floor has the additional advantage that any non-linearity in the suspension system relevant to the actual vibration amplitudes will be taken into account. Measurement time is typically a few minutes, depending on the amount of background noise. The (coherent) transfer of the vibrations in the floor to the platform, as well as the (non-coherent) acoustical noise pick-up by the platform are measured. Since we use calibrated sensors, the absolute value of the vibration levels is established and can be expressed in vibration criterion curves. Transfer measurements are shown and discussed for two pneumatic isolated optical tables, a spring suspension system, and a simple foam suspension system.

  19. Characterisation of a dense state of quarks and gluons by the multi-strange hyperons excitation functions as measured with the Star experiment at RHIC; Caracterisation d'un etat dense de quarks et de gluons grace aux fonctions d'excitation des hyperons multi-etranges mesurees avec l'experience STAR au RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speltz, J

    2006-10-15

    In this work, we characterize the production of the multi-strange baryons Xi and Omega in Au+Au collisions at RHIC, where the possible formation of a matter of deconfined quarks and gluons (QGP) is expected. We analyze with the STAR experiment, the collisions obtained at an energy of 62 GeV, intermediate between the one reached at the SPS (17 GeV) and the nominal energy of RHIC (200 GeV). Transverse momentum spectra, yields and elliptic flow are measured with different methods allowing for a relevant estimation of systematic errors. The results are compared to statistical and hydrodynamic models that we have adapted for their use at 62 GeV. The so obtained chemical and dynamic properties of the created medium indicate the formation of a thermalized, at least partially, medium and suggests the formation of a comparable matter at 62 GeV and at 200 GeV. (author)

  20. The effect of kinesiotape on function, pain, and motoneuronal excitability in healthy people and people with Achilles tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Bridget L; Dingley, Paul; Davies, Elizabeth R; Lewis, Jeremy S; Alexander, Caroline M

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effect of kinesiotape on hop distance, pain, and motoneuronal excitability in healthy people and people with Achilles tendinopathy (AT). Within-subject design. An academic health science center, which is an acute London National Health Service trust. With ethical approval and informed consent, a convenience sample of 26 healthy people and 29 people with AT were recruited. Seven participants were lost after functional testing, leaving 24 participants in each group. Kinesiotape applied over the Achilles tendon. The single-leg hop test and visual analog scale were measured with and without the tape. Using the Hoffman (H) reflex, change in motoneuronal excitability of calf muscles was measured before tape application, with the tape on and after its removal. There were no changes to hop distance when tape was applied (P = 0.55). Additionally, there were no changes to pain (P = 0.74). The H reflex amplitude of soleus and gastrocnemius increased in the healthy group after its removal (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively), whereas the H reflex remained unchanged in people with AT (P = 0.43 and 0.16, respectively). Calf muscles were facilitated by kinesiotape in healthy participants. Despite this, there was no change to hop distance. Kinesiotape had no effect on hop distance, pain, or motoneuronal excitability in people with AT. These results do not support the use of kinesiotape applied in this way for this condition.

  1. Spectral characterization of biological aerosol particles using two-wavelength excited laser-induced fluorescence and elastic scattering measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprakasam, Vasanthi; Lin, Horn-Bond; Huston, Alan L; Eversole, Jay D

    2011-03-28

    A two-wavelength laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instrument has been developed and used to characterize individual biological aerosol particles, including biological warfare (BW) agent surrogates. Fluorescence in discrete spectral bands from widely different species, and also from similar species under different growth conditions were measured and compared. The two-wavelength excitation approach was found to increase discrimination among several biological materials, and especially with respect to diesel exhaust particles, a common interferent for LIF BW detection systems. The spectral characteristics of a variety of biological materials and ambient air components have been studied as a function of aerosol particle size and incident fluence.

  2. Determining excitation-energy transfer times and mechanisms from stochastic time-dependent density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Mees, D; Appel, H; Di Ventra, M; Kümmel, S

    2013-11-21

    We developed an approach for calculating excitation-energy transfer times in supermolecular arrangements based on stochastic time-dependent density functional theory (STDDFT). The combination of real-time propagation and the stochastic Schrödinger equation with a Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian allows for simulating how an excitation spreads through an assembly of molecular systems. The influence that approximations, such as the dipole-dipole coupling approximation of Förster theory, have on energy-transfer times can be checked explicitly. As a first application of our approach we investigate a light-harvesting-inspired model ring system, calculating the time it takes for an excitation to travel from one side of the ring to the opposite side under ideal and perturbed conditions. Among other things we find that completely removing a molecule from the ring may inhibit energy transfer less than having an energetically detuned molecule in the ring. In addition, Förster's dipole coupling approximation may noticeably overestimate excitation-energy transfer efficiency.

  3. High mass-resolution electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements on core-excited organic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Tokushima, T; Senba, Y; Yoshida, H; Hiraya, A

    2001-01-01

    Total electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements on core excited organic molecules have been carried out with high mass resolution by using multimode (reflectron/linear) time-of-flight mass analyzer. From the ion correlation spectra of core excited CH sub 3 OH and CD sub 3 OH, the reaction pathway to form H sub 3 sup + (D sub 3 sup +) is identified as the elimination of three H (D) atoms from the methyl group, not as the inter-group (-CH sub 3 and -OH) interactions. In a PEPIPICO spectrum of acetylacetone (CH sub 3 COCH sub 2 COCH sub 3) measured by using a reflectron TOF, correlations between ions up to mass number 70 with one-mass resolution was recorded.

  4. High-frequency conductivity of optically excited charge carriers in hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon investigated by spectroscopic femtosecond pump–probe reflectivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Wei [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yurkevich, Igor V. [Aston University, Nonlinearity and Complexity Research Group, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Zakar, Ammar [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kaplan, Andrey, E-mail: a.kaplan.1@bham.ac.uk [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    We report an investigation into the high-frequency conductivity of optically excited charge carriers far from equilibrium with the lattice. The investigated samples consist of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films grown on a thin film of silicon oxide on top of a silicon substrate. For the investigation, we used an optical femtosecond pump–probe setup to measure the reflectance change of a probe beam. The pump beam ranged between 580 and 820 nm, whereas the probe wavelength spanned 770 to 810 nm. The pump fluence was fixed at 0.6 mJ/cm{sup 2}. We show that at a fixed delay time of 300 fs, the conductivity of the excited electron–hole plasma is described well by a classical conductivity model of a hot charge carrier gas found at Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, while Fermi–Dirac statics is not suitable. This is corroborated by values retrieved from pump–probe reflectance measurements of the conductivity and its dependence on the excitation wavelength and carrier temperature. The conductivity decreases monotonically as a function of the excitation wavelength, as expected for a nondegenerate charge carrier gas. - Highlights: • We study high‐frequency conductivity of excited hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon. • Reflectance change was measured as a function of pump and probe wavelength. • Maxwell–Boltzmann transport theory was used to retrieve the conductivity. • The conductivity decreases monotonically as a function of the pump wavelength.

  5. Excitation function measurements of sup 4 sup 0 Ar(p,3n) sup 3 sup 8 K, sup 4 sup 0 Ar(p,2pn) sup 3 sup 8 Cl and sup 4 sup 0 Ar(p,2p) sup 3 sup 9 Cl reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Nagatsu, K; Suzuki, K

    1999-01-01

    For the production of sup 3 sup 8 K, excitation functions of the sup 4 sup 0 Ar(p,3n) sup 3 sup 8 K reaction and its accompanying reactions sup 4 sup 0 Ar(p,2pn) sup 3 sup 8 Cl, and sup 4 sup 0 Ar(p,2p) sup 3 sup 9 Cl were measured at the proton energy of 20.5-39.5 MeV to determine the optimum conditions of irradiation. Target cells containing argon gas were prepared using specially developed tools in an argon-replaced glove box. In the sup 4 sup 0 Ar(p,3n) sup 3 sup 8 K, sup 4 sup 0 Ar(p,2pn) sup 3 sup 8 Cl, and sup 4 sup 0 Ar(p,2p) sup 3 sup 9 Cl reactions, the maximum cross sections were 6.7+-0.7, 34+-3.3 and 11+-1.2mbarn at 37.6, 39.5 and 32.0 MeV, respectively, and the saturation thick target yields were calculated to be 560, 2200, and 1300 sup * MBq/mu A, respectively, at an incident energy of 39.5 MeV ( sup * integral yield above 21 MeV).

  6. Excited-State N2 Dissociation Pathway on Fe-Functionalized Au.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirez, John Mark P; Carter, Emily A

    2017-03-29

    Localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) offer the possibility of light-activated chemical catalysis on surfaces of strongly plasmonic metal nanoparticles. This technology relies on lower-barrier bond formation and/or dissociation routes made available through energy transfer following the eventual decay of LSPRs. The coupling between these decay processes and a chemical trajectory (nuclear motion, charge-transfer, intersystem crossing, etc.) dictates the availability of these alternative (possibly lower barrier) excited-state channels. The Haber-Bosch method of NH3 synthesis from N2 and H2 is notoriously energy intensive. This is due to the difficulty of N2 dissociation despite the overall reaction being thermodynamically favorable at ambient temperatures and pressures. LSPRs may provide means to improve the kinetics of N2 dissociation via induced resonance electronic excitation. In this work, we calculate, via embedded n-electron valence second-order perturbation theory within the density functional embedding theory, the excited-state potential energy surfaces for dissociation of N2 on an Fe-doped Au(111) surface. This metal alloy may take advantage simultaneously of the strong LSPR of Au and the catalytic activity of Fe toward N2 dissociation. We find the ground-state dissociation activation energy to be 4.74 eV/N2, with Fe as the active site on the surface. Consecutive resonance energy transfers (RETs) may be accessed due to the availability of many electronically excited states with intermediate energies arising from the metal surface that may couple to states induced by the Fe-dopant and the adsorbate molecule, and crossing between excited states may effectively lower the dissociation barrier to 1.33 eV. Our work illustrates that large energetic barriers, prohibitive toward chemical reaction, may be overcome through multiple RETs facilitating an otherwise difficult chemical process.

  7. Excitation-emission matrices measurements of human cutaneous lesions: tool for fluorescence origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelyazkova, A.; Borisova, E.; Angelova, L.; Pavlova, E.; Keremedchiev, M.

    2013-11-01

    The light induced fluorescence (LIF) technique has the potential of providing real-time diagnosis of malignant and premalignant skin tissue; however, human skin is a multilayered and inhomogeneous organ with different optical properties that complicate the analysis of cutaneous fluorescence spectra. In spite of the difficulties related to the detection and analysis of fluorescent data from skin lesions, this technique is among the most widely applied techniques in laboratorial and pre-clinical investigations for early skin neoplasia diagnosis. The important point is to evaluate all sources of intrinsic fluorescence and find any significant alterations distinguishing the normal skin from a cancerous state of the tissue; this would make the autofluorescence signal obtained useful for the development of a non-invasive diagnostic tool for the dermatological practice. Our investigations presented here were based on ex vivo point-by-point measurements of excitation-emission matrices (EEM) from excised tumor lesions and the surrounding skin taken during the daily clinical practice of Queen Jiovanna- ISUL University Hospital, Sofia, the local Ethical Committee's approval having already been obtained. The fluorescence emission was measured between 300 nm and 800 nm using excitation in the 280-440 nm spectral range. In the process of excitation-emission matrices (EEM) measurements we could establish the origin of the autofluorescence and the compounds related by assigning the excitation and emission maxima obtained during the experiments. The EEM were compared for normal human skin, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, benign nevi and malignant melanoma lesions to obtain information for the most common skin malignancies and their precursors. The main spectral features and the applicability of the technique of autofluorescent spectroscopy of human skin in general as an initial diagnostic tool are discussed as well.

  8. Corticospinal excitability as a predictor of functional gains at the affected upper limb following robotic training in chronic stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Marie-Hélène; Spencer, Steven J; Chan, Vicky; Allington, James P; Klein, Julius; Chou, Cathy; Pearson-Fuhrhop, Kristin; Bobrow, James E; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Cramer, Steven C

    2014-01-01

    Robotic training can help improve function of a paretic limb following a stroke, but individuals respond differently to the training. A predictor of functional gains might improve the ability to select those individuals more likely to benefit from robot-based therapy. Studies evaluating predictors of functional improvement after a robotic training are scarce. One study has found that white matter tract integrity predicts functional gains following a robotic training of the hand and wrist. Objective. To determine the predictive ability of behavioral and brain measures in order to improve selection of individuals for robotic training. Twenty subjects with chronic stroke participated in an 8-week course of robotic exoskeletal training for the arm. Before training, a clinical evaluation, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were each measured as predictors. Final functional gain was defined as change in the Box and Block Test (BBT). Measures significant in bivariate analysis were fed into a multivariate linear regression model. Training was associated with an average gain of 6 ± 5 blocks on the BBT (P training of the affected arm. These subjects might have reserve remaining for the training to boost corticospinal excitability, translating into functional gains. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on natW up to 40 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, M. U.; Uddin, M. S.; Kim, K.; Lee, M. W.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, Y. S.; Kim, G. N.; Cho, Y. S.; Lee, Y. O.

    2008-04-01

    We measured the excitation functions for the production of the 181,182m,182g,183,184g,186Re radioisotopes from proton bombardment of natural tungsten by using a stacked-foil activation technique in the energy range from threshold energy to 40 MeV at the MC50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science. The results were compared with the earlier reported experimental data and the model calculations using codes TALYS and ALICE-IPPE. The present values are in good agreement with some of the previously reported literature. The integral yields for thick targets were also deduced from the measured excitation functions of the produced radioisotopes. The deduced yield values were compared with the available directly measured thick target yield, and found acceptable agreement. The investigated radioisotope 186Re has remarkable applications in the field of nuclear medicine, whereas the data of 183,184gRe have potential applications in thin layer activation analysis.

  10. A closer look at the apparent correlation of structural and functional connectivity in excitable neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messé, Arnaud; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten; König, Peter; Hilgetag, Claus C.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the structural connectivity (SC) and functional connectivity (FC) of neural systems is a central focus in brain network science. It is an open question, however, how strongly the SC-FC relationship depends on specific topological features of brain networks or the models used for describing excitable dynamics. Using a basic model of discrete excitable units that follow a susceptible - excited - refractory dynamic cycle (SER model), we here analyze how functional connectivity is shaped by the topological features of a neural network, in particular its modularity. We compared the results obtained by the SER model with corresponding simulations by another well established dynamic mechanism, the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, in order to explore general features of the SC-FC relationship. We showed that apparent discrepancies between the results produced by the two models can be resolved by adjusting the time window of integration of co-activations from which the FC is derived, providing a clearer distinction between co-activations and sequential activations. Thus, network modularity appears as an important factor shaping the FC-SC relationship across different dynamic models.

  11. Charge-transfer excited states in aqueous DNA: Insights from many-body Green's function theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huabing; Ma, Yuchen; Mu, Jinglin; Liu, Chengbu; Rohlfing, Michael

    2014-06-06

    Charge-transfer (CT) excited states play an important role in the excited-state dynamics of DNA in aqueous solution. However, there is still much controversy on their energies. By ab initio many-body Green's function theory, together with classical molecular dynamics simulations, we confirm the existence of CT states at the lower energy side of the optical absorption maximum in aqueous DNA as observed in experiments. We find that the hydration shell can exert strong effects (∼1  eV) on both the electronic structure and CT states of DNA molecules through dipole electric fields. In this case, the solvent cannot be simply regarded as a macroscopic screening medium as usual. The influence of base stacking and base pairing on the CT states is also discussed.

  12. First measurement with a new setup for low-energy Coulomb excitation studies at INFN LNL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchini, M.; Hadyńska-Klȩk, K.; Nannini, A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Goasduff, A.; Testov, D.; John, P. R.; Mengoni, D.; Zielińska, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Benzoni, G.; Boso, A.; Cocconi, P.; Chiari, M.; Doherty, D. T.; Galtarossa, F.; Jaworski, G.; Komorowska, M.; Matejska-Minda, M.; Melon, B.; Menegazzo, R.; Napiorkowski, P.; Napoli, D. R.; Ottanelli, M.; Perego, A.; Ramina, L.; Rampazzo, M.; Recchia, F.; Riccetto, S.; Rosso, D.; Siciliano, M.; Sona, P.

    2017-07-01

    A new segmented particle detector, SPIDER, has been designed to be used as an ancillary device with the GALILEO γ-ray spectrometer, as well as with other multi-detector γ-ray arrays that will be available at LNL in the future (e.g. AGATA). To commission the SPIDER-GALILEO experimental setup, a multi-step Coulomb excitation experiment was carried out with a 240 MeV beam of 66Zn produced by the Tandem-XTU accelerator at INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro. The measured particle and γ-ray spectra are compared with the results of detailed GEANT4 simulations which used the Coulomb excitation cross sections, estimated with the computer code GOSIA, as an input. The preliminary results indicate that precise transition probabilities will be obtained which are essential for solving discrepancies reported in the literature for this nucleus.

  13. Predicting Atmospheric Ionization and Excitation by Precipitating SEP and Solar Wind Protons Measured By MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolitz, Rebecca; Dong, Chuanfei; Lee, Christina; Lillis, Rob; Brain, David; Curry, Shannon; Halekas, Jasper; Bougher, Stephen W.; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    Precipitating energetic particles ionize and excite planetary atmospheres, increasing electron content and producing aurora. At Mars, the solar wind and solar energetic particles (SEPs) can precipitate directly into the atmosphere because solar wind protons can charge exchange to become neutral and pass the magnetosheath, and SEPs are sufficiently energetic to cross the magnetosheath unchanged. We will compare ionization and Lyman alpha emission rates for solar wind and SEP protons during nominal solar activity and a CME shock front impact event on May 16 2016. We will use the Atmospheric Scattering of Protons and Energetic Neutrals (ASPEN) model to compare excitation and ionization rates by SEPs and solar wind protons currently measured by the SWIA (Solar Wind Ion Analyzer) and SEP instruments aboard the MAVEN spacecraft. Results will help quantify how SEP and solar wind protons influence atmospheric energy deposition during solar minimum.

  14. Measurement of the excited-state transverse hyperfine coupling in NV centers via dynamic nuclear polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggiali, F.; Cappellaro, P.; Fabbri, N.

    2017-05-01

    Precise knowledge of a quantum system's Hamiltonian is a critical pre-requisite for its use in many quantum information technologies. Here, we report a method for the precise characterization of the nonsecular part of the excited-state Hamiltonian of an electronic-nuclear spin system in diamond. The method relies on the investigation of the dynamic nuclear polarization mediated by the electronic spin, which is currently exploited as a primary tool for initializing nuclear qubits and performing enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance. By measuring the temporal evolution of the population of the ground-state hyperfine levels of a nitrogen-vacancy center, we obtain the first direct estimation of the excited-state transverse hyperfine coupling between its electronic and nitrogen nuclear spin. Our method could also be applied to other electron-nuclear spin systems, such as those related to defects in silicon carbide.

  15. Multi-frequency simultaneous measurement of bioimpedance spectroscopy based on a low crest factor multisine excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Zhang, Fu; Tao, Kun; Wang, Lianhuan; Wen, He; Teng, Zhaosheng

    2015-03-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is becoming a powerful diagnostic tool for a wide variety of medical applications, and the multi-frequency simultaneous (MFS) measurement of BIS can greatly reduce measurement time and record the transient physiological status of a living body compared with traditional frequency-sweep measurement technology. This paper adopts the Van der Ouderaa's multisine, which has 31 equidistant and flat amplitude spectra and a low crest factor of 1.405 as the broadband excitation, and realizes the MFS measurement of BIS by means of spectral analysis using the fast Fourier transform algorithm. The approach to implement the multisine based on a field-programmable gate array and a digital to analog converter is described in detail, and impedance measurement experiments are performed on three resistance-capitance three-element phantoms. Experimental results show a commendable accuracy with a mean relative error of 0.55% for the impedance amplitudes, and a mean absolute error of 0.20° for the impedance phases on the 31 frequencies ranging linearly from 32 to 992 kHz. This paper validates the feasibility of the MFS technology for BIS measurement based on the multisine excitation.

  16. Measurements of shape co-existence in $^{182,184}$Hg using Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    Voulot, D; Paul, E S; Siem, S; Czosnyka, T; Napiorkowski, P J; Iwanicki, J S

    2007-01-01

    We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{182,184}$Hg ions from the REX facility to enable the lowest states of these nuclei to be Coulomb excited. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields using the MINIBALL array we can measure the transition and diagonal E2 matrix elements for these states. This will give quantitative information about the nature of the shape coexistence in these nuclei and allow the sign of the quadrupole deformation be determined for the first time. We require 24 shifts to fulfill the aims of the experiment.

  17. Beyond Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Using Only Single Excitations: Methods for Computational Studies of Excited States in Complex Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, John M; Zhang, Xing; Morrison, Adrian F; Liu, Jie

    2016-05-17

    Single-excitation methods, namely, configuration interaction singles and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), along with semiempirical versions thereof, represent the most computationally affordable electronic structure methods for describing electronically excited states, scaling as [Formula: see text] absent further approximations. This relatively low cost, combined with a treatment of electron correlation, has made TDDFT the most widely used excited-state quantum chemistry method over the past 20+ years. Nevertheless, certain inherent problems (beyond just the accuracy of this or that exchange-correlation functional) limit the utility of traditional TDDFT. For one, it affords potential energy surfaces whose topology is incorrect in the vicinity of any conical intersection (CI) that involves the ground state. Since CIs are the conduits for transitions between electronic states, the TDDFT description of photochemistry (internal conversion and intersystem crossing) is therefore suspect. Second, the [Formula: see text] cost can become prohibitive in large systems, especially those that involve multiple electronically coupled chromophores, for example, the antennae structures of light-harvesting complexes or the conjugated polymers used in organic photovoltaics. In such cases, the smallest realistic mimics might already be quite large from the standpoint of ab initio quantum chemistry. This Account describes several new computational methods that address these problems. Topology around a CI can be rigorously corrected using a "spin-flip" version of TDDFT, which involves an α → β spin-flipping transition in addition to occupied → virtual excitation of one electron. Within this formalism, singlet states are generated via excitation from a high-spin triplet reference state, doublets from a quartet, etc. This provides a more balanced treatment of electron correlation between ground and excited states. Spin contamination is problematic away from the

  18. Short periodic variations of polar motion and hemispheric atmospheric angular momentum excitation functions in the period 1984-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nastula

    Full Text Available Short periodic oscillations with the periods from 10 up to 110 days of the hemispheric components of effective atmospheric angular momentum (EAAM excitation function and their correlation with polar motion excitation function have been analyzed. The EAAM data of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA computed for the two hemispheres and the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI polar motion NGS 92 R01 data (NGS 1992, determined by the National Geodetic Survey were applied. The distinct oscillations with periods of about 28, 35-55 and 60-80 days were detected in the χy-component of both polar motion excitation function and northern EAAM excitation functions containing wind and pressure, with and without inverted barometric correction terms. The χy-component of the polar motion excitation function is significanly correlated (correlation coefficient equal to 0.55-0.75 with the χy-components of the northern EAAM excitation functions mentioned above, which are mostly induced by the atmospheric circulation over lands. No meaningful correlation between polar motion excitation function and the southern EAAM excitation functions was found. The χx-components of the EAAM and polar motion excitation functions are not significantly correlated. The strong short periodic variation of the length of day (LOD and χy in the early 1988 seems to be caused by the above-mentioned 35-55 days oscillations of the northern hemisphere atmosphere. This variation can be related to the rapid passing from the El Niño to the La Niña phenomenon or from the minimum to the maximum in the Southern Oscillation Index in 1987-1989.

  19. Lung function measurements in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva

    2010-01-01

    and highlights the need for developing methods for verification of resistance measures to assure accuracy. Normative data were subsequently generated. Importantly other centers using such normative data should first consider proper calibration before applying reference values. Study II-III: Acute respiratory...... function and bronchial responsiveness. We found no differences within MZ twin pairs with respect to pulmonary function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, asthma prevalence, asthma medication use, or sensitization. Secondary aim was to compare prospectively the baseline lung function and bronchial...... responsiveness in infants who later develop RSV bronchiolitis with infants who do not develop such severe infection. In a prospective birth cohort study of 411 infants of asthmatic mothers 22 infants developed RSV bronchiolitis. Infants with and without RSV bronchiolitis did not differ significantly in baseline...

  20. Repeated sessions of functional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation increases motor cortex excitability and motor control in survivors of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Crystal L; Tracy, Brian L; Paxton, Roger J; Malcolm, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    To determine the impact of a single-session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and an rTMS intervention on neurophysiology and motor control in survivors of stroke. Twelve stroke survivors were randomized into functional-rTMS or passive-rTMS conditions. Measures of short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF), and force steadiness (coefficient of variation, CV) at 10 and 20% of maximum voluntary contraction were assessed at baseline and after a single-session of rTMS (post single-session), and again following an intervention of 8 rTMS sessions (2 sessions per day; post-intervention). Functional-rTMS required subjects to exceed a muscle activation threshold assessed by surface electromyography to trigger each rTMS train; the passive-rTMS group received rTMS while relaxed. ICF scores significantly increased following the single-session of functional-rTMS compared to the decrease following passive-rTMS. The increase in APB SICI and ICF scores following the intervention was significantly greater for the functional-rTMS group compared to the decreases following passive-rTMS. The groups were significantly different in the CV of force (20%) following the single-session of rTMS, and in the 10 and 20% tasks following the intervention. The functional-rTMS group increased steadiness overtime, whereas the passive group demonstrated a return to baseline following the intervention session. No differences were observed in first dorsal interosseus (FDI) measures (SICI and ICF) between groups. The functional-rTMS protocol enhanced cortical excitability following a single-session and after repeated sessions and improved steadiness, whereas the passive stimulation protocol tended to decrease excitation and no improvements in steadiness were observed.

  1. Soft X-ray excited optical luminescence from functional organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sham, T.K., E-mail: tsham@uwo.ca

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Many functional organic materials convert X-ray energy into visible light. • The X-ray induced luminescence (XEOL) across an absorption edge can be site and excitation channel specific. • XEOL is composition, morphology, size and crystallinity dependent. • XEOL using the time structure of a synchrotron can reveal the decay and energy transfer dynamics of the sample. • The combined use of XEOL and XAS in the analysis of functional organic materials is illustrated. - Abstract: This brief report reviews some of the recent findings in the study of synchrotron based X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) from representative organic light emitting device (OLED) and related functional organic materials. The systems of interest include Alq{sub 3}, aluminium tris(8-hydroxylquinoline); Ru(bipy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, tris-(2,2-bipyridine) ruthenium(II); Ir(bpy){sub 3}, tris(2-phenyl-bipyridine)iridium; PVK (poly(N-vinylcarbazole)) and [Au{sub 2}(dppe)(bipy)]{sup 2+}, a Au(I) polymer containing 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane and the 4,40-bipyridyl ligands, as well as TBPe (2,5,8,11-tetra-tert-butylperylene) polyhedral crystals and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and FITC-labelled proteins. It is shown that tunable and pulsed X-rays from synchrotron light sources enable the detailed tracking of the optical properties of organic functional materials by monitoring the luminescence in both the energy and time domain as the excitation energy is scanned across an element-specific absorption edge. The use of XEOL and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in materials analysis is illustrated.

  2. New excitation functions for proton induced reactions on natural titanium, nickel and copper up to 70 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, E.; Duchemin, C.; Guertin, A.; Haddad, F.; Michel, N.; Métivier, V.

    2016-09-01

    New excitation functions for proton induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium, nickel and copper were measured, using the stacked-foil technique and gamma spectrometry, up to 70 MeV. The experimental cross sections were measured using the Ti-nat(p,x) V-48, Ni-nat(p,x) Ni-57 and Cu-nat(p,x) Zn-62,Co-56 monitor reactions recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), depending on the investigated energy range. Data have been extracted for the Ti-nat(p,x) Sc-43,44m,46,47,48, V-48, K-42,43, Ni-nat(p,x) Ni-56,57, Co-55,56,57,58, Mn-52,54, Cu-nat(p,x) Cu-61,64, Ni-57, Co-56,57,58,60, Zn-62,65, Mn-54 reactions. Our results are discussed and compared to the existing ones as well as with the TALYS code version 1.6 calculations using default models. Our experimental data are in overall good agreement with the literature. TALYS is able to reproduce, in most cases, the experimental trend. Our new experimental results allow to expand our knowledge on these excitation functions, to confirm the existing trends and to give additional values on a large energy range. This work is in line with the new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) launched by the IAEA to expand the database of monitor reactions.

  3. Excitation functions for proton-induced reactions on natural hafnium: Production of 177Lu for medical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siiskonen, T.; Huikari, J.; Haavisto, T.; Bergman, J.; Heselius, S.-J.; Lill, J.-O.; Lönnroth, T.; Peräjärvi, K.; Vartti, V.-P.

    2009-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in using radioisotopes of rare earth elements for internal radiotherapy and for imaging in nuclear medicine. 177Lu is one of the promising radionuclides. This article reports on the first measurements of the excitation function for the production of 177Lu with proton-beam energies up to 17 MeV on natural hafnium targets. The experimental cross sections for the reaction natHf(p,x) 177Lu were obtained by the activation of a stacked-foil target and subsequent gamma spectrometry. Theoretical cross sections were calculated up to 35 MeV with the EMPIRE nuclear reaction model code. The measured and calculated cross sections were used for deriving the thick-target yields and for estimating the production of other nuclides than 177Lu. Measured production cross sections of 175,176,177,178Ta on the same target are also presented.

  4. Optimization of the excitation and measurement procedures in nondestructive testing using shearography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Daniel; Pandarese, Giuseppe; Revel, Gian Marco; Tomasini, Enrico Primo; Pezzoni, Roberto

    2008-11-01

    This paper deals with the development of optimal procedures for nondestructive testing (NDT) inspections using shearography. In the new proposed method a parameter is adopted, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), which allows the quantification of the contrast of the defect to the background in the image. During the calibration of the technique, on samples with known defects, the CNR also takes into account the size and location of the identified defects, compared to those expected. The optimal measurement and loading conditions (e.g., excitation temperature level, time between image acquisitions) are determined by experimental parametric analyses aimed at maximizing the CNR on specimens with known defects. In the present work the developed methodology is described and applied to the definition of best practices for the NDT analysis of aeronautical sandwich composites structures (used in the production of helicopters) by shearography inspection with thermal excitation. In this case the attention is focused on optimizing the thermal loading procedures, but it can be clearly extended to other types of excitation methods.

  5. New measurements of the lifetimes of excited states of Mn55 below 2.7 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, J. A.; Hasty, R. D.; Korbly, S. E.; Park, W. H.; Warren, G. A.

    2009-09-01

    The lifetimes of the excited states of Mn55 between 1.5 and 2.7 MeV were measured using nuclear resonance fluorescence. The absolute lifetimes of the excited levels were determined from simultaneous measurements of manganese and aluminum. In this approach, the precisely known aluminum state serves as a means to normalize the results. Our findings differ from the evaluated level lifetimes in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF), but agree with earlier nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements.

  6. Multireference Density Functional Theory with Generalized Auxiliary Systems for Ground and Excited States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zehua; Zhang, Du; Jin, Ye; Yang, Yang; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao

    2017-09-21

    To describe static correlation, we develop a new approach to density functional theory (DFT), which uses a generalized auxiliary system that is of a different symmetry, such as particle number or spin, from that of the physical system. The total energy of the physical system consists of two parts: the energy of the auxiliary system, which is determined with a chosen density functional approximation (DFA), and the excitation energy from an approximate linear response theory that restores the symmetry to that of the physical system, thus rigorously leading to a multideterminant description of the physical system. The electron density of the physical system is different from that of the auxiliary system and is uniquely determined from the functional derivative of the total energy with respect to the external potential. Our energy functional is thus an implicit functional of the physical system density, but an explicit functional of the auxiliary system density. We show that the total energy minimum and stationary states, describing the ground and excited states of the physical system, can be obtained by a self-consistent optimization with respect to the explicit variable, the generalized Kohn-Sham noninteracting density matrix. We have developed the generalized optimized effective potential method for the self-consistent optimization. Among options of the auxiliary system and the associated linear response theory, reformulated versions of the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory (SF-TDDFT) are selected for illustration of principle. Numerical results show that our multireference DFT successfully describes static correlation in bond dissociation and double bond rotation.

  7. Finding Limit Cycles in self-excited oscillators with infinite-series damping functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debapriya; Banerjee, Dhruba; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present a simple method for finding the location of limit cycles of self excited oscillators whose damping functions can be represented by some infinite convergent series. We have used standard results of first-order perturbation theory to arrive at amplitude equations. The approach has been kept pedagogic by first working out the cases of finite polynomials using elementary algebra. Then the method has been extended to various infinite polynomials, where the fixed points of the corresponding amplitude equations cannot be found out. Hopf bifurcations for systems with nonlinear powers in velocities have also been discussed.

  8. Lung function measurements in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva

    2010-01-01

    was to determine the differential effect within monozygotic twin (MZ) pairs discordant for severe RSV bronchiolitis in infancy on the subsequent development of asthma, pulmonary function and allergy. 37 MZ twin pairs discordant for RSV hospitalization in infancy were compared at the mean age of 7.6 years for lung......The Ph.D. thesis is based on studies conducted at 6 pediatric departments in following hospitals: Naestved, Gentofte, Kolding, Skejby, Hvidovre and Rigshospitalet. Study I: Specific airway resistance (sRaw) measured by wholebody plethysmography in preschool children is increasingly used in research...... syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis may occur in otherwise healthy infants. It is not known whether viral bronchiolitis is causatively related to asthma or simply identifies infants at risk for subsequent wheezing from an atopic predisposition or pre-existing abnormal lung function. First aim...

  9. Measurement of light charged particles in the decay channels of medium-mass excited compound nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdré S.

    2014-03-01

    Indeed, in this mass region (A ~ 100 models predict that shape transitions can occur at high spin values and relatively scarce data exist in the literature about coincidence measurements between evaporation residues and light charged particles. Signals of shape transitions can be found in the variations of the lineshape of high energy gamma rays emitted from the de-excitation of GDR states gated on different region of angular momenta. For this purpose it is important to keep under control the FE and FF processes, to regulate the statistical model parameters and to control the onset of possible pre-equilibrium emissions from 300 to 600 MeV bombarding energy.

  10. Shock-tube measurements of excited oxygen atoms using cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, Marcel; Wang, Shengkai; Goldenstein, Christopher S; Sun, Kai; Davidson, David F; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K

    2015-10-10

    We report the use of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) using two distributed feedback diode lasers near 777.2 and 844.6 nm for sensitive, time-resolved, in situ measurements of excited-state populations of atomic oxygen in a shock tube. Here, a 1% O2/Ar mixture was shock-heated to 5400-8000 K behind reflected shock waves. The combined use of a low-finesse cavity, fast wavelength scanning of the lasers, and an off-axis alignment enabled measurements with 10 μs time response and low cavity noise. The CEAS absorption gain factors of 104 and 142 for the P35←S520 (777.2 nm) and P0,1,23←S310 (844.6 nm) atomic oxygen transitions, respectively, significantly improved the detection sensitivity over conventional single-pass measurements. This work demonstrates the potential of using CEAS to improve shock-tube studies of nonequilibrium electronic-excitation processes at high temperatures.

  11. Assessment of oscillator strengths with multiconfigurational short-range density functional theory for electronic excitations in organic molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan

    2017-01-01

    considered the large collection of organic molecules whose excited states were investigated with a range of electronic structure methods by Thiel et al. As a by-product of our calculations of oscillator strengths, we also obtain electronic excitation energies, which enable us to compare the performance......We have in a series of recent papers investigated electronic excited states with a hybrid between a complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wave function and density functional theory (DFT). This method has been dubbed the CAS short-range DFT method (CAS–srDFT). The previous papers...

  12. Impedance measurement using a two-microphone, random-excitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybert, A. F.; Parrott, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using a two-microphone, random-excitation technique for the measurement of acoustic impedance was studied. Equations were developed, including the effect of mean flow, which show that acoustic impedance is related to the pressure ratio and phase difference between two points in a duct carrying plane waves only. The impedances of a honeycomb ceramic specimen and a Helmholtz resonator were measured and compared with impedances obtained using the conventional standing-wave method. Agreement between the two methods was generally good. A sensitivity analysis was performed to pinpoint possible error sources and recommendations were made for future study. The two-microphone approach evaluated in this study appears to have some advantages over other impedance measuring techniques.

  13. Photoionization cross section measurements of the excited states of cobalt in the near-threshold region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfeng Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements of photoionization cross-sections of the excited states of cobalt using a two-color, two-step resonance ionization technique in conjunction with a molecular beam time of flight (TOF mass spectrometer. The atoms were produced by the laser vaporization of a cobalt rod, coupled with a supersonic gas jet. The absolute photoionization cross-sections at threshold and near-threshold regions (0-1.2 eV were measured, and the measured values ranged from 4.2±0.7 Mb to 10.5±1.8 Mb. The lifetimes of four odd parity energy levels are reported for the first time.

  14. Conformal scanning laser Doppler vibrometer measurement of tenor steelpan response to impulse excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Teresa; O'Malley, Patrick; Glean, Aldo; Vignola, Joseph; Judge, John

    2012-11-01

    A conformal scanning laser Doppler vibrometer system is used in conjunction with a mechanical pannist to measure the surface normal vibration of the entire playing surface of a C-lead tenor steelpan. The mechanical pannist is a device designed to deliver controlled, repeatable strikes that mimic a mallet during authentic use. A description of the measurement system is followed by select examples of behavior common to the results from three different excitation notes. A summary of observed response shapes and associated frequencies demonstrates the concerted placement of note overtones by the craftsmen who manufacture and tune the instruments. The measurements provide a rich mechanical snapshot of the complex motion that generates the distinctive sound of a steelpan.

  15. Parallel transmit excitation at 1.5 T based on the minimization of a driving function for device heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudino, N., E-mail: natalia.gudino@nih.gov [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Sonmez, M.; Nielles-Vallespin, S.; Faranesh, A. Z.; Lederman, R. J.; Balaban, R. S.; Hansen, M. S. [National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Yao, Z.; Baig, T.; Martens, M. [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Griswold, M. A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: To provide a rapid method to reduce the radiofrequency (RF) E-field coupling and consequent heating in long conductors in an interventional MRI (iMRI) setup. Methods: A driving function for device heating (W) was defined as the integration of the E-field along the direction of the wire and calculated through a quasistatic approximation. Based on this function, the phases of four independently controlled transmit channels were dynamically changed in a 1.5 T MRI scanner. During the different excitation configurations, the RF induced heating in a nitinol wire immersed in a saline phantom was measured by fiber-optic temperature sensing. Additionally, a minimization of W as a function of phase and amplitude values of the different channels and constrained by the homogeneity of the RF excitation field (B{sub 1}) over a region of interest was proposed and its results tested on the benchtop. To analyze the validity of the proposed method, using a model of the array and phantom setup tested in the scanner, RF fields and SAR maps were calculated through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. In addition to phantom experiments, RF induced heating of an active guidewire inserted in a swine was also evaluated. Results: In the phantom experiment, heating at the tip of the device was reduced by 92% when replacing the body coil by an optimized parallel transmit excitation with same nominal flip angle. In the benchtop, up to 90% heating reduction was measured when implementing the constrained minimization algorithm with the additional degree of freedom given by independent amplitude control. The computation of the optimum phase and amplitude values was executed in just 12 s using a standard CPU. The results of the FDTD simulations showed similar trend of the local SAR at the tip of the wire and measured temperature as well as to a quadratic function of W, confirming the validity of the quasistatic approach for the presented problem at 64 MHz. Imaging and heating

  16. Excitation function of alpha-particle-induced reactions on {sup nat}Ni from threshold to 44 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.S. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Tandem Accelerator Facilities, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Kim, K.S.; Nadeem, M.; Kim, G.N. [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Buk-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Sudar, S. [Debrecen University, Institute of Experimental Physics, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-05-15

    Excitation functions of the {sup nat}Ni(α,x){sup 62,63,65}Zn, {sup nat}Ni(α,x){sup 56,57}Ni and {sup nat}Ni(α,x){sup 56,57,58m+g}Co reactions were measured from the respective thresholds to 44MeV using the stacked-foil activation technique. The tests for the beam characterization are described. The radioactivity was measured using HPGe γ-ray detectors. Theoretical calculations on α-particles-induced reactions on {sup nat}Ni were performed using the nuclear model code TALYS-1.8. A few results are new, the others strengthen the database. Our experimental data were compared with results of nuclear model calculations and described the reaction mechanism. (orig.)

  17. Excitation function of alpha-particle-induced reactions on natNi from threshold to 44 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M. S.; Kim, K. S.; Nadeem, M.; Sudár, S.; Kim, G. N.

    2017-05-01

    Excitation functions of the natNi(α,x)62,63,65Zn, natNi(α,x)56,57Ni and natNi(α,x)56,57,58m+gCo reactions were measured from the respective thresholds to 44MeV using the stacked-foil activation technique. The tests for the beam characterization are described. The radioactivity was measured using HPGe γ-ray detectors. Theoretical calculations on α-particles-induced reactions on natNi were performed using the nuclear model code TALYS-1.8. A few results are new, the others strengthen the database. Our experimental data were compared with results of nuclear model calculations and described the reaction mechanism.

  18. Excitation functions of the proton-induced nuclear reactions on natSn up to 40 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Kyung-Sook; Lee, Manwoo; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Guinyun; Cho, Young-Sik; Lee, Young-Ouk

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the production cross-sections of the residual radionuclides for proton-induced reactions on natural tin by using a stacked-foil activation technique in the energy range from threshold energy to 40 MeV at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the earlier reported experimental data and theoretical calculations based on the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE codes. The present results are in general good agreement with the available literature data and calculated results by using the computer codes TALYS and ALICE-IPPE. The thick target integral yields were also deduced from the measured excitation functions of the produced radionuclides.

  19. Excitation function of elastic $pp$ scattering from a unitarily extended Bialas-Bzdak model

    CERN Document Server

    Nemes, F.; Csanád, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Bialas-Bzdak model of elastic proton-proton scattering assumes a purely imaginary forward scattering amplitude, which consequently vanishes at the diffractive minima. We extended the model to arbitrarily large real parts in a way that constraints from unitarity are satisfied. The resulting model is able to describe elastic $pp$ scattering not only at the lower ISR energies but also at $\\sqrt{s}=$7~TeV in a statistically acceptable manner, both in the diffractive cone and in the region of the first diffractive minimum. The total cross-section as well as the differential cross-section of elastic proton-proton scattering is predicted for the future LHC energies of $\\sqrt{s}=$13, 14, 15~TeV and also to 28~TeV. A non-trivial, significantly non-exponential feature of the differential cross-section of elastic proton-proton scattering is analyzed and the excitation function of the non-exponential behavior is predicted. The excitation function of the shadow profiles is discussed and related to saturation at small ...

  20. Anisole fluorescence spectroscopy for temperature measurements with a Hg (Xe) arc lamp excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, P.; Kanumuri, S. S.; Bonnety, J.; Tran, K.-H.; Serio, B.; Bonnet, D.; Luc, J.; Lavayssiere, M.

    2017-04-01

    The main contribution of this study is to propose time-resolved measurements to determine temperature with a novel source of continuous excitation for an induced fluorescence technique with laser diagnosis based on tracer-induced fluorescence, which has become a major tool for experimental studies of fluid dynamics in reaction flows. We use a Hg (Xe) arc lamp as a continuous light source that has a wide range of emissions in wavelength. With this setup, one can reach high spatial and temporal resolution (temperature, pressure, species concentration, and velocity) to acquire quantitative data for the control of fluid thermal systems, such as engines, combustion chambers, furnaces, and reactors. A fluorescence study was performed on various tracers and their configurations. We focus on an anisole tracer using a broad wavelength of excitations. We propose a calibration to achieve temperature measurements in the range of 493-773 K and from 0.2 to 3.5 MPa of pressure. The temperature-dependent fluorescence is based on a two-line technique. The results give a better understanding of the influence of temperature and pressure in a nitrogen bath gas on the fluorescence photophysics in the UV domain. High temporal resolution was acquired using a high-speed intensified camera setup. The application of the photomultipliers manages the time-scale evolution of the flow in continuous emission and this eliminates the signal-to-noise ratio impact.

  1. Excitation functions of proton induced reactions on {sup nat}Fe in the energy region up to 45 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwangsoo [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Naik, Haladhara [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    The excitation functions of various reaction products such as {sup 55,56,57}Co, {sup 52}Fe, {sup 52,54}Mn, and {sup 51}Cr in the {sup nat}Fe(p, x) reactions were measured by the stacked-foil activation technique in the energy range between their respective reaction threshold and 45 MeV at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Korea. The present experimental data were compared with the existing literature data. It was found that excitation function of {sup 56,57}Co and {sup 51}Cr from the {sup nat}Fe(p, x) reaction are in agreement with the literature data. However, the cross-sections for {sup nat}Fe(p, x){sup 52}Fe reactions are lower and those for {sup nat}Fe(p, x){sup 52}Mn and {sup nat}Fe(p, x){sup 54}Mn reactions are higher than the literature data. The reaction cross-sections of the above mentioned reaction products were also compared with those from the TENDL-2012 library based on the TALYS-1.4 program as a function of proton energy, which was reproduced the trend of the excitation functions of the experimental {sup nat}Fe(p, x) reaction cross-section. The integral yields for thick target of the investigated radionuclides were calculated from the excitation function.

  2. Preconditioning and excitability of the human orbicularis oculi reflex as a function of state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, L D; Graham, F K; Calloway, J M

    1980-04-01

    Reflex excitability and unstimulated activity of orbicularis oculi were found to vary as a function of state but the effects of weak conditioning stimuli, preceding reflex stimulation by 30--210 msec, were independent of state. Electromyographic activity was recorded from 23 young adults: 12 subjects with eyes closed during quiet wakefulness, 3 subjects during all-night sleep, 8 subjects during an afternoon nap. Stimulation with a 50 msec, 105 dB(A) white noise burst elicited a reflex response in 92% of waking trials and 87% of trials during REM sleep, but responses occurred in only 54% of trials during NREM sleep. Further, response latency was longer and magnitude less during the NREM state. Despite the differences in reflex excitability associated with state, state did not affect the modifications of reflex activity produced by a 20 msec, 70 dB(A) conditioning tone. At all lead intervals, reflex magnitude was reduced by the weak prestimulation even though, at the shortest interval, reflex activity was initiated more rapidly. The discordant changes in reflex size and latency have been seen in previous waking studies and appear to be mediated by different mechanisms. The persistence of both effects during sleep suggests that neither effect depends on high-level central processes.

  3. Corticospinal excitability measurements using transcranial magnetic stimulation are valid with intramuscular electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Rebekah L S; Chen, Mo; Kimberley, Teresa J

    2017-01-01

    Muscular targets that are deep or inaccessible to surface electromyography (sEMG) require intrinsic recording using fine-wire electromyography (fEMG). It is unknown if fEMG validly record cortically evoked muscle responses compared to sEMG. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the validity and agreement of fEMG compared to sEMG to quantify typical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures pre and post repetitive TMS (rTMS). The hypotheses were that fEMG would demonstrate excellent validity and agreement compared with sEMG. In ten healthy volunteers, paired pulse and cortical silent period (CSP) TMS measures were collected before and after 1200 pulses of 1Hz rTMS to the motor cortex. Data were simultaneously recorded with sEMG and fEMG in the first dorsal interosseous. Concurrent validity (r and rho) and agreement (Tukey mean-difference) were calculated. fEMG quantified corticospinal excitability with good to excellent validity compared to sEMG data at both pretest (r = 0.77-0.97) and posttest (r = 0.83-0.92). Pairwise comparisons indicated no difference between sEMG and fEMG for all outcomes; however, Tukey mean-difference plots display increased variance and questionable agreement for paired pulse outcomes. CSP displayed the highest estimates of validity and agreement. Paired pulse MEP responses recorded with fEMG displayed reduced validity, agreement and less sensitivity to changes in MEP amplitude compared to sEMG. Change scores following rTMS were not significantly different between sEMG and fEMG. fEMG electrodes are a valid means to measure CSP and paired pulse MEP responses. CSP displays the highest validity estimates, while caution is warranted when assessing paired pulse responses with fEMG. Corticospinal excitability and neuromodulatory aftereffects from rTMS may be assessed using fEMG.

  4. Simultaneous time-space resolved reflectivity and interferometric measurements of dielectrics excited with femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lechuga, M.; Haahr-Lillevang, L.; Siegel, J.; Balling, P.; Guizard, S.; Solis, J.

    2017-06-01

    Simultaneous time-and-space resolved reflectivity and interferometric measurements over a temporal span of 300 ps have been performed in fused silica and sapphire samples excited with 800 nm, 120 fs laser pulses at energies slightly and well above the ablation threshold. The experimental results have been simulated in the frame of a multiple-rate equation model including light propagation. The comparison of the temporal evolution of the reflectivity and the interferometric measurements at 400 nm clearly shows that the two techniques interrogate different material volumes during the course of the process. While the former is sensitive to the evolution of the plasma density in a very thin ablating layer at the surface, the second yields an averaged plasma density over a larger volume. It is shown that self-trapped excitons do not appreciably contribute to carrier relaxation in fused silica at fluences above the ablation threshold, most likely due to Coulomb screening effects at large excited carrier densities. For both materials, at fluences well above the ablation threshold, the maximum measured plasma reflectivity shows a saturation behavior consistent with a scattering rate proportional to the plasma density in this fluence regime. Moreover, for both materials and for pulse energies above the ablation threshold and delays in the few tens of picoseconds range, a simultaneous "low reflectivity" and "low transmission" behavior is observed. Although this behavior has been identified in the past as a signature of femtosecond laser-induced ablation, its origin is alternatively discussed in terms of the optical properties of a material undergoing strong isochoric heating, before having time to substantially expand or exchange energy with the surrounding media.

  5. Excited state absorption measurement in the 900-1250 nm wavelength range for bismuth-doped silicate fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seongwoo; Kalita, Mridu P; Nilsson, Johan; Sahu, Jayanta

    2009-02-15

    The feasibility of direct laser diode pumping of Bi-doped fiber lasers at the wavelengths of 915 and 975 nm was examined by measuring excited state absorption in Bi-doped silicate fibers for the wavelength range of 900-1250 nm. When the Bi-doped fibers were pumped at 1047 nm a strong excited state absorption was found at 915 and 975 nm, whereas no significant excited state absorption was observed in the 1080 nm pumping band nor in the emission band, approximately 1160 nm, of Bi-doped fiber lasers.

  6. Excitation functions of alpha particle induced reactions on {sup nat}Ti up to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.S., E-mail: md.shuzauddin@yahoo.com [Tandem Accelerator Facilities, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Scholten, B. [Institut für Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5:Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    Excitation functions of the reactions {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 48}Cr, {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 48}V and {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 46,48}Sc were determined by the stacked-foil activation technique up to 40 MeV. The radioactivities produced in the {sup nat}Ti target were measured by γ-ray spectrometry using HPGe detector. The reaction {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 51}Cr was used to determine the beam parameters. New experimental values for the above reactions have been obtained. An intercomparison of our data with the available literature values has been done. The cross section results obtained in this work could be useful in defining new monitor reactions, radiation safety and isotope production.

  7. Excitation functions of alpha particle induced reactions on natTi up to 40 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M. S.; Scholten, B.

    2016-08-01

    Excitation functions of the reactions natTi(α,x)48Cr, natTi(α,x)48V and natTi(α,x)46,48Sc were determined by the stacked-foil activation technique up to 40 MeV. The radioactivities produced in the natTi target were measured by γ-ray spectrometry using HPGe detector. The reaction natTi(α,x)51Cr was used to determine the beam parameters. New experimental values for the above reactions have been obtained. An intercomparison of our data with the available literature values has been done. The cross section results obtained in this work could be useful in defining new monitor reactions, radiation safety and isotope production.

  8. Excitation functions for the formation of longer lived isotopes by deuteron irradiation of Europium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takács, S., E-mail: stakacs@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Tárkányi, F. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A.; Adam-Rebeles, R. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels 1090 (Belgium); Takács, M.P. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Institute of Physics, University of Debrecen, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2013-09-01

    Excitation functions for nuclear reactions induced on natural europium targets by energetic deuterons were studied up to 50 MeV. A standard stacked foil technique was used for irradiation and high resolution gamma spectrometry was applied for activity assessment. Direct or cumulative cross sections for reaction products with half-life longer than 2 h were determined. Reactions leading to the formation of the radionuclides {sup 147,149,151,153}Gd, {sup 147,148,149,150m,150g,152m,152g,154g}Eu, {sup 153}Sm and {sup 150}Pm were studied. In most cases no earlier data were available in the literature. The new experimental results were compared with values tabulated in the on-line TENDL2011 library.

  9. New excitation functions for proton induced reactions on natural titanium, nickel and copper up to 70 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, E. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); Duchemin, C., E-mail: Charlotte.Duchemin@subatech.in2p3.fr [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); Guertin, A. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); Haddad, F.; Michel, N. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); GIP Arronax, 1 rue Aronnax, 44817 Saint-Herblain (France); Métivier, V. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Natural titanium, nickel and copper targets. • 70 MeV ARRONAX cyclotron proton beam. • Stacked-foil technique and monitor reactions. • Experimental cross section values. • TALYS code version 1.6. - Abstract: New excitation functions for proton induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium, nickel and copper were measured, using the stacked-foil technique and gamma spectrometry, up to 70 MeV. The experimental cross sections were measured using the Ti-nat(p,x) V-48, Ni-nat(p,x) Ni-57 and Cu-nat(p,x) Zn-62,Co-56 monitor reactions recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), depending on the investigated energy range. Data have been extracted for the Ti-nat(p,x) Sc-43,44m,46,47,48, V-48, K-42,43, Ni-nat(p,x) Ni-56,57, Co-55,56,57,58, Mn-52,54, Cu-nat(p,x) Cu-61,64, Ni-57, Co-56,57,58,60, Zn-62,65, Mn-54 reactions. Our results are discussed and compared to the existing ones as well as with the TALYS code version 1.6 calculations using default models. Our experimental data are in overall good agreement with the literature. TALYS is able to reproduce, in most cases, the experimental trend. Our new experimental results allow to expand our knowledge on these excitation functions, to confirm the existing trends and to give additional values on a large energy range. This work is in line with the new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) launched by the IAEA to expand the database of monitor reactions.

  10. Laboratory Measurements of Fe xxiv Line Emission: 3[r arrow]2 Transitions near Excitation Threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, M.F.; Kahn, S.M.; Savin, D.W. (Department of Physics and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)); Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G.V.; Liedahl, D.A.; Reed, K.J. (Department of Physics and Space Technology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)); Bhalla, C.P.; Grabbe, S.R. (Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Using the Electron Beam Ion Trap facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have measured relative cross sections for Fe xxiv line emission at electron energies between 0.7 and 3.0 keV. The measurements include line formation by direct electron impact excitation (DE), radiative cascades, resonant excitation (RE), and dielectronic recombination (DR) satellites with captured electrons in n[ge]5 levels. Good agreement with [ital R]-matrix and distorted wave calculations is found. In collisionally ionized plasmas, at temperatures near where the ion abundance peaks (kT[sub e] [approximately]1.7 keV), the RE contributions arefound to be [approx lt]5[percent] of the line emission, while the DR satellites contribute [approx lt]10[percent]. While good agreement with state-of-the-art atomic physics calculations is found, there is less good agreement with existingspectral synthesis codes in common astrophysical use. For the Fe xxiv 3p[sub 3/2] [r arrow]2s[sub 1/2], 3p[sub 1/2] [r arrow]2s[sub 1/2], and 3d[sub 5/2] [r arrow]2p[sub 3/2] transitions, the synthesis code MEKAL underestimates the emissivity in coronal equilibrium by [approximately]20[percent] at temperatures near where the ion abundance peaks. In situations where the ionization balance is not solely determined by the electron temperature, RE and DR satellites may contribute a considerable fraction of the line emission. [copyright] [ital [copyright] 1999.] [ital The American Astronomical Society

  11. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory Outperforms Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory and Multireference Perturbation Theory for Ground-State and Excited-State Charge Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-08-11

    The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.

  12. Divisors, measures and critical functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 119; Issue 3. Divisors ... Keywords. Trace function; divisors; minimal polynomial; critical function. ... We define the critical function for a class of transcendental numbers, that generalizes the notion of minimal polynomial of an algebraic number. Our results ...

  13. Quantitative FRET measurement using emission-spectral unmixing with independent excitation crosstalk correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Li, H; Chai, L; Zhang, L; Qu, J; Chen, T

    2015-02-01

    Quantification of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) needs at least two external samples, an acceptor-only reference and a linked FRET reference, to calibrate fluorescence signal. Furthermore, all measurements for references and FRET samples must be performed under the same instrumental conditions. Based on a novel notion to predetermine the molar extinction coefficient ratio (RC ) of acceptor-to-donor for the correction of acceptor excitation crosstalk, we present here a robust and independent emission-spectral unmixing FRET methodology, Iem-spFRET, which can simultaneously measure the E and RC of FRET sample without any external references, such that Iem-spFRET circumvents the rigorous restriction of keeping the same imaging conditions for all FRET experiments and thus can be used for the direct measurement of FRET sample. We validate Iem-spFRET by measuring the absolute E and RC values of standard constructs with different acceptor-to-donor stoichiometry expressed in living cells. Our results demonstrate that Iem-spFRET is a simple and powerful tool for real-time monitoring the dynamic intermolecular interaction within single living cells. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. A New Method To Evaluate Excited States Lifetimes Based on Green's Function: Application to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzer, David; Iuchi, Satoru; Yasuda, Koji

    2016-07-12

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) are the promising device for electricity generation. However, the initial stage in which an electron is injected from a dye to the semiconductor has not been precisely understood. Standard quantum chemistry methods cannot handle infinite number of orbitals coming from the band structure of the semiconductor, whereas solid state calculations cannot handle many excited states at a reasonable computational cost. In this regard, we propose a new method to evaluate lifetimes of many excited states of a molecule on a semi-infinite surface. On the basis of the theory of resonance state, the effect of the semi-infinite semiconductor is encoded into the complex self-energy from surface Green's function. The lifetimes of excited states are evaluated through the imaginary part of the self-energy, and the self-energy correction is included into excitation energies obtained from time-dependent density functional theory calculations. This new method is applied to a DSSC system composed of black dye attached to the TiO2 semiconductor, and the computed lifetimes are linked to the natures of excited states and to the surface properties. The present method provides the firm ground for analysis of interplay between many excited states of the dye and band structure of the semiconductor.

  15. Excitation of the low lying vibrational levels of H2O by O(3P) as measured on Spacelab 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerott, R. E.; Swenson, G. R.; Schweitzer, E. L.; Koch, D. G.

    1994-01-01

    The data from the infrared telescope (IRT), which was flown on space shuttle Challenger Spacelab 2 mission (July 1985), were originally reported by Koch et al. (1987) as originating from near orbital emissions, primarily H2O. In this study, analysis of this data was extended to determine the collisional cross sections for the excitation of the low lying vibrational levels of H2O, present in the orbiter cloud, by atmospheric O(3P). The evaluation of the contribution to the measured signal from solar excitation and ram O excitation of outgassing H2O permits the determination of the H2O column density and the excitation cross section of the (101) level at an O(3P) velocity of approximately 7.75 km/s. Contributions to the radiation in the 1.7-3.0 micron band by transitions from the (100), (001), and multiquantum excited levels are discussed. The findings of the study are (1) the IRT data for the 4.5-9.5 micron and the nighttime data for the 1.7-3.0 micron sensors are consistent with being explained by collision excitation of H2O by O(3P), (2) diurnal variations of 4.5-9.5 micron intensities follow the model predicted O density for a full orbit, (3) daytime increases in the H2O cloud density were not evident, (4) the cross sections for the collisional excitation process are derived and compared to values computated by Johnson (1986) and Redmon et al. (1986), (5) theoretical investigation suggests greater than 60% of the radiation from H2O is a result of multiphoton emission resulting from collisional multiquanta excitation, and (6) the large daytime increase in the 1.7-3.0 micron intensity data suggests that O(+) may likely be instrumental in producing excited H2O(+) through charge exchange.

  16. The excitation functions of (100)Mo(p,x)(99)Mo and (100)Mo(p,2n)(99m)Tc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenti, Simone; Holzwarth, Uwe; Loriggiola, Massimo; Gini, Luigi; Esposito, Juan; Groppi, Flavia; Simonelli, Federica

    2014-12-01

    Proton-induced nuclear reactions for generation of (99)Mo and (99m)Tc radionuclides were investigated using the stacked-foil activation technique on 99.05% enriched (100)Mo targets at energies up to Ep=21MeV. Excitation functions of the reactions (100)Mo(p,x)(99)Mo and (100)Mo(p,2n)(99m)Tc have been measured. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oscillator strengths for high-excitation Ti II from laboratory measurements and calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, H.; Hartman, H.; Engström, L.; Nilsson, H.; Persson, A.; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.; Fivet, V.; Malcheva, G.; Blagoev, K.

    2016-07-01

    This work reports new experimental radiative lifetimes of six 3d2(3F)5s levels in singly ionized titanium, with an energy around 63 000 cm-1 and four 3d2(3F)4p odd parity levels where we confirm previous investigations. Combining the new 5s lifetimes with branching fractions measured previously by Pickering et al., we report 57 experimental log gf values for transitions from the 5s levels. The lifetime measurements are performed using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on ions produced by laser ablation. One- and two-step photon excitation is employed to reach the 4p and 5s levels, respectively. Theoretical calculations of the radiative lifetimes of the measured levels as well as of oscillator strengths for 3336 transitions from these levels are reported. The calculations are carried out by a pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock method taking into account core-polarization effects. The theoretical results are in a good agreement with the experiments and are needed for accurate abundance determinations in astronomical objects.

  18. Excitation functions of the proton induced nuclear reactions on natZn up to 40 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M. S.; Khandaker, M. U.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, Y. S.; Kim, G. N.

    2007-05-01

    We measured the excitation functions of the natZn(p,xn) 66,67Ga, natZn(p,pxn) 62,65,69mZn, and natZn(p,αxn) 61Cu nuclear processes up to 40 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the earlier reported experimental data and theoretical calculations based on the ALICE-IPPE code. We have given new data points for the formation of the above radionuclides. The present values are in good agreement with some well-measured literature values. Integral yields were also deduced from the measured cross-sections. The reported direct measured thick target yields for the formation of the 66Ga and 67Ga radionuclides at 22 MeV support our deduced yields. The optimum formation of the 66Ga and 61Cu radionuclides with minimum impurities can be obtained at 8-15 MeV and 10-20 MeV energy range, respectively. The yields and decay characteristics of the nuclide 65Zn are suitable for thin layer activation analysis.

  19. Impedance measures in analysis and characterization of multistable structures subjected to harmonic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harne, Ryan L.; Goodpaster, Benjamin A.

    2018-01-01

    Structural components susceptible to adverse, post-buckled dynamic behaviors have long challenged the success of applications requiring lightweight, slender curved structures, while researchers have begun to leverage such bistable systems in emerging applications for novel energy attenuation and shape-changing properties. To expedite development and deployment of these built-up platforms containing post-buckled constituents, efficient approaches are required to complement time-consuming full-field models in the prediction of the near- and far-from-equilibrium dynamics. This research meets the need by introducing a semi-analytical model framework to enable the characterization of steady-state responses in multi degree-of-freedom (DOF) and multistable structural systems subjected to harmonic excitation. In so doing, the pathway for assessing impedance measures is created here so as to identify how energy travels and returns within built-up multistable structures. Verified by simulations and qualitatively validated by experiments, the analysis is shown to accurately reproduce both near- and far-from-equilibrium responses including different classes of energetic snap-through dynamics that only exist in such multistable structures. A first look at the impedance measures of different dynamic regimes reveals a connection between damping in multistable structures and the sustainability of far-from-equilibrium oscillations.

  20. Lung function measurements in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva

    2010-01-01

    The Ph.D. thesis is based on studies conducted at 6 pediatric departments in following hospitals: Naestved, Gentofte, Kolding, Skejby, Hvidovre and Rigshospitalet. Study I: Specific airway resistance (sRaw) measured by wholebody plethysmography in preschool children is increasingly used in research...... was to expand normative sRaw values for non-asthmatic children in 5 centers. 105 healthy preschool children were recruited locally for sRaw measurements. Normative data was generated and was without significant difference between centers and independent of height, weight, age and gender. Furthermore...... and clinical practise. However, there is no available method for calibration of the resistance measure, which raises concern of accuracy. The primary aim was to determine the agreement of sRaw measurements in 6 centers. Seven healthy young children were brought to each of the 6 centers for sRaw measurements...

  1. Out of equilibrium correlation functions of quantum anisotropic XY models: one-particle excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amico, Luigi; Osterloh, Andreas [NEST-INFM and Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche (DMFCI), Viale A Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2004-01-16

    We calculate exactly matrix elements between non-equilibrium excitations of the quantum XY model for general anisotropy. These matrix elements are expressed as a sum of Pfaffians. For single particle excitations on the ground state, the Pfaffians in the sum simplify to determinants.

  2. An accurate density functional theory calculation for electronic excitation energies: the least-squares support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Sun, Shi-Ling; Shi, Li-Li; Li, Hui; Li, Hong-Zhi; Su, Zhong-Min; Lu, Ying-Hua

    2009-05-14

    Support vector machines (SVMs), as a novel type of learning machine, has been very successful in pattern recognition and function estimation problems. In this paper we introduce least-squares (LS) SVMs to improve the calculation accuracy of density functional theory. As a demonstration, this combined quantum mechanical calculation with LS-SVM correction approach has been applied to evaluate the electronic excitation energies of 160 organic molecules. The newly introduced LS-SVM approach reduces the root-mean-square deviation of the calculated electronic excitation energies of 160 organic molecules from 0.32 to 0.11 eV for the B3LYP/6-31G(d) calculation. Thus, the LS-SVM correction on top of B3LYP/6-31G(d) is a better method to correct electronic excitation energies and can be used as the approximation of experimental results which are impossible to obtain experimentally.

  3. Excitation functions of deuteron-induced nuclear reactions on natural platinum up to 24 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: mu_khandaker@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu; Murakami, Masashi [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otuka, Naohiko [Nuclear Data Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Kassim, Hasan Abu [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-11-01

    Excitation functions of the {sup nat}Pt(d,x){sup 192,193,194,195,196m2,196,198m,198,199}Au, {sup 195m,197}Pt and {sup 190(g+m1+0.086m2),192(g+m1),194m}Ir nuclear reactions were measured from the respective threshold up to 24 MeV deuteron energy by using the stacked foil activation technique combined with HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured data were critically compared with the available literature data and theoretical data extracted from the TENDL-2013 library, and only partial agreement among them was found. Physical thick target yields for the investigated reaction products were also deduced and compared with the directly measured ones in the literature. The deduced yield curves indicate that a low energy cyclotron (<15 MeV) and a highly enriched {sup 198}Pt target could be used to obtain {sup 198,199}Au in no carrier added form. All cross-sections for {sup 190(g+m1+0.086m2),194m}Ir and those for {sup 193,194,196m2,196,199}Au, and {sup 195m,197}Pt in the lower energy region are reported for the first time.

  4. Excitation functions of (d,x) nuclear reactions on natural titanium up to 24 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: mu_khandaker@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu; Kanaya, Jumpei [Nishina Center for Accelerator-based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otuka, Naohiko [Nuclear Data Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-02-01

    Excitation functions of the {sup nat}Ti(d,x){sup 48}V and {sup nat}Ti(d,x){sup 43,44m,44g,46,47,48}Sc nuclear reactions were measured up to a 24-MeV deuteron energy by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with γ-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detector at the AVF cyclotron of the RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Wako, Japan. An overall good agreement is found between the measured cross-sections and the literature ones, whereas partial agreements are obtained for the theoretical calculations based on the TALYS code. Physical thick target yields, i.e., induced radioactivities per unit fluence of the 24-MeV deuteron were also deduced, and they were compared with the directly measured ones in the literature. The present results will have an important role in enrichment of the literature database of the deuteron-induced reactions on natural titanium leading to various applications.

  5. Excitation functions of (d,x) nuclear reactions on natural titanium up to 24 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Haba, Hiromitsu; Kanaya, Jumpei; Otuka, Naohiko

    2013-02-01

    Excitation functions of the natTi(d,x)48V and natTi(d,x)43,44m,44g,46,47,48Sc nuclear reactions were measured up to a 24-MeV deuteron energy by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with γ-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detector at the AVF cyclotron of the RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Wako, Japan. An overall good agreement is found between the measured cross-sections and the literature ones, whereas partial agreements are obtained for the theoretical calculations based on the TALYS code. Physical thick target yields, i.e., induced radioactivities per unit fluence of the 24-MeV deuteron were also deduced, and they were compared with the directly measured ones in the literature. The present results will have an important role in enrichment of the literature database of the deuteron-induced reactions on natural titanium leading to various applications.

  6. Excitation functions of (p,x) reactions on natural nickel between proton energies of 2.7 and 27.5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Saleh, F.S. [Physics Department Girls College of Education in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al Mugren, K.S. [Physics Department Girls College of Education in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: kmugren@hotmail.com; Azzam, A. [Nuclear Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, AEA Cairo Egypt (Egypt)

    2007-01-15

    Excitation functions have been measured for a number of proton induced nuclear reactions on natural nickel in the energy range from 27.5 MeV down to their threshold energy, using the activation method on stacked foils. Excitation functions for the reactions leading to the formation of {sup 60}Cu, {sup 61}Cu, {sup 56}Ni, {sup 57}Ni, {sup 55}Co, {sup 56}Co, {sup 57}Co and {sup 58}Co are presented and compared with earlier reported experimental data. Comparison with the recommended data reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency [Gul et al., 2001. Charged particle cross section database for medical radioisotope production. IAEA-TECDOC-1211, IAEA Vienna, Austria] is also presented when possible.

  7. Experimental study of the excitation functions of deuteron induced reactions on {sup nat}Sn up to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkanyi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Ditroi, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.h [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B1050 Brussels (Belgium); Takacs, S.; Kiraly, B. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Baba, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-15

    Using the stacked-foil activation technique, cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions on natural Sn were measured up to 40 MeV. Excitation functions are reported for the product nuclides {sup 111}In, {sup 113}Sn, {sup 117m}Sn, {sup 125m}Sn, {sup 125g}Sn, {sup 115}Sb, {sup 116m}Sb, {sup 117}Sb, {sup 118m}Sb {sup 120m}Sb, {sup 122}Sb, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 125}Sb and compared with the earlier published data sets. For all excitation functions comparisons with theoretical calculations using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE, EAF and the TALYS codes were performed.

  8. Excitation functions of the analyzing power in elastic proton-proton scattering from 0.45 to 2.5 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeier, M.; Bauer, F.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Büßer, K.; Busch, M.; Colberg, T.; Demirörs, L.; Engelhardt, H. P.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyser, K. O.; Felden, O.; Gebel, R.; Glende, M.; Greiff, J.; Hinterberger, F.; Jonas, E.; Krause, H.; Lindemann, T.; Lindlein, J.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Maschuw, R.; Meinerzhagen, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Rohdjeß, H.; Rosendaal, D.; von Rossen, P.; Schirm, N.; Schwarz, V.; Scobel, W.; Trelle, H.-J.; Ulbrich, K.; Weise, E.; Wellinghausen, A.; Ziegler, R.

    2005-02-01

    Excitation functions AN(plab,Θc.m.) of the analyzing power in elastic proton-proton scattering have been measured in an internal target experiment at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY with an unpolarized proton beam and a polarized atomic hydrogen target. Data were taken continuously during the acceleration and deceleration for proton kinetic energies Tlab (momenta plab) between 0.45 and 2.5 GeV (1.0 and 3.3 GeV/c) and scattering angles 30 ° ⩽ Θc.m. ⩽ 90°. The results provide excitation functions and angular distributions of high precision and internal consistency. The data can be used as calibration standard between 0.45 and 2.5 GeV. They have significant impact on phase shift solutions, in particular on the spin triplet phase shifts between 1.0 and 1.8 GeV.

  9. Lung function measurements in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva

    2010-01-01

    syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis may occur in otherwise healthy infants. It is not known whether viral bronchiolitis is causatively related to asthma or simply identifies infants at risk for subsequent wheezing from an atopic predisposition or pre-existing abnormal lung function. First aim...... responsiveness in infants who later develop RSV bronchiolitis with infants who do not develop such severe infection. In a prospective birth cohort study of 411 infants of asthmatic mothers 22 infants developed RSV bronchiolitis. Infants with and without RSV bronchiolitis did not differ significantly in baseline...... was to determine the differential effect within monozygotic twin (MZ) pairs discordant for severe RSV bronchiolitis in infancy on the subsequent development of asthma, pulmonary function and allergy. 37 MZ twin pairs discordant for RSV hospitalization in infancy were compared at the mean age of 7.6 years for lung...

  10. Lung function measurements in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva

    2010-01-01

    , there was no effect of the child's history of atopy, parental atopy or smoking. We subsequently pooled these normative data (105 children) with previous data from 121 healthy young children; mean sRaw (SD) 1.27 kPa*s (0.25). Conclusion: Control using biological standards revealed errors in factory setting...... syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis may occur in otherwise healthy infants. It is not known whether viral bronchiolitis is causatively related to asthma or simply identifies infants at risk for subsequent wheezing from an atopic predisposition or pre-existing abnormal lung function. First aim...... was to determine the differential effect within monozygotic twin (MZ) pairs discordant for severe RSV bronchiolitis in infancy on the subsequent development of asthma, pulmonary function and allergy. 37 MZ twin pairs discordant for RSV hospitalization in infancy were compared at the mean age of 7.6 years for lung...

  11. Specific absorption rate benefits of including measured electric field interactions in parallel excitation pulse design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Cem Murat; Alon, Leeor; Brown, Ryan; Sodickson, Daniel K; Zhu, Yudong

    2012-01-01

    Specific absorption rate management and excitation fidelity are key aspects of radiofrequency pulse design for parallel transmission at ultra-high magnetic field strength. The design of radiofrequency pulses for multiple channels is often based on the solution of regularized least-squares optimization problems for which a regularization term is typically selected to control the integrated or peak pulse waveform amplitude. Unlike single-channel transmission, the specific absorption rate of parallel transmission is significantly influenced by interferences between the electric fields associated with the individual transmission elements, which a conventional regularization term does not take into account. This work explores the effects upon specific absorption rate of incorporating experimentally measurable electric field interactions into parallel transmission pulse design. Results of numerical simulations and phantom experiments show that the global specific absorption rate during parallel transmission decreases when electric field interactions are incorporated into pulse design optimization. The results also show that knowledge of electric field interactions enables robust prediction of the net power delivered to the sample or subject by parallel radiofrequency pulses before they are played out on a scanner. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Normative data of cortical excitability measurements obtained by transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Ana Sofia; Galhardoni, Ricardo; Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Parravano, Daniella Cardoso; Correa, Guilherme; Araujo, Haniel; Cecilio, Sofia Barros; Raicher, Irina; Toledo, Diego; Silva, Valquíria; Marcolin, Marco Antonio; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    The assessment of cortical excitability (CE) measurements has been increasingly used in neuropsychiatric research. However, there is scant information on the normative values of these measurements, as well as the possible effect of hemisphere laterality, gender and age on these variables. To obtain normative data for CE measurements by transcranial magnetic stimulation, to assess inter-/intra-investigator variability and the influence of sex, age and oral contraception use. A sample of 216 healthy volunteers matched according to age and gender was evaluated. Bilateral rest motor thresholds, motor evoked potentials (MEP), intracortical inhibition and facilitation were measured in the first dorsal interosseous muscle area representation of the primary motor cortex with a circular transcranial magnetic stimulation coil delivering biphasic pulses. Normative data were obtained for 200 participants (in a 1:1 male:female ratio) in a balanced proportion between five age groups (18-30; 31-40; 41-50; 51-60; >60 years). Inter/intra-investigator variability was assessed in 20 healthy volunteers in two sessions performed within a 30-minute interval. Measurements were also performed in a subgroup of 16 healthy female volunteers, using oral contraception and during the menstrual phase. Age had a dichotomous effect on CE measurements, providing significantly different normative data for subjects 50 years old, with smaller MEP's and intracortical inhibition in older individuals. There were no differences between genders or between left and right hemispheres. Also, CE parameters did not significantly differ with use of contraceptive treatment compared to the menstrual phase of the cycle. The inter-/intra-investigator reliability assessment showed some variability that may not be clinically significant. Age had a non-linear effect on CE. There were non-significant differences between genders, hemispheres or with use of oral contraceptives. There was good inter

  13. A Preliminary Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study of Cortical Inhibition and Excitability in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G.; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Controversy surrounds the distinction between high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder, but motor abnormalities are associated features of both conditions. This study examined motor cortical inhibition and excitability in HFA and Asperger disorder using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Method: Participants were diagnosed by…

  14. Channels Active in the Excitability of Nerves and Skeletal Muscles across the Neuromuscular Junction: Basic Function and Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Barbara E.

    2008-01-01

    Ion channels are essential for the basic physiological function of excitable cells such as nerve, skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells. Mutations in genes that encode ion channels have been identified to cause various diseases and disorders known as channelopathies. An understanding of how individual ion channels are involved in the…

  15. Linear interpolation method in ensemble Kohn-Sham and range-separated density-functional approximations for excited states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senjean, Bruno; Knecht, Stefan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa

    2015-01-01

    Gross-Oliveira-Kohn density-functional theory (GOK-DFT) for ensembles is, in principle, very attractive but has been hard to use in practice. A practical model based on GOK-DFT for the calculation of electronic excitation energies is discussed. The model relies on two modifications of GOK-DFT: us...

  16. Excitation functions of fusion reactions and neutron transfer in the interaction of 6He with 197Au and 206Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Astabatyan, R. A.; Demekhina, N. A.; Gulbekian, G. G.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Kulko, A. A.; Lukyanov, S. M.; Markaryan, E. R.; Maslov, V. A.; Muzychka, Yu. A.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Revenko, R. V.; Skobelev, N. K.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Testov, D. A.; Zholdybaev, T.

    2007-02-01

    Excitation functions for evaporation residues in the reactions 197Au(6He, xn)203-xnTl, x = 2-7, and 206Pb(6He, 2n)210Po, as well as for neutron transfer reactions for the production of 196Au and 198Au in the interaction of 6He with 197Au were measured. The 6He beam was obtained from the accelerator complex for radioactive beams DRIBs (JINR). The maximum energy of the beam was about 10AMeV and the intensity reached 2×107pps. The stacked-foil activation technique was used directly in the beam extracted from the cyclotron or in the focal plane of the magnetic spectrometer MSP-144. The identification of the reaction products was done by their radioactive γ- or α-decay. The fusion reaction with the evaporation of two neutrons was characterized by an increase in the cross-section compared to statistical model calculations. The analysis of the data in the framework of the statistical model for the decay of excited nuclei, which took into account the sequential fusion of 6He has shown good agreement between the experimental and the calculated values of the cross-sections in the case of sub-Coulomb-barrier fusion in the 206Pb + 6He reaction. An unusually large cross-section was observed below the Coulomb barrier for the production of 198Au in the interaction of 6He with 197Au. Possible mechanisms of formation and decay of transfer reaction products are discussed.

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF A BOXCAR INTEGRATOR AVERAGER SYSTEM FOR EXCITED-STATE LIFETIME MEASUREMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    NOVO, JBM; PESSINE, FBT

    1992-01-01

    The instrumental distortions due to adjustable parameters of the SR250 boxcar integrator/averager system and a pulsed-laser luminescence spectrometer on the excited-state lifetime decay waveforms were investigated. A theoretical model which takes into account the exponential moving average for this instrument and also RC distortion on the time-dependent luminescence signal is presented. An analytical expression relating the sample's excited-state lifetime and the adjustable instrumental param...

  18. Measure theory and fine properties of functions

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence Craig

    2015-01-01

    Measure Theory and Fine Properties of Functions, Revised Edition provides a detailed examination of the central assertions of measure theory in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The book emphasizes the roles of Hausdorff measure and capacity in characterizing the fine properties of sets and functions. Topics covered include a quick review of abstract measure theory, theorems and differentiation in ℝn, Hausdorff measures, area and coarea formulas for Lipschitz mappings and related change-of-variable formulas, and Sobolev functions as well as functions of bounded variation.The text provides complete proofs of many key results omitted from other books, including Besicovitch's covering theorem, Rademacher's theorem (on the differentiability a.e. of Lipschitz functions), area and coarea formulas, the precise structure of Sobolev and BV functions, the precise structure of sets of finite perimeter, and Aleksandrov's theorem (on the twice differentiability a.e. of convex functions).This revised edition includes countl...

  19. On the correct use of stepped-sine excitations for the measurement of time-varying bioimpedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarroudi, E; Sanchez, B

    2017-02-01

    When a linear time-varying (LTV) bioimpedance is measured using stepped-sine excitations, a compromise must be made: the temporal distortions affecting the data depend on the experimental time, which in turn sets the data accuracy and limits the temporal bandwidth of the system that needs to be measured. Here, the experimental time required to measure linear time-invariant bioimpedance with a specified accuracy is analyzed for different stepped-sine excitation setups. We provide simple equations that allow the reader to know whether LTV bioimpedance can be measured through repeated time- invariant stepped-sine experiments. Bioimpedance technology is on the rise thanks to a plethora of healthcare monitoring applications. The results presented can help to avoid distortions in the data while measuring accurately non-stationary physiological phenomena. The impact of the work presented is broad, including the potential of enhancing bioimpedance studies and healthcare devices using bioimpedance technology.

  20. Excitation function of the 192Os(3He,4n)-reaction for production of 191Pt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaim, S M; Hilgers, K; Sudár, S; Coenen, H H

    2009-06-01

    In search of an alternative production route of the therapeutically and environmentally interesting radionuclide (191)Pt (T(1/2)=2.8 d), excitation function of the (192)Os((3)He,4n)(191)Pt reaction was measured from its threshold up to 36 MeV. Thin samples of enriched (192)Os were prepared by electrodeposition on Ni-foils, and the conventional stacked-foil technique was used for cross-section measurements. The experimental data were compared with the results of theoretical calculations using the codes ALICE-IPPE and TALYS. Good agreement was found with TALYS. The theoretical thick target yield of (191)Pt over the energy range E(3He)=36-->25 MeV amounts to 6.7 MBq/microA h. A comparison of various investigated production methods of (191)Pt is given. The here investigated (192)Os((3)He,4n)-process leads to very high-purity (191)Pt (>99.5%).

  1. Excitation Cross Section Measurement for n=3 to n=2 Line Emission in Fe17+ to Fe23+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Gu, M F; Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K R; Brown, G V; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Scofield, J H

    2006-02-08

    The authors report the measurement of electron impact excitation cross sections for the strong iron L-shell 3 {yields} 2 lines of Fe XVIII through Fe XXIV at the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap using a crystal spectrometer and a 6 x 6 pixel array microcalorimeter. The cross sections were determined by direct normalization to the well established cross section of radiative electron capture through a sophisticated model analysis which results in the excitation cross section for 48 lines at multiple electron energies. They also studied the electron density dependent nature of the emission lines, which is demonstrated by the effective excitation cross section of the 3d {yields} 2p transition in Fe XXI.

  2. A base-sequence-modulated Golay code improves the excitation and measurement of ultrasonic guided waves in long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojun; Ta, Dean; Wang, Weiqi

    2012-11-01

    Researchers are interested in using ultrasonic guided waves (GWs) to assess long bones. However, GWs suffer high attenuation when they propagate in long bones, resulting in a low SNR. To overcome this limitation, this paper introduces a base-sequence-modulated Golay code (BSGC) to produce larger amplitude and improve the SNR in the ultrasound evaluation of long bones. A 16-bit Golay code was used for excitation in computer simulation. The decoded GWs and the traditional GWs, which were generated by a single pulse, agreed well after decoding the received signals, and the SNR was improved by 26.12 dB. In the experiments using bovine bones, the BSGC excitation produced the amplitudes which were at least 237 times greater than those produced by a single pulse excitation. The BSGC excitation also allowed the GWs to be received over a longer distance between two transducers. The results suggest the BSGC excitation has the potential to measure GWs and assess long bones.

  3. Examining the effects of age, sex, and body mass index on normative median motor nerve excitability measurements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, John C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to build a large reference database of excitability measures in normal subjects and to examine the effects of age, sex, and BMI. METHODS: One hundred and five healthy subjects had median motor nerve excitability testing performed at the wrist using the automated threshold-tracking program, QTRAC. Statistical linear regression was used to explore relationships between nerve excitability and the independent variables. RESULTS: The main effect of age is a reduced superexcitability. Lesser effects are flattening of the normalized stimulus response curve and reduction in threshold change following strong hyperpolarizing currents. Females have lower thresholds than males and small but significant differences in voltage-gated potassium channel (KCNQ) mediated properties (late subexcitability, accommodation half time, and threshold undershoot following depolarizing electrotonus), as well as a small increase in superexcitability. BMI has no influence on nerve excitability data and does not explain sex-related differences in threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex have few and small effects on excitability parameters. SIGNIFICANCE: The expression of nodal KCNQ channels appears to be greater in females. Age-related increases in subexcitability may be attributable to changes in the muscle fibre and not the nerve.

  4. New method to measure the angular antispring effect in a Fabry–Perot cavity with remote excitation using radiation pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, Koji, E-mail: knagano@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Enomoto, Yutaro; Nakano, Masayuki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kawamura, Seiji [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2016-03-06

    In experiments with Fabry–Perot cavities consisting of suspended mirrors, an angular antispring effect on the mirror of the cavity is caused by radiation pressure from resonant light in the cavity. A new method was invented to measure the effect precisely with remote excitation on the mirror using the radiation pressure. This method was found to be available for the suspended 23 mg mirror and improved the measurement accuracy by a factor of two, compared with the previous method. This result leads to stable control systems to eliminate the angular instability of the mirror caused by the effect. - Highlights: • A method to measure an angular antispring effect on a suspended mirror was proposed. • Remote excitation on the mirror with radiation pressure of resonant light is used. • This method provides better measurement accuracy compared with the previous method.

  5. Altered neuronal excitability underlies impaired hippocampal function in an animal model of psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eGrüter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychosis is accompanied by severe attentional deficits, and impairments in associational-memory processing and sensory information processing that are ascribed to dysfunctions in prefrontal and hippocampal function. Disruptions of glutamatergic signalling may underlie these alterations: Antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR results in similar molecular, cellular, cognitive and behavioural changes in rodents and/or humans as those that occur in psychosis, raising the question as to whether changes in glutamatergic transmission may be intrinsic to the pathophysiology of the disease. In an animal model of psychosis that comprises treatment with the irreversible NMDAR-antagonist, MK801, we explored the cellular mechanisms that may underlie hippocampal dysfunction in psychosis. MK801-treatment resulted in a profound loss of hippocampal LTP that was evident 4 weeks after treatment. Whereas neuronal expression of the immediate early gene, Arc, was enhanced in the hippocampus by spatial learning in controls, MK801-treated animals failed to show activity-dependent increases in Arc expression. By contrast, a significant increase in basal Arc expression in the absence of learning was evident compared to controls. Paired-pulse facilitation was increased at the 40 ms interval indicating that NMDAR and/or fast GABAergic-mediated neurotransmission was disrupted. In line with this, MK801-treatment resulted in a significant decrease in GABA(A, and increase in GABA(B-receptor-expression in PFC, along with a significant increase of GABA(B- and NMDAR-GluN2B expression in the dentate gyrus. NMDAR-GluN1 or GluN2A subunit expression was unchanged. These data suggest that in psychosis, deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory may be caused by a loss of hippocampal LTP that arises through enhanced hippocampal neuronal excitability, altered GluN2B and GABA receptor expression and an uncoupling of the hippocampus-prefrontal cortex circuitry.

  6. Aromatic Lateral Substituents Influence the Excitation Energies of Hexaaza Lanthanide Macrocyclic Complexes: A Wave Function Theory and Density Functional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabanal-León, Walter A; Murillo-López, Juliana A; Páez-Hernández, Dayán; Arratia-Pérez, Ramiro

    2015-09-24

    The high interest in lanthanide chemistry, and particularly in their luminescence, has been encouraged by the need of understanding the lanthanide chemical coordination and how the design of new luminescent materials can be affected by this. This work is focused on the understanding of the electronic structure, bonding nature, and optical properties of a set of lanthanide hexaaza macrocyclic complexes, which can lead to potential optical applications. Here we found that the DFT ground state of the open-shell complexes are mainly characterized by the manifold of low lying f states, having small HOMO-LUMO energy gaps. The results obtained from the wave function theory calculations (SO-RASSI) put on evidence the multiconfigurational character of their ground state and it is observed that the large spin-orbit coupling and the weak crystal field produce a strong mix of the ground and the excited states. The electron localization function (ELF) and the energy decomposition analysis (EDA) support the idea of a dative interaction between the macrocyclic ligand and the lanthanide center for all the studied systems; noting that, this interaction has a covalent character, where the d-orbital participation is evidenced from NBO analysis, leaving the f shell completely noninteracting in the chemical bonding. From the optical part we observed in all cases the characteristic intraligand (IL) (π-π*) and ligand to metal charge-transfer (LMCT) bands that are present in the ultraviolet and visible regions, and for the open-shell complexes we found the inherent f-f electronic transitions on the visible and near-infrared region.

  7. Ab Initio Geometry and Bright Excitation of Carotenoids: Quantum Monte Carlo and Many Body Green's Function Theory Calculations on Peridinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, Emanuele; Varsano, Daniele; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-02-11

    In this letter, we report the singlet ground state structure of the full carotenoid peridinin by means of variational Monte Carlo (VMC) calculations. The VMC relaxed geometry has an average bond length alternation of 0.1165(10) Å, larger than the values obtained by DFT (PBE, B3LYP, and CAM-B3LYP) and shorter than that calculated at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level. TDDFT and EOM-CCSD calculations on a reduced peridinin model confirm the HOMO-LUMO major contribution of the Bu(+)-like (S2) bright excited state. Many Body Green's Function Theory (MBGFT) calculations of the vertical excitation energy of the Bu(+)-like state for the VMC structure (VMC/MBGFT) provide an excitation energy of 2.62 eV, in agreement with experimental results in n-hexane (2.72 eV). The dependence of the excitation energy on the bond length alternation in the MBGFT and TDDFT calculations with different functionals is discussed.

  8. Measuring the instrument function of radiometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Littlejohn, R.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The instrument function is a function of position and angle, the knowledge of which allows one to compute the response of a radiometer to an incident wave field in any state of coherence. The instrument function of a given radiometer need not be calculated; instead, it may be measured by calibration with incident plane waves.

  9. Quantitative force and dissipation measurements in liquids using piezo-excited atomic force microscopy: a unifying theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiracofe, Daniel; Raman, Arvind

    2011-12-02

    The use of a piezoelectric element (acoustic excitation) to vibrate the base of microcantilevers is a popular method for dynamic atomic force microscopy. In air or vacuum, the base motion is so small (relative to tip motion) that it can be neglected. However, in liquid environments the base motion can be large and cannot be neglected. Yet it cannot be directly observed in most AFMs. Therefore, in liquids, quantitative force and energy dissipation spectroscopy with acoustic AFM relies on theoretical formulae and models to estimate the magnitude of the base motion. However, such formulae can be inaccurate due to several effects. For example, a significant component of the piezo excitation does not mechanically excite the cantilever but rather transmits acoustic waves through the surrounding liquid, which in turn indirectly excites the cantilever. Moreover, resonances of the piezo, chip and holder can obscure the true cantilever dynamics even in well-designed liquid cells. Although some groups have tried to overcome these limitations (either by theory modification or better design of piezos and liquid cells), it is generally accepted that acoustic excitation is unsuitable for quantitative force and dissipation spectroscopy in liquids. In this paper the authors present a careful study of the base motion and excitation forces and propose a method by which quantitative analysis is in fact possible, thus opening this popular method for quantitative force and dissipation spectroscopy using dynamic AFM in liquids. This method is validated by experiments in water on mica using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, which can measure the actual base motion. Finally, the method is demonstrated by using small-amplitude dynamic AFM to extract the force gradients and dissipation on solvation shells of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS) molecules on mica.

  10. Improvements in design of spectra of multisine and binary excitation signals for multi-frequency bioimpedance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Raul; Cahill, Brian P; Parve, Toomas; Annus, Paul; Min, Mart

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the usability of multi-frequency binary waveforms for broadband excitation in fast measurements of impedance spectrum of biological objects. It is shown that up to 70% of the energy of the amplitude spectrum of such two-level binary signals can be concentrated into the selected separate frequencies. The levels of selected frequency components are controllable in tens and hundreds of times. In this way we can underline the most important frequencies enhancing the corresponding amplitudes in the spectrum of excitation signal. As an implementation example, we consider the impedance spectroscopy in micro-fluidic devices for inline measurement of the conductivity of droplets in segmented flow. We use a thin-walled glass capillary with electrodes contacting the outer surface so that the contactless measurement of conductivity of liquid with biologic cells becomes possible.

  11. Description of ground and excited electronic states by ensemble density functional method with extended active space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Michael; Martínez, Todd J.; Kim, Kwang S.

    2017-08-01

    An extended variant of the spin-restricted ensemble-referenced Kohn-Sham (REKS) method, the REKS(4,4) method, designed to describe the ground electronic states of strongly multireference systems is modified to enable calculation of excited states within the time-independent variational formalism. The new method, the state-interaction state-averaged REKS(4,4), i.e., SI-SA-REKS(4,4), is capable of describing several excited states of a molecule involving double bond cleavage, polyradical character, or multiple chromophoric units. We demonstrate that the new method correctly describes the ground and the lowest singlet excited states of a molecule (ethylene) undergoing double bond cleavage. The applicability of the new method for excitonic states is illustrated with π stacked ethylene and tetracene dimers. We conclude that the new method can describe a wide range of multireference phenomena.

  12. Measuring volunteers for exciting psychology experiments with the Sensation-Seeking Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D A

    1989-01-01

    The sensation-seeking motive was first operationalized by Zuckerman, Kolin, Price, and Zoob (1964) with the development of the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS). One area of applied research in which the SSS has been used is the study of volunteering. In this area, evidence suggests that high-sensation seekers volunteer for exciting activities more often than low-sensation seekers, but not for unexciting activities. However, a problem with this research is that no empirical data has been obtained related to the subject's belief of the exciting nature of the activities. In this study, college students were given the most recent form of the SSS and were asked to volunteer for either or both of two studies. SSS scores were higher, p less than .05, for volunteers than for nonvolunteers for a study that subjects rated as exciting, but did not differ for a study that subjects rated as unexciting. This demonstrates that volunteers for exciting studies, but not volunteers for unexciting studies, tend to be higher sensation seekers than nonvolunteers.

  13. Observations and Measurements of Orbitally Excited L=1 B Mesons at the D0 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark Richard James [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-01

    This thesis describes investigations of the first set of orbitally excited (L = 1) states for both the Bd0 and Bs0 meson systems (B**d and B**s). The data sample corresponds to 1.35 fb-1 of integrated luminosity, collected in 2002-2006 by the D0 detector, during the Run IIa operation of the Tevatron p$\\bar{p}$ colliding beam accelerator. The B**d states are fully reconstructed in decays to B(*)+ π-, with B(*)+ → γ J/ΨK+, J/Ψ → μ+μ-, yielding 662 ± 91 events, and providing the first strong evidence for the resolution of two narrow resonances, B1 and B*2. The masses are extracted from a binned Χ2 fit to the invariant mass distribution, giving M(B1) = 5720.7 ± 2.4(stat.) ± 1.3(syst.) ± 0.5 (PDG) MeV/c2 and M(B*2) = 5746.9 ± 2.4(stat.) ± 1.0(syst.) ± 0.5(PDG) MeV/c2. The production rate of narrow B**d → Bπ resonances relative to the B+ meson is determined to be [13.9 ± 1.9(stat.) ± 3.2(syst.)]%. The same B+ sample is also used to reconstruct the analogous states in the Bs0 system, in decays B**s → B(*)+ K-. A single resonance in the invariant mass distribution is found with a statistical significance of 5σ, interpreted as the B*s2 state. The mass is determined to be M(B*s2) = 5839.6 ± 1.1(stat.) ± 0.4(syst.) ± 0.5(PDG) MeV/c 2, and the production rate of B*s2 → BK resonances is measured to be a fraction (2.14 ± 0.43 ± 0.24)% of the corresponding rate for B+ mesons. Alternative fitting hypotheses give inconclusive evidence for the presence of the lighter Bs1 meson.

  14. Nonlinear electronic excitations in crystalline solids using meta-generalized gradient approximation and hybrid functional in time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shunsuke A. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Taniguchi, Yasutaka [Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Department of Medical and General Sciences, Nihon Institute of Medical Science, 1276 Shimogawara, Moroyama-Machi, Iruma-Gun, Saitama 350-0435 (Japan); Shinohara, Yasushi [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, 06120 Halle (Germany); Yabana, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan)

    2015-12-14

    We develop methods to calculate electron dynamics in crystalline solids in real-time time-dependent density functional theory employing exchange-correlation potentials which reproduce band gap energies of dielectrics; a meta-generalized gradient approximation was proposed by Tran and Blaha [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 226401 (2009)] (TBm-BJ) and a hybrid functional was proposed by Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof [J. Chem. Phys. 118, 8207 (2003)] (HSE). In time evolution calculations employing the TB-mBJ potential, we have found it necessary to adopt the predictor-corrector step for a stable time evolution. We have developed a method to evaluate electronic excitation energy without referring to the energy functional which is unknown for the TB-mBJ potential. For the HSE functional, we have developed a method for the operation of the Fock-like term in Fourier space to facilitate efficient use of massive parallel computers equipped with graphic processing units. We compare electronic excitations in silicon and germanium induced by femtosecond laser pulses using the TB-mBJ, HSE, and a simple local density approximation (LDA). At low laser intensities, electronic excitations are found to be sensitive to the band gap energy: they are close to each other using TB-mBJ and HSE and are much smaller in LDA. At high laser intensities close to the damage threshold, electronic excitation energies do not differ much among the three cases.

  15. Extension of the excitation functions of deuteron induced reactions on {sup nat}Sn up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A., E-mail: aherman@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B1050 Brussels (Belgium); Tárkányi, F.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-01-15

    Using the stacked-foil activation technique, cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions on natural Sn targets were determined up to 50 MeV. Excitation functions are reported for the product nuclides {sup 116m}Sb, {sup 117}Sb, {sup 118m}Sb, {sup 120m}Sb {sup 122m+g}Sb, {sup 124m+g}Sb, {sup 110}Sn(cum), {sup 113m+g}Sn(cum), {sup 117m}Sn, {sup 110m}In(cum), {sup 110g}In, {sup 111m+g}In(cum), {sup 113m}In, {sup 114m}In {sup 115m}In. Comparison with earlier published data at lower energy is discussed. For all excitation functions a theoretical calculation using the TALYS 1.6 (on-line TENDL-2015 library) code is shown.

  16. Extension of the excitation functions of deuteron induced reactions on natSn up to 50 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.

    2017-01-01

    Using the stacked-foil activation technique, cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions on natural Sn targets were determined up to 50 MeV. Excitation functions are reported for the product nuclides 116mSb, 117Sb, 118mSb, 120mSb 122m+gSb, 124m+gSb, 110Sn(cum), 113m+gSn(cum), 117mSn, 110mIn(cum), 110gIn, 111m+gIn(cum), 113mIn, 114mIn 115mIn. Comparison with earlier published data at lower energy is discussed. For all excitation functions a theoretical calculation using the TALYS 1.6 (on-line TENDL-2015 library) code is shown.

  17. Experimental study of the excitation functions of proton induced reactions on natSn up to 65 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Adam Rebeles, R.; Uddin, M. S.; Hagiwara, M.; Baba, M.; Shubin, Yu.; Kovalev, S. F.

    2006-06-01

    Using the stacked-foil activation technique, cross-sections of proton induced reactions on natural Sn were determined up to 67 MeV. Excitation functions are reported for the first time for the product nuclides 109In, 110In, 111In, 114mIn, 113Sn, 117mSn, 115Sb, 120mSb. Comparison with low energy published data for reactions leading to 116mSb, 117Sb, 118mSb, 122Sb, 124Sb are discussed. For all excitation functions a theoretical calculation using the ALICE-IPPE code was performed. Relevance to the production of medically relevant radioisotopes (111In, 114mIn, 117mSn) is discussed.

  18. Excitation function and isomeric ratio of Tc-isotopes from the 93Nb(α, xn) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Kim, G. N.; Naik, H.; Zaman, M.; Yang, S.-C.; Song, T.-Y.; Guin, R.; Das, S. K.

    2015-03-01

    The excitation functions of 94-96Tc isotopes and independent isomeric ratios of 93m, gTc, 94m, gTc, and 95m, gTc from the 93Nb(α, xn) reaction within the energy range below 40 MeV have been determined by using a stacked-foil activation and an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkota, India. The excitation function of 94-96Tc in the 93Nb(α, xn) reaction was also calculated by using the computer code TALYS 1.6. The present data are found to be in general agreement with the literature data but have similar trend with some deviation from calculated data of the TALYS 1.6 code. The isomeric ratios of 93m, gTc, 94m, gTc, and 95m, gTc in the 93Nb(α, xn) reactions from the present work and literature data were compared with similar data in the 93Nb(3He, xn) and 96Mo(p, xn) reactions. In all the three reactions, the isomeric ratios increase with the increasing excitation energy. However, at all excitation energies, the isomeric ratios of 93m, gTc, 94m, gTc, and 95m, gTc in the 93Nb(α, xn) and 93Nb(3He, xn) reactions are higher than those in the 96Mo(p, xn) reactions, which indicate the role of input angular momentum besides excitation energy. Above the excitation energy of 35-55 MeV, the isomeric ratios of 95m, gTc, 94m, gTc, and 93m, gTc decrease in all the 93Nb(α, xn), 93Nb(3He, xn) and 96Mo(p, xn) reactions. This decreasing trend at higher excitation energy indicates the starting of pre-equilibrium reaction, which depends on the target, projectile, and type of reaction products.

  19. Excitation function and isomeric ratio of Tc-isotopes from the {sup 93}Nb(α, xn) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G.N., E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Naik, H. [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rediochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Zaman, M. [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, S.-C.; Song, T.-Y. [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Guin, R.; Das, S.K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2015-03-15

    The excitation functions of {sup 94–96}Tc isotopes and independent isomeric ratios of {sup 93m, g}Tc, {sup 94m, g}Tc, and {sup 95m, g}Tc from the {sup 93}Nb(α, xn) reaction within the energy range below 40 MeV have been determined by using a stacked-foil activation and an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkota, India. The excitation function of {sup 94–96}Tc in the {sup 93}Nb(α, xn) reaction was also calculated by using the computer code TALYS 1.6. The present data are found to be in general agreement with the literature data but have similar trend with some deviation from calculated data of the TALYS 1.6 code. The isomeric ratios of {sup 93m, g}Tc, {sup 94m, g}Tc, and {sup 95m, g}Tc in the {sup 93}Nb(α, xn) reactions from the present work and literature data were compared with similar data in the {sup 93}Nb({sup 3}He, xn) and {sup 96}Mo(p, xn) reactions. In all the three reactions, the isomeric ratios increase with the increasing excitation energy. However, at all excitation energies, the isomeric ratios of {sup 93m, g}Tc, {sup 94m, g}Tc, and {sup 95m, g}Tc in the {sup 93}Nb(α, xn) and {sup 93}Nb({sup 3}He, xn) reactions are higher than those in the {sup 96}Mo(p, xn) reactions, which indicate the role of input angular momentum besides excitation energy. Above the excitation energy of 35–55 MeV, the isomeric ratios of {sup 95m, g}Tc, {sup 94m, g}Tc, and {sup 93m, g}Tc decrease in all the {sup 93}Nb(α, xn), {sup 93}Nb({sup 3}He, xn) and {sup 96}Mo(p, xn) reactions. This decreasing trend at higher excitation energy indicates the starting of pre-equilibrium reaction, which depends on the target, projectile, and type of reaction products.

  20. Variation of excited-state dynamics in trifluoromethyl functionalized C60 fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehong; Ramirez, Jessica J; Clikeman, Tyler T; Larson, Bryon W; Boltalina, Olga V; Strauss, Steven H; Rumbles, Garry

    2016-08-17

    We report on electronically excited-state dynamics of three different trifluoromethyl C60 fullerenes (TMFs, C60(CF3)n: C60/4-1, C60/6-2, and C60/10-1, featuring four, six, and ten trifluoromethyl groups, respectively) using steady-state and time-resolved optical spectroscopy as well as ultrafast pump/probe transient absorption spectroscopy. C60/4-1 and C60/6-2 dissolved in toluene solvent show near-unity S1 → T1 intersystem crossing quantum yield (ΦISC), ca. 1 ns S1-state lifetimes, and microsecond-timescale T1-state lifetimes, which are typical of the fullerene class. On the other hand, C60/10-1 exhibits a dominant sub-nanosecond nonradiative S1 → S0 relaxation mechanism and negligible ΦISC, therefore decreasing the average excited-state lifetime (τavg) by about 5 orders of magnitude compared to that of C60/4-1 and C60/6-2 (τavg ≈ 17 μs and 54 μs for C60/4-1 and C60/6-2, respectively, whereas τavg ≈ 100 ps for C60/10-1). These excited-state characteristics of C60/4-1 and C60/6-2 are preserved in polymer matrix, suggesting that fullerene/polymer interactions do not modulate intrinsic photophysics of trifluoromethyl-substituted fullerenes. The contrasting excited-state study results of C60/4-1 and C60/6-2 to that of C60/10-1 infer that intrinsic optical properties and excited-state dynamics can be affected by the substitution on the fullerene.

  1. Variation of excited-state dynamics in trifluoromethyl functionalized C 60 fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaehong; Ramirez, Jessica J.; Clikeman, Tyler T.; Larson, Bryon W.; Boltalina, Olga V.; Strauss, Steven H.; Rumbles, Garry

    2016-01-01

    We report on electronically excited-state dynamics of three different trifluoromethyl C60 fullerenes (TMFs, C60(CF3)n: C60/4-1, C60/6-2, and C60/10-1, featuring four, six, and ten trifluoromethyl groups, respectively) using steady-state and time-resolved optical spectroscopy as well as ultrafast pump/probe transient absorption spectroscopy. C60/4-1 and C60/6-2 dissolved in toluene solvent show near-unity S1--T1 intersystem crossing quantum yield (..phi..ISC), ca. 1 ns S1-state lifetimes, and microsecond-timescale T1-state lifetimes, which are typical of the fullerene class. On the other hand, C60/10-1 exhibits a dominant sub-nanosecond nonradiative S1--S0 relaxation mechanism and negligible ..phi..ISC, therefore decreasing the average excited-state lifetime (..tau..avg) by about 5 orders of magnitude compared to that of C60/4-1 and C60/6-2 (..tau..avg approx. 17 us and 54 us for C60/4-1 and C60/6-2, respectively, whereas ..tau..avg approx. 100 ps for C60/10-1). These excited-state characteristics of C60/4-1 and C60/6-2 are preserved in polymer matrix, suggesting that fullerene/polymer interactions do not modulate intrinsic photophysics of trifluoromethyl-substituted fullerenes. The contrasting excited- state study results of C60/4-1 and C60/6-2 to that of C60/10-1 infer that intrinsic optical properties and excited-state dynamics can be affected by the substitution on the fullerene.

  2. Diagnostics of the efficiency of surface plasmon-polariton excitation by quantum dots via polarization measurements of the output radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukushkin, V. A., E-mail: vakuk@appl.sci-nnov.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Federation); Baidus, N. V. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Zdoroveishchev, A. V. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Physicotechnical Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-15

    It is demonstrated that the efficiency of surface plasmon-polariton excitation at a metal-semiconductor interface by active quantum dots can be determined from measurements of the polarization characteristics of the output radiation. Experimentally, the proposed diagnostic method is based on finding the ratio of the intensities of the output radiation with polarizations orthogonal and parallel to the nanoheterostructure plane for two different distances between the quantum-dot layer and the metal-semiconductor interface. These data are then used to obtain the unknown parameters in the proposed mathematical model which makes it possible to calculate the rate of surface plasmon-polariton excitation by active quantum dots. As a result, this rate can be determined without complicated expensive equipment for fast time-resolved measurements.

  3. Excitation function and yield for the (103)Rh(d,2n)(103)Pd nuclear reaction: Optimization of the production of palladium-103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenti, Simone; Alí Santoro, María Del Carmen; Cotogno, Giulio; Duchemin, Charlotte; Haddad, Ferid; Holzwarth, Uwe; Groppi, Flavia

    2017-06-01

    Deuteron-induced nuclear reactions for the generation of (103)Pd were investigated using the stacked-foil activation technique on rhodium targets at deuteron energies up to Ed=33MeV. The excitation functions of the reactions (103)Rh(d,xn)(101,103)Pd, (103)Rh(d,x)(100g,cum,101m,g,102m,g)Rh and (103)Rh(d,2p)(103)Ru have been measured, and the Thick-Target Yield for (103)Pd has been calculated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Decay Rate Measurement of the First Vibrationally Excited State of MgH+ in a Cryogenic Paul Trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versolato, O.O.; Schwarz, M.; Hansen, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to measure the decay rate of the first excited vibrational state of polar molecular ions that are part of a Coulomb crystal in a cryogenic linear Paul trap. Specifically, we have monitored the decay of the |ν=1,J=1⟩X towards the |ν=0,J=0⟩X level in MgH+ by saturated laser exci...

  5. On the measurability of quantum correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio de, E-mail: bertulio.fisica@gmail.com; Azevedo, Sérgio; Rosas, Alexandre

    2015-05-15

    The concept of correlation function is widely used in classical statistical mechanics to characterize how two or more variables depend on each other. In quantum mechanics, on the other hand, there are observables that cannot be measured at the same time; the so-called incompatible observables. This prospect imposes a limitation on the definition of a quantum analog for the correlation function in terms of a sequence of measurements. Here, based on the notion of sequential weak measurements, we circumvent this limitation by introducing a framework to measure general quantum correlation functions, in principle, independently of the state of the system and the operators involved. To illustrate, we propose an experimental configuration to obtain explicitly the quantum correlation function between two Pauli operators, in which the input state is an arbitrary mixed qubit state encoded on the polarization of photons.

  6. Impact of pre-excitation syndrome on left ventricular systolic function and cardiac synchronization assessed by tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Atta

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Patients with pre-excitation syndrome may have depressed LV function unrelated to tachyarrhythmia, especially if the AP has a septal location. This dysfunction may be associated with the LV dyssynchronus contraction caused by pre-excitation. The use of TDI and speckle tracking echocardiographic techniques may be associated with an increase in the identification of manifest pre-excitation patients with significant LV dyssynchrony.

  7. Performance of Popular XC-Functionals for the Description of Excitation Energies in GFP-Like Chromophore Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Rocha-Rinza, Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and rationalization of the optical properties of fluorescent proteins are of great importance for life sciences due to their numerous applications as fluorescent biomarkers. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is a computationally appealing approach to accomplish...... of six XC-functionals, belonging to the GGA, hybrid and Coulomb-attenuated classes of XC-functionals, by comparison with RI-CC2 results. We find that none of the tested XC-functionals are capable of providing a simultaneous good description of all charge states and, interestingly, the hybrid functionals....... Finally, we have explored the possibility of optimizing the attenuation parameter to yield overall excitation energies in good agreement with RI-CC2 results. On the basis of these predictions, however, there does not appear to be a common attenuation parameter minimizing the deviation for every charge...

  8. Measurements of octupole collectivity in Rn and Ra nuclei using Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to exploit the unique capability of HIE-ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{221,222}$Rn and $^{222,226,228}$Ra ion beams for the study of octupole collectivity in these nuclei. We will measure E3 transition moments in $^{222}$Rn and $^{222,226,228}$Ra in order to fully map out the variation in E3 strength in the octupole mass region with Z$\\thicksim$88 and N$\\thicksim$134. This will validate model calculations that predict different behaviour as a function of N. We will also locate the position of the parity doublet partner of the ground state in $^{221}$Rn, in order to test the suitability of odd-A radon isotopes for EDM searches.

  9. Role of physiological ClC-1 Cl- ion channel regulation for the excitability and function of working skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Riisager, Anders; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    and passive distribution—enable ClC-1 to conduct membrane current that inhibits muscle excitability. This depressing effect of ClC-1 current on muscle excitability has mostly been associated with skeletal muscle hyperexcitability in myotonia congenita, which arises from loss-of-function mutations in the CLCN1......Electrical membrane properties of skeletal muscle fibers have been thoroughly studied over the last five to six decades. This has shown that muscle fibers from a wide range of species, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, are all characterized by high resting membrane...... permeability for Cl- ions. Thus, in resting human muscle, ClC-1 Cl- ion channels account for ∼80% of the membrane conductance, and because active Cl- transport is limited in muscle fibers, the equilibrium potential for Cl- lies close to the resting membrane potential. These conditions—high membrane conductance...

  10. Low-energy measurements of electron capture by multicharged ions from excited hydrogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havener, C.C. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennesse 37831-6372 (United States)); Haque, M.A. (Alcorn State University, Lorman, Mississippi 39096 (United States)); Smith, A.C.H. (University College London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)); Urbain, X. (Universite Catholique de Louvain, Chemin du Cyclotron 2, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)); Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6372 (United States) Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6374 (United States))

    1993-06-05

    For very low collision energies electron capture from excited hydrogen by multicharged ions is characterized by enormous cross sections, the predicted maximum being comparable to the geometric size of the Rydberg atom. The ion-atom merged-beams technique is being used to study these collisions for the variety of charge states and the wide range of energies (0.1 to 1000 eV/amu) accessible to the apparatus. A neutral D beam containing a Rydberg atom population proportional to 1/n[sup 3] is produced by collisional electron detachment of 8 keV D[sup [minus

  11. Study of the transferred angular momentum as a function of the excitation energy in the Kr + U reaction at 35 A.MeV; Etude du moment angulaire transfere en fonction de l`energie d`excitation dans la reaction Kr + U a 35 A.MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josset, M.

    1996-09-06

    The aim of this study is to measure the angular momentum transferred to the target-like product, in the Kr + U reaction at 35 A.MeV, as a function of the excitation energy. The measured neutron multiplicity, as seen by the detector ORION, was used as the basic event selection criterion. This multiplicity also allows an estimation of the excitation energy transferred to the target-like product on an event by event basis. The study of the behaviour of the projectile-like component allows one to characterize two-body mechanisms, which are associated with a large energy dissipation for less peripheral collisions. The spin transferred to the target-like component is deduced from the out-plane angular distributions of the fission fragments. The study of the angular correlation between these fission fragments confirms that the dominant mechanism is essentially a two-body process. We show that the angular momentum values obtained, as a function of the excitation energy of the target-like product, have little dependence on the time taken for the nucleus to reach the saddle point. We observe a constant increase in the target-like component`s spin, varying from 15{Dirac_h} to 60{Dirac_h}, as the excitation energy increases from roughly 8 to 400 MeV. For the higher excitation energies the spin does not increase. This behaviour reflects the vanishing binary fission mechanism at high angular momenta. (author). 81 refs.

  12. Improving the precision of linear optics measurements based on turn-by-turn beam position monitor data after a pulsed excitation in lepton storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, L.; Coello de Portugal, J.; Persson, T.; Skowroński, P. K.; Tomás, R.; Franchi, A.; Liuzzo, S.

    2017-08-01

    Beam optics control is of critical importance for machine performance and protection. Nowadays, turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data are increasingly exploited as they allow for fast and simultaneous measurement of various optics quantities. Nevertheless, so far the best documented uncertainty of measured β -functions is of about 10‰ rms. In this paper we compare the β -functions of the ESRF storage ring measured from two different TbT techniques—the N-BPM and the Amplitude methods—with the ones inferred from a measurement of the orbit response matrix (ORM). We show how to improve the precision of TbT techniques by refining the Fourier transform of TbT data with properly chosen excitation amplitude. The precision of the N-BPM method is further improved by refining the phase advance measurement. This represents a step forward compared to standard TbT measurements. First experimental results showing the precision of β -functions pushed down to 4‰ both in TbT and ORM techniques are reported and commented.

  13. Assessment of Damage in Seismically Excited RC-Structures from a Single Measured Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A. S.

    A method has been developed for the localization of structural damage of substructures of seismically excited RC-structures using only the ground surface acceleration time series and a single response time series. From the response, the smoothed two lowest eigenfrequencies are estimated. The dist......A method has been developed for the localization of structural damage of substructures of seismically excited RC-structures using only the ground surface acceleration time series and a single response time series. From the response, the smoothed two lowest eigenfrequencies are estimated...... by a sequence of substructures, where two new substructures are introduced at each level, so that the smoothed eigenfrequencies are reproduced at each level. The method is applied to simulated data of a 1-bay, 2-storey RC-frame and a 1-bay, 4-storey RC-frame generated by a finite element programme developed...... for RC-frames which also admits an estimation of local damage. Based on the response time series calculated by the finite element programme, the corresponding local damages are next calculated by the present method. The method is investigated at different intensities of the earthquake and upon comparison...

  14. Assessment of Damage in Seismically Excited RC-Structures from a Single Measured Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Cakmak, A. S.

    1996-01-01

    A method has been developed for the localization of structural damage of substructures of seismically excited RC-structures using only the ground surface acceleration time series and a single response time series. From the response, the smoothed two lowest eigenfrequencies are estimated. The dist......A method has been developed for the localization of structural damage of substructures of seismically excited RC-structures using only the ground surface acceleration time series and a single response time series. From the response, the smoothed two lowest eigenfrequencies are estimated...... by a sequence of substructures, where two new substructures are introduced at each level, so that the smoothed eigenfrequencies are reproduced at each level. The method is applied to simulated data of a 1-bay, 2-storey RC-frame and a 1-bay, 4-storey RC-frame generated by a finite element programme developed...... for RC-frames which also admits an estimation of local damage. Based on the response time series calculated by the finite element programme, the corresponding local damages are next calculated by the present method. The method is investigated at different intensities of the earthquake and upon comparison...

  15. Understanding the effects of packing and chemical terminations on the optical excitations of azobenzene-functionalized self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Caterina; Draxl, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    In a first-principles study based on many-body perturbation theory, we analyze the optical excitations of azobenzene-functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with increasing packing density and different terminations, considering for comparison the corresponding gas-phase molecules and dimers. Intermolecular coupling increases with the density of the chromophores independently of the functional groups. The intense π → π* resonance that triggers photo-isomerization is present in the spectra of isolated dimers and diluted SAMs, but it is almost completely washed out in tightly packed architectures. Intermolecular coupling is partially inhibited by mixing differently functionalized azobenzene derivatives, in particular when large groups are involved. In this way, the excitation band inducing the photo-isomerization process is partially preserved and the effects of dense packing partly counterbalanced. Our results suggest that a tailored design of azobenzene-functionalized SAMs which optimizes the interplay between the packing density of the chromophores and their termination can lead to significant improvements in the photo-switching efficiency of these systems.

  16. Excitation functions of alpha particles induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium in the energy range of 10.4–50.2 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Ahmed Rufai [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Umaru Musa Yar' adua University, Katsina (Nigeria); Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: mu_khandaker@um.edu.my [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otuka, Naohiko [Nuclear Data Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Murakami, Masashi [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Detailed presentation of new results on experimental cross-sections of {sup nat}Ti(α,x) processes. • Calculations of thick target yields for scandium and other radionuclides via the {sup nat}Ti(α,x) production route. • Comparison with TENDL-2015 library. • Detailed review of previous experimental data. - Abstract: We studied the excitation functions of residual radionuclide productions from α particles bombardment on natural titanium in the energy range of 10.4–50.2 MeV. A well-established stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry was used to measure the excitation functions for the {sup 51,49,48}Cr, {sup 48}V, {sup 43}K, and {sup 43,44m,44g,46g+m,47,48}Sc radionuclides. The thick target yields for all assessed radionuclides were also calculated. The obtained experimental data were compared with the earlier experimental ones and also with the evaluated data in the TENDL-2015 library. A reasonable agreement was found between this work and some of the previous ones, while a partial agreement was found with the evaluated data. The present results would further enrich the experimental database and facilitate the understanding of existing discrepancies among the previous measurements. The results would also help to enhance the prediction capability of the nuclear reaction model codes.

  17. Excitation functions of proton-induced reactions on natFe and enriched 57Fe with particular reference to the production of 57Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abyad, M; Comsan, M N H; Qaim, S M

    2009-01-01

    Excitation functions of the reactions (nat)Fe(p,xn)(55,56,57,58)Co, (nat)Fe(p,x)(51)Cr, (nat)Fe(p,x)(54)Mn, (57)Fe(p,n)(57)Co and (57)Fe(p,alpha)(54)Mn were measured from their respective thresholds up to 18.5MeV, with particular emphasis on data for the production of the radionuclide (57)Co (T(1/2)=271.8d). The conventional stacked-foil technique was used, and the samples for irradiation were prepared by an electroplating or sedimentation process. The measured excitation curves were compared with the data available in the literature as well as with results of nuclear model calculations. From the experimental data, the theoretical yields of the investigated radionuclides were calculated as a function of the proton energy. Over the energy range E(p)=15-->5MeV the calculated yield of (57)Co from the (57)Fe(p,n)(57)Co process amounts to 1.2MBq/microAh and from the (nat)Fe(p,xn)(57)Co reaction to 0.025MBq/microAh. The radionuclidic impurity levels are discussed. Use of highly enriched (57)Fe as target material would lead to formation of high-purity (57)Co.

  18. Excitation functions of alpha particles induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium in the energy range of 10.4-50.2 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Ahmed Rufai; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Haba, Hiromitsu; Otuka, Naohiko; Murakami, Masashi

    2017-05-01

    We studied the excitation functions of residual radionuclide productions from α particles bombardment on natural titanium in the energy range of 10.4-50.2 MeV. A well-established stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry was used to measure the excitation functions for the 51,49,48Cr, 48V, 43K, and 43,44m,44g,46g+m,47,48Sc radionuclides. The thick target yields for all assessed radionuclides were also calculated. The obtained experimental data were compared with the earlier experimental ones and also with the evaluated data in the TENDL-2015 library. A reasonable agreement was found between this work and some of the previous ones, while a partial agreement was found with the evaluated data. The present results would further enrich the experimental database and facilitate the understanding of existing discrepancies among the previous measurements. The results would also help to enhance the prediction capability of the nuclear reaction model codes.

  19. Many-body Green's function GW and Bethe-Salpeter study of the optical excitations in a paradigmatic model dipeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, C; Boulanger, P; Duchemin, I; Attaccalite, C; Blase, X

    2013-11-21

    We study within the many-body Green's function GW and Bethe-Salpeter formalisms the excitation energies of a paradigmatic model dipeptide, focusing on the four lowest-lying local and charge-transfer excitations. Our GW calculations are performed at the self-consistent level, updating first the quasiparticle energies, and further the single-particle wavefunctions within the static Coulomb-hole plus screened-exchange approximation to the GW self-energy operator. Important level crossings, as compared to the starting Kohn-Sham LDA spectrum, are identified. Our final Bethe-Salpeter singlet excitation energies are found to agree, within 0.07 eV, with CASPT2 reference data, except for one charge-transfer state where the discrepancy can be as large as 0.5 eV. Our results agree best with LC-BLYP and CAM-B3LYP calculations with enhanced long-range exchange, with a 0.1 eV mean absolute error. This has been achieved employing a parameter-free formalism applicable to metallic or insulating extended or finite systems.

  20. Nerve excitability in the rat forelimb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Ria; Moldovan, Mihai; Rosberg, Mette Romer

    2017-01-01

    a novel setup to explore the ulnar nerve excitability in rodents. We provide normative ulnar data in 11 adult female Long Evans rats under anaesthesia by comparison with tibial and caudal nerves. Additionally, these measures were repeated weekly on 3 occasions to determine the repeatability of these tests....... Results Nerve excitability assessment of ulnar nerve proved to be a longitudinally repeatable measure of axonal function mature in rats, as were measures in tibial and caudal nerves. Comparison with existing method: Ulnar nerve motor excitability measures were different from the caudal and tibial...

  1. A systematic framework for functional connectivity measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifang Elizabeth Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Various methods have been proposed to characterize the functional connectivity between nodes in a network measured with different modalities (electrophysiology, functional magnetic resonance imaging etc.. Since different measures of functional connectivity yield different results for the same dataset, it is important to assess when and how they can be used. In this work, we provide a systematic framework for evaluating the performance of a large range of functional connectivity measures – based upon a comprehensive portfolio of models generating measurable responses. Specifically, we benchmarked 42 methods using 10,000 simulated datasets from 5 different types of generative models with different connectivity structures. Since all functional connectivity methods require the setting of some parameters (window size and number, model order etc., we first optimized these parameters using performance criteria based upon (threshold free ROC analysis. We then evaluated the performance of the methods on data simulated with different types of models. Finally, we assessed the performance of the methods against different levels of signal-to-noise ratios and network configurations. A MATLAB toolbox is provided to perform such analyses using other methods and simulated datasets.

  2. Identification of structural stiffness and excitation forces in time domain using noncontact vision-based displacement measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dongming; Feng, Maria Q.

    2017-10-01

    The emerging noncontact vision-based displacement sensor system offers a promising alternative to the conventional sensors for quantitative structural integrity assessment. Significant advantages of the noncontact vision-based sensor include its low cost, ease of operation, and flexibility to extract structural displacement responses at multiple points. This study aims to link the measured displacement data to the quantification of the structural health condition, by validating the feasibility of simultaneous identification of structural stiffness and unknown excitation forces in time domain using output-only vision-based displacement measurement. Numerical analysis are first carried out to investigate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of identified results to different noise levels, sensor numbers, and initial estimates of structural parameters. Then, experiment on a laboratory scaled beam structure is conducted. Results show that the global stiffness of the beam specimen as well as external hammer excitation forces can be successfully and accurately identified from displacement measurement at two points using one camera. The proposed output-only time-domain identification procedure utilizing vision-based displacement measurement represents a low-cost method for either periodic or long-term bridge performance assessment.

  3. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Flemming Holbæk; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the "golden standard" for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze...... force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external...

  4. Dual effect of local anesthetics on the function of excitable rod outer segment disk membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashimo, T.; Abe, K.; Yoshiya, I.

    1986-04-01

    The effects of local anesthetics and a divalent cation, Ca2+, on the function of rhodopsin were estimated from the measurements of light-induced proton uptake. The light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane was enhanced at lower pH (4) but depressed at higher pHs (6 to 8) by the tertiary amine local anesthetics lidocaine, bupivacaine, tetracaine, and dibucaine. The order of local anesthetic-induced depression of the proton uptake followed that of their clinical anesthetic potencies. The depression of the proton uptake versus the concentration of the uncharged form of local anesthetic nearly describes the same curve for small and large dose of added anesthetic. Furthermore, a neutral local anesthetic, benzocaine, depressed the proton uptake at all pHs between 4 and 7. These results indicate that the depression of the proton uptake is due to the effect of only the uncharged form. It is hypothesized that the uncharged form of local anesthetics interacts hydrophobically with the rhodopsin in the disk membrane. The dual effect of local anesthetics on the proton uptake, on the other hand, suggests that the activation of the function of rhodopsin may be caused by the charged form. There was no significant change in the light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin when 1 mM of Ca2+ was introduced into the disk membrane at varying pHs in the absence or presence of local anesthetics. This fact indicates that Ca2+ ion does not influence the diprotonating process of metarhodopsin; neither does it interfere with the local anesthetic-induced changes in the rhodopsin molecule.

  5. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  6. Lung function measurement in awake young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Klug, B

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate methods applicable in a clinical setting for monitoring of changes in lung function in awake young children. Impedance measurements by the impulse oscillation technique (ZIOS), respiratory resistance measurements by the interrupter technique (Rint) and transcu......The aim of the study was to evaluate methods applicable in a clinical setting for monitoring of changes in lung function in awake young children. Impedance measurements by the impulse oscillation technique (ZIOS), respiratory resistance measurements by the interrupter technique (Rint......) and transcutaneous measurements of oxygen tension (Ptc,O2) were compared with concomitant measurements of specific airway resistance (sRaw) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) by whole body plethysmography and spirometry, respectively, during methacholine challenge in 21 young children aged 4-6 yrs...... function was ZIOS > sRaw > Ptc,O2 > FEV1 > Rint. ZIOS was significantly more sensitive than all subsequent methods, and Ptc,O2 was significantly more sensitive than FEV1. ZIOS, sRaw and Rint, but not Ptc,O2 and FEV1, detected the subclinical increase in bronchial muscle tone in the children during baseline...

  7. Measurements of octupole collectivity in $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra using Coulomb excitation

    CERN Multimedia

    Kruecken, R; Larsen, A; Hurst, A M; Voulot, D; Grahn, T; Clement, E; Wadsworth, R; Gernhaeuser, R A; Siem, S; Huyse, M L; Iwanicki, J S

    2008-01-01

    We propose to exploit the unique capability of ISOLDE to provide post-accelerated $^{220,222}$Rn and $^{222,224}$Ra ion beams from the REX facility to enable the Coulomb excitation of the first 3$^{-}$ states in these nuclei. By measuring the $\\gamma$-ray yields of the E1 decays from the 3$^{-}$ state using the MINIBALL array we can obtain the transition matrix elements. This will give quantitative information about octupole correlations in these nuclei. We require 22 shifts to fulfil the aims of the experiment.

  8. Quadrupole Transfer Function for Emittance Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Peter; Jansson, Andreas; Tan, Cheng-Yang

    2008-01-01

    Historically the use of the quadrupole moment measurement has been impeded by the requirement for large dynamic range, as well as measurement sensitivity to beam position. We investigate the use of the transfer function technique [1-3] in combination with the sensitivity and 160dB revolution line rejection of the direct diode detection analog front end [4] to open the possibility of an emittance diagnostic that may be implemented without operational complication, quasi- parasitic to the operation of existing tune measurement systems. Such a diagnostic would be particularly useful as an emittance monitor during acceleration ramp development in machines like RHIC and the LHC.

  9. Functional Measurement: An Incredibly Flexible Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, Etienne; Morales Martinez, Guadalupe Elizabeth; Makris, Ioannis; Roge, Bernadette; Munoz Sastre, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Functional Measurement (FM) has been applied to a variety of settings that can be considered as "extreme" settings; that is, settings involving participants with severe cognitive disabilities or involving unusual stimulus material. FM has, as instance, been successfully applied for analyzing (a) numerosity judgments among children as…

  10. Loss functions for structural flood mitigation measures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... The paper aims at discussing the methodology used to develop loss functions for flood mitigation measures, using historic data of flood damage to infrastructure. The main determinants of the extent of damage are the size of the flood and the length of the infrastructure within the boundaries of the flood-line.

  11. Performance of thermally excited resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; van Ouwerkerk, R.H.; Bouwstra, S.; Bouwstra, S.; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    A study of electrothermal excitation of micro-machined silicon beams is reported. The temperature distribution is calculated as a function of the position of the transducer, resulting in stress in the structure which reduces the resonance frequency. Test samples are realized and measurements or

  12. Age dependence of rat liver function measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Poulsen, H E; Hansen, B A

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the galactose elimination capacity, the capacity of urea-N synthesis and antipyrine clearance were studied in male Wistar rats at the age of 8, 20 and 44 weeks. Further, liver tissue concentrations of microsomal cytochrome P-450, microsomal protein and glutathione were measured. All...... liver function measurements increased from the age of 8 to 44 weeks when expressed in absolute values. In relation to body weight, these function measurements were unchanged or reduced from week 8 to week 20. At week 44, galactose elimination capacity and capacity of urea-N synthesis related to body...... weight were increased by 10% and 36%, respectively, and antipyrine plasma clearance was reduced to 50%. Liver tissue concentrations of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and microsomal protein increased with age when expressed in absolute values, but were unchanged per g liver, i.e., closely related to liver...

  13. MONITORING POWER PLANT EFFICIENCY USING THE MICROWAVE-EXCITED THERMAL-ACOUSTIC EFFECT TO MEASURE UNBURNED CARBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Jeffrey J. Swetelitsch

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this project is to explore microwave-excited thermal-acoustic (META) phenomena for quantitative analysis of granular and powdered materials, with the culmination of the research to be an on-line carbon-in-ash monitor for coal-fired power plants. This technique of analyzing unburned carbon in fly ash could be a less tedious and time consuming method as compared to the traditional LOI manual procedure. Phase 1 of the research focused on off-line single-frequency thermal-acoustic measurements where an off-line fly ash monitor was constructed that could operate as analytical tool to explore instrument and methodology parameters for quantifying the microwave-excited thermal-acoustic effect of carbon in fly ash, and it was determined that the off-line thermal-acoustic technique could predict the carbon content of a random collection of fly ashes with a linear correlation constant of R{sup 2} = 0.778. Much higher correlations are expected for fly ashes generated from a single boiler. Phase 2 of the research developing a methodology to generate microwave spectra of various powders, including fly ash, coal, and inorganic minerals, and to determine if these microwave spectra could be used for chemical analyses. Although different minerals produced different responses, higher resolution microwave spectra would be required to be able to distinguish among minerals. Phase 3 of the research focused on the development of an on-line fly ash monitor that could be adapted to measure either a thermal-acoustic or thermal-elastic response to due microwave excitation of fly ash. The thermal-acoustic response was successfully employed for this purpose but the thermal-elastic response was too weak to yield a useful on-line device.

  14. Excitation functions of the analyzing power in elastic proton-proton scattering from 0.45 to 2.5 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmeier, M.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Busch, M.; Engelhardt, H.P.; Eversheim, D.; Glende, M.; Hinterberger, F. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Bauer, F.; Buesser, K.; Colberg, T.; Demiroers, L.; Eyser, K.O.; Greiff, J.; Jonas, E.; Krause, H.; Lindemann, T.; Lindlein, J. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Felden, O.; Gebel, R.; Lorentz, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Maier, R.; Maschuw, R.; Meinerzhagen, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Rohdjess, H.; Rosendaal, D.; Von Rossen, P.; Schirm, N.; Schwarz, V.; Scobel, W.; Trelle, H.J.; Ulbrich, K.; Weise, E.; Wellinghausen, A.; Ziegler, R.

    2005-02-01

    Excitation functions A{sub N}(p{sub lab},{theta}{sub c.m.}) of the analyzing power in elastic proton-proton scattering have been measured in an internal target experiment at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY with an unpolarized proton beam and a polarized atomic hydrogen target. Data were taken continuously during the acceleration and deceleration for proton kinetic energies T{sub lab} (momenta p{sub lab}) between 0.45 and 2.5 GeV (1.0 and 3.3 GeV/c) and scattering angles 30 {<=}{theta}{sub c.m.}{<=}90 . The results provide excitation functions and angular distributions of high precision and internal consistency. The data can be used as calibration standard between 0.45 and 2.5 GeV. They have significant impact on phase shift solutions, in particular on the spin triplet phase shifts between 1.0 and 1.8 GeV. (orig.)

  15. Compton scattering artifacts in electron excited X-ray spectra measured with a silicon drift detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Nicholas W M; Newbury, Dale E; Lindstrom, Abigail P

    2011-12-01

    Artifacts are the nemesis of trace element analysis in electron-excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Peaks that result from nonideal behavior in the detector or sample can fool even an experienced microanalyst into believing that they have trace amounts of an element that is not present. Many artifacts, such as the Si escape peak, absorption edges, and coincidence peaks, can be traced to the detector. Others, such as secondary fluorescence peaks and scatter peaks, can be traced to the sample. We have identified a new sample-dependent artifact that we attribute to Compton scattering of energetic X-rays generated in a small feature and subsequently scattered from a low atomic number matrix. It seems likely that this artifact has not previously been reported because it only occurs under specific conditions and represents a relatively small signal. However, with the advent of silicon drift detectors and their utility for trace element analysis, we anticipate that more people will observe it and possibly misidentify it. Though small, the artifact is not inconsequential. Under some conditions, it is possible to mistakenly identify the Compton scatter artifact as approximately 1% of an element that is not present.

  16. Functional testing of space flight induced changes in tonic motor control by using limb-attached excitation and load devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallasch, Eugen; Kozlovskaya, Inessa

    2007-02-01

    Long term space flights induce atrophy and contractile changes on postural muscles such effecting tonic motor control. Functional testing of tonic motor control structures is a challenge because of the difficulties to deliver appropriate test forces on crew members. In this paper we propose two approaches for functional testing by using limb attached loading devices. The first approach is based on a frequency and amplitude controllable moving magnet exciter to deliver sinusoidal test forces during limb postures. The responding limb deflection is recorded by an embedded accelerometer to obtain limb impedance. The second approach is based on elastic limb loading to evoke self-excited oscillations during arm extensions. Here the contraction force at the oscillation onset provides information about limb stiffness. The rationale for both testing approaches is based on Feldman's λ-model. An arm expander based on the second approach was probed in a 6-month MIR space flight. The results obtained from the load oscillations, confirmed that this device is well suited to capture space flight induced neuromuscular changes.

  17. Exact ensemble density functional theory for excited states in a model system: investigating the weight dependence of the correlation energy

    CERN Document Server

    Deur, Killian; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Ensemble density functional theory (eDFT) is an exact time-independent alternative to time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) for the calculation of excitation energies. Despite its formal simplicity and advantages in contrast to TD-DFT (multiple excitations, for example, can be easily taken into account in an ensemble), eDFT is not standard which is essentially due to the lack of reliable approximate exchange-correlation (xc) functionals for ensembles. Following Burke and coworkers [Phys. Rev. B 93, 245131 (2016)], we propose in this work to construct an exact eDFT for the nontrivial asymmetric Hubbard dimer, thus providing more insight into the weight dependence of the ensemble xc energy in various correlation regimes. For that purpose, an exact analytical expression for the weight-dependent ensemble exchange energy has been derived. The complementary exact ensemble correlation energy has been computed by means of Legendre-Fenchel transforms. Interesting features like discontinuities in the ensemble xc potential in the...

  18. Frenkel and Charge-Transfer Excitations in Donor-acceptor Complexes from Many-Body Green's Functions Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeier, Björn; Andrienko, Denis; Rohlfing, Michael

    2012-08-14

    Excited states of donor-acceptor dimers are studied using many-body Green's functions theory within the GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation. For a series of prototypical small-molecule based pairs, this method predicts energies of local Frenkel and intermolecular charge-transfer excitations with the accuracy of tens of meV. Application to larger systems is possible and allowed us to analyze energy levels and binding energies of excitons in representative dimers of dicyanovinyl-substituted quarterthiophene and fullerene, a donor-acceptor pair used in state of the art organic solar cells. In these dimers, the transition from Frenkel to charge transfer excitons is endothermic and the binding energy of charge transfer excitons is still of the order of 1.5-2 eV. Hence, even such an accurate dimer-based description does not yield internal energetics favorable for the generation of free charges either by thermal energy or an external electric field. These results confirm that, for qualitative predictions of solar cell functionality, accounting for the explicit molecular environment is as important as the accurate knowledge of internal dimer energies.

  19. Overlap Functions for Measures in Conformal Iterated Function Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Eugen; Urbański, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    We employ thermodynamic formalism for the study of conformal iterated function systems (IFS) S = {φ _i}_{i in I} with arbitrary overlaps, and of measures μ on limit sets Λ , which are projections of equilibrium measures hat{μ } with respect to a certain lift map Φ on Σ _I^+ × Λ . No type of Open Set Condition is assumed. We introduce a notion of overlap function and overlap number for such a measure hat{μ } with respect to S; and, in particular a notion of (topological) overlap number o(S). These notions take in consideration the n-chains between points in the limit set. We prove that o(S, hat{μ }) is related to a conditional entropy of hat{μ } with respect to the lift Φ . Various types of projections to Λ of invariant measures are studied. We obtain upper estimates for the Hausdorff dimension HD(μ ) of μ on Λ , by using pressure functions and o(S, hat{μ }). In particular, this applies to projections of Bernoulli measures on Σ _I^+. Next, we apply the results to Bernoulli convolutions ν _λ for λ in (1/2, 1), which correspond to self-similar measures determined by composing, with equal probabilities, the contractions of an IFS with overlaps S_λ . We prove that for all λ in (1/2, 1), there exists a relation between HD(ν _λ ) and the overlap number o(S_λ ). We also estimate o(S_λ ) for certain values of λ.

  20. Excitation Methods for Bridge Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffy, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Doebling, S.W.

    1999-02-08

    This paper summarizes the various methods that have been used to excited bridge structures during dynamic testing. The excitation methods fall into the general categories of ambient excitation methods and measured-input excitation methods. During ambient excitation the input to the bridge is not directly measured. In contrast, as the category label implies, measured-input excitations are usually applied at a single location where the force input to the structure can be monitored. Issues associated with using these various types of measurements are discussed along with a general description of the various excitation methods.

  1. Functional measures of stream impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, B.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The effects of elevated metals (primarily Zn) in a Rocky Mountain stream were assessed using measures of primary productivity, community respiration, and phosphatase activity. Primary productivity was measured as rates of mass and chlorophyll a accumulation on ceramic tiles, and as O{sub 2}, evolution from natural substrates incubated in situ in closed chambers. Community respiration was measured in situ by incubating fine-grained sediments, collected and composited along each stream study reach, in closed chambers and measuring O{sub 2} depletion. Alkaline and acid phosphatase activity were measured for periphyton scraped from ceramic tiles and natural substrates. Primary productivity, measured as chlorophyll accretion rates and O{sup 2} evolution, were depressed by increasing Zn concentrations. Productivity measured as mass accretion rates did not show significant Zn effects. Community respiration was depressed by increasing Zn concentrations, as was alkaline phosphatase activity. Acid phosphatase activity was higher at the more impacted sites. Overall, functional measures were able to discern those sites receiving greater metal impacts from less impacted sites.

  2. Comparison between Accelerometer and Laser Vibrometer to Measure Traffic Excited Vibrations on Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rossi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of accelerometer based measurement techniques for evaluating bridge forced vibrations or to perform bridge modal analysis is well established. It is well known to all researchers who have experience in vibration measurements that values of acceleration amplitude can be very low at low frequencies and that a limitation to the use of accelerometer can be due to the threshold parameter of this kind of transducer. Under this conditions the measurement of displacement seems more appropriate. On the other hand laser vibrometer systems detect relative displacements as opposed to the absolute measures of accelerometers. Vibrations have been measured simultaneously by a typical accelerometer for civil structures and by a laser vibrometer equipped with a fringe counter board in terms of velocity and displacements. The accelerations calculated from the laser vibrometer signals and the one directly measured by the accelerometer has been compared.

  3. Comparison between Accelerometer and Laser Vibrometer to Measure Traffic Excited Vibrations on Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, G.; Marsili, R.; Gusella, V.; Gioffrè, M.

    2002-01-01

    The use of accelerometer based measurement techniques for evaluating bridge forced vibrations or to perform bridge modal analysis is well established. It is well known to all researchers who have experience in vibration measurements that values of acceleration amplitude can be very low at low frequencies and that a limitation to the use of accelerometer can be due to the threshold parameter of this kind of transducer. Under this conditions the measurement of displacement seems more appropriat...

  4. Picosecond pulse measurement by two-photon excitation of photographic film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billman, K. W.; Burnham, D. C.

    1970-01-01

    Technique shoots two broad light beams onto a photosensitive surface which responds nonlinearly to the intensity in the beams. The resultant signal contains a component depending on the intensity correlation function between the two light beams.

  5. Effect of the excitation source on the quantum-yield measurements of rhodamine B laser dye studied using thermal-lens technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhu, C V; Harilal, S S

    2001-01-01

    A dual-beam transient thermal-lens technique was employed for the determination of absolute fluorescence quantum-yield measurements of Rhodamine B laser dye in different solvents. We investigated the effect of excitation on the absolute fluorescence quantum yield of Rhodamine B. 514 nm radiation from an argon ion laser was used as a cw excitation source and 532 nm pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser were used as a pulsed excitation source. The fluorescence quantum-yield values were found to be strongly influenced by environmental effects as well as the transient nature of the excitation beam. Our results also indicate that parameters, like the concentration of the dye solution, aggregate formation and excited state absorption, affect the absolute values of the fluorescence yield significantly.

  6. Measurement of Trace Constituents by Electron-Excited X-Ray Microanalysis with Energy-Dispersive Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M

    2016-06-01

    Electron-excited X-ray microanalysis performed with scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) has been used to measure trace elemental constituents of complex multielement materials, where "trace" refers to constituents present at concentrations below 0.01 (mass fraction). High count spectra measured with silicon drift detector EDS were quantified using the standards/matrix correction protocol embedded in the NIST DTSA-II software engine. Robust quantitative analytical results for trace constituents were obtained from concentrations as low as 0.000500 (mass fraction), even in the presence of significant peak interferences from minor (concentration 0.01≤C≤0.1) and major (C>0.1) constituents. Limits of detection as low as 0.000200 were achieved in the absence of peak interference.

  7. Measurement of Excitation Spectra in the 12/SUP>C 1(p ,d ) Reaction near the η' Emission Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y. K.; Itahashi, K.; Fujioka, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Friedrich, S.; Geissel, H.; Gellanki, J.; Guo, C.; Gutz, E.; Haettner, E.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Higashi, Y.; Hirenzaki, S.; Hornung, C.; Igarashi, Y.; Ikeno, N.; Iwasaki, M.; Jido, D.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Knöbel, R.; Kurz, N.; Metag, V.; Mukha, I.; Nagae, T.; Nagahiro, H.; Nanova, M.; Nishi, T.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rappold, C.; Reiter, M. P.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Scheidenberger, C.; Simon, H.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Sun, B.; Suzuki, K.; Szarka, I.; Takechi, M.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Watanabe, Y. N.; Weick, H.; Widmann, E.; Winfield, J. S.; Xu, X.; Yamakami, H.; Zhao, J.; η-PRiME/Super-FRS Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Excitation spectra of 11C are measured in the 12C (p ,d ) reaction near the η' emission threshold. A proton beam extracted from the synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI with an incident energy of 2.5 GeV impinges on a carbon target. The momenta of deuterons emitted at 0° are precisely measured with the fragment separator (FRS) operated as a spectrometer. In contrast to theoretical predictions on the possible existence of deeply bound η'-mesic states in carbon nuclei, no distinct structures are observed associated with the formation of bound states. The spectra are analyzed to set stringent constraints on the formation cross section and on the hitherto barely known η'-nucleus interaction.

  8. Measurement of Excitation Spectra in the ^{12}C(p,d) Reaction near the η^{'} Emission Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y K; Itahashi, K; Fujioka, H; Ayyad, Y; Benlliure, J; Brinkmann, K-T; Friedrich, S; Geissel, H; Gellanki, J; Guo, C; Gutz, E; Haettner, E; Harakeh, M N; Hayano, R S; Higashi, Y; Hirenzaki, S; Hornung, C; Igarashi, Y; Ikeno, N; Iwasaki, M; Jido, D; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kanungo, R; Knöbel, R; Kurz, N; Metag, V; Mukha, I; Nagae, T; Nagahiro, H; Nanova, M; Nishi, T; Ong, H J; Pietri, S; Prochazka, A; Rappold, C; Reiter, M P; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J L; Scheidenberger, C; Simon, H; Sitar, B; Strmen, P; Sun, B; Suzuki, K; Szarka, I; Takechi, M; Tanihata, I; Terashima, S; Watanabe, Y N; Weick, H; Widmann, E; Winfield, J S; Xu, X; Yamakami, H; Zhao, J

    2016-11-11

    Excitation spectra of ^{11}C are measured in the ^{12}C(p,d) reaction near the η^{'} emission threshold. A proton beam extracted from the synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI with an incident energy of 2.5 GeV impinges on a carbon target. The momenta of deuterons emitted at 0° are precisely measured with the fragment separator (FRS) operated as a spectrometer. In contrast to theoretical predictions on the possible existence of deeply bound η^{'}-mesic states in carbon nuclei, no distinct structures are observed associated with the formation of bound states. The spectra are analyzed to set stringent constraints on the formation cross section and on the hitherto barely known η^{'}-nucleus interaction.

  9. Measurement of excitation spectra in the ${}^{12}$C$(p,d)$ reaction near the $\\eta'$ emission threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Y K; Fujioka, H; Ayyad, Y; Benlliure, J; Brinkmann, K -T; Friedrich, S; Geissel, H; Gellanki, J; Guo, C; Gutz, E; Haettner, E; Harakeh, M N; Hayano, R S; Higashi, Y; Hirenzaki, S; Hornung, C; Igarashi, Y; Ikeno, N; Iwasaki, M; Jido, D; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kanungo, R; Knöbel, R; Kurz, N; Metag, V; Mukha, I; Nagae, T; Nagahiro, H; Nanova, M; Nishi, T; Ong, H J; Pietri, S; Prochazka, A; Rappold, C; Reiter, M P; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J L; Scheidenberger, C; Simon, H; Sitar, B; Strmen, P; Sun, B; Suzuki, K; Szarka, I; Takechi, M; Tanihata, I; Terashima, S; Watanabe, Y N; Weick, H; Widmann, E; Winfield, J S; Xu, X; Yamakami, H; Zhao, J

    2016-01-01

    Excitation spectra of $^{11}$C were measured in the $^{12}$C$(p,d)$ reaction near the $\\eta'$ emission threshold. A proton beam extracted from the synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI with an incident energy of 2.5 GeV impinged on a carbon target. The momenta of deuterons emitted at 0 degrees were precisely measured with the fragment separator FRS operated as a spectrometer. In contrast to theoretical predictions on the possible existence of deeply bound $\\eta'$ mesic states in carbon nuclei, no distinct structures were observed associated with the formation of bound states. The spectra were analyzed to set stringent constraints on the formation cross section and on the hitherto barely-known $\\eta'$-nucleus interaction.

  10. A test program to measure fluid mechanical whirl-excitation forces in centrifugal pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, C. E.; Acosta, A. J.; Caughey, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    The details of a test program for the measurement of the unsteady forces on centrifugal impellers are discussed. Various hydrodynamic flows are identified as possible contributors to these destabilizing forces.

  11. Quenching of excited alkali atoms and related effects in flames: Part II. Measurements and discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooymayers, H.P.; Alkemade, C.T.J.

    1966-01-01

    An alternating current photoelectric device has been used for determining the yield factor p of resonance flourescence of the yellow sodium doublet and the infrared and blue potassium doublets in flames at atmospheric pressure as a function of the temperature and composition of the burnt flame

  12. A crucial role of fractional occupation numbers of natural orbitals (NOs) in the description of double excitations in response time-dependent NO functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, O. V.

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate a crucial role of fractional occupation numbers (FONs) of natural orbitals (NOs) in the description of double excitations in time-dependent NO functional theory (TDNOFT). An analytical dependence of the double excitation energy ωα on the ratio of the FONs is derived in a model from the matrix diagonalization problem. In the large ratio Heitler-London limit the derived formula reproduces the correct asymptotics of ωα of the ionic state of double excitation character. In the small ratio Møller-Plesset, MP limit the reverse relation of static MP perturbation theory emerges in the dynamical response theory to provide ωα .

  13. Unrestricted density functional theory based on the fragment molecular orbital method for the ground and excited state calculations of large systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Hiroya, E-mail: nakata.h.ab@m.titech.ac.jp [Center for Biological Resources and Informatics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B-62 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fedorov, Dmitri G. [NRI, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yokojima, Satoshi [RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1423-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Kitaura, Kazuo [Graduate School of System Informatics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sakurai, Minoru [Center for Biological Resources and Informatics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, B-62 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Shinichiro [RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-04-14

    We extended the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method interfaced with density functional theory (DFT) into spin unrestricted formalism (UDFT) and developed energy gradients for the ground state and single point excited state energies based on time-dependent DFT. The accuracy of FMO is evaluated in comparison to the full calculations without fragmentation. Electronic excitations in solvated organic radicals and in the blue copper protein, plastocyanin (PDB code: 1BXV), are reported. The contributions of solvent molecules to the electronic excitations are analyzed in terms of the fragment polarization and quantum effects such as interfragment charge transfer.

  14. Excitation functions of parameters extracted from three-source (net-)proton rapidity distributions in Au-Au and Pb-Pb collisions over an energy range from AGS to RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Li-Na; Liu, Fu-Hu [Shanxi University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China); Sun, Yan; Sun, Zhu [Shanxi Datong University, Department of Physics, Datong, Shanxi (China); Lacey, Roy A. [Stony Brook University, Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Experimental results of the rapidity spectra of protons and net-protons (protons minus antiprotons) emitted in gold-gold (Au-Au) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions, measured by a few collaborations at the alternating gradient synchrotron (AGS), super proton synchrotron (SPS), and relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC), are described by a three-source distribution. The values of the distribution width σ{sub C} and fraction k{sub C} of the central rapidity region, and the distribution width σ{sub F} and rapidity shift Δy of the forward/backward rapidity regions, are then obtained. The excitation function of σ{sub C} increases generally with increase of the center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair √(s{sub NN}). The excitation function of σ{sub F} shows a saturation at √(s{sub NN}) = 8.8 GeV. The excitation function of k{sub C} shows a minimum at √(s{sub NN}) = 8.8 GeV and a saturation at √(s{sub NN}) ∼ 17 GeV. The excitation function of Δy increases linearly with ln(√(s{sub NN})) in the considered energy range. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear excitation functions from 40 to 200 MeV proton irradiation of terbium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, Jonathan W., E-mail: jwengle@lanl.gov; Mashnik, Stepan G.; Parker, Lauren A.; Jackman, Kevin R.; Bitteker, Leo J.; Ullmann, John L.; Gulley, Mark S.; Pillai, Chandra; John, Kevin D.; Birnbaum, Eva R.; Nortier, Francois M.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear formation cross sections are reported for 26 radionuclides, measured with 40–200 MeV proton irradiations of terbium foils. These data provide the basis for the production of medically relevant radionuclides (e.g., {sup 152}Tb, {sup 155}Tb, {sup 155}Eu, and {sup 156}Eu) and {sup 153}Gd, a potential source used in ongoing efforts to characterize stellar nucleosynthesis routes. Computational predictions from the ALICE2011, CEM03.03, Bertini, and INCL + ABLA codes are compared with newly measured data to contribute to the ongoing process of code development, and yields are calculated for selected radionuclides using measured data.

  16. Lifetime measurements of first excited states in 16,18C

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, H J; Suzuki, D; Iwasaki, H; Sakuraï, H; Onishi, T K; Suzuki, M K; Ota, S; Takeuchi, S; Nakao, T; Togano, Y; Kondo, Y; Aoi, N; Baba, H; Bishop, S; Ichikawa, Y; Ishihara, M; Kubo, T; Kurita, K; Motobayashi, T; Nakamura, T; Okumura, T; Yanagisawa, Y

    2007-01-01

    The electric quadrupole transition from the first 2+ state to the ground 0+ state in 18C was studied through lifetime measurement by an upgraded recoil shadow method applied to inelastically scattered radioactive 18C nuclei. The measured mean lifetime is 18.9 +/- 0.9 (stat) +/- 4.4 (syst) ps, corresponding to a B(E2;2+ -> 0+) value of 4.3 +/- 0.2 +/- 1.0 e2fm4, or about 1.5 Weisskopf units. The mean lifetime of the first 2+ state in 16C was remeasured to be 18.0 +/- 1.6 +/- 4.7 ps, about four times shorter than the value reported previously. The discrepancy between the two results was resolved by incorporating the gamma-ray angular distribution measured in this work into the previous measurement. These transition strengths are hindered compared to the empirical transition strengths, indicating that the anomalous hindrance observed in 16C persists in 18C.

  17. A Multireference Density Functional Approach to the Calculation of the Excited States of Uranium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    relativistic, truncated calculation is smaller yet, with a Hamiltonian with dimension of the order of 1010 configurations, barely within reach of modern...exact exchange with density functional approximations,” Journal of Chemical Physics, 105 (22) (1996). 103. Perdew, John P. and Karla Schmidt. Density

  18. Nonequilibrium Green function theory for excitation and transport in atoms and molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlen, Nils Erik; Stan, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    In this work we discuss the application of nonequilibrium Green functions theory to atomic and molecular systems with the aim to study charge and energy transport in these systems. We apply the Kadanoff-Baym equations to atoms and diatomic molecules initially in the ground state. The results

  19. On the excited state wave functions of Dirac fermions in the random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the last decade, it was shown that the Liouville field theory is an effective theory of Dirac fermions in the random gauge potential (FRGP). We show that the Dirac wave functions in FRGP can be written in terms of descendents of the Liouville vertex operator. In the quasiclassical approximation of the Liouville theory, our ...

  20. Excitation function for deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural ytterbium for production of high specific activity 177g Lu in no-carrier-added form for metabolic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenti, Simone; Groppi, Flavia; Gandini, Andrea; Gini, Luigi; Abbas, Kamel; Holzwarth, Uwe; Simonelli, Federica; Bonardi, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Deuteron-induced nuclear reactions for generation of no-carrier-added Lu radionuclides were investigated using the stacked-foil activation technique on natural Yb targets at energies up to E(d)=18.18 MeV. Excitation functions of the reactions (nat)Yb(d,xn)(169,170,171,172,173,174g,174m,176m,177g)Lu and (nat)Yb(d,pxn)(169,175,177)Yb have been measured, among them three ((169)Lu, (174m)Lu and (176m)Lu) are reported for the first time. The upper limit of the contamination from the long-lived metastable level (177m)Lu was evaluated too. Thick-target yields for all investigated radionuclides are calculated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Excitation functions and isotopic effects in (n, p) reactions for stable nickel isotopes from reaction threshold to 20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalremruata, B. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: marema@physics.unipune.ernet.in; Ganesan, S. [Reactor Physics Design Division, BARC, Mumbai 58 (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: vnb@physics.unipune.ernet; Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.in

    2009-05-01

    The excitation function for (n, p) reactions from reaction threshold to 20 MeV on five nickel isotopes viz; {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 61}Ni, {sup 62}Ni and {sup 64}Ni were calculated using Talys-1.0 nuclear model code involving the fixed set of global parameters. A good agreement between the calculated and measured data is obtained with minimum effort on parameter fitting and only one free parameter called 'Shell damping factor'. This is of importance to the validation of nuclear model approaches with increased predictive power. The systematic decrease in (n, p) cross-sections with increasing neutron number in reactions induced by neutrons on isotopes of nickel is explained in terms of the proton separation energy and the pre-equilibrium model. The compound nucleus and pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism as well as the isotopic effects were also studied.

  2. The Effect of Material Property on the Critical Velocity of Randomly Excited Nonlinear Axially Travelling Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abedi

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the critical axial speeds of three types of sigmoid, power law and exponential law functionally graded plates for both isotropic and orthotropic cases are obtained via a completely analytic method. The plates are subjected to lateral white noise excitation and show evidence of large deformations. Due to randomness, the conventional deterministic methods fail and a statistical approach must be selected. Here, the probability density function is evaluated analytically for prescribed plates and used to investigate the critical axial velocity of them. Specifically the effect of in-plane forces, mean value of lateral load and the material property on the critical axial speed are studied and discussed for both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded plates. Since the governing equation is transformed to a non dimensional format, the results can be used for a wide range of plate dimensions. It is shown that the material heterogeneity palys an essential and significant role in increasing or decreasing the critical speed of both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded plates.

  3. Role of excited atoms in Lidar measurements of the middle and upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychkov Vasily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a lidar study of the atmosphere in the altitude region of 25-400 km, obtained at the lidar station of Kamchatka in 2008-2016. The development of methods for lidar measurements and signal processing is discussed. The method that takes into account the aftereffects of photoelectric multipliers and the technique to measure the background signal is described. These tools allow the authors to include the mesosphere and the upper atmosphere into the altitude region investigated by the lidar method. The results of the investigation of the backscattering lidar signal from the altitude region of 100-400 km caused by the resonance scattering on exited components of upper atmosphere are discussed.

  4. Role of excited atoms in Lidar measurements of the middle and upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, Vasily; Perezhogin, Andrey; Seredkin, Il'ya

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of a lidar study of the atmosphere in the altitude region of 25-400 km, obtained at the lidar station of Kamchatka in 2008-2016. The development of methods for lidar measurements and signal processing is discussed. The method that takes into account the aftereffects of photoelectric multipliers and the technique to measure the background signal is described. These tools allow the authors to include the mesosphere and the upper atmosphere into the altitude region investigated by the lidar method. The results of the investigation of the backscattering lidar signal from the altitude region of 100-400 km caused by the resonance scattering on exited components of upper atmosphere are discussed.

  5. Tuning excitation laser wavelength for secondary resonance in low-intensity phase-selective laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for in-situ analytical measurement of nanoaerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Gang; Li, Shuiqing; Tse, Stephen D.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, a novel low-intensity phase-selective laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (PS-LIBS) technique has been developed for unique elemental-composition identification of aerosolized nanoparticles, where only the solid-phase nanoparticles break down, forming nanoplasmas, without any surrounding gas-phase breakdown. Additional work has demonstrated that PS-LIBS emissions can be greatly enhanced with secondary resonant excitation by matching the excitation laser wavelength with an atomic transition line in the formed nanoplasma, thereby achieving low limits of detection. In this work, a tunable dye laser is employed to investigate the effects of excitation wavelength and irradiance on in-situ PS-LIBS measurements of TiO2 nanoaerosols. The enhancement factor by resonant excitation can be 220 times greater than that for non-resonant cases under similar conditions. Moreover, the emitted spectra are unique for the selected resonant transition lines for a given element, suggesting the potential to make precise phase-selective and analyte-selective measurements of nanoparticles in a multicomponent multiphase system. The enhancement factor by resonant excitation is highly sensitive to excitation laser wavelength, with narrow excitation spectral windows, i.e., 0.012 to 0.023 nm (FWHM, full width at half maximum) for Ti (I) neutral atomic lines, and 0.051 to 0.139 nm (FWHM) for Ti (II) single-ionized atomic lines. Boltzmann analysis of the emission intensities, temporal response of emissions, and emission dependence on excitation irradiance are investigated to understand aspects of the generated nanoplasmas such as temperature, local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), and excitation mechanism.

  6. Ionisation potential theorem in the presence of the electric field: Assessment of range-separated functional in the reproduction of orbital and excitation energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borpuzari, Manash Protim; Boruah, Abhijit; Kar, Rahul

    2016-04-28

    Recently, the range-separated density functionals have been reported to reproduce gas phase orbital and excitation energies with good accuracy. In this article, we have revisited the ionisation potential theorem in the presence of external electric field. Numerical results on six linear molecules are presented and the performance of the range-separated density functionals in reproducing highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energies, LUMO energies, HOMO-LUMO gaps in the presence of the external electric field is assessed. In addition, valence and Rydberg excitation energies in the presence of the external electric field are presented. It is found that the range-separated density functionals reproduce orbital and excitation energies accurately in the presence of the electric field. Moreover, we have performed fractional occupation calculation using cubic spline equation and tried to explain the performance of the functional.

  7. Cooling-down of thermal thick probes after flash excitation - A measure for the real energy density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krankenhagen, Rainer; Worzewski, Tamara; Maierhofer, Christiane

    2015-09-01

    Though flash lamps are one of the most applied heat sources in the field of Thermographic Testing (TT) using active thermography, only little is known about the actually achieved energy input into test objects. In this paper, an easy to realize sensor concept is proposed and experimentally evaluated. The concept is based on the measurement of the surface temperature of a thermal thick probe after flash excitation. After considering the sensor concept with FEM simulations the experimental investigation of four materials (two polymer and two building materials) is described. It will be shown that a suited coating is essential for the realization of the sensor concept. The experimental results prove the suitability of black rigid PVC as the most promising material. Using a coated PVC sample the energy density of short laser pulses, similar to flashes of flash lamps, could be determined exactly with an estimated relative uncertainty of only a few percent.

  8. Investigations of the potential functions of weakly bound diatomic molecules and laser-assisted excitive Penning ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goble, J.H. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    Three variations on the Dunham series expansion function of the potential of a diatomic molecule are compared. The differences among these expansions lie in the choice of the expansion variable, lambda. The functional form of these variables are lambda/sub s/ = l-r/sub e//r for the Simon-Parr-Finlan version, lambda/sub T/ - 1-(r/sub e//r)/sup p/ for that of Thakkar, and lambda/sub H/ = 1-exp(-rho(r/r/sub e/-1) for that of Huffaker. A wide selection of molecular systems are examined. It is found that, for potentials in excess of thirty kcal/mole, the Huffaker expansion provides the best description of the three, extrapolating at large internuclear separation to a value within 10% of the true dissociation energy. For potentials that result from the interaction of excited states, all series expansions show poor behavior away from the equilibrium internuclear separation of the molecule. The series representation of the potentials of weakly bound molecules are examined in more detail. The ground states of BeAr/sup +/, HeNe/sup +/, NaAr, and Ar/sub 2/ and the excited states of HeNe+, NaNe, and NaAr are best described by the Thakkar expansion. Finally, the observation of laser-assisted excitive Penning ionization in a flowing afterglow is reported. The reaction Ar(/sup 3/P/sub 2/) + Ca + h nu ..-->.. Ar + Ca/sup +/(5p /sup 2/P/sub J/) + e/sup -/ occurs when the photon energy, h nu, is approximately equal to the energy difference between the metastable argon and one of the fine structure levels of the ion's doublet. By monitoring the cascade fluorescence of the above reaction and comparing it to the flourescence from the field-free process Ar(/sup 3/P/sub 2/) + Ca ..-->.. Ar + Ca/sup +/(4p /sup 2/P/sub J/) + e/sup -/ a surprisingly large cross section of 6.7 x 10/sup 3/ A/sup 2/ is estimated.

  9. Calculations of Excitation Functions of Some Structural Fusion Materials for ( n, t) Reactions up to 50 MeV Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, E.; Durgu, C.; Aktı, N. N.; Okuducu, Ş.

    2010-06-01

    Fusion serves an inexhaustible energy for humankind. Although there have been significant research and development studies on the inertial and magnetic fusion reactor technology, there is still a long way to go to penetrate commercial fusion reactors to the energy market. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. So, the working out the systematics of ( n, t) reaction cross sections is of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at different energies. In this study, ( n, t) reactions for some structural fusion materials such as 27Al, 51V, 52Cr, 55Mn, and 56Fe have been investigated. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 27Al( n, t)25Mg, 51V( n, t)49Ti, 52Cr( n, t)50V, 55Mn( n, t)53Cr and 56Fe( n, t)54Mn reactions have been carried out up to 50 MeV incident neutron energy. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the new evaluated the geometry dependent hybrid model, hybrid model and the cascade exciton model. Equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. Also in the present work, we have calculated ( n, t) reaction cross-sections by using new evaluated semi-empirical formulas developed by Tel et al. at 14-15 MeV energy. The calculated results are discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from the literature.

  10. Malondialdehyde suppresses cerebral function by breaking homeostasis between excitation and inhibition in turtle Trachemys scripta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangxu Li

    Full Text Available The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA are high in the brain during carbonyl stress, such as following daily activities and sleep deprivation. To examine our hypothesis that MDA is one of the major substances in the brain leading to fatigue, the influences of MDA on brain functions and neuronal encodings in red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta were studied. The intrathecal injections of MDA brought about sleep-like EEG and fatigue-like behaviors in a dose-dependent manner. These changes were found associated with the deterioration of encoding action potentials in cortical neurons. In addition, MDA increased the ratio of γ-aminobutyric acid to glutamate in turtle's brain, as well as the sensitivity of GABAergic neurons to inputs compared to excitatory neurons. Therefore, MDA, as a metabolic product in the brain, may weaken cerebral function during carbonyl stress through breaking the homeostasis between excitatory and inhibitory neurons.

  11. On the excited state wave functions of Dirac fermions in the random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the RMT approach, the distribution functions for the wave func- tions' amplitude (i.e. p(t)) are derived by means of RMT. It depends only on the global symmetry of the ensemble and has a chi-square form. The asymptotic form of p(t) in 2D samples for L ≪ ξ was found using the renormalization group and replica techniques ...

  12. Evaporation residue excitation function from complete fusion of F-19 with W-184

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nath, S.; Rao, P. V. Madhusudhana; Pal, Santanu; Gehlot, J.; Prasad, E.; Mohanto, Gayatri; Kalkal, Sunil; Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Shidling, P. D.; Golda, K. S.; Jhingan, A.; Madhavan, N.; Muralithar, S.; Sinha, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Evaporation residue cross sections for F-19 + W-184 have been measured at beam energies in the range of 90-130 MeV using the Heavy Ion Reaction Analyzer at the Inter University Accelerator Centre. A new approach, based on Monte Carlo calculations, has been adopted for estimating evaporation residue

  13. Excitation function of (p,α) nuclear reaction on enriched {sup 67}Zn. Possibility of production of {sup 64}Cu at low energy cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szelecsenyi, Ferenc; Kovacs, Zoltan [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary). Cyclotron Application Dept.; Nagatsu, Kotaro; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Suzuki, Kazutosi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Molecular Imaging Center

    2014-09-01

    The potential for production of the medically relevant {sup 64}Cu has been investigated by proton irradiation of highly enriched {sup 67}Zn targets. The excitation function of the {sup 67}Zn(p,α){sup 64}Cu a nuclear reaction was measured by the stacked-foil technique up to 30 MeV. The prediction of the TALYS code was also compared to the measured cross section results. Based on the improved database of the {sup 67}Zn(p,α){sup 64}Cu reaction, thick target yield as a function of energy was also deduced. Production possibility of {sup 64}Cu is discussed in detail, employing different energy proton beams and with regards to the {sup 61}Cu and {sup 67}Cu contamination levels as a function of the target enrichment level. By using 1 μA beam intensity, 6.3505 h irradiation time and enriched {sup 67}Zn target ({sup 64}Zn ≤ 0.5%, {sup 66}Zn ≤ 9%, {sup 67}Zn ≥ 80%, {sup 68}Zn ≤ 10% and {sup 70}Zn ≤ 0.5%), the expected EOB (End Of bombardment) yields are 43.66, 88.80 and 156.14MBq/μA at 12, 15 and 18 MeV proton energies, respectively. Application time-frames were also deduced where the total radio-copper contamination level remains below 1%. (orig.)

  14. Towards Objective Measures of Functional Hearing Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes-Brown, Hamish; Tsongas, Renee; Marozeau, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Aims People with impaired hearing often have difficulties in hearing sounds in a noisy background. This problem is partially a result of the auditory systems reduced capacity to process temporal information in the sound signal. In this study we examined the relationships between perceptual...... before the onset of permanent threshold shifts. Methods We measured TFS sensitivity and speech in noise performance (QuickSIN) behaviourally in 34 normally hearing adults with ages ranging from 18 to 63 years. We recorded brainstem responses to complex harmonic sounds and a 4000 Hz carrier signal...... sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS) cues, brainstem encoding of complex harmonic and amplitude modulated sounds, and the ability to understand speech in noise. Understanding these links will allow the development of an objective measure that could be used to detect changes in functional hearing...

  15. Noninvasive measurement of dynamic correlation functions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uhrich, P

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available of ancilla-free protocols. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.96.022127 I. INTRODUCTION Dynamic correlation functions such as 〈O1(t1)O2(t2)〉 relate the values of some observableO1 at an early time t1 to the value of another observable O2 at a later time t2. They play...—at least in principle—protocol for determin- ing dynamic correlations consists of measuring the observable O1 at time t1 and correlating the outcome with the measured value of O2 at time t2. In a quantum mechanical system, however, such a naive approach...

  16. Reverberation time measurement using integrated impulse response and sweep sine excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabuco, Marco; Brando, Paulo

    2002-11-01

    As the capacity and speed of digital processing systems becomes much higher, the integrated impulsive response for reverberation time measurements by the indirect method also becomes more feasible and faster. The MLS technique to obtain the impulse response for LTI has been developed during the last several years and it is very well reported by the bibliography. Some frequency analyzers available in the market are capable to generate and process MLS to get the impulse responses very easily. Sometimes, when the room to be tested is very reverberant, sequences of higher order and a certain number of average are necessary to assure acceptable signal-to-noise ratio. The sweep sine technique or the deconvolution method to obtain impulsive responses presents many new advantages, most of them still reported in various technical documents. This paper presents the results of application of this technique to measure the reverberation time in two different reverberation rooms. Comparisons with MLS, ensemble, and reverberation time averages are presented. The sweep sine technique repeatability was verified in a reverberation chamber for a polyurethane foam sample and showed smaller standard deviations when compared with other techniques. (To be presented in Portuguese.)

  17. Energy displacement function as a signature for octupole deformation in excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Raduta, A A; Ursu, I I

    2003-01-01

    Energies for three positive and three negative parity bands predicted by the extended coherent states model (ECSM) in sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra are calculated and used to point out new signatures for octupole deformation in ground as well as in beta and gamma bands. A beat pattern is found by using a new displacement energy function which is more appropriate for a spectrum which exhibits large deviation from a linear J(J+1) dependence. The stability against octupole deformation is revisited from a new point of view. (authors)

  18. Using Physiome standards to couple cellular functions for rat cardiac excitation-contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkildsen, Jonna R; Niederer, Steven; Crampin, Edmund J; Hunter, Peter; Smith, Nicolas P

    2008-07-01

    Scientific endeavour is reliant upon the extension and reuse of previous knowledge. The formalization of this process for computational modelling is facilitated by the use of accepted standards with which to describe and simulate models, ensuring consistency between the models and thus reducing the development and propagation of errors. CellML 1.1, an XML-based programming language, has been designed as a modelling standard which, by virtue of its import and grouping functions, facilitates model combination and reuse. Using CellML 1.1, we demonstrate the process of formalized model reuse by combining three separate models of rat cardiomyocyte function (an electrophysiology model, a model of cellular calcium dynamics and a mechanics model) which together make up the Pandit-Hinch-Niederer et al. cell model. Not only is this integrative model of rat electromechanics a useful tool for cardiac modelling but it is also an ideal framework with which to demonstrate both the power of model reuse and the challenges associated with this process. We highlight and classify a number of these issues associated with combining models and provide some suggested solutions.

  19. A Measurement of Semileptonic B Decays to Narrow Orbitally-Excited Charm Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallison, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Elfgren, E.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Howard, R.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kormos, Laura L.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.J.; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2003-01-01

    The decay chain b -> Bbar -> D^{**0} l nu X, D^{**0} -> D^{*+} pi^-, D^{*+} -> D^0 pi^+, D^0 ->(Kpi or K3pi) is identified in a sample of 3.9 million hadronic Z decays collected with the OPAL detector at LEP. The branching ratio BR (b -> Bbar) x BR (Bbar -> D^0_1 l nu X) x BR (D^0_1 -> D^{*+} pi^-) is measured to be (2.64 +- 0.79 (stat) +- 0.39 (syst)) X 10^-3 for the J^P = 1^+ (D^0_1) state. For decays into the J^P = 2^+ (D^{*0}_2) state, an upper limit of 1.4 X 10^-3 is placed on the branching ratio at the 95% confidence level.

  20. Introduction to measure theory and functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cannarsa, Piermarco

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces readers to theories that play a crucial role in modern mathematics, such as integration and functional analysis, employing a unifying approach that views these two subjects as being deeply intertwined. This feature is particularly evident in the broad range of problems examined, the solutions of which are often supported by generous hints. If the material is split into two courses, it can be supplemented by additional topics from the third part of the book, such as functions of bounded variation, absolutely continuous functions, and signed measures. This textbook addresses the needs of graduate students in mathematics, who will find the basic material they will need in their future careers, as well as those of researchers, who will appreciate the self-contained exposition which requires no other preliminaries than basic calculus and linear algebra.

  1. Fluorescence of Bacteria, Pollens, and Naturally Occurring Airborne Particles: Excitation/Emission Spectra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Steven C; Mayo, Michael W; Chang, Richard K

    2009-01-01

    The fluorescence intensity as a function of excitation and emission wavelengths (EEM spectra) was measured for different species of bacteria, biochemical constituents of cells, pollens, and vegetation...

  2. A Practical Solution for 77 K Fluorescence Measurements Based on LED Excitation and CCD Array Detector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Lamb

    Full Text Available The fluorescence emission spectrum of photosynthetic microorganisms at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K provides important insights into the organization of the photosynthetic machinery of bacteria and eukaryotes, which cannot be observed at room temperature. Conventionally, to obtain such spectra, a large and costly table-top fluorometer is required. Recently portable, reliable, and largely maintenance-free instruments have become available that can be utilized to accomplish a wide variety of spectroscopy-based measurements in photosynthesis research. In this report, we show how to build such an instrument in order to record 77K fluorescence spectra. This instrument consists of a low power monochromatic light-emitting diode (LED, and a portable CCD array based spectrometer. The optical components are coupled together using a fiber optic cable, and a custom made housing that also supports a dewar flask. We demonstrate that this instrument facilitates the reliable determination of chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra for the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  3. Discovery and measurement of excited b hadrons at the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pursley, Jennifer Marie [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-08-01

    This thesis presents evidence for the B**0 and Σ$(*)±\\atop{b}$ hadrons in proton-antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV, using data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. In the search for B**0 → B± π, two B± decays modes are reconstructed: B± → J/ΨK±, where J/Ψ → μ+μ-, and B± → $\\bar{D}$0π±, where $\\bar{D}$0 → K± π±. Both modes are reconstructed using 370 ± 20 pb-1 of data. Combining the B± meson with a charged pion to reconstruct B**0 led to the observation and measurement of the masses of the two narrow B**0 states, B$1\\atop{0}$ and B$*0\\atop{2}$, of m(B$1\\atop{0}$) = 5734 ± 3(stat.) ± 2(syst.) MeV/c2; m(B$*0\\atop{2}$) = 5738 ± 5(stat.) ± 1(syst.) MeV/c{sup 2}. In the search for Σ$(*)±\\atop{b}$ → Λ$0\\atop{b}$π±, the Λ$0\\atop{b}$ is reconstructed in the decay mode Λ$0\\atop{b}$ → Λ$+\\atop{c}$π-, where Λ$+\\atop{c}$→ pK- π+, using 1070 ± 60 pb-1 of data. Upon combining the Λ$0\\atop{b}$ candidate with a charged pion, all four of the Σ$(*)±\\atop{b}$ states are observed and their masses measured to be: m(Σ$+\\atop{b}$) = 5807.8$+2.0\\atop{-2.2}$(stat.) ± 1.7(syst.) MeV/c2; m(Σ$+\\atop{b}$) = 5815.2 ± 1.0(stat.) ± 1.7(syst.) MeV/c2; m(Σ$*+\\atop{b}$) = 5829.0$+1.6\\atop{-1.8}$(stat.)$+1.7\\atop{-1.8}$(syst.) MeV/c 2; M(Σ$*-±\\atop{b}$) - 5836.4 ± 2.0(stat.)$+1.8\\atop{-1.7}$(syst.) MeV/c2. This is the first observation of Σ$(*)±\\atop{b}$ baryons.

  4. Verbal Fluency: Language or Executive Function Measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Douglas M; Kealey, Tammy; Semla, Matthew; Luu, Hien; Rice, Linda; Basso, Michael R; Roper, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Measures of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency, such as FAS and Animal Fluency (Benton, Hamsher, & Sivan, 1989), are often thought to be measures of executive functioning (EF). However, some studies (Henry & Crawford, 2004a , 2004b , 2004c ) have noted there is also a language component to these tasks. The current exploratory factor-analytic study examined the underlying cognitive structure of verbal fluency. Participants were administered language and EF measures, including the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (FAS version), Animal Fluency, Boston Naming Test (BNT), Vocabulary (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III), Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST, perseverative responses), and Trail-Making Test-Part B (TMT-B). A 2-factor solution was found with the 1st factor, language, having significant loadings for BNT and Vocabulary, while the second factor was labeled EF because of significant loading from the WCST and TMT-B. Surprisingly, FAS and Animal Fluency loaded exclusively on to the language factor and not EF. The current results do not exclude EF as a determinant of verbal fluency, but they do suggest that language processing is the critical component for this task, even without significant aphasic symptoms. Thus, the results indicated that both letter (phonemic) and category (semantic) fluency are related to language, but the relationship to EF is not supported by the results.

  5. Modulation transfer function measurement using nonspecific views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvit, Jean-Marc; Leger, Dominique; Roques, Sylvie; Valorge, Christophe

    2003-03-01

    The measurement of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) to quantify the quality of an imaging system proves to be very important in the context of Earth observation satellites. In particular, this measurement is essential to carry out the focusing of the telescope, or to implement a deconvolution filter whose goal is to enhance the image contrast or to reduce the noise. Its knowledge also allows us to compare the characteristics of different known and unknown satellites. In this paper, we suggest an univariant MTF measurement method using non specific views. First of all, the landscape has to be characterized in order to discriminate ground structure information from MTF information. Once this separation is carried out, landscape structure information can be extracted, allowing a classification between very uniform scenes and more structured ones. Then the MTF, which is described by a bidimensional analytical physical model, can be assessed using an artificial neural network. The principle is to use the artificial neural network to learn the MTF of simulated or perfectly known images, and then to use it to assess the MTF of totally unknown images. One can show that this method is robust even if the noise is taken into account. As a result, maximum MTF assessment errors are less than 10%. This enables us to suggest further developments including a general scheme of criteria assessment of image quality.

  6. Deuteron induced reactions on Ho and La: Experimental excitation functions and comparison with code results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A., E-mail: aherman@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussel 1090 (Belgium); Adam-Rebeles, R. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussel 1090 (Belgium); Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S.; Csikai, J. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Takacs, M.P. [Institute of Physics, University of Debrecen, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Ignatyuk, A. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk 246020 (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-15

    Activation products of rare earth elements are gaining importance in medical and technical applications. In stacked foil irradiations, followed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy, the cross-sections for production of {sup 161,165}Er, {sup 166g}Ho on {sup 165}Ho and {sup 135,137m,137g,139}Ce, {sup 140}La, {sup 133m,133g,cum}Ba and {sup 136}Cs on {sup nat}La targets were measured up to 50 MeV. Reduced uncertainty is obtained by simultaneous remeasurement of the {sup 27}Al(d,x){sup 24,22}Na monitor reactions over the whole energy range. A comparison with experimental literature values and results from updated theoretical codes (ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and the TENDL2012 online library) is discussed.

  7. New Approaches to Exciting Exergame-Experiences for People with Motor Function Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Martina; Gómez-Martinho, Ignacio; Meneses, Juan; Martínez, José-Fernán

    2017-02-12

    The work presented here suggests new ways to tackle exergames for physical rehabilitation and to improve the players' immersion and involvement. The primary (but not exclusive) purpose is to increase the motivation of children and adolescents with severe physical impairments, for doing their required exercises while playing. The proposed gaming environment is based on the Kinect sensor and the Blender Game Engine. A middleware has been implemented that efficiently transmits the data from the sensor to the game. Inside the game, different newly proposed mechanisms have been developed to distinguish pure exercise-gestures from other movements used to control the game (e.g., opening a menu). The main contribution is the amplification of weak movements, which allows the physically impaired to have similar gaming experiences as the average population. To test the feasibility of the proposed methods, four mini-games were implemented and tested by a group of 11 volunteers with different disabilities, most of them bound to a wheelchair. Their performance has also been compared to that of a healthy control group. Results are generally positive and motivating, although there is much to do to improve the functionalities. There is a major demand for applications that help to include disabled people in society and to improve their life conditions. This work will contribute towards providing them with more fun during exercise.

  8. New Approaches to Exciting Exergame-Experiences for People with Motor Function Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Eckert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here suggests new ways to tackle exergames for physical rehabilitation and to improve the players’ immersion and involvement. The primary (but not exclusive purpose is to increase the motivation of children and adolescents with severe physical impairments, for doing their required exercises while playing. The proposed gaming environment is based on the Kinect sensor and the Blender Game Engine. A middleware has been implemented that efficiently transmits the data from the sensor to the game. Inside the game, different newly proposed mechanisms have been developed to distinguish pure exercise-gestures from other movements used to control the game (e.g., opening a menu. The main contribution is the amplification of weak movements, which allows the physically impaired to have similar gaming experiences as the average population. To test the feasibility of the proposed methods, four mini-games were implemented and tested by a group of 11 volunteers with different disabilities, most of them bound to a wheelchair. Their performance has also been compared to that of a healthy control group. Results are generally positive and motivating, although there is much to do to improve the functionalities. There is a major demand for applications that help to include disabled people in society and to improve their life conditions. This work will contribute towards providing them with more fun during exercise.

  9. Calculation of excitation functions of proton, alpha and deuteron induced reactions for production of medical radioisotopes {sup 122–125}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artun, Ozan, E-mail: ozanartun@yahoo.com; Aytekin, Hüseyin, E-mail: huseyinaytekin@gmail.com

    2015-02-15

    In this work, the excitation functions for production of medical radioisotopes {sup 122–125}I with proton, alpha, and deuteron induced reactions were calculated by two different level density models. For the nuclear model calculations, the Talys 1.6 code were used, which is the latest version of Talys code series. Calculations of excitation functions for production of the {sup 122–125}I isotopes were carried out by using the generalized superfluid model (GSM) and Fermi-gas model (FGM). The results have shown that generalized superfluid model is more successful than Fermi-gas model in explaining the experimental results.

  10. Enhancement of Cortical Excitability and Lower Limb Motor Function in Patients With Stroke by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Min Cheol; Kim, Dae Yul; Park, Dae Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Motor dysfunction in the lower limbs is a common sequela in stroke patients. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to determine if applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the primary motor cortex helps enhance cortical excitability. Furthermore, we evaluate if combination anodal tDCS and conventional physical therapy improves motor function in the lower limbs. Twenty-four patients with early-stage stroke were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 1) the tDCS group, in which patients received 10 sessions of anodal tDCS and conventional physical therapy; and 2) the sham group, in which patients received 10 sessions of sham stimulation and conventional physical therapy. One day before and after intervention, the motor-evoked potential (MEP) of the affected tibialis anterior muscle was evaluated and motor function was assessed using the lower limb subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-LE), lower limb Motricity Index (MI-LE), Functional Ambulatory Category (FAC), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and gait analysis. The MEPs in the tDCS group became shorter in latency and higher in amplitude after intervention in comparison with the sham group. Improvements in FMA-LE and MI-LE were greater in the tDCS group, but no significant differences in FAC or BBS scores were found. Also, the changes observed on the gait analyses did not significantly differ between the tDCS and sham groups. Combination anodal tDCS and conservative physical therapy appears to be a beneficial therapeutic modality for improving motor function in the lower limbs in patients with subacute stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The search for a molecule to measure an autocorrelation trace of the second/third harmonic emission of a Ti:sapphire laser based on two-photon resonant excitation and subsequent one-photon ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imasaka, Tomoko; Okuno, Tomoya; Imasaka, Totaro

    2013-12-01

    The temporal profile of the second and third harmonic emissions of a Ti:sapphire laser was measured using an autocorrelator consisting of a mass spectrometer as a two-photon-response detector. A number of organic compounds that are potentially applicable for two-photon excitation and subsequent one-photon ionization were investigated using density functional theory calculations. N, N'-dimethylaniline and acetonitrile were used for the measurement of the pulse width for the second and third harmonic emissions of the Ti:sapphire laser. This approach has the potential for use in measuring pulse widths as short as 1-3 fs in the ultraviolet region.

  12. Fast-neutron gamma-ray production from elemental iron: E/sub n/ < or approx. = 2 MeV. [Differential cross sections, excitation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.

    1976-05-01

    A Ge(Li) detector and a fission detector were used to measure elemental differential cross section excitation functions for fast-neutron gamma-ray production from iron relative to fast-neutron fission of /sup 235/U. Data were acquired at approximately 50 keV intervals with approximately 50 keV neutron-energy resolution from near threshold to approximately 2 MeV. Angular distributions for the 0.847-MeV gamma ray were measured at 0.93, 0.98, 1.08, 1.18, 1.28, 1.38, 1.59, 1.68, 1.79, 1.85 and 2.03 MeV. Significant fourth-order terms were required for the Legendre polynomial expansions used in fitting several of these angular distributions. This casts doubt on the accuracy of the commonly used approximation that the integrated gamma-ray production cross section is essentially equal to 4..pi.. times the 55-degree (or 125-degree) differential cross section. The method employed in processing these data is described. Comparison is made between results from the present work and some previously reported data sets. The uncertainties associated with energy scales, neutron-energy resolution and other experimental factors for these various measurements make it difficult to draw conclusions concerning the observed differences in the values reported for these fluctuating cross sections.

  13. New evolution equations for the joint response-excitation probability density function of stochastic solutions to first-order nonlinear PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, D.; Karniadakis, G. E.

    2012-08-01

    By using functional integral methods we determine new evolution equations satisfied by the joint response-excitation probability density function (PDF) associated with the stochastic solution to first-order nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). The theory is presented for both fully nonlinear and for quasilinear scalar PDEs subject to random boundary conditions, random initial conditions or random forcing terms. Particular applications are discussed for the classical linear and nonlinear advection equations and for the advection-reaction equation. By using a Fourier-Galerkin spectral method we obtain numerical solutions of the proposed response-excitation PDF equations. These numerical solutions are compared against those obtained by using more conventional statistical approaches such as probabilistic collocation and multi-element probabilistic collocation methods. It is found that the response-excitation approach yields accurate predictions of the statistical properties of the system. In addition, it allows to directly ascertain the tails of probabilistic distributions, thus facilitating the assessment of rare events and associated risks. The computational cost of the response-excitation method is order magnitudes smaller than the one of more conventional statistical approaches if the PDE is subject to high-dimensional random boundary or initial conditions. The question of high-dimensionality for evolution equations involving multidimensional joint response-excitation PDFs is also addressed.

  14. arXiv Study of the long-lived excited state in the neutron deficient nuclides $^{195,197,199}$Po by precision mass measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Althubiti, N.A.; Blaum, K.; Cocolios, T.E.; Day Goodacre, T.; Farooq-Smith, G.J.; Fedorov, D.V.; Fedosseev, V.N.; George, S.; Herfurth, F.; Heyde, K.; Kreim, S.; Lunney, D.; Lynch, K.M.; Manea, V.; Marsh, B.A.; Neidherr, D.; Rosenbusch, M.; Rossel, R.E.; Rothe, S.; Schweikhard, L.; Seliverstov, M.D.; Welker, A.; Wienholtz, F.; Wolf, R.N.; Zuber, K.

    2017-10-27

    Direct mass measurements of the low-spin 3/2− and high-spin 13/2+ states in the neutron-deficient isotopes Po195 and Po197 were performed with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE-CERN. These measurements allow the determination of the excitation energy of the isomeric state arising from the νi13/2 orbital in Po195,197. Additionally, the excitation energy of isomeric states of lead, radon, and radium isotopes in this region were obtained from α-decay chains. These excitation energies complete the knowledge of the energy systematics in the region and confirm that the 13/2+ states remain isomeric, independent of the number of valence neutrons.

  15. Excitation function of ³He induced nuclear reactions on (nat)Pt up to 26 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abyad, M; Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S

    2013-02-01

    The energy dependence of the cross-sections of (3)He-particle induced reactions on (nat)Pt targets was studied in the energy range from threshold up to 26 MeV, using a stacked-foil irradiation technique and classical gamma-spectroscopy. The formation of the radioisotopes via (nat)Pt((3)He,xn)(192)Hg, (nat)Pt((3)He,xn)(193 m,g)Hg, (nat)Pt((3)He,xn)(195m,g)Hg, (nat)Pt((3)He,xn)(197 m,g)Hg, (nat)Pt((3)He,xn)(199 m)Hg, (nat)Pt((3)He,pxn)(192,193,194,195,199,200 m)Au, (nat)Pt((3)He,pxn)(196 m,g)Au, (nat)Pt((3)He,pxn)(198 m,g)Au and (nat)Pt((3)He,2pxn)(197 m,199)Pt reactions were assessed. The obtained excitation functions were compared with the earlier published data and the theoretical model calculations by the codes ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-03, TALYS-1.4 and TENDL-2011 activation data library. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vibrationally Excited c-C_3H_2 Re-Visited New Laboratory Measurements and Theoretical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Harshal; Westerfield, J. H.; Baraban, Joshua H.; Changala, Bryan; Thorwirth, Sven; Stanton, John F.; Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Pirali, Olivier; Gottlieb, Carl A.; McCarthy, Michael C.

    2017-06-01

    Cyclopropenylidene, c-C_3H_2, is one of the more abundant organic molecules in the interstellar medium, as evidenced from astronomical detection of its single ^{13}C and both its singly- and doubly-deuterated isotopic species. For this reason, vibrational satellites are of considerable astronomical interest, and were the primary motivation for the earlier laboratory work by Mollaaghababa and co-workers [1]. The recent detection of intense unidentified lines near 18 GHz in a hydrocarbon discharge by FT microwave spectroscopy has spurred a renewed search for the vibrational satellite transitions of c-C_3H_2. Several strong lines have been definitively assigned to the v_6 progression on the basis of follow-up measurements at 3 mm, double resonance and millimeter-wave absorption spectroscopy, and new theoretical calculations using a rovibrational VMP2 method [2] and a high-quality ab initio potential energy surface. The treatment was applied to several excited states as well as the ground state, and included deperturbation of Coriolis interactions. [1] R. Mollaaghababa, C.A. Gottlieb, J. M. Vrtilek, and P. Thaddeus, J. Chem. Phys., 99, 890-896 (1992). [2] P. B. Changala and J. H. Baraban. J. Chem. Phys., 145, 174106 (2016).

  17. Distinguishing the laser-induced spin precession excitation mechanism in Fe/MgO(001) through field orientation dependent measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T. P.; Zhang, S. F.; Yang, Y.; Chen, Z. H.; Zhao, H. B.; Wu, Y. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Rotational field dependence of laser-induced magnetization precession in a single-crystal Fe/MgO(001) sample was studied by the time resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect. Polar and longitudinal magnetization components were separated by measuring precession dynamics under opposite fields. When the applied field is weaker than the anisotropy field of an Fe film, the precession amplitude is small for the field direction near the easy axis and becomes larger as the field rotates towards the hard axis, showing a four-fold symmetry in agreement with the in-plane magnetic anisotropy; whereas at higher fields, the amplitude displays a drop near the hard axis. Such precession behavior can be well reproduced using an excitation model with rapidly modified but slowly recovered magnetic anisotropy and considering the elliptical precession trajectory. Our results indicate that the dominant mechanism for triggering Fe spin precession is the anisotropy modulation correlating with the lattice thermalization, rather than the transient anisotropy modulation due to the high electron temperature within 1 ps.

  18. Measurements and kinetic modeling of atomic species in fuel-oxidizer mixtures excited by a repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, C.; Eckert, Z.; Yin, Z.; Frederickson, K.; Adamovich, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the results of number density measurements of metastable Ar atoms and ground state H atoms in diluted mixtures of H2 and O2 with Ar, as well as ground state O atoms in diluted H2–O2–Ar, CH4–O2–Ar, C3H8–O2–Ar, and C2H4–O2–Ar mixtures excited by a repetitive nanosecond pulse discharge. The measurements have been made in a nanosecond pulse, double dielectric barrier discharge plasma sustained in a flow reactor between two plane electrodes encapsulated within dielectric material, at an initial temperature of 500 K and pressures ranging from 300 Torr to 700 Torr. Metastable Ar atom number density distribution in the afterglow is measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy, and used to characterize plasma uniformity. Temperature rise in the reacting flow is measured by Rayleigh scattering. H atom and O atom number densities are measured by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence. The results are compared with kinetic model predictions, showing good agreement, with the exception of extremely lean mixtures. O atoms and H atoms in the plasma are produced mainly during quenching of electronically excited Ar atoms generated by electron impact. In H2–Ar and O2–Ar mixtures, the atoms decay by three-body recombination. In H2–O2–Ar, CH4–O2–Ar, and C3H8–O2–Ar mixtures, O atoms decay in a reaction with OH, generated during H atom reaction with HO2, with the latter produced by three-body H atom recombination with O2. The net process of O atom decay is O  +  H  →  OH, such that the decay rate is controlled by the amount of H atoms produced in the discharge. In extra lean mixtures of propane and ethylene with O2–Ar the model underpredicts the O atom decay rate. At these conditions, when fuel is completely oxidized by the end of the discharge burst, the net process of O atom decay, O  +  O  →  O2, becomes nearly independent of H atom number density. Lack of agreement with the

  19. Excitation functions of 186,187,188,189,190,192Ir formed in proton-induced reactions on highly enriched 192Os up to 66 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelecsényi, F.; Vermeulen, C.; Steyn, G. F.; Kovács, Z.; Aardaneh, K.; van der Walt, T. N.

    2010-10-01

    Cross sections of proton-induced nuclear reactions on highly enriched 192Os were measured up to 66 MeV by using the stacked-foil irradiation technique. Excitation functions are presented for the reactions 192Os(p,n) 192Ir, 192Os(p,3n) 190Ir, 192Os(p,4n) 189Ir, 192Os(p,5n) 188Ir, 192Os(p,6n) 187Ir and 192Os(p,7n) 186Ir. No earlier experimental cross-section data could be found in the literature except for the 192Os(p,n) 192Ir process. Our new experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions by means of the theoretical model code ALICE/ASH. Integral thick-target yield calculations were also performed for the 192Os(p,n) 192Ir and 192Os(p,3n) 190Ir reactions to evaluate the 190Ir contamination level, as a function of energy, in the case of 192Ir productions.

  20. Excited-state free energy surfaces in solution: time-dependent density functional theory∕reference interaction site model self-consistent field method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minezawa, Noriyuki

    2013-06-28

    Constructing free energy surfaces for electronically excited states is a first step toward the understanding of photochemical processes in solution. For that purpose, the analytic free energy gradient is derived and implemented for the linear-response time-dependent density functional theory combined with the reference interaction site model self-consistent field method. The proposed method is applied to study (1) the fluorescence spectra of aqueous acetone and (2) the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer reaction of ortho-hydroxybenzaldehyde in an acetonitrile solution.

  1. Determination of the excitation function for the 10B(p,n)10C reaction with implications for the production of [10C]carbon dioxide for use as a PET tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alve, F; Jensen, M; Jensen, H J; Nickles, R J; Holm, S

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate the possibilities of producing useful amounts of 10C (T1/2 = 19 s) for use as an on-line, steady state positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, the excitation function and the thick target yield for the 10B(p,n)10C reaction up to 30 MeV were measured using an adapted version of the stacked-foil technique. The radionuclidic purity of the produced 10C versus the inevitable 11C contamination was evaluated as function of target thickness and incident proton beam energy.

  2. Excitation function of the {sup 192}Os({sup 3}He,4n)-reaction for production of {sup 191}Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qaim, S.M. [Institut fuer Neurowissenschaften und Biophysik, INB-4: Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: s.m.qaim@fz-juelich.de; Hilgers, K.; Sudar, S.; Coenen, H.H. [Institut fuer Neurowissenschaften und Biophysik, INB-4: Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    In search of an alternative production route of the therapeutically and environmentally interesting radionuclide {sup 191}Pt (T{sub 1/2}=2.8 d), excitation function of the {sup 192}Os({sup 3}He,4n){sup 191}Pt reaction was measured from its threshold up to 36 MeV. Thin samples of enriched {sup 192}Os were prepared by electrodeposition on Ni-foils, and the conventional stacked-foil technique was used for cross-section measurements. The experimental data were compared with the results of theoretical calculations using the codes ALICE-IPPE and TALYS. Good agreement was found with TALYS. The theoretical thick target yield of {sup 191}Pt over the energy range E{sub 3{sub H}{sub e}}=36{yields}25MeV amounts to 6.7 MBq/{mu}A h. A comparison of various investigated production methods of {sup 191}Pt is given. The here investigated {sup 192}Os({sup 3}He,4n)-process leads to very high-purity {sup 191}Pt (>99.5%)

  3. Excitation function for the production of 262Bh (Z = 107) in theodd-Z projectile reaction 208Pb(55Mn, n)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folden III, C.M.; Nelson, S.L.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Schwantes, J.M.; Sudowe, R.; Zielinski, P.M.; Gregorich, K.E.; Nitsche, H.; Hoffman, D.C.

    2005-05-16

    The excitation function for production of 262Bh in the odd-Z-projectile reaction 208Pb(55Mn,n) has been measured at three projectile energies using the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. In total, 33 decay chains originating from 262Bh and 2 decay chains originating from 261Bh were observed. The measured decay properties are in good agreement with previous reports. The maximum cross section of 540 +180 - 150 pb is observed at a lab-frame center-of-target energy of 264.0 MeV and is more than fives times larger than that expected based on previously reported results for production of 262Bh in the analogous even-Z-projectile reaction 209Bi(54Cr,n). Our results indicate that the optimum beam energy in one-neutron-out heavy-ion fusion reactions can be estimated simply using the ''Optimum Energy Rule'' proposed by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski.

  4. Production of {sup 111}In and {sup 114m}In by proton induced reactions. An update on excitation functions, chemical separation - purification and recovery of target material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, Alex; Adam-Rebeles, Razvan; Winkel, Pierre van den [Vrije Univ. Brussel (VUB) (Belgium). Cyclotron Lab.; Tarkanyi, Ferenc; Takacs, Sandor [Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Atomki), Debrecen (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Research

    2014-07-01

    In order to update the recommended cross section data of IAEA for production of {sup 111}In and {sup 114m}In through the {sup 112}Cd(p,2n) and {sup 114}Cd(p,n) reactions new measurements were performed. In stacked-foil irradiations with incident proton energy of 36.7 and 25 MeV on highly enriched {sup 112}Cd and {sup 114}Cd targets, the excitation functions for {sup 109,110g,110m,111,113m,114m}In were determined, relative to the monitor reactions {sup nat}Cu(p,x){sup 62,65}Zn. The results are compared with the available literature values (also extracted from measurements on {sup nat}Cd) and with data listed in the on-line library TENDL-2012 (calculated with the TALYS 1.4 theoretical code). The industrial, PC-controlled automated dissolution and separation chemistry apparatus for delivery of large quantities of nca {sup 111}In and the recovery of enriched {sup 112}Cd from processed irradiated targets are described.

  5. MCSCF wave functions for excited states of polar molecules - Application to BeO. [Multi-Configuration Self-Consistent Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Yarkony, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    A previously reported multi-configuration self-consistent field (MCSCF) algorithm based on the generalized Brillouin theorem is extended in order to treat the excited states of polar molecules. In particular, the algorithm takes into account the proper treatment of nonorthogonality in the space of single excitations and invokes, when necessary, a constrained optimization procedure to prevent the variational collapse of excited states. In addition, a configuration selection scheme (suitable for use in conjunction with extended configuration interaction methods) is proposed for the MCSCF procedure. The algorithm is used to study the low-lying singlet states of BeO, a system which has not previously been studied using an MCSCF procedure. MCSCF wave functions are obtained for three 1 Sigma + and two 1 Pi states. The 1 Sigma + results are juxtaposed with comparable results for MgO in order to assess the generality of the description presented here.

  6. Hand Function Measurement with Educable Mental Retardates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Patricia L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Reports on results of the Developmental Hand Function Test administered to 28 educable mentally retarded and 34 normal 12-and 14-year-old girls to show that manual dexterity and functional had skills are compromised in the mentally retarded. (DS)

  7. Measurement of Absolute Hydroxyl Radical Concentration in Lean Fuel-Air Mixtures Excited by Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Z.; Lempert, W. R.; Adamovich, I. V.

    2013-06-01

    The focus in plasma assisted combustion research has been on the evaluation of conventional plasma/combustion mechanisms in predicting oxidation and ignition processes initiated and/or sustained by non-equilibrium, nanosecond discharges. Accurate quantitative data such as temperature and species concentration are needed for assessing and improving numerical modeling. As an important intermediate species, the concentration of hydroxyl radical (OH) is very sensitive to the combustion environment (e.g., temperature, equivalence ratio), and therefore is of great interest to kinetic study. In this work, Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) was used for time-resolved temperature and OH number density measurements in lean H_2-, CH_4-, C_2H_4-, and C_3H_8- air mixtures in a plasma flow reactor inside a tube furnace. The premixed fuel-air flow in the reactor, initially at T_0=500 K and P=100 torr, was excited by a burst of repetitive nanosecond electric pulses in a dielectric-barrier plane-to-plane geometry (˜28 kV peak voltage and ˜5 nsec pulse width, estimated 1.25 mJ/pulse coupled energy). Laser was timed to probe after the discharge burst was over to avoid strong plasma emission interference. Relative fluorescence signal was put on an absolute scale by calibrating against Rayleigh scattering signal in the same flow reactor. Experimental results were compared to predictions from a 0-D plasma/combustion chemistry model employing several well-established combustion mechanisms. 2-D temperature and OH concentration distributions in the discharge volume were obtained by planar LIF and was used to quantitatively evaluate plasma uniformity in the reactor. These results were used to determine the validity of the 0-D model. thanks

  8. Functional Independence Measure Penderita Cedera Servikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zafrullah Arifin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spine injury is one of the most common spinal cord injuries in trauma patients. From 100,000 spinal cord injury cases reported in the United States of America (2008, 2/3 involved cervical spine injury. American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA Impairment Score is used as an initial assessment but further prognostic outcome of these patients is often not paid enough attention. The objective of this study was to find the value of functional independence measure (FIM cervical spine injury patients with conservative management and correlation with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma, cervical bone abnormalities, type of spinal lesion and ASIA Impairment Score. A prospective cohort study was performed to all patients with cervical spine injury which fullfil the inclusion criteria treated in Neurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung. The subjects were classified based on age, sex, single/multiple trauma, acute/chronic, cervical bone abnormalities, complete/incomplete lesion, ASIA impairment score and initial complication. The patients were performed to FIM examination in Outpatient clinic of Neurosurgery. T-test and chi-square test with p<0.05 were done to analyze the data. There were 17 cervical spine injury patients treated in Neurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung during April 2009–April 2010. The average FIM value of cervical spine injury in those patients was 4+1.63 by cohort prospective study. There were no correlation between FIM value with age (p=0.064, sex (p=0.144, type of trauma (p=0.959, onset of trauma (p=0.220 and cervical bone abnormalities (p=0.869. We found a significant correlation between FIM value with type of cervical spine lesion (p=0.037 and ASIA Impairment Score (p<0.001 in cervical spine patients. In conclusion, type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score have significant correlation with FIM value of patients in 3 months after cervical injury.

  9. Study of the long-lived excited state in the neutron deficient nuclides $^{195,197,199}$Po by precision mass measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Althubiti, N. A.; Atanasov, D; Blaum, K.; Cocolios, T. E.; Goodacre, T Day; Farooq-Smith, G. J.; Fedorov, D.V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; George, S.; Herfurth, F.; Heyde, K; Kreim, S; Lunney, D.; Lynch, K.M.; Manea, V.

    2017-01-01

    Direct mass measurements of the low-spin $3/2^{(-)}$ and high-spin $13/2^{(+)}$ states in the neutron-deficient isotopes $^{195}$Po, $^{197}$Po, and high-spin $13/2^{(+)}$ state in $^{199}$Po were performed with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE-CERN. These measurements allow the determination of the excitation energy of the isomeric state arising from the $\

  10. Electronically Excited States of Vitamin B12: Benchmark Calculations Including Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory and Correlated Ab Initio Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kornobis, Karina; Wong, Bryan M; Lodowski, Piotr; Jaworska, Maria; Andruniów, Tadeusz; Rudd, Kenneth; Kozlowski, Pawel M; 10.1021/jp110914y

    2011-01-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and correlated ab initio methods have been applied to the electronically excited states of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin or CNCbl). Different experimental techniques have been used to probe the excited states of CNCbl, revealing many issues that remain poorly understood from an electronic structure point of view. Due to its efficient scaling with size, TD-DFT emerges as one of the most practical tools that can be used to predict the electronic properties of these fairly complex molecules. However, the description of excited states is strongly dependent on the type of functional used in the calculations. In the present contribution, the choice of a proper functional for vitamin B12 was evaluated in terms of its agreement with both experimental results and correlated ab initio calculations. Three different functionals, i.e. B3LYP, BP86, and LC-BLYP, were tested. In addition, the effect of relative contributions of DFT and HF to the exchange-correlation functional ...

  11. AGS vertical beta function measurements for Run 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ahrens, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-10-07

    One key parameter for running the AGS efficiently is by maintaining a low emittance. To measure emittance, one needs to measure the beta function throughout the cycle. This can be done by measuring the beta function at the ionization profile monitors (IPM) in the AGS. This tech note delves into the motivation, the measurement, and some strides that were made throughout Run15.

  12. Testing Noncollinear Spin-Flip, Collinear Spin-Flip, and Conventional Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory for Predicting Electronic Excitation Energies of Closed-Shell Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuefei; Yang, Ke R; Truhlar, Donald G

    2014-05-13

    Conventional time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is based on a closed-shell Kohn-Sham (KS) singlet ground state with the adiabatic approximation, using either linear response (KS-LR) or the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (KS-TDA); these methods can only directly predict singly excited states. This deficiency can be overcome by using a triplet state as the reference in the KS-TDA approximation and "exciting" the singlet by a spin flip (SF) from the triplet; this is the method suggested by Krylov and co-workers, and we abbreviate this procedure as SF-KS-TDA. SF-KS-TDA can be applied either with the original collinear kernel of Krylov and co-workers or with a noncollinear kernel, as suggested by Wang and Ziegler. The SF-KS-TDA method does bring some new practical difficulties into play, but it can at least formally model doubly excited states and states with double-excitation character, so it might be more useful than conventional TDDFT (both KS-LR and KS-TDA) for photochemistry if these additional difficulties can be surmounted and if it is accurate with existing approximate exchange-correlation functionals. In the present work, we carried out calculations specifically designed to understand better the accuracy and limitations of the conventional TDDFT and SF-KS-TDA methods; we did this by studying closed-shell atoms and closed-shell monatomic cations because they provide a simple but challenging testing ground for what we might expect in studying the photochemistry of molecules with closed-shell ground states. To test their accuracy, we applied conventional KS-LR and KS-TDA and 18 versions of SF-KS-TDA (nine collinear and nine noncollinear) to the same set of vertical excitation energies (including both Rydberg and valence excitations) of Be, B(+), Ne, Na(+), Mg, and Al(+). We did this for 10 exchange-correlation functionals of various types, both local and nonlocal. We found that the GVWN5 and M06 functionals with nonlocal kernels in spin-flip calculations

  13. Excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    1974-01-01

    Excited States, Volume I reviews radiationless transitions, phosphorescence microwave double resonance through optical spectra in molecular solids, dipole moments in excited states, luminescence of polar molecules, and the problem of interstate interaction in aromatic carbonyl compounds. The book discusses the molecular electronic radiationless transitions; the double resonance techniques and the relaxation mechanisms involving the lowest triplet state of aromatic compounds; as well as the optical spectra and relaxation in molecular solids. The text also describes dipole moments and polarizab

  14. Extension of excitation functions up to 50 MeV for activation products in deuteron irradiations of Pr and Tm targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A., E-mail: aherman@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels B1050 (Belgium); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F. [Cyclotron, ATOMKI, Debrecen H4026 (Hungary)

    2016-09-15

    Extension up to 50 MeV incident deuteron energy is presented for excitation functions of activation products formed in monoisotopic Tm ({sup 169}Tm) and Pr ({sup 141}Pr). By stacked foil irradiations direct and/or cumulative production of {sup 140,139m,138}Nd, {sup 138m}Pr, {sup 141,139,137m,135}Ce on Pr and {sup 166,169}Yb, {sup 166,167,168}Tm on Tm targets were measured. Confirmation of earlier experimental results for all investigated radionuclides is found and the influence of the higher energy on thick target yields and batch production of medically relevant radionuclides ({sup 140}Nd, {sup 139}Pr (as decay product of {sup 139m}Nd), {sup 166,169}Yb, {sup 167}Tm) is discussed. A comparison of experimental values with TALYS1.6 code results (predicted values from TENDL-2015 on-line library) shows a better description of the (d,pxn) reactions than older ones.

  15. Lowest excited states and optical absorption spectra of donor–acceptor copolymers for organic photovoltaics: a new picture emerging from tuned long-range corrected density functionals

    KAUST Repository

    Pandey, Laxman

    2012-01-01

    Polymers with low optical gaps are of importance to the organic photovoltaics community due to their potential for harnessing a large portion of the solar energy spectrum. The combination along their backbones of electron-rich and electron-deficient fragments contributes to the presence of low-lying excited states that are expected to display significant charge-transfer character. While conventional hybrid functionals are known to provide unsatisfactory results for charge-transfer excitations at the time-dependent DFT level, long-range corrected (LRC) functionals have been reported to give improved descriptions in a number of systems. Here, we use such LRC functionals, considering both tuned and default range-separation parameters, to characterize the absorption spectra of low-optical-gap systems of interest. Our results indicate that tuned LRC functionals lead to simulated optical-absorption properties in good agreement with experimental data. Importantly, the lowest-lying excited states (excitons) are shown to present a much more localized nature than initially anticipated. © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  16. Excitation function of the alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on enriched {sup 116}Cd, production of the theranostic isotope {sup 117m}Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditrói, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Takács, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Haba, H.; Komori, Y. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Tokyo (Japan); Aikawa, M. [Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Szűcs, Z. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Saito, M. [Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Alpha induced nuclear reactions on enriched {sup 116}Cd up to 51 MeV. • Electro-deposited target with Cu backing. • Comparison with the EMPIRE 3.2 and TENDL-2015 calculations. • Physical yield. • {sup 117m}Sn theranostic radioisotope. - Abstract: {sup 117m}Sn is one of the radioisotopes can be beneficially produced through alpha particle irradiation. The targets were prepared by deposition of {sup 116}Cd metal onto high purity 12 μm thick Cu backing. The average deposited thickness was 21.9 μm. The beam energy was thoroughly measured by Time of Flight (TOF) methods and proved to be 51.2 MeV. For the experiment the well-established stacked foil technique was used. In addition to the Cd targets, Ti foils were also inserted into the stacks for energy and intensity monitoring. The Cu backings were also used for monitoring and as recoil catcher of the reaction products from the cadmium layer. The activities of the irradiated foils were measured with HPGe detector for gamma-ray spectrometry and cross section values were determined. As a result excitation functions for the formation of {sup 117m}Sn, {sup 117m,g}In, {sup 116m}In, {sup 115m}In and {sup 115m,g}Cd from enriched {sup 116}Cd were deduced and compared with the available literature data and with the results of the nuclear reaction model code calculations EMPIRE 3.2 and TALYS 1.8. Yield curves were also deduced for the measured nuclear reactions and compared with the literature.

  17. Nuclear model analysis of excitation functions of proton, deuteron and α-particle induced reactions on nickel isotopes for production of the medically interesting copper-61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, M N; Qaim, S M

    2014-07-01

    Excitation functions of the (61)Ni(p,n)(61)Cu, (62)Ni(p,2n)(61)Cu, (60)Ni(d,n)(61)Cu and (58)Ni(α,p)(61)Cu reactions were analyzed with respect to the production of (61)Cu (T½=3.33 h), a promising radionuclide for PET imaging. The nuclear model codes EMPIRE and TALYS reproduced the experimental data of all reactions well, except those for the (d,n) process. The fitted excitation functions were employed to calculate the integral yield of (61)Cu in all reactions. The amounts of the possible impurities (62)Cu and (60)Cu were assessed. A validation of the evaluated (p,xn) data was attempted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Formation of Bonded Exciplex in the Excited States of Dicyanoanthracene-Pyridine System : Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, D.; Sethio, D.; Martoprawiro, M.A.; Filatov, M.; Gaol, FL; Nguyen, QV

    2012-01-01

    Strong quenching of fluorescence was recently observed in pyridine solutions of 9,10-dicyanoanthracene chromophore. It was hypothesized that quenching may be attributed to the formation of bound charge transfer complexes in the excited states of the molecules. In this work, using time-dependent

  19. Magnetism of an Excited Self-Conjugate Nucleus: Precise Measurement of the g Factor of the 21+ State in Mg24

    CERN Document Server

    Kusoglu, A; Georgiev, G; Brown, B  A; Goasduff, A; Atanasova, L; Balabanski, D  L; Bostan, M; Danchev, M; Detistov, P; Gladnishki, K  A; Ljungvall, J; Matea, I; Radeck, D; Sotty, C; Stefan, I; Verney, D; Yordanov, D  T

    2015-01-01

    A precise measurement of the g factor of the first-excited state in the self-conjugate (N=Z) nucleus Mg24 is performed by a new time-differential recoil-in-vacuum method based on the hyperfine field of hydrogenlike ions. Theory predicts that the g factors of such states, in which protons and neutrons occupy the same orbits, should depart from 0.5 by a few percent due to configuration mixing and meson-exchange effects. The experimental result, g=0.538±0.013, is in excellent agreement with recent shell-model calculations and shows a departure from 0.5 by almost 3 standard deviations, thus achieving, for the first time, the precision and accuracy needed to test theory. Proof of the new method opens the way for wide applications including measurements of the magnetism of excited states of exotic nuclei produced as radioactive beams.

  20. Magnetism of an excited self-conjugate nucleus: precise measurement of the g factor of the 2(1)(+) state in (24)Mg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusoglu, A; Stuchbery, A E; Georgiev, G; Brown, B A; Goasduff, A; Atanasova, L; Balabanski, D L; Bostan, M; Danchev, M; Detistov, P; Gladnishki, K A; Ljungvall, J; Matea, I; Radeck, D; Sotty, C; Stefan, I; Verney, D; Yordanov, D T

    2015-02-13

    A precise measurement of the g factor of the first-excited state in the self-conjugate (N=Z) nucleus (24)Mg is performed by a new time-differential recoil-in-vacuum method based on the hyperfine field of hydrogenlike ions. Theory predicts that the g factors of such states, in which protons and neutrons occupy the same orbits, should depart from 0.5 by a few percent due to configuration mixing and meson-exchange effects. The experimental result, g=0.538±0.013, is in excellent agreement with recent shell-model calculations and shows a departure from 0.5 by almost 3 standard deviations, thus achieving, for the first time, the precision and accuracy needed to test theory. Proof of the new method opens the way for wide applications including measurements of the magnetism of excited states of exotic nuclei produced as radioactive beams.

  1. NuTeV Structure Function Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanov, M.; Adams, T.; Alton, A.; Avvakumov, S.; de Barbaro, L.; de Barbaro, P.; Bernstein, R. H.; Bodek, A.; Bolton, T.; Boyd, S.; Brau, J.; Buchholz, D.; Budd, H.; Bugel, L.; Conrad, J.; Drucker, R. B.; Fleming, B. T.; Formaggio, J.; Frey, R.; Goldman, J.; Goncharov, M.; Harris, D. A.; Kim, J. H.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Johnson, R. A.; Lamm, M. J.; Marsh, W.; Mason, D.; McFarland, K. S.; McNulty, C.; Naples, D.; Nienaber, P.; Radescu, V.; Romosan, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Schellman, H.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E. G.; Suwonjandee, N.; Tobien, N.; Vaitaitis, A.; Vakili, M.; Yang, U. K.; Yu, J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    The NuTeV experiment obtained high statistics samples of neutrino and antineutrino charged current events during the 1996-1997 Fermilab fixed target run. The experiment combines sign-selected neutrino and antineutrino beams and the upgraded CCFR iron-scintillator neutrino detector. A precision continuous calibration beam was used to determine the muon and hadron energy scales to a precision of 0.7% and 0.43% respectively. The structure functions F2(x, Q2) and xF3(x, Q2) obtained by fitting the y-dependence of the sum and the difference of the ν and bar {ν } differential cross sections are presented.

  2. A Functional Ontology of Observation and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Werner

    An ontology of observation and measurement is proposed, which models the relevant information processes independently of sensor technology. It is kept at a sufficiently general level to be widely applicable as well as compatible with a broad range of existing and evolving sensor and measurement standards. Its primary purpose is to serve as an extensible backbone for standards in the emerging semantic sensor web. It also provides a foundation for semantic reference systems by grounding the semantics of observations, as generators of data. In its current state, it does not yet deal with resolution and uncertainty, nor does it specify the notion of a semantic datum formally, but it establishes the ontological basis for these as well as other extensions.

  3. Assessment of charge-transfer excitations with time-dependent, range-separated density functional theory based on long-range MP2 and multiconfigurational self- consistent field wave functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik D.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Knecht, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Charge transfer excitations can be described within Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT), not only by means of the Coulomb Attenuated Method (CAM) but also with a combination of wave function theory and TD-DFT based on range separation. The latter approach enables a rigorous formulat......Charge transfer excitations can be described within Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT), not only by means of the Coulomb Attenuated Method (CAM) but also with a combination of wave function theory and TD-DFT based on range separation. The latter approach enables a rigorous...... formulation of multi-determinantal TD-DFT schemes where excitation classes, which are absent in conventional TD-DFT spectra (like for example double excitations), can be addressed. This paper investigates the combination of both the long-range Multi-Configuration Self-Consistent Field (MCSCF) and Second Order...... Polarization Propagator Approximation (SOPPA) ansätze with a short-range DFT (srDFT) description. We find that the combinations of SOPPA or MCSCF with TD-DFT yield better results than could be expected from the pure wave function schemes. For the Time-Dependent MCSCF short-range DFT ansatz (TD...

  4. Precision measurements and test of molecular theory in highly-excited vibrational states of H$_2$ $(v=11)$

    CERN Document Server

    Trivikram, T Madhu; Wcisło, P; Ubachs, W; Salumbides, E J

    2016-01-01

    Accurate $EF{}^1\\Sigma^+_g-X{}^1\\Sigma^+_g$ transition energies in molecular hydrogen were determined for transitions originating from levels with highly-excited vibrational quantum number, $v=11$, in the ground electronic state. Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy was applied on vibrationally excited H$_2^*$, produced via the photodissociation of H$_2$S, yielding transition frequencies with accuracies of $45$ MHz or $0.0015$ cm$^{-1}$. An important improvement is the enhanced detection efficiency by resonant excitation to autoionizing $7p\\pi$ electronic Rydberg states, resulting in narrow transitions due to reduced ac-Stark effects. Using known $EF$ level energies, the level energies of $X(v=11, J=1,3-5)$ states are derived with accuracies of typically 0.002 cm$^{-1}$. These experimental values are in excellent agreement with, and are more accurate than the results obtained from the most advanced ab initio molecular theory calculations including relativistic and QED contributions.

  5. Organic electronic materials: Recent advances in the dft description of the ground and excited states using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals

    KAUST Repository

    Körzdörfer, Thomas

    2014-11-18

    Density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TD-DFT) are powerful tools enabling the theoretical prediction of the ground- and excited-state properties of organic electronic materials with reasonable accuracy at affordable computational costs. Due to their excellent accuracy-to-numerical-costs ratio, semilocal and global hybrid functionals such as B3LYP have become the workhorse for geometry optimizations and the prediction of vibrational spectra in modern theoretical organic chemistry. Despite the overwhelming success of these out-of-the-box functionals for such applications, the computational treatment of electronic and structural properties that are of particular interest in organic electronic materials sometimes reveals severe and qualitative failures of such functionals. Important examples include the overestimation of conjugation, torsional barriers, and electronic coupling as well as the underestimation of bond-length alternations or excited-state energies in low-band-gap polymers.In this Account, we highlight how these failures can be traced back to the delocalization error inherent to semilocal and global hybrid functionals, which leads to the spurious delocalization of electron densities and an overestimation of conjugation. The delocalization error for systems and functionals of interest can be quantified by allowing for fractional occupation of the highest occupied molecular orbital. It can be minimized by using long-range corrected hybrid functionals and a nonempirical tuning procedure for the range-separation parameter.We then review the benefits and drawbacks of using tuned long-range corrected hybrid functionals for the description of the ground and excited states of π-conjugated systems. In particular, we show that this approach provides for robust and efficient means of characterizing the electronic couplings in organic mixed-valence systems, for the calculation of accurate torsional barriers at the polymer limit, and for the

  6. Simultaneous current-, force- and work function measurement with atomic resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Herz, Markus; Schiller, Christian H.; Giessibl, Franz J.; Mannhart, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    The local work function of a surface determines the spatial decay of the charge density at the Fermi level normal to the surface. Here, we present a method that enables simultaneous measurements of local work function and tip-sample forces. A combined dynamic scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope is used to measure the tunneling current between an oscillating tip and the sample in real time as a function of the cantilever's deflection. Atomically resolved work function mea...

  7. Reproducibility of single-subject functional connectivity measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, J S; Ferguson, M A; Lopez-Larson, M; Yurgelun-Todd, D

    2011-01-01

    .... We collected data to characterize how much imaging time is necessary to obtain reproducible quantitative functional connectivity measurements needed for a reliable single-subject diagnostic test...

  8. Accelerated Time-Domain Modeling of Electromagnetic Pulse Excitation of Finite-Length Dissipative Conductors over a Ground Plane via Function Fitting and Recursive Convolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campione, Salvatore [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Warne, Larry K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sainath, Kamalesh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basilio, Lorena I. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    In this report we overview the fundamental concepts for a pair of techniques which together greatly hasten computational predictions of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) excitation of finite-length dissipative conductors over a ground plane. In a time- domain, transmission line (TL) model implementation, predictions are computationally bottlenecked time-wise, either for late-time predictions (about 100ns-10000ns range) or predictions concerning EMP excitation of long TLs (order of kilometers or more ). This is because the method requires a temporal convolution to account for the losses in the ground. Addressing this to facilitate practical simulation of EMP excitation of TLs, we first apply a technique to extract an (approximate) complex exponential function basis-fit to the ground/Earth's impedance function, followed by incorporating this into a recursion-based convolution acceleration technique. Because the recursion-based method only requires the evaluation of the most recent voltage history data (versus the entire history in a "brute-force" convolution evaluation), we achieve necessary time speed- ups across a variety of TL/Earth geometry/material scenarios. Intentionally Left Blank

  9. On the truncation of the number of excited states in density functional theory sum-over-states calculations of indirect spin spin coupling constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarycz, M Natalia C; Provasi, Patricio F; Sauer, Stephan P A

    2015-12-28

    It is investigated, whether the number of excited (pseudo)states can be truncated in the sum-over-states expression for indirect spin-spin coupling constants (SSCCs), which is used in the Contributions from Localized Orbitals within the Polarization Propagator Approach and Inner Projections of the Polarization Propagator (IPPP-CLOPPA) approach to analyzing SSCCs in terms of localized orbitals. As a test set we have studied the nine simple compounds, CH4, NH3, H2O, SiH4, PH3, SH2, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6. The excited (pseudo)states were obtained from time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and the specialized core-property basis set, aug-cc-pVTZ-J. We investigated both how the calculated coupling constants depend on the number of (pseudo)states included in the summation and whether the summation can be truncated in a systematic way at a smaller number of states and extrapolated to the total number of (pseudo)states for the given one-electron basis set. We find that this is possible and that for some of the couplings it is sufficient to include only about 30% of the excited (pseudo)states.

  10. On the truncation of the number of excited states in density functional theory sum-over-states calculations of indirect spin spin coupling constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarycz, M. Natalia C., E-mail: mnzarycz@gmail.com; Provasi, Patricio F., E-mail: patricio@unne.edu.ar [Department of Physics, University of Northeastern - CONICET, Av. Libertad 5500, Corrientes W3404AAS (Argentina); Sauer, Stephan P. A., E-mail: sauer@kiku.dk [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2015-12-28

    It is investigated, whether the number of excited (pseudo)states can be truncated in the sum-over-states expression for indirect spin-spin coupling constants (SSCCs), which is used in the Contributions from Localized Orbitals within the Polarization Propagator Approach and Inner Projections of the Polarization Propagator (IPPP-CLOPPA) approach to analyzing SSCCs in terms of localized orbitals. As a test set we have studied the nine simple compounds, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, SiH{sub 4}, PH{sub 3}, SH{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The excited (pseudo)states were obtained from time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and the specialized core-property basis set, aug-cc-pVTZ-J. We investigated both how the calculated coupling constants depend on the number of (pseudo)states included in the summation and whether the summation can be truncated in a systematic way at a smaller number of states and extrapolated to the total number of (pseudo)states for the given one-electron basis set. We find that this is possible and that for some of the couplings it is sufficient to include only about 30% of the excited (pseudo)states.

  11. On the truncation of the number of excited states in density functional theory sum-over-states calculations of indirect spin spin coupling constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarycz, M. Natalia C.; Provasi, Patricio F.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is investigated, whether the number of excited (pseudo)states can be truncated in the sum-over-states expression for indirect spin-spin coupling constants (SSCC), which is used in the Contributions from Localized Orbitals within the Polarization Propagator Approach and Inner Projections......-correlation functional and the specialized core-property basis set, aug-cc-pVTZ-J. We investigated both how the calculated coupling constants depend on the number of (pseudo)states included in the summation and whether the summation can be truncated in a systematic way at a smaller number of states and extrapolated...... to the total number of (pseudo)states for the given one-electron basis set. We find that this is possible and that for some of the couplings it is sufficient to include only about 30% of the excited (pseudo)states....

  12. Experimental Fracture Measurements of Functionally Graded Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Ray Douglas

    The primary objective of this research was to extend established fracture toughness testing methods to a new class of engineering materials known as functionally graded materials (FGMs). Secondary goals were to compare experimental results to those predicted by finite element models and to provide fracture test results as feedback toward optimizing processing parameters for the in-house synthesis of a MoSi2/SiC FGM. Preliminary experiments were performed on commercially pure (CP) Ti and uniform axial tensile tests resulted in mechanical property data including yield strength, 268 MPa, ultimate tensile strength, 470 MPa and Young's modulus, 110 GPa. Results from 3-point bending fracture experiments on CP Ti demonstrated rising R-curve behavior and experimentally determined JQ fracture toughness values ranged between 153 N/mm and 254 N/mm. Similar experimental protocols were used for fracture experiments on a 7- layered Ti/TiB FGM material obtained from Cercom in Vista, California. A novel technique for pre-cracking in reverse 4-point bending was developed for this ductile/brittle FGM material. Fracture test results exhibited rising R-curve behavior and estimated JQ fracture toughness values ranged from 0.49 N/mm to 2.63 N/mm. A 5- layered MoSi2/SiC FGM was synthesized using spark plasma sintering (SPS). Samples of this material were fracture tested and the results again exhibited a rising R-curve with KIC fracture toughness values ranging from 2.7 MPa-m1/2 to 6.0 MPa-m1/2. Finite Element Models predicted rising R-curve behavior for both of the FGM materials tested. Model results were in close agreement for the brittle MoSi2/SiC FGM. For the relatively more ductile Ti/TiB material, results were in close agreement at short crack lengths but diverged at longer crack lengths because the models accounted for fracture toughening mechanisms at the crack tip but not those acting in the crack wake.

  13. The importance of measuring psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Vasco

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is among the most disabling of mental illnesses and frequently causes impaired functioning. We explore issues of definition and terminology, and the relationship between social functioning, cognition, and psychopathology considering relevant research findings. Methods The present article describes measures of social functioning and outlines their psychometric properties. It considers their usefulness in research and clinical settings. Treatment aims and objectives are explored in the context of cognitive and social functioning. Finally, we identify areas for developing research and refining the measurement of social functioning. Results The definition and measurement of social functioning in schizophrenia remains a complex and disputed area. The relationships between symptoms, cognitive functioning and social functioning are complex but we are beginning to understand them better. Scales for measuring functioning in clinical practice must be brief and sensitive to change and the Personal and Social Performance (PSP scale may offer several advantages in these regards. Brief cognitive assessments focusing upon the domains most commonly affected in schizophrenia, such as verbal memory and executive functions, should be coadministered with measures of functioning. Conclusions The use of validated scales for schizophrenia that are sensitive to change over the course of the illness and its treatment, should allow for a better understanding of patients' functional disabilities, enabling better and more comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment strategies.

  14. Lifetime measurements using two-step laser excitation for high-lying even-parity levels and improved theoretical oscillator strengths in Y ii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.; Lundberg, H.; Engström, L.; Nilsson, H.; Hartman, H.

    2017-10-01

    We report new time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence lifetime measurements for 22 highly excited even-parity levels in singly ionized yttrium (Y ii). To populate these levels belonging to the configurations 4d6s, 5s6s 4d5d, 5p2, 4d7s and 4d6d, a two-step laser excitation technique was used. Our previous pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock model (Biémont et al. 2011) was improved by extending the configuration interaction up to n = 10 to reproduce the new experimental lifetimes. A set of semi-empirical oscillator strengths extended to transitions falling in the spectral range λλ194-3995 nm, depopulating these 22 even-parity levels in Y ii, is presented and compared to the values found in the Kurucz's data base (Kurucz 2011).

  15. Measurements of atomic state distribution functions of the Philips QL-lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkers, J.; Bakker, M.; Mullen, J.A.M. van der [Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Applied Physics

    1996-12-31

    In 1992 Philips Lighting introduced the QL-lamp, an inductively coupled low pressure RF discharge containing a mixture of argon and mercury. Its main advantage is the absence of electrodes, which benefits the life-time. In order to improve the knowledge of this kind of plasmas a model has been developed and measurements have been performed. In every plasma the free electrons are an important species: they control the energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to the heavy particles. Therefore, it is important to know the spatial distribution of the electron temperature and of the electron density. These parameters can be obtained from the Atomic State Distribution Function (ASDF), since the levels close the ionization limit are in partial Local Saha Equilibrium (pLSE). The densities of the excited states are obtained from absolute line intensity measurements. However, it appears that the highly excited, measurable, states are not in pLSE, indicating that the QL plasma is far from Saha equilibrium. In order to obtain the electron densities and temperatures the ASDF has to be combined with either measurements of continuum radiation or a Collisional Radiative Model (CRM). The results of both methods will be presented and compared with a third technique to obtain the electron density and temperature: Thomson scattering.

  16. Measurement of dynamic efficiency: a directional distance function parametric approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, T.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    This research proposes a parametric estimation of the structural dynamic efficiency measures proposed by Silva and Oude Lansink (2009). Overall, technical and allocative efficiency measurements are derived based on a directional distance function and the duality between this function and the optimal

  17. Excitation power quantities in phase resonance testing of nonlinear systems with phase-locked-loop excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Simon; Leine, Remco I.

    2017-11-01

    Phase resonance testing is one method for the experimental extraction of nonlinear normal modes. This paper proposes a novel method for nonlinear phase resonance testing. Firstly, the issue of appropriate excitation is approached on the basis of excitation power considerations. Therefore, power quantities known from nonlinear systems theory in electrical engineering are transferred to nonlinear structural dynamics applications. A new power-based nonlinear mode indicator function is derived, which is generally applicable, reliable and easy to implement in experiments. Secondly, the tuning of the excitation phase is automated by the use of a Phase-Locked-Loop controller. This method provides a very user-friendly and fast way for obtaining the backbone curve. Furthermore, the method allows to exploit specific advantages of phase control such as the robustness for lightly damped systems and the stabilization of unstable branches of the frequency response. The reduced tuning time for the excitation makes the commonly used free-decay measurements for the extraction of backbone curves unnecessary. Instead, steady-state measurements for every point of the curve are obtained. In conjunction with the new mode indicator function, the correlation of every measured point with the associated nonlinear normal mode of the underlying conservative system can be evaluated. Moreover, it is shown that the analysis of the excitation power helps to locate sources of inaccuracies in the force appropriation process. The method is illustrated by a numerical example and its functionality in experiments is demonstrated on a benchmark beam structure.

  18. Clinical measures associated with dynamic balance and functional movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyhen, Deydre S; Shaffer, Scott W; Lorenson, Chelsea L; Greenberg, Moshe D; Rogers, Shay M; Koreerat, Christina M; Villena, Sarah L; Zosel, Kristen L; Walker, Michael J; Childs, John C

    2014-05-01

    Decreased balance and impaired functional movement have been linked with increased injury risk. The purpose of our study was to determine the association between specific measures of power, strength, flexibility, balance, and endurance compared with more global measures of dynamic balance, using the Y-Balance Test (YBT), and functional movement, using the functional movement screen (FMS), in healthy soldiers. Our participants (n = 64; 53 men, 11 women) were healthy active duty service members (25.2 ± 3.8 years, 25.1 ± 3.1 kg·m(-2)). Seventeen tests with 38 associated measures of strength, power, flexibility, endurance, balance, and functional measures were assessed. A significant Pearson product moment correlation (r > 0.2 and p function through the lower-extremity functional scale. Physical fitness leaders and clinicians could use these models to inform decision making when developing and assessing the outcomes of a personalized intervention program for those with low FMS and YBT scores.

  19. Excited Delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi, Asia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Excited (or agitated delirium is characterized by agitation, aggression, acute distress and sudden death, often in the pre-hospital care setting. It is typically associated with the use of drugs that alter dopamine processing, hyperthermia, and, most notably, sometimes with death of the affected person in the custody of law enforcement. Subjects typically die from cardiopulmonary arrest, although the cause is debated. Unfortunately an adequate treatment plan has yet to be established, in part due to the fact that most patients die before hospital arrival. While there is still much to be discovered about the pathophysiology and treatment, it is hoped that this extensive review will provide both police and medical personnel with the information necessary to recognize and respond appropriately to excited delirium. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:77-83.

  20. Experimental study of excitation functions for the deuteron induced reactions 64Zn(d,2p)64Cu and 64Zn(d,alphan)61Cu using the stacked-foil technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraban, L; Abbas, K; Simonelli, F; Adam-Rebeles, R; Gibson, N

    2008-02-01

    There is considerable, and growing, interest in the 64Cu radioisotope for application in Nuclear Medicine for PET imaging and targeted radiotherapy of tumours. We are investigating the cyclotron production of this isotope by way of deuteron bombardment of enriched 64Zn target material. In this study, experimental excitation functions for both the 64Zn(d,2p)64Cu and 64Zn(d,alphan)61Cu reactions up to 18.2 MeV deuteron energy have been measured using the stacked-foil technique. The deuteron energies in the various foils were calculated with the SRIM 2003 code and gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure the activities of the various radioisotopes produced. Monitor foils were used to determine the deuteron beam current on the target stack. Theoretical excitation functions, calculated both with the Empire II code and with an updated version of the Alice code, were compared with the experimental results and a reasonable agreement was found. The experimental work was performed at the MC40 Cyclotron at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre at Ispra, Italy.

  1. Excitation functions of 125Te(p, xn)-reactions from their respective thresholds up to 100 MeV with special reference to the production of 124I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, A; Nortier, F M; Scholten, B; van der Walt, T N; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M

    2001-08-01

    Excitation functions of the nuclear reactions 125Te(p, xn) (119,120m, 120g, 121,122,123,124,125)I were measured for the first time from their respective thresholds up to 100 MeV using the stacked-foil technique. Thin samples were prepared by electrolytic deposition of 98.3% enriched 125Te on Ti-backing. In addition to experimental studies, excitation functions were calculated by the modified hybrid model code ALICE-IPPE. The experimental and theoretical data generally showed good agreement. From the measured cross section data, integral yields of (123,124,125)I were calculated. The energy range Ep 21 --> 15 MeV appears to be very suitable for the production of the medically interesting radionuclide 124I (T(1/2) = 4.18 d; I(beta)+ = 25%). The thick target yield of 124I amounts to 81 MBq/microA h and the level of 125I-impurity to 0.9%. The 125Te(p,2n)124I reaction gives 124I yield about four times higher than the commonly used 124Te(p,n)124I and 124Te(d,2n)124I reactions. The proposed production energy range is too high for small cyclotrons but large quantities of 124I can be produced with medium-sized commercial machines.

  2. Excitation functions of $^{125}$Te(p, xn)-reactions from their respective thresholds up to 100 MeV with special reference to the production of $^{124}I$

    CERN Document Server

    Hohn, A; Scholten, B; Van der Walt, T N; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M

    2001-01-01

    Excitation functions of the nuclear reactions /sup 125/Te(p, xn) /sup 119,120m,120g,121,122,123,/$ u1/sup 24,125/I were measured for the first time from their respective thresholds up to 100 MeV using the stacked-foil technique. Thin samples were prepared by electrolytic deposition of 98.3% enriched /sup 125/Te on Ti-backing. In addition to experimental studies, excitation functions were calculated by the modified hybrid model code ALICE-IPPE. The experimental and theoretical data generally showed good agreement. From the measured cross section data, integral yields of /sup 123,124,125/I were calculated. The energy range E/sub p/=21 to 15 MeV appears to be very suitable for the production of the medically interesting radionuclide /sup 124/I (T/sub 1/2/=4.18 d; I/sub beta //sup +/=25%). The thick target yield of /sup 124/I amounts to 81 MBq/ mu A h and the level of /sup 125/I-impurity to 0.9%. The /sup 125/Te(p,2n)/sup 124/I reaction gives /sup 124/I yield about four times higher than the commonly used /sup 12...

  3. Electronic Excitations in Push-Pull Oligomers and Their Complexes with Fullerene from Many-Body Green's Functions Theory with Polarizable Embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeier, Björn; Rohlfing, Michael; Andrienko, Denis

    2014-08-12

    We present a comparative study of excited states in push-pull oligomers of PCPDTBT and PSBTBT and prototypical complexes with a C60 acceptor using many-body Green's functions theory within the GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We analyze excitations in oligomers up to a length of 5 nm and find that for both materials the absorption energy practically saturates for structures larger than two repeat units due to the localized nature of the excitation. In the bimolecular complexes with C60, the transition from Frenkel to charge transfer excitons is generally exothermic and strongly influenced by the acceptor's position and orientation. The high CT binding energy of the order of 2 eV results from the lack of an explicit molecular environment. External polarization effects are then modeled in a GW-BSE based QM/MM approach by embedding the donor-acceptor complex into a polarizable lattice. The lowest charge transfer exciton is energetically stabilized by about 0.5 eV, while its binding energy is reduced to about 0.3 eV. We also identify a globally unbound charge transfer state with a more delocalized hole at higher energy while still within the absorption spectrum, which opens another potential pathway for charge separation. For both PCPDTBT and PSBTBT, the energetics are largely similar with respect to absorption and the driving force to form intermediate charge transfer excitations for free charge generation. These results support that the higher power conversion efficiency observed for solar cells using PSBTBT as donor material is a result of molecular packing rather than of the electronic structure of the polymer.

  4. Subsurface excitations in a metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, M. P.; Lake, R. E.; Sosolik, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate internal hot carrier excitations in a Au thin film bombarded by hyperthermal and low energy alkali and noble gas ions. Excitations within the thin film of a metal-oxide-semiconductor device are measured revealing that ions whose velocities fall below the classical threshold given...... by the free-electron model of a metal still excite hot carriers. Excellent agreement between these results and a nonadiabatic model that accounts for the time-varying ion-surface interaction indicates that the measured excitations are due to semilocalized electrons near the metal surface....

  5. Excitation functions and yields of proton induced reactions at intermediate energies leading to important diagnostics radioisotopes of {sup 52}Fe, {sup 77}Br, {sup 82}Rb, {sup 97}Ru, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, {sup 127}Xe, {sup 128}Cs, {sup 178}Ta and {sup 201}Tl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rurarz, E. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    This report describes investigations of the excitation functions of the proton induced reactions on 14 targets (Mn, Co, Br, Rb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 113}Cd, {sup 114}Cd, Cd, I, Cs, Ta, {sup 206,207,208}Pb) leading directly or indirectly to the formation of radionuclides {sup 52}Fe, {sup 77}Br, {sup 82}Rb, {sup 97}Ru, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, {sup 127}Xe, {sup 128}Cs, {sup 178}Ta and {sup 201}Tl frequently used in diagnostic procedures of nuclear medicine. The measurements of the excitation functions were made over a wide proton energy range from the reaction threshold up to 100 MeV using the stacked foil (or pellet) technique. Small energy steps were used to allow for accurate determination of the structure of excitation functions. For {sup 97}Ru, {sup 111}In and {sup 127}Xe formation with protons, new reaction channels and targets were used and data concerning this method are published for the first time. The data for {sup 52}Fe, {sup 77}Br, {sup 82}Rb, {sup 123}I, {sup 128}Cs and {sup 201}Tl obtained in the present work for the E{sub p}=70-100 MeV region are also published for the first time. The measured excitation functions for the formation of desired (and undesired) radionuclides (altogether 28 excitation functions) are compared with the theoretical ones calculated on the basis of a hybrid model of nuclear reactions in the form of the Overlaid Alice computer code. In order to determine the contribution of the competitive reaction channels to the purity of the produced, desired radionuclide, the excitation functions of the accompanying reactions were also calculated. The 122 calculated excitation functions for the possible contaminant are given. The comparison of experimental excitation functions with the results of model calculations showed satisfactory agreement; no parameter adjustment for individual reaction products was undertaken. Production yields for 28 radionuclides mentioned above were determined (author). 262 refs, 65 figs, 34 tabs.

  6. Measurement of the Electron Structure Function at LEP energies

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, U; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W-D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Asman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, P; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, D; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, M; Baubillier, M; Becks, K-H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N; Benvenuti, A; Berat, C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Besancon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Bruckman, P; Brunet, J M; Buschbeck, B; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F; Chapkin, M; Charpentier, Ph; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D; Cuevas, J; D'Hondt, J; da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; De Boer, W; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; de Paula, L; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Eigen, G; Ekelof, T; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Foeth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J; Gandelman, M; Garcia, C; Gavillet, Ph; Gazis, E; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S-O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kouznetsov, O; Krumstein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; Lopez, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Marechal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J-C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martinez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; Mc Nulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W; Mjoernmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Moenig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Mueller, U; Muenich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, F; Nawrocki, K; Nemecek, S; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Olshevski, A; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, Th D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdniakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Radojicic, D; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P; Richard, F; Ridky, J; Rivero, M; Rodriguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovsky, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Sekulin, R; Siebel, M; Sisakian, A; Slominski, W; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassov, T; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Szwed, J; Tabarelli, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tome, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O; Zalewska, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2010-01-01

    The hadronic part of the Electron Structure Function (ESF) has been measured for the first time, using e+e- data collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies sqrt(s) = 91.2-209.5 GeV. The data analysis is simpler than that of the measurement of the photon structure function. The ESF data are compared to predictions of phenomenological models based on the photon structure function. It is shown that the quasi-real photon virtuality contribution is significant. The presented data can serve as a cross-check of the photon structure function analyses and help in refining existing parametrizations.

  7. Extracting the Green's function from measurements of the energy flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel; Douma, Huub; Vasconcelos, Ivan

    2012-04-01

    Existing methods for Green's function extraction give the Green's function from the correlation of field fluctuations recorded at those points. In this work it is shown that the Green's function for acoustic waves can be retrieved from measurements of the integrated energy flux through a closed surface taken from three experiments where two time-harmonic sources first operate separately, and then simultaneously. This makes it possible to infer the Green's function in acoustics from measurements of the energy flux through an arbitrary closed surface surrounding both sources. The theory is also applicable to quantum mechanics where the Green's function can be retrieved from measurement of the flux of scattered particles through a closed surface.

  8. Guidelines for mechanical lung function measurements in psychophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Thomas; Dahme, Bernhard; Dubois, Arthur B; Folgering, Hans; Fritz, Gregory K; Harver, Andrew; Kotses, Harry; Lehrer, Paul M; Ring, Christopher; Steptoe, Andrew; Van de Woestijne, Karel P

    2002-09-01

    Studies in psychophysiology and behavioral medicine have uncovered associations among psychological processes, behavior, and lung function. However, methodological issues specific to the measurement of mechanical lung function have rarely been discussed. This report presents an overview of the physiology, techniques, and experimental methods of mechanical lung function measurements relevant to this research context. Techniques to measure lung volumes, airflow, airway resistance, respiratory resistance, and airflow perception are introduced and discussed. Confounding factors such as ventilation, medication, environmental factors, physical activity, and instructional and experimenter effects are outlined, and issues specific to children and clinical groups are discussed. Recommendations are presented to increase the degree of standardization in the research application and publication of mechanical lung function measurements in psychophysiology.

  9. Development of cognitive functioning psychological measures for the SEADM

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available , Social Engineering Attack Detection Model (SEADM), by proposing and incorporating a cognitive functioning psychological measure in order to determine the emotional state and decision-making ability of the call centre employee. The cognitive analysis...

  10. Excitation Cross Section Measurement for n=3 to n=2 Line Emission in Fe{sup 20+} to Fe{sup 23+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Beiersdorfer, P; Scofield, J; Brown, G; Boyce, K; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Gu, M F; Kahn, S M

    2004-08-25

    Electron impact excitation cross sections have been measured for iron L-shell 3 {yields} 2 lines of FeXXI to FeXXIV at the EBIT-II electron beam ion trap using a crystal spectrometer and a 6 x 6-element array microcalorimeter. The cross sections were determined by direct normalization to the well established cross section of radiative electron capture and a summary of calculated energy dependent radiative recombination cross sections for electron capture into the ground state fine structure levels of Fe{sup 16+} to Fe{sup 23+} ions is given. The measurement results for 17 lines and their comparison with model calculations are presented. While agreement of the model calculations with experiment is good for most measured lines, significant discrepancies were found for a few lines, including the strongest line in Fe XXI.

  11. Evaluated Excited-State Time-Independent Correlation Function and Eigenfunction of the Harmonics Oscillator Cosine Asymmetric Potential via Numerical Shooting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artit Hutem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the ground-state and excite-state energy eigenvalue (En, wave function, and the time-independent correlation function of the atomic density fluctuation of a particle under the harmonics oscillator Cosine asymmetric potential (Saad et al. 2013. Instead of using the 6-point kernel of 4 Green’s function (Cherroret and Skipetrov, 2008, averaged over disorder, we use the numerical shooting method (NSM to solve the Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics system with Cosine asymmetric potential. Since our approach does not use complicated formulas, it requires much less computational effort when compared to the Green functions techniques (Cherroret and Skipetrov, 2008. We show that the idea of the program of evaluating time-independent correlation function of atomic density is underdamped motion for the Cosine asymmetric potential from the numerical shooting method of this problem. Comparison of the time-independent correlation function obtained from numerical shooting method by Boonchui and Hutem (2012 and correlation function experiment by Kasprzak et al. (2008. We show the intensity of atomic density fluctuation (δn(x=n~(x-m~(x in harmonics oscillator Cosine asymmetric potential by numerical shooting method.

  12. Electron localization functions and local measures of the covariance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electron localization measure proposed by Becke and Edgecombe is shown to be related to the covariance of the electron pair distribution. Just as with the electron localization function, the local covariance does not seem to be, in and of itself, a useful quantity for elucidating shell structure. A function of the local ...

  13. [Adverse effects of type B ventricular pre-excitation on ventricular wall motion and left ventricular function: clinical analysis of 9 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baojing; Dai, Chencheng; Li, Wenxiu; Xiao, Yanyan; Han, Ling

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the adverse effects of type B ventricular pre-excitation on ventricular wall motion and left ventricular function and its clinical characteristic. The clinical, electrophysiological and echocardiographic characteristics of the 9 cases with type B ventricular pre-excitation before and after ablation seen between March 2011 and March 2013 were analyzed. The patients aged from 3 to 16 years. Five of them were female. Dyschronous left ventricular contraction was demonstrated by M-Mode echocardiography in all of the cases. The basal segments of the interventricular septum turned thin and moved in a manner similar to that of an aneurysm, with typical bulging during end-systole, which was observed in six cases. All patients received successful RFCAs. The locations of the accessory pathways (APs) were the right-sided anteroseptum (n = 2) and the free wall (n = 7). Their physical activities and growth improved greatly in the four cases with coexisting dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The echocardiographic data demonstrated that their LV contraction recovered to synchrony shortly after the ablation, LVEF recovered to normal and LVED decreased to almost normal gradually during the follow-up. Overt right-sided APs may have adverse effects on ventricular wall motion and left ventricular function. They can even result in DCM. Dyssynchronous ventricular contraction induced by right-sided overt accessory pathway may be the vital mechanism. Such kinds of cases are indication for ablation with good prognosis.

  14. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics, excited state energies and wave functions, and the Rayleigh-Ritz variational principle: a proof of principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, Donald J; Markovich, Thomas; Maxwell, Nicholas; Bittner, Eric R

    2009-12-31

    In addition to ground state wave functions and energies, excited states and their energies are also obtained in a standard Rayleigh-Ritz variational calculation. However, their accuracy is generally much lower. Using the super-symmetric (SUSY) form of quantum mechanics, we show that better accuracy and more rapid convergence can be obtained by taking advantage of calculations of the ground states of higher sector SUSY Hamiltonians, followed by application of the SUSY "charge operators". Our proof of principle study uses a general family of one-dimensional anharmonic oscillator models. We first obtain the exact, analytic ground states for a general family of anharmonic systems. We give the general, factorized form of the Hamiltonian for the hierarchy that arises in SUSY theory. The "charge" operators can then be used to convert states among the sectors. We illustrate the approach with two specific anharmonic oscillator models. Using the ground state of the second sector Hamiltonian, we show that the corresponding excited state energies and wave functions of the first sector are accurately obtained by applying the charge operators, using significantly smaller basis sets than are required in a standard variational approach applied to the original Schrodinger equation. This is a consequence of the higher accuracy of the Rayleigh-Ritz variational method when applied for ground states.

  15. Excitation functions of proton induced reactions on {sup nat}Os up to 65 MeV: Experiments and comparison with results from theoretical codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A.; Adam Rebeles, R. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels 1090 (Belgium); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Science, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-02-15

    Activation of thin {sup nat}Os targets, electrodeposited on Ni backings, was investigated for the first time in stacked foil irradiations with 65 MeV and 34 MeV proton beams. Assessments of the produced radionuclides by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy yielded excitation functions for formation of {sup 184,} {sup 185,} {sup 186m,m+g,} {sup 187m+g,} {sup 188m+g,} {sup 189m2+m1+g,} {sup 190m2,m1+g,} {sup 192m1+g}Ir and {sup 185cum,} {sup 191m+g}Os, {sup 183m+g}Re. Where available comparisons with the reaction cross sections obtained in 2 earlier studies on enriched {sup 192}Os were made. Reduced uncertainty on cross sections is obtained by simultaneous remeasurement of the {sup 27}Al(p,x){sup 22,24}Na, {sup nat}Ni(p,x){sup 57}Ni and {sup nat}Ti(p,x){sup 48}V monitor reactions over wide relevant energy ranges. Confirmation of monitoring took place by assessment of excitation functions of {sup 61}Cu, {sup 56}Ni, {sup 55,56,57,58}Co and {sup 52}Mn induced in the Ni backings and comparison with a recent compilation for most of these radionuclides. Contributing reactions and overall cross sections are discussed and were evaluated in comparison with the results of the theoretical code TALYS 1.6 (values from the on-line library TENDL-2013)

  16. Excitation functions of natGe(p,xn)71,72,73,74 As reactions up to 100 MeV with a focus on the production of 72 As for medical and 73 As for environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, I; Steyn, G F; Nortier, F M; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M

    2007-09-01

    Excitation functions for the formation of the arsenic radionuclides (71)As, (72)As, (73)As and (74)As in the interaction of protons with (nat)Ge were measured from the respective threshold energy up to 100 MeV. The conventional stacked-foil technique was used and the needed thin samples were prepared by sedimentation. Irradiations were done at three cyclotrons: CV 28 and injector of COSY at Forschungszentrum Jülich, and Separate Sector Cyclotron at iThemba LABS, Somerset West. The radioactivity was measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The measured cross section data were compared with the literature data as well as with the nuclear model calculations. In both cases, the results generally agree but there are discrepancies in some areas, the results of nuclear model calculation and some of the literature data being somewhat higher than our data. The integral yields of the four radionuclides were calculated from the measured excitation functions. The beta(+) emitting nuclide (72)As (T(1/2)=26.01 h) can be produced with reasonable radionuclidic purity ((71)As impurity: 8 MeV; the yield of 93 MBq/microAh is, however, low. The radionuclide (73)As (T(1/2)=80.30 d), a potentially useful indicator in environmental studies, could be produced with good radionuclidic purity ((74)As impurity: 18 MeV, provided, a decay time of about 60 days is allowed. Its yield would then correspond to 2.4 MBq/microAh, and GBq amounts could be produced when using a high current target.

  17. Axonal Excitability in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis : Axonal Excitability in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Susanna B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Vucic, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Axonal excitability testing provides in vivo assessment of axonal ion channel function and membrane potential. Excitability techniques have provided insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of neurodegeneration and clinical features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related neuromuscular disorders. Specifically, abnormalities of Na+ and K+ conductances contribute to development of membrane hyperexcitability in ALS, thereby leading to symptom generation of muscle cramps and fasciculations, in addition to promoting a neurodegenerative cascade via Ca2+-mediated processes. Modulation of axonal ion channel function in ALS has resulted in significant symptomatic improvement that has been accompanied by stabilization of axonal excitability parameters. Separately, axonal ion channel dysfunction evolves with disease progression and correlates with survival, thereby serving as a potential therapeutic biomarker in ALS. The present review provides an overview of axonal excitability techniques and the physiological mechanisms underlying membrane excitability, with a focus on the role of axonal ion channel dysfunction in motor neuron disease and related neuromuscular diseases.

  18. Shape coexistence measurements in even-even neutron-deficient polonium isotopes by Coulomb excitation, using REX-ISOLDE and the Ge MINIBALL array

    CERN Multimedia

    Butler, P; Bastin, B; Kruecken, R; Voulot, D; Rahkila, P J; Orr, N A; Srebrny, J; Grahn, T; Clement, E; Paul, E S; Gernhaeuser, R A; Dorsival, A; Diriken, J V J; Huyse, M L; Iwanicki, J S

    The neutron-deficient polonium isotopes with two protons outside the closed Z=82 shell represent a set of nuclei with a rich spectrum of nucleus structure phenomena. While the onset of the deformation in the light Po isotopes is well established experimentally, questions remain concerning the sign of deformation and the magnitude of the mixing between different configurations. Furthermore, controversy is present with respect to the transition from the vibrational-like character of the heavier Po isotopes to the shape coexistence mode observed in the lighter Po isotopes. We propose to study this transition in the even-mass neutron-deficient $^{198,200,202}$Po isotopes by using post-accelerated beams from REX-ISOLDE and "safe"-energy Coulomb excitation. $\\gamma$- rays will be detected by the MINIBALL array. The measurements of the Coulomb excitation differential cross section will allow us to deduce both the transition and diagonal matrix elements for these nuclei and, combined with lifetime measurements, the s...

  19. A new setup to measure bidirectional reflectance distribution functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosjen, P.P.J.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Bartholomeus, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Plant Facility, a new laboratory goniometer system, built by the Wageningen University has been tested in order to take bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements. An ASD FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer mounted on an industrial robot arm is able to measure small targets

  20. Comparison of measures of functional disability in patients with gout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Klooster, Peter M.; Oude Voshaar, Antonius H.; Taal, Erik; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare the measurement properties of the HAQ disability index (HAQ-DI), HAQ-II and short form 36 physical functioning scale (PF-10) in patients with gout. Methods. A cross-sectional sample of 97 patients with gout completed all three measures. Reliability was assessed by examining the

  1. Near real-time detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst by IgM-functionalized piezoelectric-excited millimeter-sized cantilever biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gossett A; Mutharasan, Raj

    2008-02-28

    Piezoelectric-excited millimeter-sized cantilever (PEMC) biosensors were fabricated and functionalized with immunoglobulin M (IgM) for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst in a flow configuration at 1 mL/min. The detection of 100, 1000, and 10,000 oocysts/mL was achieved with a positive sensor response in less than 1 min. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a blocking agent in each experiment and was shown to eliminate non-specific binding. The sensor's resonance frequency response correlates with C. parvum oocyst concentration logarithmically. The oocyst attachment rate was found to increase by an order of magnitude in increasing concentration from 100 to 10,000 oocysts/mL. The significance of these results is that IgM-functionalized PEMC sensors are highly selective and sensitive to C. parvum oocyst and therefore, have the potential to accurately identify and quantify C. parvum oocyst in drinking water.

  2. Analog measurement of the autocorrelation function of Gaussian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, C. J.

    1980-09-01

    A new method for measuring the autocorrelation function of stationary, Gaussian distributed, differentiable or nondifferentiable noise is presented. This method does not require real-time digitizing or analog multiplying and can be easily realized since it is based on the use of either a sampling oscilloscope or a boxcar averager. The method requires the measurement of the ensemble average of the multiple traces generated by internally triggering the oscilloscope or averager on the noise. Expressions for interpreting this average to obtain the autocorrelation function as well as examples of measurements made by this technique are given and discussed.

  3. Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, F; Hinman, R S; Hall, M

    2012-01-01

    reviewers independently rated measurement properties using the consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instrument (COSMIN). "Best evidence synthesis" was made using COSMIN outcomes and the quality of findings. RESULTS: Twenty-four out of 1792 publications were eligible......OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO up to the end of June 2012. Two...... for inclusion. Twenty-one performance-based measures were evaluated including 15 single-activity measures and six multi-activity measures. Measurement properties evaluated included internal consistency (three measures), reliability (16 measures), measurement error (14 measures), validity (nine measures...

  4. Excitation functions of 124Te(d,xn)124,125I reactions from threshold up to 14 MeV: comparative evaluation of nuclear routes for the production of 124I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, T H; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M

    2001-09-01

    Excitation functions of the nuclear reactions 124Te(d,xn)124-125I were measured from their respective thresholds up to 14.0 MeV via the stacked-foil technique. Thin samples were prepared by electrolytic deposition of 99.8% enriched 124Te on Ti-backing. The excitation function of the 124Te(d,n)125I reaction was measured for the first time. The present data for the 124Te(d,2n)124I reaction are by an order of magnitude higher than the literature experimental data but are in good agreement with the results of a hybrid model calculation. From the measured cross sections, integral yields of 124,125I were calculated. The energy range Ed = 14 --> 10 MeV appears to be the best compromise between 124I-yield and 1251-impurity. The calculated 124I-yield amounts to 17.5 MBq/microA h and the 125I-impurity to 1.7%. A critical evaluation of the three nuclear routes for the production of 124I, viz. 124Te(d,2n)-, 124Te(p,n)- and 125Te(p,2n)-processes, is given. The reaction studied in this work proved to be least suitable. The 124Te(p,n)-reaction gives 124I of the highest radionuclidic purity, and a small-sized cyclotron is adequate for production purposes. The 125Te(p,2n)-reaction is more suitable at a medium-sized cyclotron: the yield of 124I is four times higher than in the other two reactions but the level of 0.9% 125I-impurity is relatively high.

  5. Urodynamic measurements reflect physiological bladder function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Marc P; Sartori, Andrea M; Tampé, Juliane; Moors, Selina; Engmann, Anne K; Ineichen, Benjamin V; Hofer, Anna-Sophie; Schwab, Martin E; Kessler, Thomas M

    2017-11-15

    Our objective was to investigate and compare bladder function in rats assessed by metabolic cage and by urodynamic measurements in fully awake animals. Bladder function of female Lewis rats was investigated in naïve animals by metabolic cage at baseline, 14-16 days after bladder catheter and external urethral sphincter electromyography electrode implantation in fully awake animals by urodynamics, and again by metabolic cage. Investigating the same animals (n = 8), voided volume, average flow, and duration of voiding were similar (P > 0.05) in naïve animals measured by metabolic cage and after catheter implantation by urodynamic measurements and by metabolic cage. In naïve animals measured by metabolic cage, voided volumes were significantly different in the light (resting phase) versus the dark (active phase) part of the 24 h cycle (mean difference 0.14 mL, 21%, P = 0.004, n = 27). Lower urinary tract function assessed by metabolic cage or by urodynamic meaurements in fully awake rats was indistinguishable. Thus, catheter implantation did not significantly change physiological bladder function. This shows that urodynamic measurements in awake animals are an appropriate approach to study lower urinary tract function in health and disease in animal models, directly paralleling the human diagnostic procedures. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Determination and systematics of excitation functions for the production of {sup 36}Cl by means of AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudbrock, F.; Herpers, U. [Koeln Univ. (Germany); Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Gloris, M.; Michel, R. [Hannover Univ. (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    Studies concerning the production of the long-lived radionuclides {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al and {sup 36}Cl measured via accelerator mass spectrometry have been continued. Recently measured data on the production of {sup 36}Cl by medium and high energy protons are discussed. (author) 1 figs., 4 refs.

  7. Optical excitation and electron relaxation dynamics at semiconductor surfaces: a combined approach of density functional and density matrix theory applied to the silicon (001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecking, N.

    2007-11-05

    In this work a new theoretical formalism is introduced in order to simulate the phononinduced relaxation of a non-equilibrium distribution to equilibrium at a semiconductor surface numerically. The non-equilibrium distribution is effected by an optical excitation. The approach in this thesis is to link two conventional, but approved methods to a new, more global description: while semiconductor surfaces can be investigated accurately by density-functional theory, the dynamical processes in semiconductor heterostructures are successfully described by density matrix theory. In this work, the parameters for density-matrix theory are determined from the results of density-functional calculations. This work is organized in two parts. In Part I, the general fundamentals of the theory are elaborated, covering the fundamentals of canonical quantizations as well as the theory of density-functional and density-matrix theory in 2{sup nd} order Born approximation. While the formalism of density functional theory for structure investigation has been established for a long time and many different codes exist, the requirements for density matrix formalism concerning the geometry and the number of implemented bands exceed the usual possibilities of the existing code in this field. A special attention is therefore attributed to the development of extensions to existing formulations of this theory, where geometrical and fundamental symmetries of the structure and the equations are used. In Part II, the newly developed formalism is applied to a silicon (001)surface in a 2 x 1 reconstruction. As first step, density-functional calculations using the LDA functional are completed, from which the Kohn-Sham-wave functions and eigenvalues are used to calculate interaction matrix elements for the electron-phonon-coupling an the optical excitation. These matrix elements are determined for the optical transitions from valence to conduction bands and for electron-phonon processes inside the

  8. Measurement of individual loudness functions by trisection of loudness ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villchur, Edgar; Killion, Mead C

    2008-10-01

    Loudness-balance measurements with monaurally impaired subjects have shown that the shape of the loudness versus sound-pressure curve among hearing-impaired persons varies significantly. But the effectiveness of adjusting the compression characteristics of wide-dynamic-range compression hearing aids-the compression ratios, the variation of compression ratio with level, and the threshold of compression-to restore normal loudness growth for the individual patient has never been properly tested; individual loudness measurements have been too uncertain to permit meaningful individual adjustments. Recent investigators have reported standard deviations of such measurements in normal-hearing subjects of 6.4 dB and 7.8 dB. This investigation describes a method of measuring loudness function with a standard deviation in normal-hearing subjects of the order of 1 dB, both significantly lower than that of previous methods and sufficiently accurate for individual-subject adjustments. Each of nine normal-hearing subjects-seven of them inexperienced and one a 9-year-old was asked to make three successive loudness trisections within an amplitude range of 40 to 80 dB SPL, providing six points from which to plot a loudness-function curve between these limits. The individual and average curves were validated as accurate loudness functions by comparing them to the curve defined by the equation of loudness versus amplitude in current Standards. In a second validation experiment, the loudness functions of masked ears measured by trisection were compared to the loudness function of those ears measured by loudness balance between masked and unmasked ears. The difference between a loudness function based on the average of subject trisections and the loudness function defined by the ANSI Standard loudness equation was -1.92 dB at the lowest trisection level and +0.05 dB at the highest level. The standard deviations of subject responses were 1.63 dB for the lowest trisection level and 0.68 d

  9. Precision Measurement Method for Branching Fractions of Excited P1/2 States Applied to Ca+40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Michael; Pruttivarasin, Thaned; Kokish, Mark; Talukdar, Ishan; Häffner, Hartmut

    2013-07-01

    We present a method for measuring branching fractions for the decay of J=1/2 atomic energy levels to lower-lying states based on time-resolved recording of the atom’s fluorescence during a series of population transfers. We apply this method to measure the branching fractions for the decay of the 4P1/22 state of Ca+40 to the 4S1/22 and 3D3/22 states to be 0.935 65(7) and 0.064 35(7), respectively. The measurement scheme requires that at least one of the lower-lying states be long lived. The method is insensitive to fluctuations in laser light intensity and magnetic field and is readily applicable to various atomic species due to its simplicity. Our result distinguishes well among existing state-of-the-art theoretical models of Ca+.

  10. Fundamental questions before recording or measuring functioning and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Ros; Fortune, Nicola; Cheeseman, Danielle; Mpofu, Elias; Bundy, Anita

    2013-06-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to thoughtful description, recording and measurement of functioning, by discussing some fundamental questions to consider before starting, framed as: why, what, how and who. Generic literature on measurement methods and the more specialised literature on application of the ICF over the last decade inform the consideration of these questions. The context of recording or measurement is examined, including the moral and legal framework of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) and the technical framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Whatever the setting in which describing, recording or measuring is being undertaken - in policy development, service planning and management, clinical management or population health monitoring - determining the purpose is the key starting point. Purpose (why) frames the consideration of content (what), method (how) and source (who). Many generic measurement methods can be applied in the disability field, but there are challenges particular to the field. The perspectives of people with disabilities and "patients" require consideration, especially with the trend to person-centred care and the social justice principles emanating from the UNCRPD. Considering these basic questions is a pre-requisite to meaningful recording and measurement of functioning and disability. Future challenges include: incorporating environmental factors into measurement; setting thresholds on the disability spectrum; and combining the views of the person concerned with those of various professionals.

  11. The measurement of maintenance function efficiency through financial KPIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galar, D.; Parida, A.; Kumar, U.; Baglee, D.; Morant, A.

    2012-05-01

    The measurement of the performance in the maintenance function has produced large sets of indicators that due to their nature and disparity in criteria and objectives have been grouped in different subsets lately, emphasizing the set of financial indicators. The generation of these indicators demands data collection of high reliability that is only made possible through a model of costs adapted to the special casuistry of the maintenance function, characterized by the occultism of these costs.

  12. Crystal field and low energy excitations measured by high resolution RIXS at the L edge of Cu, Ni and Mn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiringhelli, G.; Piazzalunga, A.; Wang, X.

    2009-01-01

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering in the soft x-ray regime has been profiting much from technical advances that have lowered considerably the instru- mental linewidth. At the ADRESS beam line of the Swiss Light Source the SAXES spectrometer can be used to measure RIXS spectra at the L edges...

  13. Functional involvement of Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in anethol-induced changes in Ca(2+) dependent excitability of F1 neurons in Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Zahra; Hassanpour-Ezatti, Majid; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Janahmadi, Mahyar

    2011-07-01

    The effects of anethol, the major component of anise oil, on the Ca(2+)-dependent excitability and afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in snail neurons were examined using intracellular recording. Anethol (0.5%) significantly broadened the spike, reduced the firing frequency and enhanced the AHP amplitude. In contrast, anethol (2%) significantly increased the firing frequency and decreased the AHP. Blockade of Ca(2+) channels after anethol application depolarized the membrane potential and significantly reduced the firing rate. Furthermore, in the presence of anethol (0.5%) a significant decrease in the AHP was observed by Ca(2+) channels blockage. Here, anethol-induced functional modification of Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels is suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of physiological ClC-1 Cl- ion channel regulation for the excitability and function of working skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Riisager, Anders; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    temporal resolution in action potential firing muscle fibers. These and other techniques have revealed that ClC-1 function is controlled by multiple cellular signals during muscle activity. Thus, onset of muscle activity triggers ClC-1 inhibition via protein kinase C, intracellular acidosis, and lactate...... permeability for Cl- ions. Thus, in resting human muscle, ClC-1 Cl- ion channels account for ∼80% of the membrane conductance, and because active Cl- transport is limited in muscle fibers, the equilibrium potential for Cl- lies close to the resting membrane potential. These conditions—high membrane conductance...... ions. This inhibition is important for preserving excitability of working muscle in the face of activity-induced elevation of extracellular K+ and accumulating inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. Furthermore, during prolonged activity, a marked ClC-1 activation can develop that compromises...

  15. Excitation functions of (alpha,xn) reactions on (nat)Rb and (nat)Sr from threshold up to 26 MeV: possibility of production of (87)Y, (88)Y and (89)Zr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, S A; Spahn, I; Scholten, B; Saleh, Z A; Saad, S M M; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M

    2007-05-01

    Excitation functions were measured by the stacked-foil technique for (nat)Rb(alpha,xn)(87m,87m+g,88)Y and (nat)Sr(alpha,xn)(86,88,89)Zr reactions from their respective thresholds up to 26 MeV. The samples for irradiation were prepared by sedimentation and pellet pressing techniques. The measured data were compared with those available in the literature. From the excitation functions, integral yields of the products were calculated. The suitable energy ranges for the production of (87)Y and (88)Y via (nat)Rb(alpha,xn) processes and of (89)Zr via the (nat)Sr(alpha,xn) process are E(alpha)=26-->20 MeV, E(alpha)=26-->5 MeV and E(alpha)=20-->8.5 MeV, respectively. The respective yields amount to 8.2, 0.08 and 0.9 MBq/microA h. Production of (88)Y is feasible if a waiting time of about 2 months is allowed to let the impurities decay out. Also, (87)Y can be produced with a relatively low impurity of (88)Y. The yields of both (88)Y and (87)Y via the present routes are, however, appreciably lower than those via the (nat)Sr(p,xn) processes. There is a possibility to produce (89)Zr via the alpha-particle irradiation of (nat)Sr. The yield is rather low but would be considerably increased if enriched (86)Sr would be used as target material. The radionuclidic impurity levels in all the three products are discussed.

  16. Direct measurement of excited-state dipole matrix elements using electromagnetically induced transparency in the hyperfine Paschen-Back regime

    CERN Document Server

    Whiting, Daniel J; Adams, Charles S; Hughes, Ifan G

    2016-01-01

    Applying large magnetic fields to gain access to the hyperfine Paschen-Back regime can isolate three-level systems in a hot alkali metal vapors, thereby simplifying usually complex atom-light interactions. We use this method to make the first direct measurement of the $|\\langle\\mathrm{5P}| er||\\mathrm{5D}\\rangle|$ matrix element in $^{87}$Rb. An analytic model with only three-levels accurately models the experimental electromagnetically induced transparency spectra and extracted Rabi-frequencies are used to determine the dipole matrix element. We measure $|\\langle\\mathrm{5P}_{3/2}|er||\\mathrm{5D}_{5/2}\\rangle| = (2.290\\pm0.002_{\\rm stat}\\pm0.05_{\\rm syst})~ea_{0}$ which is in excellent agreement with the theoretical calculations of Safronova, Williams and Clark, Phys. Rev. A 69(2), 022509 (2004).

  17. Finite Temperature Green's Function Approach for Excited State and Thermodynamic Properties of Cool to Warm Dense Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, J J; Rehr, J J

    2017-10-27

    We present a finite-temperature extension of the retarded cumulant Green's function for calculations of exited-state, correlation, and thermodynamic properties of electronic systems. The method incorporates a cumulant to leading order in the screened Coulomb interaction W, and improves on the GW approximation of many-body perturbation theory. Results for the homogeneous electron gas are presented for a wide range of densities and temperatures, from cool to warm dense matter regimes, which reveal several hitherto unexpected properties. For example, correlation effects remain strong at high T while the exchange-correlation energy becomes small; also the spectral function broadens and damping increases with temperature, blurring the usual quasiparticle picture. These effects are evident, e.g., in Compton scattering which exhibits many-body corrections that persist at normal densities and intermediate T. The approach also yields exchange-correlation energies and potentials in good agreement with existing methods.

  18. Dehydroepiandrosterone and multiple measures of functional immunity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, Sean P; Muehlenbein, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Human immune function is strongly influenced by variation in hormone concentrations. The adrenal androgens dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) are thought to be beneficial to immune function and disease resistance, but physiologically interact with testosterone and cortisol. We predict that DHEA and DHEA-S will interact with these other hormones in determining immunological outcomes. Understanding the interactive effects of these hormones will aid in understanding variability in immunocompetence and clarify discrepancies in human studies of androgen-immune interactions. Thirty-eight participants collected morning saliva over three days, from which concentrations of DHEA, DHEA-S, testosterone, and cortisol were measured, as well as salivary bacteria killing ability to measure innate immune function. From blood collection, serum was collected to measure innate immune function via a hemolytic complement assay, and whole blood collected and processed to measure proliferative responses of lymphocytes in the presence of mitogens. DHEA was negatively correlated with T cell proliferation, and positively correlated with salivary bacteria killing in male participants. Additionally, using regression models, DHEA-S was negatively associated with hemolytic complement activity, but interaction variables did not yield statistically significant relationships for any other outcome measure. While interactions with other hormones did not significantly relate with immune function measures in this sample, DHEA and DHEA-S did differentially impact multiple branches of the immune system. Generally characterized as immunosupportive in action, DHEA is shown to inhibit certain facets of innate and cell-mediated immunity, suggesting a more complex role in regulating immunocompetence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Technical Note: The effect of 2D excitation profile on T1 measurement accuracy using the variable flip angle method with an average flip angle assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedin, Bryant T; Parker, Dennis L

    2017-11-01

    To study the accuracy and precision of T 1 estimates using the Variable Flip Angle (VFA) method in 2D and 3D acquisitions. Excitation profiles were simulated using numerical implementation of the Bloch equations for Hamming-windowed sinc excitation pulses with different time-bandwidth products (TBP) of 2, 6, and 10 and for T 1 values of 295 ms and 1045 ms. Experimental data were collected in 5° increments from 5° to 90° for the same T 1 and TBP values. T 1 was calculated for every combination of flip angle with and without a correction for B 1 and slice profile variation. Calculations were also made for flat slice profile such as obtained in 3D acquisition. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to obtain T 1 measurement uncertainty. VFA T 1 measurements in 2D without correction can result in a 40-80% underestimation of true T 1 . Flip angle correction can reduce the underestimation, but results in accurate measurements of T 1 only within a narrow band of flip angle combinations. The narrow band of accuracy increases with TBP, but remains too narrow for any practical range of T 1 values or B 1 variation. Simulated noisy VFA T 1 measurements in 3D were accurate as long as the two angles chosen are on either side of the Ernst angle. Accurate T1 estimates from VFA 2D acquisitions are possible, but only a narrow range of T1 values within a narrow range of flip angle combinations can be accurately calculated using a 2D slice. Unless a better flip angle correction method is used, these results demonstrate that accurate measurements of T1 in 2D cannot be obtained robustly enough for practical use and are more likely obtained by a thin slab 3D VFA acquisition than from multiple-slice 2D acquisitions. VFA T 1 measurements in 3D are accurate for wide ranges of flip angle combinations and T 1 values. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. Magnetic induction pneumography: a planar coil system for continuous monitoring of lung function via contactless measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doga Gursoy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of lung function is of particular interest to the mechanically ventilated patients during critical care. Recent studies have shown that magnetic induction measurements with single coils provide signals which are correlated with the lung dynamics and this idea is extended here by using a 5 by 5 planar coil matrix for data acquisition in order to image the regional thoracic conductivity changes. The coil matrix can easily be mounted onto the patient bed, and thus, the problems faced in methods that use contacting sensors can readily be eliminated and the patient comfort can be improved. In the proposed technique, the data are acquired by successively exciting each coil in order to induce an eddy-current density within the dorsal tissues and measuring the corresponding response magnetic field strength by the remaining coils. The recorded set of data is then used to reconstruct the internal conductivity distribution by means of algorithms that minimize the residual norm between the estimated and measured data. To investigate the feasibility of the technique, the sensitivity maps and the point spread functions at different locations and depths were studied. To simulate a realistic scenario, a chest model was generated by segmenting the tissue boundaries from NMR images. The reconstructions of the ventilation distribution and the development of an edematous lung injury were presented. The imaging artifacts caused by either the incorrect positioning of the patient or the expansion of the chest wall due to breathing were illustrated by simulations.

  1. Functional Measurement in the Field of Empirical Bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, Etienne; Sorum, Paul C.; Teysseire, Nathalie; Nann, Stephanie; Martinez, Guadalupe Elizabeth Morales; Ahmed, Ramadan; Kamble, Shanmukh; Olivari, Cecilia; Sastre, Maria Teresa Munoz

    2012-01-01

    We present, in a synthetic way, some of the main findings from five studies that were conducted in the field of empirical bioethics, using the Functional Measurement framework. These studies were about (a) the rationing of rare treatments, (b) adolescents' abortions, (c) end-of-life decision-making regarding damaged neonates, (d) end-of-life…

  2. Loss functions for structural flood mitigation measures | Berning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper aims at discussing the methodology used to develop loss functions for flood mitigation measures, using historic data of flood damage to infrastructure. The main determinants of the extent of damage are the size of the flood and the length of the infrastructure within the boundaries of the flood-line. In regression ...

  3. Measuring the functional redundancy of biological communities: a quantitative guide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricotta, C.; de Bello, Francesco; Moretti, M.; Caccianiga, M.; Cerabolini, B. E. L.; Pavoine, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2016), s. 1386-1395 ISSN 2041-210X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : absolute vs. relative measures * community structure * functional uniqueness Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.708, year: 2016

  4. Excitable scale free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelli, M.; Campos, P. R. A.

    2007-04-01

    When a simple excitable system is continuously stimulated by a Poissonian external source, the response function (mean activity versus stimulus rate) generally shows a linear saturating shape. This is experimentally verified in some classes of sensory neurons, which accordingly present a small dynamic range (defined as the interval of stimulus intensity which can be appropriately coded by the mean activity of the excitable element), usually about one or two decades only. The brain, on the other hand, can handle a significantly broader range of stimulus intensity, and a collective phenomenon involving the interaction among excitable neurons has been suggested to account for the enhancement of the dynamic range. Since the role of the pattern of such interactions is still unclear, here we investigate the performance of a scale-free (SF) network topology in this dynamic range problem. Specifically, we study the transfer function of disordered SF networks of excitable Greenberg-Hastings cellular automata. We observe that the dynamic range is maximum when the coupling among the elements is critical, corroborating a general reasoning recently proposed. Although the maximum dynamic range yielded by general SF networks is slightly worse than that of random networks, for special SF networks which lack loops the enhancement of the dynamic range can be dramatic, reaching nearly five decades. In order to understand the role of loops on the transfer function we propose a simple model in which the density of loops in the network can be gradually increased, and show that this is accompanied by a gradual decrease of dynamic range.

  5. Measurement of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandilands, Euan A; Dhaun, Neeraj; Dear, James W; Webb, David J

    2013-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease affects millions of people worldwide and is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality as a result of kidney failure and cardiovascular disease. Accurate assessment of kidney function is important in the clinical setting as a screening tool and for monitoring disease progression and guiding prognosis. In clinical research, the development of new methods to measure kidney function accurately is important in the search for new therapeutic targets and the discovery of novel biomarkers to aid early identification of kidney injury. This review considers different methods for measuring kidney function and their contribution to the improvement of detection, monitoring and treatment of chronic kidney disease. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Effect of pneumotach on measurement of vocal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Gage; McPhail, Michael; Krane, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Aerodynamic and acoustic measurements of vocal function were performed in a physical model of the human airway with and without a pneumotach (Rothenberg mask), used by clinicians to measure vocal volume flow. The purpose of these experiments was to assess whether the device alters acoustic and aerodynamic conditions sufficiently to change phonation behavior. The airway model, which mimics acoustic behavior of an adult human airway from trachea to mouth, consists of a 31.5cm long straight duct with a 2.54cm square cross section. Model vocal folds comprised of molded silicone rubber were set into vibration by introducing airflow from a compressed air source. Measurements included transglottal pressure difference, mean volume flow, vocal fold vibratory motion, and sound pressure measured at the mouth. The experiments show that while the pneumotach imparted measurable aerodynamic and acoustic loads on the system, measurement of mean glottal resistance was not affected. Acoustic pressure levels were attenuated, however, suggesting clinical acoustic measurements of vocal function need correction when performed in conjunction with a pneumotach Acknowledge support from NIH DC R01005642-11.

  7. Associative reinstatement memory measures hippocampal function in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Melanie; Giannoylis, Irene; De Belder, Maya; Saint-Cyr, Jean A; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2016-09-01

    In Parkinson's Disease (PD), hippocampal atrophy is associated with rapid cognitive decline. Hippocampal function is typically assessed using memory tests but current clinical tools (e.g., free recall) also rely on executive functions or use material that is not optimally engaging hippocampal memory networks. Because of the ubiquity of executive dysfunction in PD, our ability to detect true memory deficits is suboptimal. Our previous behavioural and neuroimaging work in other populations suggests that an experimental memory task - Associative Reinstatement Memory (ARM) - may prove useful in investigating hippocampal function in PD. In this study, we investigated whether ARM is compromised in PD and we assessed its convergent and divergent validity by comparing it to standardized measures of memory and of attention and executive functioning in PD, respectively. Using fMRI, we also investigated whether performance in PD relates to degree of hippocampal engagement. Fifteen participants with PD and 13 age-matched healthy controls completed neuropsychological testing as well as an ARM fMRI recognition paradigm in which they were instructed to identify word pairs comprised of two studied words (intact or rearranged pairs) and those containing at least one new word (new or half new pairs). ARM is measured by the differences in hit rates between intact and rearranged pairs. Behaviourally, ARM was poorer in PD relative to controls and was correlated with verbal memory measures, but not with attention or executive functioning in the PD group. Hippocampal activation associated with ARM was reduced in PD relative to controls and covaried with ARM scores in both groups. To conclude, ARM is a sensitive measure of hippocampal memory function that is unaffected by attention or executive dysfunction in PD. Our study highlights the benefit of integrating cognitive neuroscience frameworks and novel experimental tasks to improve the practice of clinical neuropsychology in PD

  8. Connectivity, excitability and activity patterns in neuronal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Feber, Jakob; Stoyanova, Irina; Chiappalone, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Extremely synchronized firing patterns such as those observed in brain diseases like epilepsy may result from excessive network excitability. Although network excitability is closely related to (excitatory) connectivity, a direct measure for network excitability remains unavailable. Several methods

  9. Variation in the excitability of developed D. discoideum cells as a function of agar concentration in the substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Noriko; Bae, Albert; Amselem, Gabriel; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2010-03-01

    In the absence of nutrients, Dictyostelium discoideum cells enter a developmental cycle--they signal each other, aggregate, and ultimately form fruiting bodies. During the signaling stage, the cells relay waves of cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP). We observed a transition from spiral to circular patterns in the signaling wave, depending on the agar concentration of the substrate. In this talk we will present the changes in the times for the onset of signaling and synchronization versus agar concentration, as measured by spectral entropy. We also will discuss the origin of these effects.

  10. Excitation system testing in HPP 'Uvac'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojčić Nemanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The excitation system of hydro unit in HPP 'Uvac' and results of testings of excitation system performed for achieving of unit's mathematical model are presented in this paper. Description of excitation system equipment, parameters of regulators and results obtained after testings are presented. The presented results showed that the regulators are properly adjusted and that the excitation system is completely functional and reliable.

  11. Measurements of Channelling Radiation and its Polarization, X-Ray Excitation, together with Deviations from Landau Distributions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a continuation of the channelling experiments PS164 and WA64. The following points are investigated : \\item a)~Radiation from channelled 1 to 10 GeV/c positrons and electrons. The results clearly show that the region of 1-10 GeV/c is a very important and interesting momentum range where the onset of relativistic effects in connection with the unharmonicity of the channelling potential can give rise to very sharp pea photon spectra which could be used as a radiation source. With a detector opening angle which is large compared to 1/@g, these peaks appear sharp only on the high energy side. If, on the other hand, only forward emitted channelling radiation is detected, nearly symmetric peaks are expected to emerge. This is measured by means of a position sentitive @g-detector, consisting of an CdTe-array. Here each detector is 0.8~x~0.8~x~3~mm|3 and act as an active converter with the final shower absorbed in a large scintillator. Hereby an angular resolution of 1/3~@g around 40~@mrad is obtai...

  12. Measuring functional status in children with genetic impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msall, M E; Tremont, M R

    1999-06-25

    One of the consequences of genetic impairments in early childhood is their long-term effect on children's developmental skills in communication, learning, and adaptive behaviors. Functional assessment provides families and clinicians with a common language for describing a child's strengths and limitations in self-care (feeding, dressing, grooming, bathing, continence), mobility, and communication/social cognition. The National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research described a model of disablement that includes five dimensions: pathophysiology, impairment, functional limitations, disability, and societal limitations. Using this framework, along with the Functional Independence Measure for children, the WeeFIM(R), we describe functional strengths and challenges in children with Down syndrome, spina bifida, congenital limb anomalies, congenital heart disease, urea cycle disorders, severe multiple developmental disabilities, and DiGeorge malformation sequence. We also briefly describe several pediatric functional/adaptive assessment instruments used by developmental professionals (Battelle Developmental Inventory, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Amount of Assistance Questionnaire). By tracking functional status, health professionals can prioritize secondary and tertiary prevention strategies that optimize self-care, mobility, communication, and learning. When functional limitations interfere with the acquisition of these essential skills, family and community support programs can be maximized. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Functional autonomy measurement system: development of a social subscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsonnault, E; Desrosiers, J; Dubuc, N; Kalfat, H; Colvez, A; Delli-Colli, N

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a subscale assessing social functioning for the functional autonomy measurement system (SMAF). The development of this new dimension was based on consultations (focus groups and nominal groups) of experts from different health care disciplines in Quebec, Canada, and France. Two interrater reliability studies were carried out with older people presenting a loss of functional autonomy and living either in an institution or at home. With the focus groups, the experts clarified the definition of social functioning and identified the factors involved. The nominal groups were used to construct a subscale composed of six items. The results of the first interrater reliability study showed a mean agreement percentage of 60% for the subscale and an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.70 (CI: 0.57-0.80). The results of the second interrater reliability study showed higher coefficients with an agreement percentage of 74% for the subscale and an ICC of 0.83 (CI: 0.61-0.93). These preliminary results demonstrate that the new social functioning subscale has good reliability, but more studies are needed to show its validity. The new SMAF, including the social functioning subscale, should help clinicians and researchers to obtain a comprehensive profile of functional autonomy. It could also contribute to the improvement of health care for older people.

  14. Are quantitative functional measures more sensitive to worsening MS than traditional measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwid, S R; Goodman, A D; Apatoff, B R; Coyle, P K; Jacobs, L D; Krupp, L B; Miller, A E; Wende, K E; Brownscheidle, C M; New York State Multiple Sclero

    2000-12-26

    The authors used data collected prospectively during a multicenter trial in 133 patients with secondary progressive MS to assess the relative sensitivity of quantitative functional tests and traditional measures, including the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and Ambulation Index. Quantitative functional measures worsened in 69% of patients during an average of 6 months of observation, whereas the Clinical Global Impression of Change worsened in 33% and the EDSS worsened in 25% of patients. These changes should be interpreted in the context of the test-retest reliability for each measure.

  15. Correlating Function and Imaging Measures of the Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sakaie

    Full Text Available To test the validity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI measures of tissue injury by examining such measures in a white matter structure with well-defined function, the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF. Injury to the MLF underlies internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO.40 MS patients with chronic INO and 15 healthy controls were examined under an IRB-approved protocol. Tissue integrity of the MLF was characterized by DTI parameters: longitudinal diffusivity (LD, transverse diffusivity (TD, mean diffusivity (MD and fractional anisotropy (FA. Severity of INO was quantified by infrared oculography to measure versional disconjugacy index (VDI.LD was significantly lower in patients than in controls in the medulla-pons region of the MLF (p < 0.03. FA was also lower in patients in the same region (p < 0.0004. LD of the medulla-pons region correlated with VDI (R = -0.28, p < 0.05 as did FA in the midbrain section (R = 0.31, p < 0.02.This study demonstrates that DTI measures of brain tissue injury can detect injury to a functionally relevant white matter pathway, and that such measures correlate with clinically accepted evaluation indices for INO. The results validate DTI as a useful imaging measure of tissue integrity.

  16. Functional multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekwe, Carmen D; Zoh, Roger S; Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao; Carroll, Raymond J

    2017-05-08

    Objective measures of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production by mammals are used to predict their energy expenditure. Since energy expenditure is not directly observable, it can be viewed as a latent construct with multiple physical indirect measures such as respiratory quotient, volumetric oxygen consumption, and volumetric carbon dioxide production. Metabolic rate is defined as the rate at which metabolism occurs in the body. Metabolic rate is also not directly observable. However, heat is produced as a result of metabolic processes within the body. Therefore, metabolic rate can be approximated by heat production plus some errors. While energy expenditure and metabolic rates are correlated, they are not equivalent. Energy expenditure results from physical function, while metabolism can occur within the body without the occurrence of physical activities. In this manuscript, we present a novel approach for studying the relationship between metabolic rate and indicators of energy expenditure. We do so by extending our previous work on MIMIC ME models to allow responses that are sparsely observed functional data, defining the sparse functional multiple indicators, multiple cause measurement error (FMIMIC ME) models. The mean curves in our proposed methodology are modeled using basis splines. A novel approach for estimating the variance of the classical measurement error based on functional principal components is presented. The model parameters are estimated using the EM algorithm and a discussion of the model's identifiability is provided. We show that the defined model is not a trivial extension of longitudinal or functional data methods, due to the presence of the latent construct. Results from its application to data collected on Zucker diabetic fatty rats are provided. Simulation results investigating the properties of our approach are also presented. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  17. 65Cu(d,p66Cu excitation function at deuteron energies up to 20 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrigeanu M.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The proton and deuteron induced reactions have a great interest for the assessment of induced radioactivity of accelerator components. Such data are needed for estimation of the potential radiation hazard from the accelerating cavities and beam transport elements. Continuing previous irradiation experiments on copper, we provided two short run to obtain cross-section data for 65Cu(d, p66Cu reaction. We carried out irradiation experiments with the variable-energy cyclotron U-120M of the Nuclear Physics Institute Řež. The stacked-foil technique was utilized. Because of a relatively short half life (T1/2 = 5, 120  min and a strong annihilation peak, we placed the 1 cm Pb plate between the irradiated sample and the gamma-ray detector to reduce the dead time. The absolute values of cross-sections were calculated from the induced activities measured by the calibrated HPGe detector. The comparison of present results with data of other authors and prediction of different libraries and model calculation is discussed.

  18. 65Cu(d,p)66Cu excitation function at deuteron energies up to 20 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimečková, E.; Bém, P.; Götz, M.; Honusek, M.; Mrázek, J.; Novák, J.; Štefánik, M.; Závorka, L.; Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

    2010-10-01

    The proton and deuteron induced reactions have a great interest for the assessment of induced radioactivity of accelerator components. Such data are needed for estimation of the potential radiation hazard from the accelerating cavities and beam transport elements. Continuing previous irradiation experiments on copper, we provided two short run to obtain cross-section data for 65Cu(d, p)66Cu reaction. We carried out irradiation experiments with the variable-energy cyclotron U-120M of the Nuclear Physics Institute Řež. The stacked-foil technique was utilized. Because of a relatively short half life (T1/2 = 5, 120 min) and a strong annihilation peak, we placed the 1 cm Pb plate between the irradiated sample and the gamma-ray detector to reduce the dead time. The absolute values of cross-sections were calculated from the induced activities measured by the calibrated HPGe detector. The comparison of present results with data of other authors and prediction of different libraries and model calculation is discussed.

  19. Electronic states of thiophene/phenylene co-oligomers: Extreme-ultra violet excited photoelectron spectroscopy observations and density functional theory calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Yoshizo [Research Institute for Innovation in Sustainable Chemistry, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Sasaki, Fumio; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ishitsuka, Tomoaki; Tomie, Toshihisa [Research Institute of Instrumentation Frontier, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ootsuka, Teruhisa [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Watanabe, Shuji [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 1-4-12, Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Shimoi, Yukihiro [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu [Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2013-02-28

    We have investigated electronic states in the valence electron bands for the thin films of three thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) compounds, 2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl)thiophene (BP1T), 1,4-bis(5-phenylthiophen-2-yl)benzene (AC5), and 1,4-bis{l_brace}5-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]thiophen-2-yl{r_brace}benzene (AC5-CF{sub 3}), by using extreme-UV excited photoelectron spectroscopy (EUPS). By comparing both EUPS spectra and secondary electron spectra between AC5 and AC5-CF{sub 3}, we confirm that CF{sub 3} substitution to AC5 deepens valence states by 2 eV, and increases the ionization energy by 3 eV. From the cut-off positions of secondary electron spectra, the work functions of AC5, AC5-CF{sub 3}, and BP1T are evaluated to be 3.8 eV, 4.8 eV, and 4.0 eV, respectively. We calculate molecular orbital (MO) energy levels by the density functional theory and compare results of calculations with those of experiments. Densities of states obtained by broadening MO levels well explain the overall features of experimental EUPS spectra of three TPCOs.

  20. Measurement of the longitudinal proton structure function at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-03-15

    The reduced cross sections for ep deep inelastic scattering have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA at three different centre-of-mass energies, 318, 251 and 225 GeV. From the cross sections, measured double differentially in Bjorken x and the virtuality, Q{sup 2}, the proton structure functions F{sub L} and F{sub 2} have been extracted in the region 5 x 10{sup -4}

  1. Exotic nuclear excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Pancholi, S C

    2011-01-01

    By providing the reader with a foundational background in high spin nuclear structure physics and exploring exciting current discoveries in the field, this book presents new phenomena in a clear and compelling way. The quest for achieving the highest spin states has resulted in some remarkable successes which this monograph will address in comprehensive detail. The text covers an array of pertinent subject matter, including the rotational alignment and bandcrossings, magnetic rotation, triaxial strong deformation and wobbling motion and chirality in nuclei. Dr. Pancholi offers his readers a clearly-written and up-to-date treatment of the topics covered. The prerequisites for a proper appreciation are courses in nuclear physics and nuclear models and measurement techniques of observables like gamma-ray energies, intensities, multi-fold coincidences, angular correlations or distributions, linear polarization, internal conversion coefficients, short lifetime (pico-second range) of excited states etc. and instrum...

  2. Measurement of the neutrino-oxygen neutral-current interaction cross section by observing nuclear de-excitation $\\gamma$-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S W; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bertram, I; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Rodríguez, J Caravaca; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Floetotto, L; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Gaudin, A; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Goeldi, D; Golan, T; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iwai, E; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kumaratunga, S; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Lamont, I; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lee, K P; Licciardi, C; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Ludovici, L; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Marzec, J; Mathie, E L; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Monfregola, L; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagasaki, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Naples, D; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Pearce, G F; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Guerra, E S Pinzon; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Szeglowski, T; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Taylor, I J; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Żmuda, J

    2014-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the neutrino-oxygen neutral-current quasi-elastic (NCQE) cross section. It is obtained by observing nuclear de-excitation \\gamma-rays which follow neutrino-oxygen interactions at the Super-Kamiokande water Cherenkov detector. We use T2K data corresponding to $3.01 \\times 10^{20}$ protons on target. By selecting only events during the T2K beam window and with well-reconstructed vertices in the fiducial volume, the large background rate from natural radioactivity is dramatically reduced. We observe 43 events in the 4-30 MeV reconstructed energy window, compared with an expectation of 55.7, which includes an estimated 17.3 background events. The background is primarily non-quasielastic neutral-current interactions and has only 1.2 events from natural radioactivity. The flux-averaged NCQE cross section we measure is $1.35 \\times 10^{-38}$ cm$^2$ with a 68% confidence interval of $(1.06, 1.94) \\times 10^{-38}$ cm$^2$ at a median neutrino energy of 630 MeV, compared with the theor...

  3. Measurement of intraoral muscle forces during functional exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, D E; Moore, R N

    1990-04-01

    Measurements of intraoral muscle force with foil strain gauges, load cells, and pressure transducers bonded to a Tru-Tain stent and to a lip bumper appliance were tested by means of seven functional exercises in five adult subjects over a 5-day interval. The measuring devices and the functional exercises were tested for replicability and validity. Results showed that the pressure transducer was the superior measuring device with respect to size, sensitivity, thermal compensation, factory uniformity, replicability, and validity. The device most susceptible to error, on the basis of these factors, was the foil strain gauge. Of the seven functional exercises used, the pronunciation of the words "phone," "mom," and "church" and the exercise of swallowing were replicable over time. The other three exercises--chewing gum, sucking, and blowing on a straw--were determined to be unreliable in terms of replicability over time. Overall pressure values recorded were significantly higher than in previous reports. Pressure values were higher for the Tru-Tain stent than for the lip bumper.

  4. Breakfast frequency among adolescents: associations with measures of family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rasmussen, Mette

    2016-06-01

    To investigate (i) associations between adolescents' frequency of breakfast and family functioning (close relations to parents, quality of family communication and family support) and (ii) if any observed associations between breakfast frequency and family functioning vary by sociodemographic factors. School-based cross-sectional study. Students completed a web-based questionnaire. Associations were estimated by multilevel multivariate logistic regression. Danish arm of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study, 2014. Adolescents aged 13 and 15 years (n 3054) from a random sample of forty-one schools. Nearly one-quarter of the adolescents had low breakfast frequency. Low breakfast frequency was associated with low family functioning measured by three dimensions. The OR (95 % CI) of low breakfast frequency was 1·81 (1·40, 2·33) for adolescents who reported no close relations to parents, 2·28 (1·61, 3·22) for adolescents who reported low level of quality of family communication and 2·09 (1·39, 3·15) for adolescents who reported low level of family support. Joint effect analyses suggested that the odds of low breakfast frequency among adolescents with low family functioning compared with high family functioning were highest among adolescents being girls, immigrants and living in other than a traditional family structure. Low breakfast frequency was associated with low family functioning measured by close relations to parents, quality of family communication and family support. Further, analyses suggested that the associations were more pronounced among girls, immigrants and adolescents from other family structure than traditional. The study highlights the importance of the family setting in promoting regular breakfast frequency among adolescents.

  5. Executive function in fibromyalgia: Comparing subjective and objective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelonch, Olga; Garolera, Maite; Valls, Joan; Rosselló, Lluís; Pifarré, Josep

    2016-04-01

    There is evidence to suggest the existence of an executive dysfunction in people diagnosed with fibromyalgia, although there are certain inconsistencies between studies. Here, we aim to compare executive performance between patients with fibromyalgia and a control group by using subjective and objective cognitive tests, analyzing the influence of patient mood on the results obtained, and studying associations between the two measures. 82 patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia and 42 healthy controls, matched by age and years of education, were assessed using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version (BRIEF-A) as a subjective measure of executive functioning. A selection of objective cognitive tests were also used to measure a series of executive functions and to identify symptoms of depression and anxiety. Patients with fibromyalgia perceived greater difficulties than the control group on all of the BRIEF-A scales. However, after adjustments were made for depression and anxiety the only differences that remained were those associated with the working memory scale and the Metacognition and Global Executive Composite index. In the case of the objective cognitive tests, a significantly worse overall performance was evidenced for the fibromyalgia patients. However, this also disappeared when adjustments were made for depression and anxiety. After this adjustment, fibromyalgia patients only performed significantly worse for the interference effect in the Stroop Test. Although there were no significant associations between most of the objective cognitive tests and the BRIEF-A scales, depression and anxiety exhibited strong associations with almost all of the BRIEF-A scales and with several of the objective cognitive tests. Patients with fibromyalgia showed executive dysfunction in subjective and objective measures, although most of this impairment was associated with mood disturbances. Exceptions to this general rule were observed in the

  6. First Measurement of the Quark-to-Photon Fragmentation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, J

    1995-01-01

    Earlier measurements at LEP of isolated hard photons in hadronic $Z$ decays attributed to radiation from primary quark pairs, have been extended in the ALEPH experiment to include hard photon production {\\em inside} hadron jets. Events are selected where all particles combine democratically to form hadron jets, one of which contains a photon with a fractional energy $z\\geq 0.7$. After statistical subtraction of non-prompt photons, the quark- to-photon fragmentation function, $D(z)$, is extracted directly from the measured prompt production rate. By taking into account the perturbative contributions to $D(z)$ obtained from an $\\cal{O}(\\alpha \\alpha_S)$ QCD calculation, the unknown non-perturbative component of $D(z)$ is determined at high $z$. This measurement is compared with an earlier theoretical parametrisation widely used to determine the level of quark bremsstrahlung present in prompt photon production at the hadron colliders.

  7. Measurement and monitoring of electrocardiogram belt tension in premature infants for assessment of respiratory function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegyi Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG in premature infants with conventional adhesive-backed electrodes can harm their sensitive skin. Use of an electrode belt prevents skin irritation, but the effect of belt pressure on respiratory function is unknown. A strain gauge sensor is described which measures applied belt tension. Method The device frame was comprised of an aluminum housing and slide to minimize the device weight. Velcro tabs connected housing and slide to opposite tabs located at the electrode belt ends. The slide was connected to a leaf spring, to which were bonded two piezoresistive transducers in a half-bridge circuit configuration. The device was tested for linearity and calibrated. The effect on infant respiratory function of constant belt tension in the normal range (30 g–90 g was determined. Results The mechanical response to a step input was second order (fn = 401 Hz, ζ = 0.08. The relationship between applied tension and output voltage was linear in the range 25–225 gm of applied tension (r2 = 0.99. Measured device sensitivity was 2.18 mV/gm tension using a 5 V bridge excitation voltage. When belt tension was increased in the normal range from 30 gm to 90 gm, there was no significant change in heart rate and most respiratory functions during monitoring. At an intermediate level of tension of 50 gm, pulmonary resistance and work of breathing significantly decreased. Conclusion The mechanical and electrical design of a device for monitoring electrocardiogram electrode belt tension is described. Within the typical range of application tension, cardiovascular and respiratory function are not substantially negatively affected by electrode belt force.

  8. Lung function measurements in rodents in safety pharmacology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoymann, Heinz Gerd

    2012-01-01

    The ICH guideline S7A requires safety pharmacology tests including measurements of pulmonary function. In the first step - as part of the "core battery" - lung function tests in conscious animals are requested. If potential adverse effects raise concern for human safety, these should be explored in a second step as a "follow-up study." For these two stages of safety pharmacology testing, both non-invasive and invasive techniques are needed which should be as precise and reliable as possible. A short overview of typical in vivo measurement techniques is given, their advantages and disadvantages are discussed and out of these the non-invasive head-out body plethysmography and the invasive but repeatable body plethysmography in orotracheally intubated rodents are presented in detail. For validation purposes the changes in the respective parameters such as tidal midexpiratory flow (EF(50)) or lung resistance have been recorded in the same animals in typical bronchoconstriction models and compared. In addition, the technique of head-out body plethysmography has been shown to be useful to measure lung function in juvenile rats starting from day two of age. This allows safety pharmacology testing and toxicological studies in juvenile animals as a model for the young developing organism as requested by the regulatory authorities (e.g., EMEA Guideline 1/2008). It is concluded that both invasive and non-invasive pulmonary function tests are capable of detecting effects and alterations on the respiratory system with different selectivity and area of operation. The use of both techniques in a large number of studies in mice and rats in the last years have demonstrated that they provide useful and reliable information on pulmonary mechanics in safety pharmacology and toxicology testing, in investigations of respiratory disorders, and in pharmacological efficacy studies.

  9. Lung function measurements in rodents in safety pharmacology studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Gerd Hoymann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The ICH guideline S7A requires safety pharmacology tests including measurements of pulmonary function. In the first step – as part of the core battery - lung function tests in conscious animals are requested. If potential adverse effects raise concern for human safety, these should be explored in a second step as a follow-up study. For these two stages of safety pharmacology testing, both noninvasive and invasive techniques are needed which should be as precise and reliable as possible. A short overview of typical in-vivo measurement techniques is given, their advantages and disadvantages are discussed and out of these the noninvasive head-out body plethysmography and the invasive but repeatable body-plethysmography in orotracheally intubated rodents are presented in detail. For validation purposes the changes in the respective parameters such as tidal midexpiratory flow (EF50 or lung resistance have been recorded in the same animals in typical bronchoconstriction models and compared. In addition, the technique of head-out body plethysmography has been shown to be useful to measure lung function in juvenile rats starting from day two of age. This allows safety pharmacology testing and toxicological studies in juvenile animals as a model for the young developing organism as requested by the regulatory authorities (e.g. EMEA Guideline 1/2008.It is concluded that both invasive and noninvasive pulmonary function tests are capable of detecting effects and alterations on the respiratory system with different selectivity and area of operation. The use of both techniques in a large number of studies in mice and rats in the last years have demonstrated that they provide useful and reliable information on pulmonary mechanics in safety pharmacology and toxicology testing, in investigations of respiratory disorders, and in pharmacological efficacy studies.

  10. Reproducibility of single-subject functional connectivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J S; Ferguson, M A; Lopez-Larson, M; Yurgelun-Todd, D

    2011-03-01

    Measurements of resting-state functional connectivity have increasingly been used for characterization of neuropathologic and neurodevelopmental populations. We collected data to characterize how much imaging time is necessary to obtain reproducible quantitative functional connectivity measurements needed for a reliable single-subject diagnostic test. We obtained 100 five-minute BOLD scans on a single subject, divided into 10 sessions of 10 scans each, with the subject at rest or while watching video clips of cartoons. These data were compared with resting-state BOLD scans from 36 healthy control subjects by evaluating the correlation between each pair of 64 small spheric regions of interest obtained from a published functional brain parcellation. Single-subject and group data converged to reliable estimates of individual and population connectivity values proportional to 1 / sqrt(n). Dramatic improvements in reliability were seen by using ≤25 minutes of imaging time, with smaller improvements for additional time. Functional connectivity "fingerprints" for the individual and population began diverging at approximately 15 minutes of imaging time, with increasing reliability even at 4 hours of imaging time. Twenty-five minutes of BOLD imaging time was required before any individual connections could reliably discriminate an individual from a group of healthy control subjects. A classifier discriminating scans during which our subject was resting or watching cartoons was 95% accurate at 10 minutes and 100% accurate at 15 minutes of imaging time. An individual subject and control population converged to reliable different functional connectivity profiles that were task-modulated and could be discriminated with sufficient imaging time.

  11. Determination of the electronics transfer function for current transient measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Scharf@desy.de; Klanner, Robert

    2015-04-11

    We describe a straight-forward method for determining the transfer function of the readout of a sensor for the situation in which the current transient of the sensor can be precisely simulated. The method relies on the convolution theorem of Fourier transforms. The specific example is a planar silicon pad diode. The charge carriers in the sensor are produced by picosecond lasers with light of wavelengths of 675 and 1060 nm. The transfer function is determined from the 1060 nm data with the pad diode biased at 1000 V. It is shown that the simulated sensor response convoluted with this transfer function provides an excellent description of the measured transients for laser light of both wavelengths. The method has been applied successfully for the simulation of current transients of several different silicon pad diodes. It can also be applied for the analysis of transient-current measurements of radiation-damaged solid state sensors, as long as sensors properties, like high-frequency capacitance, are not too different.

  12. Measurements of microturbulence of Cepheids using the autocorrelation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, E. F.; Deschatelets, D.

    2017-10-01

    The autocorrelation function (ACF) is a simple and useful tool that allows us to measure the average linewidth of spectra with great precision. Unlike the cross-correlation function, the ACF can be used without having to rely on weighted binary masks. It makes the ACF much easier to use. We analyse seven Cepheids and present a new method to obtain very precise turbulent velocity curves for six of them using the ACF. We compare our full width at half-maximum (FWHM) curves as a function of the pulsational phase to those of Nardetto et al., who used the Fe I 6056.005 Å line only. We note a significant improvement in the shape of the FWHM curves for all Cepheids on using the ACF. From the FWHM curves, we measure microturbulence curves for six Cepheids using a Gaussian approximation. Finally, we artificially degrade the resolution of the spectra and add noise to further assess and highlight the advantages of the ACF. The FWHM curves obtained with the ACF remain virtually unchanged up to degradation by a factor of 10. Degradation by a factor of 20 slightly affected the results but an average linewidth variation remains easily detectable.

  13. Detailed measurements of structure functions from nucleons and nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The experiment will study deep inelastic muon nucleon scattering in a wide range of $Q^{2}$(1-200 (GeV/c)$^{2}$) and $x(0.005-0.75)$. The main aims of the experiment are: \\\\\\\\ a) Detailed measurements of the nuclear dependence of the structure function $F_{2}^{A}$, of $R = \\sigma_/\\sigma_{T}$ and of the cross-section for $J/\\psi$ production. They will provide a basis for the understanding of the EMC effect: the modification of quark and gluon distributions due to the nuclear environment. \\\\b) A simultaneous high luminosity measurement of the structure function $F_{2}$ on hydrogen and deuterium. This will provide substantially improved accuracy in the knowledge of the neutron structure function $F_{2}^{n}$, of $F_{2}^{p}-F_{2}^{n}$ and $F_{2}^{n}/F_{2}^{p}$ and their $Q^{2}$ dependence. Furthermore, the data will allow a determination of the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_{S}(Q^{2})$ with reduced experimental and theoretical uncertainties as well as of the ratio of the down to up quark distributions in the v...

  14. Model-based predictions for nuclear excitation functions of neutron-induced reactions on 64,66−68Zn targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yiğit

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, nuclear data for cross sections of the 64Zn(n,2n63Zn, 64Zn(n,3n62Zn, 64Zn(n,p64Cu, 66Zn(n,2n65Zn, 66Zn(n,p66Cu, 67Zn(n,p67Cu, 68Zn(n,p68Cu, and 68Zn(n,α65Ni reactions were studied for neutron energies up to 40 MeV. In the nuclear model calculations, TALYS 1.6, ALICE/ASH, and EMPIRE 3.2 codes were used. Furthermore, the nuclear data for the (n,2n and (n,p reaction channels were also calculated using various cross-section systematics at energies around 14–15 MeV. The code calculations were analyzed and obtained using the different level densities in the exciton model and the geometry-dependent hybrid model. The results obtained from the excitation function calculations are discussed and compared with literature experimental data, ENDF/B-VII.1, and the TENDL-2015 evaluated data.

  15. Molecular orbital studies (hardness, chemical potential, electrophilicity, and first electron excitation), vibrational investigation and theoretical NBO analysis of 2-hydroxy-5-bromobenzaldehyde by density functional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraj, A.; Balachandran, V.; Karthick, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out using Raman and infrared spectroscopy in the range 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively, for the 2-hydroxy-5-bromobenzaldehyde (HBB). The experimental spectra were recorded in the solid phase. The fundamental vibrational frequencies and intensity of vibrational bands were evaluated using density functional theory (DFT) with the standard B3LYP/6-311G++(d,p) method and basis set. Normal co-ordinate calculations were performed with the DFT force field corrected by a recommended set of scaling factors yielding fairly good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. Simulation of infrared and Raman spectra utilizing the results of these calculations led to excellent overall agreement with the observed spectral patterns. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method. The optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) were compared with experimental values of related compound. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions and the charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The directly calculated ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), electronegativity (χ), electrophilicity index (ω), hardness (η), chemical potential (μ), and first electron excitation (τ) are all correlated with the HOMO and LUMO energies with their molecular properties. These show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Furthermore, molecular electrostatic potential maps (MESP) of the molecule have been calculated.

  16. Model-based predictions for nuclear excitation functions of neutron-induced reactions on {sup 64,} {sup 66-68}Zn targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigit, M. [Faculty of Science and Arts, Dept. of Physics, Aksaray University, Aksaray (Turkmenistan); Kara, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Giresun University, Giresun (Turkmenistan)

    2017-08-15

    In this paper, nuclear data for cross sections of the {sup 64}Zn(n,2n){sup 63}Zn,{sup 64}Zn(n,3n){sup 62}Zn, {sup 64}Zn(n,p){sup 64}Cu, {sup 66}Zn(n,2n){sup 65}Zn, {sup 66}Zn(n,p){sup 66}Cu, {sup 67}Zn(n,p){sup 67}Cu, {sup 68}Zn(n,p){sup 68}Cu, and {sup 68}Zn(n,α){sup 65}Ni reactions were studied for neutron energies up to 40 MeV. In the nuclear model calculations, TALYS 1.6, ALICE/ASH, and EMPIRE 3.2 codes were used. Furthermore, the nuclear data for the (n,2n) and (n,p) reaction channels were also calculated using various cross-section systematics at energies around 14–15 MeV. The code calculations were analyzed and obtained using the different level densities in the exciton model and the geometry-dependent hybrid model. The results obtained from the excitation function calculations are discussed and compared with literature experimental data, ENDF/B-VII.1, and the TENDL-2015 evaluated data.

  17. Reversed Effects of Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation following Motor Training That Vary as a Function of Training-Induced Changes in Corticospinal Excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckel, Tino; Summers, Jeffery J; Hinder, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) has the potential to enhance corticospinal excitability (CSE) and subsequent motor learning. However, the effects of iTBS following motor learning are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of iTBS on CSE and performance following motor learning. Therefore twenty-four healthy participants practiced a ballistic motor task for a total of 150 movements. iTBS was subsequently applied to the trained motor cortex (STIM group) or the vertex (SHAM group). Performance and CSE were assessed before motor learning and before and after iTBS. Training significantly increased performance and CSE in both groups. In STIM group participants, subsequent iTBS significantly reduced motor performance with smaller reductions in CSE. CSE changes as a result of motor learning were negatively correlated with both the CSE changes and performance changes as a result of iTBS. No significant effects of iTBS were found for SHAM group participants. We conclude that iTBS has the potential to degrade prior motor learning as a function of training-induced CSE changes. That means the expected LTP-like effects of iTBS are reversed following motor learning.

  18. Reversed Effects of Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation following Motor Training That Vary as a Function of Training-Induced Changes in Corticospinal Excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tino Stöckel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS has the potential to enhance corticospinal excitability (CSE and subsequent motor learning. However, the effects of iTBS following motor learning are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of iTBS on CSE and performance following motor learning. Therefore twenty-four healthy participants practiced a ballistic motor task for a total of 150 movements. iTBS was subsequently applied to the trained motor cortex (STIM group or the vertex (SHAM group. Performance and CSE were assessed before motor learning and before and after iTBS. Training significantly increased performance and CSE in both groups. In STIM group participants, subsequent iTBS significantly reduced motor performance with smaller reductions in CSE. CSE changes as a result of motor learning were negatively correlated with both the CSE changes and performance changes as a result of iTBS. No significant effects of iTBS were found for SHAM group participants. We conclude that iTBS has the potential to degrade prior motor learning as a function of training-induced CSE changes. That means the expected LTP-like effects of iTBS are reversed following motor learning.

  19. Relationships between neuropsychological measures of executive function and behavioral measures of ADHD symptoms and comorbid behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, Solveig; Bouma, Anke; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between executive functions (EFs), as measured by neuropsychological tests, and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid behavior, as rated by parents and teachers. As intelligence and language ability

  20. Transport waves as crystal excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepellotti, Andrea; Marzari, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    We introduce the concept of transport waves by showing that the linearized Boltzmann transport equation admits excitations in the form of waves that have well-defined dispersion relations and decay times. Crucially, these waves do not represent single-particle excitations, but are collective excitations of the equilibrium distribution functions. We study in detail the case of thermal transport, where relaxons are found in the long-wavelength limit, and second sound is reinterpreted as the excitation of one or several temperature waves at finite frequencies. Graphene is studied numerically, finding decay times of the order of microseconds. The derivation, obtained by a spectral representation of the Boltzmann equation, holds in principle for any crystal or semiclassical transport theory and is particularly relevant when transport takes place in the hydrodynamic regime.

  1. Measurement of the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the excited 0{sub 1}{sup +} state in the NEMO3 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vala, L

    2003-09-01

    The NEMO3 detector was designed for the study of double beta decay and in particular to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay process (0{nu}{beta}{beta}). The intended sensitivity in terms of a half-life limit for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is of the order of 10{sup 25} y which corresponds to an effective neutrino mass m{sub {nu}} on the level of (0.3 - 0.1) eV. The 0{nu}{beta}{beta} process is today the most promising test of the Majorana nature of the neutrino. The detector was constructed in the Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM) in France by an international collaboration including France, Russia, the Czech Republic, the USA, the UK, Finland, and Japan. The experiment has been taking data since May 2002. The quantity of {sup 100}Mo in the detector (7 kg) allows an efficient measurement of the two-neutrino double beta decay (2{nu}{beta}{beta}) of {sup 100}Mo to the excited 0{sub 1}{sup +} state (eeN{gamma} channel). Monte-Carlo simulations of the effect and of all the relative sources of background have been produced in order to define a set of appropriate selection criteria. Both Monte-Carlo simulations and special runs with sources of {sup 208}Tl and {sup 214}Bi showed that the only significant background in the eeN{gamma} channel comes from radon that penetrated inside the wire chamber of NEMO3. The experimental data acquired from May 2002 to May 2003 have been analysed in order to determine the signal from the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the excited 0{sub 1}{sup +} state and the corresponding background level. The physical result, which was obtained at the level of four standard deviations, is given in the form of an interval of half-life values at 95% confidence level: [5.84*10{sup 20}, 2.26*10{sup 21}] y for method A and [5.83*10{sup 20}, 1.71*10{sup 21}] y for method B. (author)

  2. Precision measurement of the neutron spin dependent structure functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolomensky, Y.G.

    1997-02-01

    In experiment E154 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center the spin dependent structure function g{sub 1}{sup n} (x, Q{sup 2}) of the neutron was measured by scattering longitudinally polarized 48.3 GeV electrons off a longitudinally polarized {sup 3}He target. The high beam energy allowed the author to extend the kinematic coverage compared to the previous SLAC experiments to 0.014 {le} x {le} 0.7 with an average Q{sup 2} of 5 GeV{sup 2}. The author reports the integral of the spin dependent structure function in the measured range to be {integral}{sub 0.014}{sup 0.7} dx g{sub 1}{sup n}(x, 5 GeV{sup 2}) = {minus}0.036 {+-} 0.004(stat.) {+-} 0.005(syst.). The author observes relatively large values of g{sub 1}{sup n} at low x that call into question the reliability of data extrapolation to x {r_arrow} 0. Such divergent behavior disagrees with predictions of the conventional Regge theory, but is qualitatively explained by perturbative QCD. The author performs a Next-to-Leading Order perturbative QCD analysis of the world data on the nucleon spin dependent structure functions g{sub 1}{sup p} and g{sub 1}{sup n} paying careful attention to the experimental and theoretical uncertainties. Using the parameterizations of the helicity-dependent parton distributions obtained in the analysis, the author evolves the data to Q{sup 2} = 5 GeV{sup 2}, determines the first moments of the polarized structure functions of the proton and neutron, and finds agreement with the Bjorken sum rule.

  3. Note: Work function change measurement via improved Anderson method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabik, A., E-mail: sabik@ifd.uni.wroc.pl; Gołek, F.; Antczak, G. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Wrocław, Wrocław (Poland)

    2015-05-15

    We propose the modification to the Anderson method of work function change (Δϕ) measurements. In this technique, the kinetic energy of the probing electrons is already low enough for non-destructive investigation of delicate molecular systems. However, in our implementation, all electrodes including filament of the electron gun are polarized positively. As a consequence, electron bombardment of any elements of experimental system is eliminated. Our modification improves cleanliness of the ultra-high vacuum system. As an illustration of the solution capabilities, we present Δϕ of the Ag(100) surface induced by cobalt phthalocyanine layers.

  4. Competitive Energy and Electron Transfer in β-Functionalized Free-Base Porphyrin-Zinc Porphyrin Dimer Axially Coordinated to C60 : Synthesis, Supramolecular Formation and Excited-State Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Thomas, Michael B; Jinadasa, R G Waruna; Wang, Hong; D'Souza, Francis

    2017-09-18

    Simultaneous occurrence of energy and electron transfer events involving different acceptor sites in a newly assembled supramolecular triad comprised of covalently linked free-base porphyrin-zinc porphyrin dyad, H2 P-ZnP axially coordinated to electron acceptor fullerene, has been successfully demonstrated. The dyad was connected through the β-pyrrole positions of the porphyrin macrocycle instead of the traditionally used meso-positions for better electronic communication. Interestingly, the β-pyrrole functionalization modulated the optical properties to such an extent that it was possible to almost exclusively excite the zinc porphyrin entity in the supramolecular triad. The measured binding constant for the complex with 1:1 molecular stoichiometry was in the order of 104  m-1 revealing moderately stable complex formation. An energy level diagram constructed using optical, electrochemical and computational results suggested that both the anticipated energy and electron events are thermodynamically feasible in the triad. Consequently, it was possible to demonstrate occurrence of excited state energy transfer to the covalently linked H2 P, and electron transfer to the coordinated ImC60 from studies involving steady-state and time-resolved emission, and femto- and nanosecond transient absorption studies. The estimated energy transfer was around 67 % in the dyad with a rate constant of 1.1×109  s-1 . In the supramolecular triad, the charge separated state was rather long-lived although it was difficult to arrive the exact lifetime of charge separated state from nanosecond transient spectral studies due to overlap of strong triplet excited signals of porphyrin in the monitoring wavelength window. Nevertheless, simultaneous occurrence of energy and electron transfer in the appropriately positioned energy and electron acceptor entities in a supramolecular triad was possible to demonstrate in the present study, a step forward to unraveling the complex

  5. Modifying measures based on differential item functioning (DIF) impact analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Ramirez, Mildred; Jones, Richard N; Choi, Seung; Crane, Paul K

    2012-09-01

    Measure modification can impact comparability of scores across groups and settings. Changes in items can affect the percent admitting to a symptom. Using item response theory (IRT) methods, well-calibrated items can be used interchangeably, and the exact same item does not have to be administered to each respondent, theoretically permitting wider latitude in terms of modification. Recommendations regarding modifications vary, depending on the use of the measure. In the context of research, adjustments can be made at the analytic level by freeing and fixing parameters based on findings of differential item functioning (DIF). The consequences of DIF for clinical decision making depend on whether or not the patient's performance level approaches the scale decision cutpoint. High-stakes testing may require item removal or separate calibrations to ensure accurate assessment. Guidelines for modification based on DIF analyses and illustrations of the impact of adjustments are presented.

  6. Measurement of Branching Fractions and Spectral Functions in tau Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Davier, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Full LEP-I data collected by the ALEPH detector during 1991-1995 running are analyzed in order to measure the tau decay branching fractions and the hadronic spectral functions. The analysis follows the global method used in the published study based on 1991-1993 data, with several improvements, especially concerning the treatment of photons and pi /sup 0/'s. Extensive systematic studies are performed, in order to match the large statistics of the data sample corresponding to 327148 measured and identified tau decays. Preliminary values for the branching fractions are obtained for the 2 leptonic channels and 11 hadronic channels defined by their respective numbers of charged particles and pi /sup 0/'s. Using previously published ALEPH results on final states with charged and neutral kaons, corrections are applied so that branching ratios for exclusive final states without kaons are derived. Some physics implications of the results are given, in particular concerning universality in the leptonic charged weak cu...

  7. Functionalized Akiyama tips for magnetic force microscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, Markus; Barzola-Quiquia, José; Esquinazi, Pablo D.; Sangiao, Soraya; De Teresa, José M.; Meijer, Jan; Abel, Bernd

    2017-12-01

    In this work we have used focused electron beam induced deposition of cobalt to functionalize atomic force microscopy Akiyama tips for application in magnetic force microscopy. The grown tips have a content of  ≈ 90~% Co after exposure to ambient air. The magnetic tips were characterized using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In order to investigate the magnetic properties, current loops were prepared by electron beam lithography. Measurements at room temperature as well as 4.2~K were carried out and the coercive field of  ≈6.8 mT of the Co tip was estimated by applying several external fields in the opposite direction of the tip magnetization. Magnetic Akiyama tips open new possibilities for wide-range temperature magnetic force microscopy measurements.

  8. Photoconductive properties of GaAs{sub 1{minus}x}N{sub x} double heterostructures as a function of excitation wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrenkiel, R. K.; Mascarenhas, A.; Johnston, S. W.; Zhang, Y.; Friedman, D. J.; Vernon, S. M.

    2000-05-22

    The ternary semiconductor GaAs{sub 1{minus}x}N{sub x} with 0 < x < 0.3 can be grown epitaxially on GaAs and has a very large bowing coefficient. The alloy bandgap can be reduced to about 1.0 eV with about a 3% nitrogen addition. In this work, the authors measured the internal spectral response and recombination lifetime of a number of alloys using the ultra-high frequency photoconductive decay (UHFPCD) method. The data shows that the photoconductive excitation spectra of the GaAs{sub 0.97}N{sub 0.03} alloy shows a gradual increase in response through the absorption edge near E{sub g}. This contrasts with most direct bandgap semiconductors that show a steep onset of photoresponse at E{sub g}. The recombination lifetimes frequently are much longer than expected from radiative recombination and often exceeded 1.0{mu}s. The data were analyzed in terms of a band model that includes large potential fluctuations in the conduction band due to the random distribution of nitrogen atoms in the alloy.

  9. Developing safety performance functions incorporating reliability-based risk measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar El-Bassiouni; Sayed, Tarek

    2011-11-01

    Current geometric design guides provide deterministic standards where the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from these standards. Several studies have advocated probabilistic geometric design where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a risk measure of the implication of deviation from design standards. However, there is currently no link between measures of design reliability and the quantification of safety using collision frequency. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to bridge this gap by incorporating a reliability-based quantitative risk measure such as the probability of non-compliance (P(nc)) in safety performance functions (SPFs). Establishing this link will allow admitting reliability-based design into traditional benefit-cost analysis and should lead to a wider application of the reliability technique in road design. The present application is concerned with the design of horizontal curves, where the limit state function is defined in terms of the available (supply) and stopping (demand) sight distances. A comprehensive collision and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways is used to investigate the effect of the probability of non-compliance on safety. The reliability analysis was carried out using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Two Negative Binomial (NB) SPFs were developed to compare models with and without the reliability-based risk measures. It was found that models incorporating the P(nc) provided a better fit to the data set than the traditional (without risk) NB SPFs for total, injury and fatality (I+F) and property damage only (PDO) collisions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Functional Ankle Motion Measures in Modern Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Danelle; Hollman-Gage, Kendra; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi; Bronner, Shaw

    2012-09-01

    Ankle injuries are the most common lower extremity injury in dance and sports, often resulting in limitation of dorsiflexion or plantar flexion. Accurate assessment of any limitation in range of motion is an important factor in implementing effective preventative and rehabilitative regimens. Ankle range of motion has traditionally been quantified with goniometers. However, standard goniometry may not be an adequate method of assessing plantar flexion range of motion in dancers. An alternative technique using inclinometers to quantify ankle plantar flexion has been reported, but reliability and inter-instrument correlations for this method are limited. The dorsiflexion lunge distance method has been used to assess ankle dorsiflexion. Although shown to be reliable, this method has not been objectively correlated. The purpose of this study was to determine the most clinically appropriate tool for assessing functional ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion in dancers. The aims were to: 1. determine reliability of the weightbearing ankle dorsiflexion lunge method using inclinometer, goniometer, and distance; 2. assess the reliability of inclinometer and goniometer measurements of non-weightbearing active plantar flexion; 3. conduct inter-method and experienced versus novice rater correlations; and 4. determine if a relationship exists between dorsiflexion distance (cm) and dorsiflexion inclinometer angle (degrees) measurements. Twenty-six modern dancers (age: 20.2 ± 1.8 years) participated in the study. Four raters measured weightbearing dorsiflexion in a lunge position using a goniometer, two inclinometer placements, and a distance measurement. They also measured active ankle plantar flexion using an inclinometer placed on the anterior talonavicular joint and a goniometer placed at the lateral ankle. Intra- and inter-rater reliability and inter-method correlations were calculated with Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM

  11. The repeatability of sonographic measures of functional pelvic floor anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li; Shek, Ka Lai; Atan, Ixora Kamisan; Rojas, Rodrigo Guzman; Dietz, Hans Peter

    2015-11-01

    Translabial 3D/4D ultrasound is increasingly being used in the diagnostic evaluation of pelvic floor dysfunction. The result of the assessment is influenced by a number of confounders that are generally unrecognised. The aim of this study was to determine the short- to medium-term repeatability of translabial ultrasound measures of female pelvic organ support and pelvic floor anatomy. This is a retrospective study analyzing archived ultrasound volume datasets of 106 patients with pelvic floor dysfunction. Every subject was assessed twice at an average interval of 73 days. Outcome measures including hiatal area on Valsalva, descent of the bladder neck, bladder, uterus and rectal ampulla, rectocele depth, diagnosis of true rectocele, and levator integrity (avulsion) were compared at the first and second appointments. All parameters of organ descent demonstrated good to excellent reliability (ICC 0.73-0.93) except for rectocele descent, which showed moderate reliability (ICC 0.44, CI 0.26-0.58). The most highly repeatable measure was hiatal area on Valsalva or "ballooning" (ICC 0.93, CI 0.90-0.95). For the diagnosis of levator avulsion and true rectocele, agreement was very high (kappa 0.91 for avulsion (CI 0.77-0.94) and kappa 0.73 (CI 0.56-0.84) for true rectocele). The short- to medium-term repeatability of translabial ultrasound measures of functional pelvic floor anatomy seems to be high. Hiatal area on Valsalva (ballooning) and diagnosis of levator avulsion were the most repeatable measures. The least repeatable measures related to the posterior compartment.

  12. Substituting EMC emission measurement by field and cable scan method using measured transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinas, D.; Jia, J.; Zeichner, A.; Frei, S.

    2013-07-01

    Today EMC emissions of automotive components are often measured in anechoic chambers by an antenna at fixed position according to CISPR 25 (ALSE-method). The antenna voltage often cannot sufficiently describe the behaviour of the measured electronic components and systems. Furthermore space requirements and costs are very high for the ALSE-method. Field- and cable-scan methods combined with near-field to far-field transformation techniques might be a good alternative. Residual reflections from the walls, the metallic floor, the measuring table, interaction of the antenna with the environment, and other factors affect the measurements. Thus, models which only regard the current distribution for near- and far field calculation cannot produce results equal to a chamber measurement. In this paper methods for computing transfer functions for the substitution of EMC antenna measurements with field- and cable scans in a specified calibration area are introduced. To consider influences of the environment, the environment is characterized in a first step and included with transfer functions in the calculation process for the equivalent ALSE-field.

  13. Excitation functions of proton-induced reactions on natural Nd in the 10-30 MeV energy range, and production of radionuclides relevant for double-β decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeda, O.; Lozza, V.; Schrock, P.; Štursa, J.; Zuber, K.

    2012-01-01

    A preferred candidate for neutrinoless double-β decay, 150Nd, is present in natural neodymium at an abundance level of 5.64%. However, neodymium could be activated by cosmic rays during the period it spends on the Earth's surface. Its activation by protons is therefore of interest when it comes to estimating the possible disturbance effects and increased background during neutrinoless double-β-decay experiments like Sudbury Neutrino Observatory plus liquid scintillator (SNO+). In most cases, we lack experimental data on proton-induced reactions on neodymium. Therefore, a measurement of cross sections has been performed for the formation of 141Pm, 143Pm, 144Pm, 146Pm, 148Pm, 148Pmm, 149Pm, 150Pm, 140Nd, 141Nd, 147Nd, 149Nd, 138Prm, 139Pr, 142Pr, and 139Ce by 10-30 MeV protons. Oxidation-protected metal foil targets of natural isotopic abundance were irradiated by the usual stacked-foil technique on the external proton beam of the isochronous cyclotron U-120M at the Nuclear Physics Institute at Řež near Prague. Special attention was paid to the excitation functions of long-lived radionuclides. The measured data were compared with TENDL-2010 library data (talys code).

  14. Measurement of the Strange Spectral Function in Hadronic $\\tau$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Buesser, K.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2004-01-01

    Tau Lepton decays with open strangeness in the final state are measured with the OPAL detector at LEP to determine the strange hadronic spectral function of the tau lepton. The decays tau- -> (Kpi)-nu tau, (Kpipi)-nu tau and (Kpipipi)-nu tau with final states consisting of neutral and charged kaons and pions have been studied. The invariant mass distributions of 93.4% of these final states have been experimentally determined. Monte Carlo simulations have been used for the remaining 6.6% and for the strange final states including eta mesons. The reconstructed strange final states, corrected for resolution effects and detection efficiencies, yield the strange spectral function of the tau lepton. The moments of the spectral function and the ratio of strange to non-strange moments, which are important input parameters for theoretical analyses, are determined. Furthermore, the branching fractions B(tau- -> K-pi0nu tau) = (0.471+-0.059stat+-0.023sys)% and B(tau- -> K-pi+pi-nu tau) = (0.415+-0.053stat+-0.040sys)% ha...

  15. Automaticity of walking: functional significance, mechanisms, measurement and rehabilitation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Clark

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Automaticity is a hallmark feature of walking in adults who are healthy and well-functioning. In the context of walking, ‘automaticity’ refers to the ability of the nervous system to successfully control typical steady state walking with minimal use of attention-demanding executive control resources. Converging lines of evidence indicate that walking deficits and disorders are characterized in part by a shift in the locomotor control strategy from healthy automaticity to compensatory executive control. This is potentially detrimental to walking performance, as an executive control strategy is not optimized for locomotor control. Furthermore, it places excessive demands on a limited pool of executive reserves. The result is compromised ability to perform basic and complex walking tasks and heightened risk for adverse mobility outcomes including falls. Strategies for rehabilitation of automaticity are not well defined, which is due to both a lack of systematic research into the causes of impaired automaticity and to a lack of robust neurophysiological assessments by which to gauge automaticity. These gaps in knowledge are concerning given the serious functional implications of compromised automaticity. Therefore, the objective of this article is to advance the science of automaticity of walking by consolidating evidence and identifying gaps in knowledge regarding: a functional significance of automaticity; b neurophysiology of automaticity; c measurement of automaticity; d mechanistic factors that compromise automaticity; and e strategies for rehabilitation of automaticity.

  16. Electronic structure and optical properties of CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} solid solution nanostructures from X-ray absorption near edge structure, X-ray excited optical luminescence, and density functional theory investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M. W. [DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron), FS-PEX, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Yiu, Y. M., E-mail: yyiu@uwo.ca; Sham, T. K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A5B7 (Canada); Ward, M. J. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Liu, L. [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Soochow University-Western University Center for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123 (China); Hu, Y. [Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N2V3 (Canada); Zapien, J. A. [Center Of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Liu, Yingkai [Institute of Physics and Electronic Information, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650500 (China)

    2014-11-21

    The electronic structure and optical properties of a series of iso-electronic and iso-structural CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} solid solution nanostructures have been investigated using X-ray absorption near edge structure, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray excited optical luminescence at various absorption edges of Cd, S, and Se. It is found that the system exhibits compositions, with variable local structure in-between that of CdS and CdSe accompanied by tunable optical band gap between that of CdS and CdSe. Theoretical calculation using density functional theory has been carried out to elucidate the observations. It is also found that luminescence induced by X-ray excitation shows new optical channels not observed previously with laser excitation. The implications of these observations are discussed.

  17. Security camera resolution measurements: Horizontal TV lines versus modulation transfer function measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, John Clark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The horizontal television lines (HTVL) metric has been the primary quantity used by division 6000 related to camera resolution for high consequence security systems. This document shows HTVL measurements are fundamen- tally insufficient as a metric to determine camera resolution, and propose a quantitative, standards based methodology by measuring the camera system modulation transfer function (MTF), the most common and accepted metric of res- olution in the optical science community. Because HTVL calculations are easily misinterpreted or poorly defined, we present several scenarios in which HTVL is frequently reported, and discuss their problems. The MTF metric is discussed, and scenarios are presented with calculations showing the application of such a metric.

  18. Measurement of the hadronic structure function of the photon

    CERN Document Server

    Affholderbach, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    The hadronic structure function of the photon, Fγ 2 , is measured using a data sample of 52.9 pb−1, recorded with the ALEPH detector at the LEP storage ring in 1997. Approximately 2100 single-tag two-photon events at a centre-of-mass energy of √s ≈ 183GeV are selected from this data sample. The data are analysed in the two Q2 ranges from 7 to 24 and from 17 to 200 GeV2 with mean values of 13.7 and 56.5 GeV2 . The measured distributions of kinematic variables are compared to different model predictions, based on the HERWIG and PHOJET Monte Carlo generators. To determine Fγ 2(x,Q2), a two-dimensional unfolding method employing the principle of maximum entropy is used. In addition to the Bjorken variable x, the variable E17 is introduced, denoting the hadronic energy measured in the polar angle range below 17◦ and is also used in the unfolding. The two-dimensional unfolding method significantly reduces the systematic errors compared to one-dimensional methods which is shown by various unfolding tests. ...

  19. The measurement of language lateralization with functional Transcranial Doppler and functional MRI. A critical evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metten eSomers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral language lateralization can be assessed in several ways. In healthy subjects, functional MRI (fMRI during performance of a language task has evolved to be the most frequently applied method. Functional Transcranial Doppler (fTCD may provide a valid alternative, but has been used rarely. Both techniques have their own strengths and weaknesses and as a result may be applied in different fields of research. Until now, only one relatively small study (n=13 investigated the correlation between lateralization indices measured by fTCD and fMRI and showed a remarkably high correlation. To further evaluate the correlation between lateralization indices measured with fTCD and fMRI, we compared lateralization indices of twenty-two healthy subjects (twelve left- and ten right-handed using the same word generation paradigm for the fTCD as for the fMRI experiment. Lateralization indices measured with fTCD were highly but imperfectly correlated with lateralization indices measured with fMRI (Spearman’s rho=0.75, p<0.001. The imperfectness of the correlation can partially be explained by methodological restrictions of fMRI as well as fTCD. Our results suggest that fTCD can be a valid alternative for fMRI to measure lateralization, particularly when costs or mobility are important factors in the study design.

  20. Contributions of modern measurement theory to measuring executive function in early childhood: An empirical demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Wirth, R J; Blair, Clancy B

    2011-03-01

    This study demonstrates the merits of evaluating a newly developed battery of executive function tasks, designed for use in early childhood, from the perspective of item response theory (IRT). The battery was included in the 48-month assessment of the Family Life Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1292 children oversampled from low-income and African American families. IRT models were applied to a select set of tasks to demonstrate empirically (a) a principled method for item evaluation, including the utility of item characteristic curves; (b) how to explicitly test whether the measurement properties of executive function tasks are invariant across mutually exclusive subgroups of youths; (c) how the precision of measurement of a given task can vary according to underlying child ability; and (d) the utility of using IRT-based versus percentage correct scores. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of developing psychometrically sound and scalable instruments that facilitate the measurement of interindividual differences in intraindividual change of executive function across the early childhood period. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An excitation-pattern model for the starling (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buus, S; Klump, G M; Gleich, O; Langemann, U

    1995-07-01

    This paper develops and tests an excitation-pattern model for the starling. Like excitation-pattern models for humans [e.g., Zwicker, Acustica 6, 365-381 (1956); Florentine and Buus, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70, 1646-1654 (1981)], the model for starlings provides a unified account of a large body of data. The foundation of the model is a critical-band scale, which is derived as an equal-distance scale according to a cochlear-map function. The cochlear-map function is determined as a best-fitting function to physiological data relating characteristic frequency (CF) of auditory-nerve fibers to their place of innervation on the basilar papilla. Excitation patterns are derived from auditory-nerve measurements of levels at CF necessary to produce firing rates equal to those evoked by a test tone. The shape of these excitation patterns is independent of level and frequency when plotted on a cochlear-distance scale. The resulting model indicates that 10-dB bandwidths of auditory-nerve tuning curves and frequency DLs can be approximated as equal distances along the basilar papilla. Predictions of level discrimination are in good agreement with the data, except below 20 dB SL. Overall, the present work indicates that excitation-pattern models account for a wide range of auditory phenomena in both humans and starlings, when the models take into account differences in critical-band scales, absolute thresholds, excitation-pattern slopes, and growth of excitation, which is linear in starlings, but nonlinear in humans.

  2. Excited-State Deactivation of Branched Phthalocyanine Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huaning; Li, Yang; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Meng; Niu, Yingli; Zhang, Xinxing; Guo, Qianjin; Wang, Shuangqing; Yang, Guoqiang; Xia, Andong

    2015-12-21

    The excited-state relaxation dynamics and chromophore interactions in two phthalocyanine compounds (bis- and trisphthalocyanines) are studied by using steady-state and femtosecond transient absorption spectral measurements, where the excited-state energy-transfer mechanism is explored. By exciting phthalocyanine compounds to their second electronically excited states and probing the subsequent relaxation dynamics, a multitude of deactivation pathways are identified. The transient absorption spectra show the relaxation pathway from the exciton state to excimer state and then back to the ground state in bisphthalocyanine (bis-Pc). In trisphthalocyanine (tris-Pc), the monomeric and dimeric subunits are excited and the excitation energy transfers from the monomeric vibrationally hot S1 state to the exciton state of a pre-associated dimer, with subsequent relaxation to the ground state through the excimer state. The theoretical calculations and steady-state spectra also show a face-to-face conformation in bis-Pc, whereas in tris-Pc, two of the three phthalocyanine branches form a pre-associated face-to-face dimeric conformation with the third one acting as a monomeric unit; this is consistent with the results of the transient absorption experiments from the perspective of molecular structure. The detailed structure-property relationships in phthalocyanine compounds is useful for exploring the function of molecular aggregates in energy migration of natural photosynthesis systems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Statistics of Fractionalized Excitations through Threshold Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morampudi, Siddhardh C.; Turner, Ari M.; Pollmann, Frank; Wilczek, Frank

    2017-06-01

    We show that neutral anyonic excitations have a signature in spectroscopic measurements of materials: The low-energy onset of spectral functions near the threshold follows universal power laws with an exponent that depends only on the statistics of the anyons. This provides a route, using experimental techniques such as neutron scattering and tunneling spectroscopy, for detecting anyonic statistics in topologically ordered states such as gapped quantum spin liquids and hypothesized fractional Chern insulators. Our calculations also explain some recent theoretical results in spin systems.

  4. Functional petit-suisse cheese: measure of the prebiotic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Haíssa R; Saad, Susana M I; Gibson, Glenn R; Vulevic, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Prebiotics and probiotics are increasingly being used to produce potentially synbiotic foods, particularly through dairy products as vehicles. It is well known that both ingredients may offer benefits to improve the host health. This research aimed to evaluate the prebiotic potential of novel petit-suisse cheeses using an in vitro fermentation model. Five petit-suisse cheese formulations combining candidate prebiotics (inulin, oligofructose, honey) and probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis) were tested in vitro using sterile, stirred, batch culture fermentations with human faecal slurry. Measurement of prebiotic effect (MPE) values were generated comparing bacterial changes through determination of maximum growth rates of groups, rate of substrate assimilation and production of lactate and short chain fatty acids. Fastest fermentation and high lactic acid production, promoting increased growth rates of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, were achieved with addition of prebiotics to a probiotic cheese (made using starter+probiotics). Addition of probiotic strains to control cheese (made using just a starter culture) also resulted in high lactic acid production. Highest MPE values were obtained with addition of prebiotics to a probiotic cheese, followed by addition of prebiotics and/or probiotics to a control cheese. Under the in vitro conditions used, cheese made with the combination of different prebiotics and probiotics resulted in the most promising functional petit-suisse cheese. The study allowed comparison of potentially functional petit-suisse cheeses and screening of preferred synbiotic potential for future market use.

  5. Spin Structure Functions of the Deuteron Measured with CLAS in and above the Resonance Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmawardane, Kahanawita [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Spin structure functions of the nucleon in the region of large x and small to moderate Q2 continue to be of high current interest. The first moment of the spin structure function g1, γ1, goes through a rapid transition from the photon point (Q2=0), where it is constrained by the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule, to the deep inelastic limit where it is sensitive to the nucleon spin fraction carried by quarks. The interesting behavior in the transition region is dominated by baryon resonance excitations. We concluded an experiment to measure these observables for deuterium as part of the ''EG1'' run group in Jefferson Lab's Hall B. We used a highly polarized electron beam with energies from 1.6 GeV to 5.7 GeV and a cryogenic polarized ND3 target together with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) to accumulate over 11 billion events. In this thesis, we present results for the spin structure function g$d\\atop{1}$ (x,Q2), as well as its first moment, γ$d\\atop{1}$(Q2) in and above the resonance region over a Q2 range from 0.05 to 5 Gev2, based on the data taken with beam energies of 1.6 and 5.7 GeV. We also extract the behavior of A$d\\atop{1}$(x) at large x. Our data are consistent with the Hyperfine-perturbed quark model calculation which predicts that A$d\\atop{1}$ (x → 1) → 1. We also see evidence for duality in g$d\\atop{1}$ (x, Q2) at Q2 > GeV2.

  6. Measuring socioemotional functioning in a national birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Carol; West, Jerry

    2007-11-01

    An accumulating body of research suggests that the capacities children acquire that prepare them for learning in formal educational settings are multilevel and complex with multiple contributing factors that begin in infancy. A new U.S. longitudinal study, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), is designed to enable researchers to examine how an array of children's capacities and skills function individually and jointly to promote or hinder the acquisition of school readiness. The ECLS-B follows a nationally representative sample of 10,688 children born in the U.S. in 2001. Baseline data on the children and their families were collected at 9 months of age with follow-up at ages 2, 4, and kindergarten entry. Information on study children's socioemotional development is derived from several sources: videotaped mother-child interactions, parent interviews, and field staff observations. Because attachment is such an important indicator of children's socioemotional development during the toddler period, the study devoted considerable resources to designing an attachment measure. The Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) was designed to meet the need for a simple yet valid measure that did not require extensive training for field staff to administer easily. The TAS-45 generates the classical attachment categories and security and dependency scores. Copyright © 2007 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. Excitation functions of spin correlation parameters ANN,ASS, and ASL in elastic →/p→/p scattering between 0.45 and 2.5 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Büsser, K.; Busch, M.; Colberg, T.; Dahl, C.; Demirörs, L.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyser, K. O.; Felden, O.; Gebel, R.; Greiff, J.; Hinterberger, F.; Jonas, E.; Krause, H.; Lehmann, C.; Lindlein, J.; Maier, R.; Meinerzhagen, A.; Pauly, C.; Prasuhn, D.; Rohdjess, H.; Rosendaal, D.; von Rossen, P.; Schirm, N.; Scobel, W.; Ulbrich, K.; Weise, E.; Wolf, T.; Ziegler, R.

    2005-05-01

    Excitation functions of the spin correlation coefficients ANN(plab,θc.m.),ASS(plab,θc.m.), and ASL(plab,θc.m.) have been measured with the polarized proton beam of the Cooler Synchrotron and an internal polarized atomic beam target. Data were taken continuously during the acceleration for proton momenta plab ranging from 1000 to 3300 MeV/c (kinetic energies Tlab 450 2500 MeV) as well as for discrete momenta of 1430 MeV/c and above 1950 MeV/c covering angles θc.m. between 30° and 90°. The data are of high internal consistency. Whereas ASL(plab,θc.m.) is small and without structures in the whole range, ANN and, even more, ASS show a pronounced energy dependence. The angular distributions for ASS are at variance with predictions of existing phase-shift analyses at energies beyond 800 MeV. The impact of our results on phase-shift solutions is discussed. The direct reconstruction of the scattering amplitudes from all available pp elastic scattering data considerably reduces the ambiguities of solutions.

  8. Excitation optimization for damage detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bement, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bewley, Thomas R [UCSD

    2009-01-01

    A technique is developed to answer the important question: 'Given limited system response measurements and ever-present physical limits on the level of excitation, what excitation should be provided to a system to make damage most detectable?' Specifically, a method is presented for optimizing excitations that maximize the sensitivity of output measurements to perturbations in damage-related parameters estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This optimization is carried out in a computationally efficient manner using adjoint-based optimization and causes the innovations term in the extended Kalman filter to be larger in the presence of estimation errors, which leads to a better estimate of the damage-related parameters in question. The technique is demonstrated numerically on a nonlinear 2 DOF system, where a significant improvement in the damage-related parameter estimation is observed.

  9. Isovector monopole excitation energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.D.; Lipparini, E.; Stringary, S.

    1987-11-05

    Using a hydrodynamical model whose parameters have been adjusted to fit the polarizability and excitation energy of the giant dipole nuclear resonance we predict excitation energies of the isovector monopole resonance. The predicted values are in good agreement with experimental data. The mass dependence of the excitation energy is strongly influenced by nuclear geometry.

  10. Benchmarking singlet and triplet excitation energies of molecular semiconductors for singlet fission: Tuning the amount of HF exchange and adjusting local correlation to obtain accurate functionals for singlet-triplet gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Charlotte; Engels, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Vertical and adiabatic singlet and triplet excitation energies of molecular p-type semiconductors calculated with various DFT functionals and wave-function based approaches are benchmarked against MS-CASPT2/cc-pVTZ reference values. A special focus lies on the singlet-triplet gaps that are very important in the process of singlet fission. Singlet fission has the potential to boost device efficiencies of organic solar cells, but the scope of existing singlet-fission compounds is still limited. A computational prescreening of candidate molecules could enlarge it; yet it requires efficient methods accurately predicting singlet and triplet excitation energies. Different DFT formulations (Tamm-Dancoff approximation, linear response time-dependent DFT, Δ-SCF) and spin scaling schemes along with several ab initio methods (CC2, ADC(2)/MP2, CIS(D), CIS) are evaluated. While wave-function based methods yield rather reliable singlet-triplet gaps, many DFT functionals are shown to systematically underestimate triplet excitation energies. To gain insight, the impact of exact exchange and correlation is in detail addressed.

  11. The effects of excitation waveforms and shaker moving mass on the measured modal characteristics of a 2- by 5-foot aluminum plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, David F.; Morales, Adolfo M.

    1988-01-01

    Ground vibration tests were conducted to compare and to investigate the effects of five excitation waveforms and the shaker moving mass (equipment and armature used to attach the shaker to the structure) on the experimental modal characteristics of a 2- by 5-ft aluminum plate using fast Fourier transform techniques. The five types of excitation waveforms studied were sine dwell, random, impact, sine sweep, and impulsive sine. The results showed that the experimental modal frequencies for all types of excitation were within 3 percent, while the modal damping data exhibited greater scatter. The sets of mode shapes obtained by the five types of excitation were consistent. The results of the shaker moving mass investigation on the 2- by 5-ft aluminum plate showed that modal frequency decreases and modal damping remains relatively constant with an increase in shaker moving mass. The generalized mass of the structure appears to decrease with an increase in shaker moving mass. In addition, it was seen that having a shaker near a node line can reduce some of the effects of the added shaker moving mass on the frequencies and the damping.

  12. Validation of a questionnaire measuring the regulation of autonomic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthes H

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To broaden the range of outcomes that we can measure for patients undergoing treatment for oncological and other chronic conditions, we aimed to validate a questionnaire measuring self-reported autonomic regulation (aR, i.e. to characterise a subject's autonomic functioning by questions on sleeping and waking, vertigo, morningness-eveningness, thermoregulation, perspiration, bowel movements and digestion. Methods We administered the questionnaire to 440 participants (♀: N = 316, ♂: N = 124: 95 patients with breast cancer, 49 with colorectal cancer, 60 with diabetes mellitus, 39 with coronary heart disease, 28 with rheumatological conditions, 32 with Hashimoto's disease, 22 with multiple morbidities and 115 healthy people. We administered the questionnaire a second time to 50.2% of the participants. External convergence criteria included the German version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D, a short questionnaire on morningness-eveningness, the Herdecke Quality of Life Questionnaire (HLQ and a short version questionnaire on self-regulation. Results A principal component analysis yielded a three dimensional 18-item inventory of aR. The subscales orthostatic-circulatory, rest/activity and digestive regulation had internal consistency (Cronbach-α: rα = 0.65 – 0.75 and test-retest reliability (rrt = 0.70 – 85. AR was negatively associated with anxiety, depression, and dysmenorrhoea but positively correlated to HLQ, self-regulation and in part to morningness (except digestive aR (0.49 – 0.13, all p Conclusion An internal validation of the long-version scale of aR yielded consistent relationships with health versus illness, quality of life and personality. Further studies are required to clarify the issues of external validity, clinical and physiological relevance.

  13. Thermal Excitation System for Shearography (TESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Matthew D.; Bullock, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most convenient and effective methods of stressing a part or structure for shearographic evaluation is thermal excitation. This technique involves heating the part, often convectively with a heat gun, and then monitoring with a shearography device the deformation during cooling. For a composite specimen, unbonds, delaminations, inclusions, or matrix cracking will deform during cooling differently than other more structurally sound regions and thus will appear as anomalies in the deformation field. However, one of the difficulties that cause this inspection to be dependent on the operator experience is the conventional heating process. Fanning the part with a heat gun by hand introduces a wide range of variability from person to person and from one inspection to the next. The goal of this research effort was to conduct research in the methods of thermal excitation for shearography inspection. A computerized heating system was developed for inspection of 0.61 m (24 in.) square panels. The Thermal Excitation System for Shearography (TESS) provides radiant heating with continuous digital measurement of the surface temperature profile to ensure repeatability. The TESS device functions as an accessory to any electronic shearography device.

  14. Multi-frequency excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-03-10

    Embodiments of multi-frequency excitation are described. In various embodiments, a natural frequency of a device may be determined. In turn, a first voltage amplitude and first fixed frequency of a first source of excitation can be selected for the device based on the natural frequency. Additionally, a second voltage amplitude of a second source of excitation can be selected for the device, and the first and second sources of excitation can be applied to the device. After applying the first and second sources of excitation, a frequency of the second source of excitation can be swept. Using the methods of multi- frequency excitation described herein, new operating frequencies, operating frequency ranges, resonance frequencies, resonance frequency ranges, and/or resonance responses can be achieved for devices and systems.

  15. Diagnostic Profiles of Patients Differentially Failing Executive Functioning Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammers, Dustin; Ramirez, Gabriela; Persad, Carol; Heidebrink, Judith; Barbas, Nancy; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    Limited research exists to explain differential executive functioning impairment in clinical populations, particularly between the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and the Trail Making Test (TMT). The distribution of clinical diagnoses was examined in patients failing none, one, or both tasks, and executive task performance was compared among dementia-related diagnoses. Two hundred and sixty-six participants received evaluations through an Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, which included executive tasks. Dementia-related diagnoses were established through consensus. Chi-square analyses indicated that TMT failure, with or without WCST failure, possessed higher associations with dementia diagnoses. Repeated measures analysis of variance similarly indicated that participants with dementia, especially mild and moderate severity, performed worse on TMT. Executive dysfunction was observed in dementia-related diagnoses, and TMT failure was implicated in dementia in higher proportions than WCST impairment. Trail Making Test appears more sensitive than WCST for assessing executive impairment across diagnoses, especially when time and resources are limited in screening and clinical settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Lung Function Measurement with Multiple-Breath-Helium Washout System

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jau-Yi; Owers-Bradley, John; Mellor, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multi-breath-nitrogen (MBNW) washout tests. In this work, instead of using nitrogen, helium is used as the tracer gas and a multiple-helium-breath-washout (MBHW) system has been developed for the lung function study. A commercial quartz tuning fork with a resonance frequency of 32768 Hz has been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 12 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 2 smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting o...

  17. Lung function measurement with multiple-breath-helium washout system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-Y; Suddards, M E; Mellor, C J; Owers-Bradley, J R

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multiple-breath-nitrogen washout (MBNW) tests. In this study, instead of using nitrogen, (4)He is used as the tracer gas with smaller gas density which may be able to reach deeper into our lungs in a given time and the helium washout results may be more sensitive to the ventilation inhomogeneity in small airways. A multiple-breath-helium-washout (MBHW) system developed for the lung function study is also presented. Quartz tuning forks with a resonance frequency of 32,768Hz have been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the quartz tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 14 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 4 tobacco smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting or acinar airways (or both). A feature has been found in washout curve of single breaths from 4 tobacco smokers with different length of smoking history which may indicate the early stage of respiratory ventilation inhomogeneity in acinar airways. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  18. Sadomasochism, sexual excitement, and perversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernberg, O F

    1991-01-01

    Sadomasochism, an ingredient of infantile sexuality, is an essential part of normal sexual functioning and love relations, and of the very nature of sexual excitement. Sadomasochistic elements are also present in all sexual perversions. Sadomasochism starts out as the potential for erotic masochism in both sexes, and represents a very early capacity to link aggression with the libidinal elements of sexual excitement. Sexual excitement may be considered a basic affect that overcomes primitive splitting of love and hatred. Erotic desire is a more mature form of sexual excitement. Psychoanalytic exploration makes it possible to uncover the unconscious components of sexual excitement: wishes for symbiotic fusion and for aggressive penetration and intermingling; bisexual identifications; the desire to transgress oedipal prohibitions and the secretiveness of the primal scene, and to violate the boundaries of a teasing and withholding object. The relation between these wishes and the development of erotic idealization processes in both sexes is explored in the context of a critical review of the pertinent psychoanalytic literature.

  19. New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Harguindeguy, N.; Díaz, S.; Garnier, E.; Jaureguiberry, P.; Poorter, L.; Steege, ter H.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Plant functional traits are the features (morphological, physiological, phenological) that represent ecological strategies and determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels and influence ecosystem properties. Variation in plant functional traits, and trait

  20. The effect of C5 and C6 spinal manipulative therapy on the alpha motorneuron excitability of the musculocutaneous nerve in the biceps brachii muscle measured using EMG

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M. Tech. Chiro. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect that C5 and C6 spinal manipulative therapy had on alpha motorneuron excitability of the musculocutaneous nerve in the biceps brachii muscle. Readings were recorded using Electromyography (EMG). Eighty asymptomatic subjects participated in this study. The subjects selected had to be between 18 and 35 years of age, having experienced no cervical pain, discomfort or pathology. The subjects had to present with a C5 or C6 joi...

  1. The dependence of ZnO photoluminescence efficiency on excitation conditions and defect densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Jay G.; Liu, Jie [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Foreman, John V. [U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Everitt, Henry O., E-mail: everitt@phy.duke.edu [U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    The quantum efficiencies of both the band edge and deep-level defect emission from annealed ZnO powders were measured as a function of excitation fluence and wavelength from a tunable sub-picosecond source. A simple model of excitonic decay reproduces the observed excitation dependence of rate constants and associated trap densities for all radiative and nonradiative processes. The analysis explores how phosphor performance deteriorates as excitation fluence and energy increase, provides an all-optical approach for estimating the number density of defects responsible for deep-level emission, and yields new insights for designing efficient ZnO-based phosphors.

  2. Evolution of Excited Convective Cells in Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Sugai, H.

    1984-01-01

    Convective cells are excited externally in a fully ionized magnetized plasma and their space-time evolution is investigated by two-dimensional potential measurements. A positive cell is excited externally by control of the end losses in the 'scrape off' layer of a plasma column produced by surface...

  3. Measurement of L-XRF cross-sections and Coster–Kronig enhancement factors for {sup 62}Sm at excitation energies 6.8, 7.4 and 8 KeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R., E-mail: rajiv_005@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, HCTM Technical Campus, Kaithal, Haryana 136027 (India); Rani, A., E-mail: anita_teotia@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, University P.G. College Kurukshetra, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana 136119 (India); Singh, R.M. [Department of Physics, Ch. Devi Lal University, Sirsa, Haryana 125055 (India); Tiwari, M.K.; Singh, A.K. [X-ray Optics Section, Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • L XRF production cross-sections for {sup 62}Sm at excitation energies 6.8, 7.4 and 8 KeV were measured. • Synchrotron radiations with Peltier cooled Si(Li) detector was employed. • Experimental L XRF cross sections are in good agreement with the theoretical estimations of Puri’s data. • The present study was also carried out to examine the effect of Coster - Kronig transitions on L XRF cross section. • The measured enhancement factors are found to be smaller than the theoretical estimations. - Abstract: L{sub ℓ}, L{sub α} and L{sub β} XRF production cross-sections were measured for {sup 62}Sm at excitation energies i.e. 6.8 KeV, 7.4 KeV and 8 KeV using synchrotron radiations. Experimental measurements were also carried out to examine the effect of Coster–Kronig transitions (non-radiative transitions) on fluorescence cross section for the L{sub i} (i = 1, 2, 3) X-ray lines. The experimental cross-sections with greater accuracy and better signal to noise ratio can be measured using a polarized monoenergetic excitation beam and a high resolution detector system. A Peltier cooled vortex solid state detector with energy resolution of 138 eV at 5.959 keV X-ray was employed. Experimentally measured cross-sections have been compared with the theoretical predictions with the data of M.O. Krause [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8 (1979) 307], J.L. Campbell [At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 85 (2003) 291] and S. Puri et al. [X-Ray Spectrom. 22 (1993) 358]. The measured enhancement factors were found to be smaller than the theoretically calculated values.

  4. Measurement of the Quark and Gluon Fragmentation Functions in $Z^0$ Hadronic Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbi, M S; Barbiellini, Guido; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Colomer, M; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Damgaard, G; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Durand, J D; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Gumenyuk, S A; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Hajduk, Z; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, S; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolenko, M; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Ortuno, S; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Petrovykh, M; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Serbelloni, L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siegrist, P; Silvestre, R; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Skaali, T B; Skatchkov, N; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Wlodek, T; Yi, J; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1999-01-01

    The fragmentation functions and multiplicities in $b\\overline{b}$ and light quark events are compared. The measured transverse and longitudinal components of the fragmentation function allow the gluon fragmentation function to be evaluated.

  5. CIFKAS A Measurer of Functional Disability Status in Knee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) results in structural and functional abnormalities and reduced functional performance abilities. In developing countries majority of population lives in rural areas having limited resources and socio-cultural biodiversity. Their personal, socio-cultural and occupational habits vary and need to be ...

  6. A locally adapted functional outcome measurement score for total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Lequesne Index, used as Ouaga Score. It can be obtained easily and is reliable in a general West African patient population. We recommend the use of the Ouaga Score for functional evaluation and follow-up of THR in West Africa. Keywords: THR, Hip, Africa, Functional score, Hip replacement, Arthroscopy ...

  7. Excited states 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    Excited States, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that deals with molecules in the excited states. The book describes the geometries of molecules in the excited electronic states. One paper describes the geometries of a diatomic molecule and of polyatomic molecules; it also discusses the determination of the many excited state geometries of molecules with two, three, or four atoms by techniques similar to diatomic spectroscopy. Another paper introduces an ordered theory related to excitons in pure and mixed molecular crystals. This paper also presents some experimental data such as those invo

  8. Application of unfolded principal component analysis-radial basis function neural network for determination of celecoxib in human serum by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahlaei, Mohsen; Bahrami, Gholamreza; Abdolmaleki, Sajjad; Sadrjavadi, Komail; Majnooni, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-03-01

    This study describes a simple and rapid approach of monitoring celecoxib (CLX). Unfolded principal component analysis-radial basis function neural network (UPCA-RBFNN) and excitation-emission spectra were combined to develop new model in the determination of CLX in human serum samples. Fluorescence landscapes with excitation wavelengths from 250 to 310 nm and emission wavelengths in the range 280-450 nm were obtained. The figures of merit for the developed model were evaluated. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was also used as a standard method. Accuracy of the method was investigated by analysis of the serum samples spiked with various concentration of CLX and a recovery of 103.63% was obtained. The results indicated that the proposed method is an interesting alternative to the traditional techniques normally used for determining CLX such as HPLC.

  9. Measurement of excited oxygen (O2:[sup 1][Delta]g) concentration by spontaneous emission. Hakko kyodo ni yoru reiki sanso ([sup 1][Delta]g) nodo no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Yamashita, I. (Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-11-25

    The concentration of excited oxygen ([sup 1][Delta]g), which was generated by microwave discharge in a pure oxygen flow, was measured from the intensity of spontaneous emission. The conversion factor to density was determined by spectroscopic analysis of the rotational structure and calibration of the emission intensity using a black-body furnace as light source. Consequently, a good agreement was found between the observed profiles and those calculated from spectroscopic data, and it was illustrated that the absolute concentration can be obtained by coupling band analysis and the calibration method. In addition, even when the concentration was low, it was shown that the excited oxygen concentration can be measured by considering the reflection at the cell wall. The excited oxygen concentration at the microwave discharge cavity was estimated to be around 1% under the pressure ranging from 0.5 torr to 2 torr. Furthermore, the comparison of the profiles calculated at different temperature provided that the band profile can be a good indicator of gas temperature when the signal-to-noise ratio is high. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Excited B states at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Kluit, Peter M

    2005-01-01

    The first orbitally excited B states were discovered at LEP in 1995. In subsequent years evidence was put forward for the existence of several excited B hadron states. Now, ten years later it is time to review the situation. New analyses have been performed in DELPHI using the full LEP data set with improved and high performance analysis tools. Measurements for the production rate and masses of narrow and broad B/sub u, d//sup **/ mesons will be presented as well as results for the search for B/sub s//sup **/ mesons and Sigma /sub b//sup (*)/ baryons. The results will be compared to earlier measurements, predictions from HQET and measurements in the charm sector.

  11. Generation of a pair of photons through the three-body dissociation of a multiply excited water molecule around the double ionization potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odagiri, Takeshi; Nakano, Motoyoshi; Tanabe, Takehiko; Kumagai, Yoshiaki [Department of Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Suzuki, Isao H; Kouchi, Noriyuki, E-mail: joe@chem.titech.ac.j [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2009-11-01

    The cross sections for the generation of a photon-pair from excited fragments in photoexcitation of H{sub 2}O have been measured as a function of incident photon energy. The multiply excited states of H{sub 2}O have been observed even above the adiabatic double ionization potential.

  12. Factors influencing serum cystatin C levels other than renal function and the impact on renal function measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knight, E.L.; Verhave, Jacobien C.; Spiegelman, D.; Hillege, Hans; Curhan, G.C.; De Jong, Paul E.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    Factors influencing serum cystatin C levels other than renal function and the impact on renal function measurement. Background It is well known that serum creatinine may be used as a marker of renal function only if taking into account factors that influence creatinine production, such as age,

  13. Longitudinal Decline in Lung Function Measurements among Saskatchewan Grain Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punam Pahwa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between the long term effects of grain dust and decline in lung function among grain elevator workers in Saskatchewan, studied over a 15-year period.

  14. Valence excitation energies of alkenes, carbonyl compounds, and azabenzenes by time-dependent density functional theory: Linear response of the ground state compared to collinear and noncollinear spin-flip TDDFT with the Tamm-Dancoff approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isegawa, Miho; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2013-04-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) holds great promise for studying photochemistry because of its affordable cost for large systems and for repeated calculations as required for direct dynamics. The chief obstacle is uncertain accuracy. There have been many validation studies, but there are also many formulations, and there have been few studies where several formulations were applied systematically to the same problems. Another issue, when TDDFT is applied with only a single exchange-correlation functional, is that errors in the functional may mask successes or failures of the formulation. Here, to try to sort out some of the issues, we apply eight formulations of adiabatic TDDFT to the first valence excitations of ten molecules with 18 density functionals of diverse types. The formulations examined are linear response from the ground state (LR-TDDFT), linear response from the ground state with the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDDFT-TDA), the original collinear spin-flip approximation with the Tamm-Dancoff (TD) approximation (SF1-TDDFT-TDA), the original noncollinear spin-flip approximation with the TDA approximation (SF1-NC-TDDFT-TDA), combined self-consistent-field (SCF) and collinear spin-flip calculations in the original spin-projected form (SF2-TDDFT-TDA) or non-spin-projected (NSF2-TDDFT-TDA), and combined SCF and noncollinear spin-flip calculations (SF2-NC-TDDFT-TDA and NSF2-NC-TDDFT-TDA). Comparing LR-TDDFT to TDDFT-TDA, we observed that the excitation energy is raised by the TDA; this brings the excitation energies underestimated by full linear response closer to experiment, but sometimes it makes the results worse. For ethylene and butadiene, the excitation energies are underestimated by LR-TDDFT, and the error becomes smaller making the TDA. Neither SF1-TDDFT-TDA nor SF2-TDDFT-TDA provides a lower mean unsigned error than LR-TDDFT or TDDFT-TDA. The comparison between collinear and noncollinear kernels shows that the noncollinear kernel

  15. Simultaneous dynamic electrical and structural measurements of functional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchini, C.; Stewart, M.; Muñiz-Piniella, A.; Wooldridge, J. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thompson, P.; McMitchell, S. R. C.; Bouchenoire, L.; Brown, S.; Wermeille, D.; Lucas, C. A. [XMaS, The UK-CRG, ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS40220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Lepadatu, S. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Bikondoa, O.; Hase, T. P. A. [XMaS, The UK-CRG, ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS40220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Lesourd, M. [ESRF-The European Synchrotron, CS40220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Dontsov, D. [SIOS Meßtechnik GmbH, Am Vogelherd 46, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Cain, M. G. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Electrosciences Ltd., Farnham, Surrey GU9 9QT (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    A new materials characterization system developed at the XMaS beamline, located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France, is presented. We show that this new capability allows to measure the atomic structural evolution (crystallography) of piezoelectric materials whilst simultaneously measuring the overall strain characteristics and electrical response to dynamically (ac) applied external stimuli.

  16. Measuring functional ability in hospitalized older adults: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Kylie; Lannin, Natasha A; Clemson, Lindy; Cameron, Ian D

    2017-05-08

    To examine the internal consistency, construct validity and responsiveness of functional assessments tools when used with hospitalized older adults. The functional ability of 66 patients was assessed using a semi-structured interview scale (n = 16 tools). The assessment of motor and process skills was administered during hospital admission and again at three months post-discharge. Tools showed poor-to-excellent internal consistency (α = 0.27-0.92). Of the tools that were internally consistent, only two demonstrated change: the Groningen activity restriction scale (GARS) (smallest detectable change [SDC] 11.68, effect size -1.59) and the modified reintegration to normal living scale (SDC 7.04, effect size -1.20). Validity was supported by strong correlations between the functional independence measure™ (FIM™) and the GARS, FIM™ and Sunnaas activity daily living (ADL) index. Findings suggest that the GARS and the modified reintegration to normal living index (mRNLI) are internally consistent, valid and responsive to change over time when applied to a sample of hospitalized older adults. Further investigation of these tools in terms of inter and intra rater reliability in clinical practice is warranted. Implications for Rehabilitation Therapists and researchers need to choose standardized functional assessments carefully when working with hospitalized older adults, as not all assessments are reliable and valid in this population. The GARS and mRNLI are valid and responsive functional assessments for hospitalized older adults. Activity and participation have been viewed traditionally as only one component of function. Therapists and researchers can use standardized assessments of function that are activity or participation-based.

  17. Absolute cross sections for electronic excitation of pyrimidine by electron impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regeta, Khrystyna; Allan, Michael [Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 9, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Mašín, Zdeněk [Max-Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy, Max-Born-Straße 2A, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Gorfinkiel, Jimena D. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-14

    We measured differential cross sections for electron-impact electronic excitation of pyrimidine, both as a function of electron energy up to 18 eV, and of scattering angle up to 180°. The emphasis of the present work is on recording detailed excitation functions revealing resonances in the excitation process. The differential cross sections were summed to obtain integral cross sections. These are compared to results of R-matrix calculations, which successfully reproduce both the magnitude of the cross section and the major resonant features. Comparison of the experiment to the calculated contributions of different symmetries to the integral cross section permitted assignment of several features to specific core-excited resonances. Comparison of the resonant structure of pyrimidine with that of benzene revealed pronounced similarities and thus a dominant role of π–π{sup ∗} excited states and resonances. Electron energy loss spectra were measured as a preparation for the cross section measurements and vibrational structure was observed for some of the triplet states. A detailed analysis of the electronic excited states of pyrimidine is also presented.

  18. Functional It\\^o calculus and martingale representation formula for integer-valued measures

    OpenAIRE

    Blacque-Florentin, Pierre M.; Cont, Rama

    2015-01-01

    We develop a calculus for functionals of integer-valued measures, which extends the Functional It\\^o calculus to functionals of Poisson random measures in a pathwise sense. We show that smooth functionals in the sense of this pathwise calculus are dense in the space of square-integrable (compensated) integrals with respect to a large class of integer-valued random measures. As a consequence, we obtain an explicit martingale representation formula for all square-integrable martingales with res...

  19. Evanescent excitation and emission in fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Daniel

    2013-04-02

    Evanescent light-light that does not propagate but instead decays in intensity over a subwavelength distance-appears in both excitation (as in total internal reflection) and emission (as in near-field imaging) forms in fluorescence microscopy. This review describes the physical connection between these two forms as a consequence of geometrical squeezing of wavefronts, and describes newly established or speculative applications and combinations of the two. In particular, each can be used in analogous ways to produce surface-selective images, to examine the thickness and refractive index of films (such as lipid multilayers or protein layers) on solid supports, and to measure the absolute distance of a fluorophore to a surface. In combination, the two forms can further increase selectivity and reduce background scattering in surface images. The polarization properties of each lead to more sensitive and accurate measures of fluorophore orientation and membrane micromorphology. The phase properties of the evanescent excitation lead to a method of creating a submicroscopic area of total internal reflection illumination or enhanced-resolution structured illumination. Analogously, the phase properties of evanescent emission lead to a method of producing a smaller point spread function, in a technique called virtual supercritical angle fluorescence. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Excitability constraints on voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Angelino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We study how functional constraints bound and shape evolution through an analysis of mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels. The primary function of sodium channels is to allow the propagation of action potentials. Since Hodgkin and Huxley, mathematical models have suggested that sodium channel properties need to be tightly constrained for an action potential to propagate. There are nine mammalian genes encoding voltage-gated sodium channels, many of which are more than approximately 90% identical by sequence. This sequence similarity presumably corresponds to similarity of function, consistent with the idea that these properties must be tightly constrained. However, the multiplicity of genes encoding sodium channels raises the question: why are there so many? We demonstrate that the simplest theoretical constraints bounding sodium channel diversity--the requirements of membrane excitability and the uniqueness of the resting potential--act directly on constraining sodium channel properties. We compare the predicted constraints with functional data on mammalian sodium channel properties collected from the literature, including 172 different sets of measurements from 40 publications, wild-type and mutant, under a variety of conditions. The data from all channel types, including mutants, obeys the excitability constraint; on the other hand, channels expressed in muscle tend to obey the constraint of a unique resting potential, while channels expressed in neuronal tissue do not. The excitability properties alone distinguish the nine sodium channels into four different groups that are consistent with phylogenetic analysis. Our calculations suggest interpretations for the functional differences between these groups.