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Sample records for excitation function experiments

  1. The EDDA experiment: proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterberher, F.

    1996-01-01

    The EDDA experiment is designed to provide a high precision measurement of proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 GeV of (lab) incident kinetic energy. It is an internal target experiment utilizing the proton beam of the cooler synchrotron COSY operated by KFA Juelich. The excitation functions are measured during the acceleration ramp of COSY. (author)

  2. Excited-state density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbola, Manoj K; Hemanadhan, M; Shamim, Md; Samal, P

    2012-01-01

    Starting with a brief introduction to excited-state density functional theory, we present our method of constructing modified local density approximated (MLDA) energy functionals for the excited states. We show that these functionals give accurate results for kinetic energy and exchange energy compared to the ground state LDA functionals. Further, with the inclusion of GGA correction, highly accurate total energies for excited states are obtained. We conclude with a brief discussion on the further direction of research that include the construction of correlation energy functional and exchange potential for excited states.

  3. Molecular excited states from the SCAN functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, David J.; Peach, Michael J. G.

    2018-06-01

    The performance of the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) meta-generalised gradient approximation exchange-correlation functional is investigated for the calculation of time-dependent density-functional theory molecular excitation energies of local, charge-transfer and Rydberg character, together with the excited ? potential energy curve in H2. The SCAN results frequently resemble those obtained using a global hybrid functional, with either a standard or increased fraction of exact orbital exchange. For local excitations, SCAN can exhibit significant triplet instability problems, resulting in imaginary triplet excitation energies for a number of cases. The Tamm-Dancoff approximation offers a simple approach to improve the situation, but the excitation energies are still significantly underestimated. Understanding the origin of these (near)-triplet instabilities may provide useful insight into future functional development.

  4. Recent experiments involving highly excited atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    Very large and fragile atoms may be produced by exciting normal atoms with light or by collisions with other atomic particles. Atoms as large as 10 -6 m are now routinely produced in the laboratory and their properties studied. In this review some of the simpler experimental methods available for the production and detection of such atoms are described including tunable dye laser-excitation and field ionization. A few recent experiments which illustrate the collision properties and the effects of electric and and magnetic fields are also described. The relevance of highly excited atoms in other areas of research including radioastronomy and isotope separation are discussed. (author)

  5. Neutron excitation function guide for reactor dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritzay, O.; Vlasov, M.; Chervonna, L.; Klimova, N.; Kolota, G.; Zerkin, V.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron Excitation Function Guide for Reactor Dosimetry (NEFGRD) has been prepared in the Ukrainian Nuclear Data Center (UKRNDC) using ZVV 9.2 code for graphical data presentation. The data can be retrieved through Web or obtained on CD-ROM or as hard copy report. NEFGRD contains graphical and text information for 56 nuclides (81 dosimetry reactions). Each reaction is provided by the information part and several graphical function blocks (from one to nine). (author)

  6. Fusion excitation functions involving transitional nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Jiang, C.L.; Esbensen, H. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Measurements of fusion excitation functions involving transitional nuclei {sup 78}Kr and {sup 100}Mo showed a different behavior at low energies, if compared to measurements with {sup 86}Kr and {sup 92}Mo. This points to a possible influence of nuclear structure on the fusion process. One way to characterize the structure of vibrational nuclei is via their restoring force parameters C{sub 2} which can be calculated from the energy of the lowest 2{sup +} state and the corresponding B(E2) value. A survey of the even-even nuclei between A = 28-150 shows strong variations in C{sub 2} values spanning two orders of magnitude. The lowest values for C{sub 2} are observed for {sup 78}Kr, {sup 104}Ru and {sup 124}Xe followed by {sup 74,76}Ge, {sup 74,76}Se, {sup 100}Mo and {sup 110}Pd. In order to learn more about the influence of {open_quotes}softness{close_quotes} on the sub-barrier fusion enhancement, we measured cross sections for evaporation residue production for the systems {sup 78}Kr + {sup 104}Ru and {sup 78}Kr + {sup 76}Ge with the gas-filled magnet technique. For both systems, fusion excitation functions involving the closed neutron shell nucleus {sup 86}Kr were measured previously. The data are presently being analyzed.

  7. Electron distribution function in electron-beam-excited plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brau, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    In monatomic plasmas excited by high-intensity relativistic electron beams, the electron secondary distribution function is dominated by elastic electron-electron collisions at low electron energies and by inelastic electron-atom collisions at high electron energies (above the excitation threshold). Under these conditions, the total rate of excitation by inelastic collisions is limited by the rate at which electron-electron collisions relax the distribution function in the neighborhood of the excitation threshold. To describe this effect quantitatively, an approximate analytic solution of the electron Boltzmann equation is obtained, including both electron-electron and inelastic collisions. The result provides a simple formula for the total rate of excitation

  8. Highly excited strings I: Generating function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri P. Skliros

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first of a series of detailed papers on string amplitudes with highly excited strings (HES. In the present paper we construct a generating function for string amplitudes with generic HES vertex operators using a fixed-loop momentum formalism. We generalise the proof of the chiral splitting theorem of D'Hoker and Phong to string amplitudes with arbitrary HES vertex operators (with generic KK and winding charges, polarisation tensors and oscillators in general toroidal compactifications E=RD−1,1×TDcr−D (with generic constant Kähler and complex structure target space moduli, background Kaluza–Klein (KK gauge fields and torsion. We adopt a novel approach that does not rely on a “reverse engineering” method to make explicit the loop momenta, thus avoiding a certain ambiguity pointed out in a recent paper by Sen, while also keeping the genus of the worldsheet generic. This approach will also be useful in discussions of quantum gravity and in particular in relation to black holes in string theory, non-locality and breakdown of local effective field theory, as well as in discussions of cosmic superstrings and their phenomenological relevance. We also discuss the manifestation of wave/particle (or rather wave/string duality in string theory.

  9. 1D experiments with multiply selective excitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    solution, leading to the determination of four rate parameters, is presented for proton exchange studies on these systems ... patterns within a single experiment entailing a total time of ca. ..... surements. For the acid–base reaction given in (6).

  10. Sequential double excitations from linear-response time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosquera, Martín A.; Ratner, Mark A.; Schatz, George C., E-mail: g-schatz@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chen, Lin X. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Traditional UV/vis and X-ray spectroscopies focus mainly on the study of excitations starting exclusively from electronic ground states. However there are many experiments where transitions from excited states, both absorption and emission, are probed. In this work we develop a formalism based on linear-response time-dependent density functional theory to investigate spectroscopic properties of excited states. We apply our model to study the excited-state absorption of a diplatinum(II) complex under X-rays, and transient vis/UV absorption of pyrene and azobenzene.

  11. A simple method for automatic measurement of excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, M.; Adachi, M.; Arai, E.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus has been constructed to perform the sequence control of a beam-analysing magnet for automatic excitation function measurements. This device is also applied to the feedback control of the magnet to lock the beam energy. (Auth.)

  12. Internuclear potentials from heavy ion fusion excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkelund, J.R.; Huizenga, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion is given of the determination of internuclear potentials from heavy ion fusion excitation functions. It is found that this calculation is complicated by the difficulties involved in a calculation of the frictional energy loss and by the problem of measurement of excitation function with sufficient accuracy to closely define the barrier radius. Any quantitative comparisons made between the nuclear potential derived from fusion data and theoretical nuclear potentials depend upon the solutions of the above problems. 15 references

  13. Measurement of nuclear potentials from fusion excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, J.R.; Birkelund, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The basis for measuring nuclear potentials from fusion excitation functions at energies above barrier is reviewed. It is argued that because of experimental and conceptual problems fusion excitation functions at high energies cannot lead to model independent measurements of internuclear potential at small separations. The Al 27 + Ne 20 reaction previously analyzed by others is used as an example of problems arising from the inability to distinguish complete and incomplete fusion in experimental data

  14. Dependence of the giant dipole strength function on excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.E.; Newton, J.O.; Sobotka, L.G.; Lindenberger, H.; Wozniak, G.J.; Moretto, L.G.; Stephens, F.S.; Diamond, R.M.; McDonald, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Spectra of γ rays associated with deep-inelastic products from the 1150-MeV 136 Xe+ 181 Ta reaction have been measured. The yield of 10--20-MeV γ rays initially increases rapidly with the excitation energy of the products and then more slowly for excitation energies in excess of 120 MeV. Statistical-model calculations with ground-state values of the giant dipole strength function fail to reproduce the shape of the measured γ-ray spectra. This suggests a dependence of the giant dipole strength function on excitation energy

  15. Characterisation of a dense state of quarks and gluons by the multi-strange hyperons excitation functions as measured with the Star experiment at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speltz, J.

    2006-10-01

    In this work, we characterize the production of the multi-strange baryons Xi and Omega in Au+Au collisions at RHIC, where the possible formation of a matter of deconfined quarks and gluons (QGP) is expected. We analyze with the STAR experiment, the collisions obtained at an energy of 62 GeV, intermediate between the one reached at the SPS (17 GeV) and the nominal energy of RHIC (200 GeV). Transverse momentum spectra, yields and elliptic flow are measured with different methods allowing for a relevant estimation of systematic errors. The results are compared to statistical and hydrodynamic models that we have adapted for their use at 62 GeV. The so obtained chemical and dynamic properties of the created medium indicate the formation of a thermalized, at least partially, medium and suggests the formation of a comparable matter at 62 GeV and at 200 GeV. (author)

  16. Wigner function and tomogram of the excited squeezed vacuum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangguo; Wang Jisuo; Fan Hongyi

    2007-01-01

    The excited squeezed light (ESL) can be the outcome of interaction between squeezed light probe and excited atom, which can explore the status and the structure of the atom. We calculate the Wigner function and tomogram of ESL that may be comparable to the experimental measurement of quadrature-amplitude distribution for the light field obtained using balanced homodyne detection. The method of calculation seems new

  17. Wigner function and tomogram of the excited squeezed vacuum state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng Xiangguo [Department of Physics, Liaocheng University, Shandong Province 252059 (China); Wang Jisuo [Department of Physics, Liaocheng University, Shandong Province 252059 (China)]. E-mail: jswang@lcu.edu.cn; Fan Hongyi [Department of Physics, Liaocheng University, Shandong Province 252059 (China); CCAST (World Laboratory), P.O. Box 8730, 100080 Beijing (China)

    2007-01-29

    The excited squeezed light (ESL) can be the outcome of interaction between squeezed light probe and excited atom, which can explore the status and the structure of the atom. We calculate the Wigner function and tomogram of ESL that may be comparable to the experimental measurement of quadrature-amplitude distribution for the light field obtained using balanced homodyne detection. The method of calculation seems new.

  18. Distribution function of excitations in systems with fractional statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protogenov, A.P.

    1992-08-01

    The distribution function of low-energy excitations in 2+1D systems has been considered. It is shown that in these systems the quantum distribution function differs from the usual one by having a finite value of the entropy of linked braids. (author). 47 refs

  19. φφ excitation function at LEAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Bertolotto, L.; Buzzo, A.; Debevec, P.; Drijard, D.; Easo, S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Evangelista, C.; Eyrich, W.; Fearnley, T.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Geyer, R.; Hamann, N. H.; Harris, P. C.; Hertzog, D. W.; Hughes, S. A.; Johansson, A.; Johansson, T.; Jones, R. T.; Kilian, K.; Kirsebom, K.; Klett, A.; Korsmo, H.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macri, M.; Marinelli, M.; Moosburger, M.; Mouëllic, B.; Oelert, W.; Ohlsson, S.; Palano, A.; Passaggio, S.; Perreau, J.-M.; Pia, M. G.; Pomp, S.; Price, M.; Reimer, P. E.; Ritter, J.; Robutti, E.; Röhrich, K.; Rook, M.; Sefzick, T.; Rössle, E.; Santroni, A.; Schmitt, H.; Steinkamp, O.; Stinzing, F.; Stugu, B.; Tayloe, R.; Tscheulin, M.; Urban, H. J.; Wirth, H.; Zipse, H.; Jetset Collaboration:

    1997-06-01

    The cross sections of the reactions p¯p → φφ, φK +K - and 4 K± have been measured by the JETSET (PS202) experiment at CERN in the invariant mass range from 2.15 to 2.43 GeV/c 2. A spin-parity analysis of the φφ system has been performed. The absolute value of the φφ cross section and the ratios σ(φφ)/σ(φK +K -), σ(φφ)/σ (4 K±) are large, in marked violation of the OZI rule. Waves of quantum numbers J PC = 2 ++ give the dominant contribution near threshold.

  20. {phi}{phi} Excitation function at LEAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Vetere, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Genoa (Italy)]|[Genoa Univ. (Italy). Phys. Dept.; Bertolotto, L.; Buzzo, A.; Debevec, P.; Drijard, D.; Easo, S.; Eisenstein, R.A.; Evangelista, C.; Eyrich, W.; Fearnley, T.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Geyer, R.; Hamann, N.H.; Harris, P.G.; Hertzog, D.W.; Hughes, S.A.; Johansson, A.; Johansson, T.; Jones, R.T.; Kilian, K.; Kirsebom, K.; Klett, A.; Korsmo, H.; Macri, M.; Marinelli, M.; Moosburger, M.; Mouellic, B.; Oelert, W.; Ohlsson, S.; Palano, A.; Passaggio, S.; Perreau, J.-M.; Pia, M.G.; Pomp, S.; Price, M.; Reimer, P.E.; Ritter, J.; Robutti, E.; Roehrich, K.; Rook, M.; Sefzick, T.; Roessle, E.; Santroni, A.; Schmitt, H.; Steinkamp, O.; Stinzing, F.; Stugu, B.; Tayloe, R.; Tscheulin, M.; Urban, H.J.; Wirth, H.; Zipse, H.; JETSET Collaboration

    1997-06-01

    The cross sections of the reactions pp {yields} {phi}{phi}, {phi}K{sup +}K{sup -} and 4K{sup {+-}} have been measured by the JETSET (PS202) experiment at CERN in the invariant mass range from 2.15 to 2.43 GeV/c{sup 2}. A spin-parity analysis of the {phi}{phi} system has been performed. The absolute value of the {phi}{phi} cross section and the ratios {sigma}({phi}{phi})/{sigma}({phi}K{sup +}K{sup -}), {sigma}({phi}{phi})/{sigma}(4K{sup {+-}}) are large, in marked violation of the OZI rule. Waves of quantum numbers J{sup PC}=2{sup ++} give the dominant contribution near threshold. (orig.).

  1. φφ Excitation function at LEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Vetere, M.; Genoa Univ.; Bertolotto, L.; Buzzo, A.; Debevec, P.; Drijard, D.; Easo, S.; Eisenstein, R.A.; Evangelista, C.; Eyrich, W.; Fearnley, T.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Geyer, R.; Hamann, N.H.; Harris, P.G.; Hertzog, D.W.; Hughes, S.A.; Johansson, A.; Johansson, T.; Jones, R.T.; Kilian, K.; Kirsebom, K.; Klett, A.; Korsmo, H.; Macri, M.; Marinelli, M.; Moosburger, M.; Mouellic, B.; Oelert, W.; Ohlsson, S.; Palano, A.; Passaggio, S.; Perreau, J.-M.; Pia, M.G.; Pomp, S.; Price, M.; Reimer, P.E.; Ritter, J.; Robutti, E.; Roehrich, K.; Rook, M.; Sefzick, T.; Roessle, E.; Santroni, A.; Schmitt, H.; Steinkamp, O.; Stinzing, F.; Stugu, B.; Tayloe, R.; Tscheulin, M.; Urban, H.J.; Wirth, H.; Zipse, H.

    1997-01-01

    The cross sections of the reactions pp → φφ, φK + K - and 4K ± have been measured by the JETSET (PS202) experiment at CERN in the invariant mass range from 2.15 to 2.43 GeV/c 2 . A spin-parity analysis of the φφ system has been performed. The absolute value of the φφ cross section and the ratios σ(φφ)/σ(φK + K - ), σ(φφ)/σ(4K ± ) are large, in marked violation of the OZI rule. Waves of quantum numbers J PC =2 ++ give the dominant contribution near threshold. (orig.)

  2. Effects of dynamic aspects on fusion excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    As an extension of the macroscopic theory, the nucleus- nucleus fusion has been described in terms of the chaotic regime dynamics (liquid drop potential energy plus one body dissipation).Three milestone configurations are attended : the touching , the conditional saddle point and the unconditional saddle one. We would like to deduce the associated extra push and extra-extra push energy values required to carry the system between these configurations, respectively. The next step is to light on the effect of these limiting values on the fusion excitation functions and their significance for accurate fitting of the measured functions for larger values of the angular momentum. It is found that there is a limiting values of excitation energy and angular momentum for each interacting pair, over which these aspects must be considered to fit the excitation functions of different nucleus nucleus fusion .These values were found to be in relation with the limiting angular momentum for fusion in major cases

  3. Relative excitation functions for singly-excited and core-excited levels of S V--S IX populated by the beam-foil interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moenke, D.; Bengtsson, P.; Engstroem, L.; Hutton, R.; Jupen, C.; Kirm, M.; Westerlind, M.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the relative excitation functions for low-lying singly excited and low-lying core-excited levels in S V (S 4+ ) to S IX (S 8+ ) after beam-foil excitation using ions in the energy range 2--10 MeV. The spectral line intensities have been normalized to the same number of particles at each ion energy and corrections for the level lifetimes have been made. The overall accuracy of the measured relative excitation function at each energy and charge state is estimated to be better than 2%. A comparison of the relative excitation functions for singly excited and core-excited lines shows a difference in S VII, but not in S VI

  4. Proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions at intermediate energies: Cross sections and analyzing powers

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F; Altmeier, M; Bauer, F; Bisplinghoff, J; Büsser, K; Busch, M; Colberg, T; Diehl, O; Dohrmann, F; Engelhardt, H P; Eversheim, P D; Felden, O; Gebel, R; Glende, M; Greiff, J; Gross-Hardt, R; Hinterberger, F; Jahn, R; Jonas, E; Krause, H; Langkau, R; Lindemann, T; Lindlein, J; Maier, R; Maschuw, R; Mayer-Kuckuk, T; Meinerzhagen, A; Naehle, O; Prasuhn, D; Rohdjess, H; Rosendaal, D; Von Rossen, P; Schirm, N; Schulz-Rojahn, M; Schwarz, V; Scobel, W; Trelle, H J; Weise, E; Wellinghausen, A; Woller, K; Ziegler, R

    2000-01-01

    The EDDA experiment at the cooler synchrotron COSY measures proton-proton elastic scattering excitation functions in the momentum range 0.8 - 3.4 GeV/c. In phase 1 of the experiment, spin-averaged differential cross sections were measured continuously during acceleration with an internal polypropylene (CH sub 2) fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of beam momentum. In phase 2, excitation functions of the analyzing power A sub N and the polarization correlation parameters A sub N sub N , A sub S sub S and A sub S sub L are measured using a polarized proton beam and a polarized atomic hydrogen beam target. The paper presents recent d sigma/d OMEGA and A sub N data. The results provide excitation functions and angular distributions of high precision and internal consistency. No evidence for narrow structures was found. The data are compared to recent phase shift solutions.

  5. El strength function at high spin and excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrette, J.

    1983-04-01

    Recently giant dipole resonance-like concentration of the dipole strength function in nuclei was observed at both high excitation energies and high spins. This observation raises the possibility of obtaining new information on the shape of rapidly rotating heated nuclei. Recent experimental results on this subject are reviewed

  6. Computer experiments of the time-sequence of individual steps in multiple Coulomb-excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J. de; Dannhaueser, G.

    1982-01-01

    The way in which the multiple E2 steps in the Coulomb-excitation of a rotational band of a nucleus follow one another is elucidated for selected examples using semiclassical computer experiments. The role a given transition plays for the excitation of a given final state is measured by a quantity named ''importance function''. It is found that these functions, calculated for the highest rotational state, peak at times forming a sequence for the successive E2 transitions starting from the ground state. This sequential behaviour is used to approximately account for the effects on the projectile orbit of the sequential transfer of excitation energy and angular momentum from projectile to target. These orbits lead to similar deflection functions and cross sections as those obtained from a symmetrization procedure approximately accounting for the transfer of angular momentum and energy. (Auth.)

  7. Rydberg energies using excited state density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.-L.; Wu Qin; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2008-01-01

    We utilize excited state density functional theory (eDFT) to study Rydberg states in atoms. We show both analytically and numerically that semilocal functionals can give quite reasonable Rydberg energies from eDFT, even in cases where time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) fails catastrophically. We trace these findings to the fact that in eDFT the Kohn-Sham potential for each state is computed using the appropriate excited state density. Unlike the ground state potential, which typically falls off exponentially, the sequence of excited state potentials has a component that falls off polynomially with distance, leading to a Rydberg-type series. We also address the rigorous basis of eDFT for these systems. Perdew and Levy have shown using the constrained search formalism that every stationary density corresponds, in principle, to an exact stationary state of the full many-body Hamiltonian. In the present context, this means that the excited state DFT solutions are rigorous as long as they deliver the minimum noninteracting kinetic energy for the given density. We use optimized effective potential techniques to show that, in some cases, the eDFT Rydberg solutions appear to deliver the minimum kinetic energy because the associated density is not pure state v-representable. We thus find that eDFT plays a complementary role to constrained DFT: The former works only if the excited state density is not the ground state of some potential while the latter applies only when the density is a ground state density.

  8. Excitation functions of the 98Mo+d reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarubin, P.P.; Padalko, V.Yu.; Khrisanfov, Yu.V.; Lebedev, P.P.; Podkopaev, Yu.N.

    The excitation functions of the 98 Mo+d reactions were studied. The energy dependence of (d,p),(d,n) and (d,α) reactions was investigated by the activation analysis. The energies of deuterons in the range (6-12) MeV were determined by means of the aluminium filters. 98 Mo foils with surface densities of 1.02, 0.23 and 0.14 mgxcm -2 with 98 Mo enrichment of 94.1% were used as targets. The gamma spectra were measured by a Ge(Li) detector. The 98 Mo(d,p) 99 Mo reaction excitation function was determined via detection of 739 and 181 keV γ-radiation of 99 Mo (Tsub(1/2)=66.47h); 140 keV γ-radiation of 99 Tc (Tsub(1/2)=6h) was detected for the 98 Mo(d,n) 99 Tc reaction excitation function determination and 460, 568, 1091, 1200 and 1492 keV γ-quanta of 96 Nb (Tsub(1/2)=23.35h) - for the 98 Mo(d,α) 96 Nb reaction. In the excitation function the wide extremum was observed at Esub(d) approximately 10 MeV. The ratio of cross sections σsup(m)(d,n)/σ(d,p) on the 98 Mo target was determined. The ratio σsup(m)(d,n)/σ(d,p) was found to be decreasing function of the deuteron energy. The relative cross sections were determined with an accuracy of +-5%, while for the absolute values of cross sections the accuracy was +-15%

  9. Evaluation of isomeric excitation functions in neutron induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudzevich, O.; Ignatyuk, A.; Zolotarev, K.

    1992-01-01

    The possibilities of isomer levels experimental excitation functions description with theoretical models are discussed. It is shown that the experimental data in many cases can be described by theoretical models quite well without parameter fitting. However, large discrepancies are observed for some reactions. In our opinion, these discrepancies are due to uncertainties of discrete level schemes, schemes of gamma-transitions between levels and spin dependence of level density. Small values of isomeric ratios (< 0.1) have been described with the largest errors. The simple formulae for energy dependence of isomeric ratio for (n,g) reaction has been proposed. (author). 53 refs, 10 figs, 8 tabs

  10. Systematics of excitation functions for (n, charged particle) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhixiang; Zhou Delin

    1986-06-01

    On the bases of evaporation model considering the preequilibrium emission under some approximations, the analytical expressions including two adjustable parameters have been derived for excitation functions of (n, charged particle) reactions. Fitting these expressions to the available measured data, these parameters have been extracted and the systematic behaviour of the parameters have been studied. More accurate predictions than before could be obtained by using these expressions and systematic parameters. In the present work the neutron energy is considered up to about 20 MeV and the target mass region is 23< A<197

  11. Delta function excitation of waves in the earth's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, R. J.; Crawford, F. W.; Harker, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    Excitation of the earth's ionosphere by delta function current sheets is considered, and the temporal and spatial evolution of wave packets is analyzed for a two-component collisional F2 layer. Approximations of an inverse Fourier-Laplace transform via saddle point methods provide plots of typical wave packets. These illustrate cold plasma wave theory and may be used as a diagnostic tool since it is possible to relate specific features, e.g., the frequency of a modulation envelope, to plasma parameters such as the electron cyclotron frequency. It is also possible to deduce the propagation path length and orientation of a remote radio beacon.

  12. Wigner function for the generalized excited pair coherent state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangguo; Wang Jisuo; Liang Baolong; Li Hongqi

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the generalized excited pair coherent state (GEPCS). Using the entangled state |η> representation of Wigner operator, it obtains the Wigner function for the GEPCS. In the ρ-γ phase space, the variations of the Wigner function distributions with the parameters q, α, k and l are discussed. The tomogram of the GEPCS is calculated with the help of the Radon transform between the Wigner operator and the projection operator of the entangled state |η 1 , η 2 , τ 1 , τ 2 >. The entangled states |η> and η 1 , η 2 , τ 1 , τ 2 > provide two good representative space for studying the Wigner functions and tomograms of various two-mode correlated quantum states

  13. Measurement of fusion excitation functions in the system {sup 78}Kr + {sup 100}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Jiang, C.L.; Esbensen, H. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Earlier measurements of fusion reactions involving {sup 78}Kr and {sup 100}Mo projectiles and Ni-targets showed surprisingly large fusion yields at low energies which could not be explained by coupled-channels calculations. The main difference to similar measurements involving the neighboring {sup 86}Kr and {sup 92}Mo isotopes was the different slope of the excitation functions at sub-barrier energies. An analysis of a variety of experiments showed a correlation between the nuclear structure and the slope of the excitation functions, with the {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} transitional nuclei ({sup 78}Kr, {sup 100}Mo) exhibiting shallower slopes than the {open_quotes}stiff{close_quotes} nuclei ({sup 86}Kr, {sup 92}Mo) measured at the same energies with respect to the barrier. In this experiment we studied the fusion excitation function involving two transitional nuclei {sup 78}Kr + {sup 100}Mo. The measurements were performed with {sup 78}Kr beams from the ECR source at energies between 285-370 MeV. Separation of the evaporation nucleus from the elastically scattered particles was achieved by measuring time-of-flight and magnetic rigidity in the gas-filled spectrograph. The data were completely analyzed. A comparison of the cross sections with measurements for the system {sup 86}Kr + {sup 92}Mo populating the same compound nucleus {sup 178}Pt. It shows good agreement at the highest energies, but quite different falloffs of the excitation functions toward lower energies. Coupled-channels calculations, including multi-phonon excitation for the two systems, are being performed.

  14. Recent experiments in novel nuclear excitations at the BNL AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Recent experimental work at the AGS dealing with unusual nuclear excitations is summarized. Three examples are given: the deexcitation of Λ hypernuclei by γ transitions, the production of Λ hypernuclei by the (π + ,K + ) reaction, and the search for /eta/-nuclear excitations. The status of each field and the implications of the research for nuclear theory are discussed. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  15. Response function of spin-isospin nuclear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvetti, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    The selected aspects of spin-isospir nuclear excitations are studied. The spreading width of M/ states in even Ca isotopes for the purpose of trying to understand the missing strenght specially in 44 Ca, was estimated. The doorway calculation, was used, considering the level of complexity next to the independent particle M/ state. Using a nuclear matter context, the system response function to a spin-isospin probe and verify how the response function behaves for free fermions and in the ring approximation was studied. Higher correlations to polarization propagation such as the induced interaction and self-energy corrections was introduced. The dopping of colletive effects by such collisions terms was verified. It was investigate how to estimate the short range term of the effective interaction in the spin-isospin channel and the possibility of detecting a difference between these short range terms in the longitudinal and the transverse channel, for understanding the absence of pior condensation precursor states and negative results in a recent attempt to detect differences between longitudinal and transverse response functions one naively expects theoretically. (author) [pt

  16. Excited State Contributions to the Heavy Baryon Fragmentation Functions in a Quark-Diquark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Adamov, A D; Goldstein, Gary R.

    2001-01-01

    Spin dependent fragmentation functions for heavy flavor quarks to fragment into heavy baryons are calculated in a quark-diquark model. The production of intermediate spin 1/2 and 3/2 excited states is explicity included. The resulting $\\Lambda_b$ production rate and polarization at LEP energies are in agreement with experiment. The $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Xi_c$ functions are also obtained. The spin independent $f_1(z)$ is compared to data. The integrated values for production rates agree with the data.

  17. Evaluation of excitation functions for isomeric levels in neutron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudzevich, O.T.; Zelenetskij, A.V.; Zolotarev, K.I.; Kornilov, N.V.; Pashchenko, A.B.

    1993-07-01

    The authors consider the use of theoretical models to describe experimental excitation functions for isomeric levels in neutron reactions and to predict the cross-sections when no experimental data are available. It is shown that, in many cases, experimental data can be described quite satisfactorily by calculations without adjustment of parameters. For threshold reactions at a neutron energy of ∼ 14 MeV the agreement between calculated and experimental isomeric ratios is ∼ 20%, and is determined mainly by errors in the experimental ratios. However, for some reactions there are considerable differences between experimental and calculated data, which are due, in the authors' opinion, to uncertainties in the schemes of the low-lying levels and of gamma transitions between levels and to the spin dependence of level density. The small isomeric ratio values R<0.1 are described with the lowest accuracy. A formula is suggested for the energy dependence of the isomeric ratio in the (n,γ) reaction. (author)

  18. Constraining nuclear photon strength functions by the decay properties of photo-excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, J.; Savran, D.; Krtička, M.; Ahmed, M. W.; Beller, J.; Fiori, E.; Glorius, J.; Kelley, J. H.; Löher, B.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Rusev, G.; Scheck, M.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Silva, J.; Sonnabend, K.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Zweidinger, M.

    2013-12-01

    A new approach for constraining the low-energy part of the electric dipole Photon Strength Function (E1-PSF) is presented. Experiments at the Darmstadt High-Intensity Photon Setup and the High Intensity γ→-Ray Source have been performed to investigate the decay properties of 130Te between 5.50 and 8.15 MeV excitation energy. In particular, the average γ-ray branching ratio to the ground state and the population intensity of low-lying excited states have been studied. A comparison to the statistical model shows that the latter is sensitive to the low-energy behavior of the E1-PSF, while the average ground state branching ratio cannot be described by the statistical model in the energy range between 5.5 and 6.5 MeV.

  19. Characterisation of a dense state of quarks and gluons by the multi-strange hyperons excitation functions as measured with the Star experiment at RHIC; Caracterisation d'un etat dense de quarks et de gluons grace aux fonctions d'excitation des hyperons multi-etranges mesurees avec l'experience STAR au RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speltz, J

    2006-10-15

    In this work, we characterize the production of the multi-strange baryons Xi and Omega in Au+Au collisions at RHIC, where the possible formation of a matter of deconfined quarks and gluons (QGP) is expected. We analyze with the STAR experiment, the collisions obtained at an energy of 62 GeV, intermediate between the one reached at the SPS (17 GeV) and the nominal energy of RHIC (200 GeV). Transverse momentum spectra, yields and elliptic flow are measured with different methods allowing for a relevant estimation of systematic errors. The results are compared to statistical and hydrodynamic models that we have adapted for their use at 62 GeV. The so obtained chemical and dynamic properties of the created medium indicate the formation of a thermalized, at least partially, medium and suggests the formation of a comparable matter at 62 GeV and at 200 GeV. (author)

  20. Experimental and evaluated data on the discrete level excitation function of the 238U(n,n') reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simakov, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental data on the 238 U excitation function are compiled and analyzed. The experimental data are compared with the evaluated data from the BNAB, ENDF/B-IV and ENDL-78 evaluated data libraries. It is shown that the BNAB evaluated data are in good agreement with the existing experimental data, including new results from recent experiments. (author). 26 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Excitation functions of the systems 12C+14C and 13C+12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haindl, E.

    1975-01-01

    The excitation functions of the systems 12 C+ 14 C and 13 C+ 12 C are investigated for different exit channels. The excitation functions measured do not show correlated structures as in the system 12 C+ 12 C. (WL/AK) [de

  2. Local density approximation for exchange in excited-state density functional theory

    OpenAIRE

    Harbola, Manoj K.; Samal, Prasanjit

    2004-01-01

    Local density approximation for the exchange energy is made for treatment of excited-states in density-functional theory. It is shown that taking care of the state-dependence of the LDA exchange energy functional leads to accurate excitation energies.

  3. SPIDYAN, a MATLAB library for simulating pulse EPR experiments with arbitrary waveform excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribitzer, Stephan; Doll, Andrin; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2016-02-01

    Frequency-swept chirp pulses, created with arbitrary waveform generators (AWGs), can achieve inversion over a range of several hundreds of MHz. Such passage pulses provide defined flip angles and increase sensitivity. The fact that spectra are not excited at once, but single transitions are passed one after another, can cause new effects in established pulse EPR sequences. We developed a MATLAB library for simulation of pulse EPR, which is especially suited for modeling spin dynamics in ultra-wideband (UWB) EPR experiments, but can also be used for other experiments and NMR. At present the command line controlled SPin DYnamics ANalysis (SPIDYAN) package supports one-spin and two-spin systems with arbitrary spin quantum numbers. By providing the program with appropriate spin operators and Hamiltonian matrices any spin system is accessible, with limits set only by available memory and computation time. Any pulse sequence using rectangular and linearly or variable-rate frequency-swept chirp pulses, including phase cycling can be quickly created. To keep track of spin evolution the user can choose from a vast variety of detection operators, including transition selective operators. If relaxation effects can be neglected, the program solves the Liouville-von Neumann equation and propagates spin density matrices. In the other cases SPIDYAN uses the quantum mechanical master equation and Liouvillians for propagation. In order to consider the resonator response function, which on the scale of UWB excitation limits bandwidth, the program includes a simple RLC circuit model. Another subroutine can compute waveforms that, for a given resonator, maintain a constant critical adiabaticity factor over the excitation band. Computational efficiency is enhanced by precomputing propagator lookup tables for the whole set of AWG output levels. The features of the software library are discussed and demonstrated with spin-echo and population transfer simulations. Copyright © 2016

  4. p-p analyzing power excitation function between 510 and 725 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurtey, R.; Arvieux, J.; Boivin, M.; Boyard, J.L.; Durand, J.M.; Combes-Comets, M.P.; Courtat, P.; Gacougnolle, R.; Le Bornec, Y.; Garcon, M.

    1993-01-01

    In an earlier experiment some evidence was observed for narrow dibaryons in the analyzing power excitation function of p-p elastic scattering at √s=2160 MeV and 2192 MeV, with width Γ≅13-14 MeV. A different procedure has been carried out at the SATURNE synchrotron, in order to obtain a very high accuracy of the analyzing power for a large number of energies between 510 and 725 MeV. The results show no evidence for any structure with width ∼5 to 20 MeV. The reasons at the difference between the two experiments are discussed. (K.A.) 2 refs., 3 figs

  5. Franck--Hertz experiment with higher excitation level measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of the higher levels of 6 3 P 2 and 6 1 P 1 of the mercury atom in the Franck--Hertz experiment has been introduced into the junior and senior laboratory course by using a homemade tetrode Franck--Hertz tube. The main structure of the tube is described. The optimum operating conditions are in the temperature range between 130 and 150 0 C and the collector currents are of the order of 10 -9 A. The additional observations of the famous Franck--Hertz experiment in the laboratory course will give the students more familiarity with the quantum behavior of atoms

  6. Apprehensive and Excited: Music Education Students' Experience Vernacular Musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine music education students' experiences (N = 64) in courses designed to develop vernacular musicianship and expand understandings of informal music making. Students participated in one of two classes (undergraduate/graduate), formed their own small ensembles, chose their own music and instruments, led their…

  7. Exploring excited eigenstates of many-body systems using the functional renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöckner, Christian; Kennes, Dante Marvin; Karrasch, Christoph

    2018-05-01

    We introduce approximate, functional renormalization group based schemes to obtain correlation functions in pure excited eigenstates of large fermionic many-body systems at arbitrary energies. The algorithms are thoroughly benchmarked and their strengths and shortcomings are documented using a one-dimensional interacting tight-binding chain as a prototypical testbed. We study two "toy applications" from the world of Luttinger liquid physics: the survival of power laws in lowly excited states as well as the spectral function of high-energy "block" excitations, which feature several single-particle Fermi edges.

  8. Pulse excitation experiment of a superconducting generator; chodendo hatsudenki no parusu reiki shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaike, K.; Iimura, T.; Nishimura, M.; Arata, M.; Takabatake, M. [Toshiba Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, M.; Kanamori, Y.; Hasegawa, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    Efficiency improvement, improvement in the stability of electric power system it is miniaturization and weight reduction can be expected in comparison with the traditional-model generator superconducting generator. We produce the small superconducting generator for the experiment experimentally, and performance characteristics verification of the generator is carried out experimentally. This time, pulse excitation test of the superconducting generator was carried out, and the ac loss of the conductor by the pulse excitation investigated the effect on the quenching current. (NEDO)

  9. Exclusion of nuclear forces in heavy-ion Coulomb excitation and Coulomb fission experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neese, R.E.; Guidry, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    A simple prescription for estimating the energy at which nuclear forces begin to play a role in heavy-ion Coulomb excitation and Coulomb fission experiments is presented. The method differs from most commonly used recipes in accounting for projectile and target nucleus deformation effects. Using a single adjustable parameter the formula reproduces the energy for the onset of Coulomb-nuclear interference effects for a broad range of heavy-ion systems. It is suggested that most Coulomb fission experiments which have been done involve both Coulomb and nuclear excitation processes and should more properly be termed Coulomb-nuclear fission experiments

  10. Self-Consistent Optimization of Excited States within Density-Functional Tight-Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Tim; Le, Khoa; Irle, Stephan

    2016-01-12

    We present an implementation of energies and gradients for the ΔDFTB method, an analogue of Δ-self-consistent-field density functional theory (ΔSCF) within density-functional tight-binding, for the lowest singlet excited state of closed-shell molecules. Benchmarks of ΔDFTB excitation energies, optimized geometries, Stokes shifts, and vibrational frequencies reveal that ΔDFTB provides a qualitatively correct description of changes in molecular geometries and vibrational frequencies due to excited-state relaxation. The accuracy of ΔDFTB Stokes shifts is comparable to that of ΔSCF-DFT, and ΔDFTB performs similarly to ΔSCF with the PBE functional for vertical excitation energies of larger chromophores where the need for efficient excited-state methods is most urgent. We provide some justification for the use of an excited-state reference density in the DFTB expansion of the electronic energy and demonstrate that ΔDFTB preserves many of the properties of its parent ΔSCF approach. This implementation fills an important gap in the extended framework of DFTB, where access to excited states has been limited to the time-dependent linear-response approach, and affords access to rapid exploration of a valuable class of excited-state potential energy surfaces.

  11. Benchmarks for electronically excited states: Time-dependent density functional theory and density functional theory based multireference configuration interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Junior, Mario R.; Schreiber, Marko; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and DFT-based multireference configuration interaction (DFT/MRCI) calculations are reported for a recently proposed benchmark set of 28 medium-sized organic molecules. Vertical excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state dipole...

  12. The Hawkes process with different excitation functions and its asymptotoc behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fierro, Raúl; Leiva, Víctor; Møller, Jesper

    The standard Hawkes process is constructed from a homogeneous Poisson process and using the same exciting function for dierent generations of offspring. We propose an extension of this process by considering different exciting functions. This consideration could be important to be taken into acco......The standard Hawkes process is constructed from a homogeneous Poisson process and using the same exciting function for dierent generations of offspring. We propose an extension of this process by considering different exciting functions. This consideration could be important to be taken...... into account in a number of fields; e.g. in seismology, where main shocks produce aftershocks with possibly different intensities. The main results are devoted to the asymptotic behavior of this extension of the Hawkes process. Indeed, a law of large numbers and a central limit theorem are stated...

  13. Integral excitation functions for proton and alpha induced reactions on target elements 22 <= Z <= 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the framework of a systematic study which is also important for certain cosmological questions a series of integral excitation functions of p- and α-induced nuclear reactions on target elements 22 [de

  14. 35Cl + 12C asymmetrical fission excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.; Mahboub, D.; Nouicer, R.; Freeman, R.M.; Haas, F.; Youlal, M.; Matsuse, T.; Sanders, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    The fully energy-damped yields from the 35 Cl + 12 C reaction have been systematically investigated using particle-particle coincidence techniques at a 35 Cl bombarding energy of ∼ 8 MeV/nucleon. The fragment-fragment correlation data show that the majority of events arises from a binary-decay process with rather large numbers of secondary light-charged particles emitted from the two excited exit fragments. No evidence is observed for ternary breakup events. The binary-process results of the present measurement, along with those of earlier, inclusive experimental data obtained at several lower bombarding energies are compared with predictions of two different kinds of statistical model calculations. The methods give comparable predictions and are both in good agreement with the experimental results thus confirming the fusion-fission origin of the fully-damped yields. (author)

  15. Complete fusion excitation function for the 16O + natS reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Sufang; Zheng Jiwen; Liu Guoxing

    1994-01-01

    The complete fusion excitation function for the 16 O + nat S reaction has been measured in the range of 50-75 MeV with a step of 1.0 MeV by using a position sensitive ΔE-E telescope system. The model parameters have been extracted from data analysis. The striking gross structure of the excitation function has been observed. The energies of peaks are at E CM 38,43 and 48 MeV respectively

  16. A new analysis technique to measure fusion excitation functions with large beam energy dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuera, P.; Di Pietro, A.; Fisichella, M.; Lattuada, M.; Shotter, A. C.; Ruiz, C.; Zadro, M.

    2018-01-01

    Peculiar nuclear structures of two colliding nuclei such has clustering, neutron halo/skin or very low breakup thresholds can affect the reaction dynamics below the Coulomb barrier and this may also have astrophysical consequences. In order to have a better understanding of this topic, in the last decade, several experiments were performed. A typical experimental challenge of such studies is the need to measure excitation functions below the Coulomb barrier, having a strong energy dependence, with rather large beam energy dispersions inside the target. This may easily lead to ambiguities in associating the measured cross section with a proper beam energy. In this paper a discussion on this topic is reported and a new technique to deal with the above problem will be proposed.

  17. Excitation functions for some evaporation residues identified in the interaction of 20Ne and 93Nb at moderate excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Avinash; Rizvi, I.A.; Gupta, Meenal; Ahamad, Tauseef; Ghugre, S.S.; Sinha, A.K.; Chaubey, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    With the motivation of studying the complete and incomplete fusion reactions, excitation functions for the reactions 93 Nb(Ne, p2n) 110 Sn, 93 Nb(Ne, 2pn) 110 In, 93 Nb(Ne, 2p2n) 109 In, 93 Nb(Ne, αn) 108 In, 93 Nb(Neα2n) 107 In and 93 Nb(Ne, α p n) 107 Cd have been measured at the incident energy ranging from 91.4 MeV - 145 MeV. The well established activation technique followed by off line high purity gamma- ray spectroscopy was employed. The measured excitation functions were compared with the statistical model calculations by using the codes ALICE-91 and Pace-4. The effect of variation of different parameters including level density parameter involved in these codes has also been studied. Excellent agreement was found between theoretical and experimental values in some of the fusion evaporation reaction channels. However, significant enhancement of cross-section observed in α-emission channels may be due to incomplete fusion process. (author)

  18. Range-separated density-functional theory for molecular excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebolini, E.

    2014-01-01

    Linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is nowadays a method of choice to compute molecular excitation energies. However, within the usual adiabatic semi-local approximations, it is not able to describe properly Rydberg, charge-transfer or multiple excitations. Range separation of the electronic interaction allows one to mix rigorously density-functional methods at short range and wave function or Green's function methods at long range. When applied to the exchange functional, it already corrects most of these deficiencies but multiple excitations remain absent as they need a frequency-dependent kernel. In this thesis, the effects of range separation are first assessed on the excitation energies of a partially-interacting system in an analytic and numerical study in order to provide guidelines for future developments of range-separated methods for excitation energy calculations. It is then applied on the exchange and correlation TDDFT kernels in a single-determinant approximation in which the long-range part of the correlation kernel vanishes. A long-range frequency-dependent second-order correlation kernel is then derived from the Bethe-Salpeter equation and added perturbatively to the range-separated TDDFT kernel in order to take into account the effects of double excitations. (author)

  19. Particle production at the AGS: an excitation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, J.C.; Ahle, L.; Akiba, Y.; Ashktorab, K.; Baker, M.D.; Beavis, D.; Britt, H.C.; Chang, J.; Chasman, C.; Chen, Z.; Chu, Y.Y.; Chujo, T.; Cianciolo, V.; Cole, B.A.; Crawford, H.J.; Cumming, J.B.; Debbe, R.; Eldredge, W.; Engelage, J.; Fung, S.-Y.; Garcia, E.; Gushue, S.; Hamagaki, H.; Hansen, L.; Hayano, R.S.; Heintzelman, G.; Judd, E.; Kang, J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kumagai, A.; Kurita, K.; Lee, J.-H.; Luke, J.; Miake, Y.; Mignerey, A.; Moskowitz, B.; Moulson, M.; Muentz, C.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagano, K.; Namboodiri, M.N.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Olness, J.; Oyama, K.; Remsberg, L.P.; Sako, H.; Sangster, T.C.; Seto, R.; Shea, J.; Shigaki, K.; Soltz, R.; Steadman, S.G.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Tamagawa, T.; Tannenbaum, M.J.; Thomas, J.H.; Ueno-Hayashi, S.; Videbaek, F.; Wang, F.; Wu, Y.; Xiang, H.; Xu, G.H.; Yagi, K.; Yao, H.; Zajc, W.A.; Zhu, F.; Back, B.; Betts, R.R.; Chang, J.; Chang, W.C.; Chi, C.Y.; Chu, Y.Y.; Cumming, J.B.; Eldredge, W.; Fung, S.Y.; Ganz, R.; Garcia, E.; Gillitzer, A.; Heintzelman, G.; Henning, W.F.; Hofman, D.J.; Holzman, B.; Kang, J.H.; Kim, E.J.; Kim, S.Y.; Kwon, Y.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A.C.; Moulson, M.; Nanal, V.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Pak, R.; Ruangma, A.; Russ, D.; Seto, R.; Stanskas, P.J.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Wang, H.Q.; Wolfs, F.L.H.; Wuosmaa, A.H.; Xiang, H.; Xu, G.H.; Yao, H.; Zou, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments E866 and E917 at the AGS have measured the differential invariant yields of positive and negative charged kaons from Au+Au collisions at beam kinetic energies in the laboratory of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10.8 A·GeV. At each beam energy, a multiplicity array is used to select on the centrality of the collision

  20. Output pressure and harmonic characteristics of a CMUT as function of bias and excitation voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Diederichsen, Søren Elmin; Hansen, Sebastian Molbech

    2015-01-01

    of the transmitted signal. The generation of intrinsic harmonics by the CMUT can be minimized by decreasing the excitation signal. This, however, leads to lower fundamental pressure which limits the desired generation of harmonics in the medium. This work examines the output pressure and harmonic characteristics...... of a CMUT as function of bias and excitation voltage. The harmonic to fundamental ratio of the surface pressures declines for decreasing excitation voltage and increasing bias voltage. The ratio, however, becomes unchanged for bias levels close to the pull-in voltage. The harmonic limitations of the CMUT...

  1. Investigation of Multiconfigurational Short-Range Density Functional Theory for Electronic Excitations in Organic Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubert, Mickaël; Hedegård, Erik D.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa

    2016-01-01

    -srDFT for a selected benchmark set of electronic excitations of organic molecules, covering the most common types of organic chromophores. This investigation confirms the expectation that the MC-srDFT method is accurate for a broad range of excitations and comparable to accurate wave function methods such as CASPT2......Computational methods that can accurately and effectively predict all types of electronic excitations for any molecular system are missing in the toolbox of the computational chemist. Although various Kohn-Sham density-functional methods (KS-DFT) fulfill this aim in some cases, they become...... and double excitations have been promising, it is nevertheless important that the accuracy of MC-srDFT is at least comparable to the best KS-DFT methods also for organic molecules that are typically of single-reference character. In this paper we therefore systematically investigate the performance of MC...

  2. Multicomponent Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Proton and Electron Excitation Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Culpitt, Tanner; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2018-04-05

    The quantum mechanical treatment of both electrons and protons in the calculation of excited state properties is critical for describing nonadiabatic processes such as photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer. Multicomponent density functional theory enables the consistent quantum mechanical treatment of more than one type of particle and has been implemented previously for studying ground state molecular properties within the nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) framework, where all electrons and specified protons are treated quantum mechanically. To enable the study of excited state molecular properties, herein the linear response multicomponent time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is derived and implemented within the NEO framework. Initial applications to FHF - and HCN illustrate that NEO-TDDFT provides accurate proton and electron excitation energies within a single calculation. As its computational cost is similar to that of conventional electronic TDDFT, the NEO-TDDFT approach is promising for diverse applications, particularly nonadiabatic proton transfer reactions, which may exhibit mixed electron-proton vibronic excitations.

  3. Use of polarization measurements in evaluating cascade contributions to optical excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConkey, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in theory and experimental measurements of rotational line polarization fractions of diatomic molecules following electron impact are used to show how in some instances cascade free optical excitation functions can be derived without additional measurements of the cascading contribution. The Lyman system of H 2 is presented as an example and some previously conflicting excitation cross-section measurements obtained by different techniques are reconciled

  4. Application of an excited state LDA exchange energy functional for the calculation of transition energy of atoms within time-independent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Md; Harbola, Manoj K, E-mail: sami@iitk.ac.i, E-mail: mkh@iitk.ac.i [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2010-11-14

    Transition energies of a new class of excited states (two-gap systems) of various atoms are calculated in time-independent density functional formalism by using a recently proposed local density approximation exchange energy functional for excited states. It is shown that the excitation energies calculated with this functional compare well with those calculated with exact exchange theories.

  5. Application of an excited state LDA exchange energy functional for the calculation of transition energy of atoms within time-independent density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Md; Harbola, Manoj K

    2010-01-01

    Transition energies of a new class of excited states (two-gap systems) of various atoms are calculated in time-independent density functional formalism by using a recently proposed local density approximation exchange energy functional for excited states. It is shown that the excitation energies calculated with this functional compare well with those calculated with exact exchange theories.

  6. Relativistic Energy Density Functionals: Exotic modes of excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, D.; Paar, N.; Marketin, T.

    2008-01-01

    The framework of relativistic energy density functionals has been applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena, not only in spherical and deformed nuclei along the valley of β-stability, but also in exotic systems with extreme isospin values and close to the particle drip-lines. Dynamical aspects of exotic nuclear structure have been investigated with the relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation. We present results for the evolution of low-lying dipole (pygmy) strength in neutron-rich nuclei, and charged-current neutrino-nucleus cross sections.

  7. Excited state artefacts in calculations of hadron 3-point functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    High energy particle physics experiments, as presently conducted, e.g., at LHC, CERN, Geneva are among the most expensive human research efforts. At LHC protons are collided at very high energy resulting in the production of very many hadrons and a few rare particles, like the Higgs boson, the decay products of which one tries to identify reliably. For any such effort it is crucial to understand well the structure of protons and the interactions between its constituents, quarks and gluons. In addition, investigating hadron structure is also a prominent research area in its own right because QCD is one of the fundamental interactions of the standard model and its non-perturbative aspects are still only little understood. Lattice QCD has the potential to provide this information and in many aspects is complementary to direct experiments which can not address all aspects unambiguously. However, lattice QCD requires to take the combined limit of large volume, small lattice spacing, huge statistics and physical quark masses. The very substantial increase of computing power in recent years has allowed to reach the large volume and large statistics limit and in this project also the physical mass limit. (Other lattice collaborations addressing similar physics questions have reached the same limits in parallel, but this is not a problem, because one needs anyway independent confirmation with several lattice actions to be sure that the remaining artifacts are really under control.) The only limit which could not be reached so far is that of small enough lattice constants, see below. Let us note that there is a fundamental difference between lattice simulations which calculate known quantities, like masses, which are thus tests of QCD and the ideas of lattice QCD (which are already generally accepted) and lattice calculations for, e.g. Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), Transverse Momentum Parton distributions (TMDs), Double Distributions (DDs), Distribution Amplitudes

  8. Excitation functions of radionuclides produced by proton induced reactions on gadolinium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challana, M.B.; Comsana, M.N.H.; Moawadb, G.S.; Abou-Zeid, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cross section study for proton induced reaction on natural Gadolinium targets were performed. Excitation functions for the reactions n atGd(p,x) 152m+g , 154m,154g Tb from threshold up to E p = 18 MeV have been measured employing the stacked foil activation technique, and using high resolution HPGe gamma spectrometry. Utilizing the simultaneous measurement of the excitation function of n atCu(p,x) 62 Zn, n atCu(p,x) 63 Zn, and n atCu(p,x) 65 Zn as monitor reactions. The theoretical analysis of the excitation functions has been done employing both ALICE-91 and EMPIRE-II codes. In general, theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental data. A significant contribution of pre-equilibrium component has been observed at these energies

  9. Remeasurement and compilation of excitation function of proton induced reactions on iron for activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S.; Vasvary, L.; Tarkanyi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Excitation functions of proton induced reactions on nat Fe(p, xn) 56 Co have been remeasured in the energy region up to 18 MeV using stacked foil technique and standard high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry at the Debrecen MGC-20E cyclotron. Compilation of the available data measured between 1959 and 1993 has been made. The corresponding excitation functions have been reviewed, critical comparison of all the available data was done to obtain the most accurate data set. The feasibility of the evaluated data set was checked by reproducing experimental calibration curves for TLA by calculation. (orig.)

  10. Measurement and analysis of excitation functions in (α,np) reactions on 128,130Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.P.; Sankaracharyulu, M.G.V.; Ansari, M.A.; Prasad, R.; Bhardwaj, H.D.

    1992-02-01

    Excitation functions for the reactions 128 Te(α,np) 130 I, 130 Te(α,np) 132 I and 130 Te(α,np) 132m I have been measured using stacked foil technique and have also been calculated using statistical model with and without the inclusion of pre-equilibrium emission. As expected, inclusion of pre-equilibrium emission in compound nucleus calculations agree well with the experimental excitation functions. The pre-equilibrium fraction has been found to be energy and target mass number dependent. (author). 37 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Development of the system for excitation function automatic measurement of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapozhnikov, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The resonance nuclear reaction method is applied at the tandem accelerator UKP-2-1 to determinate films thickness and obtain light element depth distribution. The system for automatic measurement of the nuclear reaction excitation curve has been developed. It allowed to obtain an excitation function of nuclear reaction using continuous changing potential of the target with energy step of 6 eV. Saw-tooth voltage with amplitude up to 6 kV from the block of scanning beam is fed to a target. The amplitude is determined by constant voltage from the scanning beam block control. Nal(Tl) detector detects gamma quanta - the products of a nuclear reaction and transforms they in voltage impulses. The impulses through the amplifier income in the single-channel analyzer which forms impulses to start the analog-to-digital converter. The value of saw-tooth voltage corresponding to the moment of gamma quantum detection is read by the analog-to-digital converter, where it is transformed to digital code and transmitted to the computer. The computer program has been developed to control the process of accumulation of excitation function. The dependence a detected γ-quanta yield from a target potential is automatically plotted by the program. This dependence corresponds to the nuclear reaction excitation function. If scanning amplitude is not enough in order to scan need depth of a sample, an operator increases energy of the proton beam changing high voltage potential of the terminal up 3 keV and measures the nuclear reaction excitation function with the new energy. This procedure can be repeated some times. After that 'sewing' of excitation functions is carried out by the program under the hypothesis that nuclear reaction yield in last points be identical

  12. Analysis of Real Ship Rolling Dynamics under Wave Excitement Force Composed of Sums of Cosine Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y. S.; Cai, F.; Xu, W. M.

    2011-01-01

    The ship motion equation with a cosine wave excitement force describes the slip moments in regular waves. A new kind of wave excitement force model, with the form as sums of cosine functions was proposed to describe ship rolling in irregular waves. Ship rolling time series were obtained by solving the ship motion equation with the fourth-order-Runger-Kutta method. These rolling time series were synthetically analyzed with methods of phase-space track, power spectrum, primary component analysis, and the largest Lyapunove exponent. Simulation results show that ship rolling presents some chaotic characteristic when the wave excitement force was applied by sums of cosine functions. The result well explains the course of ship rolling's chaotic mechanism and is useful for ship hydrodynamic study.

  13. Operational production of Geodetic Excitation Functions from EOP estimated values at ASI-CGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarretta, C.; Luceri, V.; Bianco, G.

    2009-04-01

    ASI-CGS is routinely providing geodetic excitation functions from its own estimated EOP values (at present SLR and VLBI; the current use of GPS EOP's is also planned as soon as this product will be fully operational) on the ASI geodetic web site (http://geodaf.mt.asi.it). This product has been generated and monitored (for ASI internal use only) in a long pre-operational phase (more than two years), including validation and testing. The daily geodetic excitation functions are now weekly updated along with the operational ASI SLR and VLBI EOP solutions and compared, whenever possible, with the atmospheric excitation functions available at the IERS SBAAM, under the IB and not-IB assumption, including the "wind" term. The work will present the available estimated geodetic function time series and its comparison with the relevant atmospheric excitation functions, deriving quantitative indicators on the quality of the estimates. The similarities as well as the discrepancies among the atmospheric and geodetic series will be analysed and commented, evaluating in particular the degree of correlation among the two estimated time series and the likelihood of a linear dependence hypothesis.

  14. Determination of minimum impact parameter by modified touching spheres schemes for intermediate energy Coulomb excitation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Sharma, Shagun; Singh, Pradeep; Kharab, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The energy-independent touching spheres schemes commonly used for the determination of the safe minimum value of the impact parameter for Coulomb excitation experiments are modified through the inclusion of an energy-dependent term. The touching spheres+3fm scheme after modification emerges out to be the best one while touching spheres+4fm scheme is found to be better in its unmodified form. (orig.)

  15. Tsunami excitation by inland/coastal earthquakes: the Green function approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Yanovskaya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the linear theory, the representation theorem is derived for an incompressible liquid layer with a boundary of arbitrary shape and in a homogeneous gravity field. In addition, the asymptotic representation for the Green function, in a layer of constant thickness is obtained. The validity of the approach for the calculation of the tsunami wavefield based on the Green function technique is verified comparing the results with those obtained from the modal theory, for a liquid layer of infinite horizontal dimensions. The Green function approach is preferable for the estimation of the excitation spectra, since in the case of an infinite liquid layer it leads to simple analytical expressions. From this analysis it is easy to describe the peculiarities of tsunami excitation by different sources. The method is extended to the excitation of tsunami in a semiinfinite layer with a sloping boundary. Numerical modelling of the tsunami wavefield, excited by point sources at different distances from the coastline, shows that when the source is located at a distance from the coastline equal or larger than the source depth, the shore presence does not affect the excitation of the tsunami. When the source is moved towards thecoastline, the low frequency content in the excitation spectrum ecreases, while the high frequencies content increases dramatically. The maximum of the excitation spectra from inland sources, located at a distance from the shore like the source depth, becomes less than 10% of that radiated if the same source is located in the open ocean. The effect of the finiteness of the source is also studied and the excitation spectrum is obtained by integration over the fault area. Numerical modelling of the excitation spectra for different source models shows that, for a given seismic moment, the spectral level, as well as the maximum value of the spectra, decreases with increasing fault size. When the sources are located in the

  16. Iodine (p,n) and (d,2n) excitation function measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, H.I. Jr.; Nuckolls, R.M.; Mustafa, M.G.; Lanier, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the nuclear excitation functions for the reactions 127 I (p,n) 127 Xe and 127 I(d,2n) 127 Xe. These results are being used in the interpretation of data obtained from nuclear test diagnostics. 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Calculation of excitation functions of the 54, 56, 57, 58 Fe (p, n ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 83; Issue 4. Calculation of excitation functions of the 54,56,57 ... Proton-induced reaction cross-sections provide clues to understand the nuclear structure and offers a good testing ground for ideas about nuclear forces. In addition, complete information in this field is ...

  18. Excitation functions for deuterium-induced reactions on 194Pt near the coulomb barrier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulko, A. A.; Skobelev, N. K.; Kroha, Václav; Penionzhkevich, Y. E.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Burjan, Václav; Hons, Zdeněk; Šimečková, Eva; Piskoř, Štěpán; Kugler, Andrej; Demekhina, N. A.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Chuvilskaya, T. V.; Shirokova, K.; Kuterbekov, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, 6-7 (2012), s. 502-507 ISSN 1547-4771 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08002 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nucelar reactions * excitation functions * charged particle activation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  19. Measurement and analysis of excitation functions in 20Ne + 27Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachouri, Dipti; Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Afzal Ansari, M.; Rashid, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, the excitation functions (EFs) for radioactive residues produced in the interaction of 20 Ne ion with 27 Al have been measured in order to study the reaction dynamics, particularly in the low mass region using the off-line γ-ray measurement activation technique for bombarding energies below 150 MeV

  20. From the HINDAS Project: Excitation Functions for Residual Nuclide Production by Proton-Induced Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, R.; Gloris, M.; Protoschill, J.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Weug, M.; Herpers, U.; Kuhnhenn, J.; Kubik, P.-W.; Schumann, D.; Synal, H.-A.; Weinreich, R.; Leya, I.; David, J.C.; Leray, S.; Duijvestijn, M.; Koning, A.; Kelic, A.; Schmidt, K.H.; Cugnon, J.

    2005-01-01

    A survey is given about efforts undertaken during the HINDAS project to investigate the energy dependence of residual nuclide production by proton-induced reactions from thresholds up to 2.6 GeV. For proton-induced reactions, our experiments aimed to further develop and complete the cross-section database that was established by our collaboration in recent years. It was extended to the heavy-target elements Ta, W, Pb, and Bi for energies up to 2.6 GeV. In addition, new measurements for the target element iron were performed up to 2.6 GeV and for natural uranium for energies from 21 MeV to 69 MeV. For the target element lead, a comprehensive set of excitation functions published recently was completed by AMS-measurements of cross sections for the production of the long-lived radionuclides Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, and I-129 and by mass spectrometric measurements for stable and radioactive rare gas isotopes of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Comprehensive tests of the nuclear-reaction codes TALYS and INCL4+ABLA, which were developed within the HINDAS project, were performed with the new experimental results over the entire energy range

  1. Wave excitation in electron beam experiment on Japanese satellite JIKIKEN (EXOS-B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, N.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reports on a beam-plasma interaction experiment conducted in the magnetosphere by emitting an electron beam (100-200 eV, 0.25-1.0 mA) from the JIKIKEN satellite. Topics considered include instrumentation, wave excitation, and the charging of the satellite. Various types of wave emission are detected by low frequency and high frequency wave detectors. Waves near upper-hybrid frequency and at electron cyclotron frequency are detected in a low L-value region, which will be useful diagnostic means for plasma density and magnetic field. Vehicle charging up to the beam energy is observed outside the plasmapause. The main objectives of the Controlled Beam Experiment (CBE) are to control the satellite potential by an electron beam emission, and to study the wave excitation (linear and non-linear wave phenomena due to the beam-plasma interaction). It is concluded that waves excited in the beamplasma interaction are strongly dependent on plasma and other parameters in the magnetosphere so that it will provide important knowledge of the magnetosphere plasma processes

  2. Double excitation of helium by 3 MeV proton impact: experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Gleizes, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benoit-Cattin, P. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre de Physique Atomique); Andriamonje, S. (Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 -Gradignan (France)); Martin, F. (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica); Salin, A. (Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France))

    1992-08-14

    Doubly differential cross sections for the double excitation of helium by high velocity protons are measured and compared with the predictions of the first-order Born approximation. Preliminary experimental data for the shapes and intensities of the resonances 2s[sup 2] [sup 1]S, 2p[sup 2] [sup 1]D and 2s2p [sup 1]P have been obtained from high resolution electron spectra at 20[sup o], 90[sup o] and 150[sup o] for a proton energy of 3 MeV. Both experiment and theory show that the excitation of the [sup 1]P resonance largely exceeds the [sup 1]D and [sup 1]S ones at this collision velocity. The shape and emission yield of the [sup 1]P line is well described by theory over the whole angular range. The agreement for the other two resonances is not always satisfactory. (author).

  3. Probing nuclear shell structure beyond the N=40 subshell using multiple Coulomb excitation and transfer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellgartner, Stefanie Christine

    2015-11-13

    In this work, the N=40 subshell closure is investigated with two complementary methods using a radioactive {sup 72}Zn ISOLDE beam: One- and two-neutron transfer reactions and multiple Coulomb excitation. In the one-neutron transfer reaction, two new levels of {sup 73}Zn were discovered. The two-neutron transfer channel allowed to study the differential cross section of the ground state and the 2{sup +}{sub 1} state of {sup 74}Zn. In the Coulomb excitation experiment, the measured B(E2) values and quadrupole moments of {sup 72}Zn showed that the yrast states 0{sup +}{sub 1}, 2{sup +}{sub 1} and 4{sup +}{sub 1} are moderately collective. Contrary, the 0{sup +}{sub 2} state has a different structure, since it features a stronger closed N=40 configuration compared to the ground state.

  4. The theory and experiment of solute migration caused by excited state absorptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Jin; Ying-Lin, Song; Yu-Xiao, Wang; Min, Shui; Chang-Wei, Li; Jun-Yi, Yang; Xue-Ru, Zhang; Kun, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Nonsymmetrical transition from reverse-saturable absorption (RSA) to saturable absorption (SA) caused by excited state absorption induced mass transport of the CuPcTs dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide is observed in an open aperture Z-scan experiment with a 21-ps laser pulse. The nonsymmetrical transition from RSA to SA is ascribed neither to saturation of excited state absorption nor to thermal induced mass transport, the so-called Soret effect. In our consideration, strong nonlinear absorption causes the rapid accumulation of the non-uniform kinetic energy of the solute molecules. The non-uniform kinetic field in turn causes the migration of the solute molecules. Additionally, an energy-gradient-induced mass transport theory is presented to interpret the experimental results, and the theoretical calculations are also taken to fit our experimental results. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  5. Excitation spectra and wave functions of quasiparticle bound states in bilayer Rashba superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashi, Yoichi, E-mail: higashiyoichi@ms.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Nagai, Yuki [CCSE, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 178-4-4, Wakashiba, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0871 (Japan); Yoshida, Tomohiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Kato, Masaru [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Yanase, Youichi [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We focus on the pair-density wave state in bilayer Rashba superconductors. • The zero energy Bogoliubov wave functions are localized at the edge and vortex core. • We investigate the excitation spectra of edge and vortex bound states. - Abstract: We study the excitation spectra and the wave functions of quasiparticle bound states at a vortex and an edge in bilayer Rashba superconductors under a magnetic field. In particular, we focus on the quasiparticle states at the zero energy in the pair-density wave state in a topologically non-trivial phase. We numerically demonstrate that the quasiparticle wave functions with zero energy are localized at both the edge and the vortex core if the magnetic field exceeds the critical value.

  6. Electronically excited states of chloroethylenes: Experiment and DFT calculations in comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvostenko, O.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) calculations of chloroethylenes molecules were performed. • Calculations were correlated with experiment on the molecules ground and excited states. • The general pattern of electron structure of chloroethylenes was obtained. • Necessity of this data for chloroethylenes negative ions study was noted. - Abstract: B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) calculations of ground and electronically excited states of ethylene, chloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene-cis, 1,2-dichloroethylene-trans trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene molecules have been performed. Molecular orbitals images and orbital correlation diagram are given. The calculation results for chloroethylenes electronically excited states were compared with experimental data from the energy-loss spectra obtained and generally considered previously by C.F. Koerting, K.N. Walzl and A. Kupperman. Several new additional triplet and singlet transitions were pointed out in these spectra considering the calculation results. The finding of the additional transitions was supported by the UV absorption spectrum of trichloroethylene recorded in big cuvette (10 cm), where the first three triplet and two low-intensive forbidden singlet transitions were registered. The first triplet of this compound was recorded to be at the same energy as was found with the energy-loss spectroscopy

  7. Electronically excited states of chloroethylenes: Experiment and DFT calculations in comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvostenko, O.G., E-mail: khv@mail.ru

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) calculations of chloroethylenes molecules were performed. • Calculations were correlated with experiment on the molecules ground and excited states. • The general pattern of electron structure of chloroethylenes was obtained. • Necessity of this data for chloroethylenes negative ions study was noted. - Abstract: B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) calculations of ground and electronically excited states of ethylene, chloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene-cis, 1,2-dichloroethylene-trans trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene molecules have been performed. Molecular orbitals images and orbital correlation diagram are given. The calculation results for chloroethylenes electronically excited states were compared with experimental data from the energy-loss spectra obtained and generally considered previously by C.F. Koerting, K.N. Walzl and A. Kupperman. Several new additional triplet and singlet transitions were pointed out in these spectra considering the calculation results. The finding of the additional transitions was supported by the UV absorption spectrum of trichloroethylene recorded in big cuvette (10 cm), where the first three triplet and two low-intensive forbidden singlet transitions were registered. The first triplet of this compound was recorded to be at the same energy as was found with the energy-loss spectroscopy.

  8. Wavelet based comparison of high frequency oscillations in the geodetic and fluid excitation functions of polar motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, W.; Popinski, W.; Niedzielski, T.

    2011-10-01

    It has been already shown that short period oscillations in polar motion, with periods less than 100 days, are very chaotic and are responsible for increase in short-term prediction errors of pole coordinates data. The wavelet technique enables to compare the geodetic and fluid excitation functions in the high frequency band in many different ways, e.g. by looking at the semblance function. The waveletbased semblance filtering enables determination the common signal in both geodetic and fluid excitation time series. In this paper the considered fluid excitation functions consist of the atmospheric, oceanic and land hydrology excitation functions from ECMWF atmospheric data produced by IERS Associated Product Centre Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam. The geodetic excitation functions have been computed from the combined IERS pole coordinates data.

  9. Excitation of rare gases in an electron-beam-controlled discharge: report on preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, F.W.

    1976-05-01

    Data from the preliminary phase of a study of rare-gas-excimer production in an electron-beam-controlled discharge are presented. The results indicate that it is possible to maintain an arc-free discharge in preionized Ar and Xe gas for a period of several microseconds at applied external E/p values up to 5 V/cm/Torr. In these experiments ultraviolet radiation emitted during the discharge signaled the presence of excited rare-gas molecules. Application of the external electric field significantly enhanced the ultraviolet intensity from xenon-gas discharges but produced little enhancement from argon-gas discharges

  10. Generating functions and stability study of multivariate self-excited epidemic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saichev, A. I.; Sornette, D.

    2011-09-01

    We present a stability study of the class of multivariate self-excited Hawkes point processes, that can model natural and social systems, including earthquakes, epileptic seizures and the dynamics of neuron assemblies, bursts of exchanges in social communities, interactions between Internet bloggers, bank network fragility and cascading of failures, national sovereign default contagion, and so on. We present the general theory of multivariate generating functions to derive the number of events over all generations of various types that are triggered by a mother event of a given type. We obtain the stability domains of various systems, as a function of the topological structure of the mutual excitations across different event types. We find that mutual triggering tends to provide a significant extension of the stability (or subcritical) domain compared with the case where event types are decoupled, that is, when an event of a given type can only trigger events of the same type.

  11. Excitation functions and production of arsenic radioisotopes for environmental toxicology and biomedical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, D.; Birattari, C.; Bonard, M.; Salomone, A.; Goetz, L.; Sabbioni, E.

    1981-01-01

    Many arsenic radionuclides have come to be used as tracers in biology and in the study of environmental pollution of both water and soil. In nuclear medicine, radioactive 74 As has been employed as a positron emitter for the localization of brain tumors, cerebral occlusive vascular lesions, arterious-venous malformations, etc. The aim of the work described was to study the excitation functions for the production of the arsenic radioisotopes from targets of natural germanium via nuclear reactions (p, xn). (author)

  12. Two-photon excitation of porphyrin-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secret, Emilie; Maynadier, Marie; Gallud, Audrey; Chaix, Arnaud; Bouffard, Elise; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Marcotte, Nathalie; Mongin, Olivier; El Cheikh, Khaled; Hugues, Vincent; Auffan, Mélanie; Frochot, Céline; Morère, Alain; Maillard, Philippe; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Sailor, Michael J; Garcia, Marcel; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Cunin, Frédérique

    2014-12-03

    Porous silicon nanoparticles (pSiNPs) act as a sensitizer for the 2-photon excitation of a pendant porphyrin using NIR laser light, for imaging and photodynamic therapy. Mannose-functionalized pSiNPs can be vectorized to MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through a mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism to provide a 3-fold enhancement of the 2-photon PDT effect. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Excitation functions for alpha-particle-induced reactions with natural antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N. L.; Shah, D. J.; Mukherjee, S.; Chintalapudi, S. N. [Vadodara, M. S. Univ. of Baroda (India). Fac. of Science. Dept. of Physics

    1997-07-01

    Stacked-foil activation technique and {gamma} - rays spectroscopy were used for the determination of the excitation functions of the {sup 121}Sb [({alpha}, n); ({alpha}, 2n); ({alpha},4 n); ({alpha}, p3n); ({alpha}, {alpha}n)]; and Sb [({alpha}, 3n); ({alpha}, 4n); ({alpha}, {alpha}3n)] reactions. The excitation functions for the production of {sup 124}I, {sup 123}I, {sup 121}I, {sup 121}Te and {sup 120}Sb were reported up to 50 MeV. The reactions {sup 121} Sb ({alpha}, {alpha}n) + {sup 123} Sb ({alpha}, {alpha}3n) are measured for the first time. Since natural antimony used as the target has two odd mass stable isotopes of abundances 57.3 % ({sup 121}Sb), their activation in some cases gives the same product nucleus through different reaction channels but with very different Q-values. In such cases, the individual reaction cross-sections are separated with the help of theoretical cross-sections. The experimental cross-sections were compared with the predictions based on hybrid model of Blann. The high-energy part of the excitation functions are dominated by the pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism and the initial exciton number n{sub 0} = 4 (4 p 0 h) gives fairly good agreement with presently measured results.

  14. On isospin excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenfei; Zhang Fengshou; Chen Liewen

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of Hartree-Fock theory using the extended Skyrme effective interaction, the isospin excitation energy as a function of relative neutron excess δ was investigated at different temperatures and densities. It was found that the isospin excitation energy decreased with the increment of temperature and/or the decrement of density. The authors pointed out that the decrement of isospin excitation energy was resulted from the weakening of quantum effect with increment of temperature and/or decrement of density. Meanwhile, the relationship between the isospin excitation energy and the symmetry energy was discussed and found that the symmetry energy was just a part of the isospin excitation energy. With increasing temperature and decreasing density, the contribution of the symmetry energy to the isospin excitation energy becomes more and more important. The isospin excitation energy as a function of relative neutron excess was also investigated using different potential parameters. The results shows that the isospin excitation energy is almost independent of the incompressibility and the effective mass, but strongly depends on the symmetry energy strength coefficient, which indicates that it is possible to extract the symmetry energy of the nuclear equation of state by investigating the isospin excitation energy in experiments

  15. Influence of the excited states on the electron-energy distribution function in low-pressure microwave argon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanguas-Gil, A.; Cotrino, J.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the influence of the excited states on the electron-energy distribution function has been determined for an argon microwave discharge at low pressure. A collisional-radiative model of argon has been developed taking into account the most recent experimental and theoretical values of argon-electron-impact excitation cross sections. The model has been solved along with the electron Boltzmann equation in order to study the influence of the inelastic collisions from the argon excited states on the electron-energy distribution function. Results show that under certain conditions the excited states can play an important role in determining the shape of the distribution function and the mean kinetic energy of the electrons, deplecting the high-energy tail due to inelastic processes from the excited states, especially from the 4s excited configuration. It has been found that from the populations of the excited states an excitation temperature can be defined. This excitation temperature, which can be experimentally determined by optical emission spectroscopy, is lower than the electron kinetic temperature obtained from the electron-energy distribution function

  16. Coulomb excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, F.K.; Stelson, P.H.

    1974-01-01

    The theory of Coulomb excitation and a brief review of pertinent treatments of the Coulomb excitation process that are useful for the analysis of experiments are given. Examples demonstrating the scope of nuclear structure information obtainable from gamma spectroscopy are presented. Direct Elambda excitation of 232 Th is discussed in terms of the one phonon octupole vibrational spectrum. B(MI) reduced transition probabilities resulting from Coulomb excitation of odd-A deformed nuclei with heavy ions are presented as a test of the rotational model. The use of gamma ray coincidence and particle-gamma coincidence as tools for investigating Coulomb excitation is discussed. (U.S.)

  17. Hydrogen sulfide regulates cardiovascular function by influencing the excitability of subfornical organ neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kuksis

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S, a gasotransmitter endogenously found in the central nervous system, has recently been suggested to act as a signalling molecule in the brain having beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. This study was thus undertaken to investigate the effect of NaHS (an H2S donor in the subfornical organ (SFO, a central nervous system site important to blood pressure regulation. We used male Sprague-Dawley rats for both in vivo and in vitro experiments. We first used RT-PCR to confirm our previous microarray analyses showing that mRNAs for the enzymes required to produce H2S are expressed in the SFO. We then used microinjection techniques to investigate the physiological effects of NaHS in SFO, and found that NaHS microinjection (5 nmol significantly increased blood pressure (mean AUC = 853.5±105.7 mmHg*s, n = 5. Further, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology and found that 97.8% (88 of 90 of neurons depolarized in response to NaHS. This response was found to be concentration dependent with an EC50 of 35.6 µM. Coupled with the depolarized membrane potential, we observed an overall increase in neuronal excitability using an analysis of rheobase and action potential firing patterns. This study has provided the first evidence of NaHS and thus H2S actions and their cellular correlates in SFO, implicating this brain area as a site where H2S may act to control blood pressure.

  18. Assessment of the Global and Regional Land Hydrosphere and Its Impact on the Balance of the Geophysical Excitation Function of Polar Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wińska, Małgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta; Kołaczek, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The impact of continental hydrological loading from land water, snow and ice on polar motion excitation, calculated as hydrological angular momentum (HAM), is difficult to estimate, and not as much is known about it as about atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) and oceanic angular momentum (OAM). In this paper, regional hydrological excitations to polar motion are investigated using monthly terrestrial water storage data derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission and from the five models of land hydrology. The results show that the areas where the variance shows large variability are similar for the different models of land hydrology and for the GRACE data. Areas which have a small amplitude on the maps make an important contribution to the global hydrological excitation function of polar motion. The comparison of geodetic residuals and global hydrological excitation functions of polar motion shows that none of the hydrological excitation has enough energy to significantly improve the agreement between the observed geodetic excitation and geophysical ones.

  19. Excited-State N2 Dissociation Pathway on Fe-Functionalized Au.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirez, John Mark P; Carter, Emily A

    2017-03-29

    Localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) offer the possibility of light-activated chemical catalysis on surfaces of strongly plasmonic metal nanoparticles. This technology relies on lower-barrier bond formation and/or dissociation routes made available through energy transfer following the eventual decay of LSPRs. The coupling between these decay processes and a chemical trajectory (nuclear motion, charge-transfer, intersystem crossing, etc.) dictates the availability of these alternative (possibly lower barrier) excited-state channels. The Haber-Bosch method of NH 3 synthesis from N 2 and H 2 is notoriously energy intensive. This is due to the difficulty of N 2 dissociation despite the overall reaction being thermodynamically favorable at ambient temperatures and pressures. LSPRs may provide means to improve the kinetics of N 2 dissociation via induced resonance electronic excitation. In this work, we calculate, via embedded n-electron valence second-order perturbation theory within the density functional embedding theory, the excited-state potential energy surfaces for dissociation of N 2 on an Fe-doped Au(111) surface. This metal alloy may take advantage simultaneously of the strong LSPR of Au and the catalytic activity of Fe toward N 2 dissociation. We find the ground-state dissociation activation energy to be 4.74 eV/N 2 , with Fe as the active site on the surface. Consecutive resonance energy transfers (RETs) may be accessed due to the availability of many electronically excited states with intermediate energies arising from the metal surface that may couple to states induced by the Fe-dopant and the adsorbate molecule, and crossing between excited states may effectively lower the dissociation barrier to 1.33 eV. Our work illustrates that large energetic barriers, prohibitive toward chemical reaction, may be overcome through multiple RETs facilitating an otherwise difficult chemical process.

  20. Performance of Popular XC-Functionals for the Description of Excitation Energies in GFP-Like Chromophore Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Rocha-Rinza, Tomás

    2012-01-01

    this task. We present an evaluation of the performance of commonly used XC-functionals for the prediction of excitation energies of GFP-like chromophores. In particular, we have considered the TD-DFT vertical excitation energies of chromophores displaying different charge states. We compare the quality...

  1. Soft X-ray excited optical luminescence from functional organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sham, T.K., E-mail: tsham@uwo.ca

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Many functional organic materials convert X-ray energy into visible light. • The X-ray induced luminescence (XEOL) across an absorption edge can be site and excitation channel specific. • XEOL is composition, morphology, size and crystallinity dependent. • XEOL using the time structure of a synchrotron can reveal the decay and energy transfer dynamics of the sample. • The combined use of XEOL and XAS in the analysis of functional organic materials is illustrated. - Abstract: This brief report reviews some of the recent findings in the study of synchrotron based X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) from representative organic light emitting device (OLED) and related functional organic materials. The systems of interest include Alq{sub 3}, aluminium tris(8-hydroxylquinoline); Ru(bipy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, tris-(2,2-bipyridine) ruthenium(II); Ir(bpy){sub 3}, tris(2-phenyl-bipyridine)iridium; PVK (poly(N-vinylcarbazole)) and [Au{sub 2}(dppe)(bipy)]{sup 2+}, a Au(I) polymer containing 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane and the 4,40-bipyridyl ligands, as well as TBPe (2,5,8,11-tetra-tert-butylperylene) polyhedral crystals and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and FITC-labelled proteins. It is shown that tunable and pulsed X-rays from synchrotron light sources enable the detailed tracking of the optical properties of organic functional materials by monitoring the luminescence in both the energy and time domain as the excitation energy is scanned across an element-specific absorption edge. The use of XEOL and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in materials analysis is illustrated.

  2. A new analysis procedure to extract fusion excitation function with large beam energy dispersions: application to the 6Li+120Sn and 7Li+119Sn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pietro Alessia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper it is described an analysis procedure suited for experiments where cross-sections strongly varying with energy are measured using beams having large energy dispersion. These cross-sections are typically the sub-barrier fusion excitation function of reactions induced by radioactive beams. The large beam energy dispersion, typical of these experiments, can lead to ambiguities in the association of the effective beam energy to the reaction product yields and consequently to an error in the determination of the excitation function. As a test case, the approach is applied to the experiments 6Li+120Sn and 7Li+119Sn measured in the energy range 14 MeV ≤ Ec.m. ≤28 MeV. The complete fusion cross sections are deduced from activation measurements using the stacked target technique. The results of these experiments, that employ the two weakly-bound stable Li isotopes, show that the complete fusion cross sections above the barrier are suppressed of about 70% and 85% with respect to the Universal Fusion Function, used as a standard reference, in the 6Li and 7Li induced reactions respectively. Moreover, the excitation functions of the two systems at energies below the barrier, do not show significant differences, despite the two systems have different n-transfer Qvalue.

  3. On the description of the (HI, xn) reaction excitation functions for the case of weakly fissioning compound nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamanin, V.V.; Karamyan, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    A possibility to obtain parameters of nuclear temperature and critical angular momentum for the compound nucleus production on the base of the (HI, xn) reaction excitation function description are considered for the case of weakly fissioning nuclei. Experimental data on 152 Sm( 12 C, 2n) 162 Er, 148 Nd( 16 O, 3n) 161 Er, sup(150)Nd(sup(16)O, 3-5n)sup(163-161)Er, sup(148)Nd(sup(18)O, 4-5n)sup(162,161)Er, sup(118)Sn(sup(40)Ar, 5-6n)sup(153,152)Er and sup(74)Ge(sup(84)Kr, 5-6n)sup(153,152)Er reactions are discussed. The formulae, taking into accout the distribution of compound nuclei in angular momentum and competition between channels of the neutron and γ-ray emission, are given. The formulae are applied for the description of the excitation functions, characterized by a good accuracy of the particle energy measuring. A satisfactory accordance between the calculation and experiment is achieved. The conclusion on sensitivity of the nuclear temperature values to exact evaluation of competition between the neutron and γ-ray emission channels is drawn

  4. Radioactive beam EXperiments at ISOLDE : Coulomb excitation and neutron transfer reactions of exotic nuclei.

    CERN Multimedia

    Kugler, E; Ratzinger, U; Wenander, F J C

    2002-01-01

    % IS347 \\\\ \\\\We propose to perform a pilot experiment to study very neutron rich (A<32) Na-Mg and (A<52) K-Ca isotopes in the region around the neutron shell closures of N=20 and N=28 after Coulomb excitation and neutron transfer, and to demonstrate highly efficient and cost-effective ways to bunch, charge-state breed and accelerate already existing mass-separated singly-charged radioactive ion beams. \\\\ \\\\To do this we plan to accelerate the ISOLDE beams up to 2~MeV/u by means of a novel acceleration scheme and to install an efficient $\\gamma$-ray array for low-multiplicity events around the target position.

  5. Multireference Density Functional Theory with Generalized Auxiliary Systems for Ground and Excited States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zehua; Zhang, Du; Jin, Ye; Yang, Yang; Su, Neil Qiang; Yang, Weitao

    2017-09-21

    To describe static correlation, we develop a new approach to density functional theory (DFT), which uses a generalized auxiliary system that is of a different symmetry, such as particle number or spin, from that of the physical system. The total energy of the physical system consists of two parts: the energy of the auxiliary system, which is determined with a chosen density functional approximation (DFA), and the excitation energy from an approximate linear response theory that restores the symmetry to that of the physical system, thus rigorously leading to a multideterminant description of the physical system. The electron density of the physical system is different from that of the auxiliary system and is uniquely determined from the functional derivative of the total energy with respect to the external potential. Our energy functional is thus an implicit functional of the physical system density, but an explicit functional of the auxiliary system density. We show that the total energy minimum and stationary states, describing the ground and excited states of the physical system, can be obtained by a self-consistent optimization with respect to the explicit variable, the generalized Kohn-Sham noninteracting density matrix. We have developed the generalized optimized effective potential method for the self-consistent optimization. Among options of the auxiliary system and the associated linear response theory, reformulated versions of the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the spin-flip time-dependent density functional theory (SF-TDDFT) are selected for illustration of principle. Numerical results show that our multireference DFT successfully describes static correlation in bond dissociation and double bond rotation.

  6. Excitation functions for quasielastic transfer reactions induced with heavy ions in bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Bimbot, R.; Maison, J.; de Reilhac, L.; Rivet, M.F.; Fleury, A.; Hubert, F.; Llabador, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The excitation functions for the production of 210 Bi, 210 Po, /sup 207-211/At, and 211 Rn through quasielastic transfer reactions induced with heavy ions in 209 Bi have been measured. The corresponding reactions involved the transfer of one neutron, one proton, two charges, and three charges from projectile to target. The projectiles used were 12 C, 14 N, 16 O, 19 F, 20 Ne, 40 Ar, 40 Ca, 56 Fe, and 63 Cu. The experimental techniques involved target irradiations and off-line α and γ activity measurements. Chemical separations were used to solve specific problems. Careful measuremnts of incident energies and cross sections were performed close to the reaction thresholds. All excitation functions exhibit the typical features of quasielastic transfer reactions: a sharp increase at low energy, and a constant value at high incident energy. The position of the thresholds are strongly influenced by the energetics of the reaction: High cross sections are observed under the strong interaction barrier if the energy balance at the minimum distance of approach is positive. This balance is equal to the difference between the interaction potentials in the entrance and exit channels, corrected for the mass balance. The constant cross sections observed for the high energy part of a given excitation function are consistent with the assumption that the curve P (R) which represents the transfer probability versus the distance between the nucleus centers does not vary with incident energy. This assumption implies the constancy of the optimum distance of approach R/sub opt/, of the R window ΔR for which P (R) is significant, and of the magnitude of P (R). Moreover the data show that the high energy cross sections for one-proton transfer are independent of the projectile, while odd-even effects of the projectile atomic number Z on the two-charge transfer cross sections are observed for the lightest incident ions 14 N to 20 Ne

  7. Excitation functions for some Ne induced reactions with Holmium: incomplete fusion vs complete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Avinash; Kumar, Munish; Sharma, Anjali; Rizvi, I.A.; Ahamad, Tauseef; Ghugre, S.S.; Sinha, A.K.; Chaubey, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Reactions induced by 20 Ne are expected to be considerably more complex than those of 12 C, and 16 O. As a part of the ongoing program to understand CF and ICF reaction mechanisms, it is of great interest to see whether the same experimental technique yield similarly valuable information for 20 Ne induced reactions. In this present work an attempt has been made to measure the excitation functions for fifteen evaporation residues (ERs) identified in the interaction of 20 Ne + 165 Ho system in the energy range 4 -7 MeV/A

  8. Excitation functions for quasi-elastic transfer reactions induced with heavy ions in bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Bimbot, R.; Maison, J.; Reilhac, L. de; Rivet, M.F.; Fleury, A.; Hubert, F.; Llabador, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The excitation functions for the production of 210 Bi, 210 Po, sup(207-211)At and 211 Rn through quasi-elastic transfer reactions induced with heavy ions in 209 Bi have been measured. The corresponding reactions involved the transfer of one neutron, one proton, two and three charges from projectile to target. The projectiles used were 12 C, 14 N, 16 O, 19 F, 20 Ne, 40 Ca, 56 Fe and 63 Cu. The experimental techniques involved target irradiations and off-line α and γ activity measurements. Chemical separations were used to solve specific problems. Careful measurements of incident energies and cross sections were performed close to the reaction thresholds

  9. A search for parameters of universal sub-barrier fusion excitation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, W.W. [Medical College of Soochow University, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow (China); Zhang, G.L. [Beihang University, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beijing (China); Wolski, R. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS, Cracow (Poland)

    2016-11-15

    Many fusion experimental data have been analyzed in terms of a simple universal function which could be used for predictions of fusion cross section below the barrier for arbitrary systems. Sub-barrier fusions based on the concept of Q -fusion value dependence were studied. It is attempted to parameterize the energy-reduced fusion excitation functions around the Coulomb barriers by an analytical phenomenological function. It was found that the speed of driving nuclei towards fusion is faster with the increase of mass asymmetry of colliding systems and those systems with a large difference of the ratio of neutrons to protons. However, a general trend with respect to total mass has not been observed. An exposition of more qualitative conclusions is hindered by apparent inconsistencies of measured fusion cross sections. (orig.)

  10. Assessment of oscillator strengths with multiconfigurational short-range density functional theory for electronic excitations in organic molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan

    2017-01-01

    considered the large collection of organic molecules whose excited states were investigated with a range of electronic structure methods by Thiel et al. As a by-product of our calculations of oscillator strengths, we also obtain electronic excitation energies, which enable us to compare the performance......We have in a series of recent papers investigated electronic excited states with a hybrid between a complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wave function and density functional theory (DFT). This method has been dubbed the CAS short-range DFT method (CAS–srDFT). The previous papers...

  11. Excitation function of elastic $pp$ scattering from a unitarily extended Bialas-Bzdak model

    CERN Document Server

    Nemes, F.; Csanád, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Bialas-Bzdak model of elastic proton-proton scattering assumes a purely imaginary forward scattering amplitude, which consequently vanishes at the diffractive minima. We extended the model to arbitrarily large real parts in a way that constraints from unitarity are satisfied. The resulting model is able to describe elastic $pp$ scattering not only at the lower ISR energies but also at $\\sqrt{s}=$7~TeV in a statistically acceptable manner, both in the diffractive cone and in the region of the first diffractive minimum. The total cross-section as well as the differential cross-section of elastic proton-proton scattering is predicted for the future LHC energies of $\\sqrt{s}=$13, 14, 15~TeV and also to 28~TeV. A non-trivial, significantly non-exponential feature of the differential cross-section of elastic proton-proton scattering is analyzed and the excitation function of the non-exponential behavior is predicted. The excitation function of the shadow profiles is discussed and related to saturation at small ...

  12. Voiced Excitations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holzricher, John

    2004-01-01

    To more easily obtain a voiced excitation function for speech characterization, measurements of skin motion, tracheal tube, and vocal fold, motions were made and compared to EM sensor-glottal derived...

  13. Measurement and analysis of the excitation function and isomeric cross section ratios for α-induced reaction on Ir, Au, Re and Ta nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.

    1998-01-01

    Excitation functions and a few isomeric cross section ratios for production of (1) 192 Au, 193 Au, 194 Au, 195 Au and 192 Ir nuclides in α-induced reactions on 191,193 Ir, (2) 197 Tl, 197m Hg, 198m.g Tl, 199 Tl and 200 Tl nuclides in α-induced reaction in 197 Au and (3) 183 Re and 184m.g Re nuclides in α-induced reaction in 181 Ta and 185 Re are obtained from the measurements of the residual activities by the conventional stacked-foils technique from threshold to 50 MeV. The excitation function and isomeric cross section ratios for nuclear reaction 181 Ta (α,n) 184m.g Re are compared with the theoretical calculation using the code Stapre which is based on exciton model for pre-equilibrium phase and Hauser-Feshbach formalism taking angular momentum and parity into account for the equilibrium phase of the nuclear reaction. All other experimental excitation functions are compared with the calculations considering equilibrium as well as pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism according to the geometry dependent hybrid (GDH) model and hybrid model of Blann using the code Alice/91. The high energy part of the excitation functions are dominated by pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism whereas the low energy parts are dominated by equilibrium evaporation with its characteristic peak. The GDH model provides a potentially better description of the physical process (i.e. a higher probability for peripheral collisions to undergo precompound decay than for central collisions) compared to hybrid model. However in the energy range of present measurement most of the excitation functions are fitted reasonably well by both GDH model and hybrid model with initial exciton number N 0 =4 (N n =2, N p =2, N h =0). Barring a few reactions we have found the overall agreement between theory and experiment is reasonably good taking the limitations of the theory into account. (author)

  14. Experiments on vibro-impact dynamics of loosely supported tubes under harmonic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axisa, F.; Izquierdo, P.

    1992-01-01

    Computational methods have been recently developed by the authors and others to predict the working life or the acceptable vibration limit of tubular structures experiencing fretting-wear caused by impact-sliding interaction with loose supports or adjacent structures. This problem is of practical interest in various nuclear and other industrial components. This paper reports an experimental work intended to validate the numerical techniques used to compute the tube non-linear vibration in presence of impact-sliding interaction. Attention is especially focused on the local and time averaged dynamical parameters governing the rate of fretting-wear. The experiments were carried out on a straight tube excited harmonically by a pair of electromagnetic shakers. The tube motion was limited by a loose support situated at about midspan. On the other hand, numerical simulations of the tests were also performed. Comparison between test and computational data resulted in rather satisfactory agreement, based on the averaged impact forces and the wear work rate. Results are also discussed in terms of detailed time histories of tube displacement and impact forces

  15. Excitation of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator from the ground: Theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Chang, C.-L.; Labenski, J.; Milikh, G.; Vartanyan, A.; Snyder, A. L.

    2011-10-01

    We report results from numerical and experimental studies of the excitation of ULF shear Alfvén waves inside the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) by heating the ionosphere with powerful HF waves launched from the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. Numerical simulations of the two-fluid MHD model describing IAR in a dipole magnetic field geometry with plasma parameters taken from the observations at HAARP during the October-November 2010 experimental campaign reveal that the IAR quality is higher during nighttime conditions, when the ionospheric conductivity is very low. Simulations also reveal that the resonance wave cannot be identified from the magnetic measurements on the ground or at an altitude above 600 km because the magnetic field in this wave has nodes on both ends of the resonator, and the best way to detect IAR modes is by measuring the electric field on low Earth orbit satellites. These theoretical predictions are in good, quantitative agreement with results from observations: In particular, (1) observations from the ground-based magnetometer at the HAARP site demonstrate no significant difference in the amplitudes of the magnetic field generated by HAARP in the frequency range from 0 to 5 Hz, and (2) the DEMETER satellite detected the electric field of the IAR first harmonic at an altitude of 670 km above HAARP during the heating experiment.

  16. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory Outperforms Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory and Multireference Perturbation Theory for Ground-State and Excited-State Charge Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-08-11

    The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.

  17. Excitation functions of parameters in Erlang distribution, Schwinger mechanism, and Tsallis statistics in RHIC BES program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Li-Na; Liu, Fu-Hu; Lacey, Roy A.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results of the transverse-momentum distributions of φ mesons and Ω hyperons produced in gold-gold (Au-Au) collisions with different centrality intervals, measured by the STAR Collaboration at different energies (7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, and 39 GeV) in the beam energy scan (BES) program at the relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC), are approximately described by the single Erlang distribution and the two-component Schwinger mechanism. Moreover, the STAR experimental transverse-momentum distributions of negatively charged particles, produced in Au-Au collisions at RHIC BES energies, are approximately described by the two-component Erlang distribution and the single Tsallis statistics. The excitation functions of free parameters are obtained from the fit to the experimental data. A weak softest point in the string tension in Ω hyperon spectra is observed at 7.7 GeV. (orig.)

  18. Analysis of correlation effects in autoionizing doubly excited states of barium using Coulomb Green's function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.

    1997-01-01

    Though one would expect that large-angular momentum doubly excited states exhibit weak electronic correlations, it is shown in this paper that a first-order perturbation theory ignoring such correlations may completely fail in predicting correct autoionization probabilities: quadrupolar transitions are poorly described by lowest-order perturbation theory, except for very large angular momenta. Inclusion of second-order dipole-dipole term considerably improves the accuracy of the method. This effect is computed using Coulomb Green's function in its analytical form, probably applied here for the first time to autoionization processes. Examples are given in barium for 5d j 5g [k[ states (j=3/2, 5/2) and for 5d 5/2 nl [k[ states with l > 4. (orig.)

  19. The thermotidal exciting function for water vapour absorption of solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BONAFEDE

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermotidal exciting function J is considered, for
    the absorption of solar radiation by water vapour, according to the model
    derived by Siebert. The Mugge-Moller formula for water vapour absorption
    is integrated numerically, using experimental data for the water vapour
    concentration in the troposphere and the stratosphere. It appears that
    Siebort's formula is a reasonable approximation at low tropospheric levels
    but it dramatically overestimates the water vapour thermotidal heating
    in the upper troposphere and in the stratosphere. It seems thus possible
    that, if the correct vertical profile is employed for J , the amplitudes and
    phases of the diurnal temperature oscillations and of the tidal wind speeds
    may suffer significant changes from those previously calculated and possibly explain the three hours delay of the observed phases from the computed values.

  20. Experimental studies on excitation functions of the proton-induced activation reactions on silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M.S.; Hagiwara, M.; Baba, M.; Tarkanyi, F.; Ditroi, F.

    2005-01-01

    Excitation functions were measured for the production of 106m,105 Ag, 103,101,100 Pd, 105,102,101m,100,99 Rh and 97 Ru via proton-induced activation reactions on natural silver using a stacked foil technique in the energy range 11-80 MeV. The residual activity measurements were carried out nondestructively by the high-resolution HPGe γ-ray spectroscopy. Thick target integral yields were deduced using the measured cross-sections from the respective threshold energies of the investigated reactions up to 80 MeV. The present work gives new results for the investigated radionuclides. The data in MENDL-2P deduced with the theoretical model code ALICE-IPPE are consistent in shape with the measured values, but show disagreement in magnitude

  1. Excitation function of elastic scattering on 12C + 4He system, at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Torres, R.; Aguilera, E. F.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Murillo, G.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Maldonado-Velazquez, M.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions in the 12 C + 4 He system are of great interest in astrophysics and to help determine the relative abundances of elements in stars, at the end of helium burning [1, 2]. The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in Mexico, have made measurements of elastic scattering for this system, using the inverse kinematics method with thick white gas [3, 4], for E CM (0.5 - 4 MeV) θ CM = 180 o . In this work we obtain excitation functions of elastic scattering of 12 C + 4 He system with angular and energy dependence; E CM = 0.5 - 4 MeV and θ CM 100 o -170 o .Using inverse kinematics method with thick white gas and energy loss tables. (Author)

  2. Electronic Excitations in Solution: The Interplay between State Specific Approaches and a Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Ciro A; Jacquemin, Denis; Adamo, Carlo; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2015-12-08

    We critically analyze the performances of continuum solvation models when coupled to time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) to predict solvent effects on both absorption and emission energies of chromophores in solution. Different polarization schemes of the polarizable continuum model (PCM), such as linear response (LR) and three different state specific (SS) approaches, are considered and compared. We show the necessity of introducing a SS model in cases where large electron density rearrangements are involved in the excitations, such as charge-transfer transitions in both twisted and quadrupolar compounds, and underline the very delicate interplay between the selected polarization method and the chosen exchange-correlation functional. This interplay originates in the different descriptions of the transition and ground/excited state multipolar moments by the different functionals. As a result, the choice of both the DFT functional and the solvent polarization scheme has to be consistent with the nature of the studied electronic excitation.

  3. Assessment of time-dependent density functional theory with the restricted excitation space approximation for excited state calculations of large systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; George, Michael W.; Besley, Nicholas A.

    2018-06-01

    The restricted excitation subspace approximation is explored as a basis to reduce the memory storage required in linear response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is shown that excluding the core orbitals and up to 70% of the virtual orbitals in the construction of the excitation subspace does not result in significant changes in computed UV/vis spectra for large molecules. The reduced size of the excitation subspace greatly reduces the size of the subspace vectors that need to be stored when using the Davidson procedure to determine the eigenvalues of the TDDFT equations. Furthermore, additional screening of the two-electron integrals in combination with a reduction in the size of the numerical integration grid used in the TDDFT calculation leads to significant computational savings. The use of these approximations represents a simple approach to extend TDDFT to the study of large systems and make the calculations increasingly tractable using modest computing resources.

  4. Search for excited leptons in the data of the H1 experiment at the HERA collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delerue, N.

    2002-09-01

    Composite models are one of the possible extensions of the Standard Model. One of their implications, at the energy in the reach of present particles accelerators, would be the excitation of leptons. This PhD. thesis describes the search for excited leptons with the H1 detector installed on the electron-proton collider HERA in Hamburg (Germany). The data used were accumulated between 1994 and 2000 and amount to an integrated luminosity of 120 pb -1 . The analysis of 6 different topologies were done and cover all the branching ratios of desexcitation of excited electron and neutrino. The numbers of candidates found during those analysis is in agreement with the Standard Model expectations. This means that no evidence of excited leptons production was found at HERA. This result was translated in the form of exclusion limits on the coupling of excited leptons (f/A) depending on the mass of the excited lepton. For the first time at HERA we addressed the case were the natural decay width of the excited neutrino is wider than the experimental resolution. For the first time also, a study of the variation of limit depending on the ratio f' / f was carried out. This study lead to the setting of limits independent of this ratio. The limits obtained extend results previously obtained at HERA and also the results of direct searches at LEP. (orig.)

  5. Measurement and analysis of excitation functions in 16O + 103Rh system in the excitation energy range ≅ 2-4 MeV/A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Devendra P.; Unnati; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, B.P.; Prasad, R.; Gupta, Sunita; Rakesh Kumar; Bhardwaj, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, excitation functions for seven evaporation residues (ERs) produced via complete fusion and incomplete fusion processes in 16 O + 103 Rh system have been measured in the energy range ≅ 47-85 MeV, using recoil catcher technique followed by off-line gamma-ray spectrometry. Comparison of the experimental data with statistical model based computer code PACE 2 revealed dominance of incomplete fusion in reactions involving alpha-emission channels. To the best of our knowledge these reactions are being reported for the first time

  6. Obtaining Hartree-Fock and density functional theory doubly excited states with Car-Parrinello density matrix search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenkel; Isborn, Christine M.; Li, Xiaosong

    2009-11-01

    The calculation of doubly excited states is one of the major problems plaguing the modern day excited state workhorse methodology of linear response time dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and density function theory (TDDFT). We have previously shown that the use of a resonantly tuned field within real-time TDHF and TDDFT is able to simultaneously excite both the α and β electrons to achieve the two-electron excited states of minimal basis H2 and HeH+ [C. M. Isborn and X. Li, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 204107 (2008)]. We now extend this method to many electron systems with the use of our Car-Parrinello density matrix search (CP-DMS) with a first-principles fictitious mass method for wave function optimization [X. Li, C. L. Moss, W. Liang, and Y. Feng, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 234115 (2009)]. Real-time TDHF/TDDFT is used during the application of the laser field perturbation, driving the electron density toward the doubly excited state. The CP-DMS method then converges the density to the nearest stationary state. We present these stationary state doubly excited state energies and properties at the HF and DFT levels for H2, HeH+, lithium hydride, ethylene, and butadiene.

  7. Molecular Excitation Energies from Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Employing Random-Phase Approximation Hessians with Exact Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heßelmann, Andreas

    2015-04-14

    Molecular excitation energies have been calculated with time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) using random-phase approximation Hessians augmented with exact exchange contributions in various orders. It has been observed that this approach yields fairly accurate local valence excitations if combined with accurate asymptotically corrected exchange-correlation potentials used in the ground-state Kohn-Sham calculations. The inclusion of long-range particle-particle with hole-hole interactions in the kernel leads to errors of 0.14 eV only for the lowest excitations of a selection of three alkene, three carbonyl, and five azabenzene molecules, thus surpassing the accuracy of a number of common TDDFT and even some wave function correlation methods. In the case of long-range charge-transfer excitations, the method typically underestimates accurate reference excitation energies by 8% on average, which is better than with standard hybrid-GGA functionals but worse compared to range-separated functional approximations.

  8. Probing wavenumbers of current-induced excitations in point-contact experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Wei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Z Wei, M TsoiDepartment of Physics, Center for Nano and Molecular Science and Technology, and Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USAAbstract: We demonstrate how a mechanical point-contact technique can provide information on the wavenumber of spin waves excited by high-density electrical current in magnetic multilayers. By varying the size of point-contacts, we have been able to control the size of the excitation volume and therefore the wavelength of current-induced spin waves. This leads to a technique with in situ sensitivity to wavenumbers of current-induced excitations. Our detailed size-dependent measurements support the prediction that the excited wavelength is determined by the contact size.Keywords: spin transfer torque, giant magnetoresistance, spin waves, point contact

  9. Textile Electrodes Embedded in Clothing: A Practical Alternative to Traditional Surface Electromyography when Assessing Muscle Excitation during Functional Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi L. Colyer, Polly M. McGuigan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Textile electromyography (EMG electrodes embedded in clothing allow muscle excitation to be recorded in previously inaccessible settings; however, their ability to accurately and reliably measure EMG during dynamic tasks remains largely unexplored. To quantify the validity and reliability of textile electrodes, 16 recreationally active males completed two identical testing sessions, within which three functional movements (run, cycle and squat were performed twice: once wearing EMG shorts (measuring quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteals myoelectric activity and once with surface EMG electrodes attached to the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus. EMG signals were identically processed to provide average rectified EMG (normalized to walking and excitation length. Results were compared across measurement systems and demonstrated good agreement between the magnitude of muscle excitation when EMG activity was lower, but agreement was poorer when excitation was higher. The length of excitation bursts was consistently longer when measured using textile vs. surface EMG electrodes. Comparable between-session (day-to-day repeatability was found for average rectified EMG (mean coefficient of variation, CV: 42.6 and 41.2% and excitation length (CV: 12.9 and 9.8% when using textile and surface EMG, respectively. Additionally, similar within-session repeatability (CV was recorded for average rectified EMG (13.8 and 14.1% and excitation length (13.0 and 12.7% for textile and surface electrodes, respectively. Generally, textile EMG electrodes appear to be capable of providing comparable muscle excitation information and reproducibility to surface EMG during dynamic tasks. Textile EMG shorts could therefore be a practical alternative to traditional laboratory-based methods allowing muscle excitation information to be collected in more externally-valid training environments.

  10. A study of excitation functions for the radio-active isotopes produced by α-induced reactions in gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.P.; Prasad, R.; Bhardwaj, H.D.

    1992-04-01

    Excitation functions for the reactions 197 Au(α,xn) 201-x Tl(x=1-4) have been measured in the energy range approx. 30-60 MeV using stacked foil technique. Ge(Li) gamma ray spectroscopy has been used for the analysis of irradiated samples. Excitation functions have also been calculated theoretically using two different computer codes (ACT and ALICE) with and without the inclusion of pre-equilibrium emission. As expected inclusion of pre-equilibrium emission to the compound nucleon calculations agree well with the experimentally measured excitation functions. An interesting trend in pre-equilibrium fraction with energy has been observed. (author). 33 refs, 6 figs

  11. Analysis of the excitation functions for 3He- and α-induced reactions on 107Ag and 109Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaelides, P.

    1976-06-01

    Excitation functions of 32 3 He- and α-induced nuclear reactions on 107 Ag and 109 Ag have been measured. The incident projectile energies ranged from 10 to 40 MeV for the 3 He-ions and 10 to 100 MeV for the α-particles. The recoil range of some 3 He-induced reaction products and the isomeric ratio values indicate the predominance of a precompound-compound nucleous mechanism. The experimental cross sections were compared with the excitation functions calculated on the basis of the compound nucleus and hybrid models. Using the values n 0 ( 3 He) = 5 and n 0 (α) = 4 for the initial exciton number and a = A/12.5 for the level density parameter a satisfactory reproduction of the experimental results for the α-induced reactions was achieved, whereas the calculated excitation functions for the 3 He-induced reactions are about a factor of two higher. (orig.) [de

  12. Gentlest ascent dynamics for calculating first excited state and exploring energy landscape of Kohn-Sham density functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Lu, Jianfeng; Yang, Weitao

    2015-12-14

    We develop the gentlest ascent dynamics for Kohn-Sham density functional theory to search for the index-1 saddle points on the energy landscape of the Kohn-Sham density functionals. These stationary solutions correspond to excited states in the ground state functionals. As shown by various examples, the first excited states of many chemical systems are given by these index-1 saddle points. Our novel approach provides an alternative, more robust way to obtain these excited states, compared with the widely used ΔSCF approach. The method can be easily generalized to target higher index saddle points. Our results also reveal the physical interest and relevance of studying the Kohn-Sham energy landscape.

  13. Linear interpolation method in ensemble Kohn-Sham and range-separated density-functional approximations for excited states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senjean, Bruno; Knecht, Stefan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa

    2015-01-01

    Gross-Oliveira-Kohn density-functional theory (GOK-DFT) for ensembles is, in principle, very attractive but has been hard to use in practice. A practical model based on GOK-DFT for the calculation of electronic excitation energies is discussed. The model relies on two modifications of GOK-DFT: use...... promising results have been obtained for both single (including charge transfer) and double excitations with spin-independent short-range local and semilocal functionals. Even at the Kohn-Sham ensemble DFT level, which is recovered when the range-separation parameter is set to 0, LIM performs better than...

  14. Influence of Exchange-Correlation Functional in the Calculations of Vertical Excitation Energies of Halogenated Copper Phthalocyanines using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Uck

    2013-01-01

    The accurate prediction of vertical excitation energies is very important for the development of new materials in the dye and pigment industry. A time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) approach coupled with 22 different exchange-correlation functionals was used for the prediction of vertical excitation energies in the halogenated copper phthalocyanine molecules in order to find the most appropriate functional and to determine the accuracy of the prediction of the absorption wavelength and observed spectral shifts. Among the tested functional, B3LYP functional provides much more accurate vertical excitation energies and UV-vis spectra. Our results clearly provide a benchmark calibration of the TD-DFT method for phthalocyanine based dyes and pigments used in industry

  15. Using Brain Oscillations and Corticospinal Excitability to Understand and Predict Post-Stroke Motor Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Thibaut

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What determines motor recovery in stroke is still unknown and finding markers that could predict and improve stroke recovery is a challenge. In this study, we aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms of motor function recovery after stroke using neurophysiological markers by means of cortical excitability (transcranial magnetic stimulation—TMS and brain oscillations (electroencephalography—EEG. In this cross-sectional study, 55 subjects with chronic stroke (62 ± 14 yo, 17 women, 32 ± 42 months post-stroke were recruited in two sites. We analyzed TMS measures (i.e., motor threshold—MT—of the affected and unaffected sides and EEG variables (i.e., power spectrum in different frequency bands and different brain regions of the affected and unaffected hemispheres and their correlation with motor impairment as measured by Fugl-Meyer. Multiple univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of good motor function. A significant interaction effect of MT in the affected hemisphere and power in beta bandwidth over the central region for both affected and unaffected hemispheres was found. We identified that motor function positively correlates with beta rhythm over the central region of the unaffected hemisphere, while it negatively correlates with beta rhythm in the affected hemisphere. Our results suggest that cortical activity in the affected and unaffected hemisphere measured by EEG provides new insights on the association between high-frequency rhythms and motor impairment, highlighting the role of an excess of beta in the affected central cortical region in poor motor function in stroke recovery.

  16. Structure and conformational dynamics of molecules in the excited electronic states: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godunov, I.A.; Bataev, V.A.; Maslov, D.V.; Yakovlev, N.N.

    2017-01-01

    The structure of conformational non-rigid molecules in the excited electronic states are investigated by joint theoretical and experimental methods. The theoretical part of work consist of two stages. In first stage the ab initio quantum-chemical calculations are carried out using high level methods. In second stage the vibrational problems of the various dimensions are solved by variational method for vibrations of large amplitude. In experimental part of work the vibronic spectra are investigated: gas-phase absorption and also, fluorescence excitation spectra of jet-cooled molecules. Some examples are considered.

  17. Characterization of scintillating CaWO{sub 4} crystals for the CRESST experiment using two-photon excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampf, Raphael; Dandl, Thomas; Muenster, Andrea; Oberauer, Lothar; Roth, Sabine; Schoenert, Stefan; Ulrich, Andreas [Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the CRESST experiment for direct dark matter search, phonon and photon signals from cryogenic CaWO{sub 4} crystals are used to search for WIMP-induced nuclear recoil events. We present a novel table-top setup in which the scintillation of CaWO{sub 4} is induced by 0.7 ns laser pulses of 355 nm wavelength. The excitation occurs via two-photon absorption in the bulk material. The scintillation light is observed by time resolved optical spectroscopy. By varying the focusing of the laser-beam the excitation density can be made high enough to study quenching effects due to exciton-exciton annihilation. This allows to perform experiments to test models for the quenching factors of different ionizing projectiles in CaWO{sub 4} which are used to identify these projectiles on an event by event basis.

  18. Combining extrapolation with ghost interaction correction in range-separated ensemble density functional theory for excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md. Mehboob; Deur, Killian; Knecht, Stefan; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    The extrapolation technique of Savin [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A509 (2014)], which was initially applied to range-separated ground-state-density-functional Hamiltonians, is adapted in this work to ghost-interaction-corrected (GIC) range-separated ensemble density-functional theory (eDFT) for excited states. While standard extrapolations rely on energies that decay as μ-2 in the large range-separation-parameter μ limit, we show analytically that (approximate) range-separated GIC ensemble energies converge more rapidly (as μ-3) towards their pure wavefunction theory values (μ → +∞ limit), thus requiring a different extrapolation correction. The purpose of such a correction is to further improve on the convergence and, consequently, to obtain more accurate excitation energies for a finite (and, in practice, relatively small) μ value. As a proof of concept, we apply the extrapolation method to He and small molecular systems (viz., H2, HeH+, and LiH), thus considering different types of excitations such as Rydberg, charge transfer, and double excitations. Potential energy profiles of the first three and four singlet Σ+ excitation energies in HeH+ and H2, respectively, are studied with a particular focus on avoided crossings for the latter. Finally, the extraction of individual state energies from the ensemble energy is discussed in the context of range-separated eDFT, as a perspective.

  19. Fourier analysis of nonself-averaging quasiperiodic oscillations in the excitation functions of dissipative heavy-ion collisions: quantum chaos in dissipative heavy-ion collisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, S.Yu.; Australian Nat. Univ., Canberra; Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT

    1997-01-01

    We employ stochastic modelling of statistical reactions with memory to study quasiperiodic oscillations in the excitation functions of dissipative heavy-ion collisions. The Fourier analysis of excitation function oscillations is presented. It suggests that S-matrix spin and parity decoherence, damping of the coherent nuclear rotation and quantum chaos are sufficient conditions to explain the nonself-averaging of quasiperiodic oscillations in the excitation functions of dissipative heavy-ion collisions. (orig.)

  20. Description of excitations in odd nonmagic nuclei by the Green's function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeenkov, A.V.; Kamerdzhiev, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    General equations for single-particle Green's functions in nonmagic nuclei have been derived. A pairing mechanism similar to the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer mechanism is singled out explicitly in these equations. A refining procedure for phenomenological single-particle energies and for the gap has been developed to avoid doubly taking into account mixing with phonons for the situation in which the input data for the problem in question are formulated in terms of these phenomenological quantities. The resulting general equations are written within the second-order approximation in the phonon-creation amplitude. This corresponds to taking into account quasiparticle(multiply-in-circle sign)phonon configuration and is shown to be a fairly good approximation for semimagic nuclei. A secular equation for calculating excitations in odd nuclei that takes fully into account ground-state correlations and which is invariant under the reversal of the sign of the energy variable has been derived in this approximation. Distributions of single-particle strengths have been computed for 119 Sn and 121 Sn. Reasonably good agreement with available experimental data has been obtained

  1. Evaluation of Complete Fusion Excitation Functions for 42≤ZpZT≤2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Haydari, A.; Abdelghany, A.A.; Hassan, G. S.

    2011-01-01

    For fusion channels, there are two main parameters, namely the separating distance of the two colliding nuclei and the fusion barrier, which are aken as the more interest points guiding to fit the excitation functions of fusion. Interpretations and differentiations are made on different forms to deduce all concerned variables. On the other hand, the maximum values of angular momentum 1 m ax , represents the upper limit of summing all the partial parts for fusion cross section The effect of that limiting value as well as the effects of the two main parameters are checked along iwde range of energies for different heavy ion reacting pairs in comparison with the more recently measured data for sub-barrier and complete fusion channels . Also comparisons with both 1 f us and 1 c r, taken as limiting values were displayed. The effect of the nuclear part of the barrier height and approximation techniques have been checked point out the highly differentiated ones .parameterization that could be made on the imperical forms, are also displayed and tested.

  2. High-sensitivity measurements of the excitation function for Bhabha scattering at MeV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsertos, H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Armbruster, P.; Kienle, P.; Krusche, B.; Schreckenbach, K.

    1989-02-01

    Using a monochromatic e + beam scattered on a Be foil and a high-resolution detector device, the excitation function for elastic e + e - scattering was measured with a statistical accuracy of 0.25% in 1.4 keV steps in the c.m.-energy range between 770 keV and 840 keV (1.79 - 1.86 MeV/c 2 ) at c.m. scattering angles between 80 0 and 100 0 (FWHM). Within the experimental sensitivity of 0.5 b.eV/sr (c.m.) for the energy-integrated differential cross section no resonances were observed (97% CL). From this limit we infer that a hypothetical spinless resonant state should have a width of less than 1.9 meV corresponding to a lifetime limit of 3.5x10 -13 s. This limit establishes the most stringent bound for new particles in this mass range derived from Bhabha scattering and is independent of assumptions about the internal structure of the hypothetical particles. Less sensitivite limits were, in addition, derived around 520 keV c.m. energy (≅ 1.54 MeV/c 2 ) from an investigation with a thorium and a mylar foil as scatterers. (orig.)

  3. A Preliminary Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study of Cortical Inhibition and Excitability in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G.; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Controversy surrounds the distinction between high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder, but motor abnormalities are associated features of both conditions. This study examined motor cortical inhibition and excitability in HFA and Asperger disorder using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Method: Participants were diagnosed by…

  4. Studying the excitation function of the full cross section of a reaction using a modified transmission technique: Initial results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobolev, Yuri, G.; Penionyhkevich, Y. E.; Borcha, K.; Ivanov, M. P.; Kugler, Andrej; Kulko, A. A.; Kroha, Václav; Maslov, V. A.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Negret, A.; Rvenko, R. V.; Savrov, Ya. Yu.; Skobelev, N. K.; Trzaska, V. G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 8 (2012), s. 952-957 ISSN 1062-8738 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08002 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cross sections * excitation functions * radioactive beams Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  5. The 90deg excitation function for elastic 12C+12C scattering. The importance of Airy elephants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVoy, K.W.; Brandan, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The 90deg excitation function for elastic 12 C+ 12 C scattering, at laboratory energies between the Coulomb barrier and 130 MeV, exhibits a complex structure of peaks and valleys whose nature has remained an unsolved mystery for more than 20 years. The problem has primarily been caused by the difficulty of choosing from a plethora of discretely ambiguous optical potentials. However, data accumulated above 150 MeV over the last decade have determined unique potentials at these higher energies, and the requirement of continuity downward in energy has recently permitted the determination of a unique set of potentials for angular distributions at energies below 130 MeV, where the excitation-function data exist. These new potentials are used to provide a mean-field (i.e., nonresonant) interpretation of the structure in the 12 C+ 12 C 90deg excitation function between 70 and 130 MeV. Its most prominent minima are found to be Airy minima from nuclear rainbows, with the remaining structure arising primarily from more elementary optical phenomena related to Fraunhofer diffraction. These same potentials are also successful in explaining the details of excitation functions measured very recently at other angles by Morsad. (orig.)

  6. Positive streamers in air of varying density : experiments on the scaling of the excitation density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubrovin, D.; Nijdam, S.; Clevis, T.T.J.; Heijmans, L.C.J.; Ebert, U.; Yair, Y.; Price, C.

    2015-01-01

    Streamers are rapidly extending ionized finger-like structures that dominate the initial breakdown of large gas volumes in the presence of a sufficiently strong electric field. Their macroscopic parameters are described by simple scaling relations, where the densities of electrons and of excited

  7. Methodological principles for optimising functional MRI experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenberg, T.; Giesel, F.L.; Strasburger, H.

    2005-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the most common methods for localising neuronal activity in the brain. Even though the sensitivity of fMRI is comparatively low, the optimisation of certain experimental parameters allows obtaining reliable results. In this article, approaches for optimising the experimental design, imaging parameters and analytic strategies will be discussed. Clinical neuroscientists and interested physicians will receive practical rules of thumb for improving the efficiency of brain imaging experiments. (orig.) [de

  8. Testing an excited-state energy density functional and the associated potential with the ionization potential theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemanadhan, M; Shamim, Md; Harbola, Manoj K

    2014-01-01

    The modified local spin density (MLSD) functional and the related local potential for excited states is tested by employing the ionization potential theorem. The exchange functional for an excited state is constructed by splitting k-space. Since its functional derivative cannot be obtained easily, the corresponding exchange potential is given by an analogy to its ground-state counterpart. Further, to calculate the highest occupied orbital energy ϵ max accurately, the potential is corrected for its asymptotic behaviour by employing the van Leeuwen and Baerends (LB) correction to it. ϵ max so obtained is then compared with the ΔSCF ionization energy calculated using the MLSD functional with self-interaction correction for the orbitals involved in the transition. It is shown that the two match quite accurately. The match becomes even better by tuning the LB correction with respect to a parameter in it. (paper)

  9. Quasi-particle excitations and dynamical structure function of trapped Bose-condensates in the WKB approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Csordás, András; Graham, Robert; Szépfalusy, Péter

    1997-01-01

    The Bogoliubov equations of the quasi-particle excitations in a weakly interacting trapped Bose-condensate are solved in the WKB approximation in an isotropic harmonic trap, determining the discrete quasi-particle energies and wave functions by torus (Bohr-Sommerfeld) quantization of the integrable classical quasi-particle dynamics. The results are used to calculate the position and strengths of the peaks in the dynamic structure function which can be observed by off-resonance inelastic light...

  10. Excited states of ReO4-: A comprehensive time-dependent relativistic density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenhua; Ma, Jianyi; Peng, Daoling; Zou, Wenli; Liu, Wenjian; Staemmler, Volker

    2009-02-01

    The perrhenate anion, ReO4-, is taken as a showcase of heavy transition metal complexes, to examine the performance of time-dependent relativistic density functional linear response theory for electronic excitations, which is based on a newly proposed exact two-component Hamiltonian resulting from the symmetrized elimination of the small component. In total 30 scalar and 63 spinor excited states are investigated and the results are grossly in good agreement with those by the singles and doubles coupled-cluster linear response theory. It is found that only a few scalar states of 3T1 and 3T2 symmetries are split significantly by the spin-orbit coupling, whereas only those excited states involving the Rydberg-type virtual orbital are affected by the solvent effects. The nature of the optical absorption spectra is also highlighted.

  11. Excited states of ReO4-: A comprehensive time-dependent relativistic density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wenhua; Ma Jianyi; Peng Daoling; Zou Wenli; Liu Wenjian; Staemmler, Volker

    2009-01-01

    The perrhenate anion, ReO 4 - , is taken as a showcase of heavy transition metal complexes, to examine the performance of time-dependent relativistic density functional linear response theory for electronic excitations, which is based on a newly proposed exact two-component Hamiltonian resulting from the symmetrized elimination of the small component. In total 30 scalar and 63 spinor excited states are investigated and the results are grossly in good agreement with those by the singles and doubles coupled-cluster linear response theory. It is found that only a few scalar states of 3 T 1 and 3 T 2 symmetries are split significantly by the spin-orbit coupling, whereas only those excited states involving the Rydberg-type virtual orbital are affected by the solvent effects. The nature of the optical absorption spectra is also highlighted

  12. (e, 2e) ionization-excitation experiment with fixed-in-space H2 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Watanabe, N.; Khajuria, Y.; Udagawa, Y.; Eland, J.H.D.

    2005-01-01

    This report will introduce an electron-electron-fragment ion triple coincidence spectrometer to the readers with our recent collision dynamics study on ionization-excitation processes of the hydrogen molecule. Following a description of the working principle of the spectrometer, results of the study will be discussed; this includes molecular frame (e, 2e) cross sections that have been observed for the first time. (author)

  13. Femtosecond laser excitation of dielectric materials: experiments and modeling of optical properties and ablation depths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Frislev, Martin Thomas; Balling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of the interaction between a dielec- tric material and ultrashort laser pulses provides the tem- poral evolution of the electronic excitation and the optical properties of the dielectric. Experimentally determined re- flectances and ablation depths for sapphire are compared...... to the calculations. A decrease in reflectance at high fluences is observed experimentally, which demonstrates the neces- sity of a temperature-dependent electron scattering rate in the model. The comparison thus provides new constraints on the optical parameters of the model....

  14. Evaluation of the excitation function for the dosimetry reaction La-139(n,g)La-140

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotarev, K.

    1997-01-01

    The activation detectors on the basis of La-139(n,g)La-140 reaction are used very often in the reactor dosimetry for determination of thermal and epithermal components of neutron spectra. At present, the cross section data for this reaction are absent in the IRDF-90 ver.2 file and in the national dosimetry files such as ENDF/B-VI Dosimetry File and JENDL-3.2 Dosimetry File. The evaluation of the La-139(n,g)La-140 reaction excitation function for the Russian Reactor Dosimetry File (RRDF-96) was carried out in the energy region 1.000E-05 eV - 20 MeV. The capture cross section in the energy range from 0.00001 eV to 160 keV is given through the evaluated MLBW resolved and unresolved resonance parameters. Small background cross section was added in the resolved resonance region for taking into account the non-statistical reaction mechanism contribution. Data for En=160 keV - 1.2 MeV were obtained from evaluated average parameters in the unresolved resonance region with taking into account the competition with the neutron inelastic channels. The La-139 radiative capture cross section between 1.2 MeV and 7.6 MeV was evaluated by means of statistical analysis of the experimental data. Above 7.6 MeV the data fit was joint to the theoretical capture cross sections calculated between 7.6 and 20 MeV. Theoretical results were normalized to the evaluated value obtained from analysis experimental data at En= 14.4 - 14.8 MeV. The results of the present evaluation were compared with the ENDF/B-VI cross section data and the recommended values of resonance integral and capture cross section at En=0.0253 eV. (author)

  15. Altered neuronal excitability underlies impaired hippocampal function in an animal model of psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eGrüter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychosis is accompanied by severe attentional deficits, and impairments in associational-memory processing and sensory information processing that are ascribed to dysfunctions in prefrontal and hippocampal function. Disruptions of glutamatergic signalling may underlie these alterations: Antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR results in similar molecular, cellular, cognitive and behavioural changes in rodents and/or humans as those that occur in psychosis, raising the question as to whether changes in glutamatergic transmission may be intrinsic to the pathophysiology of the disease. In an animal model of psychosis that comprises treatment with the irreversible NMDAR-antagonist, MK801, we explored the cellular mechanisms that may underlie hippocampal dysfunction in psychosis. MK801-treatment resulted in a profound loss of hippocampal LTP that was evident 4 weeks after treatment. Whereas neuronal expression of the immediate early gene, Arc, was enhanced in the hippocampus by spatial learning in controls, MK801-treated animals failed to show activity-dependent increases in Arc expression. By contrast, a significant increase in basal Arc expression in the absence of learning was evident compared to controls. Paired-pulse facilitation was increased at the 40 ms interval indicating that NMDAR and/or fast GABAergic-mediated neurotransmission was disrupted. In line with this, MK801-treatment resulted in a significant decrease in GABA(A, and increase in GABA(B-receptor-expression in PFC, along with a significant increase of GABA(B- and NMDAR-GluN2B expression in the dentate gyrus. NMDAR-GluN1 or GluN2A subunit expression was unchanged. These data suggest that in psychosis, deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory may be caused by a loss of hippocampal LTP that arises through enhanced hippocampal neuronal excitability, altered GluN2B and GABA receptor expression and an uncoupling of the hippocampus-prefrontal cortex circuitry.

  16. The physiological basis of Glottal electromagnetic micropower sensors (GEMS) and their use in defining an excitation function for the human vocal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Gregory Clell

    1999-10-01

    The definition, use, and physiological basis of Glottal Electromagnetic Micropower Sensors (GEMS) is presented. These sensors are a new type of low power (excitation function for the human vocal tract. For the first time, an excitation function may be calculated in near real time using a noninvasive procedure. Several experiments and models are presented to demonstrate that the GEMS signal is representative of the motion of the subglottal posterior wall of the trachea as it vibrates in response to the pressure changes caused by the folds as they modulate the airflow supplied by the lungs. The vibrational properties of the tracheal wall are modeled using a lumped-element circuit model. Taking the output of the vocal tract to be the audio pressure captured by a microphone and the input to be the subglottal pressure, the transfer function of the vocal tract (including the nasal cavities) can be approximated every 10-30 milliseconds using an autoregressive moving-average model. Unlike the currently utilized method of transfer function approximation, this new method only involves noninvasive GEMS measurements and digital signal processing and does not demand the difficult task of obtaining precise physical measurements of the tract and subsequent estimation of the transfer function using its cross-sectional area. The ability to measure the physical motion of the trachea enables a significant number of potential applications, ranging from very accurate pitch detection to speech synthesis, speaker verification, and speech recognition.

  17. Excited states in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cilento, G.; Zinner, K.; Bechara, E.J.H.; Duran, N.; Baptista, R.C. de; Shimizu, Y.; Augusto, O.; Faljoni-Alario, A.; Vidigal, C.C.C.; Oliveira, O.M.M.F.; Haun, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some aspects of bioluminescence related to bioenergetics are discussed: 1. chemical generation of excited species, by means of two general processes: electron transference and cyclic - and linear peroxide cleavage; 2. biological systems capable of generating excited states and 3. biological functions of these states, specially the non-emissive ones (tripletes). The production and the role of non-emissive excited states in biological systems are analysed, the main purpose of the study being the search for non-emissive states. Experiences carried out in biological systems are described; results and conclusions are given. (M.A.) [pt

  18. Study of excitation energy sharing in heavy ion collisions as a function of their inelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, B.

    1986-01-01

    The excitation energy sharing between the fragments of a heavy ion collision has been studied for quasi-elastic and deep inelastic mechanisms. A 32 S beam of 232 MeV incident energy has been used to bombard several targets (S, 58 Ni, 93 Nb). The evaporated charged particle multiplicities have been measured by inclusive measurements of the projectile-like nuclei and exclusive measurements of the two final nuclei. Evaporation calculations using the Hauser-Feshbach formalism allows us to deduce from the multiplicity measurements the projectile-like excitation energy. These results are compatible with the assumption of an equal sharing of excitation energies for quasi-elastic reaction products, and with the assumption of a mass ratio sharing for fully relaxed reaction products. Limiting values for the relaxation time of this mode have been deduced and are in agreement with predictions from the model developed by Randrup [fr

  19. Nonlinear electronic excitations in crystalline solids using meta-generalized gradient approximation and hybrid functional in time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shunsuke A. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Taniguchi, Yasutaka [Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Department of Medical and General Sciences, Nihon Institute of Medical Science, 1276 Shimogawara, Moroyama-Machi, Iruma-Gun, Saitama 350-0435 (Japan); Shinohara, Yasushi [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, 06120 Halle (Germany); Yabana, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan)

    2015-12-14

    We develop methods to calculate electron dynamics in crystalline solids in real-time time-dependent density functional theory employing exchange-correlation potentials which reproduce band gap energies of dielectrics; a meta-generalized gradient approximation was proposed by Tran and Blaha [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 226401 (2009)] (TBm-BJ) and a hybrid functional was proposed by Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof [J. Chem. Phys. 118, 8207 (2003)] (HSE). In time evolution calculations employing the TB-mBJ potential, we have found it necessary to adopt the predictor-corrector step for a stable time evolution. We have developed a method to evaluate electronic excitation energy without referring to the energy functional which is unknown for the TB-mBJ potential. For the HSE functional, we have developed a method for the operation of the Fock-like term in Fourier space to facilitate efficient use of massive parallel computers equipped with graphic processing units. We compare electronic excitations in silicon and germanium induced by femtosecond laser pulses using the TB-mBJ, HSE, and a simple local density approximation (LDA). At low laser intensities, electronic excitations are found to be sensitive to the band gap energy: they are close to each other using TB-mBJ and HSE and are much smaller in LDA. At high laser intensities close to the damage threshold, electronic excitation energies do not differ much among the three cases.

  20. Natural excitation orbitals from linear response theories : Time-dependent density functional theory, time-dependent Hartree-Fock, and time-dependent natural orbital functional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meer, R.; Gritsenko, O. V.; Baerends, E. J.

    2017-01-01

    Straightforward interpretation of excitations is possible if they can be described as simple single orbital-to-orbital (or double, etc.) transitions. In linear response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TDDFT), the (ground state) Kohn-Sham orbitals prove to be such an orbital basis. In

  1. Product state resolved excitation spectroscopy of He-, Ne-, and Ar-Br2 linear isomers: experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, Jordan M; van der Veer, Wytze E; Bieler, Craig R; Janda, Kenneth C

    2008-04-07

    Valence excitation spectra for the linear isomers of He-, Ne-, and Ar-Br2 are reported and compared to a two-dimensional simulation using the currently available potential energy surfaces. Excitation spectra from the ground electronic state to the region of the inner turning point of the Rg-Br2 (B,nu') stretching coordinate are recorded while probing the asymptotic Br2 (B,nu') state. Each spectrum is a broad continuum extending over hundreds of wavenumbers, becoming broader and more blueshifted as the rare gas atom is changed from He to Ne to Ar. In the case of Ne-Br2, the threshold for producing the asymptotic product state reveals the X-state linear isomer bond energy to be 71+/-3 cm(-1). The qualitative agreement between experiment and theory shows that the spectra can be correctly regarded as revealing the one-atom solvent shifts and also provides new insight into the one-atom cage effect on the halogen vibrational relaxation. The measured spectra provide data to test future ab initio potential energy surfaces in the interaction of rare gas atoms with the halogen valence excited state.

  2. Excitation of autoionizing states of helium by 100 keV proton impact: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godunov, A.L.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.

    1997-01-01

    A joint theoretical and experimental study of the excitation of the autoionizing (2s 2 ) 1 S, (2p 2 ) 1 D and (2s2p) 1 P states of helium by 100 keV proton impact is presented for the first time. The role of the three-body Coulomb interaction in the final state between the ejected electron, the scattered proton and the recoil helium ion is emphasized. Calculations have been carried out with inclusion of the three-body Coulomb interaction and within an expansion of a two-electron excitation amplitude in powers of projectile-target interaction up to the second order. A new parametrization is proposed to describe resonance profiles distorted by the Coulomb interaction in the final state (CIFS). New high-resolution (up to 68 meV) measurements of electron emission spectra made it possible to resolve the near-lying (2p 2 ) 1 D and (2s2p) 1 P resonances and reveal an evident distortion of the resonance profiles by CIFS for forward electron ejection angles below 40 o . (author)

  3. Excitation of autoionizing states of helium by 100 keV proton impact: theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godunov, A.L.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Laboratoire Collisions, Agregats, Reactivite; Schipakov, V.A. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-14

    A joint theoretical and experimental study of the excitation of the autoionizing (2s{sup 2}){sup 1}S, (2p{sup 2}){sup 1}D and (2s2p){sup 1}P states of helium by 100 keV proton impact is presented for the first time. The role of the three-body Coulomb interaction in the final state between the ejected electron, the scattered proton and the recoil helium ion is emphasized. Calculations have been carried out with inclusion of the three-body Coulomb interaction and within an expansion of a two-electron excitation amplitude in powers of projectile-target interaction up to the second order. A new parametrization is proposed to describe resonance profiles distorted by the Coulomb interaction in the final state (CIFS). New high-resolution (up to 68 meV) measurements of electron emission spectra made it possible to resolve the near-lying (2p{sup 2}){sup 1}D and (2s2p){sup 1}P resonances and reveal an evident distortion of the resonance profiles by CIFS for forward electron ejection angles below 40{sup o}. (author).

  4. Extension of the excitation functions of deuteron induced reactions on {sup nat}Sn up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A., E-mail: aherman@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B1050 Brussels (Belgium); Tárkányi, F.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-01-15

    Using the stacked-foil activation technique, cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions on natural Sn targets were determined up to 50 MeV. Excitation functions are reported for the product nuclides {sup 116m}Sb, {sup 117}Sb, {sup 118m}Sb, {sup 120m}Sb {sup 122m+g}Sb, {sup 124m+g}Sb, {sup 110}Sn(cum), {sup 113m+g}Sn(cum), {sup 117m}Sn, {sup 110m}In(cum), {sup 110g}In, {sup 111m+g}In(cum), {sup 113m}In, {sup 114m}In {sup 115m}In. Comparison with earlier published data at lower energy is discussed. For all excitation functions a theoretical calculation using the TALYS 1.6 (on-line TENDL-2015 library) code is shown.

  5. Solvent effects on excited-state structures: A quantum Monte Carlo and density functional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guareschi, R.; Floris, F.M.; Amovilli, C.; Filippi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We present the first application of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) in its variational flavor combined with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) to perform excited-state geometry optimization in solution. Our implementation of the PCM model is based on a reaction field that includes both volume and

  6. Towards a unified description of light ion fusion cross section excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    A description of light heavy-ion fusion, taking into account both entrance-channel characteristics and compound-nucleus properties, is derived within a unified theory of nuclear reactions. The dependence of the imaginary fusion potential on the level density of the compound nucleus is revealed. The 12 C + 12 C, 12 C + 14 N, 10 B + 16 O and 16 O + 16 O fusion cross sections are calculated for E cm ≤ 120 MeV and compared with experimental data. The excitation energy dependence of the level-density parameter of 24 Mg, 26 Al and 32 S is inferred below 5 MeV/A. A realistic nuclear level-density model, describing the experimental level-density parameters of highly excited nuclei, is shown to be consistent with both the global features and details of the fusion cross section. 12 C + 12 C and 16 O + 16 O fusion cross section oscillations are predicted at large excitation energies, reflecting the structure of the level density of the highly excited light compound nuclei. Differences of the 12 C + 14 N and 10 B + 16 O fusion reaction mechanisms are discussed in terms of specific entrance-channel characteristics. (orig.)

  7. Towards a unified description of light ion fusion cross section excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, K.W.; Rebel, H.

    1994-10-01

    A description of light heavy-ion fusion, taking into account both entrace-channel characteristics and compound-nucleus properties, is derived within a unified theory of nuclear reactions. The dependence of the imaginary fusion potential on the level density of the compound nucleus is revealed. The 12 C+ 12 C, 12 C+ 14 N, 10 B+ 16 O and 16 O+ 16 O fusion cross sections are calculated for E cm ≤120 MeV and compared with experimental data. The excitation energy dependence of the level-density parameter of 24 Mg, 26 Al and 32 S is inferred below 5 MeV/A. A realistic nuclear level-density model, describing the experimental level-density parameters of highly excited nuclei, is shown to be consistent with both the global features and details of the fusion cross section. 12 C+ 12 C and 16 O+ 16 O fusion cross section oscillations are predicted at large excitation energies, reflecting the structure of the level density of the highly excited light compound nuclei. Differences of the 12 C+ 14 N and 10 B+ 16 O fusion reaction mechanisms are discussed in terms of specific entrance-channel characteristics. (orig.)

  8. Excitation function and isomeric ratio of Tc-isotopes from the 93Nb(α, xn) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Kim, G.N.; Naik, H.; Zaman, M.; Yang, S.-C.; Song, T.-Y.; Guin, R.; Das, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    The excitation functions of 94–96 Tc isotopes and independent isomeric ratios of 93m, g Tc, 94m, g Tc, and 95m, g Tc from the 93 Nb(α, xn) reaction within the energy range below 40 MeV have been determined by using a stacked-foil activation and an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkota, India. The excitation function of 94–96 Tc in the 93 Nb(α, xn) reaction was also calculated by using the computer code TALYS 1.6. The present data are found to be in general agreement with the literature data but have similar trend with some deviation from calculated data of the TALYS 1.6 code. The isomeric ratios of 93m, g Tc, 94m, g Tc, and 95m, g Tc in the 93 Nb(α, xn) reactions from the present work and literature data were compared with similar data in the 93 Nb( 3 He, xn) and 96 Mo(p, xn) reactions. In all the three reactions, the isomeric ratios increase with the increasing excitation energy. However, at all excitation energies, the isomeric ratios of 93m, g Tc, 94m, g Tc, and 95m, g Tc in the 93 Nb(α, xn) and 93 Nb( 3 He, xn) reactions are higher than those in the 96 Mo(p, xn) reactions, which indicate the role of input angular momentum besides excitation energy. Above the excitation energy of 35–55 MeV, the isomeric ratios of 95m, g Tc, 94m, g Tc, and 93m, g Tc decrease in all the 93 Nb(α, xn), 93 Nb( 3 He, xn) and 96 Mo(p, xn) reactions. This decreasing trend at higher excitation energy indicates the starting of pre-equilibrium reaction, which depends on the target, projectile, and type of reaction products

  9. Measurement and analysis of excitation functions and observation of mass-asymmetry effect on incomplete fusion dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid M.H.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Excitation functions for sixteen evaporation residues produced in the interaction of 20Ne with 165Ho have been measured in the projectile energy range ≈88-164 MeV, using catcher foil activation technique followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. It has been found in general that the excitation functions of evaporation residues produced via xn/pxn channels satisfactorily reproduced with the statistical model code PACE-2 after subtraction of precursor decay contribution. The significant enhancement in the measured excitation functions for the residues produced in alpha emission channels over the PACE-2 predictions has been observed. These alpha emission channels are attributed to incomplete fusion reaction process. The results indicate the occurrence of incomplete fusion involving break-up of projectile 20Ne into 4He + 16O and /or 8Be + 12C followed by fusion of one of the fragments with target nucleus 165Ho. The analysis of the present data suggest that probability of incomplete fusion increases with projectile energy. The ICF fraction FICF also increases with increasing mass-asymmetry of the entrance channel.

  10. Human otolith function, experiment M009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybiel, A.; Miller, E. F., II

    1971-01-01

    The experiments that were performed during the Gemini 5 and 7 missions resulted in quantitative information concerning otolithic function and orientation of four subjects exposed to an orbiting spacecraft environment for prolonged periods of time. Preflight counterrolling measurements revealed significant differences between crewmembers with regard to the basic magnitude of otolith response. However, after the flight, each crewmember maintained his respective preflight level of response. This was indicative that no significant change in otolithic sensitivity occurred as a result of the flight, or at least no change persisted long enough to be recorded several hours after recovery. The EVLH data recorded for each subject confirmed the observation that a coordinate space sense exists even in a weightless environment if contact cues are adequate. However, it was noted that the apparent location of the horizontal within the spacecraft may not agree necessarily with its physical correlate in the spacecraft.

  11. Inhomogeneous free-electron distribution in InN nanowires: Photoluminescence excitation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Ruiz, J.; Molina-Sánchez, A.; Garro, N.; García-Cristóbal, A.; Cantarero, A.; Iikawa, F.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2010-09-01

    Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra have been measured for a set of self-assembled InN nanowires (NWs) and a high-crystalline quality InN layer grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The PLE experimental lineshapes have been reproduced by a self-consistent calculation of the absorption in a cylindrical InN NW. The differences in the PLE spectra can be accounted for the inhomogeneous electron distribution within the NWs caused by a bulk donor concentration (ND+) and a two-dimensional density of ionized surface states (Nss+) . For NW radii larger than 30 nm, ND+ and Nss+ modify the absorption edge and the lineshape, respectively, and can be determined from the comparison with the experimental data.

  12. Theories and experiments on the stiffening effect of high-frequency excitation for continuous elastic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2003-01-01

    theories, each providing valuable insight. One of these is capable of predicting the vertical string lift due to stiffening in terms of simple expressions, with results that agree very well with experimental measurements for a wide range of conditions. It appears that resonance effects cannot be ignored...... for demonstrating and measuring the stiffening effect in a simple setting, in the form of a horizontal piano string subjected to longitudinal high-frequency excitation at the clamped base and free at the other end. A simplest possible theoretical model is set up and analyzed using a hierarchy of three approximating......, as was done in a few related studies¿¿unless the system has very low modal density or heavy damping; thus first-order consideration to resonance effects is included. Using the specific example with experimental support to put confidence on the proposed theory, expressions for predicting the stiffening effect...

  13. Improving Rydberg Excitations within Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory with Generalized Gradient Approximations: The Exchange-Enhancement-for-Large-Gradient Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaohong L; Truhlar, Donald G

    2015-07-14

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with conventional local and hybrid functionals such as the local and hybrid generalized gradient approximations (GGA) seriously underestimates the excitation energies of Rydberg states, which limits its usefulness for applications such as spectroscopy and photochemistry. We present here a scheme that modifies the exchange-enhancement factor to improve GGA functionals for Rydberg excitations within the TDDFT framework while retaining their accuracy for valence excitations and for the thermochemical energetics calculated by ground-state density functional theory. The scheme is applied to a popular hybrid GGA functional and tested on data sets of valence and Rydberg excitations and atomization energies, and the results are encouraging. The scheme is simple and flexible. It can be used to correct existing functionals, and it can also be used as a strategy for the development of new functionals.

  14. Two functions of early language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshavsky, Yuri I

    2009-05-01

    The unique human ability of linguistic communication, defined as the ability to produce a practically infinite number of meaningful messages using a finite number of lexical items, is determined by an array of "linguistic" genes, which are expressed in neurons forming domain-specific linguistic centers in the brain. In this review, I discuss the idea that infants' early language experience performs two complementary functions. In addition to allowing infants to assimilate the words and grammar rules of their mother language, early language experience initiates genetic programs underlying language production and comprehension. This hypothesis explains many puzzling characteristics of language acquisition, such as the existence of a critical period for acquiring the first language and the absence of a critical period for the acquisition of additional language(s), a similar timetable for language acquisition in children belonging to families of different social and cultural status, the strikingly similar timetables in the acquisition of oral and sign languages, and the surprisingly small correlation between individuals' final linguistic competence and the intensity of their training. Based on the studies of microcephalic individuals, I argue that genetic factors determine not only the number of neurons and organization of interneural connections within linguistic centers, but also the putative internal properties of neurons that are not limited to their electrophysiological and synaptic properties.

  15. Portable vibration exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, L. C.; Williams, F. T.

    1970-01-01

    Gas-driven vibration exciter produces a sinusoidal excitation function controllable in frequency and in amplitude. It allows direct vibration testing of components under normal loads, removing the possibility of component damage due to high static pressure.

  16. Hot functional test chemistry - long term experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonkova, K.; Kysela, J.; Marcinsky, M.; Martykan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary circuit materials undergo general corrosion in high temperature, deoxygenated, neutral or mildly alkaline solutions to form thin oxide films. These oxide layers (films) serve as protective film and mitigate the further corrosion of primary materials. Inner chromium-rich oxide layer has low cation diffusion coefficients and thus control iron and nickel transport from the metal surface to the outer layer and their dissolution into the coolant. Much less corrosion products are generated by the compact, integral and stable oxide (passivation) layer. For the latest Czech and Slovak stations commissioned (Temelin and Mochovce) a modified Hot Functional Test (HFT) chemistry was developed in the NRI Rez. Chromium rich surface layer formatted due to modified HTF chemistry ensures lower corrosion rates and radiation field formation and thus also mitigates crud formation during operation. This procedure was also designed to prepare the commissioned unit for the further proper water chemistry practise. Mochovce 1 (SK) was the first station commissioned using these recommendations in 1998. Mochovce 2 (1999) and Temelin 1 and 2 (CZ - 2000 and 2002) were subsequently commissioned using these guidelines too. The main principles of the controlled primary water chemistry applied during the hot functional tests are reviewed and importance of the water chemistry, technological and other relevant parameters is stressed regarding to the quality of the passive layer formed on the primary system surfaces. Samples from Mochovce indicated that duplex oxide layers up to 20 μm thick were produced, which were mainly magnetite substituted with nickel and chromium (e.g. 60-65% Fe, 18-28% Cr, 9-12% Ni, <1% Mn and 1-2% Si on a stainless steel primary circuit sample). Long term operation experience from both nuclear power plants are discussed in this paper. Radiation field, occupational radiation exposure and corrosion layers evolution during the first c. ten years of operation are

  17. Assessment of Ab Initio and Density Functional Theory Methods for the Excitations of Donor-Acceptor Complexes: The Case of the Benzene-Tetracyanoethylene Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the excited-state properties of electron donors, acceptors and their interfaces in organic optoelectronic devices is a fundamental issue for their performance optimization. In order to obtain a balanced description of the different excitation types for electron-donor-acceptor systems, including the singlet charge transfer (CT, local excitations, and triplet excited states, several ab initio and density functional theory (DFT methods for excited-state calculations were evaluated based upon the selected model system of benzene-tetracyanoethylene (B-TCNE complexes. On the basis of benchmark calculations of the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster with single and double excitations method, the arithmetic mean of the absolute errors and standard errors of the electronic excitation energies for the different computational methods suggest that the M11 functional in DFT is superior to the other tested DFT functionals, and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT with the Tamm–Dancoff approximation improves the accuracy of the calculated excitation energies relative to that of the full TDDFT. The performance of the M11 functional underlines the importance of kinetic energy density, spin-density gradient, and range separation in the development of novel DFT functionals. According to the TDDFT results, the performances of the different TDDFT methods on the CT properties of the B-TCNE complexes were also analyzed.

  18. From fun and excitement to joy and trouble. An explorative study of three Danish father's experiences around birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Elisabeth

    1995-01-01

    The role of the father has undergone considerable change in the West. Fathers of today are expected to take a more active part in birth preparation, birth and childcare than their predecessors were. The purpose of the present study is to describe some Danish fathers' experiences around birth. Three...... first-time fathers were interviewed at three different times: in the last month of pregnancy, two weeks after the birth of their child, and again three months later. Data were analyzed in several steps using a hermeneutical approach. The fathers' experiences were identified as fun and excitement...... at the end of the pregnancy, love at first sight at the birth, at which they all attended and took an active part, awakening when the new family was united at home and when they came to realize how much effort is needed in caring for an infant, and joy and trouble three months later. It is suggested...

  19. Multi-functional smart aggregate-based structural health monitoring of circular reinforced concrete columns subjected to seismic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Haichang; Song, Gangbing; Moslehy, Yashar; Mo, Y L; Sanders, David

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a recently developed multi-functional piezoceramic-based device, named the smart aggregate, is used for the health monitoring of concrete columns subjected to shake table excitations. Two circular reinforced concrete columns instrumented with smart aggregates were fabricated and tested with a recorded seismic excitation at the structural laboratory at the University of Nevada—Reno. In the tests, the smart aggregates were used to perform multiple monitoring functions that included dynamic seismic response detection, structural health monitoring and white noise response detection. In the proposed health monitoring approach, a damage index was developed on the basis of the comparison of the transfer function with the baseline function obtained in the healthy state. A sensor-history damage index matrix is developed to monitor the damage evolution process. Experimental results showed that the acceleration level can be evaluated from the amplitude of the dynamic seismic response; the damage statuses at different locations were evaluated using a damage index matrix; the first modal frequency obtained from the white noise response decreased with increase of the damage severity. The proposed multi-functional smart aggregates have great potential for use in the structural health monitoring of large-scale concrete structures

  20. Emotionally Excited Eyeblink-Rate Variability Predicts an Experience of Transportation into the Narrative World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota eNomura

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Collective spectator communications such as oral presentations, movies, and storytelling performances are ubiquitous in human culture. This study investigated the effects of past viewing experiences and differences in expressive performance on an audience’s transportive experience into a created world of a storytelling performance. In the experiment, 60 participants (mean age = 34.12 yrs., SD = 13.18 yrs., range 18–63 yrs. were assigned to watch one of two videotaped performances that were played (1 in an orthodox way for frequent viewers and (2 in a modified way aimed at easier comprehension for first-time viewers. Eyeblink synchronization among participants was quantified by employing distance-based measurements of spike trains, Dspike and Dinterval (Victor & Purpura, 1997. The results indicated that even non-familiar participants’ eyeblinks were synchronized as the story progressed and that the effect of the viewing experience on transportation was weak. Rather, the results of a multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the degrees of transportation could be predicted by a retrospectively reported humor experience and higher real-time variability (i.e., logarithmic transformed standard deviation of inter blink intervals during a performance viewing. The results are discussed from the viewpoint in which the extent of eyeblink synchronization and eyeblink-rate variability acts as an index of the inner experience of audience members.

  1. Fission lifetime measured by the blocking technique as a function of excitation energy in the 24 A.MeV 238U+28Si reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morjean, M.; Galin, J.; Goldenbaum, F.; Lienard, E.; Chevallier, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Kirsch, R.; Jacquet, D.; and others.

    1997-01-01

    The blocking technique was used to infer fission lifetimes as a function of excitation energy for uranium-like nuclei formed in the U+Si reactions at 24 MeV/nucleon. The fission lifetimes are found larger than 10 -19 s for excitation energies up to about 250 MeV. (K.A.)

  2. Wavelet-Based Frequency Response Function: Comparative Study of Input Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dziedziech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-variant systems can be found in many areas of engineering. It is widely accepted that the classical Fourier-based methods are not suitable for the analysis and identification of such systems. The time-variant frequency response function—based on the continuous wavelet transform—is used in this paper for the analysis of time-variant systems. The focus is on the comparative study of various broadband input excitations. The performance of the method is tested using simulated data from a simple MDOF system and experimental data from a frame-like structure.

  3. Understanding the effects of packing and chemical terminations on the optical excitations of azobenzene-functionalized self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Caterina; Draxl, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    In a first-principles study based on many-body perturbation theory, we analyze the optical excitations of azobenzene-functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with increasing packing density and different terminations, considering for comparison the corresponding gas-phase molecules and dimers. Intermolecular coupling increases with the density of the chromophores independently of the functional groups. The intense π → π* resonance that triggers photo-isomerization is present in the spectra of isolated dimers and diluted SAMs, but it is almost completely washed out in tightly packed architectures. Intermolecular coupling is partially inhibited by mixing differently functionalized azobenzene derivatives, in particular when large groups are involved. In this way, the excitation band inducing the photo-isomerization process is partially preserved and the effects of dense packing partly counterbalanced. Our results suggest that a tailored design of azobenzene-functionalized SAMs which optimizes the interplay between the packing density of the chromophores and their termination can lead to significant improvements in the photo-switching efficiency of these systems.

  4. Consistent evaluations of (n,2n) and (n,np) reaction excitation functions for some even-even isotopes using empirical systematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manokhin, Vassily N. [Russian Nuclear Data Center, Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Odano, Naoteru; Hasegawa, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    An approach for consistent evaluation of (n,2n) and (n,np) reaction excitation functions for some even-even isotopes with the (n,np) reaction thresholds lower than (n,2n) reaction ones is described. For determination of cross sections in the maximum of the (n,2n) and (n,np) reaction excitation functions some empirical systematics developed by Manokhin were used together with trends in dependence of gaps between the (n,2n) and (n,np) thresholds on atomic mass number A. The shapes of the (n,2n) and (n,np) reaction excitation functions were calculated using the normalized functions from the Manokhin's systematics. Excitation functions of (n,2n) and (n,np) reactions were evaluated for several nuclei by using the systematics and it was found that the approach used for the present study gives reasonable results. (author)

  5. Observations and Measurements of Orbitally Excited L=1 B Mesons at the D0 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark Richard James [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-01

    This thesis describes investigations of the first set of orbitally excited (L = 1) states for both the Bd0 and Bs0 meson systems (B**d and B**s). The data sample corresponds to 1.35 fb-1 of integrated luminosity, collected in 2002-2006 by the D0 detector, during the Run IIa operation of the Tevatron p$\\bar{p}$ colliding beam accelerator. The B**d states are fully reconstructed in decays to B(*)+ π-, with B(*)+ → γ J/ΨK+, J/Ψ → μ+μ-, yielding 662 ± 91 events, and providing the first strong evidence for the resolution of two narrow resonances, B1 and B*2. The masses are extracted from a binned Χ2 fit to the invariant mass distribution, giving M(B1) = 5720.7 ± 2.4(stat.) ± 1.3(syst.) ± 0.5 (PDG) MeV/c2 and M(B*2) = 5746.9 ± 2.4(stat.) ± 1.0(syst.) ± 0.5(PDG) MeV/c2. The production rate of narrow B**d → Bπ resonances relative to the B+ meson is determined to be [13.9 ± 1.9(stat.) ± 3.2(syst.)]%. The same B+ sample is also used to reconstruct the analogous states in the Bs0 system, in decays B**s → B(*)+ K-. A single resonance in the invariant mass distribution is found with a statistical significance of 5σ, interpreted as the B*s2 state. The mass is determined to be M(B*s2) = 5839.6 ± 1.1(stat.) ± 0.4(syst.) ± 0.5(PDG) MeV/c 2, and the production rate of B*s2 → BK resonances is measured to be a fraction (2.14 ± 0.43 ± 0.24)% of the corresponding rate for B+ mesons. Alternative fitting hypotheses give inconclusive evidence for the presence of the lighter Bs1 meson.

  6. Pulmonary function in microgravity: KC-135 experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Harold J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1991-01-01

    We have commenced a KC-135 program that parallels and proceeds our Spacelab (SLS-1) pulmonary function experiment. Our first task was to elucidate the affect of normal gravitation on the shape of the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curve. Nine normal subjects performed multiple MEFV maneuvers at 0-G, 1-G, and approximately 1.7-G. The MEFV curves for each subject were filtered, aligned at RV, and ensemble-averaged to produce an average MEFV curve for each state, allowing differences to be studied. Most subjects showed a decrease in the FVC at 0-G, which we attribute to an increased intrathoracic blood volume. In most of these subjects, the mean lung volume associated with a given flow was lower at 0-G, over about the upper half of the vital capacity. This is similar to the change previously reported during heat out immersion and is consistent with the known affect of engorgement of the lung with blood, on elastic recoil. There were also consistent but highly individual changes in the position and magnitude of detailed features of the curve, the individual patterns being similar to those previously reported on transition from the erect to the supine position. This supports the idea that the location and motion of choke points which determine the detailed individual configuration of MEFV curves, can be significantly influenced by gravitational forces, presumably via the effects of change in longitudinal tension on local airway pressure-diameter behavior and wave speed. We have developed a flight mass spectrometer and have commenced a study of single breath gradients in gas exchange, inert gas washouts, and rebreathing cardiac outputs and lung volumes at 0-G, 1-G, and 1.7-G. Comparison of our results with those from SLS-1 should identify the opportunities and limitations of the KC-135 as an accessible microgravity resource.

  7. Frozen orientation disorder and rotation excitation in solid mixtures of methane and krypton (neutron diffraction experiments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grondey, S.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of a statistical replacement of CH 4 molecules by Kr atoms on the rotational states in solid methane has been examined. Obviously the anisotropic molecular interaction (octopole-octopole interaction) is disturbed in a way analogous to magnetic systems with random internal fields. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments on solid mixtures (CH 4 ) 1-x Kr x with 0≤x≤0.35 have been carried out, and simple models have been developed to interpret the spectra. (orig./BHO)

  8. Photoionization of excited states, ions and open-shell atoms: innovative synchrotron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, S.T.

    1981-01-01

    The development of synchrotron light sources with increased photon flux in the region 10 eV less than or equal to hν less than or equal to 1000 eV opens the door to many atomic physics investigations which have not been possible up to now. In this paper, three general types of experiments are discussed, each of which offers attractive possibilities for significant advances in our understanding

  9. Breakup excitation function at backward angles from α-spectra in the 6Li + 144Sm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capurro, O.A.; Pacheco, A.J.; Arazi, A.; Figueira, J.M.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Negri, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Breakup cross sections were obtained for the 6 Li + 144 Sm system at energies above and below the Coulomb barrier from a detailed analysis of the data recorded at backward angles. These cross sections are compared with inelastic target excitations previously reported revealing a similar behavior as a function of the bombarding energy but a large absolute difference between them. Using kinematical considerations we have analyzed possible contributions from different breakup channels and we have extracted information on magnitudes such as the relative kinetic energies of the corresponding breakup fragments.

  10. Final results for the excitation function and angular distributions of the 3H(d,n)4He reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hongqing; Zhou Zuying; Qi Bujia; Zhou Chenwei; Du Yanfeng; Xia Haihong; Chen Zemin; Chen Zhenpeng; Chen Yingtang

    1998-01-01

    The final relative excitation function of the 3 H(d,n) 4 He rection at 0 degree is shown out. For comparison, a curve calculated from Drosg's HI-13 tandem is in progressplotted. The angular distributions of the 3 H(d,n) 4 He reaction at E d =13.36, 16.50 and 19.50 Mev in the center-of-mass system are shown out. A comparison of the legendre polynomial coefficients obtained from the present angular distribution data with Drosg's evaluation are reported

  11. Excitation functions for the formation of some short-lived products in proton-induced reactions on silver

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, M. S.; Baba, M.; Hagiwara, M.; Latif, S. K. A.; Qaim, S. M.

    2008-01-01

    Excitation functions of the Ag-nat(p, xn)Cd-104,Cd-105 and Ag-nat(p, pxn) Ag-103,Ag-104m.g,Ag- 1049 reactions were measured for the first time over the proton energy range of 32 to about 60 MeV. The data were compared with the results of precompound-hybrid model calculations, whereby only partial agreement was obtained. The contribution of the Ag-103 precursor decay to the total formation of the therapeutic radionuclide Pd-103 in proton activation of silver was estimated: it amounted to about...

  12. Gross resonance-like structure of the complete fusion excitation function for the 16O + 28Si reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiwen; Zheng Pingzi; Liu Guoxing

    1993-01-01

    The complete fusion excitation function for the 16 O + 28 Si reaction is measured in the incident energy range from 50 to 90 MeV with step of 1.0 MeV using a position sensitive ΔE-E telescope system. The striking gross resonance-like structure is observed when E c.m. c.m. 34.5, 38.5 and 43.0 MeV respectively. The structure vanishes gradually when E c.m. > 46.0 MeV

  13. Parametrically Excited Oscillations of Second-Order Functional Differential Equations and Application to Duffing Equations with Time Delay Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervan Pašić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study oscillatory behaviour of a large class of second-order functional differential equations with three freedom real nonnegative parameters. According to a new oscillation criterion, we show that if at least one of these three parameters is large enough, then the main equation must be oscillatory. As an application, we study a class of Duffing type quasilinear equations with nonlinear time delayed feedback and their oscillations excited by the control gain parameter or amplitude of forcing term. Finally, some open questions and comments are given for the purpose of further study on this topic.

  14. Experimental fusion excitation functions and derived barrier distributions for heavy ion systems involving prolate and oblate target nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, J.D.; Chan, P.; Liang, J.F.; Kelly, M.P.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Vandenbosch, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fusion excitation functions spanning the entire barrier region in 1 MeV energy steps for the two systems 40 Ca + 192 Os, 194 Pt are presented. The results of fission fragment angular distribution measurements for fusion-fission of 40 Ca + 197 Au at several projectile energies within the barrier region are also presented. The fusion data is of high enough precision to allow for extraction of the distribution of fusion barriers from the second differential of the product of E and σ. Basic coupled channels calculations which are in quite good agreement with the data are shown and discussed

  15. Gross and Fine Structure of Pion Production Excitation Functions in {bold {ital p}}-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsson, B.; Berg, M.; Carlen, L.; Elmer, R.; Fokin, A.; Ghetti, R.; Martensson, J.; Noren, B.; Oskarsson, A.; Whitlow, H.J. [Department of Physics, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden); Ekstroem, C.; Ericsson, G.; Romanski, J.; van Veldhuizen, E.J.; Westerberg, L. [The Svedberg Laboratory and Department of Neutron Physics, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Julien, J. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France); Skeppstedt, O. [Department of Physics, Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyboe, K.; Thorsteinsen, T.F.; Amirelmi, S. [Department of Physics, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Guttormsen, M.; Lo/vho/iden, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Bellini, V.; Palazzolo, F.; Sperduto, M.L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare/Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Bondorf, J.P.; Mishustin, I. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Avdeichikov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); Lozhkin, O.V.; Murin, Y. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St.Petersburg (Russia)

    1997-05-01

    Slow ramping of the CELSIUS storage ring has been utilized to measure the yield of charged pions in proton and heavy ion induced collisions with continuously varying beam energy. Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck predictions, including Fermi momenta of nucleons in nuclei, follow the general shape of the p-nucleus excitation functions quite well except for a general overestimation of the backward emission. For heavy ion reactions the calculated yield also falls off faster with decreasing beam energy than the data. No statistically significant narrow resonances are observed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Statistical model calculation of fission isomer excitation functions in (n,n') and (n,γ) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Athougies, A.L.; Mehta, M.K.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical model developed by Britt and others (1971, 1973) to analyze isomer excitation functions in spallation type reactions like (α,2n) has been adopted in fission isomer calculations for (n,n') and (n,γ) reactions. Calculations done for 235 U(n,n')sup(238m)U and 235 U(n,γ)sup(236m)U reactions have been compared with experimental measurements. A listing of the computer program ISOMER using FORTRAN IV to calculate the isomer to prompt ratios is given. (M.G.B.)

  17. Wave excitation in electron beam experiment on Japanese satellite JIKIKEN (EXOS-B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, N.

    1982-01-01

    Beam-plasma interaction experiment has been made in the magnetosphere by emitting an electron beam (100-200 eV, 0.25-1.0 mA) from the satellite JIKIKEN (EXOS-B). Various types of wave emission are detected by LF and HF wave detectors. Waves near at upper-hybrid frequency and at electron cyclotron frequency are detected in a low L-value region, which will be useful diagnostic means for plasma density and magnetic field. Vehicle charging up to the beam energy is also observed outside the plasmapause

  18. Dynamics of excited nitrogen molecular states in glow- and afterglow phases of discharge: experiment and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napartovich, A.P.; Akishev, Yu.S.; Dyatko, N.A.; Grushin, M.E.; Filippov, A.V.; Trushkin, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Population dynamics for a number of levels from N2 ( A 3 Σ + u ), N 2 (B 3 Π g ) and N 2 (C 3 Π u ) manifolds was studied spectroscopically in a long pulse glow discharge in pure nitrogen and in afterglow at pressure 50 Torr. Overshot in time behaviour of N 2 (A 3Σ + u ), N 2 (B 3 Π g ) and N 2 (C 3 Π u ) levels populations was revealed. A rather complete kinetic model is developed for conditions of the experiments. Results of comparison are analyzed

  19. Excitation functions for 121,123Sb(α,xn), (x=1-4) reactions in approx. 10-40 MeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.; Bhardwaj, H.D.

    1986-04-01

    Excitation functions for 121 Sb(α,n), 121 Sb(α,2n), 123 Sb(α,n) and 123 Sb(α,3n) reactions in the energy range approx. 10 to 40 MeV have been measured using stacked-foil technique and are calculated theoretically using statistical model with and without the inclusion of pre-equilibrium emission. Inclusion of pre-equilibrium emission is found to give good agreement between the experimental and measured excitation functions. (author)

  20. "A little information excites us." Consumer sensory experience of Vermont artisan cheese as active practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahne, Jacob; Trubek, Amy B

    2014-07-01

    This research is concerned with explaining consumer preference for Vermont artisan cheese and the relationship between that preference and sensory experience. Artisan cheesemaking is increasingly an important part of Vermont's dairy sector, and this tracks a growing trend of artisan agricultural practice in the United States. In popular discourse and academic research into products like artisan cheese, consumers explain their preferences in terms of intrinsic sensory and extrinsic - supposedly nonsensory - food qualities. In laboratory sensory studies, however, the relationship between preference, intrinsic, and extrinsic qualities changes or disappears. In contrast, this study explains this relationship by adopting a social theory of sensory perception as a practice in everyday life. This theory is applied to a series of focus group interviews with Vermont artisan cheese consumers about their everyday perceptions. Based on the data, a conceptual framework for the sensory perception of Vermont artisan cheese is suggested: consumers combine information about producer practice, social context, and the materiality of the product through an active, learned practice of sensory perception. Particular qualities that drive consumer sensory experience and preference are identified from the interview data. Many of these qualities are difficult to categorize as entirely intrinsic or extrinsic, highlighting the need for developing new approaches of sensory evaluation in order to fully capture everyday consumer sensory perception. Thus, this research demonstrates that social theory provides new and valuable insights into consumer sensory preference for Vermont artisan cheese. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigations of the potential functions of weakly bound diatomic molecules and laser-assisted excitive Penning ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goble, J.H. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    Three variations on the Dunham series expansion function of the potential of a diatomic molecule are compared. The differences among these expansions lie in the choice of the expansion variable, lambda. The functional form of these variables are lambda/sub s/ = l-r/sub e//r for the Simon-Parr-Finlan version, lambda/sub T/ - 1-(r/sub e//r)/sup p/ for that of Thakkar, and lambda/sub H/ = 1-exp(-rho(r/r/sub e/-1) for that of Huffaker. A wide selection of molecular systems are examined. It is found that, for potentials in excess of thirty kcal/mole, the Huffaker expansion provides the best description of the three, extrapolating at large internuclear separation to a value within 10% of the true dissociation energy. For potentials that result from the interaction of excited states, all series expansions show poor behavior away from the equilibrium internuclear separation of the molecule. The series representation of the potentials of weakly bound molecules are examined in more detail. The ground states of BeAr + , HeNe + , NaAr, and Ar 2 and the excited states of HeNe+, NaNe, and NaAr are best described by the Thakkar expansion. Finally, the observation of laser-assisted excitive Penning ionization in a flowing afterglow is reported. The reaction Ar( 3 P 2 ) + Ca + h nu → Ar + Ca + (5p 2 P/sub J/) + e - occurs when the photon energy, h nu, is approximately equal to the energy difference between the metastable argon and one of the fine structure levels of the ion's doublet. By monitoring the cascade fluorescence of the above reaction and comparing it to the flourescence from the field-free process Ar( 3 P 2 ) + Ca → Ar + Ca + (4p 2 P/sub J/) + e - a surprisingly large cross section of 6.7 x 10 3 A 2 is estimated

  2. Recent advances in the physics of collective excitations in the Paul trap simulator experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilson, E.P.; Chung, M.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Efthimion, P.C.; Godbehere, A.B.; Majeski, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Paul trap simulator experiment (PTSX) is a compact laboratory linear Paul trap that simulates the transverse dynamics of a long charged-particle bunch propagating through a magnetic alternating-gradient (AG) transport system. The transverse dynamics of particles in the AG system in the beam's frame-of-reference and those of particles in PTSX are described by the same sets of equations, including all nonlinear space-charge effects. Initial experimental results are presented in which the collective transverse symmetric mode (m=0) and quadrupole mode (m=2) have been observed in pure-barium-ion plasmas in PTSX, with a depressed-tune ν/ν 0 ∼0.9, with the intent of identifying collective modes whose signature will serve as a robust diagnostic for key properties of the beam, such as line density and transverse emittance. The results of particle-in-cell simulations performed with the WARP code are compared to the experimental data.

  3. Frenkel and Charge-Transfer Excitations in Donor-acceptor Complexes from Many-Body Green's Functions Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeier, Björn; Andrienko, Denis; Rohlfing, Michael

    2012-08-14

    Excited states of donor-acceptor dimers are studied using many-body Green's functions theory within the GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation. For a series of prototypical small-molecule based pairs, this method predicts energies of local Frenkel and intermolecular charge-transfer excitations with the accuracy of tens of meV. Application to larger systems is possible and allowed us to analyze energy levels and binding energies of excitons in representative dimers of dicyanovinyl-substituted quarterthiophene and fullerene, a donor-acceptor pair used in state of the art organic solar cells. In these dimers, the transition from Frenkel to charge transfer excitons is endothermic and the binding energy of charge transfer excitons is still of the order of 1.5-2 eV. Hence, even such an accurate dimer-based description does not yield internal energetics favorable for the generation of free charges either by thermal energy or an external electric field. These results confirm that, for qualitative predictions of solar cell functionality, accounting for the explicit molecular environment is as important as the accurate knowledge of internal dimer energies.

  4. Fusion barrier distributions from capture and quasi-elastic excitation functions measured in reaction 36S, 48Ca, 64Ni+238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozulin, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    The subbarrier fusion enhancement in reactions with heavy ions were explained by taking into account coupling between relative motion and intrinsic degrees of freedom of interacting nuclei. The coupling of reaction channels manifests itself in the potential barrier between interacting nuclei giving rise to a distribution of fusion barrier instead of single barrier.Capture and quasi-elastic scattering excitation functions at backward angles were measured for 3 6S , 4 8C a, 6 4N i+2 38U reactions systems at energies close and below the Coulomb barrier (i.e. when the influence of the shell effects on the fusion and characteristics of the decay of the composite system is considerable). Representations of the barrier distributions were extracted from both capture and quasi-elastic data. The experimental representations of barrier distributions were compared with coupled-channel calculations using CCFULL code. The major part of these experiments has been performed at the U-400 accelerator of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (JINR, Dubna); at the TANDEM-ALPI accelerator of the LNL (INFN, Legnaro, Italy) and at the Accelerator Laboratory of University of Jyvaeskylae (JYFL, Finland) using a time-of-flight spectrometer of fission fragments CORSET (CORrelation SET-up.) The extraction of the masses and Total Kinetic Energy (TKE) of the binary reaction products is based upon the analysis of the two-body velocity In the case of the fusion-fission and quasi-fission processes, the observed peculiarities of mass and energy distributions of the fragments, the ratio between the fusion-fission and quasi-fission cross sections are determined deformations of interaction nuclei and angular momentum carried in the di-nuclear system and the shell structure of the formed fragments. In this work, the high-precision capture and quasi-elastic scattering excitation function data are presented.The influence of projectile and target excitations and nucleon transfer on fusion barrier

  5. Cerebro-Cerebellar Functional Connectivity is Associated with Cerebellar Excitation-Inhibition Balance in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, John P; Weber, Dylan J; Cirstea, Carmen M; Beversdorf, David Q

    2018-05-23

    Atypical functional connectivity (FC) and an imbalance of excitation-to-inhibition (E/I) have been previously reported in cerebro-cerebellar circuits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current investigation used resting state fMRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) to examine the relationships between E/I (glutamate + glutamine/GABA) and FC of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterolateral cerebellar hemisphere from 14 adolescents/adults with ASD and 12 age/sex/IQ-matched controls. In this pilot sample, cerebro-cerebellar FC was positively associated with cerebellar E/I and listening comprehension abilities in individuals with ASD but not controls. Additionally, a subgroup of individuals with ASD and low FC (n = 5) exhibited reduced E/I and impaired listening comprehension. Thus, altered functional coherence of cerebro-cerebellar circuits in ASD may be related with a cerebellar E/I imbalance.

  6. Multielectron transitions following heavy ion excitation: a comparison of self-consistent field calculations with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, W.L. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A multielectron transition is an atomic transition in which two or three electrons change their states and a single photon is emitted. Although the mechanism was postulated in the thirties and observed in optical spectra, little research has been done since then. Experiments using heavy ion accelerators have measured satellite lines lower in energy than the Kα 12 energy and higher in energy than the Kβ satellite structure. These transitions are multielectron transitions. Experimental spectra of x-ray transitions induced by heavy ion bombardment are presented, and the experimental energies are compared to Hartree-Fock transition energies. The transitions observed lower in energy than the Kα line are two electron--one photon radiative Auger and three electron--one photon radiative electron rearrangement transitions. Experimental data taken at other laboratories have measured satellite lines higher in energy than the Kβ satellite structure. Relativistic Dirac-Fock transition energies will be compared to the experimental energies and the transitions will be shown to be two electron--one photon x-ray transitions. Heavy ion bombardment creates multiple inner shell vacancies so numerous that the satellite lines can be more intense than the diagram lines. Theoretical transition energies from five different self-consistent field atomic physics computer programs will be compared to the Kα satellite and Kα hypersatellite transitions of calcium. Transition energies from Declaux's relativistic Dirac-Fock program will be compared to the diagram lines of uranium and to other theoretical K x-ray transition energies of Z = 120. A discussion of how to calculate the term energies of a given configuration using the Slater F and G integrals is included

  7. AUGMENTED REALITY AS AN EXCITING ONLINE EXPERIENCE: IS IT REALLY BENEFICIAL FOR BRANDS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Eyüboğlu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to look at the ways in wh ich Augmented Reality beneficial for brands to create positive brand perc eption, intention of purchase and positive word of mouth. Based on the aims of this r esearch paper and the study of Bluearca and Tamarjan (2010, five measures of perc eived value have been chosen- enhancing convenience, influencing enjoymen t, relevancy of idea, ease of interaction and WOM. Focus group is the method for this study because Augmented Reality application is a very new applica tion in Turkey so there is little prior knowledge and the range of responses l ikely to emerge. Focus groups have the ability to provide us with data not obtain able through paper and pencil self-report measures or observational measures. In areas of study in which little is known, focus groups may be an appropriate place to begin (Byers and Wilcox, 1991: 65. This paper explores the ways how can brands use AR application for their own beneficence. First time exposing this kind of inter active application, consumers’ first impressions, feelings and experiences will be valuable for Turkish brands which might prefer to engage their customers more c losely in future. Banana Flame is the brand chosen for this study because th ere is no Turkish brand using this application properly. Through this study, peop le’s understanding about AR technologies will be able to revealed and those inf ormation will lead Turkish brands developing experiential value and positive a ttitude in minds of their customers. The lack of Turkish brands using this application p roperly caused to choose a foreign brand (Banana Flame which is an Online Fas hion Boutique and first online retailer to integrate Augmented Reality thro ughout entire site in U.S.A. For this reason, it was assumed that Banana Flame has n o brand awareness between young Turkish consumers. Owing to the fact that Ban ana Flame is a women’s fashion brand, focus group included 18-30 years of

  8. Calculation of excitation functions of the Fe(p, n) reaction from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of using thorium for power production, which is being carried out in ADSS. .... critical temperature Tc of the phase transition from superfluid to normal state. ... are connected with the correlation function 0 through the following equations:.

  9. Left dorso-lateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects cortical excitability and functional connectivity, but does not impair cognition in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajahan, Polash M; Glabus, Mike F; Steele, J Douglas; Doris, Alan B; Anderson, Kay; Jenkins, Jenny A; Gooding, Patricia A; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2002-06-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used for over a decade to investigate cortical function. More recently, it has been employed to treat conditions such as major depression. This study was designed to explore the effects of differential treatment parameters, such as stimulation frequency. In addition, the data were examined to determine whether a change in connectivity occurred following TMS. Fifteen patients with major depression were entered into a combined imaging and treatment experiment with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Brain perfusion during a verbal fluency task was compared between pre- and poststimulation conditions. Patients were then treated with 80% of motor threshold for a total of 10 days, using 5000 stimuli at 5, 10 or 20 Hz. Tests of cortical excitability and neuropsychological tests were done throughout the trial. Patients generally improved with treatment. There was no perceptible difference between stimulation frequencies, which may have reflected low study power. An increase in rostral anterior cingulate activation after the treatment day was associated with increased functional connectivity in the dorso-lateral frontal loop on the left and the limbic loop on both sides. No noticeable deterioration in neuropsychological function was observed. TMS at the stimulation frequencies used seems to be safe over a course of 5000 stimuli. It appears to have an activating effect in anterior limbic structures and increase functional connectivity in the neuroanatomical networks under the stimulation coil within an hour of stimulation.

  10. Excited electronic states of MnO{sub 4}{sup −}: Challenges for wavefunction and density functional response theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Nuno M.S.; McKinlay, Russell G.; Paterson, Martin J., E-mail: m.j.paterson@hw.ac.uk

    2015-01-13

    Highlights: • Linear response coupled cluster hierarchy CCS, CC2, CCSD, CC3 applied to lowest excited states of MnO{sub 4}{sup −}. • Unphysical results obtained for approximate CCn methods. • Failure traced to very large singles amplitudes. • HF and RASSCF calculations on ground state show strong correlations give very poor HF single particle picture. • TD-CAM-B3LYP describes LMCT states with reasonable accuracy. - Abstract: The lowest excited electronic states of the permanganate ion MnO{sub 4}{sup −} are calculated using a hierarchy of coupled cluster response approaches, as well as time-dependent density functional theory. It is shown that while full linear response coupled cluster with singles and doubles (or higher) performs well, that permanganate represents a stern test for approximate coupled cluster response models, and that problems can be traced to very large orbital relaxation effects. TD-DFT is reasonably robust although errors around 0.6 eV are still observed. In order to further investigate the strong correlations prevalent in the electronic ground state large-scale RASSCF calculations were also performed. Again very large orbital relaxation in the correlated wavefunction is observed. Although the system can qualitatively be described by a single configuration, multi-reference diagnostic values show that care must be taken in this and similar metal complexes.

  11. Assaying gene function by growth competition experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Joshua; Edwards, Jeremy S

    2004-07-01

    High-throughput screening and analysis is one of the emerging paradigms in biotechnology. In particular, high-throughput methods are essential in the field of functional genomics because of the vast amount of data generated in recent and ongoing genome sequencing efforts. In this report we discuss integrated functional analysis methodologies which incorporate both a growth competition component and a highly parallel assay used to quantify results of the growth competition. Several applications of the two most widely used technologies in the field, i.e., transposon mutagenesis and deletion strain library growth competition, and individual applications of several developing or less widely reported technologies are presented.

  12. Effects of angular momentum dissipation on fluctuations of excitation functions in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, S.Yu.; Noerenberg, W.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt

    1992-02-01

    We study the effect from dissipation of relative angular momentum on fluctuations of exitations functions in dissipative heavy-ion collisions. Dissipation and fluctuation of relative angular momentum modify and smooth the time-angle localization of the roating dinuclear system. The secondary maxima in the energy correlation function of the cross-section are shifted to smaller values of the energy difference, the shift depending on the relaxation time and the diffusion coefficient for the angular-momentum dissipation. The results are illustrated for the collision 28 Si(E lab =130MeV)+ 48 Ti. (orig.)

  13. Probability density of wave function of excited photoelectron: understanding XANES features

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šipr, Ondřej

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2001), s. 232-234 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/99/0404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A02/98:Z1-010-914 Keywords : XANES * PED - probability density of wave function Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2001

  14. On the excited state wave functions of Dirac fermions in the random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wave functions in FRGP can be written in terms of descendents of the Liouville vertex operator. In the ... that the localization length ξ scales with the energy E as ξ ∼ E−b2/(1+b2)2. , where b is .... Let us write the Hamiltonian of the. FRGP model ...

  15. The Effect of Material Property on the Critical Velocity of Randomly Excited Nonlinear Axially Travelling Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abedi

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the critical axial speeds of three types of sigmoid, power law and exponential law functionally graded plates for both isotropic and orthotropic cases are obtained via a completely analytic method. The plates are subjected to lateral white noise excitation and show evidence of large deformations. Due to randomness, the conventional deterministic methods fail and a statistical approach must be selected. Here, the probability density function is evaluated analytically for prescribed plates and used to investigate the critical axial velocity of them. Specifically the effect of in-plane forces, mean value of lateral load and the material property on the critical axial speed are studied and discussed for both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded plates. Since the governing equation is transformed to a non dimensional format, the results can be used for a wide range of plate dimensions. It is shown that the material heterogeneity palys an essential and significant role in increasing or decreasing the critical speed of both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded plates.

  16. Search for excited leptons in the data of the H1 experiment at the HERA collider; Recherche de leptons excites dans les donnees de l'experience H1 aupres du collisionneur HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delerue, N

    2002-05-01

    Composite models are one of the possible extensions of the Standard Model. One of their implications, at the energy in the reach of present particles accelerators, would be the excitation of leptons. This PhD. thesis describes the search for excited leptons with the H1 detector installed on the electron-proton collider HERA in Hamburg (Germany). The data used were accumulated between 1994 and 2000 and amount to an integrated luminosity of 120 pb{sup -1}. The analysis of 6 different topologies were done and cover all the branching ratios of deexcitation of excited electron and neutrino. The numbers of candidates found during those analysis is in agreement with the Standard Model expectations. This means that no evidence of excited leptons production was found at HERA. This result was translated in the form of exclusion limits on the coupling of excited leptons (f/{lambda}) depending on the mass of the excited lepton. For the first time at HERA we addressed the case were the natural decay width of the excited neutrino is wider than the experimental resolution. For the first time also, a study of the variation of limit depending on the ratio f'/f was carried out. This study lead to the setting of limits independent of this ratio. The limits obtained extend results previously obtained at HEA and also the results of direct searches at LEP. (author)

  17. Search for excited leptons in the data of the H1 experiment at the HERA collider; Recherche de leptons excites dans les donnees de l'experience H1 aupres du collisionneur HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delerue, N

    2002-05-01

    Composite models are one of the possible extensions of the Standard Model. One of their implications, at the energy in the reach of present particles accelerators, would be the excitation of leptons. This PhD. thesis describes the search for excited leptons with the H1 detector installed on the electron-proton collider HERA in Hamburg (Germany). The data used were accumulated between 1994 and 2000 and amount to an integrated luminosity of 120 pb{sup -1}. The analysis of 6 different topologies were done and cover all the branching ratios of deexcitation of excited electron and neutrino. The numbers of candidates found during those analysis is in agreement with the Standard Model expectations. This means that no evidence of excited leptons production was found at HERA. This result was translated in the form of exclusion limits on the coupling of excited leptons (f/{lambda}) depending on the mass of the excited lepton. For the first time at HERA we addressed the case were the natural decay width of the excited neutrino is wider than the experimental resolution. For the first time also, a study of the variation of limit depending on the ratio f'/f was carried out. This study lead to the setting of limits independent of this ratio. The limits obtained extend results previously obtained at HEA and also the results of direct searches at LEP. (author)

  18. A vacuum-UV laser-induced fluorescence experiment for measurement of rotationally and vibrationally excited H2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vankan, P.J.W.; Heil, S.B.S.; Mazouffre, S.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Döbele, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental setup is built to detect spatially resolved rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules via laser-induced fluorescence. To excite the hydrogen molecules, laser radiation is produced in the vacuum UV part of the spectrum. The laser radiation is tunable between 120 nm and 230 nm and has

  19. Excitation function of alpha-particle-induced reactions on {sup nat}Ni from threshold to 44 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.S. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Tandem Accelerator Facilities, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Kim, K.S.; Nadeem, M.; Kim, G.N. [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Buk-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Sudar, S. [Debrecen University, Institute of Experimental Physics, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-05-15

    Excitation functions of the {sup nat}Ni(α,x){sup 62,63,65}Zn, {sup nat}Ni(α,x){sup 56,57}Ni and {sup nat}Ni(α,x){sup 56,57,58m+g}Co reactions were measured from the respective thresholds to 44MeV using the stacked-foil activation technique. The tests for the beam characterization are described. The radioactivity was measured using HPGe γ-ray detectors. Theoretical calculations on α-particles-induced reactions on {sup nat}Ni were performed using the nuclear model code TALYS-1.8. A few results are new, the others strengthen the database. Our experimental data were compared with results of nuclear model calculations and described the reaction mechanism. (orig.)

  20. Excitation functions of alpha particle induced reactions on {sup nat}Ti up to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.S., E-mail: md.shuzauddin@yahoo.com [Tandem Accelerator Facilities, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Scholten, B. [Institut für Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5:Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    Excitation functions of the reactions {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 48}Cr, {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 48}V and {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 46,48}Sc were determined by the stacked-foil activation technique up to 40 MeV. The radioactivities produced in the {sup nat}Ti target were measured by γ-ray spectrometry using HPGe detector. The reaction {sup nat}Ti(α,x){sup 51}Cr was used to determine the beam parameters. New experimental values for the above reactions have been obtained. An intercomparison of our data with the available literature values has been done. The cross section results obtained in this work could be useful in defining new monitor reactions, radiation safety and isotope production.

  1. Fission excitation function for 19F + 194,196,198Pt at near and above barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Varinderjit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fission excitation functions for 19F + 194,196,198Pt reactions populating 213,215,217Fr compound nuclei are reported. Out of these three compound nuclei, 213Fr is a shell closed (N=126 compound nucleus and the other two are away from the shell closure. From a comparison of the experimental fission cross-sections with the statistical model predictions, it is observed that the fission cross-sections are underestimated by the statistical model predictions using shell corrected finite range rotating liquid drop model (FRLDM fission barriers. Further the FRLDM fission barriers are reduced to fit the fission cross-sections over the entire measured energy range.

  2. Investigations of fluctuation phenomena in the excitation functions of the cross-section by means of polarized particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneck, R.

    1976-01-01

    The present work concerns theoretical and experimental investigations of fluctuation phenomena, which appear in the excitation functions of the diff. cross-section and of the analyzing power, when bombarding nuclei with polarized particles in the energy range of strongly overlapping levels. We could show theoretically that model-dependent calculations (or assumptions), necessary for the determination of the relative amount of direct interaction contribution within the statistical model of Ericson, are not necessary for the elastic scattering of polarized spin-1/2- particles from spin-zero-target nuclei, if the additional observable analyzing power is included in the analysis. The proposed, new method hence presents an independent test for the consistency of the Hauser-Feshbach theory and its validity in the domain of strongly overlapping levels. (orig./WL) [de

  3. Excitation functions for the formation of some short-lived products in proton-induced reactions on silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M.S.; Latif, S.K.A.; Baba, M.; Hagiwara, M.; Qaim, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    Excitation functions of the nat Ag(p, xn) 104, 105 Cd and nat Ag(p, pxn) 103, 104m,g, 104g Ag reactions were measured for the first time over the proton energy range of 32 to about 60 MeV. The data were compared with the results of precompound-hybrid model calculations, whereby only partial agreement was obtained. The contribution of the 103 Ag precursor decay to the total formation of the therapeutic radionuclide 103 Pd in proton activation of silver was estimated: it amounted to about 70%. The various possible routes for the production of 103 Pd were also considered: the nat Ag(p, x) 103 Pd and 103 Rh(p, n) 103 Pd processes were found to be most interesting. Despite its somewhat lower yield, the latter process is preferred because it can be applied at a low-energy cyclotron. (orig.)

  4. Investigation of incomplete fusion dynamics by measurement of excitation functions in the 20Ne + 59Co system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Linda, Sneha Bharti; Giri, Pankaj K.; Singh, Smita Shree; Kumar, Harish; Afzal Ansari, M.; Ali, Rahbar; Rashid, M.H.; Guin, R.; Das, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to address some important aspects of CF and ICF dynamics for the system 20 Ne + 59 Co in the projectile energy range ≈ 62–150 MeV by using recoil catcher activation technique with the following off-line γ-ray spectroscopy. Excitation Functions (EFs) for the following reactions: 59 Co(Ne, α p4n) 70 Ga, 59 Co(Ne, 3αp3n) 63 Zn, 59 Co (Ne, 3αp4n) 62 Zn and 59 Co (Ne, 4α3n) 60 Cu have been measured. No precursor decay contribution has been observed for these measured evaporation residues. The measured values of total fusion cross-sections of the above evaporation residues have been compared with the theoretical total complete fusion cross sections calculated by code PACE-2, which do not take into account ICF contribution

  5. Malondialdehyde suppresses cerebral function by breaking homeostasis between excitation and inhibition in turtle Trachemys scripta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangxu Li

    Full Text Available The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA are high in the brain during carbonyl stress, such as following daily activities and sleep deprivation. To examine our hypothesis that MDA is one of the major substances in the brain leading to fatigue, the influences of MDA on brain functions and neuronal encodings in red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta were studied. The intrathecal injections of MDA brought about sleep-like EEG and fatigue-like behaviors in a dose-dependent manner. These changes were found associated with the deterioration of encoding action potentials in cortical neurons. In addition, MDA increased the ratio of γ-aminobutyric acid to glutamate in turtle's brain, as well as the sensitivity of GABAergic neurons to inputs compared to excitatory neurons. Therefore, MDA, as a metabolic product in the brain, may weaken cerebral function during carbonyl stress through breaking the homeostasis between excitatory and inhibitory neurons.

  6. New excitation functions for proton induced reactions on natural titanium, nickel and copper up to 70 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, E. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); Duchemin, C., E-mail: Charlotte.Duchemin@subatech.in2p3.fr [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); Guertin, A. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); Haddad, F.; Michel, N. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France); GIP Arronax, 1 rue Aronnax, 44817 Saint-Herblain (France); Métivier, V. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Université de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Nantes (France)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Natural titanium, nickel and copper targets. • 70 MeV ARRONAX cyclotron proton beam. • Stacked-foil technique and monitor reactions. • Experimental cross section values. • TALYS code version 1.6. - Abstract: New excitation functions for proton induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium, nickel and copper were measured, using the stacked-foil technique and gamma spectrometry, up to 70 MeV. The experimental cross sections were measured using the Ti-nat(p,x) V-48, Ni-nat(p,x) Ni-57 and Cu-nat(p,x) Zn-62,Co-56 monitor reactions recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), depending on the investigated energy range. Data have been extracted for the Ti-nat(p,x) Sc-43,44m,46,47,48, V-48, K-42,43, Ni-nat(p,x) Ni-56,57, Co-55,56,57,58, Mn-52,54, Cu-nat(p,x) Cu-61,64, Ni-57, Co-56,57,58,60, Zn-62,65, Mn-54 reactions. Our results are discussed and compared to the existing ones as well as with the TALYS code version 1.6 calculations using default models. Our experimental data are in overall good agreement with the literature. TALYS is able to reproduce, in most cases, the experimental trend. Our new experimental results allow to expand our knowledge on these excitation functions, to confirm the existing trends and to give additional values on a large energy range. This work is in line with the new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) launched by the IAEA to expand the database of monitor reactions.

  7. Calculations of Excitation Functions of Some Structural Fusion Materials for ( n, t) Reactions up to 50 MeV Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, E.; Durgu, C.; Aktı, N. N.; Okuducu, Ş.

    2010-06-01

    Fusion serves an inexhaustible energy for humankind. Although there have been significant research and development studies on the inertial and magnetic fusion reactor technology, there is still a long way to go to penetrate commercial fusion reactors to the energy market. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. So, the working out the systematics of ( n, t) reaction cross sections is of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at different energies. In this study, ( n, t) reactions for some structural fusion materials such as 27Al, 51V, 52Cr, 55Mn, and 56Fe have been investigated. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 27Al( n, t)25Mg, 51V( n, t)49Ti, 52Cr( n, t)50V, 55Mn( n, t)53Cr and 56Fe( n, t)54Mn reactions have been carried out up to 50 MeV incident neutron energy. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the new evaluated the geometry dependent hybrid model, hybrid model and the cascade exciton model. Equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. Also in the present work, we have calculated ( n, t) reaction cross-sections by using new evaluated semi-empirical formulas developed by Tel et al. at 14-15 MeV energy. The calculated results are discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from the literature.

  8. Investigations of the potential functions of weakly bound diatomic molecules and laser-assisted excitive Penning ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goble, J.H. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    Three variations on the Dunham series expansion function of the potential of a diatomic molecule are compared. The differences among these expansions lie in the choice of the expansion variable, lambda. The functional form of these variables are lambda/sub s/ = l-r/sub e//r for the Simon-Parr-Finlan version, lambda/sub T/ - 1-(r/sub e//r)/sup p/ for that of Thakkar, and lambda/sub H/ = 1-exp(-rho(r/r/sub e/-1) for that of Huffaker. A wide selection of molecular systems are examined. It is found that, for potentials in excess of thirty kcal/mole, the Huffaker expansion provides the best description of the three, extrapolating at large internuclear separation to a value within 10% of the true dissociation energy. For potentials that result from the interaction of excited states, all series expansions show poor behavior away from the equilibrium internuclear separation of the molecule. The series representation of the potentials of weakly bound molecules are examined in more detail. The ground states of BeAr/sup +/, HeNe/sup +/, NaAr, and Ar/sub 2/ and the excited states of HeNe+, NaNe, and NaAr are best described by the Thakkar expansion. Finally, the observation of laser-assisted excitive Penning ionization in a flowing afterglow is reported. The reaction Ar(/sup 3/P/sub 2/) + Ca + h nu ..-->.. Ar + Ca/sup +/(5p /sup 2/P/sub J/) + e/sup -/ occurs when the photon energy, h nu, is approximately equal to the energy difference between the metastable argon and one of the fine structure levels of the ion's doublet. By monitoring the cascade fluorescence of the above reaction and comparing it to the flourescence from the field-free process Ar(/sup 3/P/sub 2/) + Ca ..-->.. Ar + Ca/sup +/(4p /sup 2/P/sub J/) + e/sup -/ a surprisingly large cross section of 6.7 x 10/sup 3/ A/sup 2/ is estimated.

  9. Laser wakefield excitation and measurement on a femtosecond time scale: Theory and experiment. Progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, T.; Downer, M.

    1995-04-01

    A brief discussion was given for each of the following topics: superluminous wake excitation; photon frequency-shift (photon accelerator) spectroscopy; focusing, diffraction and 2D spectral shift; Raman self-modulation effects; optical preaccelerator; accelerator physics developments; experimental facilities; experimental results--pressure-tunable harmonic generation; experiments in progress--time-domain Rayleigh interferometry; Russian collaboration; and technology transfer.

  10. Laser wakefield excitation and measurement on a femtosecond time scale: Theory and experiment. Progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Downer, M.

    1995-04-01

    A brief discussion was given for each of the following topics: superluminous wake excitation; photon frequency-shift (photon accelerator) spectroscopy; focusing, diffraction and 2D spectral shift; Raman self-modulation effects; optical preaccelerator; accelerator physics developments; experimental facilities; experimental results--pressure-tunable harmonic generation; experiments in progress--time-domain Rayleigh interferometry; Russian collaboration; and technology transfer

  11. Psychotic experiences and social functioning: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Glyn; Wiles, Nicola; Thompson, Andrew; Evans, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    Both adolescent psychotic experiences and poor social functioning precede psychotic disorder; however, whether poor social functioning is also a risk factor for rather than a consequence of adolescent psychotic experiences is not clear. We investigate this question as well as whether deterioration in social functioning confers the strongest risk of psychotic experiences and whether theory of mind ability mediates any association, in a large community sample. Measures of social functioning (peer problems and prosocial behaviour) at ages 7 and 11 and theory of mind ability and psychotic experiences at age 12 were collected in a large community sample (n = 3,592). The association between social functioning and psychotic experiences was examined using logistic regression models at each age and any additional impact of deterioration in social functioning between ages 7 and 11. The potential role of theory of mind as a mediator was also investigated. Peer problems at both ages were independently associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 (7 years OR 1.11 95 % CI 1.03, 1.20), (11 years OR 1.13 95 % CI 1.05, 1.22). Theory of mind ability did not mediate this association. The association was not restricted to those with deteriorating social functioning (interaction term; p = 0.49). Poor childhood social functioning precedes adolescent psychotic experiences. There was no evidence that those with deteriorating social functioning were at greatest risk.

  12. Dual effect of local anesthetics on the function of excitable rod outer segment disk membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashimo, T.; Abe, K.; Yoshiya, I.

    1986-04-01

    The effects of local anesthetics and a divalent cation, Ca2+, on the function of rhodopsin were estimated from the measurements of light-induced proton uptake. The light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane was enhanced at lower pH (4) but depressed at higher pHs (6 to 8) by the tertiary amine local anesthetics lidocaine, bupivacaine, tetracaine, and dibucaine. The order of local anesthetic-induced depression of the proton uptake followed that of their clinical anesthetic potencies. The depression of the proton uptake versus the concentration of the uncharged form of local anesthetic nearly describes the same curve for small and large dose of added anesthetic. Furthermore, a neutral local anesthetic, benzocaine, depressed the proton uptake at all pHs between 4 and 7. These results indicate that the depression of the proton uptake is due to the effect of only the uncharged form. It is hypothesized that the uncharged form of local anesthetics interacts hydrophobically with the rhodopsin in the disk membrane. The dual effect of local anesthetics on the proton uptake, on the other hand, suggests that the activation of the function of rhodopsin may be caused by the charged form. There was no significant change in the light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin when 1 mM of Ca2+ was introduced into the disk membrane at varying pHs in the absence or presence of local anesthetics. This fact indicates that Ca2+ ion does not influence the diprotonating process of metarhodopsin; neither does it interfere with the local anesthetic-induced changes in the rhodopsin molecule.

  13. Measurement of 197Au(tau,xnyp) excitation functions for 15 MeV <= Esub(tau) <= 135 MeV and analysis in the framework of the hybrid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousshid, O.

    1981-01-01

    The (tau,xnyp)-reactions on 197 Au were measured. The 3 He incident energy was between 15 MeV and 135 MeV. The experiments were carried out using the stacked-foils technique. Cross sections were determind from the activity of the residual nuclei. The (tau,xn)-excitation functions were measured for 2 = 70 MeV as well as x >= 7 were measured for the first time. Further the (tau,pxn)- and (tau,2pxn)-excitation functions, which were not known so far, have now been measured. The analysis within the framework of the hybrid model for precompound-nuclear-reactions followed by an evaporation cascade, resulted in the best agreement between experimental data and theoretical model calculation using an initial exciton number nsub(o) = 5 (1n+3p+1h). The region of validity of the hybrid model for complex projectiles is discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Cryogenic exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, James William [Niskayuna, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  15. Excitation Functions for Charged Particle Induced Reactions in Light Elements at Low Projectile Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, J.; Brune, D.

    1973-01-01

    The present chapter has been formulated with the aim of making it useful in various fields of nuclear applications with emphasis on charged particle activation analysis. Activation analysis of light elements using charged particles has proved to be an important tool in solving various problems in analytical chemistry, e g those associated with metal surfaces. Scientists desiring to evaluate the distribution of light elements in the surface of various matrices using charged particle reactions require accurate data on cross sections in the MeV-region. A knowledge of cross section data and yield-functions is of great interest in many applied fields involving work with charged particles, such as radiological protection and health physics, material research, semiconductor material investigations and corrosion chemistry. The authors therefore decided to collect a limited number of data which find use in these fields. Although the compilation is far from being complete, it is expected to be of assistance in devising measurements of charged particle reactions in Van de Graaff or other low energy accelerators

  16. Excitation Functions for Charged Particle Induced Reactions in Light Elements at Low Projectile Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzen, J; Brune, D

    1973-07-01

    The present chapter has been formulated with the aim of making it useful in various fields of nuclear applications with emphasis on charged particle activation analysis. Activation analysis of light elements using charged particles has proved to be an important tool in solving various problems in analytical chemistry, e g those associated with metal surfaces. Scientists desiring to evaluate the distribution of light elements in the surface of various matrices using charged particle reactions require accurate data on cross sections in the MeV-region. A knowledge of cross section data and yield-functions is of great interest in many applied fields involving work with charged particles, such as radiological protection and health physics, material research, semiconductor material investigations and corrosion chemistry. The authors therefore decided to collect a limited number of data which find use in these fields. Although the compilation is far from being complete, it is expected to be of assistance in devising measurements of charged particle reactions in Van de Graaff or other low energy accelerators

  17. Calculation of Vibrational and Electronic Excited-State Absorption Spectra of Arsenic-Water Complexes Using Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-03

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--16-9681 Calculation of Vibrational and Electronic Excited -State Absorption Spectra...NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Calculation of Vibrational and Electronic Excited -State Absorption Spectra of Arsenic-Water Complexes Using...Unclassified Unlimited Unclassified Unlimited 59 Samuel G. Lambrakos (202) 767-2601 Calculations are presented of vibrational and electronic excited -state

  18. Probing spatial properties of electronic excitation in water after interaction with temporally shaped femtosecond laser pulses: Experiments and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Thomas; Sarpe, Cristian; Jelzow, Nikolai [Institute of Physics and CINSaT, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Lillevang, Lasse H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Götte, Nadine; Zielinski, Bastian [Institute of Physics and CINSaT, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Balling, Peter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Senftleben, Arne [Institute of Physics and CINSaT, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Baumert, Thomas, E-mail: baumert@physik.uni-kassel.de [Institute of Physics and CINSaT, University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Temporally asymmetric shaped femtosecond laser pulses lead to excitation over smaller area and larger depth in water. • Transient optical properties are measured radially resolved by spectral interference in an imaging geometry. • Radially resolved spectral interference shows indications of nonlinear propagation effects at high fluences. - Abstract: In this work, laser excitation of water under ambient conditions is investigated by radially resolved common-path spectral interferometry. Water, as a sample system for dielectric materials, is excited by ultrashort bandwidth-limited and temporally asymmetric shaped femtosecond laser pulses, where the latter start with an intense main pulse followed by a decaying pulse sequence, i.e. a temporal Airy pulse. Spectral interference in an imaging geometry allows measurements of the transient optical properties integrated along the propagation through the sample but radially resolved with respect to the transverse beam profile. Since the optical properties reflect the dynamics of the free-electron plasma, such measurements reveal the spatial characteristics of the laser excitation. We conclude that temporally asymmetric shaped laser pulses are a promising tool for high-precision laser material processing, as they reduce the transverse area of excitation, but increase the excitation inside the material along the beam propagation.

  19. The Measurement of the Evaporation Residues Excitation Functions in the Fusion Reactions 144Sm (40Ar,xn) and 166Er(40Ar,xn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernysheva, E. V.; Rodin, A. M.; Belozerov, A. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Itkis, M. G.; Novoselov, A. S.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Vedeneev, V. Yu.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.; Krupa, L.; Kliman, J.; Motycak, S.; Sivacek, I.

    2015-06-01

    The evaporation residues excitation functions for the reactions 40Ar+144Sm→184Hg and 40Ar+166Er→206Rn were measured at the energies below and above the Coulomb barrier (Elab=142-207 MeV) using a mass-separator MASHA. The experimental data were compared with theoretical calculations using a Channel Coupling Model. The influence of experimental beam energy spread on the excitation functions was taking into account. It was found that structure of xn-cross sections correlate strongly with the nuclear structure of colliding nuclei.

  20. Enhancement of Cortical Excitability and Lower Limb Motor Function in Patients With Stroke by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Min Cheol; Kim, Dae Yul; Park, Dae Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Motor dysfunction in the lower limbs is a common sequela in stroke patients. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to determine if applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the primary motor cortex helps enhance cortical excitability. Furthermore, we evaluate if combination anodal tDCS and conventional physical therapy improves motor function in the lower limbs. Twenty-four patients with early-stage stroke were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 1) the tDCS group, in which patients received 10 sessions of anodal tDCS and conventional physical therapy; and 2) the sham group, in which patients received 10 sessions of sham stimulation and conventional physical therapy. One day before and after intervention, the motor-evoked potential (MEP) of the affected tibialis anterior muscle was evaluated and motor function was assessed using the lower limb subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-LE), lower limb Motricity Index (MI-LE), Functional Ambulatory Category (FAC), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and gait analysis. The MEPs in the tDCS group became shorter in latency and higher in amplitude after intervention in comparison with the sham group. Improvements in FMA-LE and MI-LE were greater in the tDCS group, but no significant differences in FAC or BBS scores were found. Also, the changes observed on the gait analyses did not significantly differ between the tDCS and sham groups. Combination anodal tDCS and conservative physical therapy appears to be a beneficial therapeutic modality for improving motor function in the lower limbs in patients with subacute stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Devlopments of components for the detector driving system of the PANDA calorimeter and studies on the photoproduction of excited η mesons with the CB/ELSA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This PhD thesis (written in German language) consists of two parts: The first part describes developments for the Detector Control System of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA detector. An alarm and current border regulation system has been developed for this to ensure the correct functioning of the detector and to prevent damages. In addition, a database system (endcap production database) has been created to accompany the construction of the forward endcap and archive the characteristics of the photodetectors. The second part deals with the investigation into excited η mesons using the data measured with the CB/ELSA experiment. The distribution of the η' production angle in the decay channel η'→ ηπ 0 π 0 has been calculated for the first time within the beam photo energy range of 2500 to 2950 MeV. Furthermore, the relative effective cross section of the η(1405) to the η' could be determined to 0.16±0.05 (3.2σ). This shows evidence for a more complex nature of the η(1405).

  2. Electronic states of thiophene/phenylene co-oligomers: Extreme-ultra violet excited photoelectron spectroscopy observations and density functional theory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Yoshizo; Sasaki, Fumio; Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Ishitsuka, Tomoaki; Tomie, Toshihisa; Ootsuka, Teruhisa; Watanabe, Shuji; Shimoi, Yukihiro; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated electronic states in the valence electron bands for the thin films of three thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) compounds, 2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl)thiophene (BP1T), 1,4-bis(5-phenylthiophen-2-yl)benzene (AC5), and 1,4-bis{5-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]thiophen-2-yl}benzene (AC5-CF 3 ), by using extreme-UV excited photoelectron spectroscopy (EUPS). By comparing both EUPS spectra and secondary electron spectra between AC5 and AC5-CF 3 , we confirm that CF 3 substitution to AC5 deepens valence states by 2 eV, and increases the ionization energy by 3 eV. From the cut-off positions of secondary electron spectra, the work functions of AC5, AC5-CF 3 , and BP1T are evaluated to be 3.8 eV, 4.8 eV, and 4.0 eV, respectively. We calculate molecular orbital (MO) energy levels by the density functional theory and compare results of calculations with those of experiments. Densities of states obtained by broadening MO levels well explain the overall features of experimental EUPS spectra of three TPCOs.

  3. Thin-target excitation functions: a powerful tool for optimizing yield, radionuclidic purity and specific activity of cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonardi, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    In accelerator production of radionuclides, thin-target yield, y(E), is defined as a function of the projectile energy E, at the End Of an Instantaneous Bombardment (EOIB), as the slope at the origin of the growing curve of the activity per unit beam current (A/I) of a specific radionuclide vs. irradiation time, for a target in which the energy loss is negligible with respect to the projectile energy itself. In practice, y(E) is defined as the second derivative of A/I with respect to particle energy and irradiation time, calculated when the irradiation time tends to zero (EOIB). The thin-target yields of different radionuclides, produced by direct and side reactions, are numerically fitted, taking into account the overall statistical errors as weights. The 'effective' cross-section σ ± (E) as a function of projectile energy is proportional to thin-target yield, but the physical meaning of this parameter is poor, being only a raw summation of the several cross sections of the reaction channels concerned, weighted on target isotopic composition. Conversely, Thick-Target Yield, Y(E,ΔE), is defined as a two parameter function of the incident particle energy E(MeV) onto the target and the energy loss ΔE (MeV), in the target itself, obtained by integration of thin-target excitation function, y(E). This approach holds in the strict approximation of a monochromatic beam of energy E, not affected by either intrinsic energy spread or straggling. The energy straggling is computed by Monte Carlo computer codes, like TRIM 2001. In case of total particle energy absorption in the target, for a nuclear reaction of energy threshold E th , the function Y(E,ΔE) reaches a value Y(E,E- E th ), for ΔE=E- E th , that represents mathematically the envelope of the Y(E,ΔE) family of curves. This envelope is a monotonically increasing curve, never reaching either a maximum or a saturation value, even if its slope becomes negligible for high particle energies and energy losses. Some

  4. Excitation functions of proton induced reactions on {sup nat}Fe in the energy region up to 45 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwangsoo [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Naik, Haladhara [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    The excitation functions of various reaction products such as {sup 55,56,57}Co, {sup 52}Fe, {sup 52,54}Mn, and {sup 51}Cr in the {sup nat}Fe(p, x) reactions were measured by the stacked-foil activation technique in the energy range between their respective reaction threshold and 45 MeV at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Korea. The present experimental data were compared with the existing literature data. It was found that excitation function of {sup 56,57}Co and {sup 51}Cr from the {sup nat}Fe(p, x) reaction are in agreement with the literature data. However, the cross-sections for {sup nat}Fe(p, x){sup 52}Fe reactions are lower and those for {sup nat}Fe(p, x){sup 52}Mn and {sup nat}Fe(p, x){sup 54}Mn reactions are higher than the literature data. The reaction cross-sections of the above mentioned reaction products were also compared with those from the TENDL-2012 library based on the TALYS-1.4 program as a function of proton energy, which was reproduced the trend of the excitation functions of the experimental {sup nat}Fe(p, x) reaction cross-section. The integral yields for thick target of the investigated radionuclides were calculated from the excitation function.

  5. Experiences with Matlab and VRML in Functional Neuroimaging Visualizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2000-01-01

    We describe some experiences with Matlab and VRML. We are developing a toolbox for neuroinformatics and describe some of the functionalities we have implemented or will implement and how Matlab and VRML support the implementation....

  6. New evolution equations for the joint response-excitation probability density function of stochastic solutions to first-order nonlinear PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, D.; Karniadakis, G. E.

    2012-08-01

    By using functional integral methods we determine new evolution equations satisfied by the joint response-excitation probability density function (PDF) associated with the stochastic solution to first-order nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). The theory is presented for both fully nonlinear and for quasilinear scalar PDEs subject to random boundary conditions, random initial conditions or random forcing terms. Particular applications are discussed for the classical linear and nonlinear advection equations and for the advection-reaction equation. By using a Fourier-Galerkin spectral method we obtain numerical solutions of the proposed response-excitation PDF equations. These numerical solutions are compared against those obtained by using more conventional statistical approaches such as probabilistic collocation and multi-element probabilistic collocation methods. It is found that the response-excitation approach yields accurate predictions of the statistical properties of the system. In addition, it allows to directly ascertain the tails of probabilistic distributions, thus facilitating the assessment of rare events and associated risks. The computational cost of the response-excitation method is order magnitudes smaller than the one of more conventional statistical approaches if the PDE is subject to high-dimensional random boundary or initial conditions. The question of high-dimensionality for evolution equations involving multidimensional joint response-excitation PDFs is also addressed.

  7. A vacuum-UV laser-induced fluorescence experiment for measurement of rotationally and vibrationally excited H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankan, P.; Heil, S.B.S.; Mazouffre, S.; Engeln, R.; Schram, D.C.; Doebele, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental setup is built to detect spatially resolved rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules via laser-induced fluorescence. To excite the hydrogen molecules, laser radiation is produced in the vacuum UV part of the spectrum. The laser radiation is tunable between 120 nm and 230 nm and has a bandwith of 0.15 cm -1 . The wavelength of the laser radiation is calibrated by simultaneous recording of the two-photon laser induced fluorescence spectrum of nitric oxide. The excited hydrogen populations are calibrated on the basis of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements. A population distribution is measured in the shock region of a pure hydrogen plasma expansion. The higher rotational levels (J>5) show overpopulation compared to a Boltzmann distribution determined from the lower rotational levels (J≤5)

  8. Brookhaven Reactor Experiment Control Facility, a distributed function computer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimmler, D.G.; Greenlaw, N.; Kelley, M.A.; Potter, D.W.; Rankowitz, S.; Stubblefield, F.W.

    1975-11-01

    A computer network for real-time data acquisition, monitoring and control of a series of experiments at the Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor has been developed and has been set into routine operation. This reactor experiment control facility presently services nine neutron spectrometers and one x-ray diffractometer. Several additional experiment connections are in progress. The architecture of the facility is based on a distributed function network concept. A statement of implementation and results is presented

  9. Excitation functions of pion reactions on 14N, 16O, and 19F through the (3,3) resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, N.P. Jr.; Markowitz, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    Cross sections for pion-induced reactions of the form (π,πN) and more complex spallation reactions of the form (π,X) have been measured from 50--550 MeV on the target nuclei 14 N, 16 O, and 19 F using the secondary pion beams at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 184-inch synchrocyclotron and the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The dominance of the (3,3) free-particle resonance is seen in all excitation functions determined in this work. Relative to the 12 C(π/sup plus-or-minus/,πN) 11 C reactions, the (π/sup plus-or-minus/,πN) reactions on 14 N, 16 O, and 19 F have magnitudes of 0.2, 1, and 0.7, respectively. The cross section ratio R=sigma (π - ,π - n)/sigma (π + ,π N) =1.68+-0.18 for 14 N at 188+-15 MeV, 1.68+-0.05 for 16 O at 188+-9 MeV, and 1.68+-0.03 for 19 F at 178+-2 MeV incident pion energy. The results from this work are compared to previous pion work, analogous proton-induced reactions, Monte Carlo intranuclear cascade-evaporation calculations, and to a semiclassical nucleon charge-exchange model which convincingly explains the (π,πN) reaction mechanism in the (3,3) resonance region

  10. Calculations for the excitation functions of the 63Cup, n63Zn, 63Cup, 2n62Zn and 65Cup, n65Zn reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, K.

    2001-01-01

    Calculations for the excitation functions of 63 Cup, n 63 Zn, 63 Cup, 2n 62 Zn and 65 Cup, n 65 Zn reactions have been carried out in 3-30 MeV energy range using statistical and pre-equilibrium nuclear reaction models. The calculations have been compared with reported measurements and discussed

  11. Analysis of complete fusion excitation functions for 7Li+152Sm, 197Au and 209Bi reactions at around barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharab, Rajesh; Chahal, Rajiv; Kumar, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    In the present work we have analyzed the fusion excitation function for CF process using the simple Wong’s formula in conjunction with the energy dependent Woods-Saxon potential (EDWSP) in near barrier energy region for 7 Li+ 152 Sm, 197 Au and 209 Bi reactions

  12. Excited State Charge Transfer reaction with dual emission from 5-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-penta-2,4-dienenitrile: Spectral measurement and theoretical density functional theory calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Sankar; Dalapati, Sasanka; Ghosh, Shalini; Kar, Samiran; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2011-07-01

    The excited state intramolecular charge transfer process in donor-chromophore-acceptor system 5-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-penta-2,4-dienenitrile (DMAPPDN) has been investigated by steady state absorption and emission spectroscopy in combination with Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. This flexible donor acceptor molecule DMAPPDN shows dual fluorescence corresponding to emission from locally excited and charge transfer state in polar solvent. Large solvatochromic emission shift, effect of variation of pH and HOMO-LUMO molecular orbital pictures support excited state intramolecular charge transfer process. The experimental findings have been correlated with the calculated structure and potential energy surfaces based on the Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (TICT) model obtained at DFT level using B3LYP functional and 6-31+G( d, p) basis set. The theoretical potential energy surfaces for the excited states have been generated in vacuo and acetonitrile solvent using Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Polarized Continuum Model (TDDFT-PCM) method, respectively. All the theoretical results show well agreement with the experimental observations.

  13. Evaluation of the excitation function of the 238U(n,2n)237U reaction for neutron energies from threshold to 19 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornilov, N.V.; Vinogradov, V.N.; Gay, E.V.; Rabotnov, N.S.; Salnikov, O.A.; Raics, P.; Daroczy, S.; Nagy, S.; Csikai, J.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results for the 238 U(n,2n) reaction were collected from the literature and evaluated. The normalisation of the measured cross sections was carried out using recent values for the cross sections of standard monitor reactions as well as new nuclear decay data. The evaluated excitation function was then obtained by the Pade-approximation. (Auth.)

  14. Excitation functions of the (pn) and (p,2n) reactions on Cd isotopes. [(pn) and (p,2n) reactions on the sup(110-114,116)Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skakun, E A; Klyucharev, A P; Rakivnenko, Yu N; Romanij, I A [AN Ukrainskoi SSR, Kiev. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskii Inst.

    1975-01-01

    Excitation functions of (pn)- and (p,2n)-reactions on /sup 110/-/sup 114/,/sup 116/Cd nuclei are measured in a range of incident proton energy up to 20 MeV. Experimental results are compared to calculated ones.

  15. Benchmarking DFT and TD-DFT Functionals for the Ground and Excited States of Hydrogen-Rich Peptide Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffet, Vanessa; Jacquemin, Denis; Cauët, Emilie; Frison, Gilles

    2014-08-12

    We assess the pros and cons of a large panel of DFT exchange-correlation functionals for the prediction of the electronic structure of hydrogen-rich peptide radicals formed after electron attachment on a protonated peptide. Indeed, despite its importance in the understanding of the chemical changes associated with the reduction step, the question of the attachment site of an electron and, more generally, of the reduced species formed in the gas phase through electron-induced dissociation (ExD) processes in mass spectrometry is still a matter of debate. For hydrogen-rich peptide radicals in which several positive groups and low-lying π* orbitals can capture the incoming electron in ExD, inclusion of full Hartree-Fock exchange at long-range interelectronic distance is a prerequisite for an accurate description of the electronic states, thereby excluding several popular exchange-correlation functionals, e.g., B3LYP, M06-2X, or CAM-B3LYP. However, we show that this condition is not sufficient by comparing the results obtained with asymptotically correct range-separated hybrids (M11, LC-BLYP, LC-BPW91, ωB97, ωB97X, and ωB97X-D) and with reference CASSCF-MRCI and EOM-CCSD calculations. The attenuation parameter ω significantly tunes the spin density distribution and the excited states vertical energies. The investigated model structures, ranging from methylammonium to hexapeptide, allow us to obtain a description of the nature and energy of the electronic states, depending on (i) the presence of hydrogen bond(s) around the cationic site(s), (ii) the presence of π* molecular orbitals (MOs), and (iii) the selected DFT approach. It turns out that, in the present framework, LC-BLYP and ωB97 yields the most accurate results.

  16. Double excitation of helium by ion impact. 2: Experiment and theory for 2-3 MeV proton impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Gleizes, A. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France); Andriamonje, S. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Gradignan (France). Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires]|[Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et Physique des Particules, 33 - Gradignan (France); Martin, F. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica; Salin, A. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 -Talence (France). Lab. des Collisions Atomiques

    1995-02-28

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the double excitation of helium by 2-3 MeV proton impact are presented. A detailed angular dependence of the lineshapes and intensities of the first 2l2l` resonances is discussed. The resonances are characterized by the Shore parameters A and B and the Fano parameter Q. Calculations within Born-I approximation describe approximately the excitation of the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S and 2s2p {sup 1}P resonances whereas they fail to reproduce the experimental findings for the 2p{sup 2} {sup 1}D one. On the other hand, close-coupling calculations improve the description of the excitation of the 2s2p{sup 1}P and explains very nicely the 2p{sup 2} {sup 1}D one. Weak discrepancies in the description of the 2s{sup 2} {sup 1}S and 2s2p {sup 1}P excitation in the forward direction are thought to be the signature of a residual post-collisional effect. It is shown that it does not affect the observed lineshapes in our collision velocity range. The integration of the resonance parameters over the emission angle of the electron allows us to deduce total electron yields and to connect the resulting profile with photoionization data. (author).

  17. Excitation functions and isomeric ratios for the isomeric pair sup(106m)Ag and sup(106g)Ag in the 107Ag (d,t) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalli, M.E.; Wasilevsky de Lammirato, C.; Herreros, O.R.; Nassiff, S.J.

    1976-09-01

    Excitation functions and isomeric cross section ratios have been measured for the 107 Ag (d,t), reaction in which the isomeric pair sup(106m/106g)Ag is produced. Thick-target yields have been determined for different irradiation times and as a function of deuteron energy. Stacked silver foils with aluminium foils as monitors were bombarded with deuterons up to 27 MeV and the activities of products measured with a calibrated Ge(Li) counter. (author) [es

  18. Exciter switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcpeak, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.

  19. MCSCF wave functions for excited states of polar molecules - Application to BeO. [Multi-Configuration Self-Consistent Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Yarkony, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    A previously reported multi-configuration self-consistent field (MCSCF) algorithm based on the generalized Brillouin theorem is extended in order to treat the excited states of polar molecules. In particular, the algorithm takes into account the proper treatment of nonorthogonality in the space of single excitations and invokes, when necessary, a constrained optimization procedure to prevent the variational collapse of excited states. In addition, a configuration selection scheme (suitable for use in conjunction with extended configuration interaction methods) is proposed for the MCSCF procedure. The algorithm is used to study the low-lying singlet states of BeO, a system which has not previously been studied using an MCSCF procedure. MCSCF wave functions are obtained for three 1 Sigma + and two 1 Pi states. The 1 Sigma + results are juxtaposed with comparable results for MgO in order to assess the generality of the description presented here.

  20. Derivation of the RPA (Random Phase Approximation) Equation of ATDDFT (Adiabatic Time Dependent Density Functional Ground State Response Theory) from an Excited State Variational Approach Based on the Ground State Functional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Tom; Krykunov, Mykhaylo; Autschbach, Jochen

    2014-09-09

    The random phase approximation (RPA) equation of adiabatic time dependent density functional ground state response theory (ATDDFT) has been used extensively in studies of excited states. It extracts information about excited states from frequency dependent ground state response properties and avoids, thus, in an elegant way, direct Kohn-Sham calculations on excited states in accordance with the status of DFT as a ground state theory. Thus, excitation energies can be found as resonance poles of frequency dependent ground state polarizability from the eigenvalues of the RPA equation. ATDDFT is approximate in that it makes use of a frequency independent energy kernel derived from the ground state functional. It is shown in this study that one can derive the RPA equation of ATDDFT from a purely variational approach in which stationary states above the ground state are located using our constricted variational DFT (CV-DFT) method and the ground state functional. Thus, locating stationary states above the ground state due to one-electron excitations with a ground state functional is completely equivalent to solving the RPA equation of TDDFT employing the same functional. The present study is an extension of a previous work in which we demonstrated the equivalence between ATDDFT and CV-DFT within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation.

  1. H{sub 2} EXCITATION STRUCTURE ON THE SIGHTLINES TO {delta} SCORPII AND {zeta} OPHIUCI: FIRST RESULTS FROM THE SUB-ORBITAL LOCAL INTERSTELLAR CLOUD EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, Kevin; Nell, Nicholas; Kane, Robert; Green, James C. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Burgh, Eric B. [SOFIA/USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, M/S N232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Beasley, Matthew, E-mail: kevin.france@colorado.edu [Planetary Resources, Inc., 93 S Jackson St 50680, Seattle, WA 98104-2818 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We present the first science results from the Sub-orbital Local Interstellar Cloud Experiment (SLICE): moderate resolution 1020-1070 A spectroscopy of four sightlines through the local interstellar medium. High signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of {eta} Uma, {alpha} Vir, {delta} Sco, and {zeta} Oph were obtained during a 2013 April 21 rocket flight. The SLICE observations constrain the density, molecular photoexcitation rates, and physical conditions present in the interstellar material toward {delta} Sco and {zeta} Oph. Our spectra indicate a factor of two lower total N(H{sub 2}) than previously reported for {delta} Sco, which we attribute to higher S/N and better scattered light control in the new SLICE observations. We find N(H{sub 2}) = 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2} on the {delta} Sco sightline, with kinetic and excitation temperatures of 67 and 529 K, respectively, and a cloud density of n{sub H} = 56 cm{sup -3}. Our observations of the bulk of the molecular sightline toward {zeta} Oph are consistent with previous measurements (N(H{sub 2}) Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} at T{sub 01}(H{sub 2}) = 66 K and T{sub exc} = 350 K). However, we detect significantly more rotationally excited H{sub 2} toward {zeta} Oph than previously observed. We infer a cloud density in the rotationally excited component of n{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 7600 cm{sup -3} and suggest that the increased column densities of excited H{sub 2} are a result of the ongoing interaction between {zeta} Oph and its environment; also manifest as the prominent mid-IR bowshock observed by WISE and the presence of vibrationally excited H{sub 2} molecules observed by the Hubble Space Telescope.

  2. Tight-binding approximations to time-dependent density functional theory — A fast approach for the calculation of electronically excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rüger, Robert, E-mail: rueger@scm.com [Scientific Computing & Modelling NV, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Linnéstr. 2, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Lenthe, Erik van [Scientific Computing & Modelling NV, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heine, Thomas [Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Linnéstr. 2, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Visscher, Lucas [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-05-14

    We propose a new method of calculating electronically excited states that combines a density functional theory based ground state calculation with a linear response treatment that employs approximations used in the time-dependent density functional based tight binding (TD-DFTB) approach. The new method termed time-dependent density functional theory TD-DFT+TB does not rely on the DFTB parametrization and is therefore applicable to systems involving all combinations of elements. We show that the new method yields UV/Vis absorption spectra that are in excellent agreement with computationally much more expensive TD-DFT calculations. Errors in vertical excitation energies are reduced by a factor of two compared to TD-DFTB.

  3. Observation of non-statistical structures in the excitation function of the reaction 10B(14N,12C)12C under extreme forward angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauss, E.U.

    1984-01-01

    In the present thesis the excitation functions of the reaction 10 B( 14 N, 12 C) 12 C to the ground states, the first excited state at 4.43 MeV (Jsup(π) = 2 1 + ) of a 12 C residual nucleus, and to the double excitation of ejectile and residue nucleus to the 4.43 state are studied. The measurements were performed in an energy range 13MeV 14 N) 0 (in the c.m. system). By a fitting to elastic scattering data the optical potential for 10 B+ 14 N was determined. With this potential it was tried by means of Hauser-Feshbach calculations to calculate the cross sections of the reaction 10 B( 14 N, 12 C) 12 C. The strong 16 + resonance and indications of 18 + in the excitation function of the reaction 10 B( 14 N, 12 Csub(g.s.)) 12 Csub(g.s.) should be pronounced. An unexpected large cross section was observed in the reaction 10 B( 14 N, 12 Csub(g.s.)) 12 C(4 1 + ). This is considered as a further indication to the strong contribution of a direct process. (orig./HSI) [de

  4. Lowest excited states and optical absorption spectra of donor–acceptor copolymers for organic photovoltaics: a new picture emerging from tuned long-range corrected density functionals

    KAUST Repository

    Pandey, Laxman; Doiron, Curtis; Sears, John S.; Bré das, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Polymers with low optical gaps are of importance to the organic photovoltaics community due to their potential for harnessing a large portion of the solar energy spectrum. The combination along their backbones of electron-rich and electron-deficient fragments contributes to the presence of low-lying excited states that are expected to display significant charge-transfer character. While conventional hybrid functionals are known to provide unsatisfactory results for charge-transfer excitations at the time-dependent DFT level, long-range corrected (LRC) functionals have been reported to give improved descriptions in a number of systems. Here, we use such LRC functionals, considering both tuned and default range-separation parameters, to characterize the absorption spectra of low-optical-gap systems of interest. Our results indicate that tuned LRC functionals lead to simulated optical-absorption properties in good agreement with experimental data. Importantly, the lowest-lying excited states (excitons) are shown to present a much more localized nature than initially anticipated. © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  5. Electron energy distribution functions and thermalization times in methane and in argon--methane mixtures: An effect of vibrational excitation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcar-Bronic, I.; Kimura, M.

    1995-01-01

    Electron thermalization in methane and argon--methane mixtures is studied by using the Boltzmann equation. The presence of low-lying vibrational excited states in methane significantly changes electron energy distribution functions and relaxation times. We found that (i) the mean electron energy just below the first vibrational excited state is reached faster by 1000 times when the vibrational states are taken into account, and (ii) electron energy distribution functions have distinct peaks at energy intervals equal to the vibrational threshold energies. Both these effects are due to large vibrational stopping cross section. The thermalization time in mixtures of argon--methane (without vibrational states) smoothly changes as the mixture composition varies, and no significant difference in the electron energy distribution function is observed. When the vibrational excited states are taken into account, thermalization is almost completely defined by CH 4 , even at very low fractional concentrations of CH 4 . The sensitivity of the electron energy distribution functions on the momentum transfer cross sections used in calculation on the thermalization is discussed. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  6. Functional MRI experiments : acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsey, NF; Hoogduin, H; Jansma, JM

    2002-01-01

    Functional MRI is widely used to address basic and clinical neuroscience questions. In the key domains of fMRI experiments, i.e. acquisition, processing and analysis, and interpretation of data, developments are ongoing. The main issues are sensitivity for changes in fMRI signal that are associated

  7. Radio frequency plasma excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, M.St.J.; Cross, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation into the use of rf sputtering for ion cleaning of insulating substrates before ion plating is reported. Initial experiments consisted of sputtering metals with rf power followed by the deposition of copper onto glass slides using rf plasma excitation and biasing supply. It was found that good quality films were obtained by rf ion plating onto plastics with excellent adhesion over a wide operating pressure range. A block schematic of the rf plasma excitation system is shown. (UK)

  8. Excited state nuclear forces from the Tamm-Dancoff approximation to time-dependent density functional theory within the plane wave basis set framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Jürg

    2003-03-01

    An efficient formulation of time-dependent linear response density functional theory for the use within the plane wave basis set framework is presented. The method avoids the transformation of the Kohn-Sham matrix into the canonical basis and references virtual orbitals only through a projection operator. Using a Lagrangian formulation nuclear derivatives of excited state energies within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation are derived. The algorithms were implemented into a pseudo potential/plane wave code and applied to the calculation of adiabatic excitation energies, optimized geometries and vibrational frequencies of three low lying states of formaldehyde. An overall good agreement with other time-dependent density functional calculations, multireference configuration interaction calculations and experimental data was found.

  9. Excitation function for the population of the 4.51 MeV state of 27Al inelastic proton scattering. Evidence for 6- strength?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, B.M.; Koutsoliotas, S.

    1995-01-01

    The excitation function for emission of 2.30 MeV gamma rays from the 4.51 MeV state of 27 Al formed in inelastic proton scattering has been measured for proton energies from 5.6 to 7.3 MeV. A resonance previously seen in both inelastic electron and proton scattering from 28 Si at 17.35 MeV has been observed as a resonance in the excitation function, as well as seven other resonances, all of which are narrow (i.e., less than 100 keV wide). It is suggested that these may represent fragments of 6 - strength in 28 Si. 6 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  10. Formation of Bonded Exciplex in the Excited States of Dicyanoanthracene-Pyridine System : Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, D.; Sethio, D.; Martoprawiro, M.A.; Filatov, M.; Gaol, FL; Nguyen, QV

    2012-01-01

    Strong quenching of fluorescence was recently observed in pyridine solutions of 9,10-dicyanoanthracene chromophore. It was hypothesized that quenching may be attributed to the formation of bound charge transfer complexes in the excited states of the molecules. In this work, using time-dependent

  11. Characterisation of work function fluctuations for high-precision experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlenberg, Jan; Bickmann, Edward; Heil, Werner; Otten, Ernst W.; Schmidt, Christian; Wunderle, Alexander [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Babutzka, Martin; Schoenung, Kerstin [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Beck, Marcus [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For a wide range of high-precision experiments in physics, well-defined electric potentials for achieving high measurement accuracies are required. An accurate determination of the electric potential is crucial for the measurement of the neutrino mass (KATRIN) as well as the measurement of the e{sup -} anti ν{sub e} correlation coefficient a in free neutron decay (aSPECT). Work function fluctuations on the electrodes lead to uncertainties in the distribution of the electric potential. For aSPECT, the electric potential has to be known at an accuracy of 10 mV. However, due to the patch effect of gold, work function fluctuations of several 100 meV can occur. Therefore, the work function distributions of the gold-plated electrodes have been measured using a Kelvin probe. Furthermore, the change of work function distributions over time as well as the influence of relative humidity on the work function measurement have been investigated. For aSPECT, the work function distributions of the gold-plated electrodes have been measured using a Kelvin probe. Due to the patch effect of gold, work function fluctuations of up to 160 meV occur. This would lead to a significant uncertainty of the potential barrier, which should be known at an accuracy of 10 mV. Furthermore, the change of work function distributions over time as well as the influence of relative humidity on the work function measurement have been investigated.

  12. Exciting Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bradford L.

    1975-01-01

    Advocates the creation of swimming pool oscillations as part of a general investigation of mechanical oscillations. Presents the equations, procedure for deriving the slosh modes, and methods of period estimation for exciting swimming pool oscillations. (GS)

  13. Excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    1974-01-01

    Excited States, Volume I reviews radiationless transitions, phosphorescence microwave double resonance through optical spectra in molecular solids, dipole moments in excited states, luminescence of polar molecules, and the problem of interstate interaction in aromatic carbonyl compounds. The book discusses the molecular electronic radiationless transitions; the double resonance techniques and the relaxation mechanisms involving the lowest triplet state of aromatic compounds; as well as the optical spectra and relaxation in molecular solids. The text also describes dipole moments and polarizab

  14. Non linear evolution of plasma waves excited to mode conversion at the vicinity of plasma resonance. Application to experiments of ionosphere modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cros, Brigitte

    1989-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the non linear evolution of plasma waves excited by mode conversion in a non homogeneous, non collisional, and free-of-external-magnetic-field plasma. Experiments performed in the microwave domain in a plasma created by means of a multi-polar device show that the evolution of plasma waves displays a transition between a non linear quasi-steady regime and a stochastic regime when the power of incident electromagnetic waves or plasma gradient length is increased. These regimes are characterized through a numerical resolution of Zakharov equations which describe the coupled evolution of plasma wave envelope and low frequency density perturbations [fr

  15. Critical Assessment of Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory for Excited States of Open-Shell Systems: II. Doublet-Quartet Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2016-06-14

    Compared with closed-shell systems, open-shell systems place three additional challenges to time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) for electronically excited states: (a) the spin-contamination problem is a serious issue; (b) the exchange-correlation (XC) kernel may be numerically instable; and (c) the single-determinant description of open-shell ground states readily becomes energetically instable. Confined to flip-up single excitations, the spin-contamination problem can largely be avoided by using the spin-flip TD-DFT (SF-TD-DFT) formalism, provided that a noncollinear XC kernel is employed. As for the numerical instabilities associated with such a kernel, only an ad hoc scheme has been proposed so far, viz., the ALDA0 kernel, which amounts to setting the divergent components (arising from density gradients and kinetic energy density) simply to zero. The ground-state instability problem can effectively be avoided by introducing the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) to TD-DFT. Therefore, on a general basis, the SF-TDA/ALDA0 Ansatz is so far the only promising means within the TD-DFT framework for flip-up single excitations of open-shell systems. To assess systematically the performance of SF-TDA/ALDA0, in total 61 low-lying quartet excited states of the benchmark set of 11 small radicals [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2016, 12, 238] are investigated with various XC functionals. Taking the MRCISD+Q (multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles plus the Davidson correction) results as benchmark, it is found that the mean absolute errors of SF-TDA/ALDA0 with the SAOP (statistical averaging of model orbital potentials), global hybrid, and range-separated hybrid functionals are in the range of 0.2-0.4 eV. This is in line not only with the typical accuracy of TD-DFT for singlet and triplet excited states of closed-shell systems but also with the gross accuracy of spin-adapted TD-DFT for spin-conserving excited states of open-shell systems.

  16. Organic electronic materials: Recent advances in the dft description of the ground and excited states using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals

    KAUST Repository

    Körzdörfer, Thomas

    2014-11-18

    Density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TD-DFT) are powerful tools enabling the theoretical prediction of the ground- and excited-state properties of organic electronic materials with reasonable accuracy at affordable computational costs. Due to their excellent accuracy-to-numerical-costs ratio, semilocal and global hybrid functionals such as B3LYP have become the workhorse for geometry optimizations and the prediction of vibrational spectra in modern theoretical organic chemistry. Despite the overwhelming success of these out-of-the-box functionals for such applications, the computational treatment of electronic and structural properties that are of particular interest in organic electronic materials sometimes reveals severe and qualitative failures of such functionals. Important examples include the overestimation of conjugation, torsional barriers, and electronic coupling as well as the underestimation of bond-length alternations or excited-state energies in low-band-gap polymers.In this Account, we highlight how these failures can be traced back to the delocalization error inherent to semilocal and global hybrid functionals, which leads to the spurious delocalization of electron densities and an overestimation of conjugation. The delocalization error for systems and functionals of interest can be quantified by allowing for fractional occupation of the highest occupied molecular orbital. It can be minimized by using long-range corrected hybrid functionals and a nonempirical tuning procedure for the range-separation parameter.We then review the benefits and drawbacks of using tuned long-range corrected hybrid functionals for the description of the ground and excited states of π-conjugated systems. In particular, we show that this approach provides for robust and efficient means of characterizing the electronic couplings in organic mixed-valence systems, for the calculation of accurate torsional barriers at the polymer limit, and for the

  17. Plane-Wave Implementation and Performance of à-la-Carte Coulomb-Attenuated Exchange-Correlation Functionals for Predicting Optical Excitation Energies in Some Notorious Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Martin P; Rothlisberger, Ursula

    2018-06-12

    Linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TD-DFT) has become a valuable tool in the calculation of excited states of molecules of various sizes. However, standard generalized-gradient approximation and hybrid exchange-correlation (xc) functionals often fail to correctly predict charge-transfer (CT) excitations with low orbital overlap, thus limiting the scope of the method. The Coulomb-attenuation method (CAM) in the form of the CAM-B3LYP functional has been shown to reliably remedy this problem in many CT systems, making accurate predictions possible. However, in spite of a rather consistent performance across different orbital overlap regimes, some pitfalls remain. Here, we present a fully flexible and adaptable implementation of the CAM for Γ-point calculations within the plane-wave pseudopotential molecular dynamics package CPMD and explore how customized xc functionals can improve the optical spectra of some notorious cases. We find that results obtained using plane waves agree well with those from all-electron calculations employing atom-centered bases, and that it is possible to construct a new Coulomb-attenuated xc functional based on simple considerations. We show that such a functional is able to outperform CAM-B3LYP in some cases, while retaining similar accuracy in systems where CAM-B3LYP performs well.

  18. Babelomics: advanced functional profiling of transcriptomics, proteomics and genomics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shahrour, Fátima; Carbonell, José; Minguez, Pablo; Goetz, Stefan; Conesa, Ana; Tárraga, Joaquín; Medina, Ignacio; Alloza, Eva; Montaner, David; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2008-01-01

    We present a new version of Babelomics, a complete suite of web tools for the functional profiling of genome scale experiments, with new and improved methods as well as more types of functional definitions. Babelomics includes different flavours of conventional functional enrichment methods as well as more advanced gene set analysis methods that makes it a unique tool among the similar resources available. In addition to the well-known functional definitions (GO, KEGG), Babelomics includes new ones such as Biocarta pathways or text mining-derived functional terms. Regulatory modules implemented include transcriptional control (Transfac, CisRed) and other levels of regulation such as miRNA-mediated interference. Moreover, Babelomics allows for sub-selection of terms in order to test more focused hypothesis. Also gene annotation correspondence tables can be imported, which allows testing with user-defined functional modules. Finally, a tool for the ‘de novo’ functional annotation of sequences has been included in the system. This allows using yet unannotated organisms in the program. Babelomics has been extensively re-engineered and now it includes the use of web services and Web 2.0 technology features, a new user interface with persistent sessions and a new extended database of gene identifiers. Babelomics is available at http://www.babelomics.org PMID:18515841

  19. Assessment of charge-transfer excitations with time-dependent, range-separated density functional theory based on long-range MP2 and multiconfigurational self- consistent field wave functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik D.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Knecht, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    -MC-srDFT) excitation energies calculated over a larger benchmark set of molecules with predominantly single reference character yield good agreement with their reference values, and are in general comparable to the CAM-B3LYP functional. The SOPPA-srDFT scheme is tested for a subset of molecules used for benchmarking...

  20. On the truncation of the number of excited states in density functional theory sum-over-states calculations of indirect spin spin coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarycz, M. Natalia C.; Provasi, Patricio F.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is investigated, whether the number of excited (pseudo)states can be truncated in the sum-over-states expression for indirect spin-spin coupling constants (SSCCs), which is used in the Contributions from Localized Orbitals within the Polarization Propagator Approach and Inner Projections of the Polarization Propagator (IPPP-CLOPPA) approach to analyzing SSCCs in terms of localized orbitals. As a test set we have studied the nine simple compounds, CH 4 , NH 3 , H 2 O, SiH 4 , PH 3 , SH 2 , C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , and C 2 H 6 . The excited (pseudo)states were obtained from time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and the specialized core-property basis set, aug-cc-pVTZ-J. We investigated both how the calculated coupling constants depend on the number of (pseudo)states included in the summation and whether the summation can be truncated in a systematic way at a smaller number of states and extrapolated to the total number of (pseudo)states for the given one-electron basis set. We find that this is possible and that for some of the couplings it is sufficient to include only about 30% of the excited (pseudo)states

  1. On the truncation of the number of excited states in density functional theory sum-over-states calculations of indirect spin spin coupling constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarycz, M. Natalia C., E-mail: mnzarycz@gmail.com; Provasi, Patricio F., E-mail: patricio@unne.edu.ar [Department of Physics, University of Northeastern - CONICET, Av. Libertad 5500, Corrientes W3404AAS (Argentina); Sauer, Stephan P. A., E-mail: sauer@kiku.dk [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2015-12-28

    It is investigated, whether the number of excited (pseudo)states can be truncated in the sum-over-states expression for indirect spin-spin coupling constants (SSCCs), which is used in the Contributions from Localized Orbitals within the Polarization Propagator Approach and Inner Projections of the Polarization Propagator (IPPP-CLOPPA) approach to analyzing SSCCs in terms of localized orbitals. As a test set we have studied the nine simple compounds, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, SiH{sub 4}, PH{sub 3}, SH{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The excited (pseudo)states were obtained from time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and the specialized core-property basis set, aug-cc-pVTZ-J. We investigated both how the calculated coupling constants depend on the number of (pseudo)states included in the summation and whether the summation can be truncated in a systematic way at a smaller number of states and extrapolated to the total number of (pseudo)states for the given one-electron basis set. We find that this is possible and that for some of the couplings it is sufficient to include only about 30% of the excited (pseudo)states.

  2. Accelerated Time-Domain Modeling of Electromagnetic Pulse Excitation of Finite-Length Dissipative Conductors over a Ground Plane via Function Fitting and Recursive Convolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campione, Salvatore [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Warne, Larry K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sainath, Kamalesh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Basilio, Lorena I. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    In this report we overview the fundamental concepts for a pair of techniques which together greatly hasten computational predictions of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) excitation of finite-length dissipative conductors over a ground plane. In a time- domain, transmission line (TL) model implementation, predictions are computationally bottlenecked time-wise, either for late-time predictions (about 100ns-10000ns range) or predictions concerning EMP excitation of long TLs (order of kilometers or more ). This is because the method requires a temporal convolution to account for the losses in the ground. Addressing this to facilitate practical simulation of EMP excitation of TLs, we first apply a technique to extract an (approximate) complex exponential function basis-fit to the ground/Earth's impedance function, followed by incorporating this into a recursion-based convolution acceleration technique. Because the recursion-based method only requires the evaluation of the most recent voltage history data (versus the entire history in a "brute-force" convolution evaluation), we achieve necessary time speed- ups across a variety of TL/Earth geometry/material scenarios. Intentionally Left Blank

  3. Polarization-dependent force driving the Eg mode in bismuth under optical excitation: comparison of first-principles theory with ultra-fast x-ray experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Stephen; Murray, Eamonn

    2015-03-01

    Using first principles electronic structure methods, we calculate the induced force on the Eg (zone centre transverse optical) phonon mode in bismuth immediately after absorption of a ultrafast pulse of polarized light. To compare the results with recent ultra-fast, time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments, we include the decay of the force due to carrier scattering, as measured in optical Raman scattering experiments, and simulate the optical absorption process, depth-dependent atomic driving forces, and x-ray diffraction in the experimental geometry. We find excellent agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observed oscillations of the x-ray diffraction signal, indicating that first-principles theory of optical absorption is well suited to the calculation of initial atomic driving forces in photo-excited materials following ultrafast excitation. This work is supported by Science Foundation Ireland (Grant No. 12/IA/1601) and EU Commission under the Marie Curie Incoming International Fellowships (Grant No. PIIF-GA-2012-329695).

  4. Positronium in the AEgIS experiment: study on its emission from nanochanneled samples and design of a new apparatus for Rydberg excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Di Noto, Lea

    This experimental thesis has been done in the framework of AEgIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy), an experiment installed at CERN, whose primary goal is the measurement of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on anti-hydrogen. The antiatoms will be produced by the charge exchange reaction, where a cloud of Ps in Rydberg states interacts with cooled trapped antiprotons. Since the charge exchange cross section depends on Ps velocity and quantum number, the velocity distribution of Ps emitted by a positron-positronium converter as well as its excitation in Rydberg states have to be studied and optimized. In this thesis Ps cooling and emission into vacuum from nanochannelled silicon targets was studied by performing Time of Flight measurements with a dedicated apparatus conceived to receive the slow positron beam as produced at the Trento laboratory or at the NEPOMUC facility at Munich. Measurements were done by varying the positron implantation energy, the sample temperature and ...

  5. Excitation functions and yields of proton induced reactions at intermediate energies leading to important diagnostics radioisotopes of 52Fe, 77Br, 82Rb, 97Ru, 111In, 123I, 127Xe, 128Cs, 178Ta and 201Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rurarz, E.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes investigations of the excitation functions of the proton induced reactions on 14 targets (Mn, Co, Br, Rb, 99 Tc, 113 Cd, 114 Cd, Cd, I, Cs, Ta, 206,207,208 Pb) leading directly or indirectly to the formation of radionuclides 52 Fe, 77 Br, 82 Rb, 97 Ru, 111 In, 123 I, 127 Xe, 128 Cs, 178 Ta and 201 Tl frequently used in diagnostic procedures of nuclear medicine. The measurements of the excitation functions were made over a wide proton energy range from the reaction threshold up to 100 MeV using the stacked foil (or pellet) technique. Small energy steps were used to allow for accurate determination of the structure of excitation functions. For 97 Ru, 111 In and 127 Xe formation with protons, new reaction channels and targets were used and data concerning this method are published for the first time. The data for 52 Fe, 77 Br, 82 Rb, 123 I, 128 Cs and 201 Tl obtained in the present work for the E p =70-100 MeV region are also published for the first time. The measured excitation functions for the formation of desired (and undesired) radionuclides (altogether 28 excitation functions) are compared with the theoretical ones calculated on the basis of a hybrid model of nuclear reactions in the form of the Overlaid Alice computer code. In order to determine the contribution of the competitive reaction channels to the purity of the produced, desired radionuclide, the excitation functions of the accompanying reactions were also calculated. The 122 calculated excitation functions for the possible contaminant are given in the present work. The comparison of experimental excitation functions with the results of model calculations showed satisfactory agreement, especially if one considers, that no parameter adjustment for individual reaction products was undertaken. From the measured excitation functions the production yields for 28 radionuclides mentioned above have been determined (author). 262 refs, 65 figs, 34 tabs

  6. Excited fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudjema, F.; Djouadi, A.; Kneur, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The production of excited fermions with mass above 100 GeV is considered. f→Vf (1) decay widths are calculated where V=γ, Z or W. Excited fermion pair production in e + e - annihilation and in γγ collisions, and single production in e + e - annihilation, eγ and γγ collisions is also discussed. Cross sections are calculated for all these cases. The discovery potential of the NLC at 500 GeV is compared with that of other colliders. (K.A.) 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Excitation power quantities in phase resonance testing of nonlinear systems with phase-locked-loop excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Simon; Leine, Remco I.

    2017-11-01

    Phase resonance testing is one method for the experimental extraction of nonlinear normal modes. This paper proposes a novel method for nonlinear phase resonance testing. Firstly, the issue of appropriate excitation is approached on the basis of excitation power considerations. Therefore, power quantities known from nonlinear systems theory in electrical engineering are transferred to nonlinear structural dynamics applications. A new power-based nonlinear mode indicator function is derived, which is generally applicable, reliable and easy to implement in experiments. Secondly, the tuning of the excitation phase is automated by the use of a Phase-Locked-Loop controller. This method provides a very user-friendly and fast way for obtaining the backbone curve. Furthermore, the method allows to exploit specific advantages of phase control such as the robustness for lightly damped systems and the stabilization of unstable branches of the frequency response. The reduced tuning time for the excitation makes the commonly used free-decay measurements for the extraction of backbone curves unnecessary. Instead, steady-state measurements for every point of the curve are obtained. In conjunction with the new mode indicator function, the correlation of every measured point with the associated nonlinear normal mode of the underlying conservative system can be evaluated. Moreover, it is shown that the analysis of the excitation power helps to locate sources of inaccuracies in the force appropriation process. The method is illustrated by a numerical example and its functionality in experiments is demonstrated on a benchmark beam structure.

  8. Executive functions in children who experience bullying situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandersonia Medeiros

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is characterized by intentional, repetitive, and persistent aggressive behavior that causes damage to the victim. Many studies investigate the social and emotional aspects related to bullying, but few assess the cognitive aspects it involves. Studies with aggressive individuals indicate impairment in executive functioning and decision-making. The objective of this study was to assess hot and cold executive functions in children who experience bullying. A total of 60 children between 10 and 11 years of age were included in the study. They were divided into four groups: aggressors (bullies, victims, bully-victims, and control. Tests for decision-making, inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility were used. The bully group made more unfavorable choices on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, which may indicate difficulties in the decision-making process. The victim group took longer to complete the Trail Making Test (Part B than aggressors, suggesting lower cognitive flexibility in victims. The hypothesis that aggressors would have lower performance in other executive functions such as inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility has not been confirmed. This study indicates that bullies have an impairment of hot executive functions whereas victims have a comparatively lower performance in cold executive functions. In addition to social and cultural variables, neurocognitive and emotional factors seem to influence the behavior of children in bullying situations.

  9. New insights into structure-function relationship of the DHPR beta1a subunit in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling using zebrafish 'relaxed' as an expression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, A.

    2010-01-01

    The paralyzed zebrafish strain relaxed carries a null mutation for the skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) [beta]1a subunit. The lack of [beta]1a not only impedes functional [alpha]1S membrane expression but also precludes the skeletal muscle-specific ultrastructural arrangement of DHPRs into tetrads opposite ryanodine receptor (RyR1), coherent with the absence of skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. With the plethora of experimental approaches feasible with zebrafish model organism and importantly with the [beta]1-null mutation having a monogenetic inheritance and because of the survival of the relaxed larvae for some days, we were able to establish the zebrafish relaxed as an expression system. Linking in vitro to in vivo observations, a clear differentiation between the major functional roles of [beta] subunits in EC coupling was feasible. The skeletal muscle [beta]1a subunit was able to restore all parameters of EC coupling upon expression in relaxed myotubes and larvae. Expression of the phylogenetically closest isoform to [beta]1a, the cardiac/neuronal [beta]2a subunit or the most distant neuronal [beta]M from the housefly in relaxed myotubes and larvae was likewise able to fully restore [alpha]1S triad targeting and facilitate charge movement. However, efficient tetrad formation and thus intact DHPR-RyR1 coupling was exclusively promoted by the [beta]1a isoform. Consequently, we postulated a model according to which [beta]1a acts as a unique allosteric modifier of [alpha]1S conformation crucial for skeletal muscle EC coupling. Therefore, unique structural elements in [beta]1a must be present which endow it with this exclusive property. Earlier, a unique hydrophobic heptad repeat motif (LVV) in the [beta]1a C-terminus was postulated by others to be essential for skeletal muscle EC coupling. We wanted to address the question if the proposed [beta]1a heptad repeat motif could be an active element of the DHPR-RyR1 signal transduction

  10. Free electrons and ionic liquids: study of excited states by means of electron-energy loss spectroscopy and the density functional theory multireference configuration interaction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regeta, Khrystyna; Bannwarth, Christoph; Grimme, Stefan; Allan, Michael

    2015-06-28

    The technique of low energy (0-30 eV) electron impact spectroscopy, originally developed for gas phase molecules, is applied to room temperature ionic liquids (IL). Electron energy loss (EEL) spectra recorded near threshold, by collecting 0-2 eV electrons, are largely continuous, assigned to excitation of a quasi-continuum of high overtones and combination vibrations of low-frequency modes. EEL spectra recorded by collecting 10 eV electrons show predominantly discrete vibrational and electronic bands. The vibrational energy-loss spectra correspond well to IR spectra except for a broadening (∼0.04 eV) caused by the liquid surroundings, and enhanced overtone activity indicating a contribution from resonant excitation mechanism. The spectra of four representative ILs were recorded in the energy range of electronic excitations and compared to density functional theory multireference configuration interaction (DFT/MRCI) calculations, with good agreement. The spectra up to about 8 eV are dominated by π-π* transitions of the aromatic cations. The lowest bands were identified as triplet states. The spectral region 2-8 eV was empty in the case of a cation without π orbitals. The EEL spectrum of a saturated solution of methylene green in an IL band showed the methylene green EEL band at 2 eV, indicating that ILs may be used as a host to study nonvolatile compounds by this technique in the future.

  11. Application of the Real-Time Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory to Excited-State Dynamics of Molecules and 2D Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Rubio, Angel

    2018-04-01

    We review our recent developments in the ab initio simulation of excited-state dynamics within the framework of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Our targets range from molecules to 2D materials, although the methods are general and can be applied to any other finite and periodic systems. We discuss examples of excited-state dynamics obtained by real-time TDDFT coupled with molecular dynamics (MD) and the Ehrenfest approximation, including photoisomerization in molecules, photoenhancement of the weak interatomic attraction of noble gas atoms, photoenhancement of the weak interlayer interaction of 2D materials, pulse-laser-induced local bond breaking of adsorbed atoms on 2D sheets, modulation of UV light intensity by graphene nanoribbons at terahertz frequencies, and collision of high-speed ions with the 2D material to simulate the images taken by He ion microscopy. We illustrate how the real-time TDDFT approach is useful for predicting and understanding non-equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. We also discuss recent developments that address the excited-state dynamics of systems out of equilibrium and future challenges in this fascinating field of research.

  12. Telescience testbed: Operational support functions for biomedical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Watanabe, Satoru; Shoji, Takatoshi; Clarke, Andrew H.; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yanagihara, Dai

    A telescience testbed was conducted to study the methodology of space biomedicine with simulated constraints imposed on space experiments. An experimental subject selected for this testbedding was an elaborate surgery of animals and electrophysiological measurements conducted by an operator onboard. The standing potential in the ampulla of the pigeon's semicircular canal was measured during gravitational and caloric stimulation. A principal investigator, isolated from the operation site, participated in the experiment interactively by telecommunication links. Reliability analysis was applied to the whole layers of experimentation, including design of experimental objectives and operational procedures. Engineering and technological aspects of telescience are discussed in terms of reliability to assure quality of science. Feasibility of robotics was examined for supportive functions to reduce the workload of the onboard operator.

  13. Excited state transitions in 2νββ decays of {sup 76}Ge from phase I of the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, Thomas [IKTP, TU Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Germanium Detector Array GERDA is an experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The observation of such a decay would prove the Majorana character of the neutrino and could provide a hint about the neutrino mass and possibly identify the mass hierarchy scheme. The half life of the neutrino accompanied double beta decay (2νββ) of {sup 76}Ge has been measured by GERDA Phase I with unprecedented precision. The observed spectrum comes mostly from the transition from the 0{sup +} ground state of {sup 76}Ge to the 0{sup +} ground state of {sup 76}Se. However, phase space suppressed 2νββ transitions to excited states of {sup 76}Se exist as well. At current state, the predicted half lives for such decays vary by several orders of magnitude, due to the large uncertainties in the nuclear matrix elements and the available nuclear models. An observation would therefore help to constrain model parameters and decrease those uncertainties. This study investigates the 2νββ decay of {sup 76}Ge into various excited states of {sup 76}Se using the data from GERDA Phase I. An event counting method is performed based on coincident events between two germanium detectors. Several analysis parameters are optimized with the help of Monte Carlo simulations to maximize the sensitivity. The presentation discusses the procedure and results of this analysis.

  14. The excitation functions of 4s-4p and 3d-4p transitions in Ni atoms sputtered from metallic targets by Ar+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, P.; Gabla, L.; Pedrys, R.

    1981-01-01

    The intensities of spectral lines corresponding to 4s-4p and 3d-4p transitions in Ni atoms sputtered from metallic targets by Ar + ions were measured. The energy of primary ions was varied from 4 keV to 10 keV. Both single crystal and polycrystalline targets were used at various temperatures including ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases. The excitation functions calculated from experimental data can be explained only by the assumption that the promotion of the electrons occurs during energetic binary collisions of atomic particles in the solid. (orig.)

  15. Excitation function and yield for the 103Rh(d,2n)103Pd nuclear reaction: Optimization of the production of palladium-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manenti, Simone; Alí Santoro, María del Carmen; Cotogno, Giulio; Duchemin, Charlotte; Haddad, Ferid; Holzwarth, Uwe; Groppi, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Deuteron-induced nuclear reactions for the generation of 103 Pd were investigated using the stacked-foil activation technique on rhodium targets at deuteron energies up to E d = 33 MeV. The excitation functions of the reactions 103 Rh(d,xn) 101,103 Pd, 103 Rh(d,x) 100g,cum,101m,g,102m,g Rh and 103 Rh(d,2p) 103 Ru have been measured, and the Thick-Target Yield for 103 Pd has been calculated.

  16. Measurement of excitation functions and isomeric ratios of the 197Au(3He,xn)200- sup(x)Tl reactions, where x=2,3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinagre Filho, U.M.

    1983-01-01

    The excitation functions and isomer ratios of the 197 Au( 3 He,xn) 200- sup(x)Tl reactions, with x = 2, 3 and 4, were measured at bombarding energies in the range from 15 to 36 MeV. The measured values were compared to those obtained with the use of the statistical an hybrid modeles, calculated by the ALICE code. Best fit was achieved using the simple statistical model. The results were also compared to those found in literature for the ( 3 He,xn) and ( 4 He,xn) reactions in gold. (Author) [pt

  17. Electron-impact excitation of Zn II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Msezane, A.Z.; Henry, R.J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Collision strengths are calculated for excitation of Zn II from the 4s ground state to excited states 4p, 3d 9 4s 2 , 5s, and 4d in a five-state close-coupling approximation for the electron-impact energy range 15 5 3d 10 4s 2 in a two-state close-coupling approximation for the same energy range. Accurate target functions are used in the expansion. Very good agreement with measurements of absolute emission cross sections of Rogers et al. is obtained for energy region 15< E<100 eV, when cascade contributions are included. Poorer agreement is obtained with experiment for excitation of the 5s state, owing to sensitivities in the close-coupling approximation

  18. Excitation and propagation of electromagnetic fluctuations with ion-cyclotron range of frequency in magnetic reconnection laboratory experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomoto, Michiaki; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Ono, Yasushi; Kuwahata, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    Large-amplitude electromagnetic fluctuations of ion-cyclotron-frequency range are detected in a laboratory experiment inside the diffusion region of a magnetic reconnection with a guide field. The fluctuations have properties similar to kinetic Alfvén waves propagating obliquely to the guide field. Temporary enhancement of the reconnection rate is observed during the occurrence of the fluctuations, suggesting a relationship between the modification in the local magnetic structure given by these fluctuations and the intermittent fast magnetic reconnection

  19. An exciting experiment for pre-engineering and introductory physics students: creating a DC motor using the Lorentz force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq N; Boehm, Manfred H; Bushey, Ryan K

    2008-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have been demonstrated in some instances to be difficult or uninteresting to students at the collegiate level. We have developed a laboratory that introduces the concept of the Lorentz force and allows students to build a non-traditional DC motor out of easily acquired materials. Basic electricity and magnetism concepts are joined together in a simple and enjoyable experiment that allows the students to demonstrate physics at first hand and without the use of complex materials

  20. Wave excitation in the experiment with an electron beam at the Dzhajkiken Exos-B Japanese satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavashima, N.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment on investigation of beam-plasma interaction in the magnetosphere is carried out at the ''Dzhajkiken (Exos-B)'' japanese satellite. 100-200 eV and 0.25-1 μA electron beam was injected into the magnetosphere. Using LF and HF detectors in low altitude range waves with the frequencies close to the upper hybrid and electron frequencies are recorded. Beyond the plasmapause the satellite was charged to the potential corresponding to the beam energy

  1. Excited baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    The status of the theory of the low-energy approach to hadron structure is reviewed briefly by surveying a few relevant models. A few examples of tests needed to sort out the predictions of different models pertaining to the quark-gluon structure of hadrons are discussed, and given the resulting physics objectives, a few experimental options for excited baryon research at CFBAF are suggested

  2. Excited baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    The status of the theory of the low-energy approach to hadron structure is reviewed briefly by surveying a few relevant models. A few examples of tests needed to sort out the predictions of different models pertaining to the quark-gluon structure of hadrons are discussed, and given the resulting physics objectives, a few experimental options for excited baryon research at CFBAF are suggested. (LEW)

  3. Our experience with radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, Otakar

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this paper the author presents his experience with radioiodine therapy of thyroid functional autonomies. The objectives of this study were to establish the efficacy and determine the adverse effects of radioiodine therapy of patients with thyroid functional autonomies. The main pathologic attribute of thyroid functional autonomies is the loss of regulation in the axis of hypothalamus-hypophysis-thyroid. The main cause of functional autonomy of the thyroid is iodine deficiency. Over a period of 30 years (1974-2004) 799 patients (age from 33 to 86 years; average age 58.7 years; the female: male ration was 7.4:1) with unifocal functional autonomy (UFA), multifocal functional autonomy (MFA) and disseminated functional autonomy (DFA) received at least one treatment of radioiodine. For diagnostics and the evaluation of radioiodine therapeutic effect of functional autonomies a thyroid scintigraphy is the basic and necessary procedure. In some patients a common scintigraphy with special imaging modulation, in some patients a scintigraphy after suppression or stimulation by means of thyroid hormones or TSH were done. We have also performed a thyroid ultrasonography, an assessment of a serum level of a total and free thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, TSH, radioiodine accumulation test, estimation of radioiodine effective half-life, in some patients TRH-TSH test. The follow-up examinations were done in all patients after 4-6 months, another examination after one year in 545 patients and after two years in 254 patients. One therapeutic dose received 733 patients (91.74%) and it was sufficient for an elimination of functional autonomies. Some patients were retreated if there was the evidence of small or no treatment effect and no elimination of functional autonomies. Two radioiodine treatments received 62 patients (7.76%) and three treatments 4 patients (0.5%). We advocate individual pre-therapeutic dosimetry to determine the activity necessary to achieve a

  4. Excitation functions of alpha particles induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium in the energy range of 10.4–50.2 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, Ahmed Rufai; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Haba, Hiromitsu; Otuka, Naohiko; Murakami, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Detailed presentation of new results on experimental cross-sections of "n"a"tTi(α,x) processes. • Calculations of thick target yields for scandium and other radionuclides via the "n"a"tTi(α,x) production route. • Comparison with TENDL-2015 library. • Detailed review of previous experimental data. - Abstract: We studied the excitation functions of residual radionuclide productions from α particles bombardment on natural titanium in the energy range of 10.4–50.2 MeV. A well-established stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry was used to measure the excitation functions for the "5"1","4"9","4"8Cr, "4"8V, "4"3K, and "4"3","4"4"m","4"4"g","4"6"g"+"m","4"7","4"8Sc radionuclides. The thick target yields for all assessed radionuclides were also calculated. The obtained experimental data were compared with the earlier experimental ones and also with the evaluated data in the TENDL-2015 library. A reasonable agreement was found between this work and some of the previous ones, while a partial agreement was found with the evaluated data. The present results would further enrich the experimental database and facilitate the understanding of existing discrepancies among the previous measurements. The results would also help to enhance the prediction capability of the nuclear reaction model codes.

  5. Excitation functions of proton-induced reactions on {sup nat}Fe and enriched {sup 57}Fe with particular reference to the production of {sup 57}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Abyad, M. [Institut fuer Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Cyclotron Facility, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); Comsan, M.N.H. [Cyclotron Facility, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); Qaim, S.M. [Institut fuer Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: s.m.qaim@fz-juelich.de

    2009-01-15

    Excitation functions of the reactions {sup nat}Fe(p,xn){sup 55,56,57,58}Co, {sup nat}Fe(p,x){sup 51}Cr, {sup nat}Fe(p,x){sup 54}Mn, {sup 57}Fe(p,n){sup 57}Co and {sup 57}Fe(p,{alpha}){sup 54}Mn were measured from their respective thresholds up to 18.5 MeV, with particular emphasis on data for the production of the radionuclide {sup 57}Co (T{sub 1/2}=271.8 d). The conventional stacked-foil technique was used, and the samples for irradiation were prepared by an electroplating or sedimentation process. The measured excitation curves were compared with the data available in the literature as well as with results of nuclear model calculations. From the experimental data, the theoretical yields of the investigated radionuclides were calculated as a function of the proton energy. Over the energy range E{sub p}=15{yields}5 MeV the calculated yield of {sup 57}Co from the {sup 57}Fe(p,n){sup 57}Co process amounts to 1.2 MBq/{mu}A h and from the {sup nat}Fe(p,xn){sup 57}Co reaction to 0.025 MBq/{mu}A h. The radionuclidic impurity levels are discussed. Use of highly enriched {sup 57}Fe as target material would lead to formation of high-purity {sup 57}Co.

  6. Excitation functions of alpha particles induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium in the energy range of 10.4–50.2 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Ahmed Rufai [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Umaru Musa Yar' adua University, Katsina (Nigeria); Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: mu_khandaker@um.edu.my [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otuka, Naohiko [Nuclear Data Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Murakami, Masashi [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Detailed presentation of new results on experimental cross-sections of {sup nat}Ti(α,x) processes. • Calculations of thick target yields for scandium and other radionuclides via the {sup nat}Ti(α,x) production route. • Comparison with TENDL-2015 library. • Detailed review of previous experimental data. - Abstract: We studied the excitation functions of residual radionuclide productions from α particles bombardment on natural titanium in the energy range of 10.4–50.2 MeV. A well-established stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry was used to measure the excitation functions for the {sup 51,49,48}Cr, {sup 48}V, {sup 43}K, and {sup 43,44m,44g,46g+m,47,48}Sc radionuclides. The thick target yields for all assessed radionuclides were also calculated. The obtained experimental data were compared with the earlier experimental ones and also with the evaluated data in the TENDL-2015 library. A reasonable agreement was found between this work and some of the previous ones, while a partial agreement was found with the evaluated data. The present results would further enrich the experimental database and facilitate the understanding of existing discrepancies among the previous measurements. The results would also help to enhance the prediction capability of the nuclear reaction model codes.

  7. Complete and incomplete fusion measurement and analysis of excitation functions in sup 1 sup 2 C + sup 1 sup 2 sup 8 Te system at energies near and above the coulomb barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, M K; Prasad, R; Gupta, S; Musthafa, M M; Bhardwaj, H D; Sinha, A K

    2003-01-01

    In order to study complete and incomplete fusion in heavy ion induced reactions the experiment has been carried out for measuring excitation functions (EF's) for several reactions in the system sup 1 sup 2 C + sup 1 sup 2 sup 8 Te, in the energy range approx = 42 - 82 MeV, using activation technique. To the best of our knowledge EF's for presently measured reactions are being reported for the first time. The measured EF's have been compared with those calculated theoretically using codes CASCADE and ALICE-91. Effect of variation of parameters, of the codes, on calculated EF's has also been studied. The analysis of the present data indicates presence of contributions from incomplete fusion in some cases. In general, theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental data.

  8. Loss of Synapse Repressor MDGA1 Enhances Perisomatic Inhibition, Confers Resistance to Network Excitation, and Impairs Cognitive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Connor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Synaptopathies contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders are linked to mutations in synaptic organizing molecules, including postsynaptic neuroligins, presynaptic neurexins, and MDGAs, which regulate their interaction. The role of MDGA1 in suppressing inhibitory versus excitatory synapses is controversial based on in vitro studies. We show that genetic deletion of MDGA1 in vivo elevates hippocampal CA1 inhibitory, but not excitatory, synapse density and transmission. Furthermore, MDGA1 is selectively expressed by pyramidal neurons and regulates perisomatic, but not distal dendritic, inhibitory synapses. Mdga1−/− hippocampal networks demonstrate muted responses to neural excitation, and Mdga1−/− mice are resistant to induced seizures. Mdga1−/− mice further demonstrate compromised hippocampal long-term potentiation, consistent with observed deficits in spatial and context-dependent learning and memory. These results suggest that mutations in MDGA1 may contribute to cognitive deficits through altered synaptic transmission and plasticity by loss of suppression of inhibitory synapse development in a subcellular domain- and cell-type-selective manner.

  9. Excitation energies with linear response density matrix functional theory along the dissociation coordinate of an electron-pair bond in N-electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meer, R. van; Gritsenko, O. V.; Baerends, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Time dependent density matrix functional theory in its adiabatic linear response formulation delivers exact excitation energies ω α and oscillator strengths f α for two-electron systems if extended to the so-called phase including natural orbital (PINO) theory. The Löwdin-Shull expression for the energy of two-electron systems in terms of the natural orbitals and their phases affords in this case an exact phase-including natural orbital functional (PILS), which is non-primitive (contains other than just J and K integrals). In this paper, the extension of the PILS functional to N-electron systems is investigated. With the example of an elementary primitive NO functional (BBC1) it is shown that current density matrix functional theory ground state functionals, which were designed to produce decent approximations to the total energy, fail to deliver a qualitatively correct structure of the (inverse) response function, due to essential deficiencies in the reconstruction of the two-body reduced density matrix (2RDM). We now deduce essential features of an N-electron functional from a wavefunction Ansatz: The extension of the two-electron Löwdin-Shull wavefunction to the N-electron case informs about the phase information. In this paper, applications of this extended Löwdin-Shull (ELS) functional are considered for the simplest case, ELS(1): one (dissociating) two-electron bond in the field of occupied (including core) orbitals. ELS(1) produces high quality ω α (R) curves along the bond dissociation coordinate R for the molecules LiH, Li 2 , and BH with the two outer valence electrons correlated. All of these results indicate that response properties are much more sensitive to deficiencies in the reconstruction of the 2RDM than the ground state energy, since derivatives of the functional with respect to both the NOs and the occupation numbers need to be accurate

  10. Purification and Quantification of an Isomeric Compound in a Mixture by Collisional Excitation in Multistage Mass Spectrometry Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne Dit Fouque, Dany; Maroto, Alicia; Memboeuf, Antony

    2016-11-15

    The differentiation, characterization, and quantification of isomers and/or isobars in mixtures is a recurrent problem in mass spectrometry and more generally in analytical chemistry. Here we present a new strategy to assess the purity of a compound that is susceptible to be contaminated with another isomeric side-product in trace levels. Providing one of the isomers is available as pure sample, this new strategy allows the detection of isomeric contamination. This is done thanks to a "gas-phase collisional purification" inside an ion trap mass spectrometer paving the way for an improved analysis of at least similar samples. This strategy consists in using collision induced dissociation (CID) multistage mass spectrometry (MS 2 and MS 3 ) experiments and the survival yield (SY) technique. It has been successfully applied to mixtures of cyclic poly( L -lactide) (PLA) with increasing amounts of its linear topological isomer. Purification in gas phase of PLA mixtures was established based on SY curves obtained in MS 3 mode: all samples gave rise to the same SY curve corresponding then to the pure cyclic component. This new strategy was sensitive enough to detect traces of linear PLA (<3%) in a sample of cyclic PLA that was supposedly pure according to other characterization techniques ( 1 H NMR, MALDI-HRMS, and size-exclusion chromatography). Moreover, in this case, the presence of linear isomer was undetectable according to MS/MS or MS/MS/MS analysis only as fragment ions are also of the same m/z values. This type of approach could easily be implemented in hyphenated mass spectrometric techniques to improve the structural and quantitative analysis of complex samples.

  11. Bilingual experience and executive functioning in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Stephanie M; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2008-03-01

    Advanced inhibitory control skills have been found in bilingual speakers as compared to monolingual controls (Bialystok, 1999). We examined whether this effect is generalized to an unstudied language group (Spanish-English bilingual) and multiple measures of executive function by administering a battery of tasks to 50 kindergarten children drawn from three language groups: native bilinguals, monolinguals (English), and English speakers enrolled in second-language immersion kindergarten. Despite having significantly lower verbal scores and parent education/income level, Spanish-English bilingual children's raw scores did not differ from their peers. After statistically controlling for these factors and age, native bilingual children performed significantly better on the executive function battery than both other groups. Importantly, the relative advantage was significant for tasks that appear to call for managing conflicting attentional demands (Conflict tasks); there was no advantage on impulse-control (Delay tasks). These results advance our understanding of both the generalizability and specificity of the compensatory effects of bilingual experience for children's cognitive development.

  12. Time-Domain Ab Initio Analysis of Excitation Dynamics in a Quantum Dot/Polymer Hybrid: Atomistic Description Rationalizes Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2015-07-08

    Hybrid organic/inorganic polymer/quantum dot (QD) solar cells are an attractive alternative to the traditional cells. The original, simple models postulate that one-dimensional polymers have continuous energy levels, while zero-dimensional QDs exhibit atom-like electronic structure. A realistic, atomistic viewpoint provides an alternative description. Electronic states in polymers are molecule-like: finite in size and discrete in energy. QDs are composed of many atoms and have high, bulk-like densities of states. We employ ab initio time-domain simulation to model the experimentally observed ultrafast photoinduced dynamics in a QD/polymer hybrid and show that an atomistic description is essential for understanding the time-resolved experimental data. Both electron and hole transfers across the interface exhibit subpicosecond time scales. The interfacial processes are fast due to strong electronic donor-acceptor, as evidenced by the densities of the photoexcited states which are delocalized between the donor and the acceptor. The nonadiabatic charge-phonon coupling is also strong, especially in the polymer, resulting in rapid energy losses. The electron transfer from the polymer is notably faster than the hole transfer from the QD, due to a significantly higher density of acceptor states. The stronger molecule-like electronic and charge-phonon coupling in the polymer rationalizes why the electron-hole recombination inside the polymer is several orders of magnitude faster than in the QD. As a result, experiments exhibit multiple transfer times for the long-lived hole inside the QD, ranging from subpicoseconds to nanoseconds. In contrast, transfer of the short-lived electron inside the polymer does not occur beyond the first picosecond. The energy lost by the hole on its transit into the polymer is accommodated by polymer's high-frequency vibrations. The energy lost by the electron injected into the QD is accommodated primarily by much lower-frequency collective and

  13. A Simple LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) Laboratory Experiment to Introduce Undergraduates to Calibration Functions and Atomic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment introduces students to a different type of atomic spectroscopy: laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS uses a laser-generated spark to excite the sample; once excited, the elemental emission is spectrally resolved and detected. The students use LIBS to analyze a series of standard synthetic silicate samples…

  14. Scattering of highly excited atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raith, W.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental methods to excite atomic beams into Rydberg states and the first results of collision experiments with such beams are reported. For further information see hints under relevant topics. (orig.) [de

  15. Optical excitation and electron relaxation dynamics at semiconductor surfaces: a combined approach of density functional and density matrix theory applied to the silicon (001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecking, N

    2007-11-05

    In this work a new theoretical formalism is introduced in order to simulate the phononinduced relaxation of a non-equilibrium distribution to equilibrium at a semiconductor surface numerically. The non-equilibrium distribution is effected by an optical excitation. The approach in this thesis is to link two conventional, but approved methods to a new, more global description: while semiconductor surfaces can be investigated accurately by density-functional theory, the dynamical processes in semiconductor heterostructures are successfully described by density matrix theory. In this work, the parameters for density-matrix theory are determined from the results of density-functional calculations. This work is organized in two parts. In Part I, the general fundamentals of the theory are elaborated, covering the fundamentals of canonical quantizations as well as the theory of density-functional and density-matrix theory in 2{sup nd} order Born approximation. While the formalism of density functional theory for structure investigation has been established for a long time and many different codes exist, the requirements for density matrix formalism concerning the geometry and the number of implemented bands exceed the usual possibilities of the existing code in this field. A special attention is therefore attributed to the development of extensions to existing formulations of this theory, where geometrical and fundamental symmetries of the structure and the equations are used. In Part II, the newly developed formalism is applied to a silicon (001)surface in a 2 x 1 reconstruction. As first step, density-functional calculations using the LDA functional are completed, from which the Kohn-Sham-wave functions and eigenvalues are used to calculate interaction matrix elements for the electron-phonon-coupling an the optical excitation. These matrix elements are determined for the optical transitions from valence to conduction bands and for electron-phonon processes inside the

  16. Menthol Enhances Nicotine Reward-Related Behavior by Potentiating Nicotine-Induced Changes in nAChR Function, nAChR Upregulation, and DA Neuron Excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brandon J; Wall, Teagan R; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; McKinney, Sheri; Lester, Henry A

    2017-11-01

    Understanding why the quit rate among smokers of menthol cigarettes is lower than non-menthol smokers requires identifying the neurons that are altered by nicotine, menthol, and acetylcholine. Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) mediate the positive reinforcing effects of nicotine. Using mouse models, we show that menthol enhances nicotine-induced changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed on midbrain DA neurons. Menthol plus nicotine upregulates nAChR number and function on midbrain DA neurons more than nicotine alone. Menthol also enhances nicotine-induced changes in DA neuron excitability. In a conditioned place preference (CPP) assay, we observed that menthol plus nicotine produces greater reward-related behavior than nicotine alone. Our results connect changes in midbrain DA neurons to menthol-induced enhancements of nicotine reward-related behavior and may help explain how smokers of menthol cigarettes exhibit reduced cessation rates.

  17. Excitation functions and isotopic effects in (n, p) reactions for stable nickel isotopes from reaction threshold to 20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalremruata, B. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: marema@physics.unipune.ernet.in; Ganesan, S. [Reactor Physics Design Division, BARC, Mumbai 58 (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: vnb@physics.unipune.ernet; Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune-411007, Maharashtra (India)], E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.in

    2009-05-01

    The excitation function for (n, p) reactions from reaction threshold to 20 MeV on five nickel isotopes viz; {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 61}Ni, {sup 62}Ni and {sup 64}Ni were calculated using Talys-1.0 nuclear model code involving the fixed set of global parameters. A good agreement between the calculated and measured data is obtained with minimum effort on parameter fitting and only one free parameter called 'Shell damping factor'. This is of importance to the validation of nuclear model approaches with increased predictive power. The systematic decrease in (n, p) cross-sections with increasing neutron number in reactions induced by neutrons on isotopes of nickel is explained in terms of the proton separation energy and the pre-equilibrium model. The compound nucleus and pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism as well as the isotopic effects were also studied.

  18. Measurement of excitation functions and isomeric ratios of the reactions 103Rh(3He, xn) sup(106-x)Ag where x=2, 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The excitation functions and isomer ratios for the reactions 103 Rh( 3 He, xn) sup(106-x)Ag, where x=2, 3 and 4, were measured with projectile Lab energy varying from 23 to 35 MeV. Since the half-life of sup(103m)Ag is equal to 5.7 s. the use of a recoil nucleous gas jet transport system became necessary. The values measured for the cross-sections were compared to those yielded by the ALICE code. The experimental isomer ratios are smaller than those calculated using the residual nucleus spin distribution obtained with the ALICE code. By-pass fractions as expected in this mass region were also obtained. (Author) [pt

  19. Excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on {sup nat}Fe up to 16 MeV, with emphasis on radiochemical determination of low cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Md. Shuza [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM), Nuklearchemie (INM-5); Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumer [Chittagong Univ. of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics; Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Spellerberg, Stefan; Spahn, Ingo; Qaim, Syed M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM), Nuklearchemie (INM-5); Shariff, Md. Asad [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Rashid, Md. Abdur [Chittagong Univ. of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics

    2017-07-01

    Excitation functions for the formation of the radionuclides {sup 56}Co, {sup 57}Co, {sup 58m+g}Co and {sup 54}Mn via proton induced reactions on natural iron target were measured from their respective thresholds up to 16 MeV using the stacked-foil activation technique and HPGe detector γ-ray spectroscopy. In the threshold energy range, the low cross sections for {sup 54}Mn were measured radiochemically. All the measured values were compared with available experimental data and with theoretical calculations reproduced in TENDL-2015 nuclear data library. New data for the formation of {sup 57}Co, {sup 58}Co and {sup 54}Mn were obtained near their reaction thresholds. Other data obtained strengthen the database. Polynomial fittings of the data measured in this work as well as of all data sets (including the present data) were performed. The present data appear to be closer to theoretical calculations than the literature data.

  20. An efficient formulation and implementation of the analytic energy gradient method to the single and double excitation coupled-cluster wave function - Application to Cl2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Alistair P.; Lee, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    The analytic energy gradient for the single and double excitation coupled-cluster (CCSD) wave function has been reformulated and implemented in a new set of programs. The reformulated set of gradient equations have a smaller computational cost than any previously published. The iterative solution of the linear equations and the construction of the effective density matrices are fully vectorized, being based on matrix multiplications. The new method has been used to investigate the Cl2O2 molecule, which has recently been postulated as an important intermediate in the destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. In addition to reporting computational timings, the CCSD equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, and relative energetics of three isomers of Cl2O2 are presented.

  1. Excitation function of ''7''4Ge(n, α)''7''1''mZn reaction in the energy range 13.82-14.70 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, M.A.; Hafiz, M.A.; Naher, K.; Miah, R.U.; Ullah, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The excitation function of the reaction ''7''4Ge(n, α)''7''1''mZn is measured by activation technique using high resolution HPGe detector gamma ray spectroscopy. Monoenergetic neutrons are produced via D-T reaction at J-25 neutron generator facility of the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, AERE, Bangladesh. The neutron flux measurement was done at different energy position in the range 13.82-14.70 MeV using the monitor reaction ''2''7Al(n, α)''2''4Na. The measured cross section values along with the literature data are plotted as a function of neutron energy to get the excitation function of the reaction. A theoretical calculation is also performed to produce the excitation function of the investigated reaction using statistical code SINCROS-II. The measured data are to be found to be in good agreement with the literature data and the theoretical cross section values. (author)

  2. Operating function tests of the PWR type RHR pump for engineering safety system under simulated strong ground excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uga, Takeo; Shiraki, Kazuhiro; Homma, Toshiaki; Inazuka, Hisashi; Nakajima, Norifumi.

    1979-08-01

    Results are described of operating function verification tests of a PWR RHR pump during an earthquake. Of the active reactor components, the PWR residual heat removal pump was chosen from view points of aseismic classification, safety function, structural complexity and past aseismic tests. Through survey of the service conditions and structure of this pump, seismic test conditions such as acceleration level, simulated seismic wave form and earthquake duration were decided for seismicity of the operating pump. Then, plans were prepared to evaluate vibration chracteristics of the pump and to estimate its aseismic design margins. Subsequently, test facility and instrumentation system were designed and constructed. Experimental results could thus be acquired on vibration characteristics of the pump and its dynamic behavior during different kinds and levels of simulated earthquake. In conclusion: (1) Stiffeners attached to the auxiliary system piping do improve aseismic performance of the pump. (2) The rotor-shaft-bearing system is secure unless it is subjected to transient disturbunces having high frequency content. (3) The motor and pump casing having resonance frequencies much higher than frequency content of the seismic wave show only small amplifications. (4) The RHR pump possesses an aseismic design margin more than 2.6 times the expected ultimate earthquake on design basis. (author)

  3. Reduced sensory synaptic excitation impairs motor neuron function via Kv2.1 in spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Emily V; Simon, Christian M; Pagiazitis, John G; Chalif, Joshua I; Vukojicic, Aleksandra; Drobac, Estelle; Wang, Xiaojian; Mentis, George Z

    2017-07-01

    Behavioral deficits in neurodegenerative diseases are often attributed to the selective dysfunction of vulnerable neurons via cell-autonomous mechanisms. Although vulnerable neurons are embedded in neuronal circuits, the contributions of their synaptic partners to disease process are largely unknown. Here we show that, in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a reduction in proprioceptive synaptic drive leads to motor neuron dysfunction and motor behavior impairments. In SMA mice or after the blockade of proprioceptive synaptic transmission, we observed a decrease in the motor neuron firing that could be explained by the reduction in the expression of the potassium channel Kv2.1 at the surface of motor neurons. Chronically increasing neuronal activity pharmacologically in vivo led to a normalization of Kv2.1 expression and an improvement in motor function. Our results demonstrate a key role of excitatory synaptic drive in shaping the function of motor neurons during development and the contribution of its disruption to a neurodegenerative disease.

  4. Excitation function of (p,α) nuclear reaction on enriched {sup 67}Zn. Possibility of production of {sup 64}Cu at low energy cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szelecsenyi, Ferenc; Kovacs, Zoltan [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary). Cyclotron Application Dept.; Nagatsu, Kotaro; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Suzuki, Kazutosi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Molecular Imaging Center

    2014-09-01

    The potential for production of the medically relevant {sup 64}Cu has been investigated by proton irradiation of highly enriched {sup 67}Zn targets. The excitation function of the {sup 67}Zn(p,α){sup 64}Cu a nuclear reaction was measured by the stacked-foil technique up to 30 MeV. The prediction of the TALYS code was also compared to the measured cross section results. Based on the improved database of the {sup 67}Zn(p,α){sup 64}Cu reaction, thick target yield as a function of energy was also deduced. Production possibility of {sup 64}Cu is discussed in detail, employing different energy proton beams and with regards to the {sup 61}Cu and {sup 67}Cu contamination levels as a function of the target enrichment level. By using 1 μA beam intensity, 6.3505 h irradiation time and enriched {sup 67}Zn target ({sup 64}Zn ≤ 0.5%, {sup 66}Zn ≤ 9%, {sup 67}Zn ≥ 80%, {sup 68}Zn ≤ 10% and {sup 70}Zn ≤ 0.5%), the expected EOB (End Of bombardment) yields are 43.66, 88.80 and 156.14MBq/μA at 12, 15 and 18 MeV proton energies, respectively. Application time-frames were also deduced where the total radio-copper contamination level remains below 1%. (orig.)

  5. Modification Of The Electron Energy Distribution Function During Lithium Experiments On The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworski, M A; Gray, T K; Kaita, R; Kallman, J; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B; McLean, A; Sabbagh, S A; Soukanovskii, V; Stotler, D P

    2011-06-03

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has recently studied the use of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD). Divertor Langmuir probes have also been installed for making measurements of the local plasma conditions. A non-local probe interpretation method is used to supplement the classical probe interpretation and obtain measurements of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) which show the occurrence of a hot-electron component. Analysis is made of two discharges within a sequence that exhibited changes in plasma fueling efficiency. It is found that the local electron temperature increases and that this increase is most strongly correlated with the energy contained within the hot-electron population. Preliminary interpretative modeling indicates that kinetic effects are likely in the NSTX.

  6. Disagreement between theory and experiment grows with increasing rotational excitation of HD(v', j') product for the H + D2 reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankunas, Justin; Sneha, Mahima; Zare, Richard N; Bouakline, Foudhil; Althorpe, Stuart C

    2013-03-07

    The Photoloc technique has been employed to measure the state-resolved differential cross sections of the HD(v', j(')) product in the reaction H + D2 over a wide range of collision energies and internal states. The experimental results were compared with fully dimensional, time-dependent quantum mechanical calculations on the refined Boothroyd-Keogh-Martin-Peterson potential energy surface. We find nearly perfect agreement between theory and experiment for HD(v', j(')) product states with low to medium rotational excitation, e.g., HD(v' = 1, j(') = 3) at a collision energy, Ecoll, of 1.72 eV, HD(v' = 1, j(') = 3, 5) at Ecoll = 1.97 eV, and HD(v' = 3, j(') = 3) at Ecoll = 1.97 eV. As the rotational angular momentum, j('), of HD(v', j(')) increases, the agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental measurements worsens but not in a simple fashion. A moderate disagreement between theory and experiment has been found for HD(v' = 0, j(') = 12) at Ecoll = 1.76 eV and increased monotonically for HD(v' = 0, j(') = 13) at Ecoll = 1.74 eV, HD(v' = 0, j(') = 14) at Ecoll = 1.72 eV, and HD(v' = 0, j(') = 15) at Ecoll = 1.70 eV. Disagreement was not limited to vibrationless HD(v', j(')) product states: HD(v' = 1, j(') = 12) at Ecoll = 1.60 eV and HD(v' = 3, j(') = 8, 10) at Ecoll = 1.97 eV followed a similar trend. Theoretical calculations suggest more sideways∕forward scattering than has been observed experimentally for high j(') HD(v', j(')) states. The source of this discrepancy is presently unknown but might be the result of inaccuracy in the potential energy surface.

  7. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that.

  8. Measurement of the 2νββ decay of 100Mo to the excited 01+ state in the NEMO3 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vala, L.

    2003-09-01

    The NEMO3 detector was designed for the study of double beta decay and in particular to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay process (0νββ). The intended sensitivity in terms of a half-life limit for the 0νββ decay is of the order of 10 25 y which corresponds to an effective neutrino mass m ν on the level of (0.3 - 0.1) eV. The 0νββ process is today the most promising test of the Majorana nature of the neutrino. The detector was constructed in the Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM) in France by an international collaboration including France, Russia, the Czech Republic, the USA, the UK, Finland, and Japan. The experiment has been taking data since May 2002. The quantity of 100 Mo in the detector (7 kg) allows an efficient measurement of the two-neutrino double beta decay (2νββ) of 100 Mo to the excited 0 1 + state (eeNγ channel). Monte-Carlo simulations of the effect and of all the relative sources of background have been produced in order to define a set of appropriate selection criteria. Both Monte-Carlo simulations and special runs with sources of 208 Tl and 214 Bi showed that the only significant background in the eeNγ channel comes from radon that penetrated inside the wire chamber of NEMO3. The experimental data acquired from May 2002 to May 2003 have been analysed in order to determine the signal from the 2νββ decay of 100 Mo to the excited 0 1 + state and the corresponding background level. The physical result, which was obtained at the level of four standard deviations, is given in the form of an interval of half-life values at 95% confidence level: [5.84*10 20 , 2.26*10 21 ] y for method A and [5.83*10 20 , 1.71*10 21 ] y for method B. (author)

  9. Measurement of the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the excited 0{sub 1}{sup +} state in the NEMO3 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vala, L

    2003-09-01

    The NEMO3 detector was designed for the study of double beta decay and in particular to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay process (0{nu}{beta}{beta}). The intended sensitivity in terms of a half-life limit for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is of the order of 10{sup 25} y which corresponds to an effective neutrino mass m{sub {nu}} on the level of (0.3 - 0.1) eV. The 0{nu}{beta}{beta} process is today the most promising test of the Majorana nature of the neutrino. The detector was constructed in the Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM) in France by an international collaboration including France, Russia, the Czech Republic, the USA, the UK, Finland, and Japan. The experiment has been taking data since May 2002. The quantity of {sup 100}Mo in the detector (7 kg) allows an efficient measurement of the two-neutrino double beta decay (2{nu}{beta}{beta}) of {sup 100}Mo to the excited 0{sub 1}{sup +} state (eeN{gamma} channel). Monte-Carlo simulations of the effect and of all the relative sources of background have been produced in order to define a set of appropriate selection criteria. Both Monte-Carlo simulations and special runs with sources of {sup 208}Tl and {sup 214}Bi showed that the only significant background in the eeN{gamma} channel comes from radon that penetrated inside the wire chamber of NEMO3. The experimental data acquired from May 2002 to May 2003 have been analysed in order to determine the signal from the 2{nu}{beta}{beta} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the excited 0{sub 1}{sup +} state and the corresponding background level. The physical result, which was obtained at the level of four standard deviations, is given in the form of an interval of half-life values at 95% confidence level: [5.84*10{sup 20}, 2.26*10{sup 21}] y for method A and [5.83*10{sup 20}, 1.71*10{sup 21}] y for method B. (author)

  10. Kinetics studies following state-selective laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, J.W.

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this contract was the study of state-to-state, electronic energy transfer reactions relevant to the excited state chemistry observed in discharges. We studied deactivation reactions and excitation transfer in collisions of excited states of xenon and krypton atoms with Ar, Kr, Xe and chlorine. The reactant states were excited selectively in two-photon transitions using tunable u.v. and v.u.v. lasers. Excited states produced by the collision were observed by their fluorescence. Reaction rates were measured by observing the time dependent decay of signals from reactant and product channels. In addition we measured interaction potentials of the reactants by laser spectroscopy where the laser induced fluorescence or ionization is measured as a function of laser wavelength (excitation spectra) or by measuring fluorescence spectra at fixed laser frequencies with monochromators. The spectra were obtained in the form of either lineshapes or individual lines from rovibrational transitions of bound states. Our research then required several categories of experiments in order to fully understand a reaction process: 1. High resolution laser spectroscopy of bound molecules or lineshapes of colliding pairs is used to determine potential curves for reactants. 2. Direct measurements of state-to-state reaction rates were measured by studying the time dependent loss of excited reactants and the time dependent formation of products. 3. The energy selectivity of a laser can be used to excite reactants on an excited surface with controlled internuclear configurations. For free states of reactants (as exist in a gas cell) this has been termed laser assisted reactions, while for initially bound states (as chemically bound reactants or dimers formed in supersonic beams) the experiments have been termed photo-fragmentation spectroscopy

  11. Influence of molecular geometry, exchange-correlation functional, and solvent effects in the modeling of vertical excitation energies in phthalocyanines using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and polarized continuum model TDDFT methods: can modern computational chemistry methods explain experimental controversies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemykin, Victor N; Hadt, Ryan G; Belosludov, Rodion V; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2007-12-20

    A time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) approach coupled with 14 different exchange-correlation functionals was used for the prediction of vertical excitation energies in zinc phthalocyanine (PcZn). In general, the TDDFT approach provides a more accurate description of both visible and ultraviolet regions of the UV-vis and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of PcZn in comparison to the more popular semiempirical ZINDO/S and PM3 methods. It was found that the calculated vertical excitation energies of PcZn correlate with the amount of Hartree-Fock exchange involved in the exchange-correlation functional. The correlation was explained on the basis of the calculated difference in energy between occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals. The influence of PcZn geometry, optimized using different exchange-correlation functionals, on the calculated vertical excitation energies in PcZn was found to be relatively small. The influence of solvents on the calculated vertical excitation energies in PcZn was considered for the first time using a polarized continuum model TDDFT (PCM-TDDFT) method and was found to be relatively small in excellent agreement with the experimental data. For all tested TDDFT and PCM-TDDFT cases, an assignment of the Q-band as an almost pure a1u (HOMO)-->eg (LUMO) transition, initially suggested by Gouterman, was confirmed. Pure exchange-correlation functionals indicate the presence of six 1Eu states in the B-band region of the UV-vis spectrum of PcZn, while hybrid exchange-correlation functionals predict only five 1Eu states for the same energy envelope. The first two symmetry-forbidden n-->pi* transitions were predicted in the Q0-2 region and in the low-energy tail of the B-band, while the first two symmetry-allowed n-->pi* transitions were found within the B-band energy envelope when pure exchange-correlation functionals were used for TDDFT calculations. The presence of a symmetry-forbidden but vibronically allowed n

  12. Nonlinear excitations in biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrard, M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the workshop entitled ''Nonlinear Excitations in Biomolecules'' is to attempt to bridge the gap between the physicists and biologists communities which is mainly due to language and cultural barriers. The progress of nonlinear science in the last few decades which have shown that the combination of nonlinearity, which characterize most biological phenomena, and cooperative effects in a system having a large number of degrees of freedom, can give rise to coherent excitations with remarkable properties. New concepts, such as solitons nd nonlinear energy localisation have become familiar to physicists and applied mathematicians. It is thus tempting to make an analogy between these coherent excitations and the exceptional stability of some biological processes, such as for instance DNA transcription, which require the coordination of many events in the ever changing environment of a cell. Physicists are now invoking nonlinear excitations to describe and explain many bio-molecular processes while biologists often doubt that the seemingly infinite variety of phenomena that they are attempting to classify can be reduced to such simple concepts. A large part of the meeting is devoted to tutorial lectures rather than to latest research results. The book provides a pedagogical introduction to the two topics forming the backbone of the meeting: the theory of nonlinear excitations and solitons, and their application in biology; and the structure and function of biomolecules, as well as energy and charge transport in biophysics. In order to emphasize the link between physics and biology, the volume is not divided along these two topics but according to biological subjects. Each chapter starts with a short introduction attempting to help the reader to find his way among the contributions and point out the connection between them. 23 lectures over the 32 presented have been selected and refers to quantum properties of macro-molecules. (J.S.)

  13. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  14. Excitation system testing in HPP 'Uvac'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojčić Nemanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The excitation system of hydro unit in HPP 'Uvac' and results of testings of excitation system performed for achieving of unit's mathematical model are presented in this paper. Description of excitation system equipment, parameters of regulators and results obtained after testings are presented. The presented results showed that the regulators are properly adjusted and that the excitation system is completely functional and reliable.

  15. The Role of Advisory Committees on Regulatory functions: Argentine Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larcher, A. M.; Arias, C.; Kunst, J. J.; Perez, R. M.; Rudelli, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) has appointed a consultants body that advises its Board of Directors on aspects related to authorization's granting to individuals for the use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiation in medicine, research and industry. Such committee, whose existence goes back to the year 1958, is integrated by prominent professionals knowledgeable about ionizing radiation and radioisotopes applications in the medical, biomedical and industrial fields, representing important professional associations or institutions related to the practices in question. Originally, the committee was conceived as a consultation body to fulfil two important functions: To produce, in a regular way, authorized opinions at experts level to settle down questions relative to the regulation of practices, new at that time in the country, and To submit to a peer review applications for individual authorization for different uses of ionizing radiation previously it's granting by the Regulatory Authority. In this paper the role of the advisory council is analyzed from a historical perspective trying to emphasize an outstanding aspect not sufficiently analyzed linked to the capability that advisory bodies, with representative users' presence, can reach in the interpretation of regulatory standards based on a performance philosophy. Such approach outlines the permanent dilemma about the performance level of the licensee that should satisfy the Regulatory Authority. Once the broad objectives of radiation protection has been defined professional criteria is required for applying them to different practices. Balance between flexibility and avoidance of excessive uncertainty is desirable. In the authors' opinion the inclusion, inside the regulator's structure of consultants bodies giving direct participation to qualified stakeholders, far from harming the necessary independence that should characterize the regulator, on the contrary, allows to have an excellent social

  16. Search for double-beta decay of 136Xe to excited states of 136Ba with the KamLAND-Zen experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishio, S.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Otani, M.; Oura, T.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tachibana, H.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Fushimi, K.; Banks, T. I.; Berger, B. E.; Fujikawa, B. K.; O'Donnell, T.; Winslow, L. A.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2016-02-01

    A search for double-beta decays of 136Xe to excited states of 136Ba has been performed with the first phase data set of the KamLAND-Zen experiment. The 01+, 21+ and 22+ transitions of 0 νββ decay were evaluated in an exposure of 89.5 kg ṡyr of 136Xe, while the same transitions of 2 νββ decay were evaluated in an exposure of 61.8 kg ṡyr. No excess over background was found for all decay modes. The lower half-life limits of the 21+ state transitions of 0 νββ and 2 νββ decay were improved to T1/20ν (0+ →21+) > 2.6 ×1025 yr and T1/22ν (0+ →21+) > 4.6 ×1023 yr (90% C.L.), respectively. We report on the first experimental lower half-life limits for the transitions to the 01+ state of 136Xe for 0 νββ and 2 νββ decay. They are T1/20ν (0+ →01+) > 2.4 ×1025 yr and T1/22ν (0+ → 01+) > 8.3 ×1023 yr (90% C.L.). The transitions to the 22+ states are also evaluated for the first time to be T1/20ν (0+ →22+) > 2.6 ×1025 yr and T1/22ν (0+ →22+) > 9.0 ×1023 yr (90% C.L.). These results are compared to recent theoretical predictions.

  17. Gamow-Teller strength functions from (→p,→p') scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausser, O.

    1987-01-01

    We present here recent (→p, →'p) results from TRIUMF that are relevant to the determination of spin-flip isovector strength functions in nuclei. Distortion factors needed for the extraction of nuclear-structure information have been deduced from cross sections and analyzing powers in elastic scattering for several energies and targets. Nonrelativistic optical potentials obtained by folding effective nucleon (N)-nucleus interactions with nuclear densities are found to overpredict both elastic and reaction cross sections, whereas Dirac calculations that include Pauli blocking are in good agreement with the data. Spin observables (S nn and A y ) for the quasi-elastic region in 54 Fe(→p, →p) at 290 MeV provide some evidence for the reduction of the effective proton mass predicted in relativistic mean-field theories as a consequence of the attractive scalar field in the nuclear medium. The energy dependence of the effective N-nucleus interaction at small momentum transfers has been investigated using isoscalar and isovector 1 + states in 28 Si as probe states. We find that the cross sections for the isovector transitions are in good agreement with predictions for the dominant Vστ part of the Franey-Love interaction. Gamow-Teller (GT) strength functions have been obtained in 24 Mg and 54 Fe from measurements of both cross sections and spin-flip probabilities S nn . The spin-flip cross sections σS nn are particularly useful in heavier nuclei to discriminate against a continuous background of ΔS = 0 excitations. In the (s, d) shell where full shell-model wave functions are available, the GT quenching factors (g A eff / g A free ) 2 ≅ 0.7 are in good agreement with those from recent (p, n) and (n, p) experiments. We show that a state-by-state comparison of (p, p') and (e, e') results has the potential of identifying pionic current contributions in (e, e'). The GT quenching factors in 54 Fe are smaller than in the (s, d) shell probably because of severely

  18. Charge exchange with ion excitation: asymptotic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivakin, I.A.; Karbovanets, M.I.; Ostrovskii, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    There is developed an asymptotic (with respect to the large internuclear separation R) theory for computing the matrix element of the exchange interaction between states of quasimolecules, which is responsible for charge transfer with ion excitation: B + +A→B+A + *. A semiclassical approximation is used, which enables one to apply the theory to processes with the participation of multiply charged ions. The case of s--s transitions for excitation of the ion A + →A + *, where it is appropriate to take into account the distortion of the wave functions of the ion A + by the particle B, is treated separately. Calculations of cross sections and comparison with the results of experiments for He + --Cd and Ne + --Mg collisions at thermal energies are given. It is shown that it is impossible to explain the experimental data by the interaction of terms of the quasimolecules at large R only, and a possible mechanism for populating at small R is proposed

  19. The MGED Ontology: A Framework for Describing Functional Genomics Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeckert, Christian J.; Parkinson, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The Microarray Gene Expression Data (MGED) society was formed with an initial focus on experiments involving microarray technology. Despite the diversity of applications, there are common concepts used and a common need to capture experimental information in a standardized manner. In building the MGED ontology, it was recognized that it would be impractical to cover all the different types of experiments on all the different types of organisms by listing and defining all the types of organism...

  20. Scaling laws and higher-order effects in Coulomb excitation of neutron halo nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typel, S.; Baur, G.

    2008-01-01

    Essential properties of halo nuclei can be described in terms of a few low-energy constants. For neutron halo nuclei, analytical results can be found for wave functions and electromagnetic transition matrix elements in simple but well-adapted models. These wave functions can be used to study nuclear reactions; an especially simple and instructive example is Coulomb excitation. A systematic expansion in terms of small parameters can be given. We present scaling laws for excitation amplitudes and cross-sections. The results can be used to analyze experiments like 11 Be Coulomb excitation. They also serve as benchmark tests for more involved reaction theories. (orig.)

  1. The Functional Measurement Experiment Builder suite: two Java-based programs to generate and run functional measurement experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairesse, Olivier; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2008-05-01

    We propose a free, easy-to-use computer program that does not requires prior knowledge of computer programming to generate and run experiments using textual or pictorial stimuli. Although the FM Experiment Builder suite was initially programmed for building and conducting FM experiments, it can also be applied for non-FM experiments that necessitate randomized, single, or multifactorial designs. The program is highly configurable, allowing multilingual use and a wide range of different response formats. The outputs of the experiments are Microsoft Excel compatible .xls files that allow easy copy-paste of the results into Weiss's FM CalSTAT program (2006) or any other statistical package. Its Java-based structure is compatible with both Windows and Macintosh operating systems, and its compactness (< 1 MB) makes it easily distributable over the Internet.

  2. Binary codes with impulse autocorrelation functions for dynamic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corran, E.R.; Cummins, J.D.

    1962-09-01

    A series of binary codes exist which have autocorrelation functions approximating to an impulse function. Signals whose behaviour in time can be expressed by such codes have spectra which are 'whiter' over a limited bandwidth and for a finite time than signals from a white noise generator. These codes are used to determine system dynamic responses using the correlation technique. Programmes have been written to compute codes of arbitrary length and to compute 'cyclic' autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions. Complete listings of these programmes are given, and a code of 1019 bits is presented. (author)

  3. Anismus as a cause of functional constipation: Experience from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Igor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround/Aim. Anismus is paradoxal pressure increase or pressure decrease less than 20% of external anal sphincter during defecation straining. This study analyzed the presence of anismus as within a group of patients with the positive Rome III criteria for functional constipation. We used anorectal manometry as the determination method for anismus. Methods. We used anorectal waterperfused manometry in 60 patients with obstructive defecation defined by the Rome III criteria for functional constipation. We also analyzed anorectal function in 30 healthy subjects. Results. The presence of anismus is more frequent in the group of patients with obstructive defecation compared to the control group (a highly statistically significant difference, p < 0.01. Furthermore, we found that the Rome III criteria for functional constipation showed 90% accuracy in predicting obstructive defecation. We analyzed the correlation of anismus with the presence of weak external anal sphincter, rectal sensibility disorders, enlarged piles, diverticular disease and anatomic variations of colon. We found no correlation between them in any of these cases. Conclusion. There is a significant correlation between anismus and positive Rome III criteria for functional constipation. Anorectal manometry should be performed in all patients with the positive Rome III criteria for functional constipation.

  4. Measurement of excitation functions and analysis of isomeric population in some reactions induced by proton on natural indium at low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed Shan, P. T.; Musthafa, M. M.; Najmunnisa, T.; Mohamed Aslam, P.; Rajesh, K. K.; Hajara, K.; Surendran, P.; Nair, J. P.; Shanbagh, Anil; Ghugre, S.

    2018-06-01

    The excitation functions for reaction residues populated via 115In(p , p) 115 mIn, 115In(p , pn) 114 mIn, 115In(p , p 2 n) 113 mIn, 113In(p , p) 113 mIn, 115In(p , nα) 111 mCd, 115In(p , 3 n) 113Sn and 113In(p , n) 113Sn channels were measured over the proton energy range of 8-22 MeV using stacked foil activation technique. Theoretical analysis of the data were performed within the framework of two statistical model codes EMPIRE-3.2 and TALYS-1.8. Isomeric cross section ratio for isomeric pairs m,g 115In, m,g 114In, m,g 113In, 113Sn m,g and m,g 111Cd were determined for the first time. The dependence of isomeric cross section ratio on various factors are analysed.

  5. Model-based predictions for nuclear excitation functions of neutron-induced reactions on 64,66−68Zn targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yiğit

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, nuclear data for cross sections of the 64Zn(n,2n63Zn, 64Zn(n,3n62Zn, 64Zn(n,p64Cu, 66Zn(n,2n65Zn, 66Zn(n,p66Cu, 67Zn(n,p67Cu, 68Zn(n,p68Cu, and 68Zn(n,α65Ni reactions were studied for neutron energies up to 40 MeV. In the nuclear model calculations, TALYS 1.6, ALICE/ASH, and EMPIRE 3.2 codes were used. Furthermore, the nuclear data for the (n,2n and (n,p reaction channels were also calculated using various cross-section systematics at energies around 14–15 MeV. The code calculations were analyzed and obtained using the different level densities in the exciton model and the geometry-dependent hybrid model. The results obtained from the excitation function calculations are discussed and compared with literature experimental data, ENDF/B-VII.1, and the TENDL-2015 evaluated data.

  6. Investigation of excitation functions using new evaluated empirical and semi-empirical systematic for 14-15 MeV (n, t) reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tel, E.; Aydin, E. G.; Aydin, A.; Kaplan, A.

    2007-01-01

    The hybrid reactor is a combination of the fusion and fission processes. In the fusion-fission hybrid reactor, tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. Working out the systematics of (n,t) reaction cross sections is of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at energies up to 20 MeV. In this study, we have investigated the asymmetry term effect for the (n,t) reaction cross sections at 14-15 neutron incident energy. It has been discussed the odd even effect and the pairing effect considering binding energy systematic of the nuclear shell model for the new experimental data and new cross section formulas (n,t) reactions developed by Tel et al. We have determined a different parameter groups by the classification of nuclei into even-even, even-odd and odd-even for (n,t) reactions cross sections. The obtained empirical formulas by fitting two parameter for (n,t) reactions were given. All calculated results have been compared with the experimental data. By using the new cross sections formulas (n,t) reactions the obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data

  7. Model-based predictions for nuclear excitation functions of neutron-induced reactions on {sup 64,} {sup 66-68}Zn targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigit, M. [Faculty of Science and Arts, Dept. of Physics, Aksaray University, Aksaray (Turkmenistan); Kara, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Giresun University, Giresun (Turkmenistan)

    2017-08-15

    In this paper, nuclear data for cross sections of the {sup 64}Zn(n,2n){sup 63}Zn,{sup 64}Zn(n,3n){sup 62}Zn, {sup 64}Zn(n,p){sup 64}Cu, {sup 66}Zn(n,2n){sup 65}Zn, {sup 66}Zn(n,p){sup 66}Cu, {sup 67}Zn(n,p){sup 67}Cu, {sup 68}Zn(n,p){sup 68}Cu, and {sup 68}Zn(n,α){sup 65}Ni reactions were studied for neutron energies up to 40 MeV. In the nuclear model calculations, TALYS 1.6, ALICE/ASH, and EMPIRE 3.2 codes were used. Furthermore, the nuclear data for the (n,2n) and (n,p) reaction channels were also calculated using various cross-section systematics at energies around 14–15 MeV. The code calculations were analyzed and obtained using the different level densities in the exciton model and the geometry-dependent hybrid model. The results obtained from the excitation function calculations are discussed and compared with literature experimental data, ENDF/B-VII.1, and the TENDL-2015 evaluated data.

  8. Reversed Effects of Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation following Motor Training That Vary as a Function of Training-Induced Changes in Corticospinal Excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tino Stöckel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS has the potential to enhance corticospinal excitability (CSE and subsequent motor learning. However, the effects of iTBS following motor learning are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of iTBS on CSE and performance following motor learning. Therefore twenty-four healthy participants practiced a ballistic motor task for a total of 150 movements. iTBS was subsequently applied to the trained motor cortex (STIM group or the vertex (SHAM group. Performance and CSE were assessed before motor learning and before and after iTBS. Training significantly increased performance and CSE in both groups. In STIM group participants, subsequent iTBS significantly reduced motor performance with smaller reductions in CSE. CSE changes as a result of motor learning were negatively correlated with both the CSE changes and performance changes as a result of iTBS. No significant effects of iTBS were found for SHAM group participants. We conclude that iTBS has the potential to degrade prior motor learning as a function of training-induced CSE changes. That means the expected LTP-like effects of iTBS are reversed following motor learning.

  9. Reversed Effects of Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation following Motor Training That Vary as a Function of Training-Induced Changes in Corticospinal Excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckel, Tino; Summers, Jeffery J; Hinder, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) has the potential to enhance corticospinal excitability (CSE) and subsequent motor learning. However, the effects of iTBS following motor learning are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of iTBS on CSE and performance following motor learning. Therefore twenty-four healthy participants practiced a ballistic motor task for a total of 150 movements. iTBS was subsequently applied to the trained motor cortex (STIM group) or the vertex (SHAM group). Performance and CSE were assessed before motor learning and before and after iTBS. Training significantly increased performance and CSE in both groups. In STIM group participants, subsequent iTBS significantly reduced motor performance with smaller reductions in CSE. CSE changes as a result of motor learning were negatively correlated with both the CSE changes and performance changes as a result of iTBS. No significant effects of iTBS were found for SHAM group participants. We conclude that iTBS has the potential to degrade prior motor learning as a function of training-induced CSE changes. That means the expected LTP-like effects of iTBS are reversed following motor learning.

  10. Experimental measurements and nuclear model calculations on the excitation functions of $^{nat}Ce(^{3}He, xn)$ and $^{141}$therapeutic radionuclide $^{140}$Nd

    CERN Document Server

    Hilgers, K; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M

    2005-01-01

    For production of the therapy related Auger electron emitting neutron deficient nuclide /sup 140/Nd (T/sub fraction 1/2/=3.37d) two routes were investigated: the nuclear reaction range from 15 to 36 MeV and the reaction /sup 141/Pr(p,2n)/sup 140isotopes, namely /sup 139/Nd and /sup 141/Nd, as well as to cerium(IV)-oxide and praseodymium (III)-oxide were obtained by sedimentation and the conventional stacked-foil technique was used for cross section measurements. All the experimental data obtained in this work were compared with the results of theoretical calculations using the exciton model code ALICE-IPPE as well as with literature experimental data, if available. In general, good agreement between experimental and theoretical results was found. The theoretical thick target yields of all the product nuclides were calculated from the measured excitation functions. The theoretical thick target yield of amounts to 12 MBq/mu Acenterdoth and over the energy range E/sub p/=30rightward arrow15 Me V to 210 MBq/mu; A...

  11. Studies on excitation functions of alpha-induced reactions on {sup nat}Fe from threshold to 45 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.S.; Kim, G.N.; Zaman, M. [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Uddin, M.S. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Tandem Accelerator Facilities, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2018-01-15

    Excitation functions of the {sup nat}Fe(α, x){sup 57}Ni, {sup nat}Fe(α, x){sup 55,56,57,58m,g}Co and {sup nat}Fe(α, x){sup 52,54}Mn reactions were measured using the stacked-foil activation technique. The induced radioactivities in both the target and monitor foils were measured using an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The cross sections for the above reactions were also calculated theoretically using the TALYS-1.8 code. The measured results were compared with the other experimental data and theoretical values. The theoretically calculated values are described well by our experimental data. It is observed that the rate of proton emission is larger than the neutron one. The measured results for the formation of few radionuclides are new and the other measured data strengthen the database. The experimental and theoretical studies on the investigated reactions should lead to a useful insight into the mechanisms of those reactions. (orig.)

  12. Geometrically nonlinear resonance of higher-order shear deformable functionally graded carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite annular sector plates excited by harmonic transverse loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Raheb; Ansari, Reza

    2018-02-01

    This article presents an attempt to study the nonlinear resonance of functionally graded carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) annular sector plates excited by a uniformly distributed harmonic transverse load. To this purpose, first, the extended rule of mixture including the efficiency parameters is employed to approximately obtain the effective material properties of FG-CNTRC annular sector plates. Then, the focus is on presenting the weak form of discretized mathematical formulation of governing equations based on the variational differential quadrature (VDQ) method and Hamilton's principle. The geometric nonlinearity and shear deformation effects are considered based on the von Kármán assumptions and Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory, respectively. The discretization process is performed via the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method together with numerical differential and integral operators. Then, an efficient multi-step numerical scheme is used to obtain the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the FG-CNTRC annular sector plates near their primary resonance as the frequency-response curve. The accuracy of the present results is first verified and then a parametric study is presented to show the impacts of CNT volume fraction, CNT distribution pattern, geometry of annular sector plate and sector angle on the nonlinear frequency-response curve of FG-CNTRC annular sector plates with different edge supports.

  13. Sexual Experience in Female Rodents: Cellular Mechanisms and Functional Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Robert L.; Mullins, Amanda J.

    2007-01-01

    The neurobiology of female sexual behavior has largely focused on mechanisms of hormone action on nerve cells and how these effects translate into the display of copulatory motor patterns. Of equal importance, though less studied, are some of the consequences of engaging in sexual behavior, including the rewarding properties of sexual interactions and how sexual experience alters copulatory efficiency. This review summarizes the effects of sexual experience on reward processes and copulation in female Syrian hamsters. Neural correlates of these sexual interactions include long-term cellular changes in dopamine transmission and postsynaptic signaling pathways related to neuronal plasticity (e.g., dendritic spine formation). Taken together, these studies suggest that sexual experience enhances the reinforcing properties of sexual behavior, which has the coincident outcome of increasing copulatory efficiency in a way that can increase reproductive success. PMID:16978593

  14. Do emotional and functional customer experiences influence customer satisfaction, recommendation and loyalty?

    OpenAIRE

    Claeys, Christel; Roozen, Irene

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates whether both the functional and the emotional component of customer experiences contribute to customer satisfaction, recommendation and loyalty. The research is conducted in two different contexts: hedonic experiences and services. The research results show that both components explain satisfaction, recommendation and loyalty of the customers, however the impact differs according to the context of the experience. A negative functional experience is significantly more s...

  15. Excitation functions of parameters extracted from three-source (net-)proton rapidity distributions in Au-Au and Pb-Pb collisions over an energy range from AGS to RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Li-Na; Liu, Fu-Hu [Shanxi University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China); Sun, Yan; Sun, Zhu [Shanxi Datong University, Department of Physics, Datong, Shanxi (China); Lacey, Roy A. [Stony Brook University, Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Experimental results of the rapidity spectra of protons and net-protons (protons minus antiprotons) emitted in gold-gold (Au-Au) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions, measured by a few collaborations at the alternating gradient synchrotron (AGS), super proton synchrotron (SPS), and relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC), are described by a three-source distribution. The values of the distribution width σ{sub C} and fraction k{sub C} of the central rapidity region, and the distribution width σ{sub F} and rapidity shift Δy of the forward/backward rapidity regions, are then obtained. The excitation function of σ{sub C} increases generally with increase of the center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair √(s{sub NN}). The excitation function of σ{sub F} shows a saturation at √(s{sub NN}) = 8.8 GeV. The excitation function of k{sub C} shows a minimum at √(s{sub NN}) = 8.8 GeV and a saturation at √(s{sub NN}) ∼ 17 GeV. The excitation function of Δy increases linearly with ln(√(s{sub NN})) in the considered energy range. (orig.)

  16. Excitation functions for 197Au (d, p)198Au, 197Au(d, 2n)197mHg, 197Au(d, 2n)197Hg and 197Au(d, p2n)196Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Xianguan; Peng Xiufeng; He Fuqing

    1987-01-01

    By using activation method and stack-foil technique, the excitation functions for d + 197 Au reaction in 6.6-13.1 MeV energy range are measured. The measured values are compared with previous results and theoretical calculations

  17. Proton induced reactions on Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni. Measurement and hybrid model analysis of integral excitation functions and their application in model calculation for the production of cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stueck, R.

    1983-01-01

    By means of the stacked foil technique 67 excitation functions of p induced reactions on the target elements Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni were measured in the energy range between 45 and 200 MeV. For residual nuclei with 42 [de

  18. Presynaptic excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M B

    1995-01-01

    Based on functional characterizations with electrophysiological techniques, the channels in nerve terminals appear to be as diverse as channels in nerve cell bodies (Table I). While most presynaptic Ca2+ channels superficially resemble either N-type or L-type channels, variations in detail have necessitated the use of subscripts and other notations to indicate a nerve terminal-specific subtype (e.g., Wang et al., 1993). Variations such as these pose a serious obstacle to the identification of presynaptic channels based solely on the effects of channel blockers on synaptic transmission. Pharmacological sensitivity alone is not likely to help in determining functional properties. Crucial details, such as voltage sensitivity and inactivation, require direct examination. It goes without saying that every nerve terminal membrane contains Ca2+ channels as an entry pathway so that Ca2+ can trigger secretion. However, there appears to be no general specification of channel type, other than the exclusion of T-type Ca2+ channels. T-type Ca2+ channels are defined functionally by strong inactivation and low threshold. Some presynaptic Ca2+ channels inactivate (posterior pituitary and Xenopus nerve terminals), and others have a somewhat reduced voltage threshold (retinal bipolar neurons and squid giant synapse). Perhaps it is just a matter of time before a nerve terminal Ca2+ channel is found with both of these properties. The high threshold and strong inactivation of T-type Ca2+ channels are thought to be adaptations for oscillations and the regulation of bursting activity in nerve cell bodies. The nerve terminals thus far examined have no endogenous electrical activity, but rather are driven by the cell body. On functional grounds, it is then reasonable to anticipate finding T-type Ca2+ channels in nerve terminals that can generate electrical activity on their own. The rarity of such behavior in nerve terminals may be associated with the rarity of presynaptic T-type Ca2

  19. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.

    1985-01-01

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs

  20. Multi detector input and function generator for polarized neutron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Blois, J.; Beunes, A.J.H.; Ende, P. v.d.; Osterholt, E.A.; Rekveldt, M.T.; Schipper, M.N.; Velthuis, S.G.E. te

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a VME module is described for static or stroboscopic measurements with a neutron scattering instrument, consisting essentially of a series of up to 64 3 He neutron detectors around a sample environment. Each detector is provided with an amplifier and a discriminator to separate the neutrons from noise. To reduce the wiring, the discriminator outputs are connected to the module by coding boxes. Two 16-inputs to one-output coding boxes generate serial output codes on a fiber optic connection. This basically fast connection reduces the dead time introduced by the coding, and the influence of environmental noise. With stroboscopic measurements a periodic function is used to affect the sample surrounded by a field coil. Each detected neutron is labeled with a data label containing the detector number and the time of detection with respect to a time reference. The data time base can be programmed on a linear or a nonlinear scale. An external source or an attribute of the periodic function may generate the time reference pulse. A 12-bit DAC connected to the output of an 8 K, 16-bits memory, where the pattern of the current has been stored before, generates the function. The function memory is scanned by the programmable function time base. Attributes are set by the four remaining bits of the memory. One separate detector input connects a monitor detector in the neutron beam with a 32-bit counter/timer that provides measuring on a preset count, preset time or preset frame. (orig.)

  1. Empirical regularities in the excitation cross-section behavior of the lead atom (transitions from energy levels of 6pnd configurations)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Yu M.

    2018-03-01

    Electron-impact excitation of lead atom levels belonging to 6pnd configurations has been studied in experiment. One hundred two excitation cross-sections have been measured at an incident electron energy of 50 eV. Eleven optical excitation functions (OEFs) have been recorded in the exciting electron energy range of E = 0-200 eV. The resulting findings were used to study the excitation cross-sections dependence on the principal quantum number of upper levels for thirteen PbI spectral series.

  2. Diagnosis and management of functional neurological symptoms: The Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Schipper, Laura J.; Vermeulen, Marinus; Eeckhout, Augustinus M.; Foncke, Elisabeth M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Functional neurological symptoms (FNS) were considered as a psychiatric disorder at the beginning of the 20th century (conversion disorder). Psychiatrists performed diagnosis and treatment throughout most of the past century in the Netherlands, but in the latest decades patients were usually firstly

  3. Diagnosis and management of functional neurological symptoms: The Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Schipper, L.J.; Vermeulen, M; Eeckhout, A.M.; Foncke, E.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Functional neurological symptoms (FNS) were considered as a psychiatric disorder at the beginning of the 20th century (conversion disorder). Psychiatrists performed diagnosis and treatment throughout most of the past century in the Netherlands, but in the latest decades patients were

  4. Modification of visual function by early visual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, C

    1976-07-01

    Physiological experiments, involving recording from the visual cortex in young kittens and monkeys, have given new insight into human developmental disorders. In the visual cortex of normal cats and monkeys most neurones are selectively sensitive to the orientation of moving edges and they receive very similar signals from both eyes. Even in very young kittens without visual experience, most neurones are binocularly driven and a small proportion of them are genuinely orientation selective. There is no passive maturation of the system in the absence of visual experience, but even very brief exposure to patterned images produces rapid emergence of the adult organization. These results are compared to observations on humans who have "recovered" from early blindness. Covering one eye in a kitten or a monkey, during a sensitive period early in life, produces a virtually complete loss of input from that eye in the cortex. These results can be correlated with the production of "stimulus deprivation amblyopia" in infants who have had one eye patched. Induction of a strabismus causes a loss of binocularity in the visual cortex, and in humans it leads to a loss of stereoscopic vision and binocular fusion. Exposing kittens to lines of one orientation modifies the preferred orientations of cortical cells and there is an analogous "meridional amblyopia" in astigmatic humans. The existence of a sensitive period in human vision is discussed, as well as the possibility of designing remedial and preventive treatments for human developmental disorders.

  5. Flash Photolysis Experiment of o-Methyl Red as a Function of pH: A Low-Cost Experiment for the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Molly C.; Perkins, Russell J.

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost, time-resolved spectroscopy experiment appropriate for third year physical chemistry students is presented. Students excite o-methyl red in basic solutions with a laser pointer and use a modular spectrometer with a CCD array detector to monitor the transient spectra as the higher-energy cis conformer of the molecule converts back to the…

  6. Electronic structure and optical properties of CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} solid solution nanostructures from X-ray absorption near edge structure, X-ray excited optical luminescence, and density functional theory investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M. W. [DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron), FS-PEX, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Yiu, Y. M., E-mail: yyiu@uwo.ca; Sham, T. K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A5B7 (Canada); Ward, M. J. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Liu, L. [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Soochow University-Western University Center for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123 (China); Hu, Y. [Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N2V3 (Canada); Zapien, J. A. [Center Of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Liu, Yingkai [Institute of Physics and Electronic Information, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650500 (China)

    2014-11-21

    The electronic structure and optical properties of a series of iso-electronic and iso-structural CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} solid solution nanostructures have been investigated using X-ray absorption near edge structure, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray excited optical luminescence at various absorption edges of Cd, S, and Se. It is found that the system exhibits compositions, with variable local structure in-between that of CdS and CdSe accompanied by tunable optical band gap between that of CdS and CdSe. Theoretical calculation using density functional theory has been carried out to elucidate the observations. It is also found that luminescence induced by X-ray excitation shows new optical channels not observed previously with laser excitation. The implications of these observations are discussed.

  7. Ion pressure and work function in an effusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between ion flow and ion pressure is examined from the point of view of the existence of a plasma in an effusion chamber. It is shown that this relationship is nonlinear, and a method is described to calculate it for specific experimental conditions. An analysis is made of the dependence of ion pressure and the work function of the inside surface of the effusion chamber on the composition of the condensed or gas phase

  8. Injection molded nanofluidic chips: Fabrication method and functional tests using single-molecule DNA experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels.......We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels....

  9. Electron spectroscopy of collisional excited atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straten, P. van der.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis measurements are described in which coincidences are detected between scattered projectiles and emitted electrons. This yields information on two-electron excitation processes. In order to show what can be learnt from coincidence experiments a detailed theoretical analysis is given. The transition amplitudes, which contain all the information, are introduced (ch.2). In ch.3 the experimental set-up is shown. The results for the Li + -He system are shown in ch. 7 and are compared with predictions based on the Molecular-Orbitalmodel which however does not account for two-excitation mechanisms. With the transition amplitudes also the wave function of the excited atom has been completely determined. In ch.8 the shape of the electron cloud, induced by the collision, is derived from the amplitudes. The relation between the oscillatory motion of this cloud after the collision and the correlation between the two electrons of the excited atom is discussed. In ch. 6 it is shown that the broad structures in the non-coincident energy spectra of the Li + -He system are erroneously interpretated as a result of electron emission from the (Li-He) + -quasimolecule. A model is presented which explains, based on the results obtained from the coincidence measurements, these broad structures. In ch. 4 the Post-Collision Interaction process is treated. It is shown that for high-energy collisions, in contrast with general assumptions, PCI is important. In ch. 5 the importance of PCI-processes in photoionization of atoms, followed by Auger decay, are studied. From the formulas derived in ch. 4 simple analytical results are obtained. These are applied to recent experiments and good agreement is achieved. 140 refs.; 55 figs.; 9 tabs

  10. Excitation functions of inelastic and transfer channels in {sup 12} C+{sup 12} C around E{sub c.m.} = 32.5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilner, S.; Basrak, Z.; Freeman, R.M.; Haas, F.; Beck, C. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires]|[Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France); Morsad, A. [Universite Hassan II, Casablanca (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences

    1996-12-31

    A prominent and wide resonance centered at E{sub c.m.} = 32.5 MeV has recently been found in the (0{sub 2}{sup +}, 0{sub 2}{sup +}) inelastic channel of the {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C reaction. It has been suggested that it corresponds to a 6{alpha}-particle-chain state in {sup 24}Mg. In the present work we study {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C excitation functions between center-of-mass energies of 30 and 35 MeV in steps of 250 keV for weakly populated outgoing channels. We present the inelastic channels to the states above the {alpha}-particle decay threshold, (0{sub 1}{sup +},0{sub 2}{sup +}), (0{sub 1}{sup +},3{sub 1}{sup -}), and (0{sub 1}{sup +},4{sub 1}{sup 4}), and the one- and two-nucleon transfer channels. In the inelastic and the transfer channels we observe correlated intermediate-width structures at E{sub c.m.} = 31, 32.5, and 33.5 MeV, whose widths are appreciably smaller than the width measured in the (0{sub 2}{sup +},0{sub 2}{sup +}) channel. Our E{sub c.m.} = 31, 32.5, and 33.5 MeV, whose widths are appreciably smaller than the width measured in the (0{sub 2}{sup +},0{sub 2}{sup +}) channel. Our E{sub c.m.} = 32.5 MeV angular distribution of the (0{sub 1}{sup +},0{sub 2}{sup +})channel exhibits oscillatory behavior and, unlike that of the (0{sup +}{sub 2}, 0{sup +}{sub 2}) channel, does not display enhancement around {Theta}{sub c.m.} = 90 deg. Data were collected via the kinematic coincidence technique. For data reduction we use a novel approach allowing for the extraction of results on non-binary channels. (authors). 39 refs.

  11. Hydrological excitation of polar motion by different variables from the GLDAS models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winska, Malgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta; Salstein, David

    2017-12-01

    Continental hydrological loading by land water, snow and ice is a process that is important for the full understanding of the excitation of polar motion. In this study, we compute different estimations of hydrological excitation functions of polar motion (as hydrological angular momentum, HAM) using various variables from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) models of the land-based hydrosphere. The main aim of this study is to show the influence of variables from different hydrological processes including evapotranspiration, runoff, snowmelt and soil moisture, on polar motion excitations at annual and short-term timescales. Hydrological excitation functions of polar motion are determined using selected variables of these GLDAS realizations. Furthermore, we use time-variable gravity field solutions from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to determine the hydrological mass effects on polar motion excitation. We first conduct an intercomparison of the maps of variations of regional hydrological excitation functions, timing and phase diagrams of different regional and global HAMs. Next, we estimate the hydrological signal in geodetically observed polar motion excitation as a residual by subtracting the contributions of atmospheric angular momentum and oceanic angular momentum. Finally, the hydrological excitations are compared with those hydrological signals determined from residuals of the observed polar motion excitation series. The results will help us understand the relative importance of polar motion excitation within the individual hydrological processes, based on hydrological modeling. This method will allow us to estimate how well the polar motion excitation budget in the seasonal and inter-annual spectral ranges can be closed.

  12. Theory of g-shift and linewidth in CeP excited state EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.; Cooper, B.R.; Huang, C.Y.; Sugawara, K.

    1979-01-01

    The Mori-Zwanzig memory function formalism was used to analyze the observed excited state EPR mode in CeP. The mixing of the Zeeman-split crystal-field excitation by the exchange, particularly among those with degenerate frequencies, yields a normal mode determining the observed low-frequency spectrum. This is illustrated by calculation with Heisenberg exchange which yields a single peak in qualitative agreement with the experiment

  13. Functioning adrenal tumours in children and adolescents: an institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A; Agarwal, G; Misra, A K; Agarwal, A; Mishra, S K

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to carry out an audit of clinicopathological profile and treatment outcome in 13 children with functioning adrenal tumours. The medical records of 13 children with functioning adrenal tumours who were managed between June 1990 and January 1999 were reviewed. Demographic data, clinical features, biochemical and localization studies, operative details and follow-up records were studied. Children with neuroblastoma were excluded. The mean age was 7.4 +/- 5.3 years. Seven patients had Cushing's syndrome (CS), two patients had virilizing tumours, three patients had phaeochromocytoma (PCC) and one patient had Conn's syndrome. All patients (except one child with CS) were treated surgically. Two children with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACCa) died during the perioperative period. Histopathological diagnosis was adrenal cortical adenoma (ACAd) in four patients, ACCa in five patients and PCC in three patients. Two ACCa patients died of metastases at 12 and 14 months, respectively, while the third is alive and well at 30 months. Children with ACAd are alive and well at 91, 56, 32 and 27 months postoperatively. Children with PCC are free of disease (normal urinary metanephrines) at 63, 18 and 8 months after surgery but require antihypertensive drugs in low doses. The outcome of surgery is good in cases of ACAd and PCC. Although outcome is poor in ACCa, surgery remains the mainstay of treatment and offers good palliation.

  14. Calculation of the total electron excitation cross section in the Born approximation using Slater wave functions for the Li (2s yields 2p), Li (2s yields 3p), Na (3s yields 4p), Mg (3p yields 4s), Ca (4s yields 4p) and K (4s yields 4p) excitations. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsic, P. L.

    1974-01-01

    Excitation of neutral atoms by inelastic scattering of incident electrons in gaseous nebulae were investigated using Slater Wave functions to describe the initial and final states of the atom. Total cross sections using the Born Approximation are calculated for: Li(2s yields 2p), Na(3s yields 4p), k(4s yields 4p). The intensity of emitted radiation from gaseous nebulae is also calculated, and Maxwell distribution is employed to average the kinetic energy of electrons.

  15. Tools for the functional interpretation of metabolomic experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoyen, Monica; Pazos, Florencio

    2013-11-01

    The so-called 'omics' approaches used in modern biology aim at massively characterizing the molecular repertories of living systems at different levels. Metabolomics is one of the last additions to the 'omics' family and it deals with the characterization of the set of metabolites in a given biological system. As metabolomic techniques become more massive and allow characterizing larger sets of metabolites, automatic methods for analyzing these sets in order to obtain meaningful biological information are required. Only recently the first tools specifically designed for this task in metabolomics appeared. They are based on approaches previously used in transcriptomics and other 'omics', such as annotation enrichment analysis. These, together with generic tools for metabolic analysis and visualization not specifically designed for metabolomics will for sure be in the toolbox of the researches doing metabolomic experiments in the near future.

  16. Calculation of the differential cross sections of excitation and ionization of a helium atom by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demkin, V.P.; Pecheritsyn, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Equations for the amplitudes and differential cross sections of electronic excitation and ionization of a helium atom are derived in the approximation of a open-quotes frozenclose quotes ion core. The wave functions of the discrete states are chosen in the form of generalized hydrogenlike orbitals. The radial wave functions of the continuous spectrum are determined by solving the equation of motion numerically. The differential excitation cross sections of excitation of the 2p, 3p, and 4p levels and ionization of a helium atom by electrons are calculated in the energy range up to 50 eV. Estimates are obtained for the nonorthogonal wave functions in the amplitudes of the excitation and ionization processes. It is shown that the given method is more compatible with experiment than the Born method

  17. Seeing conflict and engaging control: Experience with contrastive language benefits executive function in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebel, Sabine; Zelazo, Philip David

    2016-12-01

    Engaging executive function often requires overriding a prepotent response in favor of a conflicting but adaptive one. Language may play a key role in this ability by supporting integrated representations of conflicting rules. We tested whether experience with contrastive language that could support such representations benefits executive function in 3-year-old children. Children who received brief experience with language highlighting contrast between objects, attributes, and actions showed greater executive function on two of three 'conflict' executive function tasks than children who received experience with contrasting stimuli only and children who read storybooks with the experimenter, controlling for baseline executive function. Experience with contrasting stimuli did not benefit executive function relative to reading books with the experimenter, indicating experience with contrastive language, rather than experience with contrast generally, was key. Experience with contrastive language also boosted spontaneous attention to contrast, consistent with improvements in representing contrast. These findings indicate a role for language in executive function that is consistent with the Cognitive Complexity and Control theory's key claim that coordinating conflicting rules is critical to overcoming perseveration, and suggest new ideas for testing theories of executive function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Current experience concerning Romanian green certificates market functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladescu, Gherghina; Lupului, Luminita; Vasilevschi, Constantin; Ghinea, Smaranda

    2006-01-01

    The renewable energy sources are promoted by their beneficial use, namely: - diversification of energy sources for producing electric power; - reduction of pollution produced by fossil fuel burning; - reduction of gas releases producing the greenhouse effects, etc. Currently, most of the renewable energy sources cannot concur on electric power free market because of the high costs of implied investments. To ensure an efficient use of renewable energy sources in electricity production and to maintain the installations implied on the electric power market, it is necessary to implement a system able to produce an output greater than that obtained from electric energy selling. The Romanian Government chose to promote the electric energy production by renewable energy sources by using the green certificate trading system. This system ensures the progress in developing the technologies employed in electric energy production from renewable energy sources and, at the same time the costs implied by their promotion can be adjusted by market mechanisms what will reduce the effects upon the electric energy consumers. The paper presents the legislation frame existing in Romania for promoting the electric energy produced from renewable energy sources, the green certificate trading system applied in Romania, as well as, the role shared by the entities implied in operation and development of the system. In November 2005, a first transaction with green certificates on controlled green certificate market in Romania took place. Analyzed is the evolution of the green certificate market registered so far from its inception, as well as, the lessons learned so far from the experience acquired

  19. Thermal Excitation System for Shearography (TESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Matthew D.; Bullock, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most convenient and effective methods of stressing a part or structure for shearographic evaluation is thermal excitation. This technique involves heating the part, often convectively with a heat gun, and then monitoring with a shearography device the deformation during cooling. For a composite specimen, unbonds, delaminations, inclusions, or matrix cracking will deform during cooling differently than other more structurally sound regions and thus will appear as anomalies in the deformation field. However, one of the difficulties that cause this inspection to be dependent on the operator experience is the conventional heating process. Fanning the part with a heat gun by hand introduces a wide range of variability from person to person and from one inspection to the next. The goal of this research effort was to conduct research in the methods of thermal excitation for shearography inspection. A computerized heating system was developed for inspection of 0.61 m (24 in.) square panels. The Thermal Excitation System for Shearography (TESS) provides radiant heating with continuous digital measurement of the surface temperature profile to ensure repeatability. The TESS device functions as an accessory to any electronic shearography device.

  20. Benchmarking singlet and triplet excitation energies of molecular semiconductors for singlet fission: Tuning the amount of HF exchange and adjusting local correlation to obtain accurate functionals for singlet-triplet gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Charlotte; Engels, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Vertical and adiabatic singlet and triplet excitation energies of molecular p-type semiconductors calculated with various DFT functionals and wave-function based approaches are benchmarked against MS-CASPT2/cc-pVTZ reference values. A special focus lies on the singlet-triplet gaps that are very important in the process of singlet fission. Singlet fission has the potential to boost device efficiencies of organic solar cells, but the scope of existing singlet-fission compounds is still limited. A computational prescreening of candidate molecules could enlarge it; yet it requires efficient methods accurately predicting singlet and triplet excitation energies. Different DFT formulations (Tamm-Dancoff approximation, linear response time-dependent DFT, Δ-SCF) and spin scaling schemes along with several ab initio methods (CC2, ADC(2)/MP2, CIS(D), CIS) are evaluated. While wave-function based methods yield rather reliable singlet-triplet gaps, many DFT functionals are shown to systematically underestimate triplet excitation energies. To gain insight, the impact of exact exchange and correlation is in detail addressed.

  1. Excited charmed mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.N.; Shukla, S.

    1995-05-01

    The experimental status of excited charmed mesons is reviewed and is compared to theoretical expectations. Six states have been observed and their properties are consistent with those predicted for excited charmed states with orbital angular momentum equal to one

  2. Multi-frequency excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of multi-frequency excitation are described. In various embodiments, a natural frequency of a device may be determined. In turn, a first voltage amplitude and first fixed frequency of a first source of excitation can be selected

  3. Dependence of Excited State Potential Energy Surfaces on the Spatial Overlap of the Kohn-Sham Orbitals and the Amount of Nonlocal Hartree-Fock Exchange in Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plötner, Jürgen; Tozer, David J; Dreuw, Andreas

    2010-08-10

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with standard GGA or hybrid exchange-correlation functionals is not capable of describing the potential energy surface of the S1 state of Pigment Yellow 101 correctly; an additional local minimum is observed at a twisted geometry with substantial charge transfer (CT) character. To investigate the influence of nonlocal exact orbital (Hartree-Fock) exchange on the shape of the potential energy surface of the S1 state in detail, it has been computed along the twisting coordinate employing the standard BP86, B3LYP, and BHLYP xc-functionals as well as the long-range separated (LRS) exchange-correlation (xc)-functionals LC-BOP, ωB97X, ωPBE, and CAM-B3LYP and compared to RI-CC2 benchmark results. Additionally, a recently suggested Λ-parameter has been employed that measures the amount of CT in an excited state by calculating the spatial overlap of the occupied and virtual molecular orbitals involved in the transition. Here, the error in the calculated S1 potential energy curves at BP86, B3LYP, and BHLYP can be clearly related to the Λ-parameter, i.e., to the extent of charge transfer. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the CT problem is largely alleviated when the BHLYP xc-functional is employed, although it still exhibits a weak tendency to underestimate the energy of CT states. The situation improves drastically when LRS-functionals are employed within TDDFT excited state calculations. All tested LRS-functionals give qualitatively the correct potential energy curves of the energetically lowest excited states of P. Y. 101 along the twisting coordinate. While LC-BOP and ωB97X overcorrect the CT problem and now tend to give too large excitation energies compared to other non-CT states, ωPBE and CAM-B3LYP are in excellent agreement with the RI-CC2 results, with respect to both the correct shape of the potential energy curve as well as the absolute values of the calculated excitation energies.

  4. Normal Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic experiments with thin layer chromatography spots of essential amino acids using different laser excitation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    István, Krisztina; Keresztury, Gábor; Szép, Andrea

    2003-06-01

    A comparative study of the feasibility and efficiency of Raman spectroscopic detection of thin layer chromatography (TLC) spots of some weak Raman scatterers (essential amino acids, namely, glycine and L-forms of alanine, serine, valine, proline, hydroxyproline, and phenylalanine) was carried out using four different visible and near-infrared (NIR) laser radiations with wavelengths of 532, 633, 785, and 1064 nm. Three types of commercial TLC plates were tested and the possibility of inducing surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by means of Ag-sol was also investigated. The spectra obtained from spotted analytes adsorbed on TLC plates were of very different quality strongly depending on the excitation wavelength, the wetness of the samples, and the compounds examined. The best results were obtained with the simple silica TLC plate, and it has been established that the longest wavelength (lowest energy) NIR excitation of a Nd:YAG laser is definitely more suitable for generating normal Raman scattering of analyte spots than any of the visible radiations. Concerning SERS with application of Ag-sol to the TLC spots, 1-3 orders of magnitude enhancement was observed with wet samples, the greatest with the 532 nm radiation and gradually smaller with the longer wavelength excitations. It is shown, however, that due to severe adsorption-induced spectral distortions and increased sensitivity to microscopic inhomogeneity of the sample, none of the SERS spectra obtained with the dispersive Raman microscope operating in the visible region were superior to the best NIR normal FT-Raman spectra, as far as sample identification is concerned.

  5. Excited-state potential-energy surfaces of metal-adsorbed organic molecules from linear expansion Δ-self-consistent field density-functional theory (ΔSCF-DFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Reinhard J; Reuter, Karsten

    2013-07-07

    Accurate and efficient simulation of excited state properties is an important and much aspired cornerstone in the study of adsorbate dynamics on metal surfaces. To this end, the recently proposed linear expansion Δ-self-consistent field method by Gavnholt et al. [Phys. Rev. B 78, 075441 (2008)] presents an efficient alternative to time consuming quasi-particle calculations. In this method, the standard Kohn-Sham equations of density-functional theory are solved with the constraint of a non-equilibrium occupation in a region of Hilbert-space resembling gas-phase orbitals of the adsorbate. In this work, we discuss the applicability of this method for the excited-state dynamics of metal-surface mounted organic adsorbates, specifically in the context of molecular switching. We present necessary advancements to allow for a consistent quality description of excited-state potential-energy surfaces (PESs), and illustrate the concept with the application to Azobenzene adsorbed on Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces. We find that the explicit inclusion of substrate electronic states modifies the topologies of intra-molecular excited-state PESs of the molecule due to image charge and hybridization effects. While the molecule in gas phase shows a clear energetic separation of resonances that induce isomerization and backreaction, the surface-adsorbed molecule does not. The concomitant possibly simultaneous induction of both processes would lead to a significantly reduced switching efficiency of such a mechanism.

  6. Antecedents of individuals' interteam coordination: Broad functional experiences as a mixed blessing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, T.A. de; Walter, F.; Vegt, G.S. van der; Essens, P.J.M.D.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript investigates the role of individual team members' breadth of functional experience for their interteam coordination behavior. Integrating personal construct and social identity theories, we examine interpersonal cognitive complexity as a mediating variable and organizational

  7. Nuclear spin and isospin excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterfeld, F.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of our present knowledge of collective spin-isospin excitations in nuclei. Most of this knowledge comes from intermediate-energy charge-exchange reactions and from inelastic electron- and proton-scattering experiments. The nuclear-spin dynamics is governed by the spin-isospin-dependent two-nucleon interaction in the medium. This interaction gives rise to collective spin modes such as the giant Gamow-Teller resonances. An interesting phenomenon is that the measured total Gamow-Teller transition strength in the resonance region is much less than a model-independent sum rule predicts. Two physically different mechanisms have been discussed to explain this so-called quenching of the total Gamow-Teller strength: coupling to subnuclear degrees of freedom in the form of Δ-isobar excitation and ordinary nuclear configuration mixing. Both detailed nuclear structure calculations and extensive analyses of the scattering data suggest that the nuclear configuration mixing effect is the more important quenching mechanism, although subnuclear degrees of freedom cannot be ruled out. The quenching phenomenon occurs for nuclear-spin excitations at low excitation energies (ω∼10--20 MeV) and small-momentum transfers (q≤0.5 fm -1 ). A completely opposite effect is anticipated in the high (ω,q)-transfer region (0≤ω≤500 MeV, 0.5≤q≤3 fm -1 ). The nuclear spin-isospin response might be enhanced due to the attractive pion field inside the nucleus. Charge-exchange reactions at GeV incident energies have been used to study the quasifree peak region and the Δ-resonance region. An interesting result of these experiments is that the Δ excitation in the nucleus is shifted downwards in energy relative to the Δ excitation of the free proton

  8. High energy magnetic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Yasuo

    1988-01-01

    The report emphasizes that the current development in condensed matter physics opens a research field fit to inelastic neutron scattering experiments in the eV range which is easilly accessed by spallation neutron sources. Several important subjects adopted at thermal reactors are shown. It is desired to extend the implementation of the spectroscopic experiments for investigation of higher energy magnetic excitations. For La 2 CuO 4 , which is the mother crystal of the first high Tc materials found by Bednortz and Muller, it seems to be believed that the magnetism is well characterized by the two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic Hamiltonian, and it is widely accepted that the magnetism is a most probable progenitor of high Tc superconductors. The unusual properties of spin correlations in this crystal have been studied extensively by standard neutron scattering techniques with steady neutrons at BNL. FeSi is not ordered magnetically but shows a very unique feature of temperature induced magnetism, which also has been studied extensively by using the thermal neutron scattering technique at BNL. In these experiments, polarized neutrons are indispensable to extract the clean magnetic components out of other components of non-magnetic scattering. (N.K.)

  9. Elementary excitations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmer, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The role of elementary quasi-particle and quasi-hole excitations is reviewed in connection with the analysis of data involving high-lying nuclear states. This article includes discussions on: (i) single quasi-hole excitations in pick-up reactions, (ii) the formation of single quasi-hole and quasi-particle excitations (in different nuclei) during transfer reactions, followed by (iii) quasi-particle quasi-hole excitations in the same nucleus that are produced by photon absorption. Finally, the question of photon absorption in the vicinity of the elementary Δ resonance is discussed, where nucleonic as well as nuclear degrees of freedom can be excited

  10. Funktioneel programmeren: evaluatie van een onderwijsexperiment [Functional programming: evaluation of an educational experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; Pilot, A.

    In this report we describe an experiment with a course in Functional Programming for first years students in Computer Science. The background of the experiment is given as well as the aims of the questionaires, assignments and time requirement analysis. A discussion is given about some didactical

  11. Multi-frequency excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-03-10

    Embodiments of multi-frequency excitation are described. In various embodiments, a natural frequency of a device may be determined. In turn, a first voltage amplitude and first fixed frequency of a first source of excitation can be selected for the device based on the natural frequency. Additionally, a second voltage amplitude of a second source of excitation can be selected for the device, and the first and second sources of excitation can be applied to the device. After applying the first and second sources of excitation, a frequency of the second source of excitation can be swept. Using the methods of multi- frequency excitation described herein, new operating frequencies, operating frequency ranges, resonance frequencies, resonance frequency ranges, and/or resonance responses can be achieved for devices and systems.

  12. Coulomb excitation of radioactive {sup 79}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.; Davids, C.N. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The technical challenges expected in experiments with radioactive beams can already be explored by using ions produced in primary reactions. In addition, the re-excitation of these ions by Coulomb excitation allows a sensitive search for collective states that are well above the yrast line. We are building an experiment to study Coulomb excitation of radioactive ions which are separated from beam particles by the Fragment Mass Analyzer. An array of gamma detectors will be mounted at the focal plane to measure the gamma radiation following re-excitation. Five Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and five planar LEPS detectors will be used. The optimum experiment of this type appears to be the study of {sup 79}Rb following the {sup 24}Mg ({sup 58}Ni,3p) reaction. We calculate that about 5 x 10{sup 5} {sup 79}Rb nuclei/second will reach the excitation foil. This rubidium isotope was selected for study as it is strongly produced and is highly deformed, so easily re-excited. The use of a {sup 58}Ni re-excitation foil offers the best yields. After re-excitation the ions will be subsequently transported into a shielded beamdump to prevent the accumulation of activity.

  13. On the truncation of the number of excited states in density functional theory sum-over-states calculations of indirect spin spin coupling constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarycz, M. Natalia C.; Provasi, Patricio F.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2015-01-01

    of the Polarization Propagator (IPPP-CLOPPA) approach to analyzing SSCCs in terms of localized orbitals. As a test set we have studied the nine simple compounds, CH4, NH3, H2O, SiH4, PH3, SH2, C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6. The excited (pseudo)states were obtained from TD-DFT calculations with the B3LYP exchange...

  14. a simple a simple excitation control excitation control excitation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    field voltages determined follow a simple quadratic relationship that offer a very simple control scheme, dependent on only the stator current. Keywords: saturated reactances, no-load field voltage, excitation control, synchronous generators. 1. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. The commonest generator in use today is ...

  15. Dark excitations in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deilmann, Thorsten; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2017-01-01

    Monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) possess unique optoelectronic properties, including strongly bound excitons and trions. To date, most studies have focused on optically active excitations, but recent experiments have highlighted the existence of dark states, which are equally...

  16. Sensitivity of Surface Temperature to Oceanic Forcing via q-Flux Green’s Function Experiments. Part I: Linear Response Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fukai; Lu, Jian; Garuba, Oluwayemi A.; Leung, Lai-Yung; Luo, Yiyong; Wan, Xiuquan

    2018-05-01

    This paper explores the use of linear response function (LRF) to relate the mean sea surface temperature (SST) response to prescribed ocean heat convergence (q-flux) forcings. Two methods for constructing the LRF based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT) and Green’s function (GRF) are examined. A 900-year preindustrial simulation from the Community Earth System Model with a slab ocean (CESM-SOM) is used to estimate the LRF using FDT. For GRF, 106 pairs of CESM-SOM simulations with warm and cold q-flux patches are performed. FDT is found to have skill in estimating the SST response to a q-flux forcing when the local SST response is strong, but it fails in inverse estimation of the q-flux forcing for a given SST pattern. In contrast, GRF is shown to be reasonably accurate in estimating both SST response and q-flux forcing. Possible degradation in FDT may be attributed to insufficient data sampling, significant departures of the SST data from Gaussian, and the non-normality of the constructed operator. The accurately estimated GRF-based LRF is used to (i) generate a global surface temperature sensitivity map that shows the q-flux forcing in higher latitudes to be three to four times more effective than in low latitudes in producing global surface warming; (ii) identify the most excitable SST mode (neutral vector) resembling Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation; and (iii) estimate a time-invariant q-flux forcing needed for maintaining the GHG-induced SST warming pattern. The GRF experiments will be used to construct LRF for other variables to further explore climate sensitivities and feedbacks.

  17. Electron impact ionization-excitation of Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancarani, Lorenzo Ugo; Gomez, A. I.; Gasaneo, G.; Mitnik, D. M.; Ambrosio, M. J.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for the process of ionization-excitation of Helium by fast electron impact in which the residual ion is left in the n =2 excited state. We chose the strongly asymmetric kinematics used in the experiment performed by Dupré et al.. In a perturbative scheme, for high projectile energies the four-body problem reduces to a three-body one and, within that framework, we solve the time- independent Schrödinger equation with a Sturmian approach. The method, based on Generalized Sturmian Functions (GSF), is employed to obtain the initial ground state of Helium, the single-continuum state and the scattering wave function; for each of them, the GSF basis is constructed with the corresponding adequate asymptotic conditions. Besides, the method presents the following advantage: the scattering amplitudes can be extracted directly in the asymptotic region of the scattering solution, and thus the TDCS can be obtained without requiring a matrix element evaluation.

  18. Excitation processes in organic systems under irradiation with vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefer, Y.

    1983-08-01

    The subject of this work is the fluorescence of organic systems in the excitation range where phenomena of photon multiplication begin. It was hoped to reach the excitation energy above which the distribution of the various phenomena was constant and as a result, a linear function between the variation of the fluorescence intensity with variations of the excitation, would be obtained. The experimental set-up consisted mainly of suitable light sources, monochromators and detectors. The gated measuring system consisted of an oscilloscope, integrator and recorder. The material predominantly used in the experiments was anthracene whose absorption spectrum was investigated and calculated. The absorption spectra of various polycrystalline layers were also calculated. The absorption spectrum of a randomly ordered polycrystalline layer was compared with that of a hexane solution and a good correlation between the two spectra was obtained. For the study of the relationship between the excitation spectrum of anthracene and the order of crystal, the excitation spectrum of single crystals of anthracene was measured from 4 eV to 107 eV. For the excitation region from 10 eV to 23 eV the efficiency of exciting a singlet level by a photoelectron was calculated as a function of the kinetic energy of the photoelectron, assuming the efficiency of the recombination to be constant. The excitation spectra of single crystals of p-terphenyl, pyrene and phenanthrene were also examined. In all four crystals the excitation spectrum rises monotonically with an increase in the energy of the exciting photon. (author)

  19. Devlopments of components for the detector driving system of the PANDA calorimeter and studies on the photoproduction of excited η mesons with the CB/ELSA experiment; Entwicklung von Komponenten fuer das Detektorsteuersystem des PANDA-Kalorimeters und Studien zur Photoproduktion angeregter η-Mesonen mit dem CB/ELSA-Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triffterer, Tobias

    2016-01-28

    This PhD thesis (written in German language) consists of two parts: The first part describes developments for the Detector Control System of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA detector. An alarm and current border regulation system has been developed for this to ensure the correct functioning of the detector and to prevent damages. In addition, a database system (endcap production database) has been created to accompany the construction of the forward endcap and archive the characteristics of the photodetectors. The second part deals with the investigation into excited η mesons using the data measured with the CB/ELSA experiment. The distribution of the η' production angle in the decay channel η'→ ηπ{sup 0}π{sup 0} has been calculated for the first time within the beam photo energy range of 2500 to 2950 MeV. Furthermore, the relative effective cross section of the η(1405) to the η' could be determined to 0.16±0.05 (3.2σ). This shows evidence for a more complex nature of the η(1405).

  20. Boson and fermion many-body assemblies: Fingerprints of excitations in the ground-state wave functions, with examples of superfluid 4He and the homogeneous correlated electron liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.

    2007-08-01

    After a brief summary of some basic properties of ideal gases of bosons and of fermions, two many-body Hamiltonians are cited for which ground-state wave functions allow the generation of excited states. But because of the complexity of ground-state many-body wave functions, we then consider properties of reduced density matrices, and in particular, the diagonal element of the second-order density matrix. For both the homogeneous correlated electron liquid and for an assembly of charged bosons, the ground-state pair correlation function g(r) has fingerprints of the zero-point energy of the plasmon modes. These affect crucially the static structure factor S(k), in the long wavelength limit. This is best understood by means of the Ornstein-Zernike direct correlation function c(r), which plays an important role throughout this article. Turning from such charged liquids, both boson and fermion, to superfluid 4 He, the elevated temperature (T) structure factor S(k, T) is related, albeit approximately, to its zero-temperature counterpart, via the velocity of sound, reflecting the collective phonon excitations, and the superfluid density. Finally some future directions are pointed. (author)

  1. Excited states 2

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    Excited States, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that deals with molecules in the excited states. The book describes the geometries of molecules in the excited electronic states. One paper describes the geometries of a diatomic molecule and of polyatomic molecules; it also discusses the determination of the many excited state geometries of molecules with two, three, or four atoms by techniques similar to diatomic spectroscopy. Another paper introduces an ordered theory related to excitons in pure and mixed molecular crystals. This paper also presents some experimental data such as those invo

  2. Excited states v.6

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Edward C

    1982-01-01

    Excited States, Volume 6 is a collection of papers that discusses the excited states of molecules. The first paper discusses the linear polyene electronic structure and potential surfaces, considering both the theoretical and experimental approaches in such electronic states. This paper also reviews the theory of electronic structure and cites some experimental techniques on polyene excitations, polyene spectroscopic phenomenology, and those involving higher states of polyenes and their triplet states. Examples of these experimental studies of excited states involve the high-resolution one-pho

  3. Influence of excited molecules on electron swarm transport coefficients and gas discharge kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Z.L.; Jovanovic, J.V.; Raspopovic, Z.M.; Bzenic, S.A.; Vrhovac, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we study different effects of excited molecules on swarm parameters, electron energy distribution functions and gas discharge modeling. First we discuss a possible experiment in parahydrogen to resolve the discrepancy in hydrogen vibrational excitation cross section data. Negative differential conductivity (NDC) is a kinetic phenomenon which manifests itself in a particular dependence of the drift velocity on E=N and it is affected by superelastic collisions with excited states. A complete kinetic scheme for argon required to model excited state densities in gas discharges is also described. These results are used to explain experiments in capacitively and inductively coupled RF plasmas used for processing. The paper illustrates the application of atomic and molecular collision data, swarm data and the theoretical techniques in modeling of gas discharges with large abundances of excited molecules. It is pointed out that swarm experiments with excited molecules are lacking and that there is a shortage of reliable data, while the numerical procedures are sufficiently developed to include all the important effects. (authors). 59 refs., 12 figs

  4. Excited states in stochastic electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, H.M.; Marshall, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    It is shown that the set of Wigner functions associated with the excited states of the harmonic oscillator constitute a complete set of functions over the phase space. An arbitraty distribution can be expanded in terms of these Wigner functions. By studying the time evolution, according to Stochastic Electrodynamics, of the expansion coefficients, becomes feasible to separate explicity the contributionsof the radiative reaction and the vaccuum field to the Einsten. A coefficients for this system. A simple semiclassical explanation of the Weisskopf-Heitler phenomenon in resonance fluorescence is also supplied. (author) [pt

  5. How Parallel Are Excited State Potential Energy Surfaces from Time-Independent and Time-Dependent DFT? A BODIPY Dye Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Keenan T; Kowalczyk, Tim

    2016-10-06

    To support the development and characterization of chromophores with targeted photophysical properties, excited-state electronic structure calculations should rapidly and accurately predict how derivatization of a chromophore will affect its excitation and emission energies. This paper examines whether a time-independent excited-state density functional theory (DFT) approach meets this need through a case study of BODIPY chromophore photophysics. A restricted open-shell Kohn-Sham (ROKS) treatment of the S 1 excited state of BODIPY dyes is contrasted with linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Vertical excitation energies predicted by the two approaches are remarkably different due to overestimation by TDDFT and underestimation by ROKS relative to experiment. Overall, ROKS with a standard hybrid functional provides the more accurate description of the S 1 excited state of BODIPY dyes, but excitation energies computed by the two methods are strongly correlated. The two approaches also make similar predictions of shifts in the excitation energy upon functionalization of the chromophore. TDDFT and ROKS models of the S 1 potential energy surface are then examined in detail for a representative BODIPY dye through molecular dynamics sampling on both model surfaces. We identify the most significant differences in the sampled surfaces and analyze these differences along selected normal modes. Differences between ROKS and TDDFT descriptions of the S 1 potential energy surface for this BODIPY derivative highlight the continuing need for validation of widely used approximations in excited state DFT through experimental benchmarking and comparison to ab initio reference data.

  6. Electron excitation of alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormonde, S.

    1979-02-01

    The development and testing of a synthesized close-coupling effective model potential ten-channel electron-atom scattering code and some preliminary calculations of resonances in cross sections for the excitation of excited states of potassium by low energy electrons are described. The main results obtained are: identification of 1 S and 1 D structures in excitation cross sections below the 5 2 S threshold of neutral potassium; indications of additional structures - 1 P and 1 D between the 5 2 S and 5 2 D thresholds; and a suggested explanation of anomalously high interstate-electron impact excitation cross sections inferred from experiments on potassium-seeded plasmas. The effective potential model imbedded in the code can be used to simulate any atomic system that can be approximated by a single bound electron outside an ionic core. All that is needed is a set of effective potential parameters--experimental or theoretical. With minor modifications the code could be adapted to calculations of electron scattering by two-electron systems

  7. Qualitative assessment of ultra-fast non-Grotthuss proton dynamics in S1 excited state of liquid H2O from ab initio time-dependent density functional theory★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Vafa; Bredow, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    We study qualitatively ultra-fast proton transfer (PT) in the first singlet (S1) state of liquid water (absorption onset) through excited-state dynamics by means of time-dependent density functional theory and ab initio Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. We find that after the initial excitation, a PT occurs in S1 in form of a rapid jump to a neighboring water molecule, on which the proton either may rest for a relatively long period of time (as a consequence of possible defect in the hydrogen bond network) followed by back and forth hops to its neighboring water molecule or from which it further moves to the next water molecule accompanied by back and forth movements. In this way, the proton may become delocalized over a long water wire branch, followed again by back and forth jumps or short localization on a water molecule for some femtoseconds. As a result, the mechanism of PT in S1 is in most cases highly non-Grotthuss-like, delayed and discrete. Furthermore, upon PT an excess charge is ejected to the solvent trap, the so-called solvated electron. The spatial extent of the ejected solvated electron is mainly localized within one solvent shell with overlappings on the nearest neighbor water molecules and delocalizing (diffuse) tails extending beyond the first solvent sphere. During the entire ultra-short excited-state dynamics the remaining OH radical from the initially excited water molecule exhibits an extremely low mobility and is non-reactive. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2017-80329-7.

  8. Nuclear quantum effects on the nonadiabatic decay mechanism of an excited hydrated electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgis, Daniel; Rossky, Peter J.; Turi, László

    2007-11-01

    We present a kinetic analysis of the nonadiabatic decay mechanism of an excited state hydrated electron to the ground state. The theoretical treatment is based on a quantized, gap dependent golden rule rate constant formula which describes the nonadiabatic transition rate between two quantum states. The rate formula is expressed in terms of quantum time correlation functions of the energy gap and of the nonadiabatic coupling. These gap dependent quantities are evaluated from three different sets of mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations of a hydrated electron equilibrated (a) in its ground state, (b) in its first excited state, and (c) on a hypothetical mixed potential energy surface which is the average of the ground and the first excited electronic states. The quantized, gap dependent rate results are applied in a phenomenological kinetic equation which provides the survival probability function of the excited state electron. Although the lifetime of the equilibrated excited state electron is computed to be very short (well under 100fs), the survival probability function for the nonequilibrium process in pump-probe experiments yields an effective excited state lifetime of around 300fs, a value that is consistent with the findings of several experimental groups and previous theoretical estimates.

  9. Early-life social experiences in mice affect emotional behaviour and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Simó, Clara; Valverde, Olga

    2012-09-01

    Early-life stressful experiences are associated to alterations in behavioural responses and development of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. In rodents, individual housing is considered as a stressful condition whilst enriched environment can protect against stress and its negative consequences. Neuroendocrine responses to stress can also be altered by early-life experiences and seem to contribute to behavioural alterations induced by changes in housing conditions. To develop an improved procedure of social isolation throughout development (from pre-adolescence to adulthood) in CD1 mice and to elucidate its effects on behavioural parameters related to stress and neuroendocrine responses compared to enriched or social conditions. CD1 male mice (PND 21) were housed in social/standard conditions, enriched conditions or isolated conditions during seven weeks. After that, different relevant behaviours were evaluated, including locomotor activity, anxiety-like and despair behaviour. Levels of plasma corticosterone were also analysed before and after a stressful event. CD1 mice exposed to an isolated environment exhibited higher locomotion and anxiety-like responses than animals exposed to social or enriched conditions. In addition, isolated animals showed lower basal plasma corticosterone than social or enriched ones but after a stressful event the elevation of plasma corticosterone was higher, suggesting an enhanced response of the HPA axis to a novel and stressful situation. Social interaction is an important feature to display an appropriate behavioural and neuronal development. Habituation to novel stimuli is impaired in subjects exposed to social isolation and induces increased excitability response to stressful events. Social deprivation increases the possibility of altered neuronal function and could facilitate the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cross sections for energy transfer in collisions between two excited sodium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huennekens, J.; Gallagher, A.

    1983-01-01

    We have measured cross sections, sigma/sub n/L, for the excitation transfer process Na(3P)+Na(3P)→Na(3S)+Na(nL), where nL is the 4D or 5S level. Our results are sigma/sub 4D/ = 23 A 2 +- 35% and sigma/sub 5S/ = 16 A 2 +- 35% at Tapprox.600 K. To obtain these cross sections we have used pulsed excitation and measured the intensities of 4D, 5S, and 3P fluorescence emissions, and the spatial distribution of excited atoms resulting from radiation diffusion, as well as the excited atom density as a function of time. Additionally, we have accounted for (time-dependent) radiation trapping of 3P and nL level radiation and for the resulting anisotropies of these fluorescence emissions. Comparisons of our results with theory have been made, and their relevance to other experiments is discussed

  11. Study of EBSD Experiment Parameters Influence on Computation of Polycrystalline Pole Figures and Orientation Distribution Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova Anastasia O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model for a polycrystalline specimen and EBSD experiment is proposed. As the measurement parameters, the scanning step and the threshold disorientation angle are considered. To study the impact of the measurement parameters Pole Figures and Orientation Distribution Function of model specimen and corresponding ones, calculated from model EBSD measurements, are compared. The real EBSD experiment was also performed. The results of the model experiment are correlated with such detected in the real EBSD data. The most significant results are formulated in the given work.

  12. Two-Photon Irradiation of an Intracellular Singlet Oxygen Photosensitizer: Achieving Localized Sub-Cellular Excitation in Spatially-Resolved Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Brian Wett; Breitenbach, Thomas; Redmond, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    The response of a given cell to spatially-resolved sub-cellular irradiation of a singlet oxygen photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX, PpIX) using a focused laser was assessed. In these experiments, incident light was scattered over a volume greater than that defi ned by the dimensions of the laser...

  13. The structure of nuclear states at low, intermediate and high excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that within the model based on the quasiparticle-phonon interaction one can obtain the description of few-quasiparticle components of nuclear states at low, intermediate and high excitation energies. For the low-lying states the energy of each level is calculated. The few-quasiparticle components at intermediate and high excitation energies are represented to be averaged in certain energy intervals and their characteri stics are given as the corresponding strength functions. The fragmentation of single-particle states in deformed nuclei is studied. It is shown that in the distribution of the single-particle strength alongside with a large maximum there appear local maxima and the distribution itself has a long tail. The dependence of neutron strength functions on the excitation energy is investigated for the transfer reaction of the type (d,p) and (d,t). The s,- p,- and d-wave neutron strength functions are calculated at the neutron binding energy Bn. A satisfactory agreement with experiment is obtained. The energies and Elambda-strength functions for giant multipole resonances in deformed nuclei are calculated. The energies of giant quadrupole and octupole resonances are calculated. Their widths and fine structure are being studied. It is stated that to study the structure of highly excited states it is necessary to find the values of many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions. The ways of experimental determination of these components based on the study of γ-transitions between highly excited states are discussed

  14. Multi-modal highlight generation for sports videos using an information-theoretic excitability measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Taufiq; Bořil, Hynek; Sangwan, Abhijeet; L Hansen, John H.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to detect and organize `hot spots' representing areas of excitement within video streams is a challenging research problem when techniques rely exclusively on video content. A generic method for sports video highlight selection is presented in this study which leverages both video/image structure as well as audio/speech properties. Processing begins where the video is partitioned into small segments and several multi-modal features are extracted from each segment. Excitability is computed based on the likelihood of the segmental features residing in certain regions of their joint probability density function space which are considered both exciting and rare. The proposed measure is used to rank order the partitioned segments to compress the overall video sequence and produce a contiguous set of highlights. Experiments are performed on baseball videos based on signal processing advancements for excitement assessment in the commentators' speech, audio energy, slow motion replay, scene cut density, and motion activity as features. Detailed analysis on correlation between user excitability and various speech production parameters is conducted and an effective scheme is designed to estimate the excitement level of commentator's speech from the sports videos. Subjective evaluation of excitability and ranking of video segments demonstrate a higher correlation with the proposed measure compared to well-established techniques indicating the effectiveness of the overall approach.

  15. Cooperation and Noise in Public Goods Experiments: Applying the Contribution Function Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Schram, A.

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a new design for experiments with the voluntary contributions mechanism for public goods. Subjects report a complete con-tri-bution function in each period, i.e., a contribution level for various marginal rates of transformation between a public and a private good. The results show that

  16. Ionization and excitation of lithium atoms by fast charged particle impact: identification of mechanisms for double K-shell vacancy production as a function of the projectile charge and velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangama, J.

    2002-11-01

    Ionization and excitation of lithium atoms by fast charged particle impact: identification of mechanisms for double K-shell vacancy production as a function of projectile charge and velocity. Auger electron spectroscopy is used for an experimental investigation of ionization and excitation of lithium atoms by ions (Kr34 + and Ar18 + ) and electrons at high impact velocities (from 6 to 60 a.u.). In particular, relative contributions of the mechanisms responsible for lithium K-shell ionization-excitation are determined for various projectile charges Zp and velocities vp. A large range of perturbation parameters |Zp|/vp is explored (|Zp|/vp = 0,05 - 0,7 a.u.). From single K-shell excitation results, it appears that the projectile-electron interaction gives mainly rise to a dipole-like transition 1s -> np Concerning K-shell ionization-excitation, the separation of the TS2 (two independent projectile-electron interactions) and TS1 (one projectile-electron interaction) mechanisms responsible for the formation of the 2snp 1,3P and 2sns 1,3S lithium states is performed. In TS1 process, the projectile-electron interaction can be followed by an electron-electron interaction (dielectronic process) or by an internal rearrangement of the residual target after a sudden potential change (shake process). From Born theory, ab initio calculations are performed. The good agreement between theoretical and experimental results confirms the mechanism identification. For the production of P states, TS1 is found to be strongly dominant for small |Zp|/vp values and TS2 is found to be most important for large |Zp|/vp values. Since P states cannot be formed significantly via a shake process, the TS1 and TS2 separation provides a direct signature of the dielectronic process. On the other hand, the TS1 process is shown to be the unique process for producing the S states. At the moment, only the shake aspect of the TS1 process can explain the fact that the 2s3s configuration is preferentially

  17. Laser amplification in excited dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Thomas; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Sarpe, Cristian; Zielinski, Bastian; Götte, Nadine; Senftleben, Arne; Balling, Peter; Baumert, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Wide-bandgap dielectrics such as glasses or water are transparent at visible and infrared wavelengths. This changes when they are exposed to ultrashort and highly intense laser pulses. Different interaction mechanisms lead to the appearance of various transient nonlinear optical phenomena. Using these, the optical properties of dielectrics can be controlled from the transparent to the metal-like state. Here we expand this range by a yet unexplored mechanism in excited dielectrics: amplification. In a two-colour pump-probe experiment, we show that a 400 nm femtosecond laser pulse is coherently amplified inside an excited sapphire sample on a scale of a few micrometres. Simulations strongly support the proposed two-photon stimulated emission process, which is temporally and spatially controllable. Consequently, we expect applications in all fields that demand strongly localized amplification.

  18. Controlling flexible rotor vibrations using parametric excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atepor, L, E-mail: katepor@yahoo.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents both theoretical and experimental studies of an active vibration controller for vibration in a flexible rotor system. The paper shows that the vibration amplitude can be modified by introducing an axial parametric excitation. The perturbation method of multiple scales is used to solve the equations of motion. The steady-state responses, with and without the parametric excitation terms, is investigated. An experimental test machine uses a piezoelectric exciter mounted on the end of the shaft. The results show a reduction in the rotor response amplitude under principal parametric resonance, and some good correlation between theory and experiment.

  19. Excited-state molecular photoionization dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, S.T.

    1995-01-01

    This review presents a survey of work using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization and double-resonance techniques to study excited-state photoionization dynamics in molecules. These techniques routinely provide detail and precision that are difficult to achieve in single-photon ionization from the ground state. The review not only emphasizes new aspects of photoionization revealed in the excited-state experiments but also shows how the excited-state techniques can provide textbook illustrations of some fundamental mechanisms in molecular photoionization dynamics. Most of the examples are confined to diatomic molecules. (author)

  20. Orientation-dependent imaging of electronically excited quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc; Goings, Joshua J.; Nguyen, Huy A.; Lyding, Joseph; Li, Xiaosong; Gruebele, Martin

    2018-02-01

    We previously demonstrated that we can image electronic excitations of quantum dots by single-molecule absorption scanning tunneling microscopy (SMA-STM). With this technique, a modulated laser beam periodically saturates an electronic transition of a single nanoparticle, and the resulting tunneling current modulation ΔI(x0, y0) maps out the SMA-STM image. In this paper, we first derive the basic theory to calculate ΔI(x0, y0) in the one-electron approximation. For near-resonant tunneling through an empty orbital "i" of the nanostructure, the SMA-STM signal is approximately proportional to the electron density |φi) (x0,y0)|nudge quantum dots on the surface and roll them, thus imaging excited state electronic structure of a single quantum dot at different orientations. We use density functional theory to model ODMs at various orientations, for qualitative comparison with the SMA-STM experiment. The model demonstrates that our experimentally observed signal monitors excited states, localized by defects near the surface of an individual quantum dot. The sub-nanometer super-resolution imaging technique demonstrated here could become useful for mapping out the three-dimensional structure of excited states localized by defects within nanomaterials.

  1. Excitation-energy influence at the scission configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer- and fusion-induced fission in inverse kinematics was proven to be a powerful tool to investigate nuclear fission, widening the information of the fission fragments and the access to unstable fissioning systems with respect to other experimental approaches. An experimental campaign for fission investigation has being carried out at GANIL with this technique since 2008. In these experiments, a beam of 238U, accelerated to 6.1 MeV/u, impinges on a 12C target. Fissioning systems from U to Cf are populated through transfer and fusion reactions, with excitation energies that range from few MeV up to 46 MeV. The use of inverse kinematics, the SPIDER telescope, and the VAMOS spectrometer permitted the characterization of the fissioning system in terms of mass, nuclear charge, and excitation energy, and the isotopic identification of the full fragment distribution. The neutron excess, the total neutron multiplicity, and the even-odd staggering in the nuclear charge of fission fragments are presented as a function of the excitation energy of the fissioning system. Structure effects are observed at Z∼50 and Z∼55, where their impact evolves with the excitation energy.

  2. Magnetic excitations and amplitude fluctuations in insulating cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelwani, N.; Baum, A.; Böhm, T.; Opel, M.; Venturini, F.; Tassini, L.; Erb, A.; Berger, H.; Forró, L.; Hackl, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present results from light scattering experiments on three insulating antiferromagnetic cuprates, YBa2Cu3O6.05 , Bi2Sr2YCu2O8 +δ , and La2CuO4 as a function of polarization and excitation energy using samples of the latest generation. From the raw data we derive symmetry-resolved spectra. The spectral shape in B1 g symmetry is found to be nearly universal and independent of excitation energy. The spectra agree quantitatively with predictions by field theory [Eur. Phys. J. B 88, 237 (2015), 10.1140/epjb/e2015-60438-1] facilitating the precise extraction of the Heisenberg coupling J . In addition, the asymmetric lineshape on the high-energy side is found to be related to amplitude fluctuations of the magnetization. In La2CuO4 alone, minor contributions from resonance effects may be identified. The spectra in the other symmetries are not universal. The variations may be traced back to weak resonance effects and extrinsic contributions. For all three compounds we find support for the existence of chiral excitations appearing as a continuum in A2 g symmetry having an onset slightly below 3 J . In La2CuO4 an additional isolated excitation appears on top of the A2 g continuum.

  3. Associations between past bullying experiences and psychosocial and academic functioning among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Melissa K; Greif Green, Jennifer; Reid, Gerald; DiMeo, Amanda; Espelage, Dorothy L; Felix, Erika D; Furlong, Michael J; Poteat, V Paul; Sharkey, Jill D

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether childhood bullying victimization was associated with psychosocial and academic functioning at college. The sample consisted of 413 first-year students from a large northeastern university. Students completed an online survey in February 2012 that included items assessing past bullying involvement, current psychosocial and academic functioning, and victimization experiences since arriving at college. Regression analyses indicated that reports of past bullying and other peer victimization were associated with lower mental health functioning and perceptions of physical and mental health, but were not associated with perceptions of social life at college, overall college experience, or academic performance. Childhood bullying victimization is associated with poorer mental and physical health among first-year college students. Colleges should consider assessing histories of bullying victimization, along with other past victimization exposures, in their service provision to students.

  4. Viewing instructions accompanying action observation modulate corticospinal excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David James Wright

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Action observation interventions may have the potential to contribute to improved motor function in motor (relearning settings by promoting functional activity and plasticity in the motor regions of the brain. Optimal methods for delivering such interventions, however, have yet to be established. This experiment investigated the effect on corticospinal excitability of manipulating the viewing instructions provided to participants (N = 21 prior to action observation. Specifically, motor evoked potential responses measured from the right hand muscles following single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to the left motor cortex were compared when participants were instructed to observe finger-thumb opposition movement sequences: (i passively; (ii with the intent to imitate the observed movement; or (iii whilst simultaneously and actively imagining that they were performing the movement as they observed it. All three action observation viewing instructions facilitated corticospinal excitability to a greater extent than did observation of a static hand. In addition, the extent to which corticospinal excitability was facilitated was greater during combined observation and imagery, compared to passive observation. These findings have important implications for the design of action observation interventions in motor (relearning settings, where instructions that encourage observers to simultaneously imagine themselves performing the observed movement may offer the current optimal method for improving motor function through action observation.

  5. Phonological experience modulates voice discrimination: Evidence from functional brain networks analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xueping; Wang, Xiangpeng; Gu, Yan; Luo, Pei; Yin, Shouhang; Wang, Lijun; Fu, Chao; Qiao, Lei; Du, Yi; Chen, Antao

    2017-10-01

    Numerous behavioral studies have found a modulation effect of phonological experience on voice discrimination. However, the neural substrates underpinning this phenomenon are poorly understood. Here we manipulated language familiarity to test the hypothesis that phonological experience affects voice discrimination via mediating the engagement of multiple perceptual and cognitive resources. The results showed that during voice discrimination, the activation of several prefrontal regions was modulated by language familiarity. More importantly, the same effect was observed concerning the functional connectivity from the fronto-parietal network to the voice-identity network (VIN), and from the default mode network to the VIN. Our findings indicate that phonological experience could bias the recruitment of cognitive control and information retrieval/comparison processes during voice discrimination. Therefore, the study unravels the neural substrates subserving the modulation effect of phonological experience on voice discrimination, and provides new insights into studying voice discrimination from the perspective of network interactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Midlife managerial experience is linked to late life hippocampal morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, C; Gates, N; Fiatarone Singh, M; Saigal, N; Wilson, G C; Meiklejohn, J; Sachdev, P; Brodaty, H; Wen, W; Singh, N; Baune, B T; Baker, M; Foroughi, N; Wang, Y; Valenzuela, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    An active cognitive lifestyle has been suggested to have a protective role in the long-term maintenance of cognition. Amongst healthy older adults, more managerial or supervisory experiences in midlife are linked to a slower hippocampal atrophy rate in late life. Yet whether similar links exist in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is not known, nor whether these differences have any functional implications. 68 volunteers from the Sydney SMART Trial, diagnosed with non-amnestic MCI, were divided into high and low managerial experience (HME/LME) during their working life. All participants underwent neuropsychological testing, structural and resting-state functional MRI. Group comparisons were performed on hippocampal volume, morphology, hippocampal seed-based functional connectivity, memory and executive function and self-ratings of memory proficiency. HME was linked to better memory function (p = 0.024), mediated by larger hippocampal volume (p = 0.025). More specifically, deformation analysis found HME had relatively more volume in the CA1 sub-region of the hippocampus (p < 0.05). Paradoxically, this group rated their memory proficiency worse (p = 0.004), a result correlated with diminished functional connectivity between the right hippocampus and right prefrontal cortex (p < 0.001). Finally, hierarchical regression modelling substantiated this double dissociation.

  7. Experiences of bullying in relation to psychological functioning of young adults: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangkana Bhuyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The young adult undergoes a vast number of experiences while socializing with his/her peers, bullying is one such experience. Though there have been increasing instances of bullying, it is a poorly understood phenomenon in the Indian setting. Undergoing experiences of bullying often result in long-term psychological consequences which may have an impact on individual's well-being. Keeping this background in mind, the present study was an attempt to explore the experiences of bullying in young adults in the Indian setting and to assess his/her psychological functioning so as to make an attempt to understand the interplay between the two variables. This may further help in planning interventions and prevention strategies for the same. Methodology: The sample consisted of 311 students, both males and females. They were assessed on Retrospective Bullying Questionnaire and Achenbach's Adult Self-report. Results: Around 22.2% of the sample had been both bullies and victims of bullying, while 13.2% were only victims and 3.5% were only bullies. Males had higher incidence of bullying and victimization experiences compared to females. Assessing for psychological functioning had shown higher reports of depression and antisocial personality problems in young adults. Overall findings suggest that people with bullying experiences tend to have more psychological problems compared to people who had no experiences of bullying. Conclusion: The findings suggest that bullying experiences lead to long-term consequences for the victims. There is a need to identify such instances at school level and plan interventions at various stages.

  8. Two-photon excitation of argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindzola, P.S.; Payne, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors calculate two photon excitation parameters for various excited states of argon assuming the absorption of near resonance broad-bandwidth laser radiation. Results are given for the case of two photons absorbed for the same laser beam as well as the case of absorbing photons of different frequency from each of two laser beams. The authors use multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock wave functions to evaluate the second-order sums over matrix elements. Various experimental laser schemes are suggested for the efficient excitation and subsequent ionization of argon

  9. Faraday waves under time-reversed excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschmann, Dirk; Stannarius, Ralf; Wagner, Christian; John, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Do parametrically driven systems distinguish periodic excitations that are time mirrors of each other? Faraday waves in a Newtonian fluid are studied under excitation with superimposed harmonic wave forms. We demonstrate that the threshold parameters for the stability of the ground state are insensitive to a time inversion of the driving function. This is a peculiarity of some dynamic systems. The Faraday system shares this property with standard electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals [J. Heuer et al., Phys. Rev. E 78, 036218 (2008)]. In general, time inversion of the excitation affects the asymptotic stability of a parametrically driven system, even when it is described by linear ordinary differential equations. Obviously, the observed symmetry has to be attributed to the particular structure of the underlying differential equation system. The pattern selection of the Faraday waves above threshold, on the other hand, discriminates between time-mirrored excitation functions.

  10. The formation and decay of triply excited He- states in e-He scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heideman, H.G.M.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of doubly and triply excited negative-ion states and their effects on the electron impact excitation of atomic states. Mechanisms for indirect excitation of singly excited states are discussed with respect to:- negative-ion resonance, autoionisation and post-collision interaction, and excitation of an autoionising state via a negative ion resonance. A classification of doubly excited states is considered. Experimental results on the excitation of the n'S states of helium as a function of the incident electron energy are presented, along with theoretical PCI (post collision interaction) profiles in excitation functions, and an interpretation of the results. (UK)

  11. Post-transition state dynamics and product energy partitioning following thermal excitation of the F⋯HCH2CN transition state: Disagreement with experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihar, Subha; Ma, Xinyou; Xie, Jing; Scott, Rebecca; Gao, Eric; Ruscic, Branko; Aquino, Adelia J. A.; Setser, Donald W.; Hase, William L.

    2017-10-01

    Born-Oppenheimer direct dynamics simulations were performed to study atomistic details of the F + CH3CN → HF + CH2CN H-atom abstraction reaction. The simulation trajectories were calculated with a combined M06-2X/MP2 algorithm utilizing the 6-311++G** basis set. The experiments were performed at 300 K, and assuming the accuracy of transition state theory (TST), the trajectories were initiated at the F⋯HCH2CN abstraction TS with a 300 K Boltzmann distribution of energy and directed towards products. Recrossing of the TS was negligible, confirming the accuracy of TST. HF formation was rapid, occurring within 0.014 ps of the trajectory initiation. The intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) for reaction involves rotation of HF about CH2CN and then trapping in the CH2CN⋯HF post-reaction potential energy well of ˜10 kcal/mol with respect to the HF + CH2CN products. In contrast to this IRC, five different trajectory types were observed: the majority proceeded by direct H-atom transfer and only 11% approximately following the IRC. The HF vibrational and rotational quantum numbers, n and J, were calculated when HF was initially formed and they increase as potential energy is released in forming the HF + CH2CN products. The population of the HF product vibrational states is only in qualitative agreement with experiment, with the simulations showing depressed and enhanced populations of the n = 1 and 2 states as compared to experiment. Simulations with an anharmonic zero-point energy constraint gave product distributions for relative translation, HF rotation, HF vibration, CH2CN rotation, and CH2CN vibration as 5%, 11%, 60%, 7%, and 16%, respectively. In contrast, the experimental energy partitioning percentages to HF rotation and vibration are 6% and 41%. Comparisons are made between the current simulation and those for other F + H-atom abstraction reactions. The simulation product energy partitioning and HF vibrational population for F + CH3CN → HF + CH2CN

  12. Post-transition state dynamics and product energy partitioning following thermal excitation of the F⋯HCH2CN transition state: Disagreement with experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihar, Subha; Ma, Xinyou; Xie, Jing; Scott, Rebecca; Gao, Eric; Ruscic, Branko; Aquino, Adelia J A; Setser, Donald W; Hase, William L

    2017-10-14

    Born-Oppenheimer direct dynamics simulations were performed to study atomistic details of the F + CH 3 CN → HF + CH 2 CN H-atom abstraction reaction. The simulation trajectories were calculated with a combined M06-2X/MP2 algorithm utilizing the 6-311++G** basis set. The experiments were performed at 300 K, and assuming the accuracy of transition state theory (TST), the trajectories were initiated at the F⋯HCH 2 CN abstraction TS with a 300 K Boltzmann distribution of energy and directed towards products. Recrossing of the TS was negligible, confirming the accuracy of TST. HF formation was rapid, occurring within 0.014 ps of the trajectory initiation. The intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) for reaction involves rotation of HF about CH 2 CN and then trapping in the CH 2 CN⋯HF post-reaction potential energy well of ∼10 kcal/mol with respect to the HF + CH 2 CN products. In contrast to this IRC, five different trajectory types were observed: the majority proceeded by direct H-atom transfer and only 11% approximately following the IRC. The HF vibrational and rotational quantum numbers, n and J, were calculated when HF was initially formed and they increase as potential energy is released in forming the HF + CH 2 CN products. The population of the HF product vibrational states is only in qualitative agreement with experiment, with the simulations showing depressed and enhanced populations of the n = 1 and 2 states as compared to experiment. Simulations with an anharmonic zero-point energy constraint gave product distributions for relative translation, HF rotation, HF vibration, CH 2 CN rotation, and CH 2 CN vibration as 5%, 11%, 60%, 7%, and 16%, respectively. In contrast, the experimental energy partitioning percentages to HF rotation and vibration are 6% and 41%. Comparisons are made between the current simulation and those for other F + H-atom abstraction reactions. The simulation product energy partitioning and HF vibrational population for F + CH 3 CN

  13. Harmonic excitations in quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, J.M.

    1986-03-01

    The harmonic excitations (phonons) of quasicrystals are studied in a simple one-dimensional model. The spectrum is a Cantor set, which exhibits selfsimilarity properties. The eigenstates are generically ''critical'', i.e. neither extended nor localized

  14. Theory of singlet-doublet excitations in praseodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, P.

    1975-10-01

    The magnetic excitation spectrum in a paramagnetic singlet-doublet system is calculated using a diagrammatic high density expansion technique. The lowest order diagrams, which correspond to the random phase approximation (RPA), give a detailed description of the wave vector and temperature dependence of the four exciton modes in praseodymium in terms of a Hamiltonian including isotropic Heisenberg exchange interactions and anisotropic, dipolar-like interactions. The leading contributions to the linewidths of the excitations are obtained by extending the 1/Z expansion of the generalized susceptibility propagators one order beyond the random phase approximation. This damping corresponds to spin wave scattering on single-site fluctuations. The theoretical spectral functions are in detailed agreement with experiment

  15. High energy nuclear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogny, D.; Decharge, J.

    1983-09-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to see whether a simple description of the nuclear excitations permits one to characterize some of the high energy structures recently observed. The discussion is based on the linear response to different external fields calculated using the Random Phase Approximation. For those structure in heavy ion collisions at excitation energies above 50 MeV which cannot be explained with such a simple approach, we discuss a possible mechanism for this heavy ion scattering

  16. Tailoring a psychophysical discrimination experiment upon assessment of the psychometric function: Predictions and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardi, Andrea; Tabarelli, Davide; Ricci, Leonardo

    2015-02-01

    Decision making is a widespread research topic and plays a crucial role in neuroscience as well as in other research and application fields of, for example, biology, medicine and economics. The most basic implementation of decision making, namely binary discrimination, is successfully interpreted by means of signal detection theory (SDT), a statistical model that is deeply linked to physics. An additional, widespread tool to investigate discrimination ability is the psychometric function, which measures the probability of a given response as a function of the magnitude of a physical quantity underlying the stimulus. However, the link between psychometric functions and binary discrimination experiments is often neglected or misinterpreted. Aim of the present paper is to provide a detailed description of an experimental investigation on a prototypical discrimination task and to discuss the results in terms of SDT. To this purpose, we provide an outline of the theory and describe the implementation of two behavioural experiments in the visual modality: upon the assessment of the so-called psychometric function, we show how to tailor a binary discrimination experiment on performance and decisional bias, and to measure these quantities on a statistical base. Attention is devoted to the evaluation of uncertainties, an aspect which is also often overlooked in the scientific literature.

  17. Functional connectivity experiments reflect routine movement behavior of a tropical hummingbird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Noelia L; Hadley, Adam S; Robinson, W Douglas; Betts, Matthew G

    Translocation experiments, in which researchers displace animals and then monitor their movements to return home, are commonly used as tools to assess functional connectivity of fragmented landscapes. Such experiments are purported to have important advantages of being time efficient and of standardizing “motivation” to move across individuals. Yet, we lack tests of whether movement behavior of translocated birds reflects natural behavior of unmanipulated birds. We compared the routine movement behavior of a tropical hummingbird, the Green Hermit (Phaethornis guy), to that of experimentally translocated individuals. We tested for differences in site selection patterns during movement at two spatial scales (point and path levels). We also compared movement rates between treatments. Behaviors documented during translocation experiments reflected those observed during routine movements. At the point level, both translocated and non-translocated birds showed similar levels of preference for mature tropical forest. At the path level, step selection functions showed both translocated and non-translocated hummingbirds avoiding movement across non-forested matrix and selecting streams as movement corridors. Movement rates were generally higher during translocation experiments. However, the negative influence of forest cover on movement rates was proportionately similar in translocation and routine movement treatments. We report the first evidence showing that movement behavior of birds during translocation experiments is similar to their natural movement behavior. Therefore, translocation experiments may be reliable tools to address effects of landscape structure on animal movement. We observed consistent selection of landscape elements between translocated and non-translocated birds, indicating that both routine and translocation movement studies lead to similar conclusions regarding the effect of landscape structure and forest composition on functional connectivity

  18. Microstructure ion Nuclear Spectra at High Excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, T.E.O.

    1969-01-01

    The statistical microstructure of highly excited systems is illustrated by the distribution and fluctuations of levels, widths and cross-sections of nuclei both for the case of sharp resonances and the continuum case. The coexistence of simple modes of excitation with statistical effects in terms of strength functions is illustrated by isobaric analogue states. The analogy is made with similar phenomena for coherent light, is solid-state physics and high-energy physics. (author)

  19. Search for excited quarks in the photon + jet final state in proton proton collisions at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a search for excited quarks $({\\rm q^{\\star}})$ decaying into a $\\gamma+\\mathrm{jet}$ final state at $\\sqrt{s}=13\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$ with the CMS experiment, using the dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $2.7\\,\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}$ collected during 2015 data taking at the LHC. High transverse momentum photons and $\\mathrm{jets}$ are selected to search for a resonance peak in the continuous invariant mass distribution of $\\gamma+\\mathrm{jet}$. The 95$\\%$ confidence level upper limits on cross section times branching ratio are evaluated as a function of excited quark mass ($M_{\\mathrm q^{\\star}}$). We exclude at 95\\% CL excited quarks with mass $1.0 < M_{\\mathrm q^{\\star}} < 4.37\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$ and coupling strength $f=1.0$, and present exclusions of excited quark mass as a function of coupling strength.

  20. Post-transition state dynamics and product energy partitioning following thermal excitation of the F∙∙∙HCH2 CN transition state: Disagreement with experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratihar, Subha [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061, USA; Ma, Xinyou [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061, USA; Xie, Jing [Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA; Scott, Rebecca [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061, USA; Gao, Eric [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061, USA; Ruscic, Branko [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA and Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; Aquino, Adelia J. A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061, USA; School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, People’s Republic of China; Institute for Soil Research University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna, Austria; Setser, Donald W. [Institute for Soil Research University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna, Austria; Hase, William L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061, USA

    2017-10-14

    Born-Oppenheimer direct dynamics simulations were performed to study atomistic details of the F + CH3CN → HF + CH2CN H-atom abstraction reaction. The simulation trajectories were calculated with a combined M06-2X/MP2 algorithm utilizing the 6-311++G** basis set. In accord with experiment and assuming the accuracy of transition state theory (TST), the trajectories were initiated at the F-HCH2CN abstraction TS with a 300 K Boltzmann distribution of energy and directed towards products. Recrossing of the TS was negligible, confirming the accuracy of TST for the simulation. HF formation was rapid, occurring within 0.014 ps of the trajectory initiation. The intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) for reaction involves rotation of HF about CH2CN and then trapping in the CH2CN-HF post-reaction potential energy well of ~10 kcal/mol with respect to the HF + CH2CN products. In contrast to this IRC, five different trajectory types were observed, with the majority involving direct dissociation and only 11% approximately following the IRC. The HF vibrational and rotational quantum numbers, n and J, were calculated when HF was initially formed and they increase as potential energy is released in forming the HF + CH2CN products. The population of the HF product vibrational states is only in qualitative agreement with experiment, with the simulations showing depressed and enhanced populations of the n = 1 and 2 states as compared to experiment. From the simulations and with an anharmonic zero-point energy constraint, the percentage partitioning of the product energy to relative translation, HF rotation, HF vibration, CH2CN rotation and CH2CN vibration is 5, 11, 60, 7, and 16%, respectively. In contrast the experimental energy partitioning percentages to HF rotation and vibration are 6 and 41%. Comparisons are made between the current simulation and those for other F + H

  1. Ocean wave-radar modulation transfer functions from the West Coast experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. W.; Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Jones, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Short gravity-capillary waves, the equilibrium, or the steady state excitations of the ocean surface are modulated by longer ocean waves. These short waves are the predominant microwave scatterers on the ocean surface under many viewing conditions so that the modulation is readily measured with CW Doppler radar used as a two-scale wave probe. Modulation transfer functions (the ratio of the cross spectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed and backscattered microwave power to the autospectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed) were measured at 9.375 and 1.5 GHz (Bragg wavelengths of 2.3 and 13 cm) for winds up to 10 m/s and ocean wave periods from 2-18 s. The measurements were compared with the relaxation-time model; the principal result is that a source of modulation other than straining by the horizontal component of orbital speed, possibly the wave-induced airflow, is responsible for most of the modulation by waves of typical ocean wave period (10 s). The modulations are large; for unit coherence, spectra of radar images of deep-water waves should be proportional to the quotient of the slope spectra of the ocean waves by the ocean wave frequency.

  2. Relative excitation of the seismic shear waves Sn and Lg as a function of source depth and their propagation from Melanesia and Banda arcs to Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. OLIVER

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. - Seismic activity associated with the collision of the continental
    part of the Australian plate with the oceanic Melanesian arcs along Papua New
    Guinea and the Banda arc provides an unusual opportunity to study the relative
    excitation of the seismic shear waves Sn and Lg. These waves are produced by
    earthquakes located along the arcs in the upper 200 km of the earth and are
    recorded by the Australian WWSSN Stations at Charters Towers (CTA and Alice
    Springs (ASP. The paths to these stations are predominantly continental. The data
    clearly show that for events located at crustal depths, Lg is the predominant phase
    on the records and Sn is either absent or very weak. For events deeper than about
    50-70 km, Sn becomes the predominant phase on the records. These observations
    arc in qualitative agreement with the explanations of Sn and Lg as higher
    modes of surface waves, for the particle displacement amplitudes are maximum
    within the crust for Lg and maximum within the lid of the lithospheric mantle
    for Sn. The data suggest that either the crustal wave guide for Lg is more
    efficient than that for Sn, or that Lg is more easily excited than Sn. No clear
    Lg is observed from shallow earthquakes when the length of the segment of the
    path crossing oceanic structure is greater than about 200 km. Also, widespread
    Quaternary volcanism within the « stable » area of central Papua New Guinea
    to the south of the mobile belt does not seem to affect the efficient transmission
    of high-frequency (1 Hz shear energy.
    The paths from events located along the New Hebrides, Solomon, and New
    Britain arcs to Australia traverse oceanic structure, and no Lg is observed from
    these paths. The inefficient propagation of Sn along these paths from both
    shallow and intermediate-depth events can be explained as follows: 1 For
    the New Hebrides case, the

  3. The analysis of mathematics teachers' learning on algebra function limit material based on teaching experience difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'rufi, Budayasa, I. Ketut; Juniati, Dwi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the analysis of mathematics teachers' learning on algebra function limit material based on teaching experience difference. The purpose of this study is to describe the analysis of mathematics teacher's learning on limit algebraic functions in terms of the differences of teaching experience. Learning analysis focused on Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of teachers in mathematics on limit algebraic functions related to the knowledge of pedagogy. PCK of teachers on limit algebraic function is a type of specialized knowledge for teachers on how to teach limit algebraic function that can be understood by students. Subjects are two high school mathematics teacher who has difference of teaching experience they are one Novice Teacher (NP) and one Experienced Teacher (ET). Data are collected through observation of learning in the class, videos of learning, and then analyzed using qualitative analysis. Teacher's knowledge of Pedagogic defined as a knowledge and understanding of teacher about planning and organizing of learning, and application of learning strategy. The research results showed that the Knowledge of Pedagogy on subject NT in mathematics learning on the material of limit function algebra showed that the subject NT tended to describe procedurally, without explaining the reasons why such steps were used, asking questions which tended to be monotonous not be guiding and digging deeper, and less varied in the use of learning strategies while subject ET gave limited guidance and opportunities to the students to find their own answers, exploit the potential of students to answer questions, provide an opportunity for students to interact and work in groups, and subject ET tended to combine conceptual and procedural explanation.

  4. Organic electronic materials: Recent advances in the dft description of the ground and excited states using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals

    KAUST Repository

    Kö rzdö rfer, Thomas; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    -band-gap polymers.In this Account, we highlight how these failures can be traced back to the delocalization error inherent to semilocal and global hybrid functionals, which leads to the spurious delocalization of electron densities and an overestimation

  5. Use of piezoelectric-excited millimeter-sized cantilever sensors to measure albumin interaction with self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols having different functional headgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gossett A; Mutharasan, Raj

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a new modality of measuring human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption continuously on CH3-, COOH-, and OH-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of C11-alkanethiols and the direct quantification of the adsorbed amount. A gold-coated piezoelectric-excited millimeter-sized cantilever (PEMC) sensor of 6-mm2 sensing area was fabricated, where resonant frequency decreases upon mass increase. The resonant frequency in air of the detection peak was 45.5 +/- 0.01 kHz. SAMs of C11-thiols (in absolute ethanol) with different end groups was prepared on the PEMC sensor and then exposed to buffer solution containing HSA at 10 microg/mL. The resonant frequency decreased exponentially and reached a steady-state value within 30 min. The decrease in resonant frequency indicates that the mass of the sensor increased due to HSA adsorption onto the SAM layer. The frequency change obtained for the HSA adsorption on CH3-, COOH-, and OH-terminated SAM were 520.8 +/- 8.6 (n = 3), 290.4 +/- 6.1 (n = 2), and 210.6 +/- 8.1 Hz (n = 3), respectively. These results confirm prior conclusions that albumin adsorption decreased in the order, CH(3) > COOH > OH. Observed binding rate constants were 0.163 +/- 0.003, 0.248 +/- 0.006, and 0.381 +/- 0.001 min(-1), for methyl, carboxylic, and hydroxyl end groups, respectively. The significance of the results reported here is that both the formation of self-assembled monolayers and adsorption of serum protein onto the formed layer can be measured continuously, and quantification of the adsorbed amount can be determined directly.

  6. Children's Elementary School Social Experience and Executive Functions Development: Introduction to a Special Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, Pol A C; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2016-01-01

    Children's executive functions, encompassing inhibitory control, working memory and attention are vital for their self-regulation. With the transition to formal schooling, children need to learn to manage their emotions and behavior in a new and complex social environment that with age increases in the intensity of social interactions with peers and teachers. Stronger executive functions skills facilitate children's social development. In addition, new experiences in the social environments of school also may influence executive function development. The focus of this special section is on this potential impact of elementary school social experiences with peers and teacher on the development of children's executive functions. The collection of papers encompass various aspects of peer and teacher social environments, and cover broad as well as specific facets and measures of executive functions including neural responses. The collection of papers sample developmental periods that span preschool through mid-adolescence. In this introduction, we summarize and highlight the main findings of each of the papers, organized around social interactions with peers and interactions with teachers. We conclude our synopsis with implications for future research, and a specific focus on prevention and intervention.

  7. Structural and functional MRI in children with renal disease. First experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Bettina; Froekiaer, Joergen [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Michael [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). MR Research Centre; Joergensen, Troels Munch [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Urology; Rittig, Soeren [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Paediatrics

    2010-07-01

    This MRI study demonstrates our first clinical experiences with structural and functional evaluation in children with renal dysfunction, and communicates our experience with quantitative measurements of renal function compared to reference values found employing radionucleotides. We included renal impaired children who were recruited for clinical radioisotopic GFR measurements (n=8). MRI was performed 2 hours after Cr-EDTA measurements and was conducted using a protocol involving both anatomical/structural sequences and a dynamic contrast-enhanced sequence. Data obtained with the dynamic MRI sequence were processed using the graphical Patlak approach to obtain estimates of GFR. We were able to characterize the intrarenal configuration (cortex, medulla, pelvicalyceal arrangement) in all cases. Functional analyses of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealed an overall underestimation of GFR measured by MRI compared to Cr-EDTPA measures (range: -2% to -43%). We advocate the use of MRI as a single-modality approach in the structural and functional evaluation of impaired kidneys in children, and concurrently, we presented a clinically available strategy for estimations of renal cortical volume and single kidney function. However, the use of MRI contrast agents have recently become controversial in renal patients due to the risk of NSF. (orig.)

  8. Sparse coding reveals greater functional connectivity in female brains during naturalistic emotional experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudan Ren

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging is widely used to examine changes in brain function associated with age, gender or neuropsychiatric conditions. FMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging studies employ either laboratory-designed tasks that engage the brain with abstracted and repeated stimuli, or resting state paradigms with little behavioral constraint. Recently, novel neuroimaging paradigms using naturalistic stimuli are gaining increasing attraction, as they offer an ecologically-valid condition to approximate brain function in real life. Wider application of naturalistic paradigms in exploring individual differences in brain function, however, awaits further advances in statistical methods for modeling dynamic and complex dataset. Here, we developed a novel data-driven strategy that employs group sparse representation to assess gender differences in brain responses during naturalistic emotional experience. Comparing to independent component analysis (ICA, sparse coding algorithm considers the intrinsic sparsity of neural coding and thus could be more suitable in modeling dynamic whole-brain fMRI signals. An online dictionary learning and sparse coding algorithm was applied to the aggregated fMRI signals from both groups, which was subsequently factorized into a common time series signal dictionary matrix and the associated weight coefficient matrix. Our results demonstrate that group sparse representation can effectively identify gender differences in functional brain network during natural viewing, with improved sensitivity and reliability over ICA-based method. Group sparse representation hence offers a superior data-driven strategy for examining brain function during naturalistic conditions, with great potential for clinical application in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. X-ray scattering in X-ray fluorescence spectra with X-ray tube excitation - Modelling, experiment, and Monte-Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Radtke, M.; Vincze, L.; Rackwitz, V.; Reuter, D.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray scattering may contribute significantly to the spectral background of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. Based on metrological measurements carried out with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) having attached a well characterised X-ray source (polychromatic X-ray tube) and a calibrated energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) the accuracy of a physical model for X-ray scattering is systematically evaluated for representative samples. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrometer efficiency, but also of the spectrometer response functions makes it possible to define a physical spectral background of XRF spectra. Background subtraction relying on purely mathematical procedures is state-of-the-art. The results produced by the analytical model are at least as reliable as those obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, even without considering the very challenging contribution of multiple scattering. Special attention has been paid to Compton broadening. Relevant applications of the implementation of the analytical model presented in this paper are the prediction of the limits of detection for particular cases or the determination of the transmission of X-ray polycapillary lenses.

  10. Multiple victimization experiences of urban elementary school students: associations with psychosocial functioning and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Melissa K; Finkelhor, David; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman

    2007-05-01

    This study explored the victimization experiences of urban elementary school students to determine whether subsets of youth emerged with similar victimization profiles (e.g., no victimization, multiple types of victimization). It also evaluated whether multiple victimization was associated with greater psychological distress and lower academic performance. Participants were 689 fifth grade students from an urban, ethnically diverse school district in the Northeast. Youth completed self-report measures in school about bullying victimization, victimization in the home and community, and psychosocial functioning. Cluster analysis suggested the existence of three distinct youth profiles: those with minimal victimization, those victimized primarily by their peers, and those with multiple types of victimizations. As hypothesized, youth with multiple victimizations experienced more psychological distress and earned lower grades than their peers. Findings highlight the heterogeneity of youth victimization experiences and their relations to functioning, and have implications for treatment planning among practitioners working with youth.

  11. Study of the spin structure functions of the nucleon: the E143 experiment at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, Philippe

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, we present the results of the E143 experiment of deep inelastic scattering of 29 GeV polarized electrons from polarized NH 3 and ND 3 targets, at SLAC. The goal of the experiment is the measurement of the spin structure functions g 1 and g 2 of the nucleon which provide information on its internal spin structure. Experimentally, the structure functions are extracted from the measurement of cross section asymmetries. Our measured values of the first moment of g 1 are two and three standard deviations below the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule predictions, for the proton and for the deuteron, respectively. The Bjoerken sum rule, a QCD fundamental prediction, has been confirmed. We find the quark contribution to the nucleon spin to be around 30 pc. Our results on g 2 are well described by the Wandzura-Wilczek expression. (author) [fr

  12. Computing correct truncated excited state wavefunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalis, N. C.; Xiong, Z.; Zang, J.; Karaoulanis, D.

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate that, if a wave function's truncated expansion is small, then the standard excited states computational method, of optimizing one "root" of a secular equation, may lead to an incorrect wave function - despite the correct energy according to the theorem of Hylleraas, Undheim and McDonald - whereas our proposed method [J. Comput. Meth. Sci. Eng. 8, 277 (2008)] (independent of orthogonality to lower lying approximants) leads to correct reliable small truncated wave functions. The demonstration is done in He excited states, using truncated series expansions in Hylleraas coordinates, as well as standard configuration-interaction truncated expansions.

  13. Laser amplification in excited dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Sarpe, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    Wide-bandgap dielectrics such as glasses or water are transparent at visible and infrared wavelengths. This changes when they are exposed to ultrashort and highly intense laser pulses. Different interaction mechanisms lead to the appearance of various transient nonlinear optical phenomena. Using...... these, the optical properties of dielectrics can be controlled from the transparent to the metal-like state. Here we expand this range by a yet unexplored mechanism in excited dielectrics: amplification. In a two-colour pump-probe experiment, we show that a 400nm femtosecond laser pulse is coherently...

  14. The photodissociation and reaction dynamics of vibrationally excited molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crim, F.F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research determines the nature of highly vibrationally excited molecules, their unimolecular reactions, and their photodissociation dynamics. The goal is to characterize vibrationally excited molecules and to exploit that understanding to discover and control their chemical pathways. Most recently the author has used a combination of vibrational overtone excitation and laser induced fluorescence both to characterize vibrationally excited molecules and to study their photodissociation dynamics. The author has also begun laser induced grating spectroscopy experiments designed to obtain the electronic absorption spectra of highly vibrationally excited molecules.

  15. The E142 SLAC experiment: measurement of the neutron gn1(x) spin structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblin, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes the E142 experiment which has been carried out at the Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC), USA, from October to December 1992. This experiment of polarized inelastic scattering of a 22.6 GeV electron beam on a polarized helium 3 target has allowed the first measurement of the neutron g n 1 (x) spin structure function. The knowledge of this structure function gives informations on the nucleon spin structure. On the other hand, the g n 1 (x) structure function integral value on the 0 2 mean value of 2 GeV 2 after some extrapolations. This value is at about two standard deviations away from the theoretical predictions of the Ellis-Jaffe rule. Thanks to the existing experimental results for the proton (E143 experiment), the Bjorken sum rule has been precisely tested and is perfectly compatible with the theoretical value. The results have allowed to estimate the nucleon spin fraction carried by the quarks. (J.S.). 86 refs., 58 figs., 13 tabs

  16. The use of multisine excitations to characterise damage in structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoenacker, K.; Schoukens, J.; Guillaume, P.; Vanlanduit, S.

    2004-01-01

    In order to detect the presence of damage and imperfections in materials, a new and promising method for non-destructive material testing has been developed. The technique focuses on the non-linear distortions that are present in the results of a frequency response function (FRF) or transfer function measurement of the sample. The kernel idea in the described method is to use well-chosen periodic excitations where only some of the considered frequency components are excited. The non-excited frequency lines are used to detect, qualify (even or odd non-linear distortions) and quantify (What is the level of the non-linear distortions?) the non-linear distortions. Undamaged materials are often essentially linear in their response. However, the non-linear behaviour of the same material increases significantly when damage appears. The method is applied in the field of damage detection and health monitoring. The method is illustrated by experiments on uncracked and cracked artificial slate beams used in civil constructions and during mechanical cyclic fatigue loading. The developed technique demonstrated to be a very fast and efficient tool to assess global damage in a material.

  17. Preserved re-experience of discrete emotions: Amnesia and executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Marian Andrei; Rafal, Robert D; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2018-02-07

    Amnesic patients can re-experience emotions elicited by forgotten events, suggesting that brain systems for episodic and emotional memory are independent. However, the range of such emotional memories remains under-investigated (most studies employing just positive-negative emotion dyads), and executive function may also play a role in the re-experience of emotions. This is the first investigation of the intensity of the emotional re-experience of a range of discrete emotions (anger, fear, sadness, and happiness) for a group of amnesic patients. Twenty Korsakoff syndrome (KS) patients and 20 neurologically normal controls listened to four novel emotional vignettes selectively eliciting the four basic emotions. Emotional experience was measured using pen-and-paper Visual Analogue Mood Scales and episodic memory using verbal recollections. After 30 min, the recollection of stories was severely impaired for the patient group, but the emotional re-experience was no different from that of controls. Notably, there was no relationship between episodic recall and the intensity of the four emotions, such that even profoundly amnesic patients reported moderate levels of the target emotion. Exploratory analyses revealed negative correlations between the intensity of basic emotions and executive functions (e.g., cognitive flexibility and response inhibition) for controls but not patients. The results suggest that discrete emotions can be re-experienced independently of episodic memory, and that the re-experience of certain discrete emotions appears to be dampened by executive control. KS patients with absent or mild cognitive symptoms should benefit from emotion-regulation interventions aimed at reducing the recognized affective burden associated with their episodic memory deficit. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Excitation of giant resonances through inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kailas, S.

    1981-01-01

    In the last few years, exciting developments have taken place in the study of giant resonances (GR). In addition to the already well known gjant dipole resonance (GDR), the presence of at least two more new GRs viz. giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) and giant monopole resonance (GMR) has been experimentally established. The systematics covering these GRs is found to be consistent with the theoretical expectation. Though the existence of higher multipoles has been predjcted by theory, so far only some of these have been found to be excited experimentally. Various probe particles - electrons, protons (polarized and unpolarized), light and heavy ions and pions - at different bombarding energies have been used to excite the GR region, primarily through the inelastic scattering process. Detailed experiments, looking at the decay modes of GR region, have also been performed. These studies have contributed significantly to a better understanding of the phenomenon of nuclear collective excitation. In this report, the current status of 'GR' research is reviewed. (author)

  19. Excited-state absorption in tetrapyridyl porphyrins: comparing real-time and quadratic-response time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, David N. [Department of Chemistry; Supercomputing Institute and Chemical Theory Center; University of Minnesota; Minneapolis; USA; Asher, Jason C. [Department of Chemistry; Supercomputing Institute and Chemical Theory Center; University of Minnesota; Minneapolis; USA; Fischer, Sean A. [William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; P.O. Box 999; Richland; USA; Cramer, Christopher J. [Department of Chemistry; Supercomputing Institute and Chemical Theory Center; University of Minnesota; Minneapolis; USA; Govind, Niranjan [William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; P.O. Box 999; Richland; USA

    2017-01-01

    Threemeso-substituted tetrapyridyl porphyrins (free base, Ni(ii), and Cu(ii)) were investigated for their optical limiting (OL) capabilities using real-time (RT-), linear-response (LR-), and quadratic-response (QR-) time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods.

  20. Functional connectivity in task-negative network of the Deaf: effects of sign language experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie Malaia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies investigating cortical processing in Deaf signers suggest that life-long experience with sign language and/or auditory deprivation may alter the brain’s anatomical structure and the function of brain regions typically recruited for auditory processing (Emmorey et al., 2010; Pénicaud et al., 2013 inter alia. We report the first investigation of the task-negative network in Deaf signers and its functional connectivity—the temporal correlations among spatially remote neurophysiological events. We show that Deaf signers manifest increased functional connectivity between posterior cingulate/precuneus and left medial temporal gyrus (MTG, but also inferior parietal lobe and medial temporal gyrus in the right hemisphere- areas that have been found to show functional recruitment specifically during sign language processing. These findings suggest that the organization of the brain at the level of inter-network connectivity is likely affected by experience with processing visual language, although sensory deprivation could be another source of the difference. We hypothesize that connectivity alterations in the task negative network reflect predictive/automatized processing of the visual signal.

  1. Sequential designs for sensitivity analysis of functional inputs in computer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruth, J.; Roustant, O.; Kuhnt, S.

    2015-01-01

    Computer experiments are nowadays commonly used to analyze industrial processes aiming at achieving a wanted outcome. Sensitivity analysis plays an important role in exploring the actual impact of adjustable parameters on the response variable. In this work we focus on sensitivity analysis of a scalar-valued output of a time-consuming computer code depending on scalar and functional input parameters. We investigate a sequential methodology, based on piecewise constant functions and sequential bifurcation, which is both economical and fully interpretable. The new approach is applied to a sheet metal forming problem in three sequential steps, resulting in new insights into the behavior of the forming process over time. - Highlights: • Sensitivity analysis method for functional and scalar inputs is presented. • We focus on the discovery of most influential parts of the functional domain. • We investigate economical sequential methodology based on piecewise constant functions. • Normalized sensitivity indices are introduced and investigated theoretically. • Successful application to sheet metal forming on two functional inputs

  2. Importance of being topologically excited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldi, D.G.

    1980-08-01

    A class of Euclidean configurations that appear to be dominant in the functional integral of the CP/sup N-1/ models is identified. These configurations are point-like topological excitations, and they may be viewed as constituents of instantons, although they are defined independently of instantons through a continuum duality transformation. Not only do these configurations survive as N → infinity, but in the plasma phase they are responsible for the effects encountered within the 1/N expansion - confinement, theta dependence, and dynamical mass generation

  3. Assessment of Differential Item Functioning in the Experiences of Discrimination Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Jacobs, David R.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of instruments used to measure self-reported experiences of discrimination in epidemiologic studies are rarely assessed, especially regarding construct validity. The authors used 2000–2001 data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study to examine differential item functioning (DIF) in 2 versions of the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) Index, an index measuring self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic and gender discrimination. DIF may confound interpretation of subgroup differences. Large DIF was observed for 2 of 7 racial/ethnic discrimination items: White participants reported more racial/ethnic discrimination for the “at school” item, and black participants reported more racial/ethnic discrimination for the “getting housing” item. The large DIF by race/ethnicity in the index for racial/ethnic discrimination probably reflects item impact and is the result of valid group differences between blacks and whites regarding their respective experiences of discrimination. The authors also observed large DIF by race/ethnicity for 3 of 7 gender discrimination items. This is more likely to have been due to item bias. Users of the EOD Index must consider the advantages and disadvantages of DIF adjustment (omitting items, constructing separate measures, and retaining items). The EOD Index has substantial usefulness as an instrument that can assess self-reported experiences of discrimination. PMID:22038104

  4. New measurements of excitation functions of {sup 186}W(p,x) nuclear reactions up to 65 MeV. Production of a {sup 178}W/{sup 178m}Ta generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tárkányi, F.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A., E-mail: aherman@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron Department, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, (VUB), Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-01-15

    New experimental excitation functions for proton induced reactions on {sup nat}W are presented in the 32–65 MeV energy range. The cross-sections for {sup nat}W(p,xn){sup 186,184m,184g,183,} {sup 182m,182g,181}Re, {sup nat}W(p,x){sup 178}W{sup ,} {sup nat}W(p,x){sup 183,182,} {sup 180m,} {sup 177,176,175}Ta, {sup 175}Hf and {sup 177}Lu were measured via an activation method by using a stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. The results were compared with predicted values obtained with the nuclear reaction code TALYS (results taken from the TENDL 2014 and TENDL 2015 on-line libraries). Production routes of the medically relevant radionuclides {sup 186}Re, the {sup 178}W → {sup 178}Ta generator and {sup 181}W are discussed.

  5. Analysis of the Relationship Between Training Experience and Visual Sensory Functions in Athletes from Different Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesiakowski Piotr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gaining insight into the mechanisms and scope of possible adaptations of visual functions to the conditions determined by the demands imposed by sports training seems to be very interesting not only from a cognitive point of view, but also with respect to the practical applications of the findings of such investigations in the training process. The aim of the study was to assess the function of early visual processing in athletes representing different sports disciplines with varying training experience. Material and methods. The study involved 95 athletes practising football (n = 24, volleyball (n = 22, boxing (n = 26, and rowing (n = 23. The bioelectric function of the visual pathway was assessed based on recordings of visual evoked potentials (VEPs. The regions which were stimulated were the peripheral and central areas of the retina. During the test, we recorded the amplitude (μV and latency (ms of the P100 component of the VEP waveform for both monocular stimulation (for the dominant and non-dominant eye and binocular stimulation. Results. Lower VEP P100 amplitude values were found for the peripheral and central locations for monocular and binocular viewing in more experienced volleyball players and rowers (p 0.05 in intragroup variability in VEP P100 latency in relation to training experience in any of the sports disciplines examined. Conclusions. Training experience has an influence on the early stage of sensory processing with respect to neural activity. Training experience has been found to differentiate athletes in terms of the temporal parameters of the visual evoked potentials recorded in the current study only to a limited extent.

  6. The DSS-14 C-band exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, D. R.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of a C-band exciter for use with the Block IV Receiver-Exciter Subsystem at Deep Space Station 14 (DSS-14) has been completed. The exciter supplements the standard capabilities of the Block IV system by providing a drive signal for the C-band transmitter while generating coherent translation frequencies for C-band (5-GHz) to S-band (2.2- to 2.3-GHz) Doppler extraction, C-band to L-band (1.6-GHz) zero delay measurements, and a level calibrated L-band test signal. Exciter functions are described, and a general explanation and description of the C-band uplink controller is presented.

  7. Dissociative Excitation of Thymine by Electron Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, William; Tiessen, Collin; Hein, Jeffrey; Trocchi, Joshuah; Kedzierski, Wladek

    2014-05-01

    A crossed electron-gas beam system coupled to a VUV spectrometer has been used to investigate the dissociation of thymine (C5H6N2O2) into excited atomic fragments in the electron-impact energy range from threshold to 375 eV. A special stainless steel oven is used to vaporize the thymine and form it into a beam where it is intersected by a magnetically collimated electron beam, typical current 50 μA. The main features in the spectrum are the H Lyman series lines. The probability of extracting excited C or N atoms from the ring is shown to be very small. In addition to spectral data, excitation probability curves as a function of electron energy will be presented for the main emission features. Possible dissociation channels and excitation mechanisms in the parent molecule will be discussed. The authors thank NSERC (Canada) for financial support.

  8. Global excitation of wave phenomena in a dissipative multiconstituent medium. I - Transfer function of the earth's thermosphere. II - Impulsive perturbations in the earth's thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Herrero, F. A.; Varosi, F.

    1984-01-01

    A transfer function approach is taken in constructing a spectral model of the acoustic-gravity wave response in a multiconstituent thermosphere. The model is then applied to describing the thermospheric response to various sources around the globe. Zonal spherical harmonics serve to model the horizontal variations in propagating waves which, when integrated with respect to height, generate a transfer function for a vertical source distribution in the thermosphere. Four wave components are characterized as resonance phenomena and are associated with magnetic activity and ionospheric disturbances. The waves are either trapped or propagate, the latter becoming significant when possessing frequencies above 3 cycles/day. The energy input is distributed by thermospheric winds. The disturbances decay slowly, mainly due to heat conduction and diffusion. Gravity waves appear abruptly and are connected to a sudden switching on or off of a source. Turn off of a source coincides with a reversal of the local atmospheric circulation.

  9. Giant resonances on excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besold, W.; Reinhard, P.G.; Toepffer, C.

    1984-01-01

    We derive modified RPA equations for small vibrations about excited states. The temperature dependence of collective excitations is examined. The formalism is applied to the ground state and the first excited state of 90 Zr in order to confirm a hypothesis which states that not only the ground state but every excited state of a nucleus has a giant resonance built upon it. (orig.)

  10. Nonorthogonal orbital based N-body reduced density matrices and their applications to valence bond theory. I. Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted excited valence bond wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In this series, the n-body reduced density matrix (n-RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals and their applications to ab initio valence bond (VB) methods are presented. As the first paper of this series, Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions are explicitly provided by means of nonorthogonal orbital based RDM approach. To this end, a more generalized Wick's theorem, called enhanced Wick's theorem, is presented both in arithmetical and in graphical forms, by which the deduction of expressions for the matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions is dramatically simplified, and the matrix elements are finally expressed in terms of tensor contractions of electronic integrals and n-RDMs of the reference VB self-consistent field wave function. A string-based algorithm is developed for the purpose of evaluating n-RDMs in an efficient way. Using the techniques presented in this paper, one is able to develop new methods and efficient algorithms for nonorthogonal orbital based many-electron theory much easier than by use of the first quantized formulism.

  11. Excitation of Nucleon Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkert, Volker D.

    2001-01-01

    I discuss developments in the area of nucleon resonance excitation, both necessary and feasible, that would put our understanding of nucleon structure in the regime of strong QCD on a qualitatively new level. They involve the collection of high quality data in various channels, a more rigorous approach in the search for ''missing'' resonances, an effort to compute some critical quantities in nucleon resonance excitations from first principles, i.e. QCD, and a proposal focused to obtain an understanding of a fundamental quantity in nucleon structure

  12. Orthodontic treatment-induced temporal alteration of jaw-opening reflex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Au; Hasegawa, Naoya; Adachi, Kazunori; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Suda, Naoto

    2017-10-01

    The impairment of orofacial motor function during orthodontic treatment needs to be addressed, because most orthodontic patients experience pain and motor excitability would be affected by pain. In the present study, the temporal alteration of the jaw-opening reflex excitability was investigated to determine if orthodontic treatment affects orofacial motor function. The excitability of jaw-opening reflex evoked by electrical stimulation on the gingiva and recorded bilaterally in the anterior digastric muscles was evaluated at 1 (D1), 3 (D3), and 7 days (D7) after orthodontic force application to the teeth of right side; morphological features (e.g., osteoclast genesis and tooth movement) were also evaluated. To clarify the underlying mechanism of orthodontic treatment-induced alteration of orofacial motor excitability, analgesics were administrated for 1 day. At D1 and D3, orthodontic treatment significantly decreased the threshold for inducing the jaw-opening reflex but significantly increased the threshold at D7. Other parameters of the jaw-opening reflex were also evaluated (e.g., latency, duration and area under the curve of anterior digastric muscles activity), and only the latency of the D1 group was significantly different from that of the other groups. Temporal alteration of the jaw-opening reflex excitability was significantly correlated with changes in morphological features. Aspirin (300 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) significantly increased the threshold for inducing the jaw-opening reflex, whereas a lower dose (75-150 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) of aspirin or acetaminophen (300 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) failed to alter the jaw-opening reflex excitability. These results suggest that an increase of the jaw-opening reflex excitability can be induced acutely by orthodontic treatment, possibly through the cyclooxygenase activation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY It is well known that motor function is affected by pain, but the effect of orthodontic treatment-related pain on the trigeminal

  13. Development and Implementation of Biological Circuits Using Excitable and Non-Excitable Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casasnovas-Orus, V.; Gomez-Cid, L.; Hernandez-Romero, I.; Fuentes, L.; Guillem, M.S.; Atienza, F.; Fernandez-Aviles, F.; Climent, A.M.

    2016-07-01

    Compared to conventional computation systems, living beings require reduced power and raw materials consumption, inviting to explore the concept of biological circuits. In this project, a proof-of-concept of logical biocircuits using cell patterns has been developed. These were based upon differential ionic communication between cells, being the cells types used excitable and non-excitable, modeled by cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts correspondingly. To begin, patterns for the basic logic computation blocks were designed, including the OR gate, AND gate and logic memory. The designs were evaluated with mathematical models and in vitro experiments. Results of mathematical modeling indicated that theoretical approval of the biocircuit function. Regarding in vitro biocircuit implementation, three different selective cell localization techniques proved useful for the pattern creation. Evaluation with optical mapping confirmed the operation of the OR gate and logic memory. More resolution in the cell placement strategy will be needed to observe the proper AND gate operation. Thus, fine-tuning of the implementation process will enable the construction of more complex biocircuits that will take on clinical applications relating to electric stimulation of tissues and programmed drug delivery. (Author)

  14. Nuclear transitions induced by atomic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, P.; Bounds, J.A.; Haight, R.C.; Luk, T.S.

    1988-01-01

    In the two-step pumping scheme for a gamma-ray laser, an essential step is that of exciting the nucleus from a long-lived storage isomer to a nearby short- lived state that then decays to the upper lasing level. An experiment is in progress to induce this transfer by first exciting the atomic electrons with UV photons. The incident photons couple well to the electrons, which then couple via a virtual photon to the nucleus. As a test case, excitation of the 235 U nucleus is being sought, using a high- brightness UV laser. The excited nuclear state, having a 26- minute half-life, decays by internal conversion, resulting in emission of an atomic electron. A pulsed infrared laser produces an atomic beam of 235 U which is then bombarded by the UV laser beam. Ions are collected, and conversion electrons are detected by a channel electron multiplier. In preliminary experiments, an upper limit of 7 x 10 -5 has been obtained for the probability of exciting a 235 U atom in the UV beam for one picosecond at an intensity of about 10 15 W/cm 2 . Experiments with higher sensitivities and at higher UV beam intensities are underway

  15. Role of physiological ClC-1 Cl- ion channel regulation for the excitability and function of working skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Riisager, Anders; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Electrical membrane properties of skeletal muscle fibers have been thoroughly studied over the last five to six decades. This has shown that muscle fibers from a wide range of species, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, are all characterized by high resting membrane...... temporal resolution in action potential firing muscle fibers. These and other techniques have revealed that ClC-1 function is controlled by multiple cellular signals during muscle activity. Thus, onset of muscle activity triggers ClC-1 inhibition via protein kinase C, intracellular acidosis, and lactate...

  16. The impacts of nature experience on human cognitive function and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratman, Gregory N; Hamilton, J Paul; Daily, Gretchen C

    2012-02-01

    Scholars spanning a variety of disciplines have studied the ways in which contact with natural environments may impact human well-being. We review the effects of such nature experience on human cognitive function and mental health, synthesizing work from environmental psychology, urban planning, the medical literature, and landscape aesthetics. We provide an overview of the prevailing explanatory theories of these effects, the ways in which exposure to nature has been considered, and the role that individuals' preferences for nature may play in the impact of the environment on psychological functioning. Drawing from the highly productive but disparate programs of research in this area, we conclude by proposing a system of categorization for different types of nature experience. We also outline key questions for future work, including further inquiry into which elements of the natural environment may have impacts on cognitive function and mental health; what the most effective type, duration, and frequency of contact may be; and what the possible neural mechanisms are that could be responsible for the documented effects. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Functional coupling networks inferred from prefrontal cortex activity show experience-related effective plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Tavoni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional coupling networks are widely used to characterize collective patterns of activity in neural populations. Here, we ask whether functional couplings reflect the subtle changes, such as in physiological interactions, believed to take place during learning. We infer functional network models reproducing the spiking activity of simultaneously recorded neurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC of rats, during the performance of a cross-modal rule shift task (task epoch, and during preceding and following sleep epochs. A large-scale study of the 96 recorded sessions allows us to detect, in about 20% of sessions, effective plasticity between the sleep epochs. These coupling modifications are correlated with the coupling values in the task epoch, and are supported by a small subset of the recorded neurons, which we identify by means of an automatized procedure. These potentiated groups increase their coativation frequency in the spiking data between the two sleep epochs, and, hence, participate to putative experience-related cell assemblies. Study of the reactivation dynamics of the potentiated groups suggests a possible connection with behavioral learning. Reactivation is largely driven by hippocampal ripple events when the rule is not yet learned, and may be much more autonomous, and presumably sustained by the potentiated PFC network, when learning is consolidated. Cell assemblies coding for memories are widely believed to emerge through synaptic modification resulting from learning, yet their identification from activity is very arduous. We propose a functional-connectivity-based approach to identify experience-related cell assemblies from multielectrode recordings in vivo, and apply it to the prefrontal cortex activity of rats recorded during a task epoch and the preceding and following sleep epochs. We infer functional couplings between the recorded cells in each epoch. Comparisons of the functional coupling networks across the epochs allow us

  18. Can Measured Synergy Excitations Accurately Construct Unmeasured Muscle Excitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Nicholas A; Patten, Carolynn; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2018-01-01

    Accurate prediction of muscle and joint contact forces during human movement could improve treatment planning for disorders such as osteoarthritis, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral palsy. Recent studies suggest that muscle synergies, a low-dimensional representation of a large set of muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals (henceforth called "muscle excitations"), may reduce the redundancy of muscle excitation solutions predicted by optimization methods. This study explores the feasibility of using muscle synergy information extracted from eight muscle EMG signals (henceforth called "included" muscle excitations) to accurately construct muscle excitations from up to 16 additional EMG signals (henceforth called "excluded" muscle excitations). Using treadmill walking data collected at multiple speeds from two subjects (one healthy, one poststroke), we performed muscle synergy analysis on all possible subsets of eight included muscle excitations and evaluated how well the calculated time-varying synergy excitations could construct the remaining excluded muscle excitations (henceforth called "synergy extrapolation"). We found that some, but not all, eight-muscle subsets yielded synergy excitations that achieved >90% extrapolation variance accounted for (VAF). Using the top 10% of subsets, we developed muscle selection heuristics to identify included muscle combinations whose synergy excitations achieved high extrapolation accuracy. For 3, 4, and 5 synergies, these heuristics yielded extrapolation VAF values approximately 5% lower than corresponding reconstruction VAF values for each associated eight-muscle subset. These results suggest that synergy excitations obtained from experimentally measured muscle excitations can accurately construct unmeasured muscle excitations, which could help limit muscle excitations predicted by muscle force optimizations.

  19. Excitation of Stellar Pulsations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houdek, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this review I present an overview of our current understanding of the physical mechanisms that are responsible for the excitation of pulsations in stars with surface convection zones. These are typically cooler stars such as the δ Scuti stars, and stars supporting solar-like oscillations....

  20. Relativistic Coulomb excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, A.; Alder, K.

    1979-01-01

    Coulomb excitation of both target and projectile in relativistic heavy ion collisions is evaluated including the lowest order correction for the deviation from a straight line trajectory. Explicit results for differential and total cross sections are given in the form of tables and figures. (Auth.)

  1. Excited lepton search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrend, H.J.; Buerger, J.; Criegee, L.; Fenner, H.; Field, J.H.; Franke, G.; Fuster, J.; Holler, Y.; Meyer, J.; Schroeder, V.; Sindt, H.; Timm, U.; Winter, G.G.; Zimmermann, W.; Bussey, P.J.; Campbell, A.J.; Dainton, J.B.; Hendry, D.; McCurrach, G.; Scarr, J.M.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Smith, K.M.; Blobel, V.; Poppe, M.; Spitzer, H.; Boer, W. de; Buschhorn, G.; Christiansen, W.; Grindhammer, G.; Gunderson, B.; Kiesling, C.; Kotthaus, R.; Kroha, H.; Lueers, D.; Oberlack, H.; Sack, B.; Schacht, P.; Shooshtari, G.; Wiedenmann, W.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Fournier, D.; Gaillard, M.; Grivaz, J.F.; Haissinski, J.; Janot, P.; Journe, V.; Le Diberder, F.; Ros, E.; Spadafora, A.; Veillet, J.J.; Aleksan, R.; Cozzika, G.; Ducros, Y.; Jarry, P.; Lavagne, Y.; Ould Saada, F.; Pamela, J.; Pierre, F.; Zacek, J.; Alexander, G.; Bella, G.; Gnat, Y.; Grunhaus, J.

    1986-02-01

    Using the CELLO detector at PETRA we have searched for excited leptons by studying e + e - interactions which yield p + p - γγ, l + l - γ and γγ final states, where l = 3, μ or τ. We observe good agreement with QED and set new limits on e*, μ*, and τ* production. (orig.)

  2. Hardness and excitation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that the first excitation energy can be given by the Kohn-Sham hardness (i.e. the energy difference of the ground-state lowest unoccupied and highest occupied levels) plus an extra term coming from the partial derivative of the ensemble exchange-correlation energy with respect to the weighting factor in the ...

  3. Elementary excitations and phase transformations in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron scattering is and will continue to be a uniquely powerful tool for the study of elementary excitations and phase transformations in solids. The paper examines a few recent experiments on molecular crystals, superionic materials, paramagnetic scattering and phase transitions to see what experimental features made these experiments possible, and hence to make suggestions about future needs. It is concluded that new instruments will extend the scope of neutron scattering studies to new excitations, that there is a need for higher resolution, particularly for phase transition studies, and that it will be important to use intensity information, discrimination against unwanted inelastic processes and polarization analysis to reliably measure the excitations in new materials. (author)

  4. Structure of the nucleon's low-lying excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; El-Bennich, Bruno; Roberts, Craig D.; Schmidt, Sebastian M.; Segovia, Jorge; Wan, Shaolong

    2018-02-01

    A continuum approach to the three valence-quark bound-state problem in quantum field theory is used to perform a comparative study of the four lightest (I =1 /2 ,JP=1 /2±) baryon isospin doublets in order to elucidate their structural similarities and differences. Such analyses predict the presence of nonpointlike, electromagnetically active quark-quark (diquark) correlations within all baryons; and in these doublets, isoscalar-scalar, isovector-pseudovector, isoscalar-pseudoscalar, and vector diquarks can all play a role. In the two lightest (1 /2 ,1 /2+) doublets, however, scalar and pseudovector diquarks are overwhelmingly dominant. The associated rest-frame wave functions are largely S -wave in nature; and the first excited state in this 1 /2+ channel has the appearance of a radial excitation of the ground state. The two lightest (1 /2 ,1 /2-) doublets fit a different picture: accurate estimates of their masses are obtained by retaining only pseudovector diquarks; in their rest frames, the amplitudes describing their dressed-quark cores contain roughly equal fractions of even- and odd-parity diquarks; and the associated wave functions are predominantly P -wave in nature, but possess measurable S -wave components. Moreover, the first excited state in each negative-parity channel has little of the appearance of a radial excitation. In quantum field theory, all differences between positive- and negative-parity channels must owe to chiral symmetry breaking, which is overwhelmingly dynamical in the light-quark sector. Consequently, experiments that can validate the contrasts drawn herein between the structure of the four lightest (1 /2 ,1 /2±) doublets will prove valuable in testing links between emergent mass generation and observable phenomena and, plausibly, thereby revealing dynamical features of confinement.

  5. Psychotic Experiences and Neuropsychological Functioning in a Population-based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollon, Josephine; David, Anthony S; Morgan, Craig; Frissa, Souci; Glahn, David; Pilecka, Izabela; Hatch, Stephani L; Hotopf, Matthew; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2016-02-01

    Psychotic experiences in early life are associated with neuropsychological impairment and the risk for later psychiatric disorders. Psychotic experiences are also prevalent in adults, but neuropsychological investigations spanning adulthood are limited, and confounding factors have not been examined rigorously. To characterize neuropsychological functioning in adults with psychotic experiences while adjusting for important sociodemographic characteristics and familial factors and investigating the effect of age. The South East London Community Health (SELCoH) study is a population-based household survey of physical and mental health in individuals 16 years or older conducted from June 1, 2008, to December 31, 2010, in 2 London boroughs. The study included 1698 participants from 1075 households. Data were analyzed from May 6, 2014, to April 22, 2015. Psychotic experiences measured using the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. Neuropsychological functioning measured using tests assessing verbal knowledge (Wechsler Test of Adult Reading), working memory (Spatial Delayed Response Task), memory (Visual Object Learning Task), and processing speed (digit symbol coding task). A composite IQ score of general cognitive ability was calculated. A total of 1677 participants with a mean (SD) age of 40 (17) years were included in the analysis. Compared with the group without psychotic experiences, the 171 (9.7%) adults with psychotic experiences did not show a statistically significant impairment on mean (SD) measures of IQ (95.25 [16.58] vs 100.45 [14.77]; Cohen d, -0.22; P = .06) or processing speed (40.63 [13.06] vs 42.17 [13.79]; Cohen d, -0.03; P = .73) but were impaired on measures of verbal knowledge (31.36 [15.78] vs 38.83 [12.64]; Cohen d, -0.37; P = .003), working memory (20.97 [4.12] vs 22.51 [3.26]; Cohen d, -0.34; P = .005), and memory (43.80 [8.45] vs 46.53 [7.06]; Cohen d, -0.28; P = .01). Only participants 50 years and older with psychotic

  6. A functional renormalization group application to the scanning tunneling microscopy experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Ramos Cárdenas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of a system composed of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM tip coupled to an absorbed impurity on a host surface using the functional renormalization group (FRG. We include the effect of the STM tip as a correction to the self-energy in addition to the usual contribution of the host surface in the wide band limit. We calculate the differential conductance curves at two different lateral distances from the quantum impurity and find good qualitative agreement with STM experiments where the differential conductance curves evolve from an antiresonance to a Lorentzian shape.

  7. Positive experience in introduction of functional group control at NPPs. What are the future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, O.M.; Antonyuk, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Experience in introduction of functional group control (FGC) on the basis of the ULU2-computer at the Rovno-3 NPP unit is generalized. A list of additional improvements realized during subsystems RY (steam generator blowing through) and TZ (special waste water system) introduction in the NPP reactor compartment is given. Reguirements to equipment, FGC actuating mechanisms, technological part of the design, necessary for FGC realization, are formulated. FGC relieves NPP operator of routine operations, reduces his fatigue and increases sharply the technological discipline. Rigorous standardization of designs and equipment and centralized management are reguired for FGC introduction at the operating NPPs

  8. The Spin Structure Function of the Proton from SLAC Experiment E155

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, P

    2004-02-17

    Experiment E155 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) measured the longitudinal and transverse deep inelastic structure functions of the proton and deuteron using a polarized, 48.3 GeV electron beam and solid polarized targets of ammonia ({sup 15}NH{sub 3}) for proton measurements and lithium deuteride ({sup 6}Li{sup 2}H) for deuteron measurements. Three electromagnetic spectrometers at angles of 2.75{sup o}, 5.5{sup o}, and 10.5{sup o} measured the scattered electrons. This work presents an analysis of the longitudinal structure function of the proton, g{sub 1}{sup p}(x, Q{sup 2}). Included is a re-analysis of the proton target polarization data that for the first time corrects a problem encountered which altered those measurements.

  9. The Impact of Teen Court on Rural Adolescents: Improved Social Relationships, Psychological Functioning, and School Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Rose, Roderick A; Evans, Caroline B R; Barbee, James; Cotter, Katie L; Bower, Meredith

    2017-08-01

    Teen Court is a prevention program aimed at diverting first time juvenile offenders from the traditional juvenile justice system and reintegrating them into the community. Few studies have examined if Teen Court impacts adolescent functioning. We examined how Teen Court participation impacted psychosocial functioning, social relationships, and school experiences in a sample of 392 rural Teen Court participants relative to two comparison samples, one from the same county as Teen Court (n = 4276) and one from a neighboring county (n = 3584). We found that Teen Court has the potential to decrease internalizing symptoms, externalizing behavior, violent behavior, parent-adolescent conflict, and delinquent friends, and increase self-esteem and school satisfaction.

  10. Anisotropy in the simultaneous excitation of two colliding atoms to various substate combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorman, L.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis double-atom excitation (DAE) processes in atomic collision experiments are studied by measuring the angular correlation of two coincident photons emitted by both excited collision particles. The analytical expression for the angular correlation function is derived which contains as adjustable parameters the various (complex) excitation amplitudes integrated over all scattering angles. The He+He system is investigated, for projectile energies between 0.5 and 3.5 keV, in which both particles are excited simultaneously to the 2 1 P state. The relation between photon correlations and atomic state correlations is investigated and the density matrix elements are calculated for a statistical distribution of the excited atomic substates into which a certain symmetry is incorporated. Collisions between metastable and groundstate He atoms are considered. Single-photon spectra are presented and compared with spectra from the He+He collision system. Coincidence measurements were performed on these collision systems to study possible double-atom excitations. Coincidences between two ultraviolet as well as an ultraviolet and a visible photon were measu0515 Also a measurement is reported of the relative population of the magnetic substates of the 3 1 D state of helium. Coincidence measurements on two ultraviolet photons emitted upon Ne-Ne and He-Ne collisions are described and the double-atom excitations for these systems are studied. For Ne+Ne no coincidence peaks were found. For He+Ne double-atom excitation was observed and from the measured angular correlations the corresponding density matrix elements for some kinetic energies of the projectile. (Auth.)

  11. A Study on Relationships between Functional Performance and Task Performance Measure through Experiments in NPP MCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, In Seok; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Further improvements in levels of organization, management, man-machine interfaces, education, training, etc. are required, if high operating reliability of operators in huge and complex plants such as chemical plants and electrical power generating plants is to be maintained. Improvement requires good understanding of operators' behavior, including defining what is good performance for operators, especially in emergency situations. Human performance measures, therefore, are important to enhance performance and to reduce the probability of incidents and accidents in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Operators' performance measures are used for multi-objectives such as control room design, human system interface evaluation, training, procedure and so on. There are two kinds of representative methods to measure operators' performance. These methods are now known as the functional performance measure and task performance measure. Functional performance measures are basically based on the plant process parameters. Functional performance measures indicate how well the operators controlled selected critical parameters. The parameters selected in this paper are derived from the four Critical Safety Functions (CSFs) identified in the emergency operating procedures such as achievement of subcriticality, maintenance of core cooling, maintenance of heat sink and maintenance of containment integrity. Task performance measures are based on the task analysis. Task analysis is to determine the tasks required and how operators are performed. In this paper, task analysis is done with ideal path for an accident completed by experts and Emergency Operation Procedure (EOP). However, most literatures related to operators' performance have been using one of these measures and there is no research to find out the relationships between two measures. In this paper, the relationships between functional performance measure and task performance measure are investigated using experiments. Shortly

  12. Signals for transversity and transverse-momentum-dependent quark distribution functions studied at the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenthaler, Markus

    2010-08-15

    Intention of the present thesis was the study of transverse-momentum dependent quark distribution functions. In the focus stood the Fourier analysis of azimutal single-spin asymmetries of pions and charged kaons performed within the HERMES experiment. These asymmetries were reconstructed from deep-inelastic scattering events on a transversely polarized proton target and decomposed in Fourier components. In the framework of quantum chromodynamics such components can be interpreted as folding of quark distribution and fragmentation functions. By the analysis of the transverse-momentum dependent quark distribution functions the study of spin-orbit correlations in the internal of the nucleon was made possible. By this conclusions on the orbital angular momentum of the quarks can be drawn. The extracted Fourier components extend the hitherto available informations on the transverse-momentum dependent quark distribution functions remarkably. The presented Fourier analysis made not only a detection of the Collins and Sivers effects possible, but beyond the extraction of the signals of the pretzelosity and worm-gear distributions. The so obtained results will conclusively contribute to the understanding of future measurements in this field and furthermore make possible a test of fundamental predictions of quantum chromodynamics.

  13. On Emulation of Flueric Devices in Excitable Chemical Medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Adamatzky

    Full Text Available Flueric devices are fluidic devices without moving parts. Fluidic devices use fluid as a medium for information transfer and computation. A Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ medium is a thin-layer spatially extended excitable chemical medium which exhibits travelling excitation wave-fronts. The excitation wave-fronts transfer information. Flueric devices compute via jets interaction. BZ devices compute via excitation wave-fronts interaction. In numerical model of BZ medium we show that functions of key flueric devices are implemented in the excitable chemical system: signal generator, and, xor, not and nor Boolean gates, delay elements, diodes and sensors. Flueric devices have been widely used in industry since late 1960s and are still employed in automotive and aircraft technologies. Implementation of analog of the flueric devices in the excitable chemical systems opens doors to further applications of excitation wave-based unconventional computing in soft robotics, embedded organic electronics and living technologies.

  14. On Emulation of Flueric Devices in Excitable Chemical Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Flueric devices are fluidic devices without moving parts. Fluidic devices use fluid as a medium for information transfer and computation. A Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) medium is a thin-layer spatially extended excitable chemical medium which exhibits travelling excitation wave-fronts. The excitation wave-fronts transfer information. Flueric devices compute via jets interaction. BZ devices compute via excitation wave-fronts interaction. In numerical model of BZ medium we show that functions of key flueric devices are implemented in the excitable chemical system: signal generator, and, xor, not and nor Boolean gates, delay elements, diodes and sensors. Flueric devices have been widely used in industry since late 1960s and are still employed in automotive and aircraft technologies. Implementation of analog of the flueric devices in the excitable chemical systems opens doors to further applications of excitation wave-based unconventional computing in soft robotics, embedded organic electronics and living technologies.

  15. Energy dependence of the ionization of highly excited atoms by collisions with excited atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, T.; Nakai, Y.; Nakamura, H.

    1979-01-01

    Approximate analytical expressions are derived for the ionization cross sections in the high- and low-collision-energy limits using the improved impulse approximation based on the assumption that the electron-atom inelastic-scattering amplitude is a function only of the momentum transfer. Both cases of simultaneous excitation and de-excitation of one of the atoms are discussed. The formulas are applied to the collisions between two excited hydrogen atoms and are found very useful for estimating the cross sections in the wide range of collisions energies

  16. Quantized wobbling excitations with alignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Ikuko; Hagemann, Gudrun B.

    2003-01-01

    The wobbling excitations in the presence of an appreciable amount of alignment are expected to appear more easily at lower angular momenta of the yrast spectra, compared with those in the textbook example. The large B(E2;I→I-1) value for Δn=1 transitions where n expresses the number of wobbling phonons is shown to be a strongly increasing function of the triaxiality parameter γ, especially for γ > or approx. +20 deg., while it is relatively independent of moments of inertia. On the other hand, the relation of the wobbling phonon energy to the total angular momentum may be used to extract quantitative information on nuclear moments of inertia. It is concluded that the γ value of the triaxial, strongly deformed bands in 163 Lu is about equal to +20 deg. and may be slightly increasing as a function of I

  17. An analytical excitation for an ionizing plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Sijde, van der B.; Schram, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    From an analytical model for the population of high-lying excited levels in ionizing plasmas it appears that the distribution is a superposition of the equilibrium (Saha) value and an overpopulation. This overpopulation takes the form of a Maxwell distribution for free electrons. Experiments for He

  18. First generation TREN dendrimers functionalized with naphthyl and/or dansyl units. Ground and excited state electronic interactions and protonation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaniti, Paolo; Maestri, Mauro; Ceroni, Paola; Bergamini, Giacomo; Vögtle, Fritz; Fakhrnabavi, Hassan; Lukin, Oleg

    2007-04-01

    We report the photophysical properties (absorption and emission spectra, quantum yield, and lifetime) of five dendrimers of first generation based on a TREN (tris(2-aminoethyl)amine) skeleton functionalized at the periphery with naphthyl and/or 5-dimethylamino-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (hereafter called dansyl) chromophores. Each dendrimer comprises one tertiary amine unit in the core and three branches carrying a sulfonimido unit at the periphery, each one substituted by two identical or different moieties. In particular, TD6 and TN6 contain dansyl (D) or naphthyl (N) units, respectively, while TD3B3, TN3B3 and TN3D3 contain dansyl, naphthyl or benzyl (B) units at the periphery. The spectroscopic behaviour of these dendrimers has been investigated in acetonitrile solution and compared with that of reference compounds. For all dendrimers the absorption bands are red shifted compared to those of monomeric naphthyl and dansyl reference compounds. Moreover, the intense naphthyl and dansyl fluorescence is greatly quenched because of strong interactions between the two aromatic moieties linked by a sulfonimido unit. Protonation of the amine units of the dendrimers by addition of CF(3)SO(3)H (triflic) acid causes a decrease in intensity of the luminescence and a change in the shape of the emission bands. The shapes of the titration curves depend on the dendrimer, but in any case the effect of acid can be fully reversed by successive addition of base (tributylamine). The obtained results reveal that among the intradendrimer interactions the most important one is that taking place (via mesomeric interaction) between the various chromophores and a pair of sulfonimido groups.

  19. The first naphthosemiquinone complex of K+ with vitamin K3 analog: Experiment and density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathawate, Laxmi; Gejji, Shridhar P.; Yeole, Sachin D.; Verma, Prakash L.; Puranik, Vedavati G.; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2015-05-01

    Synthesis and characterization of potassium complex of 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (phthiocol), the vitamin K3 analog, has been carried out using FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR, EPR, cyclic voltammetry and single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments combined with the density functional theory. It has been observed that naphthosemiquinone binds to two K+ ions extending the polymeric chain through bridging oxygens O(2) and O(3). The crystal network possesses hydrogen bonding interactions from coordinated water molecules showing water channels along the c-axis. 13C NMR spectra revealed that the complexation of phthiocol with potassium ion engenders deshielding of C(2) signals, which appear at δ = ∼14.6 ppm whereas those of C(3) exhibit up-field signals near δ ∼ 6.9 ppm. These inferences are supported by the M06-2x based density functional theory. Electrochemical experiments further suggest that reduction of naphthosemiquinone results in only a cathodic peak from catechol. A triplet state arising from interactions between neighboring phthiocol anion lead to a half field signal at g = 4.1 in the polycrystalline X-band EPR spectra at 133 K.

  20. Vantage Sensitivity: Environmental Sensitivity to Positive Experiences as a Function of Genetic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael

    2017-02-01

    A large number of gene-environment interaction studies provide evidence that some people are more likely to be negatively affected by adverse experiences as a function of specific genetic variants. However, such "risk" variants are surprisingly frequent in the population. Evolutionary analysis suggests that genetic variants associated with increased risk for maladaptive development under adverse environmental conditions are maintained in the population because they are also associated with advantages in response to different contextual conditions. These advantages may include (a) coexisting genetic resilience pertaining to other adverse influences, (b) a general genetic susceptibility to both low and high environmental quality, and (c) a coexisting propensity to benefit disproportionately from positive and supportive exposures, as reflected in the recent framework of vantage sensitivity. After introducing the basic properties of vantage sensitivity and highlighting conceptual similarities and differences with diathesis-stress and differential susceptibility patterns of gene-environment interaction, selected and recent empirical evidence for the notion of vantage sensitivity as a function of genetic differences is reviewed. The unique contribution that the new perspective of vantage sensitivity may make to our understanding of social inequality will be discussed after suggesting neurocognitive and molecular mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the propensity to benefit disproportionately from benevolent experiences. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.