Sample records for excimer laser processing

  1. Excimer Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Basting, Dirk


    This comprehensive survey on Excimer Lasers investigates the current range of the technology, applications and devices of this commonly used laser source, as well as the future of new technologies, such as F2 laser technology. Additional chapters on optics, devices and laser systems complete this compact handbook. A must read for laser technology students, process application researchers, engineers or anyone interested in excimer laser technology. An effective and understandable introduction to the current and future status of excimer laser technology.

  2. excimer laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 7, 2014 ... Excimer laser; krypton chloride; UV pre-ionization; gas circulation. PACS No 42.55.Lt. 1. ... active discharge volume is by spark UV radiation created adjacent to both sides of the. Figure 4. Output ... HV electrode, all along its length and spatially modulated to ensure uniform irradiation of the gas volume.

  3. Excimer lasers for refractive surgery (United States)

    Vartapetov, Serge K.


    Over the last decade excimer lasers have been broadly used for technological and medical processes. One of the most widespread applications of excimer laser is the clinical use for refractive surgery. Refractive surgery with excimer lasers is the prevalent method for the eye acuity correction. Operation at 193 nanometers, the excimer laser is able to precisely sculpt the corneal surface to correct refractive errors. Both the increase in the accuracy of sculpturing and the predictability of procedures are the key elements of the excimer laser designed for refractive surgery. The novel excimer laser for refractive surgery is offered for small aberration treatment. The excimer laser with both a full aperture Gaussian beam and fly spot system is described. The comparison of different systems of laser correction is reviewed.

  4. Excimer Laser Etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Longmire, Hu Foster [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Gray, Allison S [ORNL


    Excimer laser radiation at a wavelength of = 248 nm represents a new etching method for the preparation of metallographic specimens. The method is shown to be particularly effective for enhancing the contrast between different phases in a multiphase metallographic specimen.

  5. Corneal wound healing after excimer laser keratectomy. (United States)

    Kaji, Yuichi; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Oshika, Tetsuro


    Excimer laser keratectomy is widely used to correct refractive errors. Several complications of excimer laser keratectomy are reported including corneal infection, regression, corneal haze formation, glare and halo. Most of the complications are closely related to the corneal stromal wound healing process. In order to perform the excimer laser keratectomy with minimum complications, we should understand the mechanism of the corneal stroma wound healing process. In addition, such knowledge will help us to regulate the corneal stromal wound healing process in the future. In the present article, we discuss the molecular mechanism of the corneal stromal wound healing process after excimer laser keratectomy and its regulation by anti-inflammatory agents.

  6. Excimer laser-induced metallization for in situ processing on Si and GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, Michel; Suys, Marc; Tabbal, Maleck; Izquierdo, Ricardo; Yelon, Arthur; Sacher, Edward (Groupe des Couches Minces and Dept. de Genie Physique, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Station ' A' , Montreal, Quebec (Canada))


    We have investigated both the large area excimer laser-induced deposition of W and its silicides on GaAs to form thermally stable Schottky contacts, and the reduction of a Cu(I) compound for the deposition of Cu interconnects for Si microelectronics. Using a KrF excimer laser at 25 mJ/cm[sup 2] and a mixture of WF[sub 6], SiH[sub 4] and Ar, metallic W is deposited with an average growth rate of 1 A/pulse. For Cu deposition, the reduction by H[sub 2] of the precursor Cu(hfac)(TMVS) under a KrF excimer laser illumination of 9 mJ/cm[sup 2] gives metallic Cu with a Cu/C ratio of 4.35. For both processes, possible deposition mechanisms are discussed in terms of gas phase and surface reactions

  7. Mesoscale Laser Processing using Excimer and Short-Pulse Ti: Sapphire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirk, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Gilmer, G H; Stuart, B C; Armstrong, J P; Oberhelman, S K; Baker, S L; Nikitin, A J; Mariella, R P


    Targets to study high-energy density physics and inertial confinement fusion processes have very specific and precise tolerances that are pushing the state-of-the-art in mesoscale microsculpting technology. A significant effort is required in order to advance the capabilities to make these targets with very challenging geometries. Ultrashort pulsed (USP) Ti:Sapphire lasers and excimer lasers are proving to be very effective tools in the fabrication of the very small pieces that make up these targets. A brief description of the dimensional and structural requirements of these pieces will be presented, along with theoretical and experimental results that demonstrate to what extent these lasers are achieving the desired results, which include sub-{mu}m precision and RMS surface values well below 100 nm. This work indicates that excimer lasers are best at sculpting the polymer pieces and that the USP lasers work quite well on metal and aerogel surfaces, especially for those geometries that cannot be produced using diamond machining and where material removal amounts are too great to do with focused ion beam milling in a cost effective manner. In addition, the USP laser may be used as part of the procedure to fill target capsules with fusion fuel, a mixture of deuterium and tritium, without causing large perturbations on the surface of the target by keeping holes drilled through 125 {micro}m of beryllium below 5 {micro}m in diameter.

  8. High Efficiency Mask Based Laser Materials Processing with TEA-CO2 - and Excimer Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove


    In general, mask based laser materials processing techniques suffer from a very low energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device called an energy enhancer, which is capable of increasing the energy efficiency of typical mask based laser materials processing systems. A short review of the ...... line marking with TEA-CO2 laser of high speed canning lines. The second one is manufactured for marking or microdrilling with excimer laser.......In general, mask based laser materials processing techniques suffer from a very low energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device called an energy enhancer, which is capable of increasing the energy efficiency of typical mask based laser materials processing systems. A short review...... of the most widely used applications of these systems is given and the potential advantages of the energy enhancer are discussed.The basic principle behind the energy enhancing technique is explained and two new energy enhancers are presented and evaluated. The first one is designed especially for single text...

  9. Processing of bioglass coatings by excimer laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, J.; Gonzalez, P.; Chiussi, S.; Leon, B.; Perez-Amor, M. [Vigo Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada


    Bioglass (BG) coatings have been prepared in different N{sub 2}O atmospheres by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using a BG target and an ArF laser. Changes in composition and refractive index were observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and single-wavelength ellipsometry. Film thicknesses were measured by profilometry and surface morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It has been shown that target composition is transferred to the substrate and that films properties can be modified using different N{sub 2}O atmospheres during the growth process. We observed also a gradual variation of the film refractive index with increasing N{sub 2}O pressures and FTIR spectra reveal that the formation of non-bridging oxygen bonds in the coatings can be controlled. It is well-known, that these bond units determine the formation of apatite on the surfaces of bioactive glass coatings (BGCs) after being soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF), which is an essential characteristic of biocompatibility. (orig.)

  10. Excimer-laser-based multifunctional patterning systems for optoelectronics, MEMS, materials processing, and biotechnology (United States)

    Jain, Kanti


    Over the past few years, there has been an increasing impact of microelectronics fabrication technologies on the realization of structures and spatial patterns necessary for advances in optoelectronics, MEMS, materials processing, and biotechnology. These fabrication technologies accelerate the pace of research by enabling the micro-manipulation and patterning of a variety of organic, inorganic, and biological materials (including new polymers, compound semiconductors, DNA, proteins, and others), developing new synthesis techniques, and producing structures and devices previously not deemed possible. In order to facilitate the exploration of these fields, it is desirable to develop processing techniques and cost-effective, multifunctional systems that can handle a wide variety of substrate materials and geometries, including non-planar surfaces. This paper describes recent advances made in excimer-laser-based patterning, photoablation, and photo-crystallization technologies, focusing on how these technologies address the unique requirements of applications for scientific research and for technology development.

  11. Excimer laser drilling of polymers (United States)

    Chen, Yihong; Zheng, HongYu; Wong, Terence K. S.; Tam, Siu Chung


    Laser micro-drilling technology plays a more and more important role in industry, especially in the fabrication of multi-layer electronic packages. In such applications, non- metals are often used as insulators, in which via holes are formed to provide vertical interconnections for densely packed 3D wiring networks. Mechanical punch tools have been the primary means to form holes in ceramic sheets and in polymer boards since the 1970's. As the cost of fabricating punch heads increases drastically and the demand for quick turn around part build becomes more routine, flexible via forming technologies, such as laser drilling, have become more prevalent. In laser drilling, CO2, Nd:YAG, and excimer lasers are often used. Their drilling capabilities, drilling mechanisms, and hole qualities are different because of the different laser beam characteristics such as wavelength and beam energy distribution. In this paper, the mechanisms of laser drilling are briefly reviewed. The results of the experiments on excimer laser drilling of two types of polymer: polyimide and polyethylene terephthalate, are reported. It is found that the etch rate increases with increase of fluence, an the wall angle of drilled holes is dependent on the fluence. The material removal by a laser pulse is highly controllable. There exists an optimal fluence range to obtain clean and smooth edges of quality holes for a given material at a given laser wavelength.

  12. (308 nm) excimer laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The UV lasers with high quantum energy photons directly break the atomic and molecular bonds within material. The photons in this spectral range are also capable of inducing photo- chemical reactions. Most solid materials have high absorption in the UV. The short pulses result in reducing interaction time between laser ...

  13. Excimer laser etching of polyimide (United States)

    Brannon, J. H.; Lankard, J. R.; Baise, A. I.; Burns, F.; Kaufman, J.


    It is reported that thin films of polyimide are efficiently etched in air at pulsed excimer laser wavelengths of 248, 308, and 351 nm. Etch rate versus incident fluence data are found to obey a Beer-Lambert etching relation. Sharp laser fluence thresholds for significant etching are found to correlate with the wavelength-dependent absorption coefficient. The absorbed energy density required to initiate significant etching is found, within experimental error, to be independent of the wavelengths examined. It is felt that this information demonstrates the predominantly thermal nature of the laser etching mechanism. Additionally, infrared spectroscopy and coupled gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy were used to identify several gases evolved during pulsed laser etching of polyimide in both air and vacuum.

  14. Applications of the Excimer Laser: A Review. (United States)

    Beggs, Sarah; Short, Jack; Rengifo-Pardo, Monica; Ehrlich, Alison


    The 308-nm excimer laser has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of psoriasis and vitiligo. Its ability to treat localized areas has led to many studies determining its potential in the treatment of focal diseases with inflammation or hypopigmentation. To review the different applications of the 308-nm excimer laser for treating dermatologic conditions. An extensive literature review was conducted by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, and ClinicalKey to find articles pertaining to dermatologic conditions treated with the 308-nm excimer laser. Articles published that contributed to new applications of the excimer laser were included, as well as initial studies utilizing the excimer laser. The outcomes and results were compiled for different dermatologic conditions treated with the excimer laser. The 308-nm excimer laser has a wide range of uses for focal inflammatory and hypopigmented conditions. Treatment is generally well tolerated, with few adverse reactions. Larger studies and studies evaluating the long-term effects of the 308-nm excimer laser are needed.

  15. Investigation of excimer laser ablation of iron (United States)

    Jordan, R.; Lunney, J. G.


    The excimer ablation of iron at 248 nm has been investigated by measuring the ablation depth and average ion energy as a function of laser fluence. Measurements have also been made of the laser transmission through the ablated vapour above the target. The absolute spectral intensity of the emission from the ablation plasma has been measured in both the vacuum ultraviolet and the visible. All results were compared with a simple numerical model describing the main physical processes involved in laser ablation of metal targets.

  16. Excimer laser irradiation of metal surfaces (United States)

    Kinsman, Grant

    In this work a new method of enhancing CO2 laser processing by modifying the radiative properties of a metal surface is studied. In this procedure, an excimer laser (XeCl) or KrF) exposes the metal surface to overlapping pulses of high intensity, 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) W cm(exp -2), and short pulse duration, 30 nsec FWHM (Full Width Half Maximum), to promote structural and chemical change. The major processing effect at these intensities is the production of a surface plasma which can lead to the formation of a laser supported detonation wave (LSD wave). This shock wave can interact with the thin molten layer on the metal surface influencing to a varying degree surface oxidation and roughness features. The possibility of the expulsion, oxidation and redeposition of molten droplets, leading to the formation of micron thick oxide layers, is related to bulk metal properties and the incident laser intensity. A correlation is found between the expulsion of molten droplets and a Reynolds number, showing the interaction is turbulent. The permanent effects of these interactions on metal surfaces are observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transient calorimetric measurements and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Observed surface textures are related to the scanning procedures used to irradiate the metal surface. Fundamental radiative properties of a metal surface, the total hemispherical emissivity, the near-normal spectral absorptivity, and others are examined in this study as they are affected by excimer laser radiation. It is determined that for heavily exposed Al surface, alpha' (10.6 microns) can be increased to values close to unity. Data relating to material removal rates and chemical surface modification for excimer laser radiation is also discussed. The resultant reduction in the near-normal reflectivity solves the fundamental problem of coupling laser radiation into highly reflective and conductive metals such as copper and aluminum. The

  17. Mitomicina C e "Excimer laser" Mitomycin C and Excimer Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Dutra Wallau


    Full Text Available A mitomicina C é um antimetabólito que atua em nível celular bloqueando a replicação de DNA e RNA e inibindo a síntese protéica. Utilizada em diversas áreas da oftalmologia, recentemente vem sendo empregada como moduladora da resposta cicatricial corneana em cirurgias ópticas/refrativas por "excimer laser". A aplicação única de mitomicina C associada à cirurgia fotoablativa de superfície corneana tem se mostrado opção segura e eficiente para fins terapêuticos em olhos com opacidade corneana pré-existente e/ou profiláticos em olhos com alto risco de desenvolvimento de opacificação corneana pós-operatória. O uso da droga em cirurgia fotoablativa deve ser cauteloso até que seguimento de longo prazo avalie sua inocuidade tardia. O presente texto faz revisão dos principais estudos sobre modulação da resposta cicatricial corneana com uso de mitomicina C em cirurgias ópticas/refrativas de superfície.Mitomycin C is an antimetabolite agent that blocks DNA and RNA replication and protein synthesis. It has been used in several ophthalmologic areas, and recently as a modulator of corneal wound healing in excimer laser surgeries. A single application of mitomycin C during surface corneal photoablative surgery seems a safe and efficient therapeutic option for eyes with corneal opacity and/or as prophylaxis in eyes with high risk for corneal opacity development. The use of this drug in photoablative surgery should be cautious until long-term safety results have been reported. The present text presents a review about corneal wound healing with the use of mitomycin C.

  18. Determination of the melting threshold of TiO{sub 2} thin films processed by excimer laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Overschelde, O. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface, Universite de Mons, 23, Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Delsate, T. [Service de Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite de Mons, 6 Avenue du champ de Mars, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Snyders, R. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface, Universite de Mons, 23, Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Materia Nova Research Center, 1 Avenue Copernic, 7000 Mons (Belgium)


    Processing surfaces by laser needs an understanding of the mechanisms generated by irradiation. In this work, to gain understanding of the mechanisms occurring during irradiation of TiO{sub 2} thin films by means of KrF excimer laser, we have performed infrared time resolved reflectivity measurements. This experimental investigation revealed modifications of the heating/cooling cycle as a function of the fluence (F). These modifications start appearing for a fluence value of about {approx}0.25 J/cm{sup 2} which is associated with the melting threshold of the film. Additionally, we have solved numerically the heat equation of the system with specific boundary conditions. From these calculations, we have established the thermal history of the film during the 25 ns irradiation pulse. The data reveal that a part of the medium liquefies around a fluence of 0.23 J/cm{sup 2} in good agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Species-resolved laser-probing investigations of the hydrodynamics of KrF excimer and copper vapor laser ablation processing of materials (United States)

    Ventzek, Peter L. G.; Gilgenbach, Ronald M.; Ching, Chi H.; Lindley, R. A.


    Hydrodynamic phenomena from KrF excimer laser ablation (10-3-20 J/cm2) of polyimide, polyethyleneterephthalate, and aluminum are diagnosed by laser beam deflection, schlieren photography, shadowgraphy, laser-induced-fluorescence and dye-laser- resonance absorption photography (DLRAP). Experiments were performed in vacuum and gaseous environments (10-5 to 760 Torr). In vacuum, the DLRAP diagnostic shows species-resolved plume expansion which is consistent with that of a reflected rarefaction wave. Increasing the background gas pressure reveals the formation of sound/shock compared to CN in the laser-ablated polyimide (Vespel) plume/shock in inert (e.g. argon) and reactive (e.g. air) gases. At low pressures (less than 10 Torr) Al and CN species are in close contact with the shock front. As the pressure increases, the species front tends to recede, until at high pressures (over 200 Torr) the species are restrained to only a few mm above the target surface. After sufficient expansion, Al and CN are no longer detectable; only the shadowgraph of the hot gas plume remains. Since CN is observable in both inert and reactive environments, it can be concluded that CN is not a reaction product between the background gas and the ablated species. By way of comparison to excimer laser ablation processing of materials, copper vapor laser machined polyimide and polymethylmethacrylate (transparent to green and yellow copper vapor laser light) are also investigated. The two polymers are observed to have markedly different machined surfaces. Hydrodynamic effects for the copper vapor laser machined materials are investigated using HeNe laser beam deflection.

  20. Excimer laser interaction with dentin of the human tooth (United States)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Gilliam, Ruth L.; Baker, George R.


    The use an excimer laser produced many unusual conical structures within the dentin of the inner part of the human tooth. By varying the frequency of the laser one can disperse the energy and cause more bleeding in laser surgery, but not destroy the cells associated with the incision. Therefore, the healing process will virtually be without scarring. Whereas, using the infrared laser the blood loss would be less, but the healing process would tend to be longer because cells are being destroyed due to the cauterization effect of the laser. The question is, are these structures produced as an interaction with the laser or are they an intrinsic part of the structure. The effects of the laser interaction upon dentin was studied, and in using electron microscopy the interaction of the excimer laser upon the tooth dentin and other various biological tissue is more clearly understood.

  1. 308-nm excimer laser in endodontics (United States)

    Liesenhoff, Tim


    Root canal preparation was performed on 20 extracted human teeth. After opening the coronal pulp, the root canals were prepared by 308 nm excimer laser only. All root canals were investigated under SEM after separation in the axial direction. By sagittal separation of the mandibles of freshly slaughtered cows, it was possible to get access to the tissues and irradiate under optical control. Under irradiation of excimer laser light, tissue starts to fluoresce. It was possible to demonstrate that each tissue (dentin, enamel, bone, pulpal, and connective tissue) has a characteristic spectral pattern. The SEM analyses showed that it is well possible to prepare root canals safely. All organic soft tissue has been removed by excimer laser irradiation. There was no case of via falsa. The simultaneous spectroscopic identification of the irradiated tissue provides a safe protection from overinstrumentation. First clinical trials on 20 patients suffering of chronical apical parodontitis have been carried out successfully.

  2. Corrosion resistance improvement of metals by excimer laser surface treatment (United States)

    Autric, Michel L.; Perrais, Jacqueline; Barreau, Gerard


    KrF excimer laser has been used for physical and chemical transformations of metallic materials and coated metal samples. Aluminum alloys, steels and chromium coated mild steel have been treated under excimer laser radiation in order to improve their mechanical properties and their corrosion and oxidation resistance. The laser surface treatment leads, after surface remelting process, to important changes in the topography, the microstructure, the phases and the chemical composition of the near-surface region resulting in different hardness, wear properties and corrosion/oxidation behavior. We focus this paper on aluminum alloys (2000 and 6000 type) and steels irradiated using a krypton fluoride laser (20 ns, 0.5 - 10 J/cm2, up to 200 Hz) in laboratory air. The analysis were carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, coupled and low incidence angle X-ray diffraction, microhardness tester and electrochemical test equipments.

  3. Ignition by excimer laser photolysis of ozone (United States)

    Lucas, D.; Dunn-Rankin, D.; Hom, K.; Brown, N. J.


    We have ignited mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and ozone in closed cells with 248 nm radiation from a KrF excimer laser. Ozone, the only significant absorber in this system, absorbs a single photon and produces oxygen atoms which initiate combustion. A discretized, time-dependent Beer's law model is used to demonstrate that the radical concentration immediately after photolysis is a function of laser power, ozone concentration, focal length, and separation between the lens and reaction cell. Spark schileren photographs are used to visualize the ignition events and identify the ignition sites. The effects of equivalence ratio, pressure, and the initial gas temperature on the minimum ozone concentration needed to produce ignition are presented, and only the initial temperature has a significant effect. Modelling studies of the ignition process aid in the interpretation of the experimental results, and show that the ignition we observe is not due solely to thermal effects, but is strongly dependent on the number and type of radicals present initially after photolysis. Ignition using other hydrocarbons as fuels was also demonstrated.

  4. Impacts of excimer laser annealing on Ge epilayer on Si (United States)

    Huang, Zhiwei; Mao, Yichen; Yi, Xiaohui; Lin, Guangyang; Li, Cheng; Chen, Songyan; Huang, Wei; Wang, Jianyuan


    The impacts of excimer laser annealing on the crystallinity of Ge epilayers on Si substrate grown by low- and high-temperature two-step approach in an ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition system were investigated. The samples were treated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) at various laser power densities with the temperature above the melting point of Ge, while below that of Si, resulting in effective reduction of point defects and dislocations in the Ge layer with smooth surface. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of X-ray diffraction patterns of the low-temperature Ge epilayer decreases with the increase in laser power density, indicating the crystalline improvement and negligible effect of Ge-Si intermixing during ELA processes. The short laser pulse time and large cooling rate cause quick melting and recrystallization of Ge epilayer on Si in the non-thermal equilibrium process, rendering tensile strain in Ge epilayer as calculated quantitatively with thermal mismatch between Si and Ge. The FWHM of X-ray diffraction patterns is significantly reduced for the two-step grown samples after treated by a combination of ELA and conventional furnace thermal annealing, indicating that the crystalline of Ge epilayer is improved more effectively with pre- annealing by excimer laser.

  5. Laser drilling of metals with a XeCl excimer laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonderbeek, A.


    This thesis is about laser drilling with a unique excimer laser with a nearly diffraction-limited beam and relatively long optical pulse duration of 175 ns. The combination of high processing speed and high processing quality suitable for industrial applications can be obtained because the excellent

  6. Subpicosecond, high-brightness excimer laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.J.; Gosnell, T.R.; Roberts, J.P.; Lester, C.S.; Gibson, R.B.; Harper, S.E.; Tallman, C.R.


    Subpicosecond, high-brightness excimer laser systems are being used to explore the interaction of intense coherent ultraviolet radiation with matter. Applications of current systems include generation of picosecond x-ray pulses, investigation of possible x-ray laser pumping schemes, studies of multiphoton phenomena in atomic species, and time-resolved photochemistry. These systems, based on the amplification of subpicosecond pulses in small aperture (/approximately/1 cm/sup 2/) XeCl or KrF amplifiers, deliver focal spot intensities of /approximately/10/sup 17/ W/cm/sup 2/. Scaling to higher intensities, however, will require an additional large aperture amplifier which preserves near-diffraction-limited beam quality and subpicosecond pulse duration. We describe here both a small aperture KrF system which routinely provides intensities >10/sup 17/ W/cm/sup 2/ to several experiments, and a large aperture XeCl system designed to deliver /approximately/1 J subpicosecond pulses and yield intensities on target in excess of 10/sup 19/W/cm/sup 2/. We also discuss the effects of two-photon absorption on large-aperture, high-brightness excimer lasers. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Electrodeless excimer laser; Laser a eccimeri senza elettrodi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisi, N. [ENEA, Divisione Nuovi Materiali, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)


    In this paper it is proposed how to build an excimer laser based on an electrodeless discharge (or Dielectric Barrier Discharge). Such laser could operate with a low energy per pulse (<100 mJ) and a high repetition rate (<100 kHz). The most relevant advantage an electrodeless DBD laser is the much longer gas mixture lifetime. This feature could allow the operation of a sealed laser emitting higher average power with respect to commercially available excimer lasers. Such discharge scheme could be advantageous in order to excite the F{sub 2} excimer molecule, whose emission wavelength in the VUV range (157 nm) at high reprate is particularly interesting in the micro-lithography field. [Italian] In questo documento viene proposto come costruire un laser a eccimeri basato su una scarica priva di elettrodi, o Dielectric Barrier Discharge. Tale laser puo' funzionare con una bassa energia per impulso (<100 mJ) ad alta frequenza di ripetizione (<100 kHz). Il vantaggio fondamentale di un laser a DBD e quindi privo di elettrodi e' la vita media della miscela gassosa molto piu' alta che potrebbe permettere alla camera laser di operare sigillata ad una potenza media superiore a quella dei laser a eccimeri attuali. Tale schema di pompaggio potrebbe essere particolarmente vantaggioso per eccitare la molecola eccimero F{sub 2} la cui lunghezza di emissione nel VUV (157 nm) ad elevata frequenza di ripetizione presenta un notevole interesse nel campo della produzione di microcircuiti.

  8. Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy for keratoconus nodules. (United States)

    Elsahn, Ahmed F; Rapuano, Christopher J; Antunes, Victor A; Abdalla, Yasmine F; Cohen, Elisabeth J


    To report the outcomes of contact lens-intolerant patients with keratoconus (KCN) with subepithelial nodules treated with excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK). The charts of all contact lens-intolerant patients with KCN who underwent excimer laser PTK for subepithelial nodules were identified using a computer database and were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative visual acuity and method of correction, surgical treatment, epithelial healing, complications, and KCN nodule recurrence were all analyzed. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients with a minimum follow-up of 3 months were reviewed. Mean follow-up time was 23.1 months (SD +/- 42.5 months, range 3-143 months). In 9 eyes, the epithelial defect healed by postoperative day 3 and all eyes healed by postoperative day 6. There was no infection or corneal melting in any of the eyes. After PTK, 11 patients were refit successfully with rigid gas-permeable contact lenses and 4 wore glasses. Three patients had a recurrence of the KCN nodule at 3, 8, and 23 months postoperatively. One of them had a repeat PTK 23 months after the initial surgery, improving to 20/40 with contact lenses at 55 months postoperatively. Another patient decided to have a penetrating keratoplasty, and the third patient is considering repeat PTK or penetrating keratoplasty. PTK effectively removed KCN nodules without recurrences in most patients and can be a successful modality to improve contact lens tolerance and delay or avoid more invasive surgery.

  9. Study on the excimer laser annealed amorphous hydrogenated silicon carbon films deposited by PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosone, G. [CNR-INFM CRS-Coherentia, Complesso Universitario MSA, Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario MSA, Napoli (Italy); Basa, D.K. [Utkal University, Bhubaneswar (India); Coscia, U. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario MSA, Napoli (Italy); CNISM Unita' di Napoli, Complesso Universitario MSA, Napoli (Italy); Tresso, E.; Celasco, E. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali ed Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Chiodoni, A. [Materials and Microsystems Laboratory, chi-LAB, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Pinto, N.; Murri, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Camerino (Italy)


    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbon films of different carbon content were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition at low substrate temperature (200 C) and were subjected to excimer laser annealing. X-ray diffraction spectra and field emission scanning electron microscopy images demonstrate that carbon content plays an important role in facilitating the crystallization process induced by the excimer laser treatment (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Excimer Lasers With Capacitively Excited Tubular Discharges (United States)

    Eichler, Hans J.; Herweg, Helmut; de la Rosa, Jose


    The excitation of excimer lasers in tubular discharges results in simple and compact devices needing no preionization. Optical output energies are in the millijoule range. We investigated XeF, KrF and ArF lasers for various operating conditions. The lasers consist of capillary glass tubes with two internal electrodes at the ends and an aluminium-foil wrapped around the tube as capacitive electrode. A maximum output energy of 0.3 mJ has been achieved for the XeF laser. The good quality of the discharge is indicated by the observation of spontaneous mode locking. The detailed study of the discharge for different polarities of the electrodes has shown that efficient operation with a high gas lifetime can be obtained by a purely capacitively excited discharge. A gas lifetime of about 10,000 pulses for 3 litres gas mixture has been observed. Using a two stage Marx generator to generate 100 kV excitation voltage a maximum output energy of 0.7 mJ was obtained for a gas mixture of Kr, F2 and He with an efficiency of 0.17%. The KrF laser operates also without the buffer gas. Laser action in ArF has been achieved with 15 μJ pulse energy and 10 ns duration.

  11. Low threshold buried-heterostructure quantum well lasers by excimer laser assisted disordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epler, J.E.; Thornton, R.L.; Mosby, W.J.; Paoli, T.L.


    Laser assisted disordering based upon a direct-write Ar/sup +/ laser beam has been established as a fabrication technique for high quality optoelectronic devices. In this letter, we report a new form of laser assisted disordering in which an excimer laser beam, photolithographically patterned, is used to define the incorporation of Si impurity into GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure crystals. During a subsequent thermal anneal the diffusing Si induces layer disordering to a depth of approx.1 The excimer laser assisted disordering process is characterized as a function of the energy density of the laser beam. Also, this technique is used to fabricate high quality buried-heterostructure lasers. With a reflective rear facet, the typical cw threshold current is 4 mA and the maximum power output is 27 mW. The devices exhibit single fundamental mode operation with subsidiary longitudinal side modes suppressed by 34 dB.

  12. [Glycosaminoglycans in subepithelial opacity after excimer laser keratectomy]. (United States)

    Nakayasu, K; Gotoh, T; Ishikawa, T; Kanai, A


    We evaluated histochemically the characteristics of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the corneal subepithelial opacity after excimer laser keratectomy on rabbit corneas. We also performed the same evaluations on the cornea after mechanical keratectomy. Twenty days after the operations, the area immediately subjacent to the epithelium showed strong staining with toluidine blue, alcian blue, and colloidal iron. However, after treatment with chondroitinase ABC or chondroitinase AC, alcian blue staining in this area decreased dramatically. Antilarge proteoglycan antibody also reacted strongly in this area. Histochemical and immunohistochemical examination of the cornea where mechanical keratectomy was done showed basically similar findings with the cornea of excimer laser keratectomy. These results suggest that large-molecula proteoglycans with chondroitine sulfate side chains become localized in the subepithelial area after two different kinds of keratectomies. We presume from histochemical and immunohistochemical observations that the subepithelial opacity observed after excimer laser keratectomy is not a special reaction to excimer laser but simply a corneal scar formed after stromal resection.

  13. Excimer laser cleaning of mud stained paper and parchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte, J. P.


    Full Text Available The main advantage of excimer lasers when processing materials, its the emission of a radiation with wavelength in the ultraviolet region. This characteristic allows an extremely accurate and very well defined shape of material removal as well as total absence of heat affected zone and alterations in the material structure. In excimer laser paper and parchment cleaning, the mud is removed by breaking the physicalchemical bonding between this last one and the material to be cleaned not affecting neither its structure nor the chromatic pigment existing in some samples.

    A principal vantagem dos lasers de excímeros, no processamento de materiais, é a emissão de um feixe luminoso com comprimento de onda compreendido na região do ultravioleta, permitindo urna remoçao do material com precisão muito elevada e excelente definição de bordos, ausência de zona térmicamente afectada e ausência de alterações da estrutura. Na limpeza dos papéis e pergaminhos a lama é removida por quebra das ligações fisico-químicas entre a lama e o papel não se afectando a estrutura deste, assim como não se afectaram os pigmentos cromáticos existentes em algumas amostras.

  14. The Excimer Laser: Its Impact on Science and Industry (United States)

    Basting, Dirk


    After the laser was demonstrated in 1960, 15 years were required to develop a practical method for extending laser emission into the UV: the Excimer laser. This historical review will describe the challenges with the new medium and provide an insight into the technological achievements. In the transition from Science to Industry it will be shown how start-ups successfully commercialized laboratory prototypes. The pioneers in this rapidly expanding field will be identified and the influence of government-funded research as well as the role of venture capital will be discussed. In scientific applications, the fields of photochemistry and material research were particularly stimulated by the advent of a reliable UV light source. Numerous industrial applications and worldwide research in novel applications were fueled In the early and mid 80's by progress in excimer laser performance and technology. The discovery of ablative photocomposition of polymer materials by Srinivasan at IBM opened the door to a multitude of important excimer applications. Micromachining with extreme precision with an excimer laser enabled the success of the inkjet printer business. Biological materials such as the human cornea can also be ``machined'' at 193nm, as proposed in 1983 by Trokel and Srinivasan. This provided the foundation of a new medical technology and an industry relying on the excimer laser to perform refractive surgery to correct vision Today, by far the largest use of the excimer laser is in photolithography to manufacture semiconductor chips, an application discovered by Jain at IBM in the early 80's. Moore's law of shrinking the size of the structure to multiply the number of transistors on a chip could not have held true for so long without the deep UV excimer laser as a light source. The presentation will conclude with comments on the most recent applications and latest market trends.

  15. A comparison of the characteristics of excimer and femtosecond laser ablation of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Tian Long, E-mail: [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The Mill, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Liu, Zhu [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The Mill, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Li, Lin [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Zhong, Xiang Li [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The Mill, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Ablation threshold for excimer laser is lower compared to femtosecond laser. • Effective optical penetration depth for excimer laser is lower compared to femtosecond laser. • Two ablation characteristic regimes are observed for femtosecond laser ablation. • Reduction of C=C bond following excimer or fs laser ablation is observed. • Addition of oxygen- and nitrogen-rich functional groups is observed. - Abstract: This paper presents an investigation on the ablation characteristics of excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, τ = 15 ns) and femtosecond laser (λ = 800 nm, τ = 100 fs) on ABS polymer sheets. The laser–material interaction parameters (ablation threshold, optical penetration depth and incubation factor) and the changes in material chemical properties were evaluated and compared between the two lasers. The work shows that the ablation threshold and effective optical penetration depth values are dependent on the wavelength of laser beam (photon energy) and the pulse width. The ablation threshold value is lower for the excimer laser ablation of ABS (F{sub th} = 0.087 J/cm{sup 2}) than that for the femtosecond laser ablation of ABS (F{sub th} = 1.576 J/cm{sup 2}), demonstrating a more dominating role of laser wavelength than the pulse width in influencing the ablation threshold. The ablation depth versus the logarithmic scale of laser fluence shows two linear regions for the fs laser ablation, not previously known for polymers. The effective optical penetration depth value is lower for excimer laser ablation (α{sup −1} = 223 nm) than that for femtosecond laser ablation (α{sup −1} = 2917 nm). The ablation threshold decreases with increasing number of pulses (NOP) due to the chain scission process that shortens the polymeric chains, resulting in a weaker polymeric configuration and the dependency is governed by the incubation factor. Excimer laser treatment of ABS eliminates the C=C bond completely through the chain scission process whereas

  16. Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic pulse compression suitable for material processing applications are presented here. The laser incorporates in-built compact gas circulation and gas cooling to ensure fresh gas mixture between the electrodes for repetitive operation.

  17. Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 10, 2017 ... Abstract. Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic pulse compres- sion suitable for material processing applications are presented here. The laser incorporates in-built compact gas circulation and gas cooling to ensure fresh gas mixture between the electrodes for ...

  18. Comparative shock wave analysis during corneal ablation with an excimer laser, picosecond laser, and femtosecond laser (United States)

    Krueger, Ronald R.; Juhasz, Tibor


    With the event of topographic steep central islands following excimer laser surgery and the potential damage to the corneal endothelium, shock waves are playing an increasingly important role in laser refractive surgery. With this in mind, we performed a comparative shock wave analysis in corneal tissue using an excimer laser, picosecond laser, and femtosecond laser. We used a Lambda Physik excimer laser at 308 nm wavelength, a Nd:YLF picosecond laser at 1053 nm wavelength and a synchronously pumped linear cavity femtosecond laser at 630 nm wavelength. The pulse widths of the corresponding lasers were 8 ns, 18 ps, 150 fs, respectively. The energy density of irradiation was 2.5 to 8 times the threshold level being 2 J/cm2 (excimer laser), 86 J/cm2 (picosecond laser) and 10.3 J/cm2 (femtosecond laser). Shock wave dynamics were analyzed using time-resolved photography on a nanosecond time scale using the picosecond laser in corneal tissue, water and air. Shock wave dynamics using the femtosecond laser were studied in water only while the excimer laser induced shock wave during corneal ablation was studied in air only. We found the dynamics of shock waves to be similar in water and corneal tissue indicating that water is a good model to investigate shock wave effects in the cornea. The magnitude of the shock wave velocity and pressure decays over time to that of a sound wave. The distance over which it decays is 3 mm in air with the excimer laser and 600 - 700 micrometers in air with the picosecond laser. In water, the picosecond laser shock wave decays over a distance of 150 micrometers compared to the femtosecond laser shock wave which decays over a distance of 30 micrometers . Overall the excimer laser shock wave propagates 5 times further than that of the picosecond laser and the picosecond laser shock wave propagates 5 times further than that of the femtosecond laser. In this preliminary comparison, the time and distance for shock wave decay appears to be directly

  19. Overview on the high power excimer laser technology (United States)

    Liu, Jingru


    High power excimer laser has essential applications in the fields of high energy density physics, inertial fusion energy and industry owing to its advantages such as short wavelength, high gain, wide bandwidth, energy scalable and repetition operating ability. This overview is aimed at an introduction and evaluation of enormous endeavor of the international high power excimer laser community in the last 30 years. The main technologies of high power excimer laser are reviewed, which include the pumping source technology, angular multiplexing and pulse compressing, beam-smoothing and homogenous irradiation, high efficiency and repetitive operation et al. A high power XeCl laser system developed in NINT of China is described in detail.

  20. New Class of Excimer-Pumped Atomic Lasers (XPALS) (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0019 New Class of Excimer-Pumped Atomic Lasers (XPALS) James Eden UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS CHAMPAIGN 506 S WRIGHT ST 364 HENRY...TITLE AND SUBTITLE New Class of Excimer-Pumped Atomic Lasers (XPALS) 5a. CONIKA\\.INUMBER FA9550-13- 1-0006 5b.GRANT NUMBER Sc. f’ftOGRAM ELEMENT...cxcitcd state-excited state reaction rates. We ore pleased to report that the main goal orthis program, the viability of nn atomic laser having a

  1. Low temperature sputter-deposited ZnO films with enhanced Hall mobility using excimer laser post-processing (United States)

    Tsakonas, C.; Kuznetsov, V. L.; Cranton, W. M.; Kalfagiannis, N.; Abusabee, K. M.; Koutsogeorgis, D. C.; Abeywickrama, N.; Edwards, P. P.


    We report the low temperature (T  ZnO thin films (~140 nm) with Hall mobility of up to 17.3 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 making them suitable for thin film transistor (TFT) applications. The films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering at T  V‑1 s‑1 at a carrier density of 2.3  ×  1018 cm‑3 was measured from a 1 GΩ as deposited and aged film after the laser treatment. We suggest that the aging of non-processed films reduces structural defects mainly at grain boundaries by air species chemisorption, with concomitant increase in thermal conductivity so that laser processing can have an enhancing effect. Such a processing combination can act synergistically and produce suitable active layers for TFT applications with low temperature processing requirements.

  2. High efficiency metal marking with CO2 laser and glass marking with excimer laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove


    with a thoroughly tested ray-tracing model is presented and compared with experimental results. Special emphasis is put on two different applications namely marking in metal with TEA-CO2 laser and marking in glass with excimer laser. The results are evaluated on the basis of the achievable energy enhancement......Today, mask based laser materials processing and especially marking is widely used. However, the energy efficiency in such processes is very low [1].This paper gives a review of the results, that may be obtained using the energy enhancing technique [1]. Results of simulations performed...

  3. Excimer laser ablation of polyimide: a 14-year IBM perspective (United States)

    Brannon, James H.; Wassick, Thomas A.


    IBM introduced the first commercial high-end mainframe computer system incorporating laser ablation technology in 1991. This milestone was the culmination of nearly a decade of scientific, engineering, and manufacturing effort. Extensive research and development on 308 nm laser ablation of polyimide lead to the first IBM prototype ablation tool in 1987 for the production of via-holes in thin film packaging structures. This prototype, similar to step and repeat photolithography systems, evolved into full-scale manufacturing tools which utilize sophisticated beam shaping, beam homogenizing, and projection optics. But the maturity of this technology belies the fact that the scientific understanding of the laser ablation process is still far from complete. This paper briefly reviews the engineering and scientific accomplishments, both within and external to IBM, that lead to the commercial utilization of the laser ablation process. Current technical tissues are discussed, in addition to alternative IBM applications of polyimide ablation. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of excimer vs. solid-state lasers, and how each may impact future manufacturing technology.

  4. A comparison of the characteristics of excimer and femtosecond laser ablation of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) (United States)

    See, Tian Long; Liu, Zhu; Li, Lin; Zhong, Xiang Li


    This paper presents an investigation on the ablation characteristics of excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, τ = 15 ns) and femtosecond laser (λ = 800 nm, τ = 100 fs) on ABS polymer sheets. The laser-material interaction parameters (ablation threshold, optical penetration depth and incubation factor) and the changes in material chemical properties were evaluated and compared between the two lasers. The work shows that the ablation threshold and effective optical penetration depth values are dependent on the wavelength of laser beam (photon energy) and the pulse width. The ablation threshold value is lower for the excimer laser ablation of ABS (Fth = 0.087 J/cm2) than that for the femtosecond laser ablation of ABS (Fth = 1.576 J/cm2), demonstrating a more dominating role of laser wavelength than the pulse width in influencing the ablation threshold. The ablation depth versus the logarithmic scale of laser fluence shows two linear regions for the fs laser ablation, not previously known for polymers. The effective optical penetration depth value is lower for excimer laser ablation (α-1 = 223 nm) than that for femtosecond laser ablation (α-1 = 2917 nm). The ablation threshold decreases with increasing number of pulses (NOP) due to the chain scission process that shortens the polymeric chains, resulting in a weaker polymeric configuration and the dependency is governed by the incubation factor. Excimer laser treatment of ABS eliminates the Cdbnd C bond completely through the chain scission process whereas Cdbnd C bond is partially eliminated through the femtosecond laser treatment due to the difference in photon energy of the two laser beams. A reduction in the Cdbnd C bond through the chain scission process creates free radical carbons which then form crosslinks with each other or react with oxygen, nitrogen and water in air producing oxygen-rich (Csbnd O and Cdbnd O bond) and nitrogen-rich (Csbnd N) functional groups.

  5. Topographic steep central islands following excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (United States)

    Krueger, Ronald R.; McDonnell, Peter J.


    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that topographic irregularities in the form of central islands of higher refractive power can be seen following excimer laser refractive surgery. We reviewed the computerized corneal topographic maps of 35 patients undergoing excimer laser PRK for compound myopic astigmatism or anisometropia from 8/91 to 8/93 at the USC/Doheny Eye Institute. The topographic maps were generated by the Computed Anatomy Corneal Modeling System, and central islands were defined as topographic areas of steepening of at least 3 diopters and 3 mm in diameter. A grading system was developed based on the presence of central islands during the postoperative period. Visually significant topographic steep central islands may be seen in over 50% of patients at 1 month following excimer laser PRK, and persist at 3 months in up to 24% of patients without nitrogen gas blowing. Loss of best corrected visual acuity or ghosting is associated with island formation, and may prolong visual rehabilitation after excimer laser PRK.

  6. Preionization and gain studies in fluorine based excimer laser gas discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarov, A.V.


    Fluorine-based excimer gas lasers are powerful sources of coherent radiation in the UV and VUV part of the electro-magnetic spectrum. Due to their short wavelengths and high output power they are widely employed in high resolution material processing like micromachining and in lithography. In this

  7. Refractive microlenses produced by excimer laser machining of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Frøhling; Krühne, Ulrich; H., L.


    A method has been developed whereby refractive microlenses can be produced in poly (methyl methacrylate) by excimer laser irradiation at λ = 248 nm. The lenses are formed by a combined photochemical and thermal process. The lenses are formed as depressions in the substrate material (negative foca...

  8. HSP47 expression in cornea after excimer laser photoablation. (United States)

    Kasagi, Yasuo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi


    The expression of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) was observed histologically to investigate the spatial and chronological effects of excimer laser photoablation. HSP47 expression after radial keratotomy (RK) was also investigated and compared with the effects after excimer laser photoablation. Twenty-eight male rabbits were used. The rabbits were divided with two groups and treated with either excimer laser photoablation or four radial incisions to simulate corneal refractive surgery. The chronological and spatial changes in the expression of HSP47 were observed immunohistochemically. In eyes that underwent excimer laser photoablation, HSP47 was detected in the basal layer of the epithelial cells and in the superficial stromal layer 3 days after surgery. After 5 and 7 days, HSP47 expression extended to the deep layer of the stroma and to the endothelial cells. After 14 days, HSP47 was detected only in the deep layer of the stroma and in the endothelial cells. After 28 days, HSP47 expression was reduced. In eyes that underwent RK, HSP47 was detected in the basal layer of the epithelial cells and in the stroma surrounding the wound 1 day after surgery. After 3 and 7 days, HSP47 expression did not expand further. After 28 days, HSP47 expression diminished. Excimer laser photoablation affects the whole layer of the cornea, and may be caused by the shock wave that occurs as a result of photoablation. In addition, interaction among the keratocytes may propagate the stress-induced response to the whole layer of the cornea. With RK, the wound is smaller and deeper. HSP47 expression occurs earlier, but is limited to the area surrounding the wound.

  9. Excimer laser assisted chemical machining of SiC ceramic (United States)

    Hibi, Yuko; Enomoto, Yuji; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Shikata, Nobuo; Ogiso, Hisato


    A highly effective method of machining ceramic has been newly developed using a krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser with a 248 nm wavelength. The laser was irradiated on SiC in water to form a soft hydrous oxide layer by photochemical reaction. The softened layer was then cut with a diamond tool to form a mirror surface finish. The optimum conditions were found for both high machining rate and better surface integrity of SiC.

  10. Lead extraction experience with high frequency excimer laser. (United States)

    Tanawuttiwat, Tanyanan; Gallego, Daniel; Carrillo, Roger G


    A higher frequency Excimer laser sheath using an 80-Hz pulse repetitive rate was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in April 2012. We reported our initial clinical experience with a high-frequency Excimer laser sheath and compared it with lower-frequency laser sheaths which have been previously used. In this single center, retrospective cohort study, we evaluated patients who underwent lead extraction from December 2008 to May 2013. Those who underwent lead removal without using a laser sheath or with approaches other than subclavian were excluded. Primary endpoints included total laser time, number of pulses, and complications. Data on clinical characteristics, lead type, indications, and outcomes were prospectively collected and analyzed. A total of 427 patients were included in the study (72.6% male; age 67.9 ± 15.23 years). Lower frequency and higher frequency laser sheaths were used in 315 and 112 patients, respectively. A total of 821 leads were removed with 765 leads (93.2%) extracted using the Excimer laser sheath. Lead age was 5.71 ± 4.96 years. Complete extraction was seen in all patients. A higher-frequency laser sheath was associated with a lower laser time and a lower total number of laser pulses even after adjustments for the number of leads, type of leads, and lead age. In the higher frequency group, mortality rate was 0.9% and minor complication rate was 3.6%. When compared with the lower-frequency laser sheath, the higher-frequency laser sheath requires less laser times and more efficient amount of pulses for lead extraction with comparable success rate. Due to the rarity of major and minor complications, no statistical significance was found between the two groups. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Microencapsulation of silicon cavities using a pulsed excimer laser

    KAUST Repository

    Sedky, Sherif M.


    This work presents a novel low thermal-budget technique for sealing micromachined cavities in silicon. Cavities are sealed without deposition, similar to the silicon surface-migration sealing process. In contrast to the 1100°C furnace anneal required for the migration process, the proposed technique uses short excimer laser pulses (24ns), focused onto an area of 23mm 2, to locally heat the top few microns of the substrate, while the bulk substrate remains near ambient temperature. The treatment can be applied to selected regions of the substrate, without the need for special surface treatments or a controlled environment. This work investigates the effect of varying the laser pulse energy from 400 mJ cm 2to 800 mJ cm 2, the pulse rate from 1Hz to 50Hz and the pulse count from 200 to 3000 pulses on sealing microfabricated cavities in silicon. An analytical model for the effect of holes on the surface temperature distribution is derived, which shows that much higher temperatures can be achieved by increasing the hole density. A mechanism for sealing the cavities is proposed, which indicates how complete sealing is feasible. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Preionization and gain studies in fluorine based excimer laser gas discharges


    Azarov, A.V.


    Fluorine-based excimer gas lasers are powerful sources of coherent radiation in the UV and VUV part of the electro-magnetic spectrum. Due to their short wavelengths and high output power they are widely employed in high resolution material processing like micromachining and in lithography. In this field pattern sizes several times shorter than the used wavelength can be achieved using an immersion technique. However due to the short duration of the laser pulse (typically of few tens of ns for...

  13. A design of energy detector for ArF excimer lasers (United States)

    Feng, Zebin; Han, Xiaoquan; Zhou, Yi; Bai, Lujun


    ArF excimer lasers with short wavelength and high photon energy are widely applied in the field of integrated circuit lithography, material processing, laser medicine, and so on. Excimer laser single pulse energy is a very important parameter in the application. In order to detect the single pulse energy on-line, one energy detector based on photodiode was designed. The signal processing circuit connected to the photodiode was designed so that the signal obtained by the photodiode was amplified and the pulse width was broadened. The amplified signal was acquired by a data acquisition card and stored in the computer for subsequent data processing. The peak of the pulse signal is used to characterize the single pulse energy of ArF excimer laser. In every condition of deferent pulse energy value levels, a series of data about laser pulses energy were acquired synchronously using the Ophir energy meter and the energy detector. A data set about the relationship between laser pulse energy and the peak of the pulse signal was acquired. Then, by using the data acquired, a model characterizing the functional relationship between the energy value and the peak value of the pulse was trained based on an algorithm of machine learning, Support Vector Regression (SVR). By using the model, the energy value can be obtained directly from the energy detector designed in this project. The result shows that the relative error between the energy obtained by the energy detector and by the Ophir energy meter is less than 2%.

  14. Triggering Excimer Lasers by Photoionization from Corona Discharges (United States)

    Xiong, Zhongmin; Duffey, Thomas; Brown, Daniel; Kushner, Mark


    High repetition rate ArF (192 nm) excimer lasers are used for photolithography sources in microelectronics fabrication. In highly attaching gas mixtures, preionization is critical to obtaining stable, reproducible glow discharges. Photoionization from a separate corona discharge is one technique for preionization which triggers the subsequent electron avalanche between the main electrodes. Photoionization triggering of an ArF excimer laser sustained in multi-atmosphere Ne/Ar/F2/Xe gas mixtures has been investigated using a 2-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics model including radiation transport. Continuity equations for charged and neutral species, and Poisson's equation are solved coincident with the electron temperature with transport coefficients obtained from solutions of Boltzmann's equation. Photoionizing radiation is produced by a surface discharge which propagates along a corona-bar located adjacent to the discharge electrodes. The consequences of pulse power waveform, corona bar location, capacitance and gas mixture on uniformity, symmetry and gain of the avalanche discharge will be discussed.

  15. Subjective results of excimer laser correction of myopia. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin


    Full Text Available In review presents data of various authors regarding the subjective results excimer laser correction of myopia by LASIK. It was revealed that a group of patients with a high degree of dissatisfaction amounts to 4.6% of the total in all studies. High subjective results are confirmed by the positive dynamics of the «quality of life» of the patient.

  16. Transformation of microcrystalline silicon films by excimer-laser-induced crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, I.-C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China); Lien, S.-Y. [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Rd., Taichung Taiwan 402, (China); Wuu, D.-S. [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Rd., Taichung Taiwan 402 (China)]. E-mail:


    We describe the excimer-laser-induced crystallization of microcrystalline silicon films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Microcrystalline silicon films containing 2 at.% hydrogen can be used as precursor films for the laser recrystallization process without a dehydrogenation step, and provide a wider laser energy fluence process window than the previous explosive recrystallization for low temperature polysilicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistor (TFT) fabrication. Ellipsometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to evaluate the laser irradiated films. Specially, we describe using atomic force microscopy to obtain plane-view grain microstructure images.

  17. Mechanism of injurious effect of excimer (308 nm) laser on the cell (United States)

    Nevorotin, Alexey J.; Kallikorm, A. P.; Zeltzer, Gregory L.; Kull, Mart M.; Mihkelsoo, Virgo T.


    A Lameta 22710 excimer laser operating at 70 mJ/mm2 per pulse, with pulse duration of 70 nsec, and pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz, equipped with a quartz filament as energy conductor was used to make incisions on rat liver. 2 to 5 sec after irradiation the specimens were fixed and further processed for electron microscopy and histochemical visualization of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker enzyme glucose-6- phosphatase at the ultrastructural level. The additional series were: fixation before irradiation-(A); lasing with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, continuous wave mode, 40 J/mm2)-(B); incision with a white-hot steel needle-(C); and incision with an Esto-Rex ultrasound scalpel (66 kHz, 6 Wt, vibration amplitude of 15 micrometers )-(D). The results showed that unlike Series C and B, in which high temperature caused severe damage to all cellular organellae, the excimer action was much more specific. It caused vesiculation of ER without significant injuries to other cellular structures. The analogous effect was noted after US scalpel cutting, thereby allowing a conclusion that a kind of dynamic rather than thermal factor is responsible for the observed phenomenon of vesiculation. The time schedule of vesicle formation and molecular background of membrane transformation is considered in the light of the data of Series A and D, and also on the basis of available information of membrane behavior. Photoablative effect of pulsed excimer laser is thought to be based on chemical decomposition of organic molecules and their ejection from the tissue to the action of high energy photons. Pressure waves (either acoustic or shock) are presumably generated powerful enough to cause tissue and cell damage beyond the site of ablation. Some thermal and fluorescence events are also implicative in biological targets irradiated with excimer lasers. In our previous studies electron histochemistry was employed for the analysis of cellular alterations caused with a continuous wave mode

  18. Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier (United States)

    Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun


    A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63μrad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75μm. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.

  19. Effects of excimer laser annealing on low-temperature solution based indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor fabrication


    Chen,Chao-Nan; Huang, Jung-Jie


    A Solution Based Indium-Zinc-Oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) with a field-effect mobility of 0.58 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage of 2.84 V by using pulse laser annealing processes. Indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) films with a low process temperature were deposited by sol-gel solution based method and KrF excimer laser annealing (wavelength of 248 nm). Solution based indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) films usually needs high temperature about 500 °C post annealing in a oven. KrF excimer laser annealing shows adva...

  20. Penetrating Keratoplasty for Keratoconus – Excimer Versus Femtosecond Laser Trephination (United States)

    Seitz, Berthold; Langenbucher, Achim; Hager, Tobias; Janunts, Edgar; El-Husseiny, Moatasem; Szentmáry, Nora


    Background: In case of keratoconus, rigid gas-permeable contact lenses as the correction method of first choice allow for a good visual acuity for quite some time. In a severe stage of the disease with major cone-shaped protrusion of the cornea, even specially designed keratoconus contact lenses are no more tolerated. In case of existing contraindications for intrastromal ring segments, corneal transplantation typically has a very good prognosis. Methods: In case of advanced keratoconus – especially after corneal hydrops due to rupture of Descemet’s membrane – penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) still is the surgical method of first choice. Noncontact excimer laser trephination seems to be especially beneficial for eyes with iatrogenic keratectasia after LASIK and those with repeat grafts in case of “keratoconus recurrences” due to small grafts with thin host cornea. For donor trephination from the epithelial side, an artificial chamber is used. Wound closure is achieved with a double running cross-stitch suture according to Hoffmann. Graft size is adapted individually depending on corneal size („as large as possible – as small as necessary“). Limbal centration will be preferred intraoperatively due to optical displacement of the pupil. During the last 10 years femtosecond laser trephination has been introduced from the USA as a potentially advantageous approach. Results: Prospective clinical studies have shown that the technique of non-contact excimer laser PKP improves donor and recipient centration, reduces “vertical tilt” and “horizontal torsion” of the graft in the recipient bed, thus resulting in significantly less “all-sutures-out” keratometric astigmatism (2.8 vs. 5.7 D), higher regularity of the topography (SRI 0.80 vs. 0.98) and better visual acuity (0.80 vs. 0.63) in contrast to the motor trephine. The stage of the disease does not influence functional outcome after excimer laser PKP. Refractive outcomes of femtosecond laser

  1. Application of optical tweezers and excimer laser to study protoplast fusion (United States)

    Kantawang, Titirat; Samipak, Sompid; Limtrakul, Jumras; Chattham, Nattaporn


    Protoplast fusion is a physical phenomenon that two protoplasts come in contact and fuse together. Doing so, it is possible to combine specific genes from one protoplast to another during fusion such as drought resistance and disease resistance. There are a few possible methods to induce protoplast fusion, for example, electrofusion and chemical fusion. In this study, chemical fusion was performed with laser applied as an external force to enhance rate of fusion and observed under a microscope. Optical tweezers (1064 nm with 100X objective N.A. 1.3) and excimer laser (308 nm LMU-40X-UVB objective) were set with a Nikon Ti-U inverted microscope. Samples were prepared by soaking in hypertonic solution in order to induce cell plasmolysis. Elodea Canadensis and Allium cepa plasmolysed leaves were cut and observed under microscope. Concentration of solution was varied to induce difference turgor pressures on protoplasts pushing at cell wall. Free protoplasts in solution were trapped by optical tweezers to study the effect of Polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution. PEG was diluted by Ca+ solution during the process to induced protoplast cell contact and fusion. Possibility of protoplast fusion by excimer laser was investigated and found possible. Here we report a novel tool for plant cell fusion using excimer laser. Plant growth after cell fusion is currently conducted.

  2. Scattered UV irradiation during VISX excimer laser keratorefractive surgery. (United States)

    Hope, R J; Weber, E D; Bower, K S; Pasternak, J P; Sliney, D H


    To evaluate the potential occupational health hazards associated with scattered ultraviolet (UV) radiation during photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) using the VISX Star S3 excimer laser. The Laser Vision Center, National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Intraoperative radiometric measurements were made with the Ophir Power/Energy Meter (LaserStar Model PD-10 with silicon detector) during PRK treatments as well as during required calibration procedures at a distance of 20.3 cm from the left cornea. These measurements were evaluated using a worst-case scenario for exposure, and then compared with the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygeinists (ACGIH) Threshold Value Limits (TVL) to perform a risk/hazard analysis. During the PRK procedures, the highest measured value was 248.4 nJ/pulse. During the calibration procedures, the highest measured UV scattered radiation level was 149.6 nJ/pulse. The maximum treatment time was 52 seconds. Using a worst-case scenario in which all treatments used the maximum power and time, the total energy per eye treated was 0.132 mJ/cm2 and the total UV radiation at close range (80 cm from the treated eye) was 0.0085 mJ/cm2. With a workload of 20 patients, the total occupational exposure at 80 cm to actinic UV radiation in an 8-hour period would be 0.425 mJ/cm2. The scattered actinic UV laser radiation from the VISX Star S3 excimer laser did not exceed occupational exposure limits during a busy 8-hour workday, provided that operating room personnel were at least 80 cm from the treated eye. While the use of protective eyewear is always prudent, this study demonstrates that the trace amounts of scattered laser emissions produced by this laser do not pose a serious health risk even without the use of protective eyewear.

  3. Recent developments on microablation of glass materials using excimer lasers (United States)

    Tseng, Ampere A.; Chen, Ying-Tung; Chao, Choung-Lii; Ma, Kung-Jeng; Chen, T. P.


    For many years, the development of effective laser machining techniques for making glass-based microcomponents and devices has been a critical factor in the birth of new photonic and biomedical microsystems. In this article, the characteristics and abilities of excimer lasers for micromachining of a wide range of glass materials are reviewed and studied. Following the introduction, the special features of excimer lasers are discussed. The typical micromachining system used for glass materials is presented. Then, the fundamental micromachining parameters and the associated morphologies of machined surfaces are evaluated. The approaches by controlling the ablation rate for making the curve surfaces are specifically formulated. Although a wide range of commercially available glasses is covered in this article, two types of the most widely used glasses, borosilicate glass and fused silica, are thoroughly examined to illustrate the complexity in micromachining the glass materials. The procedures to machine single, arrayed, curved microstructures are described. The utilizations of these procedures for making microneedles, optical waveguides, submicron grating, and microlenses are specifically demonstrated. Finally, recommendations for future efforts are presented.

  4. Vitreoretinal surgery with the 193-nm excimer laser (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel V.; Hemo, Itzhak; Turovets, Igor; Zauberman, Hanan; Lewis, Aaron


    The 193-nm excimer laser is known for its ability to precisely ablate soft biological tissues in the air environment with sub- micron depth control and sub-micron damage zones in the surrounding. The lack of a convenient delivery system and strong absorption of this radiation by biological liquids prevented, until recently, microsurgical applications of this laser. We have constructed special tips that are capable of delivering enough energy for effective removal of soft tissues in a strongly absorbing liquid environment. These tips attach to an articulated arm-based delivery system. This instrument was applied to vitreoretinal membranes removal. The accepted technique for these membranes removal is mechanical peeling and cutting which is associated with strong traction of the retina and this occasionally results in retinal damage. It was demonstrated in this study that the 193-nm excimer laser is capable of safely and precisely cutting and ablating these membranes which enable their removal without exerting any tractional forces on the retina. The effective cutting regime of retina and vitreoretinal membranes occurred at energy fluence of about 250- to 350-mJ/cm2/pulse with a corresponding cutting depth of 50 to 150 micrometers /pulse. The results obtained in this study suggest that this technology could be applicable to a wide variety of intraocular procedures.

  5. Excimer laser refractive surgery versus phakic intraocular lenses for the correction of moderate to high myopia. (United States)

    Barsam, Allon; Allan, Bruce D S


    Myopia is a condition in which the focusing power (refraction) of the eye is greater than that required for clear distance vision. There are two main types of surgical correction for moderate to high myopia; excimer laser and phakic intraocular lenses (IOLs). Excimer laser refractive surgery for myopia works by removing corneal stroma to lessen the refractive power of the cornea and to bring the image of a viewed object into focus onto the retina rather than in front of it. Phakic IOLs for the treatment of myopia work by diverging light rays so that the image of a viewed object is brought into focus onto the retina rather than in front of the retina. They can be placed either in the anterior chamber of the eye in front of the iris or in the posterior chamber of the eye between the iris and the natural lens. To compare excimer laser refractive surgery and phakic IOLs for the correction of moderate to high myopia by evaluating postoperative uncorrected visual acuity, refractive outcome, potential loss of best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and the incidence of adverse outcomes. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to February 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (, ( and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) ( We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 11 February 2014. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing excimer laser refractive surgery and phakic IOLs for the correction of myopia greater than 6.0 diopters (D) spherical equivalent. Two authors independently

  6. Electron microscopic and immunohistochemical examination of scarred human cornea re-treated by excimer laser. (United States)

    Bleckmann, Heinrich; Schnoy, Norbert; Kresse, Hans


    To elucidate differences, at the macromolecular level, in corneal tissue subjected to repeated argon fluoride excimer treatment. A light microscopic, electron microscopic, and immunohistochemical study was performed on a scarred human cornea. Keratocytes were enlarged with an expanded endoplasmic reticulum and exhibited a fibroblastic appearance. Amorphous material was observed extracellularly. Collagen fibrils exhibited a disordered arrangement while banding patterns and diameter were normal. Immunohistochemical investigation of several collagen types, of collagen-associated proteoglycans, and of basement membrane components demonstrated an enhanced immunoreactivity of all of them in the scarred area. Type V collagen was found as a normal component of the epithelial basement membrane whereas types I and III collagen were present beneath Bowman's layer. Excimer-laser-treated sections revealed considerably stronger subepithelial staining for collagen types I, III, IV, and V. Laminin-1, a typical component of basement membranes, was detectable throughout the scarred tissue. The small proteoglycans decorin and fibromodulin accumulated in a patch-like manner in the scarred tissue below the epithelium, whereas biglycan was expressed by the epithelium and throughout the stroma. Lumican was expressed most strongly by the epithelium and rather equally distributed in the excimer-laser-treated and in the normal stroma. Effects of argon laser treatment of the cornea must be regarded as a process acting over many months. Intra- and extracellular structures and components are involved and influence the unpredictable shape of the corneal architecture.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, T. G.; Jansen, E. D.; Motamedi, M.; Welch, A. J.; Borst, C.


    Both holmium (lambda = 2.09 mum) and excimer (lambda = 308 nm) lasers are used for ablation of tissue. In a previous study, excimer laser ablation of aorta produced rapidly expanding and collapsing vapor bubbles. To investigate whether the excimer-induced bubble is caused by vaporization of (tissue)

  8. Fabrication of SERS Active Surface on Polyimide Sample by Excimer Laser Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Csizmadia


    Full Text Available A possible application of excimer laser irradiation for the preparation of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS substrate is demonstrated. A polyimide foil of 125 μm thickness was irradiated by 240 pulses of focused ArF excimer laser beam (λ = 193 nm, FWHM = 20 ns. The applied fluence was varied between 40 and 80 mJ/cm2. After laser processing, the sample was coated with 40 nm silver by PLD in order to create a conducting layer required for the SERS application. The SERS activity of the samples was tested by Raman microscopy. The Raman spectra of Rhodamine 6G aqueous solution (c=10−3 mol/dm3 were collected from the patterned and metalized areas. For areas prepared at 40–60 mJ/cm2 laser fluences, the measured Raman intensities have shown a linear dependence on the applied laser fluence, while above 60 mJ/cm2 saturation was observed. The morphology of the SERS active surface areas was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Finite element modeling was performed in order to simulate the laser-absorption induced heating of the polyimide foil. The simulation resulted in the temporal and spatial distribution of the estimated temperature in the irradiated polyimide sample, which are important for understanding the structure formation process.

  9. Combination treatment with excimer laser and narrowband UVB light in vitiligo patients. (United States)

    Shin, Sungsik; Hann, Seung-Kyung; Oh, Sang Ho


    For the treatment of vitiligo, narrowband UVB (NBUVB) light is considered the most effective for nonsegmental vitiligo, while excimer laser treatment is commonly used for localized vitiligo. However, treatment areas may potentially be missed with excimer laser treatment. We aimed to evaluate the effect of combinational treatment with NBUVB light and excimer laser on vitiligo. All patients were first treated with NBUVB; excimer laser was then applied in conjunction with NBUVB phototherapy due to a slow response or no further improvement with continuous NBUVB treatment alone. To minimize adverse effects, a fixed dose of NBUVB was administered, and the dose of excimer laser was increased based on patient response. Among 80 patients, 54 patients showed responses after combination with excimer laser; however, 26 patients (32.5%) showed no remarkable change after combination therapy. Of the 26 patients who showed no further response, 12 patients (46.1%) presented with vitiligo on the acral areas, which are known to the least responsive sites. Our study suggests that combined treatment of NBUVB and excimer laser in vitiligo may enhance the treatment response without remarkable side effects, therefore might also increase the compliance of the patients to the treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Shadowgraphic imaging of metal drilling with a long pulse excimer laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonderbeek, A.; Biesheuvel, C.A.; Hofstra, R.M.; Boller, Klaus J.; Meijer, J.; Miyamoto, Isamu; Ostendorf, Andreas; Sugioka, Koji; Helvajian, Henry


    A shadowgraphic imaging technique is used for studying the interaction between the laser beam and the material during laser drilling. The used laser is a XeCl excimer laser with a nearly diffraction limited beam and 175 ns pulse length. We studied how and when the material is removed. Holes are

  11. XeCl excimer laser with new prism resonator configurations and its performance characteristics. (United States)

    Benerji, N S; Singh, A; Varshnay, N; Singh, Bijendra


    New resonator cavity configurations, namely, the prism resonator and unstable prism resonator, are demonstrated for the first time in an excimer (XeCl) laser with interesting and novel results. High misalignment tolerance ∼50 mrad is achieved with considerably reduced beam divergence of less than ∼1 mrad without reduction in output power capabilities of the laser. The misalignment tolerance of ∼50 mrad is a dramatic improvement of ∼25 times compared to ∼2 mrad normally observed in standard excimer laser with plane-plane cavity. Increase in depth of focus from 3 mm to 5.5 mm was also achieved in case of prism resonator configuration with an improvement of about 60%. Unstable prism resonator configuration is demonstrated here in this paper with further reduction in beam divergence to about 0.5 mrad using plano-convex lens as output coupler. The misalignment tolerance in case of unstable prism resonator was retained at about 30 mrad which is a high value compared to standard unstable resonators. The output beam spot was completely filled with flat-top profile with prism resonator configurations, which is desired for various material processing applications. Focusing properties and beam divergence in case of prism resonator have been investigated using SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. SEM images of the focused spot size (∼20 μm holes) on metal sheet indicate beam divergence of about 0.05 mrad which is about 1.5 times diffraction limit. Energy contained in this angle is thus sufficient for micro-machining applications. Clean and sharp edges of the micro-holes show high pointing stability with multiple shot exposures. Such characteristics of the excimer laser system will be extremely useful in micro-machining and other field applications.

  12. XeCl excimer laser with new prism resonator configurations and its performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benerji, N. S., E-mail:, E-mail:; Singh, A.; Varshnay, N.; Singh, Bijendra, E-mail:, E-mail: [Excimer Laser Section, LMPD, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)


    New resonator cavity configurations, namely, the prism resonator and unstable prism resonator, are demonstrated for the first time in an excimer (XeCl) laser with interesting and novel results. High misalignment tolerance ∼50 mrad is achieved with considerably reduced beam divergence of less than ∼1 mrad without reduction in output power capabilities of the laser. The misalignment tolerance of ∼50 mrad is a dramatic improvement of ∼25 times compared to ∼2 mrad normally observed in standard excimer laser with plane-plane cavity. Increase in depth of focus from 3 mm to 5.5 mm was also achieved in case of prism resonator configuration with an improvement of about 60%. Unstable prism resonator configuration is demonstrated here in this paper with further reduction in beam divergence to about 0.5 mrad using plano-convex lens as output coupler. The misalignment tolerance in case of unstable prism resonator was retained at about 30 mrad which is a high value compared to standard unstable resonators. The output beam spot was completely filled with flat-top profile with prism resonator configurations, which is desired for various material processing applications. Focusing properties and beam divergence in case of prism resonator have been investigated using SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. SEM images of the focused spot size (∼20 μm holes) on metal sheet indicate beam divergence of about 0.05 mrad which is about 1.5 times diffraction limit. Energy contained in this angle is thus sufficient for micro-machining applications. Clean and sharp edges of the micro-holes show high pointing stability with multiple shot exposures. Such characteristics of the excimer laser system will be extremely useful in micro-machining and other field applications.

  13. Plume emission, shock wave and surface wave formation during excimer laser ablation of the cornea. (United States)

    Bor, Z; Hopp, B; Rácz, B; Szabó, G; Ratkay, I; Süveges, I; Füst, A; Mohay, J


    Excimer lasers are now used for corneal surgery; however, the physical processes occurring during photoablation of the cornea are incompletely understood. High speed laser-based photographic arrangement was constructed. The temporal resolution was better than 1 ns. The setup could work as a Schlieren arrangement, which is sensitive to the refractive index change caused by the shock wave propagating in the air above the eye. With minor changes the setup was converted into a shadowgraph, which could detect the ablation plume and the waves propagating on the surface of the eye. Due to the impact of the excimer laser pulse onto the surface of the cornea, a shock wave was generated in the air. The shadowgraph clearly showed the ejection of the ablated cornea. The ejection velocity of the plume was found to be over 600 m/s. It was shown for the first time that the recoil forces of the plume are generating a wave on the surface of the eye. The laser-based high speed photographic arrangement is a powerful arrangement in the study of physical effects occurring during photoablation of the cornea.

  14. Generation of large-area microscale manifolds using excimer laser ablation (United States)

    Zhou, Simon; Kilgo, Marvin M., III; Williams, Charles N.


    Excimer laser ablation of polymeric materials is a widely used technology for the generation of nozzles and through- holes. Ablation is also a viable process to create more complex fluidic structures such as channels and manifolds. This paper presents recent results of experiments demonstrating the creation of manifolds in 25 micrometers polyimide films. These structures include cross-over points, and channels of various widths. The results presented include photomicrographs and SEMS, and characterization of channel wall taper and width control as well as an assessment of ablation depth uniformity over large fields. The characteristics of projection ablation systems are reviewed, and the experimental system is described in detail.

  15. Advanced excimer laser technologies enable green semiconductor manufacturing (United States)

    Fukuda, Hitomi; Yoo, Youngsun; Minegishi, Yuji; Hisanaga, Naoto; Enami, Tatsuo


    "Green" has fast become an important and pervasive topic throughout many industries worldwide. Many companies, especially in the manufacturing industries, have taken steps to integrate green initiatives into their high-level corporate strategies. Governments have also been active in implementing various initiatives designed to increase corporate responsibility and accountability towards environmental issues. In the semiconductor manufacturing industry, there are growing concerns over future environmental impact as enormous fabs expand and new generation of equipments become larger and more powerful. To address these concerns, Gigaphoton has implemented various green initiatives for many years under the EcoPhoton™ program. The objective of this program is to drive innovations in technology and services that enable manufacturers to significantly reduce both the financial and environmental "green cost" of laser operations in high-volume manufacturing environment (HVM) - primarily focusing on electricity, gas and heat management costs. One example of such innovation is Gigaphoton's Injection-Lock system, which reduces electricity and gas utilization costs of the laser by up to 50%. Furthermore, to support the industry's transition from 300mm to the next generation 450mm wafers, technologies are being developed to create lasers that offer double the output power from 60W to 120W, but reducing electricity and gas consumption by another 50%. This means that the efficiency of lasers can be improve by up to 4 times in 450mm wafer production environments. Other future innovations include the introduction of totally Heliumfree Excimer lasers that utilize Nitrogen gas as its replacement for optical module purging. This paper discusses these and other innovations by Gigaphoton to enable green manufacturing.

  16. LASIK ablation centration: an objective digitized assessment and comparison between two generations of an excimer laser. (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John; Asimellis, George


    To objectively define the effective centration of myopic femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK ablation pattern, evaluate the difference between achieved versus planned excimer laser ablation centration, and compare these results from two different generations of an excimer laser system. The study retrospectively evaluated 280 eyes subjected to myopic LASIK. Digital image analysis was performed on Scheimpflug sagittal curvature maps (difference of preoperative to postoperative). Centration was assessed via proprietary software digital analysis of the coordinate displacement between the achieved ablation geometric center and the planned ablation center, which was the corneal vertex. Results from two different excimer laser generations (Eye-Q 400 [140 eyes] and EX500 [140 eyes]; Alcon/WaveLight, Fort Worth, TX) were compared. Radial displacement was on average 360 ± 220 µm (range: 0 to 1,030 µm) in the Eye-Q 400 laser group and 120 ± 110 µm (range: 0 to 580 µm) in the EX500 laser group (P laser group and 4% in the EX500 laser group. Displacement of ablation pattern may depend on the laser platform used. The improvement in the efficiency of centration indicates that newer generation excimer lasers with faster eye tracking and active centration control appear to achieve a significantly more accurate centration of myopic ablation patterns. The authors propose this novel, objective technique for laser refractive surgeon evaluation may point out significant outcome measures not currently used in standard metrics of refractive laser efficiency. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Average power scaling of UV excimer lasers drives flat panel display and lidar applications (United States)

    Herbst, Ludolf; Delmdahl, Ralph F.; Paetzel, Rainer


    Average power scaling of 308nm excimer lasers has followed an evolutionary path over the last two decades driven by diverse industrial UV laser microprocessing markets. Recently, a new dual-oscillator and beam management concept for high-average power upscaling of excimer lasers has been realized, for the first time enabling as much as 1.2kW of stabilized UV-laser average output power at a UV wavelength of 308nm. The new dual-oscillator concept enables low temperature polysilicon (LTPS) fabrication to be extended to generation six glass substrates. This is essential in terms of a more economic high-volume manufacturing of flat panel displays for the soaring smartphone and tablet PC markets. Similarly, the cost-effective production of flexible displays is driven by 308nm excimer laser power scaling. Flexible displays have enormous commercial potential and can largely use the same production equipment as is used for rigid display manufacturing. Moreover, higher average output power of 308nm excimer lasers aids reducing measurement time and improving the signal-to-noise ratio in the worldwide network of high altitude Raman lidar stations. The availability of kW-class 308nm excimer lasers has the potential to take LIDAR backscattering signal strength and achievable altitude to new levels.

  18. Time Evolution of the Excimer State of a Conjugated Polymer Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Musa Mujamammi


    Full Text Available An excited dimer is an important complex formed in nano- or pico-second time scales in many photophysics and photochemistry applications. The spectral and temporal profile of the excimer state of a laser from a new conjugated polymer, namely, poly (9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl (PFO, under several concentrations in benzene were investigated. These solutions were optically pumped by intense pulsed third-harmonic Nd:YAG laser (355-nm to obtain the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE spectra of a monomer and an excimer with bandwidths of 6 and 7 nm, respectively. The monomer and excimer ASEs were dependent on the PFO concentration, pump power, and temperature. Employing a sophisticated picosecond spectrometer, the time evolution of the excimer state of this polymer, which is over 400 ps, can be monitored.

  19. Epithelial healing and clinical outcomes in excimer laser photorefractive surgery following three epithelial removal techniques: mechanical, alcohol, and excimer laser. (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Keun; Lee, Kyung Sub; Kim, Jin Kook; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Seo, Kyung Ryul; Kim, Eung Kweon


    To evaluate epithelial healing, postoperative pain, and visual and refractive outcomes after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) using three epithelial removal techniques. Prospective, nonrandomized, comparative trial. Department of Ophthalmology, Yonsei University College of Medicine and Balgensesang Ophthalmology Clinic, Seoul, Korea. For the PRK procedure, the corneal epithelium was removed in one of three ways: mechanically (conventional PRK [PRK]) in 88 eyes of 44 patients; using excimer laser (transepithelial PRK [tPRK]) in 106 eyes of 53 patients; or using 20% diluted alcohol, laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) in 106 eyes of 53 patients. Epithelial healing, postoperative pain, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and remaining refractive error. The mean postoperative pain scores were 4.84 +/- 1.45 for PRK, 4.71 +/- 1.62 for tPRK, and 4.63 +/- 1.52 for LASEK (P = .125). The mean epithelial healing rates were 12.3 +/- 4.6 for PRK, 15.2 +/- 4.9 for tPRK, and 18.1 +/- 5.2 mm2/day for LASEK (P refractive outcomes. Using the same nomogram, tPRK resulted in a slight overcorrection, and LASEK resulted in a slight undercorrection.

  20. All-Solid-State Drivers for High Power Excimer Lasers Used in Projection Gas Immersion Laser Doping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacob, Jonah


    .... P-GILD uses a pulsed, 200-watt-class excimer laser as an illumination source to produce ultra-shallow, low-sheet resistance, box-like and retrograde impurity profiles in silicon without the use...

  1. KrF excimer laser precision machining of hard and brittle ceramic biomaterials. (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Lu, Jian-Yi; Huang, Jin-Xia


    KrF excimer laser precision machining of porous hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials was studied to find a suitable way of machining the materials into various desired shapes and sizes without distorting their intrinsic structure and porosity. Calcium phosphate glass ceramics (CPGs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were chosen for the study. It was found that KrF excimer laser can cut both CPGs and HA with high efficiency and precision. The ablation rates of CPGs and HA are respectively 0.081 µm/(pulse J cm(-2)) and 0.048 µm/(pulse  J cm(-2)), while their threshold fluences are individually 0.72 and 1.5 J cm(-2). The cutting quality (smoothness of the cut surface) is a function of laser repetition rate and cutting speed. The higher the repetition rate and lower the cutting speed, the better the cutting quality. A comparison between the cross sections of CPGs and HA cut using the excimer laser and using a conventional diamond cutting blade indicates that those cut by the excimer laser could retain their intrinsic porosity and geometry without distortion. In contrast, those cut by conventional machining had distorted geometry and most of their surface porosities were lost. Therefore, when cutting hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials to prepare scaffold and implant or when sectioning them for porosity evaluation, it is better to choose KrF excimer laser machining.

  2. Levels of interleukin-6 in tears before and after excimer laser treatment. (United States)

    Resan, Mirko; Stanojević, Ivan; Petković, Aleksandra; Pajić, Bojan; Vojvodić, Danilo


    Immune response and consequent inflammatory process which originate on ocular surface after a trauma are mediated by cytokines. Photoablation of corneal stroma performed by excimer laser causes surgically induced trauma. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is mostly known as a proinflammatory cytokine. However, it also has regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects. It is supposed that this cytokine is likely to play a significant role in the process of corneal wound healing response after photoablation of stroma carried out by laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) methods. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the levels of IL-6 in tears before and after treatment with LASIK and PRK methods. The study included 68 shortsighted eyes up to -3.0 diopter sphere, i.e. 198 samples of tears (per three samples taken from each of the eyes), divided into two groups according to the kind of excimer laser intervention performed: the group 1--eyes treated by LASIK method (n=31), and the group 2--eyes treated by the PRK method (n=37). The samples of tears were taken from each eye at the following time points: before excimer laser treatment (0 h, the control group), 1 h after the treatment (1 h) and 24 h after the treatment (24 h). The patients did not use anti-inflammatory therapy 24 h after the intervention. Tear samples were collected using microsurgical sponge. Level of IL-6 in tear fluid was determined by the flow cytometry method, applying a commercial test kit which allowed cytokine detection from a small sample volume. Results. The values of IL-6 were detectable in 16% of samples before LASIK treatment and in 30% of samples before PRK treatment. One h after the treatment IL-6 was detectable in 29% of samples for the LASIK group and 43% of samples for the PRK group, and 24 h after the treatment it was detectable in 19% of samples for the LASIK group and in 57% of samples for the PRK group. When we analyzed the dynamics of IL76 production

  3. Excimer laser cleaning of encrustation on Pentelic marble: procedure and evaluation of the effects (United States)

    Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P.; Zafiropulos, V.; Fotakis, C.


    This work focuses on the use and control of excimer lasers (KrF, λ=248 nm and XeCl, λ=308 nm) for the removal of encrustation (black crusts, soil-dust and biological deposits) from Pentelic marble. A number of surface analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) interfaced with microprobe analysis (energy dispersive X-ray analysis: EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and optical microscopy (OM) were used to detect chemical composition and crust morphology, as well as to monitor the effects induced by the laser treatment. SEM and OM providing structural information about the layers of encrustation, LIBS and SEM-EDX providing information on the elemental composition of the ablated material, XRD and FTIR detecting the changes of minerals appear to be particularly effective in assessing the quality of cleaning process. FTIR and XRD showed removal of pollutants from encrustation and partial transformation of calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum) to hemihydrate and anhydrite, which have lower specific surface than gypsum. Irradiation conditions creating minimal damaging effects were defined before treatment through surface analysis, ablation rate studies and optimization of laser parameters. On the basis of structural and analytical examinations, both lasers are shown to be appropriate for achieving sufficient removal of unwanted selected layers without modifying the surface morphology and surpassing by far the effectiveness afforded by traditional cleaning techniques.

  4. Fluorescence imaging inside an internal combustion engine using tunable excimer lasers. (United States)

    Andresen, P; Meijer, G; Schlüter, H; Voges, H; Koch, A; Hentschel, W; Oppermann, W; Rothe, E


    Tunable excimer lasers are used to obtain 2-D images of molecular (and some state-specific) density distributions inside a cylinder of a modified four-cylinder in-line engine that has optical access. Natural fluorescence (i.e., without a laser) is used for some OH pictures, normal laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for those of NO and of the isooctane fuel, and laser-induced predissociative fluorescence (LIPF) for other OH pictures and for those of O(2). Relevant spectroscopy is done to find the laser and fluorescence frequencies needed to measure isolated species. LIPF works well at high pressures, is state specific, and is ideally suited to follow turbulent processes. No similar measurements in engines have been previously reported. Pictures are taken in succeeding engine cycles. Their sequence is either at a particular point of the engine's cycle to show cyclic fluctuations, or at succeeding portions of the cycle to illustrate the progress of the gasdynamics or of the combustion.

  5. Validade da topografia de córnea na cirurgia refrativa com excimer laser Validity of corneal topography in refractive surgery with excimer laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando da Silva Filho


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados refracionais e a segurança do procedimento cirúrgico PRK (ceratectomia fotorrefrativa com base na topografia de córnea no pré-operatório. MÉTODOS: Participantes - 44 sujeitos que tinham realizado cirurgia refrativa, com o procedimento ceratectomia fotorrefrativa, os quais apresentaram topografias irregulares pré-operatórias. O grupo controle consistiu de 44 sujeitos com topografia regular pré-operatória. Os 88 olhos foram submetidos a ceratectomia fotorrefrativa utilizando-se o "Summit Apex plus Excimer Laser". As topografias irregulares e regulares foram obtidas pelo "Corneal Analysis System"(EyeSys, sendo consideradas como topografias irregulares os seguintes achados: ápice deslocado acima de 1,5 D (AD, asfericidade maior que 0,25 D/mm (AS, obliquidade maior que 15 graus (OB, assimetria inferior-superior igual ou maior que 1,5 D (IS, curvatura maior que 47 D (CU e combinação de 2 critérios (CB. Principal efeito medido: perda de uma ou mais linhas que foram definidas com segurança para o prognóstico. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes foram acompanhados por 6 meses. Verificou-se perda significativa de acuidade visual corrigida em pacientes submetidos ao procedimento PRK-AD (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the refractive results and safety of PRK (photorefractive keratectomy based on the preoperative corneal topography. METHODS: 44 operated eyes, using the photorefractive keratectomy process, and which presented preoperative topographical abnormalities. The control group consisted of 44 eyes with preoperative normal corneal topography. Eighty-eight eyes were submitted to the photorefractive keratectomy process using the Summit Apex plus Excimer Laser. Corneal topographies were accessed by the EyeSys Analysis system; the topographic abnormalities which were considered are the following: apex displacement above 1.5D (AD, asphericity above 0.25D/mm (AS, obliquity above 15 degrees (OB, inferior-superior asymmetry

  6. Microstructures induced by excimer laser surface melting of the SiC{sub p}/Al metal matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, D.S., E-mail:; Zhong, X.L.; Yan, Y.Z.; Hashimoto, T.; Liu, Z.


    Highlights: • Microstructural analysis of the excimer laser-melted SiC{sub p}/AA2124;. • Analytical, FEM, and SPH simulation of the laser-material interaction;. • Mechanism of the formation of the laser-induced microstructure. - Abstract: Laser surface melting (LSM) was carried out on the SiC{sub p}/Al metal matrix composite (MMC) using a KrF excimer laser with a fluence of 7 J/cm{sup 2}. The re-solidification microstructure was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It was found that a 2.5 μm thick melted layer was formed in the near-surface region, in which dissolution of the intermetallics and removal of the SiC particles occurred. The thermal and material response upon laser irradiation was simulated using three models, i.e. analytical model, finite element model (FEM) and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model. The effect of SiC particles on the LSM process, the mechanism of the SiC removal and the re-solidification microstructures in the melted layer were discussed. The simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental results and contributed to the generic understanding of the re-solidification microstructures induced by ns-pulsed lasers.

  7. Depth-profile investigations of triterpenoid varnishes by KrF excimer laser ablation and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (United States)

    Theodorakopoulos, C.; Zafiropulos, V.


    The ablation properties of aged triterpenoid dammar and mastic films were investigated using a Krypton Fluoride excimer laser (248 nm, 25 ns). Ablation rate variations between surface and bulk layers indicated changes of the ablation mechanisms across the depth profiles of the films. In particular, after removal of the uppermost surface varnish layers there was a reduction of the ablation step in the bulk that was in line with a significant reduction of carbon dimer emission beneath the surface layers as detected by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The results are explicable by the generation of condensation, cross-linking and oxidative gradients across the depth profile of triterpenoid varnish films during the aging degradation process, which were recently quantified and established on the molecular level.

  8. Influence of laser beam’s image-plane position on geometry of through-holes in percussion-drilled glass using excimer laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Babnik


    Full Text Available We study the influence of a laser beam’s image-plane position relative to the processed surface for the deep-hole, laser-microdrilling of soda-lime glass with an excimer 308-nm laser and mask-projection technique. It is demonstrated that the image-plane position has a significant influence on the hole’s tapering and final depth. Holes with exit diameters up to 10 times smaller than the mask-image diameter are produced in the case of perforation during the appropriate process phase determined by the formation of the plasma plume.

  9. Discharge instabilities in high-pressure fluorine based excimer laser gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathew, D.


    Fluorine based excimer lasers such as KrF, ArF and F2 are currently the most powerful sources available in the ultraviolet wavelength range, operating at 248 nm, at 193 nm and at 157 nm, respectively. They are thus of central importance for numerous applications in this range. At these short

  10. A new method for three dimensional excimer laser micromachining, Hole Area Modulation (HAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masuzawa, T.; Olde Benneker, Jeroen; Eindhoven, J.J.C.


    A new excimer laser system configuration for three dimensional (3D) micromachining, called Hole Area Modulation (HAM) method, is proposed and the feasibility of the system is experimentally confirmed. In this method, information on the depth of machining is converted to the sizes of small holes in

  11. Saline flush during excimer laser angioplasty: short and long term effects in the rabbit femoral artery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, T. G.; Velema, E.; Pasterkamp, G.; Post, M. J.; Borst, C.


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In this study, the effect of flushing saline on arterial wall damage (medial ruptures and necrosis), intimal hyperplasia, and arterial remodeling was determined. During excimer laser coronary angioplasty saline is flushed to reduce the size of explosive water vapor bubbles

  12. Microstructures induced by excimer laser surface melting of the SiCp/Al metal matrix composite (United States)

    Qian, D. S.; Zhong, X. L.; Yan, Y. Z.; Hashimoto, T.; Liu, Z.


    Laser surface melting (LSM) was carried out on the SiCp/Al metal matrix composite (MMC) using a KrF excimer laser with a fluence of 7 J/cm2. The re-solidification microstructure was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It was found that a 2.5 μm thick melted layer was formed in the near-surface region, in which dissolution of the intermetallics and removal of the SiC particles occurred. The thermal and material response upon laser irradiation was simulated using three models, i.e. analytical model, finite element model (FEM) and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model. The effect of SiC particles on the LSM process, the mechanism of the SiC removal and the re-solidification microstructures in the melted layer were discussed. The simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental results and contributed to the generic understanding of the re-solidification microstructures induced by ns-pulsed lasers.

  13. Film forming properties of silicon nanoparticles on SixNy coated substrates during excimer laser annealing (United States)

    Caninenberg, M.; Kiesler, D.; Benson, N.; Schmechel, R.


    In this article we investigate the film forming properties of excimer laser annealed silicon nanoparticles on non-silicon substrates. In contrast to their film forming properties on oxide free silicon substrates, the nanoparticle thin film tends to dewet and form a porous μ-structure on the silicon nitrite covered glass model substrates considered for our investigation. This is quantified using a SEM study in conjunction with image processing software, in order to evaluate the μ-structure size and inter μ-structure distance in dependence of the laser energy density. To generalize our results, the film forming process is described using a COMSOL Multiphysics ® fluid dynamics model, which solves the Navier Stokes equation for incompressible Newtonian fluids. To account for the porous nanoparticle thin film structure in the simulation, an effective medium approach is used by applying a conservative level set one phase method to our mesh. This effort allows us to predict the Si melt film formation ranging from a porous Si μ-structure to a compact 100% density Si thin film in dependence of the substrate / thin film interaction, as well as the laser energy used for the nanoparticle processing.

  14. Effects of excimer laser annealing on low-temperature solution based indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Nan Chen


    Full Text Available A Solution Based Indium-Zinc-Oxide thin-film transistor (TFT with a field-effect mobility of 0.58 cm2/Vs, a threshold voltage of 2.84 V by using pulse laser annealing processes. Indium-zinc-oxide (IZO films with a low process temperature were deposited by sol-gel solution based method and KrF excimer laser annealing (wavelength of 248 nm. Solution based indium-zinc-oxide (IZO films usually needs high temperature about 500 °C post annealing in a oven. KrF excimer laser annealing shows advantages of low temperature process, the less process time deceases to only few seconds was used to replace the high temperature process. IZO thin films suffering laser irradiation still keeps the amorphous film quality by transmission electron microscopy (TEM diffraction pattern analysis. It could be expected this technology to large-area flexible display, in the future.

  15. Laser materials processing with diode lasers


    Li, Lin; Lawrence, Jonathan; Spencer, Julian T.


    Laser materials processing is currently dominated by CO2, Nd-YAG and Excimer lasers. Continuous advances in semiconductor laser technology over the last decade have increased the average power output of the devices annualy by two fold, resulting in the commercial availability of the diode lasers today with delivery output powers in excess of 60W in CW mode and 5kW in qasi-CW mode. The advantages of compactness, high reliability, high efficiency and potential low cost, due to the mass producti...

  16. Comparison of femtosecond and excimer laser platforms available for corneal refractive surgery. (United States)

    Chen, Lisa Y; Manche, Edward E


    The evolution of laser technology has left today's refractive surgeon with a choice between multiple laser platforms. The purpose of this review is to compare currently available femtosecond and excimer laser platforms, providing a summary of current evidence. Femtosecond lasers create LASIK flaps with better accuracy, uniformity, and predictability than mechanical microkeratomes. Newer higher-frequency femtosecond platforms elicit less inflammation, producing better visual outcomes. SMILE achieved similar safety, efficacy, and predictability as LASIK with greater preservation of corneal nerves and biomechanical strength. The emergence of wavefront technology has resulted in improved excimer laser treatments. Comparisons of wavefront-guided and wavefront-optimized treatments suggest that there is an advantage to using wavefront-guided platforms in terms of visual acuity and quality of vision. Topography-guided ablations are another well tolerated and effective option, especially in eyes with highly irregular corneas. Advances in femtosecond and excimer laser technology have not only improved the safety and efficacy of refractive procedures, but have also led to the development of promising new treatment modalities, such as SMILE and the use of wavefront-guided and topography-guided ablation. Future studies and continued technological progress will help to better define the optimal use of these treatment platforms.

  17. Excimer laser absorption on PMMA plate and on cornea: a practical approach using volume luminance (United States)

    Digulescu, Petre P.; Carstocea, Benone D.; Sterian, Livia


    Excimer laser refractive surgery used in Ophthalmology in order to treat the human eye refraction problems has been performed over 10 years around the world. However a systematic approach of the physical phenomena and especially of the absorption on the cornea during the laser treatment is missing in the literature and the doctors are usually using empiric nomograms in order to achieve good results. The theoretical approach is difficult because of the complexity of the phenomena interconnected each to the others. The UV excimer laser beam used to controllably ablate the cornea is highly absorbed in the air and also is supplementary absorbed in the plume generated almost instantaneous as consequence of the ablation on the cornea. Because of this non-linear proces the energy of the laser beam delivered to the eye must be calibrated before each intervention on a patient. The purpose of the present work is to develop a mathematical model of the excimer laser absorption on PMMA and on human cornea based on a new physical notion, the Volume Luminance. The Volume Luminance is defined as volume density of the intensity of laser radiation. A brief theory of the Volume Luminance is also presented.

  18. Color-center laser spectroscopy of transient species produced by excimer-laser flash photolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, H.; Hall, J.L.; Rusell, L.A.; Kasper, J.V.V.; Tittel, F.K.; Curl, R.F.,JR.


    Kinetic spectroscopy based on excimer-laser flash photolysis and color-center-laser (CCL) infrared probing is explored. In simiple absorption, the achievable signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is not satisfactory even though the signal itself (corresponding to greater than 1 percent absorption) is fairly large. This is due to amplitude fluctuations of the CCL. By using a double-beam detection scheme to balance out these amplitude fluctuations the sensitivity can be improved to the extent that a 1 percent absorption gives a S/N approximately 100. In certain situations transient decreases in absorption of the precursor and transient increases in absorption due to final product formation can produce severe interferinng signals even in simple systems. This problem is overcome without a major loss in sensitivity by a recently developed 45 deg magnetic rotation scheme. These points are illustrated with spectra of Br, OH, and NH2. 21 references.

  19. Curative effects of excimer laser corneal refractive surgery for hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Gang Nie


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate curative effects of excimer laser corneal refractive surgery for adults or older adolescent with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia. METHODS: From March 2014 to March 2016, we selected 26 cases 26 eyes of adults or older adolescent with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia in our hospital. All eyes underwent laser in situ keratomileusis, observed for the uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, diopter and stereopsis. RESULTS: At the end of the follow-up, the patient's spherical equivalent and anisometropia were 1.47±0.51D and 1.15±0.22D, were significantly lower than that before operation(PPPCONCLUSION: In adult or older adolescent with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia, excimer laser corneal refractive surgery has a certain effect.

  20. Study on the electromagnetic radiation characteristics of discharging excimer laser system (United States)

    Zhao, Duliang; Liang, Xu; Fang, Xiaodong; Wang, Qingsheng


    Excimer laser in condition of high voltage, large current and fast discharge will produce strong electromagnetic pulse radiation and electromagnetic interference on the around electrical equipment. The research on characteristics and distribution of excimer laser electromagnetic radiation could provide important basis for electromagnetic shielding and suppressing electromagnetic interference, and further improving the electromagnetic compatibility of system. Firstly, electromagnetic radiation source is analyzed according to the working principle of excimer laser. The key test points of the electromagnetic radiation, hydrogen thyratron, main discharge circuit and laser outlet, are determined by the mechanical structure and the theory of electromagnetic radiation. Secondly, characteristics of electromagnetic field were tested using a near field probe on the key positions of the vertical direction at 20, 50, and 80 cm, respectively. The main radiation frequencies and the radiation field characteristics in the near field are obtained. The experimental results show that the main radiation frequencies distribute in 47, 65, and 130 MHz for electric field and the main radiation frequencies distribute in 34, 100, and 165 MHz for magnetic field. The intensity of electromagnetic field decreases rapidly with the increase of test distance. The higher the frequency increases, the faster the amplitude attenuate. Finally, several electromagnetic interference suppression measurement methods are proposed from the perspective of electromagnetic compatibility according to the test results.

  1. Investigation of Pyrene Excimer formation in various manufacturing processes and ionic structures (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Sook; Nieh, Mu-Ping


    Electrospun pyrene (Py)/polystyrene/tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF6) thin films can provide high-sensitivity and high-selectivity detection of nitro-aromatic explosives through fluorescence quenching of the Py excimers. However, we have found that the formation of Py excimers in Py/PS/TBAPF6 thin films depends greatly on the manufacturing processes. Our results indicate that high solvent vapor pressure promotes the Py excimer fluorescence, while high temperature (around or greater than Tg of the PS) has an opposite effect in absence of solvent - reducing the Py excimer fluorescence. Moreover, we have found that salts structure such as cation chain length, anion strength can significantly affect the formation of Py excimer both in solution and solid state, presumably due to self-aggregation of the salts and electrostatic interactions between ions and pyrene excimer. 13C-NMR and steady-state fluorescence result indicate that the salt induces peak shift to the downfield in the spectra and quenches the Py excimer intensity drastically. Ph.D. Candidate, Institute of Material Science, Polymer program

  2. Corneal lathing using the excimer laser and a computer-controlled positioning system: Part I--Lathing of epikeratoplasty lenticules. (United States)

    Altmann, J; Grabner, G; Husinsky, W; Mitterer, S; Baumgartner, I; Skorpik, F; Asenbauer, T


    Precise lathing of epikeratoplasty lenticules is difficult to achieve with the cryolathe due to unpredictable expansion of the lathing tools and the corneal tissue during the freezing process. In addition, the procedure destroys all viable cells in the transplant thereby possibly contributing to the prolonged period of visual rehabilitation. Non-freezing techniques using the microkeratome or the rotor-trephine, on the other hand, are technically demanding, can cause mechanical damage during cutting or fixation, and, have not given consistently reproducible refractive results. A new system is presented that allows a variable laser ablation of donor corneas into lenticules for aphakic and myopic epikeratoplasty, as well as for lamellar keratoplasty. With the help of a computer-controlled positioning system that uses high-precision micropositioning elements (both translation and rotational stages) the donor cornea is moved, epithelial side down, in a holding device in front of a focused excimer laser beam (ArF, lambda = 193 nm). This photoablation lathing process assures the viability of the stromal cells in the lenticule in close approximation to the treated surface. The user friendly computer software allows the fast and convenient selection of a variety of parameters, such as the diameter of the optical zone, the shape of the wing zone, the refractive power, the central thickness of the lenticule and the overall contour of the transplant. The first laboratory data of lenticules prepared from human corneas with this "Excimer Laser Corneal Shaping System" are presented.

  3. Discharge instabilities in high-pressure fluorine based excimer laser gas mixtures


    Mathew, D


    Fluorine based excimer lasers such as KrF, ArF and F2 are currently the most powerful sources available in the ultraviolet wavelength range, operating at 248 nm, at 193 nm and at 157 nm, respectively. They are thus of central importance for numerous applications in this range. At these short wavelengths, reaching the laser threshold for an efficient operation, F2-based lasers require to be pumped, in a controlled manner, with very high power densities. This can practically be achieved only vi...

  4. Excimer Laser Phototherapeutic Keratectomy for the Treatment of Clinically Presumed Fungal Keratitis


    Liang-Mao Li; Li-Quan Zhao; Ling-Hui Qu; Peng Li


    This retrospective study was to evaluate treatment outcomes of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) for clinically presumed fungal keratitis. Forty-seven eyes of 47 consecutive patients underwent manual superficial debridement and PTK. All corneal lesions were located in the anterior stroma and were resistant to medication therapy for at least one week. Data were collected by a retrospective chart review with at least six months of follow-up data available. After PTK, infected cor...

  5. ArF excimer laser-induced deposition of Ag/C nanocomposite thin films in the presence of n-Hexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondal, Mohammed Ashraf, E-mail: [Laser Research Group, Physics Department and Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Fajgar, Radek [Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, 16502 Prague (Czech Republic); Chang, Xiaofeng [Laser Research Group, Physics Department and Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, 16502 Prague (Czech Republic); College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211100 (China); Shen, Kai [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211100 (China); Xu, Qingyu [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China)


    Highlights: • A new excimer laser ablation process was proposed to fabricate Ag/C thin film. • The size of Ag nanoparticles is ranging from 5 to 20 nm. • The ratios of Ag to C can be controlled by adjusting the pressure of n-Hexane. • The graphite-like structure of carbonaceous products was confirmed. - Abstract: Ag/C nanocomposite thin films with different Ag/C molar ratios have been prepared using ArF excimer laser-induced ablation process and silver target under n-Hexane atmosphere. The morphology, crystal structure and composition of as-deposited Ag/C nanocomposite thin films were investigated with high resolution electronic microscopic techniques (including scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. Laser Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques were also applied to characterize the final carbonaceous products generated from n-Hexane under laser ablation process. The optical emission of the plume caused by the interaction between excimer laser and silver target in the presence of n-Hexane was studied to understand the possible reaction process. The UV–vis absorption of as-deposited Ag/C thin films, which is attributed to the surface plasmonic excitation, was also investigated in the present work.

  6. Comparison of KrF and ArF excimer laser treatment of biopolymer surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaljaničová, I. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Slepička, P., E-mail: [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Heitz, J.; Barb, R.A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Sajdl, P. [Department of Power Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Švorčík, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)


    Highlights: • The influence of ArF and KrF laser on biopolymer surface was determined. • ArF laser acts predominantly on biopolymer surface. • PHB roughness is increased similarly for both applied wavelengths. • Roughness of nanostructures can be precisely controlled. • ArF laser introduces nitrogen on PHB surface. - Abstract: The goal of this work was the investigation of the impact of two different excimer lasers on two biocompatible and biodegradable polymers (poly-L-lactide and poly hydroxybutyrate). Both polymers find usage in medical and pharmaceutical fields. The polymers were modified by KrF and ArF excimer lasers. Subsequently the impact on surface morphology, surface chemistry changes, and thermal properties was studied by means of confocal and AFM microscopy, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy and DSC calorimetry. Under the same conditions of laser treatment it was observed that ArF laser causes more significant changes on surface chemistry, surface morphology and pattern formation on the polymers under investigation. The data obtained in this work can be used for a wide range of possible applications, in tissue engineering or in combination with metallization in electronics, e.g. for biosensors.

  7. Surface ablation of PLLA induced by KrF excimer laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slepička, P., E-mail: [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Michaljaničová, I. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Sajdl, P. [Department of Power Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Fitl, P. [Department of Physics and Measurements, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Švorčík, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)


    The surface characterization of PLLA (poly-L-lactic-acid) and its ablation due to excimer laser treatment is introduced in this paper. The main focus is to determine surface wettability and morphology changes in combination with changes of surface chemistry. The ablation loss and the determination of ablation threshold were used to study the biopolymer stability when treated to different laser fluences and pulse counts. The surface polarity was estimated using goniometry. AFM (atomic force microscopy) was used to determine the polymer surface morphology and roughness. The excimer laser has a strong effect on the polymer ablation. The thickness loss is strongly dependent on the laser fluence and number of pulses. For the fluences up to 30 mJ cm{sup −2} and 6000 pulses achieved ablation about 5 μm. The glass transition temperature and melting point were determined for the pristine and laser treated films. The increasing pulsed laser fluence leads to the major changes in roughness and morphology. The surface chemistry depends strongly on number of laser pulses.

  8. [Retinal detachment after Excimer laser (myopic LASIK or PRK). A retrospective multicentric study: 15 cases]. (United States)

    Feki, J; Trigui, A; Chaabouni, M; Ben Salah, S; Bouacida, B; Chechia, N; Zayani, A; Nouira, F; Daghfous, F; Ayed, S; Kamoun, M


    Refractive surgery by LASIK or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) generaly aims at a myopic population that has a high probability of developing rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD). The authors report a multicenter study with 15 cases of RD appearing after refractive surgery by Excimer laser and discuss the role played by the techniques used. Five centers fitted with nine Excimer laser devices took part in this study. Of 22,700 eyes undergoing refractive myopic surgery during the period 1994-2002, 15 eyes developed rhegmatogenous RD. The average age of the patients with RD was 37 years. The average myopia was 13.5 D. RD occurred a mean of 20 months after refractive laser. Fifteen eyes of 13 patients developed a rhegmatogenous RD, two of which were bilateral. Eight of these cases had LASIK surgery and six had photorefractive keratectomy; one of the latter patients was retreated with LASIK because of substantial regression after PRK. RD was total or subtotal in five eyes, partial superior with a temporal tear in six eyes, and nasal in three eyes. One case with inferior RD, two cases with giant retinal tear and one case with posterior tear were also repaired. Fourteen eyes were suitable for operation. The retina was reattached in 12 cases. Mean postoperative visual acuity was 7/10. The occurrence of rhegmatogenous RD in the myopic population is estimated at 2.2%. It is estimated at 0.1% in the emmetropic population. The Excimer laser, through its thermic effects, shock wave, traumatism undergone by the suction ring at the time of LASIK surgery, could increase this risk in myopic patients. A review of the literature cast doubt on the cause and effect hypothesis. Personal and multicenter studies (including ours) show that the frequency rate of rhegmatogenous RD after Excimer laser is equivalent and even lower than that estimated with an emmetropic population. The low percentage of RD after Excimer surgery found in the literature as well as in our study (surgery, the

  9. The development and progress of XeCl Excimer laser system (United States)

    Zhang, Yongsheng; Ma, Lianying; Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Zhu, Yongxiang; Hu, Yun; Qian, Hang; Shao, Bibo; Yi, Aiping; Liu, Jingru


    A large angularly multiplexed XeCl Excimer laser system is under development at the Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology (NINT). It is designed to explore the technical issues of uniform and controllable target illumination. Short wavelength, uniform and controllable target illumination is the fundamental requirement of high energy density physics research using large laser facility. With broadband, extended light source and multi-beam overlapping techniques, rare gas halide Excimer laser facility will provide uniform target illumination theoretically. Angular multiplexing and image relay techniques are briefly reviewed and some of the limitations are examined to put it more practical. The system consists of a commercial oscillator front end, three gas discharge amplifiers, two electron beam pumped amplifiers and the optics required to relay, encode and decode the laser beam. An 18 lens array targeting optics direct and focus the laser in the vacuum target chamber. The system is operational and currently undergoing tests. The total 18 beams output energy is more than 100J and the pulse width is 7ns (FWHM), the intensities on the target will exceed 1013W/cm2. The aberration of off-axis imaging optics at main amplifier should be minimized to improve the final image quality at the target. Automatic computer controlled alignment of the whole system is vital to efficiency and stability of the laser system, an array of automatic alignment model is under test and will be incorporated in the system soon.

  10. Comparison of 3D surfaces produced by 248-nm and 193-nm excimer laser radiation (United States)

    Toenshoff, Hans K.; Graumann, Christoph; Rinke, Marcus; Hesener, Hanno; Kulik, Christian


    Currently there is a strong demand for refractive optical elements made from glass in 21/2D and 3D-structures. Due to the characteristics of brittle materials like glass, only a limited number of manufacturing methods can be used to machine these materials with sub-micron resolution. Thus, current microstructures made out of glass are mainly manufactured by photolithography and etching process. Lithography techniques are only for economic purposes for a series production, but is not suitable for manufacturing prototypes or a small series. Micromachining done with Excimer Lasers in combination with high precision CNC- controlled handling systems offers flexible design possibilities for optical components. Due to the limitations of conventional machining techniques for brittle materials, a new laser machining system for material processing at a wavelength of 193 nm has been designed and built. The better absorption of 193 nm compared to 248 nm or larger wavelengths leads to damage free microstructuring of most glasses. Data generation for the volume to be ablated starts with the mathematical description of the surface shape of the optical component. The contour can be derived from a mathematical function or individual xyz-data point information from any CAD-program. A pre-processor calculates the CNC-data for laser triggering, xyz-table and the CNC- mask control. Each laser pulse leads to a material removal, defined by the illuminated surface on the workpiece as well as the energy density. Superposition or overlapping of pulses allows the creation of the desired surface. The surface roughness is determined by the wavelength as well as the chosen ablation strategy. To achieve best results, the process has to be carefully adjusted for a specific material. This technique is a sufficient method for structuring grooves in ceramics or glass as well as producing aspherical transparent optical surfaces or micro lens arrays. This paper shall describe the potential of 193 nm

  11. Green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles by excimer pulsed laser ablation in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Van Overschelde


    Full Text Available Pure selenium nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by Liquid Phase - Pulsed Laser Ablation (LP-PLA in de-ionized water. Excimer laser (248 nm operating at low fluence (F ∼ 1 J/cm2 was used to generate colloidal solutions of selenium nanoparticles. The obtained selenium nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. We describe the multi-modal size distributions generated and use the centrifugation method to isolate the smallest nanoparticles (∼60 nm in diameter.

  12. Hydroxyapatite and bioactive glass surfaces for fiber reinforced composite implants via surface ablation by Excimer laser. (United States)

    Kulkova, Julia; Moritz, Niko; Huhtinen, Hannu; Mattila, Riina; Donati, Ivan; Marsich, Eleonora; Paoletti, Sergio; Vallittu, Pekka K


    In skeletal reconstructions, composites, such as bisphenol-A-glycidyldimethacrylate resin reinforced with glass fibers, are potentially useful alternatives to metallic implants. Recently, we reported a novel method to prepare bioactive surfaces for these composites. Surface etching by Excimer laser was used to expose bioactive glass granules embedded in the resin. The purpose of this study was to analyze two types of bioactive surfaces created by this technique. The surfaces contained bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite granules. The selected processing parameters were adequate for the creation of the surfaces. However, the use of porous hydroxyapatite prevented the complete exposure the granules. In cell culture, for bioactive glass coatings, the pattern of proliferation of MG63 cells was comparable to that in the positive control group (Ti6Al4V) while inferior cell proliferation was observed on the surfaces containing hydroxyapatite granules. Scanning electron microscopy revealed osteointegration of implants with both types of surfaces. The technique is suitable for the exposure of solid bioactive glass granules. However, the long-term performance of the surfaces needs further assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reconsidering Sequential Double Running Suture Removal After Penetrating Keratoplasty: A Prospective Randomized Study Comparing Excimer Laser and Motor Trephination. (United States)

    Seitz, Berthold; Hager, Tobias; Langenbucher, Achim; Naumann, Gottfried O H


    We assessed the impact of sequential double running suture removal on corneal curvature after penetrating keratoplasty (PK), comparing mechanical and nonmechanical excimer laser trephination. PK was performed in 134 patients (mean age 51 ± 18 yrs) using either the excimer laser [excimer, n = 60 (37 keratoconus and 23 Fuchs dystrophy)] or motor trephination [control, n = 74 (44 keratoconus and 30 Fuchs dystrophy)] and a double running cross-stitch suture. Refractometry, Zeiss keratometry, and Tomey corneal topography were performed before removal of the first suture (15.2 ± 4.2 mo) and immediately before and at least 6 weeks after removal of the second suture (21.4 ± 5.6 mo). Keratometry before removal of the first (-1.7 ± 2.3 D vs. -3.1 ± 2.8 D) and second (-2.3 ± 2.6 D vs. -3.8 ± 2.8 D) sutures showed that the change in the corneal base curve was significantly smaller in the excimer group than the control group (P control groups, respectively, resulting in significantly lower astigmatism in the excimer (3.1 ± 2.1 D) group compared with the control group (6.2 ± 2.9 D) with "all-sutures-out" (P vector-corrected astigmatism (Jaffe) was significantly smaller in the excimer group (4.3 ± 3.5 D) than in the control group (6.9 ± 4.5 D; P motor trephination.

  14. Changes in gene expression by 193- and 248-nm excimer laser radiation in cultured human fibroblasts. (United States)

    Rimoldi, D; Flessate, D M; Samid, D


    Tissue ablation by ultraviolet excimer lasers results in exposure of viable cells to subablative doses of radiation. To understand the potential biological consequences better, we have studied changes in gene expression in cultured human skin fibroblasts exposed to either 193- or 248-nm laser light. Northern blot analyses revealed that both treatments up-regulate a common set of genes, including interstitial collagenase, tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease, metallothionein, and the proto-oncogene c-fos. Dose-response and kinetic studies of collagenase induction by 193-nm radiation showed a maximal effect with 60 J/m2 and at approximately 24 h. The induction was still persistent 96 h later. In addition to the commonly affected genes, known to be activated also by conventional UV light (254 nm) and tumor-promoting phorbol esters, other genes were found to be selectively induced by the 193-nm radiation. The heat-shock hsp70 mRNA, undetectable in controls and in cultures irradiated at 248 nm, was transiently induced 8 h after exposure to 193-nm radiation. Furthermore, a selective up-regulation of collagen type I expression was observed. The results indicate that the 193- and 248-nm radiations by excimer lasers elicit specific and different cellular responses, in addition to an overlapping pathway of gene activation common also to UV radiation by germicidal lamps. The laser-induced genes could serve as molecular markers in evaluating cell injury in situ.

  15. Investigation of the effects of LIFT printing with a KrF-excimer laser on thermally sensitive electrically conductive adhesives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perinchery, S.M.; Smits, E.C.P.; Sridhar, A.; Albert, P.; Brand, J. van den; Mandamparambil, R.; Yakimets, I.; Schoo, H.F.M.


    Laser induced forward transfer is an emerging material deposition technology. We investigated the feasibility of this technique for printing thermally sensitive, electrically conductive adhesives with and without using an intermediate dynamic release layer. A 248nm KrF-excimer laser was used to

  16. Excimer laser patterning of PEDOT-PSS thin-films on flexible barrier foils: a surface analysis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naithani, S.; Schaubroeck, D.; Vercammen, Y.; Mandamparambil, R.; Yakimets, I.; Vaeck, L. van; Steenberge, G. van


    Selective laser patterning of thin organic films is an important aspect in the roll-to-roll production of organic electronic devices such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). An excimer laser is well suited for the patterning and structuring of polymer thin films as their UV absorption is

  17. Coloring linens with excimer lasers to simulate the body image of the Turin Shroud (United States)

    Baldacchini, Giuseppe; di Lazzaro, Paolo; Murra, Daniele; Fanti, Giulio


    The body image of the Turin Shroud has not yet been explained by traditional science; so a great interest in a possible mechanism of image formation still exists. We present preliminary results of excimer laser irradiation (wavelength of 308 nm) of a raw linen fabric and of a linen cloth. The permanent coloration of both linens is a threshold effect of the laser beam intensity, and it can be achieved only in a narrow range of irradiation parameters, which are strongly dependent on the pulse width and time sequence of laser shots. We also obtained the first direct evidence of latent images impressed on linen that appear in a relatively long period (one year) after laser irradiation that at first did not generate a clear image. The results are compared with the characteristics of the Turin Shroud, reflecting the possibility that a burst of directional ultraviolet radiation may have played a role in the formation of the Shroud image.

  18. Morphological and structural modifications induced in a-Si{sub 1-x} C{sub x}:H films by excimer laser annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coscia, U. [CNISM Unita' di Napoli, Complesso Universitario MSA, Napoli (Italy); Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Napoli (Italy); Ambrosone, G. [Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN, Napoli (Italy); Basa, D.K. [Utkal University, Department of Physics, Bhubaneswar (India); Tresso, E. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali ed Ingegneria Chimica, Turin (Italy); Chiodoni, A. [IIT rate at POLITO - Center for Space Human Robotics, Turin (Italy); Pinto, N.; Murri, R. [Universita' di Camerino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Camerino (Italy)


    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbon films of different carbon content deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition on Corning glass and crystalline silicon substrates have been irradiated by an excimer (KrF) laser. The properties of these samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy before and after laser treatment, in order to understand the role of the carbon content as well as the substrate in the structural modifications. It has been demonstrated that the changes induced in the films by the laser treatment are independent of the substrate but depend on the carbon content which facilitates the crystallization process. (orig.)

  19. [193 excimer laser trepanation in perforating keratoplasty. Report of 70 patients]. (United States)

    Naumann, G O; Seitz, B; Lang, G K; Langenbucher, A; Kus, M M


    In penetrating keratoplasty, trephination with the 193 nm excimer laser may help avoid the differences in the deformation of the donor and recipient wound margins which occur with the conventional procedure. By varying the shape of the "open metal mask", other cut configurations can be achieved besides circular. Thus, "vertical tilt" and "horizontal torsion", both potential reasons for persistent long-term astigmatism after PK, may be minimized. Following experimental studies, the authors present the results obtained in their first 70 consecutive patients. 38 women and 32 men were treated (mean age 60.6 years, range 17 to 89 years). Indications were corneal processes without vascularization: Fuchs' dystrophy (n = 32), other stromal dystrophies (n = 5), secondary corneal endothelial decompensation (n = 6), keratoconus (n = 15), nonvascularized corneal scars (n = 4) and miscellaneous (n = 8 ). We used elliptical metal masks with/without orientation teeth and circular masks with four and eight orientation teeth, respectively. The HeNe aiming beam was manually controlled by a micromanipulator ("joystick"). The technical data of the laser were as follows: spot mode, 1.5 x 1.5 mm; repetition rate 30/sec and 25/sec, respectively; pulse energy 15-25 mJ; mean number of pulses 6407 (recipient) and 9150 (donor). With an elliptical outline, wound closure was usually achieved with single sutures. With a circular outline with orientation teeth, wound closure was most commonly achieved with a double running suture. Patients were prospectively documented using modified Erlangen record sheets. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3.4 years (mean 11.4 months). With two exceptions, penetration of the anterior chamber with the 193 nm excimer laser was accomplished without deformation of the cut edges. The elliptical outline facilitated fitting of the graft into the recipient wound bed, and the orientation teeth made fitting even easier. Initial intraoperative complications due to

  20. Excimer laser micromachining of oblique microchannels on thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The edge roughness of the channels, machined with a square laser spot of side 100lm, is found to be most affected by the fluence–spot overlap interaction, and the channel width by spot-overlap and the angle of tilt of the traversed path. Polymer coated metal films underwent close to ideal machining, aided by the clamping ...

  1. Measurement of radiation and temperature of cathod spots in excimer laser discharge; Ekishima reza reiki hodennai ni fukumareru inkyoku kiten no kogakuteki kansoku to ondo no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamitani, Y.; Nakatani, H. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Excimer laser is used in various fields such as luminous source for steppers, annealing treatment, ablation process, nuclear fusion and so on. In this paper, the radiation timing and gas temperature of cathode spots, streamer discharges and glow discharges in KrF excimer are measured by observing the radiating spectra thereof. The following conclusions are obtained from the results of the present study. Cathode spots begin to radiate at about 20ns after the discharge initiation, then the first and second radiation peaks are observed respectively when the discharge current reversing after passing zero point and the reserved discharged current approaching zero point. Streamer discharge makes flashover between electrodes at the second radiation peak of cathode spots, while the glow discharges almost disappear when streamer discharges occurring. The temperatures of cathode spots and glow discharge as 5500K and 2600K respectively are almost constant and independent upon the discharging voltage of laser. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Effect of open ultraviolet germicidal irradiation lamps on functionality of excimer lasers used in cornea surgery. (United States)

    Belovickis, Jaroslavas; Kurylenka, Aliaksei; Murashko, Vadim


    We report on the impact of direct ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) on reflective optics, used in the excimer laser system Allegretto Eye-Q. The aim of our work was to confirm our hypothesis based on long-rate observations of obtained anomalies in post-operative results that are attributed to degradation of reflective optics upon ultraviolet radiation. The presence of direct UVGI coupled with humidity in the operating environment caused merging anomalies and unwanted post-operative correction values. Ultraviolet-A radiation caused a similar effect on the reflective cover of the mirrors.

  3. Preliminary results of VISX excimer laser myopic photorefractive keratectomy at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center (United States)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Berlin, Michael S.; Hofbauer, John; Macy, Jonathan I.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Salz, James J.


    Sixty-two eyes underwent excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the correction of myopia at Cedars-Sinai-Medical-Center. The first group of 12 patients are presented with follow up data of ten months postoperatively. The second group of 50 patients are presented with follow up data of three months postoperatively. An in-depth comparison of pre and postoperative refractive data is presented. Comparisons between pre and postoperative corrected and uncorrected Snellen visual acuities are provided in order to asses the functional visual result of the procedure.

  4. Important technological problems with stable operation of electron beam pumped KrF excimer laser amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Ma Wei Yi; Hu Feng Ming; Shan Yu Sheng; Wang Nai Yan


    Some important technological problems with stable operation of the two-side electron beam pumped main amplifier used in the 'Heaven-1' high power KrF excimer laser system are described. They are the problems of the electric breakdown of the insulator support for water dielectric transmission lines, anode foil installation of large area electron beam diode, shape of Hibachi ribs that contact the pressure foil, and formation of diode post pulses and their damage to the anode foil and cathode emitter. Emphasis is put on the effect of different main-switch breakdown times on diode post pulses and the determination of the optimal breakdown time

  5. Excimer laser reactive deposition of vanadium nitride thin films (United States)

    D'Anna, E.; Di Cristoforo, A.; Fernández, M.; Leggieri, G.; Luches, A.; Majni, G.; Mengucci, P.; Nanai, L.


    We report on the deposition of thin vanadium nitride films by ablating vanadium targets in low-pressure N 2 atmosphere, and on their characterization. The targets were vanadium foils (purity 99.8%). 3 in. Si(1 1 1) wafers were used as substrates. Film characteristics (composition and crystalline structure) were studied as a function of N 2 pressure (0.5-200 Pa), KrF laser fluence (4.5-19 J/cm 2), substrate temperature (20-750 °C) and target-to-substrate distance (30-70 mm). Vanadium nitride is already formed at low N 2 ambient pressures (1 Pa) and laser fluences (6 J/cm 2) on substrates at room temperature. At the N 2 pressures of 1-10 Pa, the prevalent phase is VN. At higher pressures (100 Pa) and at relatively high laser fluences (16-19 J/cm 2), the dominant phase is V 2N. The crystallinity of the films improves by increasing the substrate temperature. Well-crystallized films are obtained on substrates heated at 500 °C.

  6. New excimer laser technique for the correction of strabismus and diplopia (United States)

    Azar, Dimitri T.


    We used the ArF excimer laser to determine the feasibility of performing prismatic photoablations in model eyes (plastic spheres simulating the eye), and in rabbit corneas. This would correct diplopia and small angles of deviation, and result in minimal refractive alterations. We modified excimer laser delivery system that achieved the desired corneal contour of prismatic ablations. 193-nm argon fluoride laser was used at fluence of 160 mJ/cm2 and ablation rate 5 Hz. 5.0-mm diameter, 40 um corneal epithelial ablation were followed by 5.0- mm diameter, prismatic photokeratectomy (PPK). We were able to achieve prismatic photoablation of PMMA blocks and lenses. No other refractive changes accompanied the prismatic photoablation of PMMA blocks and lenses. No other refractive changes accompanied the prismatic effect. In rabbits re-epithelialization of the 5-mm ablations was complete by day 3, and corneal haze was not observed by gross examination. Epithelial hyperplasia and subepithelial scarring were noted at the deep edges. PPK holds important therapeutic potential for fine-tuning results of conventional strabismus surgery, and for patients with stable diplopia following nerve palsy and ocular surgery.

  7. Photo-triggering and secondary electron produced ionization in electric discharge ArF* excimer lasers (United States)

    Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.


    Electric discharge excimer lasers are sustained in multi-atmosphere attaching gas mixtures that are typically preionized to enable a reproducible, uniform glow, which maximizes optical quality and gain. This preionization is often accomplished using UV light produced by a corona discharge within the plasma cavity. To quantify the relationship between corona discharge properties and those of the laser discharge, the triggering of electron avalanche by preionizing UV light in an electric discharge-pumped ArF* excimer laser was numerically investigated using a two-dimensional model. The preionizing UV fluxes were generated by a corona-bar discharge driven by the same voltage pulse as the main discharge sustained in a multi-atmospheric Ne/Ar/Xe/F2 gas mixture. The resulting peak photo-electron density in the inter-electrode spacing is around 108 cm-3, and its distribution is biased toward the UV source. The preionization density increases with increasing dielectric constant and capacitance of the corona bar. The symmetry and uniformity of the discharge are, however, improved significantly once the main avalanche develops. In addition to bulk electron impact ionization, the ionization generated by sheath accelerated secondary electrons was found to be important in sustaining the discharge current at experimentally observed values. At peak current, the magnitude of the ionization by sheath accelerated electrons is comparable to that from bulk electron impact in the vicinity of the cathode.

  8. Colouring fabrics with excimer lasers to simulate encoded images: the case of the Shroud of Turin (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, P.; Baldacchini, G.; Fanti, G.; Murra, D.; Santoni, A.


    The faint body image embedded into the Turin Shroud has not yet explained by traditional science. We present experimental results of excimer laser irradiation (wavelengths 308 nm and 193 nm) of a raw linen fabric and of a linen cloth, seeking for a possible mechanism of image formation. The permanent coloration of both linens is a threshold effect on the laser beam intensity and it can be achieved only in a surprisingly narrow range of irradiation parameters: the shorter the wavelength, the narrower the range. We also obtained the first direct evidence of latent images impressed on linen that appear in a relatively long period (one year) after a laser irradiation that at first did not generate a clear image. The results are compared to the characteristics of the Turin Shroud, commenting the possibility that a burst of directional ultraviolet radiation may have played a role in the formation of the Shroud image.

  9. Applicability of KrF excimer laser induced fluorescence in sooting high-pressure flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildenbrandt, F.; Schulz, C.; Sick, V.; Jander, H.; Wagner, H.G.


    Laser-induced emissions obtained after excitation with a tunable KrF excimer laser at 248 nm were measured in well-defined sooting laminar high-pressure flames fueled with methane/air and ethylene/air up to 15 bar. A spectral analysis shows that Mie scattering, Raman scattering and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) signals can be used for detailed flame studies under sooting high-pressure conditions. Mie scattering is correlated with soot, Raman signals can be used to measure spatially-resolved major species concentrations as well as temperatures. A LIF-scheme to measure NO was found to be applicable even under these conditions. The broadband fluorescence in the range from 270 to 290 nm, usually discarded as background, correlates well with the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as measured via GC-MS methods. (orig.)

  10. The Advanced Oxidation Process (UV-Ozonation Type) Assisted By Excimer Lamp (United States)

    Ikematsu, Tomokazu; Hayashi, Nobuya; Ihara, Satoshi; Satoh, Saburoh; Yamabe, Chobei


    The advanced oxidation processes utilizing the excimer lamp was developed for water purification. The UV light with the wavelength of 222nm that destructs the hydrogen peroxide to hydroxyl radical realizes the AOPs. In this paper, the KrCl excimer lamp with the wavelength of 222 nm was adopted for UV-ozonation type AOP, in order to treat the water with organic acid (humic acid). The lamp was made of quartz glasses with a coaxial cylindrical shape. The grounded copper electrode was rolled on the outer side of the glass tube. The excimer gas flows in the gap of the glass tube between outer and inner electrodes. The UV light from the discharge was irradiated to ozonated water that flows inside the glass tube. The enhancement of reduction rate of the organic compound dissolved in water was achieved using UV excimer lamp with the wavelength of 222 nm. When the excimer gas pressure was 200 Torr, maximum discharge power was obtained and light emission intensity at 222 nm was highest. The reduction rate of the UV light irradiation (9 kV, 200 Torr) was larger than that of ozonation only, and the reduction rate was improved from 40

  11. Regression and wound healing after excimer laser PRK: a histopathological study on human corneas. (United States)

    Lohmann, C P; Patmore, A; O'Brart, D; Reischl, U; Winkler Mohrenfels, C; Marshall, J


    The results of excimer laser PRK are promising as more than 80% of eyes with up to -6.0 diopters of attempted correction have refractive results within 1.0 diopter of emmetropia. However, throughout the dioptric range some unexpected results have been observed with individual patients showing an aggressive wound healing response with excessive myopic regression and severe corneal haze. Unfortunately, only limited data are available about the cellular and extracellular responses in human corneas after PRK and this information is important to establish adequate postoperative pharmaceutical treatment. We made a histopathological and immunohistochemical study on 20 human corneal samples from patients with severe corneal haze and myopic regression. The indirect immunofluorescence method was used for demonstration of collagen types I, III, IV laminin, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate, and keratin. All corneal specimens showed a hyperplastic epithelium. Histologically, most samples (16/20) showed mainly a loose lamination of extracellular material which could be identified as collagen type IV. The remaining four samples had newly synthesised collagen type III. Our histopathological results indicate that corneal wound healing after excimer laser PRK varies among individuals. In some people epithelial basement proteins, such as collagen type IV, are the main wound healing products, whereas in others mainly collagen type III is found postoperatively, which does not effect the synthesis of collagen type IV. This suggests the need for individually-tailored postoperative pharmaceutical treatment regimens.

  12. Immunofluorescence study of corneal wound healing after excimer laser anterior keratectomy in the monkey eye. (United States)

    Malley, D S; Steinert, R F; Puliafito, C A; Dobi, E T


    We performed anterior keratectomies on six monkey eyes, four by excimer laser large-area ablation at 193 nm and two by mechanical keratectomy. Immunofluorescence was used to study the wound healing response histopathologically. The distribution of fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminin, collagen types III, IV, and VI, and keratan sulfate was determined at postoperative intervals of 24 hours, 6 days, and 1 month. At 24 hours, fibrinogen and fibronectin coated the ablated surface, but corneal epithelial cells had not yet migrated over the wound. By 6 days and persisting at 1 month, an epithelial ingrowth of seven to 10 layers, mild stromal hypercellularity, and new collagen formation were present in the repair region. At 1 month, fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminin, and type III collagen were strongly detected in the repair region. Type VI collagen was present in both normal and healed corneal stroma at all intervals, and type IV collagen was present in Descemet's membrane only. Sulfated keratan sulfate was absent from the newly synthesized collagen stroma at all intervals. Slit-lamp photographs demonstrated corneal haze in the ablation zone in all cases at 24 hours, persisting for 1 month. The fluorescence patterns produced by excimer laser ablation and mechanical keratectomy were qualitatively identical.

  13. A new transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy mode using the NIDEK CXIII excimer laser. (United States)

    Buzzonetti, Luca; Petrocelli, Gianni; Laborante, Antonio; Mazzilli, Emilio; Gaspari, Mario; Valente, Paola; Francia, Elisa


    To evaluate epithelial healing, postoperative pain, and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) after transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) performed with a new phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) mode using the NIDEK CXIII excimer laser. Fifteen eyes from 10 patients with myopia underwent transepithelial PRK using a multistage program to perform PTK followed by PRK. The PTK incorporated Flex Scan, which accounts for the loss of radial ablation efficiency on the peripheral cornea. The epithelium was removed with the excimer laser by monitoring the disappearance of blue fluorescence during the ablation. Epithelial healing was evaluated by taking slit-lamp photographs every 24 hours until complete reepithelialization. Postoperative pain was measured according to the Faces Pain Rating Scale. All outcomes are reported for 3 months postoperatively. Haze was graded by two ophthalmologists, each masked to the other's result. Mean reepithelialization took 3.50+/-0.85 days, mean pain score was 3.00+/-1.20, and BSCVA was 20/20 for 9 eyes, 20/30 for 3 eyes, and 20/40 for 3 eyes. All patients had haze below grade 2. The outcomes of the preliminary study show that the incorporation of the Flex Scan algorithm in the PTK mode is as safe and effective as conventional PTK algorithms. The primary advantage of this new PTK mode may be more consistent epithelial removal. Additional studies are needed to determine long-term outcomes.

  14. Pain after epithelial removal by ethanol-assisted mechanical versus transepithelial excimer laser debridement. (United States)

    Kanitkar, K D; Camp, J; Humble, H; Shen, D J; Wang, M X


    To compare subjective pain responses between two techniques of epithelial removal prior to photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) treatment: ethanol-soaked pledget with mechanical debridement of the epithelium versus excimer laser transepithelial ablation. Nine patients underwent bilateral PRK. Each had the epithelium in one eye debrided by placing a pledget soaked in 20% ethanol on the cornea for 2 minutes followed by gentle scraping with a blade. The epithelium in the other eye was removed by transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) treatment. For each eye, PRK was initiated immediately after removal of the epithelium. On postoperative day one, each patient was asked to rate the level of pain suffered over the last 24 hours on a scale of 0 (minimal) to 10 (maximal). Data were analyzed in a masked fashion. Postoperative day one average pain level in the ethanol-assisted mechanically debrided eyes was 3.0 +/- 2.5 and in the transepithelial PTK eyes was 6.8 +/- 1.8. The difference was statistically significant by Student's t-test (P < .01). All epithelial defects healed within 3 days with no clinically significant difference in healing time between the two techniques. In preparation for PRK, ethanol-assisted mechanical debridement of the epithelium caused significantly less postoperative pain than epithelial removal using the excimer laser.

  15. Excimer laser texturing of natural composite polymer surfaces for studying cell-to-substrate specific response (United States)

    Dinca, V.; Alloncle, P.; Delaporte, P.; Ion, V.; Rusen, L.; Filipescu, M.; Mustaciosu, C.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M.


    Surface modifications of biocompatible materials are among the main factors used for enhancing and promoting specific cellular activities (e.g. spreading, adhesion, migration, and differentiation) for various types of medical applications such as implants, microfluidic devices, or tissue engineering scaffolds. In this work an excimer laser at 193 nm was used to fabricate chitosan-collagen roughness gradients. The roughness gradients were obtained in one step by applying single laser pulses and sample tilting. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and spectro-ellipsometry (SE) were used for sample characterization. The goal is to determine the optimal morpho-chemical characteristics of these structures for in vitro tailoring of protein adsorption and cell behavior. The response induced by the roughness gradient onto various cell lines (i.e. L 929 fibroblasts, HEP G2 hepatocytes, OLN 93 oligodendrocytes, M63 osteoblasts) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein absorption was investigated.

  16. Time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer in the study of excimer laser damage of chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, L. [Department of Molecular Genetics and Radiobiology, Babes National Institute, Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail:; Mihailescu, I. [Department of Lasers, Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Radu, S. [Department of Computer Science, Polytechnics University, Bucharest (Romania); Gazdaru, D. [Department of Biophysics, Bucharest University (Romania)


    The analysis of chromatin damage produced by a 248 nm excimer laser radiation, for doses of 0.3-3 MJ/m{sup 2} was carried out by time-resolved spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The chromatin was extracted from a normal and a tumoral tissue of Wistar rats. The decrease with laser dose of the relative contribution of the excited state lifetimes of ethidium bromide (EtBr) bounded to chromatin constitutes an evidence of the reduction of chromatin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-strand structure. FRET was performed from dansyl chloride to acridine orange, both coupled to chromatin. The increase of the average distance between these ligands, under the action of laser radiation, reflects a loosening of the chromatin structure. The radiosensitivity of tumor tissue chromatin is higher than that of a normal tissue. The determination of the chromatin structure modification in an excimer laser field can be of interest in laser therapy.

  17. Evaluation of the efficacy of excimer laser ablation of cross-linked porcine cornea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combination of riboflavin/UVA cross-linking (CXL and excimer laser ablation is a promising therapy for treating corneal ectasia. The cornea is strengthened by cross-linking, while the irregular astigmatism is reduced by laser ablation. This study aims to compare the efficacy of excimer laser ablation on porcine corneas with and without cross-linking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The porcine cornea was de-epithelialized and treated with 0.1% riboflavin solution for 30 minutes. A half of the cornea was exposed to UVA-radiation for another 30 minutes while the controlled half of the cornea was protected from the UVA using a metal shield. Photo therapeutic keratectomy (PTK was then performed on the central cornea. Corneal thickness of 5 paired locations on the horizontal line, ± 0.5, ± 1.0, ± 1.5, ± 2.0, and ± 2.5 mm from the central spot, were measured using optical coherence tomography prior to and after PTK. The ablation depth was then determined by the corneal thickness. There was a 9% difference (P<0.001 in the overall ablation depth between the CXL-half corneas (158 ± 22 µm and the control-half corneas (174 ± 26 µm. The ablation depths of all 5 correspondent locations on the CXL-half were significantly smaller (P<0.001. CONCLUSION: The efficacy of the laser ablation seems to be lower in cross-linked cornea. Current ablation algorithms may need to be modified for cross-linked corneas.

  18. Eye-Tracker-Guided Non-Mechanical Excimer Laser Assisted Penetrating Keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Langenbucher


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to implement a new eye tracking mask which could be used to guide the laser beam in automated non-mechanical excimer laser assisted penetrating keratoplasty. Materials and methods: A new trephination mask design with an elevated surface geometry has been proposed with a step formation between conical and flat interfaces. Two recipient masks of 7.5/8.0 mm have been manufactured and tested. The masks have outer diameter of 12.5 mm, step formation at 10.5 mm, and slope of conical surfaces 15°. Its functionality has been tested in different lateral positions and tilts on a planar surface, and pig eye experiments. After successful validation on porcine eyes, new masks have been produced and tested on two patients. Results: The build-in eye tracking software of the MEL 70 was always able to capture the masks. It has been shown that the unwanted pigmentation/pattern induced by the laser pulses on the mask surface does not influence the eye-tracking efficiency. The masks could be tracked within the 18 × 14 mm lateral displacement and up to 12° tilt. Two patient cases are demonstrated. No complications were observed during the surgery, although it needs some attention for aligning the mask horizontally before trephination. Stability of eye tracking masks is emphasized by inducing on purpose movements of the patient head. Conclusion: Eye-tracking-guided penetrating keratoplasty was successfully applied in clinical practice, which enables robust tracking criteria within an extended range. It facilitates the automated trephination procedure of excimer laser-assisted penetrating keratoplasty.

  19. Effect of preionization, fluorine concentration, and current density on the discharge uniformity in F2 excimer laser gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathew, D.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Boller, Klaus J.; Peters, P.J.M.


    The discharge homogeneity in F2-based excimer laser gas mixtures and its dependence on various key parameters, such as the degree of preionization, preionization delay time, F2 concentration and current density, is investigated in a small x-ray preionized discharge chamber. The spatial and temporal

  20. Evaluation and diffusion of excimer laser treatment of myopia in the United States and in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vondeling, H.; Rosendal, H.; Banta, D.


    Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is an experimental treatment to correct myopia (short-sightedness) that is diffusing into use without convincing evidence of safety and efficacy. It has been claimed that PRK may render conventional methods of correcting myopia, such as wearing glasses

  1. Fabrication of the Long Bragg Grating by Excimer Laser Micro Machining with High-Precision Positioning XXY Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhong Wu


    Full Text Available With the advancement of technology, the application of fiber Bragg grating is widely used as a Bragg grating sensor. Fiber Bragg grating is fabrication using excimer laser machining with the phase masker. The grating length is decided by the width of laser beam. In this paper, we proposed fabrication of the long Bragg grating by excimer Laser micro machining with a high-precision positioning XXY platform. The high-precision positioning XXY platform plays an important role for long FBG. It needs seriously to combine three short FBGs. Therefore, we can obtain a long FBG with 15mm length. This method can provide a solution to fabricate long FBG by using cheap laser with high-precision positioning XXY platform.

  2. Alternatives to excimer laser refractive surgery: UV and mid-infrared laser ablation of intraocular lenses and porcine cornea (United States)

    Serafetinides, A. A.; Makropoulou, M.; Spyratou, E.; Bacharis, C.


    Despite the fact that the laser applications in human ophthalmology are well established, further research is still required, for better and predictable ablation dosimetry on both cornea tissue and intraocular lenses. Further studies for alternative laser sources to the well established excimer lasers, such as UV or mid-infrared solid state lasers, have been proposed for refractive surgery. The precise lens ablation requires the use of laser wavelengths possessing a small optical penetration depth in the cornea and in the synthetic lenses, in order to confine the laser energy deposition to a small volume. In order to eliminate some very well known problems concerning the reshaping of cornea and the modification of the optical properties of the intraocular lenses, ablation experiments of ex vivo porcine cornea, acrylic PMMA and hydrophilic lenses were conducted with an Er:YAG laser (2.94 μm) and the fifth harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (213 nm). The morphology of cornea was recorded using a cornea topography system before and immediately after the ablation. Histology analysis of the specimens was obtained, in order to examine the microscopic appearance of the ablated craters and the existence of any thermal damage caused by the mid-infrared and UV laser irradiation. The macroscopic morphology of the intraocular lens craters was inspected with an optical transmission microscope. Measurements of the ablation rates of the lenses were performed and simulated by a mathematical model.

  3. Surface studies on benzophenone doped PDMS microstructures fabricated using KrF excimer laser direct write lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, Madhushree Bute; Shinde, Shashikant D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Bodas, Dhananjay [Centre for Nanobioscience, Agharkar Research Institute, Agharkar road, Pune 411004 (India); Patil, K.R. [Center for Materials Characterization, National Chemical Laboratories, Pune 411008 (India); Sathe, V.G. [UGC DAE Inter University Consortium, Indore 452017 (India); Adhi, K.P. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Gosavi, S.W., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Use of KrF Laser micromachining for Lab-On-Chip applications at lower fluence. • Addition of Benzophenone in PDMS enhances its self development sensitivity. • Benzophenone helps efficient energy transfer for equal density of bond scissioning. • Correlation of chemical composition with laser dose and microstructure. • Microstructures with well defined clean sidewalls. - Abstract: This paper discusses microfabrication process for benzophenone doped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using laser lithography. KrF excimer laser of 248 nm with 20 ns pulse width at repetition rate of 1 Hz was used for microfabrication of undoped and benzophenone doped PDMS. The doped-PDMS shows sensitivity below 365 nm, permitting processing under ambient light. The analysis of etch depth revealed that doped PDMS shows self developable sensitivity at lower fluence of ∼250 mJ/cm{sup 2}. The unexposed and exposed surface was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spectrocopic analysis indicated increase in C-O, C=O, Si-O{sub 3} and Si-O{sub 4} bonding at the expense of Si-C and Si-O{sub 2} bonds of PDMS. In case of laser exposed doped-PDMS, removal of benzophenone from probe depth of spectroscopy was observed. Whereas the surface morphology of exposed and unexposed doped-PDMS was observed to be same, indicating clean development of PDMS micropatterns. The present study indicates that addition of 3.0 wt.% benzophenone in PDMS enhance self development sensitivity of PDMS. The self developable results on doped-PDMS are quite encouraging for its potential use in point of care Lab-On-Chip applications, for fabricating micropatterns using direct write laser lithography technology.

  4. Interaction of 308-nm excimer laser light with temporomandibular joint related structures (United States)

    Liesenhoff, Tim; Funk, Armin


    Arthroscopy of TMJ has become a clinically important and more and more accepted method for diagnosis and treatment of TMJ alteration. This minimal invasive method is clearly limited by the anatomical dimensions of the TMJ. A 308 nm excimer laserlight has already found clinical applications in angioplasty, ophthalmology, and dentistry. The aim of the presented study was to find out if it is possible to ablate TMJ related structures under arthroscopic conditions. It also aims to evaluate the energy-threshold for ablation and the maximal possible rate of ablation. Contrary to other laser systems it offers a unique combination of minimal tissue alteration, precise tissue ablation guidability through optical fibers, and a good transmission through water.

  5. The effect of 193 nm excimer laser radiation on the human corneal endothelial cell density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isager, P.; Hjortdal, J.Oe.; Ehlers, N. [Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Ophthalmology, Aarhus (Denmark)


    The effect of 193 nm excimer laser radiation on human corneal endothelial cell density was examined. Fifty-five eyes from 35 patients underwent photorefractive keratectomy for myopia. Photomicrographs of the endothelium were taken a short time before the operation and on an average of 7 months postoperatively with a specular microscope. The average endothelial cell densities were preoperatively 3375 {+-} 266 cells/mm{sup 2} (means {+-} SD) and postoperatively 3348 {+-} 287 cells/mm{sup 2}, corresponding to a fall of 27 cells/mm{sup 2} (N = 55). This fall in endothelial cell density was not statistically significant. A significant correlation between the change in cell density and age of the patient was found, with older patients losing more cells (N = 35, 2p < 0.05). The magnification of the specular microscope was found to change with corneal thickness. The importance of correcting the endothelial cell densities for corneal thickness is discussed. (au) 14 refs.

  6. Pre-operative therapeutic eyelid hygiene in the prevention of complications following excimer laser vision correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kurenkov


    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess the effectiveness of pre-operative therapeutic eyelid hygiene in the prevention and treatment of dry eye and meibomian glands dysfunction following excimer laser vision surgery.Methods: In enrolled 144 patients (288 eyes, ocular surface and meibomian glands functions were evaluated before and following refractive surgery (LASIK and REIK. In pre- and post-operative period, standard ophthalmological studies were performed, including best-corrected visual acuity determination, biomicroscopy, Schirmer’s test and Norn’s test (tear break-up time. In pre-operative pe- riod, ocular surface microbial profile was assessed. Subjective symptoms of impaired tear production were revealed via questioning. In study group (70 patients, 140 eyes, therapeutic eyelid hygiene using Blefarogel 1 or Blefarogel 2 (Ltd. Heltec-Medica, Moscow, Russia was prescribed one week before surgery. In control group, no therapeutic eyelid hygiene was prescribed. All patients were received antibacterial treatment including Vigamox (Alcon, Fort Worth, tX. In both groups, Natural tears and Systane Ultra (Alcon were used as tear replacement therapy.Results: Complex treatment, including therapeutic eyelid hygiene in study group, significantly improved tear film and ocular sur- face health as well as meibomian glands functions. Inflammatory complications rate was estimated as 5.7% in study group and 10.6% in control group.Conclusion: therapeutic eyelid hygiene is highly effective in the prophylaxis and treatment of post-operative complications duу to ocular surface pathology and meibomian glands dysfunction. the procedure is safe and can be recommended as a part of complex preventive treatment before excimer laser vision correction.

  7. Pre-operative therapeutic eyelid hygiene in the prevention of complications following excimer laser vision correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kurenkov


    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess the effectiveness of pre-operative therapeutic eyelid hygiene in the prevention and treatment of dry eye and meibomian glands dysfunction following excimer laser vision surgery.Methods: In enrolled 144 patients (288 eyes, ocular surface and meibomian glands functions were evaluated before and following refractive surgery (LASIK and REIK. In pre- and post-operative period, standard ophthalmological studies were performed, including best-corrected visual acuity determination, biomicroscopy, Schirmer’s test and Norn’s test (tear break-up time. In pre-operative pe- riod, ocular surface microbial profile was assessed. Subjective symptoms of impaired tear production were revealed via questioning. In study group (70 patients, 140 eyes, therapeutic eyelid hygiene using Blefarogel 1 or Blefarogel 2 (Ltd. Heltec-Medica, Moscow, Russia was prescribed one week before surgery. In control group, no therapeutic eyelid hygiene was prescribed. All patients were received antibacterial treatment including Vigamox (Alcon, Fort Worth, tX. In both groups, Natural tears and Systane Ultra (Alcon were used as tear replacement therapy.Results: Complex treatment, including therapeutic eyelid hygiene in study group, significantly improved tear film and ocular sur- face health as well as meibomian glands functions. Inflammatory complications rate was estimated as 5.7% in study group and 10.6% in control group.Conclusion: therapeutic eyelid hygiene is highly effective in the prophylaxis and treatment of post-operative complications duу to ocular surface pathology and meibomian glands dysfunction. the procedure is safe and can be recommended as a part of complex preventive treatment before excimer laser vision correction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Eskina


    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the tregalose based eye drops effectiveness in patients who underwent PRK or TransPRK surgery. patients and methods: 50 patients with moderate myopia were examined before, 7 days and 1 month after PRK or TransPRK surgery made by SCHWIND Amaris excimer laser by the same surgeon. In addition to conventional diagnostics, Schirmer test and tear break up time were performed as well as ODSI questionare and Oxford index of ocular surface disorders were investigated. Patients were divided in two groups, Study group — “Thealos” group and “Control” group. In both groups patients have started using non preservative eye drops based on tregalosa and hyaluronic acid 4-th day after surgery respectively. results: The tear film breakup time was significantly better in “Thealos” group (7,22±3,61 sec 7 days postop and 9,36±3,68 sec 1 month postop in comparison to «Control” group 5,21±0,25 (р<0,01 sec and 7,21±2,85 sec respectively (р<0,05 as well as ocular surface index score in “Thealos” group post surgery was less (0,26±0,38 и 0,85±0,31 marks 7 days postop (р<0,05 and 0,09±0,19 and 0,21±0,4 (р<0,05 1 month postop respectively. There were no other statistically significant differences found in analysed data. Conclusion: Using of “Thealoz” non-preservative eye drops leads to faster recovery after surface excimer laser ablations in terms of dry eye manifestation, those as tearfilm stability and ocular surface index score, measured using “Oxford” scale. Moistening properties of tregaloze solution could be compared with those of hyaluronic acid solution.

  9. Report on the Study of Radiation Damage in Calcium Fluoride and Magnesium Fluoride Crystals for use in Excimer Laser Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    A study was performed to investigate the effects of radiation damage in calcium fluoride and magnesium fluoride crystals caused by gamma rays and UV photons from excimer lasers. The purpose was to study and correlate the damage caused by these two different mechanisms in various types of material used for fabricating optical elements in high power excimer lasers and lens systems of lithography tools. These optical systems are easily damaged by the laser itself, and it is necessary to use only the most radiation resistant materials for certain key elements. It was found that a clear correlation exists between the, radiation induced damage caused by high energy gamma rays and that produced by UV photons from the excimer laser. This correlation allows a simple procedure to be developed to select the most radiation resistant material at the ingot level, which would be later used to fabricate various components of the optical system. This avoids incurring the additional cost of fabricating actual optical elements with material that would later be damaged under prolonged use. The result of this screening procedure can result in a considerable savings in the overall cost of the lens and laser system.

  10. Numerical study of threshold intensity dependence on gas pressure in the breakdown of molecular hydrogen induced by excimer laser (United States)

    Gamal, Yosr E. E.-D.; Nassef, O. Aied


    In the present work, a numerical analysis is performed to investigate the threshold intensity dependence on gas pressure in laser spark ignition of the H2 plasma. The analysis considered the experimental measurements that were carried out by Yagi and Huo [Appl. Opt. 35, 3183 (1996)]. In their experiment, H2 in a pressure range of 150-3000 Torr is irradiated by a focused excimer laser source using a 96 cm lens at a wavelength of 248 nm and a pulse duration of 20 ns. The study, based on a modified electron cascade model [K. A. Hamam et al., J. Mod. Phys. 4, 311 (2013)], solves numerically a time-dependent energy equation for the distribution of the electron energy as well as a set of rate equations that describe the change in the formed excited molecule population. This model enabled the determination of the threshold intensity as a function of gas pressure. The validity of the model was tested by comparing the calculated thresholds with the experimentally measured ones. Moreover, the calculation of the electron energy distribution function and its parameters justified the role of the electron gain and loss processes in controlling the value of threshold intensity in relation to the gas pressure. The effect of loss processes on the threshold intensity is also presented.

  11. Excimer laser texturing of natural composite polymer surfaces for studying cell-to-substrate specific response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinca, V., E-mail: [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Alloncle, P.; Delaporte, P. [Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, LP3 Laboratory, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Ion, V. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Rusen, L.; Filipescu, M. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Mustaciosu, C. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering – IFIN HH, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M. [NILPRP, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)


    Highlights: • Roughness gradients are obtained in one step by applying single laser pulses and sample tilting. • BSA protein and cell dependence behavior onto gradient characteristics was studied. • The degradation of the samples by lysozyme was correlated to its ability to access the textured area. - Abstract: Surface modifications of biocompatible materials are among the main factors used for enhancing and promoting specific cellular activities (e.g. spreading, adhesion, migration, and differentiation) for various types of medical applications such as implants, microfluidic devices, or tissue engineering scaffolds. In this work an excimer laser at 193 nm was used to fabricate chitosan–collagen roughness gradients. The roughness gradients were obtained in one step by applying single laser pulses and sample tilting. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and spectro-ellipsometry (SE) were used for sample characterization. The goal is to determine the optimal morpho-chemical characteristics of these structures for in vitro tailoring of protein adsorption and cell behavior. The response induced by the roughness gradient onto various cell lines (i.e. L 929 fibroblasts, HEP G2 hepatocytes, OLN 93 oligodendrocytes, M63 osteoblasts) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein absorption was investigated.

  12. H and Au diffusion in high mobility a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors via low temperature KrF excimer laser annealing (United States)

    Bermundo, Juan Paolo S.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Fujii, Mami N.; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Uraoka, Yukiharu


    We report the fabrication of high mobility amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) irradiated by a single shot of a 248 nm KrF excimer laser. Very high mobilities (μ) of up to 43.5 cm2/V s were obtained after the low temperature excimer laser annealing (ELA) process. ELA induces high temperatures primarily in the upper layers and maintains very low temperatures of less than 50 °C in the substrate region. Scanning Transmission Electron micrographs show no laser induced damage and clear interfaces after the laser irradiation. In addition, several characterization studies were performed to determine the μ improvement mechanism. The analysis of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy suggests incorporation of H mainly from the hybrid passivation layer into the channel. Moreover, Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy results show that Au diffused into the channel after ELA. Both KrF ELA-induced H and Au diffusion contributed to the higher μ. These results demonstrate that ELA can greatly enhance the electrical properties of a-IGZO TFTs for promising applications in large area, transparent, and flexible electronics.

  13. NC-controlled production of smooth 3D surfaces in brittle materials with 193-nm excimer laser (United States)

    Toenshoff, Hans K.; Graumann, Christoph; Hesener, Hanno; Rinke, Marcus


    Micromachining performed by Excimer Lasers in conjunction with NC-controlled machines offer flexible production possibilities for 3-D-surfaces. Due to the limitations of conventional micromachining technology for brittle transparent materials in the micro range, a new laser machining beam guiding and data handling system was designed and built. The data handling starts with the mathematical description of the surface shape to be machined. The contour can be derived from a mathematical function or individual xyz-data point information from any CAD-program. A pre-processor calculates the nc-data for laser triggering, xyz-motion and the nc-mask control. Each laser pulse leads to a material removal, defined by the illuminated surface on the work piece as well as the energy density. The principal of superposition of pulses allows the creation of the desired contour. The chosen ablation strategy determines the surface roughness and the process speed. To achieve best results, it has to be carefully adjusted for a specific material. This technique does not require prefabricated tools such as semiconductor masks. This is a sufficient method for structuring grooves in ceramics, diamonds or glass as well as aspherical transparent optical surfaces or micro lens arrays. The excellent absorption of 193 nm compared to 248 nm or larger wavelengths leads to damage free structuring of most brittle materials. The optimized surface ablation process requires spot sizes and energy densities on the work piece which can not be realized with a mirror based beam guidance system. To eliminate these restrictions, a new mirror free machining concept with a gas flushed beam guiding system mounted on a granite vibration reduction table with air bearing positioning system was build. This paper describes the potential of 193 nm treatment of 3-D micro surfaces with a process optimized machine and data handling system.

  14. The effect on the ultrastructure of dental enamel of excimer-dye, argon-ion and CO2 lasers. (United States)

    Palamara, J; Phakey, P P; Orams, H J; Rachinger, W A


    This study aimed to investigate the ultrastructural changes that occur in dental enamel irradiated with pulsed excimer-dye, continuous-wave (CW) argon-ion and CW CO2 lasers. The pulsed excimer-dye laser produced deep craters, rough damaged surfaces with underlying porosity and amorphous vitrified material. The vitrification of the enamel indicated that the temperature in these areas must have been at least in the range 1280 to 1600 degrees C. The CW argon-ion laser irradiation produced a changed non-cratered surface with inter-crystalline porosity and a mixture of small and some large irregularly packed recrystallized enamel crystals. The CW CO2 laser produced shallow craters, surface crazing and lifting off the removal of the surface layer to expose the underlying roughened enamel. The ultrastructure revealed inter- and intra-crystalline porosity, a mixture of small but variable size irregularly packed recrystallized enamel crystals and also well packed large crystals which indicated further grain growth. The porosity in lased enamel was overall very similar to that seen in enamel heated in an electric furnace to a temperature of 600 degrees C. The presence of recrystallized enamel crystals indicated a temperature rise of approximately 1000 degrees C and the grain growth indicated that a temperature > or = 1000 degrees C existed for some time after the laser irradiation. In general the excimer-dye laser produced most surface destruction because of its higher power density and shorter interaction time and the argon-ion laser produced least damage. These results indicated that the lasers used in this study require much more refinement before they can find therapeutic application to dental enamel, and this may well be the case for other lasers being investigated for clinical dental practise.

  15. Krypton Gas for High Quality Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis by KrF Excimer Laser Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Al-Zanganawee


    Full Text Available We report for the first time the production of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs by KrF excimer laser ablation method under the krypton gas atmosphere. For the ablation experiment 450 mJ energy and 30 Hz repetition rate KrF excimer laser was used, and the target was prepared with the following composition: 0.6% Ni, 0.6% Co, and 98.8% C (atomic percentage. The ablation product was characterized by confocal Raman microspectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The SWCNTs obtained are a mixture of semiconducting and metallic types with narrow diameters distribution of 1.26 to 1.49 nm, are micrometers long, and contain low amount of graphite and amorphous carbon.

  16. Des lasers à excimères pour cristalliser le silicium des écrans plats : pourquoi ? comment ? (United States)

    Prat, C.


    Les contraintes techniques et économiques de la fabrication d'écrans plats à cristaux liquides à matrice active ont suscité de nombreuses études de procédés de cristallisation de couches minces de silicium par laser à excimères, exploitant principalement trois types de phénomènes physiques, dans le but d'obtenir des cristaux micrométriques les plus uniformes possible.

  17. Wettability characteristics of carbon steel modified with CO2, Nd:YAG, Excimer and high power diode lasers


    Lawrence, Jonathan; Li, Lin


    Interaction of CO2, Nd:YAG, excimer and high power diode laser (HPDL) radiation with the surface of a common mild steel (EN8) was found to effect changes in the wettability characteristics of the steel, namely changes in the measured contact angle. These modifications are related to changes in the surface roughness, changes in the surface oxygen content and changes in the surface energy of the mild steel. The wettability characteristics of the selected mild steel could be controll...

  18. Excimer laser doping technique for application in an integrated CdTe imaging device

    CERN Document Server

    Mochizuki, D; Aoki, T; Tomita, Y; Nihashi, T; Hatanaka, Y


    CdTe is an attractive semiconductor material for applications in solid-state high-energy X-ray and gamma-ray imaging systems because of its high absorption coefficient, large band gap, good mobility lifetime product of holes and stability at normal atmospheric conditions. We propose a new concept for fabricating an integrated CdTe with monolithic circuit configuration for two-dimensional imaging systems suitable for medical, research or industrial applications and operation at room temperature. A new doping technique has been recently developed that employs excimer laser radiation to diffuse impurity atoms into the semiconductor. Accordingly, heavily doped n- and p-type layers with resistivities less than 1 OMEGA cm can be formed on the high resistive CdTe crystals. We have further extended this technique for doping with spatial pattern. We will present the laser doping technique and various results thus obtained. Spatially patterned doping is demonstrated and we propose the use of these doping techniques for...

  19. Excimer laser assisted very fast exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide at room temperature under air ambient for Supercapacitors electrode (United States)

    Malek Hosseini, S. M. B.; Baizaee, S. M.; Naderi, Hamid Reza; Dare Kordi, Ali


    Excimer laser was used for reduction and exfoliation of graphite oxide (GO) at room temperature under air ambient. The prepared excimer laser reduced graphite oxide (XLRGO) is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), nitrogen adsorption/desorption (BET method), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-vis absorption techniques for surface, structural functional groups and band gap analysis. Electrochemical properties are investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and continues cyclic voltammetry (CCV) in 0.5 M Na2SO4 as electrolyte. Electrochemical investigations revealed that XLRGO electrode has enhanced supercapacitive performance including specific capacitance of 299 F/g at a scan rate of 2 mV/s. Furthermore, CCV measurement showed that XLRGO electrode kept 97.8% of its initial capacitance/capacity after 4000 cycles. The obtained results from electrochemical investigations confirm that the reduction of GO by using an excimer laser produces high-quality graphene for supercapacitor applications without the need for additional operations.

  20. Combined Excimer Laser Photoablation and Amniotic Membrane Overlay for Relief of Symptomatic Discomfort in Gelatinous Drop-like Corneal Dystrophy. (United States)

    Alex, Anne F; Eter, Nicole; Uhlig, Constantin E


    To describe the efficacy of combined excimer laser photoablation and amniotic overlay membrane in the relief of symptomatic discomfort in a 17-year-old patient who had gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured with Snellen letters. Slit-lamp examination of the ocular surface and anterior chamber was performed at baseline. Results were photodocumented. Excimer laser photoablation was performed and subsequently 2 amniotic membranes were transconjunctivally fixated with 10.0 nylon sutures. Investigations and documentation were performed at baseline, every 2 months in the first year, and then every 6 months. The duration of follow-up was 22 months. At baseline, the BCVA was 20/70 in the right eye and 20/200 in the left eye. The patient reported distinct photophobia. Slit-lamp examination was difficult because of blepharospasm. Although gelatinous drops developed again and the BCVA decreased to 2/200, the patient reported significant relief after both microsurgical treatments and remained comfortable at 20 and 22 months. Excimer laser photocoagulation combined with amniotic membrane overlay does not stop the development of gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy but may improve subjective comfort. Such treatment does not hinder subsequent lamellar or penetrating grafts and is helpful in providing the necessary time for preparation of matched keratoplasties.

  1. Low temperature high-mobility InZnO thin-film transistors fabricated by excimer laser annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujii, M.; Ishikawa, Y.; Ishihara, R.; Van der Cingel, J.; Mofrad, M.R.T.; Horita, M.; Uraoka, Y.

    In this study, we successfully achieved a relatively high field-effect mobility of 37.7?cm2/Vs in an InZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) fabricated by excimer layer annealing (ELA). The ELA process allowed us to fabricate such a high-performance InZnO TFT at the substrate temperature less than 50?°C

  2. Low temperature high-mobility InZnO thin-film transistors fabricated by excimer laser annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujii, M.; Ishikawa, Y.; Ishihara, R.; Van der Cingel, J.; Mofrad, M.R.T.; Horita, M.; Uraoka, Y.


    In this study, we successfully achieved a relatively high field-effect mobility of 37.7?cm2/Vs in an InZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) fabricated by excimer layer annealing (ELA). The ELA process allowed us to fabricate such a high-performance InZnO TFT at the substrate temperature less than 50?°C

  3. Influence of corneal collagen crosslinking with riboflavin and ultraviolet-a irradiation on excimer laser surgery. (United States)

    Kampik, Daniel; Ralla, Bernhard; Keller, Sabine; Hirschberg, Markus; Friedl, Peter; Geerling, Gerd


    Riboflavin/ultraviolet A (UVA) cross-linking (CXL) of corneal collagen is a novel method of stabilizing corneal mechanical properties and preventing progression of keratectasias. This study was conducted to investigate whether CXL influences ablation rate, flap thickness, and refractive results of excimer laser procedures ex vivo. Corneal epithelium was removed from enucleated porcine eyes, and CXL was performed with riboflavin 0.1% and UVA radiation (365 nm, 3 mW/cm(2)) for 30 minutes. Control eyes received epithelial abrasion only. Diffusion of riboflavin through the cornea was assessed by using infrared-excited, two-photon microscopy of riboflavin autofluorescence, combined with second-harmonic generation of fibrillar collagen. During phototherapeutic keratectomy, corneal thickness was measured by optical coherence pachymetry. During LASIK for myopia, the flap thickness of microkeratome cuts was measured and the induced refractive change assessed by Placido topography. Data were analyzed by Shapiro-Wilk test and Student's t-test. Multiphoton imaging showed a rapid (30-minute) and even distribution of riboflavin throughout the corneal stroma. No difference in ablation rate was measured in treated and untreated corneas (P = 0.90). Mean flap thickness was increased by 44% in cross-linked corneas (P refractive change was reduced in CXL-treated eyes by 20.1% (P refractive change after LASIK for myopia. Although the laser ablation rate is unaffected, CXL results in an increased flap thickness. This study suggests the need for adjustment of microkeratome and laser parameters for LASIK after CXL and indirectly endorses the theory of a direct stiffening effect of CXL.

  4. Development of a Silicon Based Electron Beam Transmission Window for Use in a KrF Excimer Laser System

    CERN Document Server

    Gentile, C A; Hartfield, J W; Hawryluk, R J; Hegeler, F; Heitzenroeder, P J; Jun, C H; Ku, L P; Lamarche, P H; Myers, M C; Parker, J J; Parsells, R F; Payen, M; Raftopoulos, S; Sethian, J D


    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is currently investigating various novel materials (single crystal silicon, , and ) for use as electron-beam transmission windows in a KrF excimer laser system. The primary function of the window is to isolate the active medium (excimer gas) from the excitation mechanism (field-emission diodes). Chosen window geometry must accommodate electron energy transfer greater than 80% (750 keV), while maintaining structural integrity during mechanical load (1.3 to 2.0 atm base pressure differential, approximate 0.5 atm cyclic pressure amplitude, 5 Hz repetition rate) and thermal load across the entire hibachi area (approximate 0.9 W centre dot cm superscript ''-2''). In addition, the window must be chemically resistant to attack by fluorine free-radicals (hydrofluoric acid, secondary). In accordance with these structural, functional, and operational parameters, a 22.4 mm square silicon prototype window, coated w...

  5. Results of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center: 1993 (United States)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Salz, James J.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Warren, Cathy; Macy, Jonathan I.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Hofbauer, John; Berlin, Michael S.


    This report summarizes the authors' 3-year experience with excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on 240 eyes of 161 patients. With constant laser emission parameters, nitrogen (N2) flow across the cornea was used on 79 eyes while 161 eyes had no N2 flow. 74 eyes were operated on without fixation with a suction ring. Postoperative pain management included patching and oral analgesics in 77 eyes and the use of topical Diclofenac or Ketorolac, and a therapeutic soft contact lens in 163 eyes. Follow up ranged from 1 month (206 eyes) to 36 months (10 eyes).

  6. Terraced copper growth deposited onto Teflon AF1600 by the excimer laser irradiation of Cu(hfac)TMVS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovici, D.; Piyakis, K.; Sacher, E.; Meunier, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)


    The authors are studying the feasibility of constructing Cu/fluoropolymer multilayer devices, in an effort to reduce both metal R and insulator C, a necessary condition in VLSI and GSI microelectronic applications. The laser chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of the organometallic precursor Cu(hfac)TMVS (hexafluoroacetylacetonate)(trimethylvinylsilane) is used to grow copper films on a Teflon AF1600 substrate. Exposure to excimer laser radiation at 248 nm results in a terraced copper growth. A simple model, based on interference effects in the Teflon and copper layers, is presented to account for this structure.

  7. Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy for the treatment of clinically presumed fungal keratitis. (United States)

    Li, Liang-Mao; Zhao, Li-Quan; Qu, Ling-Hui; Li, Peng


    This retrospective study was to evaluate treatment outcomes of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) for clinically presumed fungal keratitis. Forty-seven eyes of 47 consecutive patients underwent manual superficial debridement and PTK. All corneal lesions were located in the anterior stroma and were resistant to medication therapy for at least one week. Data were collected by a retrospective chart review with at least six months of follow-up data available. After PTK, infected corneal lesions were completely removed and the clinical symptoms resolved in 41 cases (87.2%). The mean ablation depth was 114.39 ± 45.51  μ m and diameter of ablation was 4.06 ± 1.07 mm. The mean time for healing of the epithelial defect was 8.8 ± 5.6 days. Thirty-four eyes (82.9%) showed an improvement in best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of two or more lines. PTK complications included mild to moderate corneal haze, hyperopic shift, irregular astigmatism, and thinning cornea. Six eyes (12.8%) still showed progressed infection, and conjunctival flap covering, amniotic membrane transplantation, or penetrating keratoplasty were given. PTK is a valuable therapeutic alternative for superficial infectious keratitis. It can effectively eradicate lesions, hasten reepithelialization, and restore and preserve useful visual function. However, the selection of surgery candidates should be conducted carefully.

  8. Intraoperative videokeratography in penetrating keratoplasty and excimer laser-assisted lamellar keratoplasty for keratoconus. (United States)

    Spadea, Leopoldo; Fiasca, Arianna; Federici, Simone


    To evaluate the usefulness of intraoperative computerized corneal topographic data in excimer laser-assisted lamellar keratoplasty (ELLK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Prospective, comparative, interventional case series. Intra- and postoperative videokeratography (Keratron Scout) evaluation was performed on 30 eyes of 30 consecutive patients affected by keratoconus (16 men and 14 women; mean age 32.63±8.02 years) submitted to ELLK (15 eyes) using 16 interrupted 10-0 nylon stitches or to PK (15 eyes) using a 12-bite 10-0 nylon double-running continuous suture. In the ELLK group, the mean intraoperative keratometric astigmatism was 12.06±4.86 diopters (D), which changed to 5.19±2.51 D after topography-guided intraoperative suture adjustment. In the PK group, intraoperative keratometric astigmatism was 10.18±3.88 D, which changed to 3.49±0.41 D. After 24 months (sutures out), the mean videokeratographic keratometric astigmatism was 3.35±1.96 D in the ELLK group and 3.37±0.92 D in the PK group. The Alpins method of vector analysis showed some significant changes especially in the ELLK group. In keratoplasty surgery, videokeratography is useful for suture adjustment. In the PK group, using a double-running suture technique, the postoperative astigmatism (after all sutures were removed) was similar to the astigmatism measured intraoperatively by videokeratography. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Insight into excimer laser crystallization exploiting ellipsometry: Effect of silicon film precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, Maria [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy)], E-mail:; Giangregorio, Maria M.; Sacchetti, Alberto; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM sez. Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Mariucci, Luigi; Fortunato, Guglielmo [IFN-CNR, Via Cineto Romano, 42 - 00156 Rome (Italy)


    The optical diagnostic of spectroscopic ellipsometry is shown to be an effective tool to investigate the mechanism of excimer laser crystallization (ELC) of silicon thin films. A detailed spectroscopic ellipsometric investigation of the microstructures of polycrystalline Si films obtained on SiO{sub 2}/Si wafers by ELC of a-Si:H and nc-Si films deposited, respectively, by SiH{sub 4} plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and SiF{sub 4}-PECVD is presented. It is shown that ellipsometric spectra of the pseudodielectric function of polysilicon thin films allows to discern the three different ELC regimes of partial melting, super lateral growth and complete melting. Exploiting ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy, it is shown that ELC of nc-Si has very low energy density threshold of 95 mJ/cm{sup 2} for complete melting, and that re-crystallization to large grains of {approx} 2 {mu}m can be achieved by multi-shot irradiation at an energy density as low as 260 mJ/cm{sup 2} when using nc-Si when compared to 340 mJ/cm{sup 2} for the ELC of a-Si films.

  10. Excimer Laser Phototherapeutic Keratectomy for the Treatment of Clinically Presumed Fungal Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Mao Li


    Full Text Available This retrospective study was to evaluate treatment outcomes of excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK for clinically presumed fungal keratitis. Forty-seven eyes of 47 consecutive patients underwent manual superficial debridement and PTK. All corneal lesions were located in the anterior stroma and were resistant to medication therapy for at least one week. Data were collected by a retrospective chart review with at least six months of follow-up data available. After PTK, infected corneal lesions were completely removed and the clinical symptoms resolved in 41 cases (87.2%. The mean ablation depth was 114.39±45.51 μm and diameter of ablation was 4.06±1.07 mm. The mean time for healing of the epithelial defect was 8.8±5.6 days. Thirty-four eyes (82.9% showed an improvement in best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of two or more lines. PTK complications included mild to moderate corneal haze, hyperopic shift, irregular astigmatism, and thinning cornea. Six eyes (12.8% still showed progressed infection, and conjunctival flap covering, amniotic membrane transplantation, or penetrating keratoplasty were given. PTK is a valuable therapeutic alternative for superficial infectious keratitis. It can effectively eradicate lesions, hasten reepithelialization, and restore and preserve useful visual function. However, the selection of surgery candidates should be conducted carefully.

  11. FEM for modelling 193 nm excimer laser treatment of SiO{sub 2}/Si/Si{sub (1-x)}Ge{sub x} heterostructures on SOI substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, J.C.; Chiussi, S.; Gontad, F.; Gonzalez, P. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, E.T.S.I.I. University of Vigo, Campus Universitario, Rua Maxwell s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Martin, E. [Dpto. de Mecanica, Maquinas, Motores Termicos y Fluidos, E.T.S.I.I. University of Vigo, Campus Universitario, Rua Maxwell s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)


    Research on epitaxial crystalline silicon (c-Si) and silicon-germanium (Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}) alloys growth and annealing for microelectronic purposes, such as Micro- or Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS or NEMS) and Silicon-On-Nothing (SON) devices is continuously in progress. Laser assisted annealing techniques using commercial ArF Excimer Laser sources are based on ultra-rapid heating and cooling cycles induced by the 193 nm pulses of 20 ns, which are absorbed in the near surface region of the heterostructures. During and after the absorption of these laser pulses, complex physical processes appear that strongly depend on sample structure and applied laser pulse energy densities. The control of the experimental parameters is therefore a key task for obtaining high quality alloys. The Finite ElementsMethod (FEM) is a powerful tool for the optimization of such treatments, because it provides the spatial and temporal temperature fields that are produced by the laser pulses. In this work, we have used a FEM commercial software, to predict the temperatures gradients induced by ArF excimer laser over a wide energy densities range, 0.1<{phi}<0.4 J/cm{sup 2}, on different SiO{sub 2}/Si/Si{sub (1-x)}Ge{sub (x)} thin films deposited on SOI substrate. These numerical results allow us to predict the threshold energies needed to reach the melting point (MP) of the Si and SiGe alloy without oxidation of the thin films system. Therefore, it is possible to optimize the conditions to achieve high quality epitaxy films. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Effect of time sequences in scanning algorithms on the surface temperature during corneal laser surgery with high-repetition-rate excimer laser. (United States)

    Mrochen, Michael; Schelling, Urs; Wuellner, Christian; Donitzky, Christof


    To investigate the influence of temporal and spatial spot sequences on the ocular surface temperature increase during corneal laser surgery with a high-repetition-rate excimer laser. Institute for Refractive and Ophthalmic Surgery, Zurich, Switzerland, and WaveLight AG, Erlangen, Germany. An argon-fluoride excimer laser system working at a repetition rate of 1050 Hz was used to photoablate bovine corneas with various myopic, hyperopic, and phototherapeutic ablation profiles. The temporal distribution of ablation profiles was modified by 4 spot sequences: line, circumferential, random, and an optimized scan algorithm. The increase in ocular surface temperature was measured using an infrared camera. The maximum and mean ocular surface temperature increases depended primarily on the spatial and temporal distribution of the spots during photoablation and the amount of refractive correction. The highest temperature increases were with the line and circumferential scan sequences. Significant lower temperature increases were found with the optimized and random scan algorithms. High-repetition-rate excimer laser systems require spot sequences with optimized temporal and spatial spot distribution to minimize the increase in ocular surface temperature. An ocular surface temperature increase will always occur depending on the amount of refractive correction, the type of ablation profile, the radiant exposure, and the repetition rate of the laser system.

  13. Excimer laser-assisted recanalisation of femoral arterial stenosis or occlusion caused by the use of Angio-Seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, H.J.; Werk, M.; Beck, A.; Teichgraeber, U.; Haufe, M.; Felix, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany)


    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of excimer laser and balloon angioplasty of femoral artery stenosis and occlusion after use of a haemostatic puncture closure device. A haemostatic puncture closure device (Angio-Seal) was used in 6000 patients after diagnostic or therapeutic artery catheterisation. In 34 of those patients symptoms of peripheral artery disease occurred. Sixteen of those 34 cases were transferred to our clinic for excimer laser angioplasty. All 16 patients presented with symptoms of acute peripheral artery disease within 1-14 days: superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusions (4 cases); superficial femoral artery stenosis (3 cases); high-grade stenosis of the common femoral artery (CFA; 3 cases); high-grade stenosis of CFA; SFA and profund femoral artery (PFA; 3 cases); and occlusions of CFA, SFA and PFA (3 cases). Before any procedure was performed, informed consent was given by the patient, which included the use of the Angio-Seal closure device. Every patient who had to undergo recanalisation procedures gave additional informed consent which especially included the usage of the excimer laser for recanalisation. A measurement of the walking distance, ankle-brachial systolic pressure index (ABI) and diagnostic angiography was performed in 13 cases before and immediate after as well as 3 and 6 months after therapeutic percutaneous transluminal laser angioplasty followed by balloon angioplasty (PTLA/PTA). In 3 patients the risks of PTLA/PTA was considered too high; those patients underwent surgical repair. Angiographic and clinical improvement was achieved in 13 of 13 patients. The mean walking distance increased from 81 to >400 m. The average ankle-brachial systolic pressure index (ABI) increased from 0.47 to 0.84. One patient developed a dissection of the SFA, and in 1 case a peripheral embolisation was seen. The PTLA/PTA technique is a successful therapeutic option for patients with femoral artery occlusion or high-grade stenosis

  14. A comparative study of via drilling and scribing on PEN and PET substrates for flexible electronic applications using excimer and Nd:YAG laser sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandamparambil, R.; Fledderus, H.; Brand, J. van den; Saalmink, M.; Kusters, R.; Podprocky, T.; Steenberge, G. van; Baets, J. de; Dietzel, A.H.


    A study on via drilling and channel scribing on PEN and PET substrates for flexible electronic application is discussed in this paper. For the experiments, both KIF excimer laser (248 nm) and frequency tripled Nd:YAG (355 nm) laser are used. Different measurement techniques like optical microscopy,

  15. Corneal haze induced by excimer laser photoablation in rabbits is reduced by preserved human amniotic membrane graft (United States)

    Wang, Ming X.; Gray, Trevor; Prabhasawat, Pinnita; Ma, Xiong; Culbertson, William; Forster, Richard; Hanna, Khalil; Tseng, Scheffer C. G.


    We conducted a study to determine if preserved human amniotic membrane can reduce corneal haze induced by excimer laser photoablation. Excimer photoablation was performed bilaterally on 40 New Zealand white rabbits with a 6 mm ablation zone and 120 micrometer depth (PTK) using the VISX Star. One eye was randomly covered with a preserved human amniotic membrane and secured using four interrupted 10 - 0 nylon sutures; the other eye served as control. The amniotic membranes were removed at one week, and the corneal haze was graded with a slit-lamp biomicroscopy by three masked corneal specialists (WC, KH and RF) biweekly for the ensuing 12 weeks. Histology and in situ TUNEL staining (for fragmented DNA as an index for apoptosis) was performed at days 1, 3 and 7 and at 12 weeks. One week after excimer photoablation, the amniotic membrane-covered corneas showed more anterior stromal edema, which resolved at the second week. A consistent grading of organized reticular corneal haze was noted among the three masked observers. Such corneal haze peaked at the seventh week in both groups. The amniotic membrane-covered group showed statistically significant less corneal haze (0.50 plus or minus 0.15) than the control groups (1.25 plus or minus 0.35) (p less than 0.001). The amniotic membrane-covered corneas had less inflammatory response at days 1 and 3, showing nearly nil DNA fragmentation on keratocytes on the ablated anterior stromal and less stromal fibroblast activation. There is less altered epithelial cell morphology and less epithelial hyperplasia at 1 week in these amniotic membrane-treated eyes. We concluded from this study that amniotic membrane matrix is effective in reducing corneal haze induced by excimer photoablation in rabbits and may have clinical applications.

  16. Single application on iris localization technology in excimer laser for astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hua Hao


    Full Text Available AIM:To discuss the single application on iris localization technology in excimer laser for the treatment of astigmatism. METHODS:Totally 203 cases(406 eyesof laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIKin the treatment of compound myopic astigmatism patients were operated from November 2011 to November 2012 in our hospital. They were divided into two groups. One was observation group using iris localization and the other was control group using routine operation. Patients in the observation group of 100 cases(200 eyes, aged 18-43 years old, spherical diopter was -1.25 to -8.75D, astigmatism was -1.0 to -3.25D. In control group, 103 patients(206 eyes, aged 19-44 years old, spherical diopter was -1.75-9.50D, astigmatism was -1.0 to -3.25D. The patients in the observation group before the application of WaveScan aberrometer check for iris image, spherical lens, cylindrical lens and astigmatism axis data operation, only single application of iris location, without using wavefront aberration guided technology, laser cutting patterns for conventional LASIK model, spherical, cylindrical mirror and astigmatism axis data source to preoperative wavefront aberration results. The control group received routine LASIK. It was applicated comprehensive optometry optometry respectively to examine astigmatism and axial, based on the computer analysis during the preoperative, 1wk after the operation, and 6mo. Analysis of using SPSS 17 statistical software, it was independent-sample t test between the two groups of residual astigmatism and astigmatism axis. RESULTS:Postoperative residual astigmatism, the observation group was significantly better than the control group. Astigmatism axial measurement after operation, the observation group was significantly less than that of the control group. Postoperative visual acuity at 6mo, the observation group was better than that of the control group. The difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: For patients who cannot

  17. Pigmentation above the constitutive level: an indicator of excimer laser radiation-induced erythema in Koreans. (United States)

    Choi, Jee-Woong; Na, Se-Young; Chung, Mi-Young; Na, Jung-Im; Huh, Chang-Hun; Youn, Sang-Woong; Kang, Hee-Young; Park, Kyoung-Chan


    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces skin erythema, but it is not clear which factors have the greatest effects on UV sensitivity. Six healthy Korean adult men were enrolled and their melanin index (MI) and increment of erythema index (ΔEI) were measured. In each individual, 12 different sites were selected and 36 spots were irradiated with a single shot of monochromatic excimer laser with a dose of 350 mJ/cm(2) . The sites were categorized into three groups based on the cumulative sun exposure: UZ, unexposed zones; FEZ, frequently exposed zones; and IEZ, intermittently exposed zones. The sun exposure indexes (SEI) were also calculated based on previously described methods. ΔEI, MI and SEI were measured and calculated. The ΔEI of UZ was significantly higher than that of FEZ, but lower than that of IEZ. In general, there was a significant relationship between ΔEI and MI (R(2) = 0.135). However, IEZ did not show significant results. In contrast, there was a stronger relationship between ΔEI and SEI (R(2) = 0.344). Overall, the values were significantly higher for the SEI (0.541 [UZ], 0.281 [IEZ] and 0.228 [FEZ]) than for MI (0.311 [UZ], 0.011 [IEZ] and 0.073 [FEZ]). There were significant site variations in UV sensitivity along with skin pigmentation. In addition, significant differences were observed according to the exposure frequency. The SEI was found to be strongly correlated with UV sensitivity. These results suggest that the induced level of pigmentation above the constitutive level will be a better indicator for UV sensitivity than baseline MI. © 2012 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  18. Excimer laser micropatterning of freestanding thermo-responsive hydrogel layers for cells-on-chip applications (United States)

    Santaniello, Tommaso; Martello, Federico; Tocchio, Alessandro; Gassa, Federico; Webb, Patrick; Milani, Paolo; Lenardi, Cristina


    We report a novel reliable and repeatable technologic manufacturing protocol for the realization of micro-patterned freestanding hydrogel layers based on thermo-responsive poly-(N-isopropyl)acrylamide (PNIPAAm), which have potential to be employed as temperature-triggered smart surfaces for cells-on-chip applications. PNIPAAm-based films with controlled mechanical properties and different thicknesses (100-300 µm thickness) were prepared by injection compression moulding at room temperature. A 9 × 9 array of 20 µm diameter through-holes is machined by means of the KrF excimer laser on dry PNIPAAm films which are physically attached to flat polyvinyl chloride (PVC) substrates. Machining parameters, such as fluence and number of shots, are optimized in order to achieve highly resolved features. Micro-structured freestanding films are then easily obtained after hydrogels are detached from PVC by gradually promoting the film swelling in ethanol. In the PNIPAAm water-swollen state, the machined holes’ diameter approaches a slight larger value (30 µm) according to the measured hydrogel swelling ratio. Thermo-responsive behaviour and through-hole tapering characterization are carried out by metrology measurements using an optical inverted and confocal microscope setup, respectively. After the temperature of freestanding films is raised above 32 °C, we observe that the shrinkage of the whole through-hole array occurs, thus reducing the holes’ diameter to less than a half its original size (about 15 µm) as a consequence of the film dehydration. Different holes’ diameters (10 and 30 µm) are also obtained on dry hydrogel employing suitable projection masks, showing similar shrinking behaviour when hydrated and undergone thermo-response tests. Thermo-responsive PNIPAAm-based freestanding layers could then be integrated with other suitable micro-fabricated thermoplastic components in order to preliminary test their feasibility in operating as temperature

  19. Wettability characteristics of a modified mild steel with CO2, Nd:YAG, excimer and high power diode lasers


    Lawrence, Jonathan; Li, Lin


    Interaction of CO2, Nd:YAG, excimer and high-power diode laser radiation with the surface of a common mild steel (EN8) was found to effect changes in the wettability characteristics of the steel, namely changes in the measured contact angle of certain liquids. Such changes were identified as being due to modifications to (i) the surface roughness, (ii) changes in the surface oxygen content and (iii) changes in the surface energy of the mild steel. However, it was found that changes in the wet...

  20. Fabrication of an integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on refractive index modification of polymethylmethacrylate by krypton fluoride excimer laser radiation (United States)

    Koerdt, Michael; Vollertsen, Frank


    It is known that deep ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces a refractive index increase in the surface layer of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) samples. This effect can be used for the fabrication of integrated optical waveguides. PMMA is of considerable interest for bio and chemical sensing applications because it is biocompatible and can be micromachined by several methods, e.g. structuring by photolithography, ablation and hot embossing. In the presented work direct UV irradiation of a common PMMA substrate by a krypton fluoride excimer laser beam through a contact mask has been used to write integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI). MZI are used as sensitive bio and chemical sensors. The aim was to determine contact mask design and laser irradiation parameters for fabricating single-mode MZI for the infrared region from 1.30 μm to 1.62 μm. Straight and curved waveguides have been generated and characterized to determine the optical losses. The generation of channel waveguide structures has been optimized by a two step irradiation process to minimize the lithographic writing time and optical loss. By flood exposure to UV laser radiation in the first step the optical absorption of PMMA can be increased in the irradiated region. The required refractive index profile is then achieved with a second lithographic irradiation. The spectral behaviour of an unbalanced, integrated optical MZI fabricated by this excimer laser based contact mask method is shown for the first time. Further the optical intensity at the output port of a MZI has been measured while the optical path length difference was tuned by creating a temperature difference between the two arms of the MZI.

  1. Fabrication of an integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on refractive index modification of polymethylmethacrylate by krypton fluoride excimer laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerdt, Michael, E-mail: [BIAS - Bremer Institut fuer angewandte Strahltechnik GmbH, Klagenfurter Strasse 2, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Vollertsen, Frank [BIAS - Bremer Institut fuer angewandte Strahltechnik GmbH, Klagenfurter Strasse 2, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)


    It is known that deep ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces a refractive index increase in the surface layer of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) samples. This effect can be used for the fabrication of integrated optical waveguides. PMMA is of considerable interest for bio and chemical sensing applications because it is biocompatible and can be micromachined by several methods, e.g. structuring by photolithography, ablation and hot embossing. In the presented work direct UV irradiation of a common PMMA substrate by a krypton fluoride excimer laser beam through a contact mask has been used to write integrated optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI). MZI are used as sensitive bio and chemical sensors. The aim was to determine contact mask design and laser irradiation parameters for fabricating single-mode MZI for the infrared region from 1.30 {mu}m to 1.62 {mu}m. Straight and curved waveguides have been generated and characterized to determine the optical losses. The generation of channel waveguide structures has been optimized by a two step irradiation process to minimize the lithographic writing time and optical loss. By flood exposure to UV laser radiation in the first step the optical absorption of PMMA can be increased in the irradiated region. The required refractive index profile is then achieved with a second lithographic irradiation. The spectral behaviour of an unbalanced, integrated optical MZI fabricated by this excimer laser based contact mask method is shown for the first time. Further the optical intensity at the output port of a MZI has been measured while the optical path length difference was tuned by creating a temperature difference between the two arms of the MZI.

  2. Controllable Change of Photoluminescence Spectra of Silicone Rubber Modified by 193 nm ArF Excimer Laser (United States)

    Okoshi, Masayuki; Iyono, Minako; Inoue, Narumi


    Photoluminescence spectra of silicone rubber ([SiO(CH3)2]n) photochemically modified by a 193 nm ArF excimer laser was found to be controllable. Compared with the modification in air, the photoluminescence spectra could be blueshifted by the modification in vacuum or the additional irradiation of ArF excimer laser in vacuum after the modification in air. To redshift, on the other hand, the additional irradiation of a 157 nm F2 laser in air after the modification in air, the modification in oxygen gas, or the postannealing after the modification in oxygen gas was effective. The blue and redshifts of the photoluminescence were essentially due to the acceleration of reduction and oxidation reactions of silicone rubber, respectively, because the photoluminescence derives its origin from oxygen deficiency centers and peroxy centers of the silica structure in the modified silicone rubber. On the basis of the spectra changes, colorful light-guiding sheets made of silicone rubber under illumination of a 375 nm light-emitting diode were successfully fabricated for cellular phone use.

  3. Corneal lathing using the excimer laser and a computer-controlled positioning system: Part II--Variable trephination of corneal buttons. (United States)

    Husinsky, W; Mitterer, S; Altmann, J; Grabner, G; Baumgartner, I; Skorpik, F; Asenbauer, T


    A new system is presented that allows a variable trephination of donor corneas for the preparation of corneal buttons used in penetrating keratoplasty. With the help of a computer-controlled positioning system that uses high-precision micropositioning elements (both translation and rotational stages) the donor cornea is removed, epithelial side up, in a fixation device in front of a focused excimer laser beam (ArF, lambda = 193 nm). User friendly computer software allows the surgeon to select a variety of parameters (diameter, shape, angle of trephination) of the corneal graft. Histological and electron microscopical data of human corneas trephined with this "Excimer Laser Corneal Shaping System" are presented.

  4. The applicability of the Sedov - Taylor scaling during material removal of metals and oxide layers with pulsed ? and excimer laser radiation (United States)

    Aden, M.; Kreutz, E. W.; Schlüter, H.; Wissenbach, K.


    For the removal of material with pulsed laser radiation the distance travelled by the shock or blast wave and the amount of energy released in the plasma state due to the absorption of laser radiation are determined experimentally and theoretically. The distance travelled by the blast wave is detected by schlieren photography, the released energy by monitoring the transmitted laser radiation during the removal process. The theoretical evaluation is performed by numerical simulation using a model incorporating the laser-induced vaporization process and the dynamics of the plasma state. The results obtained from the experiments and the model are compared with that of the Sedov - Taylor scaling. The removal of the oxide layer from austenitic steel is investigated with 0022-3727/30/6/011/img8 laser radiation produced by a TEA and a high-power 0022-3727/30/6/011/img8 laser device. For the TEA laser with fluences of 5 and 10 J 0022-3727/30/6/011/img10 50 - 80% of the pulse energy is released into the plasma state and the Sedov - Taylor scaling describes the distance travelled by the blast wave in agreement with data from the experiments and the simulation. For the high-power 0022-3727/30/6/011/img8 laser with a fluence of 50 J 0022-3727/30/6/011/img10, 6% of the pulse energy is released into the plasma state and the Sedov - Taylor scaling does not describe the data of the simulation. The process of removal of copper and aluminium material is simulated for excimer laser radiation with fluences of 15 and 30 J 0022-3727/30/6/011/img10. For copper 15 - 30% of the pulse energy is released into the plasma state and the Sedov - Taylor scaling is applicable. For aluminium, less than 2% of the pulse energy is released into the plasma state and the Sedov - Taylor scaling is only applicable for the higher fluence.

  5. Laser characteristics and interferometric process and sensor applications (United States)

    Glatz, Otto


    Begin Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) are basic elements in DWDM technology. They are produced by UV illumination. UV light sources have been steadily improved to meet the demands of FBG writing industry. We want to characterize some parameters of interest of a simple, line-narrowed excimer laser source, its improvements and contribution to interferometric non-proximity FBG writing. Parameters of interest to be discussed are the temporal and spatial coherence length, the beam stability and spectrum control of produced FBG. With a temporal coherence length of ~ 5 mm it is possible to utilize cost efficient excimer laser technology for the interferometric non-proximity FBG writing process. Correspondingly the line-narrowed Excimer laser can replace expensive frequency doubled Argon ion lasers driving interferometric FBG writing set-ups in production and R & D. Beyond it FBGs for sensor applications play an important role. They have the potential for the measurement of strain / deformation and temperature with applications including monitoring of highways, bridges, aerospace components and chemical and biological sensors. We want to discuss the requirements for excimer lasers for this application: The spatial coherence length, beam profile, pointing and energy stability.

  6. Update on excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center: two-year experience (United States)

    Maguen, Ezra I.; Salz, James J.; Warren, Cathy; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Macy, Jonathan I.; Hofbauer, John; Grundfest, Warren S.


    Our two year experience with excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy for the correction of myopia on 160 eyes of 128 patients is described. All eyes were treated with a VISX Twenty- Twenty excimer laser, with the following parameters: radiant exposure 160 mJ/cm2, frequency 5 Hz, ablation zone diameter 5.0 to 5.5 mm, and stromal ablation rate 0.18 to 0.33 (mu) /pulse. A suction fixation ring was used in all cases either with nitrogen flow (79 eyes) or without nitrogen flow (81 eyes) across the cornea. Follow-up ranged from one month (152 eyes) to 24 months (12 eyes). The results are stable between 3 and 24 months with less than 0.25 D change in the mean postoperative spherical equivalents. In eyes with a follow-up of 6 to 24 months, 77% to 100% were 20/40 or better uncorrected, and 84% to 92% were corrected to within +/- 1 D of emmetropia. Further follow-up is needed to assess the long term safety and efficacy of the procedure.

  7. DUV high power lasers processing for glass and CFRP (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu; Kakizaki, Kouji; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Mimura, Toshio; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru


    A laser processing is widely applied to cutting, drilling, welding, bending and surface treatment in industry. Lasers with a wavelength of 1 μm are mainly used and the processing is realized by melting materials. This thermal process has a high productivity but the processed surface is hard to use for precision machining. This report is focusing on two materials which are classified in wide band gap. Ablation rate was measured with a laser microscope and an optical one. Excimer laser is expected to be a useful tool for these materials

  8. Formation of periodic microswelling structures on silicone rubber surface using ArF excimer laser to realize superhydrophobic property (United States)

    Nojiri, Hidetoshi; Setyo Pambudi, Wisnu; Okoshi, Masayuki


    Periodic microswelling structures were photochemically induced on a silicone rubber surface using a 193 nm ArF excimer laser. Microspheres made of silica glass (SiO2) of 2.5 µm diameter were aligned on the silicone rubber surface during laser irradiation; the laser beam was focused on the silicone surface underneath each microsphere. The height and diameter of the formed microswelling structures were found to be controllable by changing the Ar gas flow rate, single-pulse laser fluence, and laser irradiation time. The chemical bonding of the laser-irradiated sample did not change and thus remained to be a silicone, as analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As a result, microswelling structures of approximately 1.3 µm height and 1.3 µm diameter were successfully obtained. The contact angles of water on the microstructured silicone were measured to be 150° and larger, clearly indicating superhydrophobicity. The mechanism by which the microswellings form their shape was discussed on the basis of the changes in the focal point and spot size during laser irradiation through the SiO2 microsphere.

  9. 193nm high power lasers for the wide bandgap material processing (United States)

    Fujimoto, Junichi; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Kakizaki, Koji; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Mimura, Toshio; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru


    Recently infrared laser has faced resolution limit of finer micromachining requirement on especially semiconductor packaging like Fan-Out Wafer Level Package (FO-WLP) and Through Glass Via hole (TGV) which are hard to process with less defect. In this study, we investigated ablation rate with deep ultra violet excimer laser to explore its possibilities of micromachining on organic and glass interposers. These results were observed with a laser microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). As the ablation rates of both materials were quite affordable value, excimer laser is expected to be put in practical use for mass production.

  10. Laser material processing

    CERN Document Server

    Steen, William


    This text moves from the basics of laser physics to detailed treatments of all major materials processing techniques for which lasers are now essential. New chapters cover laser physics, drilling, micro- and nanomanufacturing and biomedical laser processing.

  11. Scattered ultraviolet emissions during refractive surgery using a high-frequency, wavefront-optimized excimer laser platform. (United States)

    Bower, Kraig S; Edwards, Jayson D; Ryan, Denise Sediq; Coe, Charles D; Hope, Robert J; Sliney, David H


    To evaluate occupational ultraviolet (UV) exposure during photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with the Allegretto Wave Eye-Q 400 Hz excimer laser. Walter Reed Center for Refractive Surgery, Washington, DC, USA. Intraoperative UV measurements were performed during PRK with epithelial removal using an Amoils brush, PRK with epithelial removal using 20% ethanol, or femtosecond LASIK. A LaserStar power/energy meter with a silicone detector (model PD-10) was used for the measurements. The maximum pulse energy 25.4 cm from the corneal surface was recorded for each surgical procedure. Measurements were evaluated using a worst-case scenario for exposure of operating room personnel, and the results were compared with the occupational exposure limit set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Measurements were taken during 15 cases of each procedure. The mean maximum exposure was 129.38 nJ/pulse +/- 79.48 (SD) during brush PRK, 69.72 +/- 68.80 nJ/pulse during ethanol PRK, and 29.17 +/- 13.82 nJ/pulse during LASIK. The mean maximum exposure per eye was 0.085 mJ/cm(2), 0.046 mJ/cm(2), and 0.01 mJ/cm(2), respectively. The worst-case cumulative exposure during a heavy workday of 20 patients (40 eyes) was calculated at 3.92 mJ/cm(2), 1.51 mJ/cm(2), and 0.79 mJ/cm(2) for brush PRK, ethanol PRK, and LASIK, respectively. Results indicate that the excimer laser platform used in the study may yield greater UV exposure than previous systems; however, the levels did not exceed occupational exposure limits. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Improving the ablation efficiency of excimer laser systems with higher repetition rates through enhanced debris removal and optimized spot pattern. (United States)

    Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Klinner, Thomas


    To evaluate the reasons for the required increased radiant exposure for higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers and determine experimentally possible compensations to achieve equivalent ablation profiles maintaining the same single-pulse energies and radiant exposures for laser repetition rates ranging from 430 to 1000 Hz. Schwind eye-tech-solutions GmbH and Co. KG, Kleinostheim, Germany. Experimental study. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated. The pulse laser energy was maintained during all experiments; the effects of the flow of the debris removal, the shot pattern for the correction, and precooling the PMMA plates were evaluated in terms of achieved ablation versus repetition rate. The mean ablation performance ranged from 88% to 100%; the variability between the profile measurements ranged from 1.4% to 6.2%. Increasing the laser repetition rate from 430 Hz to 1000 Hz reduced the mean ablation performance from 98% to 91% and worsened the variability from 1.9% to 4.3%. Increasing the flow of the debris removal, precooling the PMMA plates to -18°C, and adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the variability. Only adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the mean ablation performance. The ablation performance of higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers on PMMA improved with improvements in the debris removal systems and shot pattern. More powerful debris removal systems and smart shot patterns in terms of thermal response improved the performance of these excimer lasers. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of laser materials processing and laser metrology techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Chung, Chin Man; Kim, Jeong Mook; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Kwang Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Seong Ouk; Park, Seung Kyu


    The applications of remote laser materials processing and metrology have been investigated in nuclear industry from the beginning of laser invention because they can reduce the risks of workers in the hostile environment by remote operation. The objective of this project is the development of laser material processing and metrology techniques for repairing and inspection to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. As to repairing, we developed our own laser sleeve welding head and innovative optical laser weld monitoring techniques to control the sleeve welding process. Furthermore, we designedand fabricated a 800 W Nd:YAG and a 150 W Excimer laser systems for high power laser materials processing in nuclear industry such as cladding and decontamination. As to inspection, we developed an ESPI and a laser triangulation 3-D profile measurement system for defect detection which can complement ECT and UT inspections. We also developed a scanning laser vibrometer for remote vibration measurement of large structures and tested its performance. (author). 58 refs., 16 tabs., 137 figs.

  14. Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy : Indications, results and its role in the Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Srinivas


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report indications, technique, and results of excimer phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK, and describe possible reasons for the small numbers of such procedures performed in a referral institute in India. METHODS: Retrospective review of case records of 10 patients (11 eyes who underwent excimer PTK at our institute between February 1994 and September 1997. RESULTS: Corneal scars were the most common indication for treatment. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved in 6 eyes (mean: 2 lines of Snellen acuity. All eyes had BCVA > or = 6/12 after treatment. None of the patients experienced loss of BCVA after treatment. Unaided visual acuity improved in 3 eyes and decreased in 2 eyes. Change in spherical equivalent refraction > or = 1 diopter occurred in 77.8% of eyes after treatment. Treating central corneal scars resulted in a significant hyperopic shift in refraction. CONCLUSIONS: Excimer PTK is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of superficial corneal opacities. Post-treatment ametropia may require further correction with optical aids. Inappropriate referrals, deep corneal scars, and cost of the procedure could have contributed to the small numbers of PTK performed at our institute. Improved understanding of procedural strengths and limitations could lead to increased use of this procedure, with satisfying results in selected patients.

  15. Effects of 308 nanometer excimer laser energy on 316 L stainless-steel stents: implications for laser atherectomy of in-stent restenosis. (United States)

    Burris, N; Lippincott, R A; Elfe, A; Tcheng, J E; O'Shea, J C; Reiser, C


    To determine the effects of the incidental exposure of stents to pulsed 308 nanometer ultraviolet excimer laser energy. Five types of 316 L stainless-steel coronary stents were subjected to two types of study. First, for endurance testing, sixty stents were deployed in 3.0Eth 4.0 mm polymer tubes in three geometries. Up to 1,000 laser pulses were delivered while advancing a 2.0 mm eccentric catheter through the lumen of the stent. These stents were next subjected to 400 million simulated heartbeats and then analyzed for metal etching and fatigue. Second, six additional stents were irradiated with 1,000 pulses underwater and then analyzed for particulates, anions and cations liberated from the stent. Photomicroscopy revealed surface etching on a number of stents. Two stent models exhibited multiple strut fractures at the strut joints in both test samples and controls. In no case was a break observed at the site of laser-stent interaction. Breakage frequency was not significantly different between lazed stents and controls. Lazed stents produced a mean of 14 micrograms of sodium and 4 micrograms of iron more than controls. No excess particulates were detected. Under model conditions typical of clinical use, excimer laser treatment does not alter stainless-steel stent endurance or liberate clinically significant material from the stent.

  16. AFM study of excimer laser patterning of block-copolymer: Creation of ordered hierarchical, hybrid, or recessed structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Švanda, Jan; Siegel, Jakub; Švorčík, Vaclav; Lyutakov, Oleksiy, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Combination of bottom-up (BCP separation) and top-down (laser patterning) technologies allows obtaining hierarchical structures. • Surface morphologies were determined by the order of patterning steps (laser modification, annealing, surface reconstruction). • Tuning the order of steps enables the reorientation of BCP domain at large scale, fabrication of hierarchical, hybrid or recessed structures. • The obtained structures can find potential applications in nanotechnology, plasmonics, information storage, sensors and smart surfaces. - Abstract: We report fabrication of the varied range of hierarchical structures by combining bottom-up self-assembly of block copolymer poly(styrene-block-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) with top-down excimer laser patterning method. Different procedures were tested, where laser treatment was applied before phase separation and after phase separation or phase separation and surface reconstruction. Laser treatment was performed using either polarized laser light with the aim to create periodical pattern on polymer surface or non-polarized light for preferential removing of polystyrene (PS) part from PS-b-P4VP. Additionally, dye was introduced into one part of block copolymer (P4VP) with the aim to modify its response to laser light. Resulting structures were analyzed by XPS, UV–vis and AFM techniques. Application of polarized laser light leads to creation of structures with hierarchical, recessed or hybrid geometries. Non-polarized laser beam allows pronouncing the block copolymer phase separated structure. Tuning the order of steps or individual step conditions enables the efficient reorientation of block-copolymer domain at large scale, fabrication of hierarchical, hybrid or recessed structures. The obtained structures can find potential applications in nanotechnology, photonics, plasmonics, information storage, optical devices, sensors and smart surfaces.

  17. Electronic and crystalline structure of Si/SiO 2 interface modified by ArF excimer laser (United States)

    Cháb, V.; Lukeš, I.; Ondřejček, M.; Jiříček, P.

    The native oxide layers on Si(100) surface were irradiated under UHV conditions by an ArF excimer laser pulses with energy density varied between melting and evaporating thresholds. The resulting changes were studied by LEED, AES and UPS. The increase of the energy density up to evaporation threshold results in the recrystallisation of native oxide layer. The pulses with energy densities just above the evaporation threshold ablate the top layer leaving an ordered and atomicaly clean surface. The observed (1x1) surface reconstruction is probably stabilised by strains introduced during rapid melting and quenching of the topmost layers. The surface electronic structure is dominated by random satisfaction of dangling bonds swearing a well defined surface states observed on (2x1)Si(100) surface.

  18. Synthesis and properties of Ag/ZnO core/shell nanostructures prepared by excimer laser ablation in liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao


    Full Text Available Ag/ZnO core/shell nanostructure was synthesised by a 248-nm KrF excimer pulsed laser ablation in a liquid solution for the first time. It was found that the surface plasma resonance absorption of the Ag/ZnO core/shell nanostructures can be tuned by the thickness of the ZnO shell, which is in agreement with the finite difference in the time domain simulation. Furthermore, the ultraviolet emission spectrum of the Ag/ZnO core/shell nanostructures was stronger and blue-shifted compared with that of pure ZnO nanoparticles. This interesting photoluminescent phenomenon is analysed in detail and a possible explanation is proposed.

  19. Efficacy and safety of ab interno excimer laser trabeculotomy in primary open-angle glaucoma: two years of follow-up. (United States)

    Babighian, Silvia; Rapizzi, Emilio; Galan, Alessandro


    Ab interno trabeculotomy was performed using the recently developed XeCl excimer laser in 21 eyes of 21 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma refractory to medical therapy. The patients were followed at the Eye Department of S. Antonio Hospital in Padova, for an average of 25.3 +/- 1.3 months. Intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity and ocular complications were evaluated. The laser procedure was quick and relatively easy, with minimal manipulation of tissues; complications were clinically insignificant. At the last follow-up, a marked IOP-lowering effect compared to baseline was observed (from 24.8 +/- 2.0 to 16.9 +/- 2.1 mm Hg; -31.8%, p interno excimer laser trabeculotomy seems effective to decrease IOP, serves to reduce the number of antiglaucoma medications and is relatively safe, proving to be a promising therapeutic option in glaucoma surgery. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Agreement between clinical history method, Orbscan IIz, and Pentacam in estimating corneal power after myopic excimer laser surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaevalin Lekhanont

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the agreement between the clinical history method (CHM, Orbscan IIz, and Pentacam in estimating corneal power after myopic excimer laser surgery. Fifty five patients who had myopic LASIK/PRK were recruited into this study. One eye of each patient was randomly selected by a computer-generated process. At 6 months after surgery, postoperative corneal power was calculated from the CHM, Orbscan IIz total optical power at the 3.0 and 4.0 mm zones, and Pentacam equivalent keratometric readings (EKRs at 3.0, 4.0, and 4.5 mm. Statistical analyses included multilevel models, Pearson's correlation test, and Bland-Altman plots. The Orbscan IIz 3.0-mm and 4.0 mm total optical power, and Pentacam 3.0-mm, 4.0-mm, and 4.5-mm EKR values had strong linear positive correlations with the CHM values (r = 0.90-0.94, P = <0.001, for all comparisons, Pearson's correlation. However, only Pentacam 3.0-mm EKR was not statistically different from CHM (P = 0.17, multilevel models. The mean 3.0- and 4.0-mm total optical powers of the Orbscan IIz were significantly flatter than the values derived from CHM, while the average EKRs of the Pentacam at 4.0 and 4.5 mm were significantly steeper. The mean Orbscan IIz 3.0-mm total optical power was the lowest keratometric reading compared to the other 5 values. Large 95% LoA was observed between each of these values, particularly EKRs, and those obtained with the CHM. The width of the 95% LoA was narrowest for Orbscan IIz 3.0-mm total optical power. In conclusion, the keratometric values extracted from these 3 methods were disparate, either because of a statistically significant difference in the mean values or moderate agreement between them. Therefore, they are not considered equivalent and cannot be used interchangeably.

  1. Early outcome of high energy Laser (Excimer) facilitated coronary angioplasty ON hARD and complex calcified and balloOn-resistant coronary lesions: LEONARDO Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosini, Vittorio; Sorropago, Giovanni; Laurenzano, Eugenio [Montevergine Clinic, Mercogliano (Italy); Golino, Luca, E-mail: [Montevergine Clinic, Mercogliano (Italy); Moriggia-Pelascini Hospital, Gravedona, Como (Italy); Casafina, Alfredo; Schiano, Vittorio [Montevergine Clinic, Mercogliano (Italy); Gabrielli, Gabriele [University Hospital Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona (Italy); Ettori, Federica; Chizzola, Giuliano [Spedali Civili University Hospital, Brescia (Italy); Bernardi, Guglielmo; Spedicato, Leonardo [University Hospital S. Maria Misericordia, Udine (Italy); Armigliato, Pietro [Istituto Italiano Ricerche Mediche, Verona (Italy); Spampanato, Carmine [Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), Naples (Italy); Furegato, Martina [Istituto Italiano Ricerche Mediche, Verona (Italy)


    Aim: An innovative xenon–chlorine (excimer) pulsed laser catheter (ELCA X80) has been recently used for the treatment of complex coronary lesions, as calcified stenosis, chronic total occlusions and non-compliant plaques. Such complex lesions are difficult to adequately treat with balloon angioplasty and/or intracoronary stenting. The aim of this study was to examine the acute outcome of this approach on a cohort of patients with coronary lesions. Methods and Results: Eighty patients with 100 lesions were enrolled through four centers, and excimer laser coronary angioplasty was performed on 96 lesions (96%). Safety and effectiveness data were compared between patients treated with standard laser therapy and those treated with increased laser therapy. Laser success was obtained in 90 lesions (93.7%), procedural success was reached in 88 lesions (91.7%), and clinical success in was obtained in 87 lesions (90.6%). There was no perforation, major side branch occlusion, spasm, no-reflow phenomenon, dissection nor acute vessel closure. Increased laser parameters were used successfully for 49 resistant lesions without complications. Conclusions: This study suggests that laser-facilitated coronary angioplasty is a simple, safe and effective device for the management of complex coronary lesions. Furthermore, higher laser energy levels delivered by this catheter improved the device performance without increasing complications. - Highlights: • We planned this multicenter study to examine the acute outcome of an innovative xenon–chlorine (excimer) pulsed laser catheter (ELCA X80) for treatment of complex coronary lesions. • We enrolled 80 patients with 100 lesions and performed excimer laser coronary angioplasty in 96 lesions (96%). • Laser success was obtained in 90 lesions (93.7%), procedural success was reached in 88 lesions (91.7%), and clinical success was obtained in 87 lesions (90.6%). • Increased laser parameters were used successfully for 49 resistant

  2. Surface 3D Micro Free Forms: Multifunctional Microstructured Mesoporous α-Alumina by in Situ Slip Casting Using Excimer Laser Ablated Polycarbonate Molds. (United States)

    Rowthu, Sriharitha; Böhlen, Karl; Bowen, Paul; Hoffmann, Patrik


    Ceramic surface microstructuring is a rapidly growing field with a variety of applications in tribology, wetting, biology, and so on. However, there are limitations to large-area microstructuring and fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) micro free forms. Here, we present a route to obtain intricate surface structures through in situ slip casting using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) negative molds which are replicated from excimer laser ablated polycarbonate (PC) master molds. PC sheets are ablated with a nanosecond KrF (λ = 248 nm) excimer laser mask projection system to obtain micron-scale 3D surface features over a large area of up to 3 m(2). Complex surface structures that include 3D free forms such as 3D topography of Switzerland, shallow structures such as diffractive optical elements (60 nm step) and conical micropillars have been obtained. The samples are defect-free produced with thicknesses of up to 10 mm and 120 mm diameter. The drying process of the slip cast alumina slurry takes place as a one-dimensional process, through surface evaporation and water permeation through the PDMS membrane. This allows homogeneous one-dimensional shrinkage during the drying process, independent of the sample's lateral dimensions. A linear mass diffusion model has been proposed to predict and explain the drying process of these ceramic colloidal suspensions. The calculated drying time is linearly proportional to the height of the slurry and the thickness of the negatively structured PDMS and is validated by the experimental results. An experimentally observed optimum Sylgard PDMS thickness range of ∼400 μm to 1 mm has achieved the best quality microstructured green compacts. Further, the model predicts that the drying time is independent of the microstructured areas and was validated using experimental observations carried out with microstructured areas of 300 mm(2), 1200 mm(2), and 120 cm(2). Therefore, in principle, the structures can be further replicated in areas up

  3. Multifocal Corneal Excimer Femtosecond Laser in situ Keratomileusis following Radial Keratotomy: A Case Report with Six Months of Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraklis Vastardis


    Full Text Available We report the case of a 46-year-old female patient who was referred to our clinic (Orasis Eye Clinic, Reinach, Switzerland seeking improvement of her distance and near visual acuity. Radial keratotomy (RK was performed at a younger age on both eyes to correct -5 D myopia. The patient underwent a bilateral same-session multifocal corneal excimer femtosecond laser (Supracor keratomileusis correction. We introduce a new correction approach, possibly suitable for presbyopic patients previously treated with RK, and we present several potential novel advantages such as enhanced near, intermediate vision, and improvement in quality of life. This is the first report of a bilateral excimer laser treatment attempt of presbyopia following RK.

  4. Chaînes laser intenses à contraste élevé par amplification directe dans un milieu gazeux à excimères* (United States)

    Uteza, O.; Tcheremiskine, V.; Clady, R.; Coustillier, G.; Gastaud, M.; Sentis, M.; Mikheev, L. D.; Chambaret, J. P.


    Cet article présente l'intérêt du concept de laser hybride (solide/gaz) et de l'amplification directe de puissance dans un milieu à excimères pour les chaînes laser de puissance ultrabrèves à contraste élevé. L'architecture d'une chaîne laser multiterawatt basée sur l'emploi du milieu amplificateur XeF(C-A) pompé par voie photolytique est ensuite détaillée, ainsi que les perspectives de dimensionnement de cette approche au niveau PWetEW.



    Bookmark not defined. 2: Ex5ALN KrF laser wavelength study. The laser output was recorded at 248.7 nm relative to the Hg atomic emission at 253.7 nm...Error! Bookmark not defined. 3: Ex5ALN KrF laser pulse width versus accumulated pulses for 14 kV discharge at 100 Hz...Error! Bookmark not defined. 4: Ex5ALN KrF laser timing jitter of laser

  6. Absorption of 308-nm excimer laser radiation by balanced salt solution, sodium hyaluronate, and human cadaver eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keates, R.H.; Bloom, R.T.; Schneider, R.T.; Ren, Q.; Sohl, J.; Viscardi, J.J. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA))


    Absorption of the excimer laser radiations of 193-nm argon fluorine and 308-nm xenon chloride in balanced salt solution, sodium hyaluronate, and human cadaver eyes was measured. The absorption of these materials as considerably different for the two wavelengths; we found that 308-nm light experienced much less absorption than the 193-nm light. The extinction coefficient (k) for 308 nm was k = 0.19/cm for balanced salt solution and k = 0.22/cm for sodium hyaluronate. In contrast to this, the extinction coefficient for 193 nm was k = 140/cm for balanced salt solution and k = 540/cm for sodium hyaluronate. Two 1-day-old human phakic cadaver eyes showed complete absorption with both wavelengths. Using aphakic eyes, incomplete absorption was noted at the posterior pole with 308 nm and complete absorption was noted with 193 nm. The extinction in the anterior part of aphakic eyes (the first 6 mm) was 4.2/cm for 308 nm, meaning that the intensity of the light is reduced by a factor of 10 after traveling the first 5.5 mm. However, we observed that the material in the eye fluoresces, meaning the 308 nm is transformed into other (longer) wavelengths that travel through the total eye with minimal absorption. Conclusions drawn from this experiment are that the use of the 308-nm wavelength may have undesirable side effects, while the use of the 193-nm wavelength should be consistent with ophthalmic use on both the cornea and the lens.

  7. LASEK for the correction of hyperopia with mitomycin C using SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser: one-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosrow Jadidi


    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficacy, safety and predictability of laser-assisted sub-epithelial keratectomy(LASEKfor the correction of hyperopia using the SCHWIND AMARIS platform.METHODS: This retrospective single-surgeon study includes 66 eyes of 33 patients with hyperopia who underwent LASEK with mitomycin C(MMC. The median age of patients was 35.42±1.12y(ranging 18 to 56y. In each patient LASEK was performed using SCHWIND AMARIS excimer laser. Postoperatively clinical outcomes were evaluated in terms of predictability, safety, efficacy, subjective and objective refractions, uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity(BSCVAand adverse events. RESULTS: The mean baseline refraction was 3.2±1.6 diopters(D(ranging 0 to 7 D. The mean pre-operative and postoperative spherical equivalent(SEwere 2.34±1.76(ranging -1.25 to 7 Dand 0.30±0.84(ranging -0.2 to 0.8 Drespectively(P=0.001. The mean hyperopia was 0.63±0.84 D(ranging -1.75 to 2.76 D6 to 12mo postoperatively. Likewise, the mean astigmatism was 0.68±0.43 D(range 0 to 2 Dwith 51(77.3%and 15(22.7%eyes within ±1 and ±0.50 D respectively. The safety index and efficacy index were 1.08 and 1.6 respectively.CONCLUSION:LASEK using SCHWIND AMARIS with MMC yields good visual and refractive results for hyperopia. Moreover, there were no serious complications.

  8. Chitosan- and polypropylene-oriented surface modification using excimer laser and their biocompatibility study. (United States)

    Khaledian, Mohammad; Jiroudhashemi, Faeze; Biazar, Esmaeil


    Surface modification of medical polymers is carried out to improve biocompatibility. In this study, conventional polymers (chitosan and polypropylene) were modified to laser at different features (oriented and non-oriented) to create a vast range of physicochemical characteristics on the surface of polymers and investigate their effects on biocompatibility of treated surfaces. Atomic force microscope (AFM) was applied to study the morphology of treated samples in comparison with those of the untreated PS. Contact angle analyses were used to evaluate the wettability and surface energy of the treated films. AFM studies showed that after laser treatment, some distinctive nanostructures are created on the surface of polymers. The data from contact angle measurements demonstrated that laser irradiation created surfaces with a vast range of properties in the wettability point of view. The cellular results revealed that after surface modification by laser irradiation, biocompatibility of polymeric films, especially oriented films was enhanced.

  9. Laser Processing and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bäuerle, Dieter


    This book gives an overview of the fundamentals and applications of laser-matter interactions, in particular with regard to laser material processing. Special attention is given to laser-induced physical and chemical processes at gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interfaces. Starting with the background physics, the book proceeds to examine applications of lasers in “standard” laser machining and laser chemical processing (LCP), including the patterning, coating, and modification of material surfaces. This fourth edition has been enlarged to cover the rapid advances in the understanding of the dynamics of materials under the action of ultrashort laser pulses, and to include a number of new topics, in particular the increasing importance of lasers in various different fields of surface functionalizations and nanotechnology. In two additional chapters, recent developments in biotechnology, medicine, art conservation and restoration are summarized. Graduate students, physicists, chemists, engineers, a...

  10. Mitomycin-C in corneal surface excimer laser ablation techniques: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. (United States)

    Majmudar, Parag A; Schallhorn, Steven C; Cason, John B; Donaldson, Kendall E; Kymionis, George D; Shtein, Roni M; Verity, Steven M; Farjo, Ayad A


    To review the published literature assessing the efficacy and safety of mitomycin-C (MMC) as an adjunctive treatment in corneal surface excimer laser ablation procedures. Literature searches of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were last conducted on August 19, 2014, without language or date limitations. The searches retrieved a total of 239 references. Of these, members of the Ophthalmic Technology Assessment Committee Refractive Management/Intervention Panel selected 26 articles that were considered to be of high or medium clinical relevance, and the panel methodologist rated each article according to the strength of evidence. Ten studies were rated as level I evidence, 5 studies were rated as level II evidence, and the remaining 11 studies were rated as level III evidence. The majority of the articles surveyed in this report support the role of MMC as an adjunctive treatment in surface ablation procedures. When MMC is applied in the appropriate concentration and confined to the central cornea, the incidence of post-surface ablation haze is decreased. Although a minority of studies that evaluated endothelial cell density (ECD) reported an MMC-related decrease in ECD, no clinical adverse outcomes were reported. Over the past 15 years, the use of MMC during surgery in surface ablation has become widespread. There is good evidence of the effectiveness of MMC when used intraoperatively as prophylaxis against haze in higher myopic ablations. Although there are reports of decreased endothelial counts after the administration of MMC during surgery, the clinical significance of this finding remains uncertain, because no adverse outcomes were reported with as much as 5 years of follow-up. Optimal dosage, effectiveness as prophylaxis in lower myopic and hyperopic ablations, and long-term safety, particularly in eyes with reduced corneal endothelial cell counts from prior intraocular surgery, have yet to be established. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of

  11. Laser in situ keratomileusis with a scanning excimer laser for the correction of low to moderate myopia with and without astigmatism. (United States)

    Balazsi, G; Mullie, M; Lasswell, L; Lee, P A; Duh, Y J


    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of and patient satisfaction with laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) performed with a scanning excimer laser by experienced surgeons to correct low and moderate levels of myopia and astigmatism. Clinique Laservue, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. A consecutive series of 125 patients (236 eyes) with myopia of -0.5 to -7.0 diopters (D) and cylinder less than 2.5 D were enrolled in this single-center prospective clinical trial. The patients were treated with LASIK and followed for 6 months. The System-ALK Automated Corneal Shaper microkeratome (Bausch & Lomb Surgical) with a 180 microm thickness plate and the Technolas 217 excimer laser (Bausch & Lomb Surgical) with PlanoScan software for the stromal ablation were used in all procedures. Since this version of PlanoScan tended to undercorrect, a mean of 14.7% was added to the standard nomogram. Patient satisfaction was assessed by questionnaires administered preoperatively and 1 and 6 months postoperatively. Retreatments for enhancement were not performed during the 6-month follow-up. Six months after LASIK (86.4% follow-up), the mean postoperative manifest spherical equivalent was +0.02 D +/- 0.64 (SD) compared with a preoperative mean of -4.01 +/- 1.59 D. The uncorrected visual acuity was 20/40 or better in 94.6% of eyes and 20/20 or better in 81.9%. A total of 91.2% were within +/-1.0 D of emmetropia and 73.0% were within +/-0.5 D. Only 2 eyes were overcorrected by >1.0 D. Of the eyes with astigmatic myopia, 86.8% were within +/-1.0 D of the intended cylinder correction (by vector analysis) and 73.0% were within +/-0.5 D. The refractions were generally stable after 1 month, and the change in refraction between postoperative examinations was within +/-0.5 D in 88.0% of eyes. A 1-line decrease in best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was seen in 11.3% of eyes, and no eye lost more than 1 line. An increase of 1 or 2 lines was seen in 45.1%. No intraoperative problems occurred, and

  12. Biomechanical and wound healing characteristics of corneas after excimer laser keratorefractive surgery: is there a difference between advanced surface ablation and sub-Bowman's keratomileusis? (United States)

    Dawson, Daniel G; Grossniklaus, Hans E; McCarey, Bernard E; Edelhauser, Henry F


    To describe the biomechanical and wound healing characteristics of corneas after excimer laser keratorefractive surgery. Histologic, ultrastructural, and cohesive tensile strength evaluations were performed on 25 normal human corneal specimens, 206 uncomplicated LASIK specimens, 17 uncomplicated sub-Bowman's keratomileusis (SBK) specimens, 4 uncomplicated photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) specimens, 2 uncomplicated advanced surface ablation (ASA) specimens, 5 keratoconus specimens, 12 postoperative LASIK ectasia specimens, and 1 postoperative PRK ectasia specimen and compared to previously published studies. Histologic and ultrastructural studies of normal corneas showed significant differences in the direction of collagen fibrils and/or the degree of lamellar interweaving in Bowman's layer, the anterior third of the corneal stroma, the posterior two-thirds of the corneal stroma, and Descemet's membrane. Cohesive tensile strength testing directly supported these morphologic findings as the stronger, more rigid regions of the cornea were located anteriorly and peripherally. This suggests that PRK and ASA, and secondarily SBK, should be biomechanically safer than conventional LASIK with regard to risk for causing keratectasia after surgery. Because adult human corneal stromal wounds heal slowly and incompletely, all excimer laser keratorefractive surgical techniques still have some distinct disadvantages due to inadequate reparative wound healing. Despite reducing some of the risk for corneal haze compared to conventional PRK, ASA cases still can develop corneal haze or breakthrough haze from the hypercellular fibrotic stromal scarring. In contrast, similar to conventional LASIK, SBK still has the short- and long-term potential for interface wound complications from the hypocellular primitive stromal scar. Ophthalmic pathology and basic science research show that SBK and ASA are improvements in excimer laser keratorefractive surgery compared to conventional LASIK or

  13. FEM numerical analysis of excimer laser induced modification in alternating multi-layers of amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, J.C., E-mail: [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Martin, E. [Dpto. Mecanica, Maquinas, Motores Termicos y Fluidos, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Stefanov, S. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Alpuim, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Chiussi, S. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer nc-Si:H is a material with growing importance for a large-area of nano-electronic, photovoltaic or biomedical devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-ELA technique causes a rapid heating that provokes the H{sub 2} desorption from the Si surface and bulk material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Next, diffusion of P doped nc-Si films and eventually, for high energy densities would be possible to reach the melting point. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These multilayer structures consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) films deposited on SiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To optimize parameters involved in this processing, FEM numerical analysis of multilayer structures have been performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The numerical results are compared with exhaustive characterization of the experimental results. - Abstract: UV excimer laser annealing (UV-ELA) is an alternative annealing process that, during the last few years, has gained enormous importance for the CMOS nano-electronic technologies, with the ability to provide films and alloys with electrical and optical properties to fit the desired device performance. The UV-ELA of amorphous (a-) and/or doped nano-crystalline (nc-) silicon films is based on the rapid (nanoseconds) formation of temperature profiles caused by laser radiation that is absorbed in the material and lead to crystallisation, diffusion in solid or even in liquid phase. To achieve the desired temperature profiles and to optimize the parameters involved in the processing of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) films with the UV-ELA, a numerical analysis by finite element method (FEM) of a multilayer structure has been performed. The multilayer structures, consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) layers, deposited on a glass substrate, has also been experimentally analyzed. Temperature profiles caused by 193 nm radiation with 25

  14. Photosensitivity and stress changes of Ge-free Bi-Al doped silica optical fibers under ArF excimer laser irradiation. (United States)

    Ban, Christian; Limberger, Hans G; Mashinsky, Valery; Dianov, Evgeny


    The photosensitivity of germanium free Bi-Al-doped silica fibers with different bismuth concentrations was investigated using ArF excimer laser radiation at 193 nm and fiber grating formation. For the fiber with the highest bismuth concentration maximum refractive index changes of 2.2 × 10(-3) and 2.0 × 10(-4) were obtained for hydrogen loaded and unloaded fibers, respectively. Irradiation induced tensile stress changes were observed in the fiber core of H(2)-loaded and unloaded fibers. The results indicate a contribution of compaction to the total refractive index change in both cases.

  15. Surface modification of an Al2O3/SiO2 based ceramic treated with CO2, Nd:YAG, excimer and high power diode lasers for altered wettability characteristics


    Lawrence, Jonathan; Li, Lin; Spencer, Julian T.


    Interaction of CO2, Nd:YAG, excimer and high power diode laser (HPDL) radiation with the surface of an Al2O3/SiO2 based ceramic was found to affect significant changes in the wettability characteristics of the material. It was observed that interaction with CO2, Nd:YAG and HPDL radiation reduced the enamel contact angle from 1180 to 310, 340 and 330 respectively. In contrast, interaction with excimer laser radiation resulted an increase in the contact angle to 1210. Such changes were identifi...

  16. Comparison of boron diffusion in silicon during shallow p{sup +}/n junction formation by non-melt excimer and green laser annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aid, Siti Rahmah; Matsumoto, Satoru [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kouhoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Fuse, Genshu [SEN Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 4-10-1 Yoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-0097 (Japan); Sakuragi, Susumu [Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., 19 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8555 (Japan)


    The combination of Ge pre-amorphization implantation, low-energy boron implantation, and non-melt laser annealing is a promising method for forming ultrashallow p{sup +}/n junctions in silicon. In this study, shallow p{sup +}/n junctions were formed by non-melt annealing implanted samples using a green laser (visible laser). The dopant diffusion, activation, and recrystallization of an amorphous silicon layer were compared with those obtained in our previous study in which non-melt annealing was performed using a KrF excimer laser (UV laser). The experimental results reveal that only slight diffusion of boron in the tail region occurred in green-laser-annealed samples. In contrast, remarkable boron diffusion occurred in KrF-laser-annealed samples for very short annealing times. Recrystallization of the amorphous silicon layer was slower in green-laser-annealed samples than in KrF-laser-annealed samples. We consider the penetration depth and the pulse duration are important factors that may affect boron diffusion. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Some optical and electron microscope comparative studies of excimer laser-assisted and nonassisted molecular-beam epitaxically grown thin GaAs films on Si (United States)

    Lao, Pudong; Tang, Wade C.; Rajkumar, K. C.; Guha, S.; Madhukar, A.; Liu, J. K.; Grunthaner, F. J.


    The quality of GaAs thin films grown via MBE under pulsed excimer laser irradiation on Si substrates is examined in both laser-irradiated and nonirradiated areas using Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, and by photoluminescence (PL), as a function of temperature, and by TEM. The temperature dependence of the PL and Raman peak positions indicates the presence of compressive stress in the thin GaAs films in both laser-irradiated and nonirradiated areas. This indicates incomplete homogeneous strain relaxation by dislocations at the growth temperature. The residual compressive strain at the growth temperature is large enough such that even with the introduction of tensile strain arising from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of GaAs and Si, a compressive strain is still present at room temperature for these thin GaAs/Si films.

  18. Fabrication of functional fibronectin patterns by nanosecond excimer laser direct write for tissue engineering applications. (United States)

    Grigorescu, S; Hindié, M; Axente, E; Carreiras, F; Anselme, K; Werckmann, J; Mihailescu, I N; Gallet, O


    Laser direct write techniques represent a prospective alternative for engineering a new generation of hybrid biomaterials via the creation of patterns consisting of biological proteins onto practically any type of substrate. In this paper we report on the characterization of fibronectin features obtained onto titanium substrates by UV nanosecond laser transfer. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements evidenced no modification in the secondary structure of the post-transferred protein. The molecular weight of the transferred protein was identical to the initial fibronectin, no fragment bands being found in the transferred protein's Western blot migration profile. The presence of the cell-binding domain sequence and the mannose groups within the transferred molecules was revealed by anti-fibronectin monoclonal antibody immunolabelling and FITC-Concanavalin-A staining, respectively. The in vitro tests performed with MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells and Swiss-3T3 fibroblasts showed that the cells' morphology and spreading were strongly influenced by the presence of the fibronectin spots.

  19. High-efficient discharge-pumped ArF (193 nm) excimer laser with a TPI thyratron as a high-voltage switch (United States)

    Razhev, Alexander M.; Zhupikov, Andrey A.; Churkin, Dmitry S.


    The results of using the thyratron of the TPI series (pseudo spark gap) as a high-voltage switch in the excitation system of ArF (193 nm) excimer laser are presented. The excitation system of the LC-inverter type based on TPI 10k/20 thyratron in absence of any non-linear elements was developed. An experimental investigation of the energy and temporal parameters of the pumping and lasing for ArF laser on the He:Ar:F II mixture with excitation system developed was carried out. The comparative analysis of the ArF laser pumping and radiation parameters in dependence of the high-voltage switch type such as a standard spark gap RU-65, and thyratron TPI 10k/20 was performed. The output radiation energy for a laser with thyratron TPI 10k/20 was obtained to be of 1.4 times higher than that with standard spark gap RU-65 at the same pumping conditions. Such increase the output energy was shown to be achieving owing to higher level of the pumping intensity due to higher voltage on the discharge gap that occurs due to lower energy losses into TPI thyratron in comparison with the RU- 65 spark gap and leads to more efficient energy transfer from storage to discharge circuit. As a result for ArF laser with TPI thyratron in He:Ar:F II mixture the output radiation energy of 1.0 J with the total efficiency of 1.7% has been achieved. The advantages of using the TPI thyratron in the excitation system of the ArF excimer laser over spark gap are described.

  20. XeCl excimer laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for human cerebral tumor diagnosis: preliminary study (United States)

    Avrillier, Sigrid; Hor, Frederic; Desgeorges, Michel; Ettori, Dominique; Sitbon, Jean R.


    Three-hundred-eight nm laser-induced autofluorescence spectra of the normal human brain, astrocytoma grade IV and glioblastoma grade IV specimens, have been recorded in vitro two hours after surgical resection. Typical fluorescence spectra for normal (N) and malignant (M) tissue show 4 maxima at about 352, 362, 383, and 460 nm. These spectra are analyzed in detail. Subtle differences in normalized spectra of N and M tissues appear to be large enough for diagnosis. Several criteria such as maxima and minima absolute intensity and intensity ratios at typical wavelengths are computed and used to classify the tissue. This preliminary study shows that fluorescence spectroscopy with 308 nm UV excitation could be a valid technique for discriminating tumor types. However, it should be noted that these measurements are made in vitro. Living tissues may have different spectral characteristics, therefore future in vivo investigations must be performed.

  1. Lasers in materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.I.; Rockower, E.B.


    A status report on the uranium Laser Isotope Separation (LIS) Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented. Prior to this status report, process economic analysis is presented so as to understand how the unique properties of laser photons can be best utilized in the production of materials and components despite the high cost of laser energy. The characteristics of potential applications that are necessary for success are identified, and those factors that have up to now frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser induced chemical and physical process for the production of new or existing materials are pointed out.

  2. Effects of closed immersion filtered water flow velocity on the ablation threshold of bisphenol A polycarbonate during excimer laser machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Colin, E-mail: [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Lawrence, Jonathan [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)


    A closed flowing thick film filtered water immersion technique ensures a controlled geometry for both the optical interfaces of the flowing liquid film and allows repeatable control of flow-rate during machining. This has the action of preventing splashing, ensures repeatable machining conditions and allows control of liquid flow velocity. To investigate the impact of this technique on ablation threshold, bisphenol A polycarbonate samples have been machined using KrF excimer laser radiation passing through a medium of filtered water flowing at a number of flow velocities, that are controllable by modifying the liquid flow-rates. An average decrease in ablation threshold of 7.5% when using turbulent flow velocity regime closed thick film filtered water immersed ablation, compared to ablation using a similar beam in ambient air; however, the use of laminar flow velocities resulted in negligible differences between closed flowing thick film filtered water immersion and ambient air. Plotting the recorded threshold fluence achieved with varying flow velocity showed that an optimum flow velocity of 3.00 m/s existed which yielded a minimum ablation threshold of 112 mJ/cm{sup 2}. This is attributed to the distortion of the ablation plume effected by the flowing immersion fluid changing the ablation mechanism: at laminar flow velocities Bremsstrahlung attenuation decreases etch rate, at excessive flow velocities the plume is completely destroyed, removing the effect of plume etching. Laminar flow velocity regime ablation is limited by slow removal of debris causing a non-linear etch rate over 'n' pulses which is a result of debris produced by one pulse remaining suspended over the feature for the next pulse. The impact of closed thick film filtered water immersed ablation is dependant upon beam fluence: high fluence beams achieved greater etch efficiency at high flow velocities as the effect of Bremsstrahlung attenuation is removed by the action of the fluid on

  3. Long-term efficacy of excimer laser in situ keratomileusis in the management of children with high anisometropic amblyopia. (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Ming; Yan, Xiao-He; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Bin; Chen, Qi-Wen; Su, Jin-Ai; Ye, Xue-Lian


    Children with anisometropic amblyopia are often noncompliant with traditional treatment including spectacules and contact lenses. This study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of excimer laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for children with high anisometropic amblyopia. A retrospective analysis of 24 children with high unilateral anisometropic amblyopia, who underwent LASIK during the period between August 2000 and September 2005 in our hospital, was conducted. The mean age of these children was (7.4 +/- 1.9) years (range 5 - 14 years) and the mean follow-up period was (33.3 +/- 14.2) months (range 18.5 - 74.2 months). After LASIK, visual acuity, refraction and far or near stereoacuity were analyzed. Near stereoacuity was measured by the random-dot butterfly stereogram and the pre-school random-dot stereogram, while far stereoacuity was measured by the synoptophore with Yan's random-dot stereogram. Mean preoperative uncorrected visual acuity was 0.06 +/- 0.05, while mean postoperative uncorrected visual acuity was elevated to 0.43 +/- 0.33. Mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 0.26 +/- 0.22, while mean postoperative best-corrected visual acuity was elevated to 0.67 +/- 0.40. For patients with myopic anisometropia, preoperative mean spherical equivalent refraction was (-8.01 +/- 2.70) D while postoperative value significantly reduced to (-1.32 +/- 2.47) D. For patients with hyperopic anisometropia, preoperative mean spherical equivalent refraction was (+7.35 +/- 1.55) D while postoperative value significantly reduced to (+3.30 +/- 0.86) D. These results demonstrated that there was statistical difference in these parameters between preoperative and postoperative tests. At the last follow-up, 20 patients had near stereoacuity, and the mean near stereoacuities measured by the random-dot butterfly stereogram and the preschool random-dot stereogram were (149.00 +/- 152.93)'' and (201.05 +/- 235.94)'', respectively. In contrast, 11 patients had far

  4. Topography-guided hyperopic and hyperopic astigmatism femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK: long-term experience with the 400 Hz eye-Q excimer platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ


    Full Text Available Anastasios John KanellopoulosDepartment of Ophthalmology, New York University Medical School, New York, NY, and Eye Institute, Athens, GreeceBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of topography-guided ablation using the WaveLight 400 Hz excimer laser in laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK for hyperopia and/or hyperopic astigmatism.Methods: We prospectively evaluated 208 consecutive LASIK cases for hyperopia with or without astigmatism using the topography-guided platform of the 400 Hz Eye-Q excimer system. The mean preoperative sphere value was +3.04 ± 1.75 (range 0.75–7.25 diopters (D and the mean cylinder value was –1.24 ± 1.41 (–4.75–0 D. Flaps were created either with Intralase FS60 (AMO, Irvine, CA or FS200 (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX femtosecond lasers. Parameters evaluated included age, preoperative and postoperative refractive error, uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, flap diameter and thickness, topographic changes, higher order aberration changes, and low contrast sensitivity. These measurements were repeated postoperatively at regular intervals for at least 24 months.Results: Two hundred and two eyes were available for follow-up at 24 months. Uncorrected distance visual acuity improved from 5.5/10 to 9.2/10. At 24 (8–37 months, 75.5% of the eyes were in the ±0.50 D range and 94.4% were in the ±1.00 D range of the refractive goal. Postoperatively, the mean sphere value was –0.39 ± 0.3 and the cylinder value was –0.35 ± 0.25. Topographic evidence showed that ablation was made in the visual axis and not in the center of the cornea, thus correlating with the angle kappa. No significant complications were encountered in this small group of patients.Conclusion: Hyperopic LASIK utilizing the topography-guided platform of the 400 Hz Eye-Q Allegretto excimer and a femtosecond laser flap appears to be safe and effective for

  5. Formation of densely populated SiOx microtree-like structures on the Si (100) surface using excimer laser irradiation in air (United States)

    Yang, De-Quan; Sacher, Edward; Meunier, Michel


    SiOx microforest-like structures have been produced on Si (100) surfaces by pulsed excimer laser irradiation in air. Scanning electron microscopic observations have indicated these structures, which are composed of aggregated nanoparticles, to be 1-5 μm in diameter and 10-20 μm high, and to have the appearance of trees. XPS analysis has shown them to be composed of a-SiOx (1laser irradiation, our microforest-like trees have many sharp nanoscale branches, which may require lower emission voltages in application such as field-emission sources in plasma displays.

  6. The correlation between the laser energy density and the properties of diamond-like carbon films with Nd:YAG (355 nm) excimer laser

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, H S; Pang, S S; Lee, S Y


    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited using pulsed laser ablation of graphite target. The deposition process was performed with the change of laser energy density from 8 to 17 J/cm sup 2. collected from analytical results, laser energy density is seen to play an important role in the formation of sp sup 3 carbon bondings in films. Also, the optimal deposition condition for DLC films was proposed and correlated with the laser energy density.

  7. Corneal ectasia after excimer laser keratorefractive surgery: histopathology, ultrastructure, and pathophysiology. (United States)

    Dawson, Daniel G; Randleman, J Bradley; Grossniklaus, Hans E; O'Brien, Terrence P; Dubovy, Sander R; Schmack, Ingo; Stulting, R Doyle; Edelhauser, Henry F


    To evaluate the histopathology and ultrastructure of corneas developing ectasia after LASIK or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Retrospective case series. Thirteen specimens from 12 patients undergoing corneal transplantation for progressive ectasia after LASIK (12 specimens) or PRK (1 specimen) were obtained for histopathologic and ultrastructural evaluation. All 13 ectatic corneas were submitted in formalin for light microscopy. Nine specimens were bisected, and the second half was placed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Corneal histopathology, ultrastructure, and pathophysiology. Light microscopy of the post-LASIK specimens showed corneal epithelial hypoplasia and occasional foci of epithelial hyperplasia, Bowman's layer breaks, a normal stromal thickness of the LASIK flap, a normal thickness of the hypocellular primitive stromal scar, a thinned residual stromal bed (RSB), and larger than normal artifacteous interlamellar clefts in the RSB of the ectatic region. The post-PRK specimen showed similar findings with the addition of a thinned hypercellular fibrotic stromal scar. TEM showed thinning of the collagen lamellae and loss of lamellar number in the RSB of post-LASIK ectasia corneas or throughout the entire corneal stromal bed in the post-PRK ectasia cornea, with the posterior aspect of the corneal stroma being most affected. Histopathologic and ultrastructural studies suggest that interlamellar and interfibrillar biomechanical slippage occurs when the cornea becomes ectatic after LASIK or PRK in the postoperative stress-bearing regions of the corneal stroma. This 2-phase chronic biomechanical failure process is similar to that seen in keratoconus. Composite sciences classify this chronic biomechanical failure process as interfiber fracture. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

  8. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers (United States)

    Hansen, Scott


    The Laser Processed Heat Exchanger project will investigate the use of laser processed surfaces to reduce mass and volume in liquid/liquid heat exchangers as well as the replacement of the harmful and problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHX). For this project, two scale unit test articles will be designed, manufactured, and tested. These two units are a high efficiency liquid/liquid HX and a high reliability CHX.

  9. Excimer Laser Research (United States)


    ORGANIZATION N ATTETSTTF»UUHLJJ* Avco Everett Research Laboratory, Inc. 2385 Revere Beach Parkway Everett, Massachusetts 02149 REPORT...apparently enhanced by a large reactive c -oss section for producing excited species by chemica ’ reactions of the type Xe« I F,-XeF* • F. (1

  10. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, B. C., LLNL


    Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to making high-aspect ratio cuts in metals with no heat-affected zone are made possible by this technology For material removal at reasonable rates, we developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.

  11. Assessment of expressions of heat shock protein (HSP 72) and apoptosis after ArF excimer laser ablation of the cornea. (United States)

    Ishihara, Miya; Sato, Masato; Sato, Shunichi; Arai, Tsunenori; Obara, Minoru; Kikuchi, Makoto


    We immunohistochemically studied expressions of inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP 72) and apoptosis of corneas ablated with an ArF excimer laser. The temperature of corneal surfaces and laser-induced optical emission spectra were measured in real time as direct physical parameters related to the ablation mechanism. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there have been no experimental studies regarding the influence of physical parameters directly related to the ablation mechanism on corneal reactions at the cell level after laser ablation. The expression of HSP 72 was mainly localized in the regenerative epithelium, which was confirmed to be caused by laser ablation. The HSP 72 positive cell ratios had a correlation with thermal dose, which was derived from the measured time courses of temperature. Expressions of both HSP 72 and apoptosis depended on the thermal dose and elapsed time after ablation. HSP 72 and apoptosis could be seen up to a few hundred micrometers into the stroma, only at a fluence with an optical breakdown emission. This could have been caused by shock waves induced by the optical breakdown. (c) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  12. High throughput laser processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John


    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  13. Laser forming and welding processes

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shuja, Shahzada Zaman


    This book introduces model studies and experimental results associated with laser forming and welding such as laser induced bending, welding of sheet metals, and related practical applications. The book provides insight into the physical processes involved with laser forming and welding. The analytical study covers the formulation of laser induced bending while the model study demonstrates the simulation of bending and welding processes using the finite element method. Analytical and numerical solutions for laser forming and welding problems are provided.

  14. O impacto da cirurgia de ceratectomia fotorrefrativa (PRK e ceratomileuse assistida por excimer laser in situ (LASIK na qualidade visual e de vida em pacientes com ametropias The impact of photorefractive excimer laser keratectomy (PRK and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK on visual quality and life in patients with ametropias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Belfort


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida e de visão e o estresse de pacientes portadores de ametropias submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal observacional em que foram estudados 100 pacientes; 54 usuários de óculos, 21 usuários de lentes de contato interessados no procedimento cirúrgico e 25 controles usuários de óculos ou lentes de contato, mas que não desejavam ser operados no período de um ano. Os questionários aplicados foram o National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25 de qualidade de vida e o Self Reporting Questionnaire - SRQ-20 para avaliação da saúde mental. Os pacientes que se submeteram à cirurgia responderam aos questionários aplicados por uma observadora antes da mesma, três, seis e doze meses após a intervenção. O grupo controle respondeu de forma auto-aplicada no início do estudo, seis e doze meses após a primeira avaliação. RESULTADOS: No grupo da cirugia dos 54 pacientes que usavam óculos 39 fizeram cirurgia de ceratectomia fotorrefrativa por excimer laser(PRK e 15 fizeram ceratomileuse assistida por excimer laserin situ (LASIK e dos 21 que usavam lentes de contato 12 fizeram cirurgia de ceratectomia fotorrefrativa e nove fizeram ceratomileuse assistida por excimer laser in situ (LASIK. O grupo controle esteve estável durante os 12 meses em relação aos instrumentos aplicados. Três meses após a cirurgia o grupo da cirurgia apresentou melhora significante da qualidade de vida e de visão em relação ao pré-operatório independentemente do tipo de cirurgia realizada. Um ano após a cirurgia os índices de qualidade de vida e de saúde mental, foram semelhantes aos do grupo controle. O Self Reporting Questionnaire - SRQ 20 mostrou diminuição significante do índice de sintomas a partir dos três meses de pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: A qualidade de visão e de vida dos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de correção de ametropia mudou


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Varzhel


    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We present comparative results of the chirped Bragg gratings inscription efficiency in optical fiber of domestic production with and without low-temperature hydrogen loading. Method. Chirped fiber Bragg gratings inscription was made by the Talbot interferometer with chirped phase mask having a chirp rate of 2.3 nm/cm used for the laser beam amplitude separation. The excimer laser system Coherent COMPexPro 150T, working with the gas mixture KrF (248 nm, was used as the radiation source. In order to increase the UV photosensitivity, the optical fiber was placed in a chamber with hydrogen under a pressure of 10 MPa and kept there for 14 days at 40 °C. Main Results. The usage of the chirped phase mask in a Talbot interferometer scheme has made it possible to get a full width at half-maximum of the fiber Bragg grating reflection spectrum of 3.5 nm with induced diffraction structure length of 5 mm. By preliminary hydrogen loading of optical fiber the broad reflection spectrum fiber Bragg gratings with a reflectivity close to 100% has been inscribed. Practical Relevance. The resulting chirped fiber Bragg gratings can be used as dispersion compensators in optical fiber communications, as well as the reflective elements of distributed fiber-optic phase interferometric sensors.

  16. Controlled reshaping of the front surface of the cornea through its full-area ablation outside of the optical zone with a Gaussian ArF excimer laser beam (United States)

    Semchishen, A. V.; Semchishen, V. A.


    We studied in vitro the response of the topography of the cornea to its full-area laser ablation (the laser beam spot diameter is commensurable with the size of the interface) outside of the central zone with an excimer laser having a Gaussian fluence distribution across the beam. Subject to investigation were the topographically controlled surface changes of the anterior cornea in 60 porcine eyes with a 5 ± 1.25-diopter artificially induced astigmatism, the changes being caused by laser ablation of the stromal collagen in two 3.5-mm-dia. circular areas along the weaker astigmatism axis. Experimental relationships are presented between the actual astigmatism correction and the expected correction for the intact optical zones 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm in diameter. The data for each zone were approximated by the least-squares method with the function d = a + bx. The coefficient b is given with the root-mean-square error. The statistical processing of the data yielded the following results: d = (0.14 ± 0.037)x for the 1-mm-dia. optical zone, (1.10 ± 0.036)x for the 2-mm-dia. optical zone, (1.04 ± 0.020)x for the 3-mm-dia. optical zone, and (0.55 ± 0.04)x for the 4-mm-dia. optical zone. Full astigmatism correction was achieved with ablation effected outside of the 3-mm-dia. optical zone. The surface changes of the cornea are shown to be due not only to the removal of the corneal tissue, but also to the biomechanical topographic response of the cornea to its strain caused by the formation of a dense pseudomembrane in the ablation area.

  17. Experience in using the excimer laser-assisted nonocclusive anastomosis nonocclusive bypass technique for high-flow revascularization: Mannheim-Helsinki series of 64 patients. (United States)

    Vajkoczy, Peter; Korja, Miikka; Czabanka, Marcus; Schneider, Ulf C; Reinert, Michael; Lehecka, Martin; Schmiedek, Peter; Hernesniemi, Juha; Kivipelto, Leena


    The excimer laser-assisted nonocclusive anastomosis (ELANA) technique enables large-caliber bypass revascularization without temporary occlusion of the parent artery. To present the surgical experience of 2 bypass centers using ELANA in the treatment of complex intracranial lesions. Between July 2002 and December 2007, 64 consecutive patients (37 in Germany and 27 in Finland) were selected for high-flow bypass surgery with ELANA. Modified Rankin Scale, a bypass success rate, and the success rate of the laser arteriotomy were assessed. In 66 surgeries for 64 intent-to-treat patients, 58 ELANA procedures were completed successfully. A favorable outcome (postoperative modified Rankin Scale score less than or equal to preoperative modified Rankin Scale) at 3 months was achieved in 43 of 56 patients (77%) with anterior circulation lesions (37 of the 43 patients had aneurysms, 4 had ischemia, and 2 received a bypass before tumor removal) and only in 2 of 8 patients (25%) with posterior circulation aneurysms. Perioperative (< 7 days) mortality for anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms was 6% and 50%, respectively. At the 3-month follow-up, 12% and 63% of patients with anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms, respectively, were dead. The success rate of the laser arteriotomy was 70%. Another 14% were retrieved manually after a nearly complete laser arteriotomy. The ELANA procedure requires a meticulous and careful operative technique. Morbidity and especially mortality rates, usually unrelated to ELANA, are comparable to those of contemporary series of conventional high-flow revascularization operations. This underscores the overall complexity of treating neurovascular pathologies by high-flow bypasses.

  18. High-performance p-channel thin-film transistors with lightly doped n-type excimer-laser-crystallized germanium films (United States)

    Liao, Chan-Yu; Huang, Ching-Yu; Huang, Ming-Hui; Huang, Wen-Hsien; Shen, Chang-Hong; Shieh, Jia-Min; Cheng, Huang-Chung


    High-performance polycrystalline-germanium (poly-Ge) thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated with lightly doped Ge thin films by excimer laser crystallization (ELC) and counter doping (CD) have been demonstrated. High-quality n-type Ge thin films with a grain size as large as 1 µm were fabricated by ELC in the super lateral-growth regime and CD at a dose of 1 × 1013 cm-2 or higher. Consequently, a superior field-effect mobility of 271 cm2 V-1 s-1 and a high on/off current ratio of 2.7 × 103 have been obtained for p-channel Ge TFTs with the channel width and length of both 0.5 µm fabricated by ELC at 300 mJ/cm2 and CD at a dose of 1 × 1013 cm-2. The effects of ELC conditions and CD dose on the electrical characteristics of p-channel Ge TFTs were also investigated.

  19. Micro-optic fabrication using laser ablation process (United States)

    Chang, Won-Seok; Yoon, Kyung-Ku; Kim, Jaegu; Shin, Bosung; Whang, Kyung-Hyun


    The feasibility of laser ablation in micro-machining of 3D structure of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) parts, specifically micro optics was studied in this paper. The micro-machining characteristics of polymer such as etching rate vs. energy fluence, number of pulse are investigated experimentally. The threshold energy density of polyurethane is about 30 mJ/cm2 and ablated depth per pulse can be precisely controlled in the range of 0.1-0.8μm by the attenuation of energy fluence. By mask moving technique, the micro prism, cylindrical lens and inclined surface were fabricated. These 3D structures can be used as master in electro-plating mold. This paper also summarized the work on the development of a simulation program for modeling the process of machining quasi-three dimensional shapes with the excimer laser beam on a constant moving polymer. Relatively simple masks of rectangle, triangle and half circle shape are considered. The etching depth is calculated by considering the number of laser pulses and the wavelength of laser beam irradiated on the various specimen surface such as PMMA, polyurethane and PI. It was found that similar shapes as experimental results, mask shape was designed to gain-lens surface which we want. As another method to manufacture micro lens the mask is made circular type and rotated during laser beam illumination. Opened mask area and scanning speed determine the surface shape of lens. Precise control of various parameters is admitted to fabricate micro optics.

  20. FY 1997 report on the study on cryogenic aggregate target PLD process by multi-laser excitation for using gaseous materials; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kitai genryo riyo no tame no taju laser reiki ni yoru gokuteion gyoshutai target PLD process ni kansuru kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper reports the result in fiscal 1995 of the study on PLD (pulse laser deposition) thin film formation process having been made since 1993. In fiscal 1995, the effect of irradiation of excimer laser and YGA(SHG) on ablation of aggregates of N2, CH4, Ar, Kr and Xe, and the effect of time-delayed irradiation of YGA(SHG) and KrF excimer laser on ablation of N2 aggregate were studied aiming at exciting ablation by cryogenic aggregate alone. Experimental results by a newly developed multi-laser excitation experiment equipment are as follows. Ablation was not caused by KrF excimer laser irradiation, while caused by YGA(SHG) irradiation. Ablation was caused by 1mm thick N2 or CH4 aggregate alone. Kr target was the most promising among rare gas solid targets expected as seed of ablation occurrence. Multi-irradiation showed a different ablation behavior as compared with single YGA(SHG) irradiation, and in some cases, multi-irradiation not increased scattering of particles. Time-delayed multi- irradiation (YGA(SHG) excitation after excimer excitation) was effective. 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films (United States)

    Schaubroeck, David; De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter; Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert


    Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  2. Review of the biocompatibility and blood compatibility properties of polyethersulfone film modified by the excimer and CO2 lasers (United States)

    Pazokian, H.; Jelvani, S.; Mollabashi, M.; Barzin, J.


    In this paper the biocompatibility and blood compatibility changes of polyethersulfone (PES) films following laser irradiation at four different wavelengths of ArF (193 nm), KrF (248 nm), XeCl (308 nm) and CO2 (9.58 µm) lasers are studied. The surface behaviors in contact with platelets and fibroblasts cells are examined and the best irradiation parameters to improve the surface biocompatibility and blood compatibility were found. The biological modifications on the surface were explained by alteration of the surface morphology and chemistry following the irradiation. The results show that a KrF laser is the best choice for treatment of PES film in the biological applications.

  3. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaubroeck, David, E-mail: [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)


    Highlights: • Laser patterning of thin film PEDOT:PSS on polymer foils is characterized in great detail. • PEDOT:PSS does not need to be fully removed to create electrically insulating patterns. • The underlying polymer foil influences the ablation behavior. - Abstract: Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  4. Laser processing of materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser) is a coherent and monochromatic beam of electromagnetic radiation that can propagate in a straight line with negligible divergence and occur in a wide range of wavelength, energy/power and beam-modes/configurations. As a result, lasers find wide applications ...

  5. Monovisión con láser de excímeros en pacientes présbitas Monovision with Excimer laser surgery in presbyopic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Andújar Coba


    previstos que caracterizan a la cirugía con láser de excímeros.OBJECTIVES: To describe the refractive results achieved with Excimer laser surgery in presbyopic patients, both hyperopic and myopic, with monovision. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was performed on 60 presbyopic patients, 18 myopic and 42 hyperopic, who underwent Excimer laser surgery to correct presbyopia based on the monovision method at the Corneal and Refractive Surgery Service of «Ramón Pando Ferrer» Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology from February 2009 to February 2010. The variables used were pre- and post-operative visual acuity with correction, visual acuity without binocular correction, both near and distant, and spheral equivalents. For presenting this information, the mean and standard deviation were used for all variables. RESULTS: In the preoperative phase, it was observed that average visual acuity improved from 0,1 and 0,3 for myopic and hyperopic patients without correction, to 0,94 and 0,97 binocular visual acuity without correction for the same groups in the postoperative phase, thus correcting their average spherical equivalent of 4,63 D and +2,21 D respectively. Average near visual acuity for both groups was Jeager (J 1 - 2 and average spheral equivalents reached for distant vision were 0,02 ± 0, 27 D for myopic and +0.09 ± 0,34 D for hyperopic patients. For near vision, i.e. in the non- dominant eye, the spheral equivalent values were 1.7 ± 0,22 D for myopic and 1.4 ± 0,38 D for hyperopic patients. CONCLUSIONS: After surgery both myopic and hyperopic patients experienced improvement in their visual acuity without correction for distant as well as for near vision. Spheral equivalents were widely modified in both groups for the dominant and non-dominant eyes, in order to facilitate the final visual result in both distances with the foreseen precision in the visual results that characterizes the Excimer laser surgery.

  6. Preparation of periodic surface structures on doped poly(methyl metacrylate) films by irradiation with KrF excimer laser (United States)

    Kalachyova, Yevgeniya; Lyutakov, Oleksiy; Slepicka, Petr; Elashnikov, Roman; Svorcik, Vaclav


    In this work, we describe laser modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) films doped with Fast Red ITR, followed by dopant exclusion from the bulk polymer. By this procedure, the polymer can be modified under extremely mild conditions. Creation of surface ordered structure was observed already after application of 15 pulses and 12 mJ cm-2 fluence. Formation of grating begins in the hottest places and tends to form concentric semi-circles around them. The mechanism of surface ordered structure formation is attributed to polymer ablation, which is more pronounced in the place of higher light intensity. The smoothness of the underlying substrate plays a key role in the quality of surface ordered structure. Most regular grating structures were obtained on polymer films deposited on atomically `flat' Si substrates. After laser patterning, the dopant was removed from the polymer by soaking the film in methanol.

  7. Evaluating the interaction of 308-nm xenon chloride excimer laser with human dentin and enamel hard tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Yaghmaeian-Mahabadi


    Full Text Available Background: The pulsed output of the 308 nm XeCl laser and its photoablation action rather than photothermal action offers the ability to remove dental hard tissues with minimal generation of heat in the tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 human molar teeth (ten teeth used as enamel samples and ten teeth used as dentin samples after removing the enamel tissue from their crowns were irradiated by the laser. The crown of each sample was regarded as a cube which its lateral sides were exposed in 2Hz frequency without water cooling. Also, 18 holes for all enamel samples and 18 holes for all dentin samples were obtained. Three different amounts of energy were selected as a variable factor with 6 different numbers of pulses in each energy. The images of these holes were prepared by optic and computer combining, and the amounts of the ablation depth and effective ablation area were calculated using the MATLAB software. Results: The amounts of ablation depth were increased with increasing the number of pulses for both enamel and dentin tissues. The amounts of ablation depth were also increased with increasing the amounts of energy for both enamel and dentin tissues. The greater amounts of ablation depth and effective ablation area were observed in the dentin tissue rather than the enamel tissue. The borders of created holes were reported sharp and clear. Conclusion: The application of the XeCl laser for hard tissue removal and cavity preparation can be possible after some certain modifications.

  8. Suppressed intermixing in InAlGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well heterostructures irradiated with a KrF excimer laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genest, J.; Dubowski, J.J.; Aimez, V. [Universite de Sherbrooke, Centre de recherche en Nanofabrication et Nanocaracteriasation (CRN2), Departement de Genie Electrique et Genie Informatique, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)


    The influence of gallium arsenide surface modification induced by irradiation with a KrF excimer laser on the magnitude of the quantum well (QW) intermixing effect has been investigated in InAlGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs QW heterostructures. The irradiation in an air environment with laser pulses of fluences between 60 and 100 mJ/cm{sup 2} has resulted in the formation of a gallium oxide-rich film at the surface. Following the annealing at 900 C, up to 35 nm suppression of the band gap blue shift was observed in all the laser irradiated samples when compared to the non-irradiated samples. The origin of suppression has been discussed in terms of stress controlled diffusion. (orig.)

  9. Controlling the parameters of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) high-temperature superconductors through excimer laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovgii, IA.O.; Kityk, I.V.; Lutsiv, R.V.; Malinich, S.Z.; Nosan, A.V.


    Single crystals (2x3 sq mm) of YBa2Cu3O(7{minus}{delta}) high-temperature superconductors were irradiated by an XeCl laser pumped by a gas discharge with a voltage of 35 kW and a frequency of 5 Hz. The formation of the superconducting phase was observed at oxygen pressures of 4-8 kbar. With an increase in oxygen pressure to 20 kbar, the transition temperature increased to 90 K. A possible mechanism of the observed phenomenon is examined.

  10. Controlling the parameters of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) high-temperature superconductors through excimer laser irradiation (United States)

    Dovgii, Ia. O.; Kityk, I. V.; Lutsiv, R. V.; Malinich, S. Z.; Nosan, A. V.


    Single crystals (2x3 sq mm) of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) high-temperature superconductors were irradiated by an XeCl laser pumped by a gas discharge with a voltage of 35 kW and a frequency of 5 Hz. The formation of the superconducting phase was observed at oxygen pressures of 4-8 kbar. With an increase in oxygen pressure to 20 kbar, the transition temperature increased to 90 K. A possible mechanism of the observed phenomenon is examined.

  11. Four-year to seven-year outcomes of advanced surface ablation with excimer laser for high myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus Søgaard; Lyhne, Niels; Grauslund, Jakob


    Purpose: To evaluate and compare long-term outcomes ofafter photorefractive keratectomy with cooling (cPRK) and laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) for high myopia. Methods: Retrospective single-masked follow-up study of patients treated for myopia between 2007 and 2009 with c...... ±1.0 D of intended refraction. Finally, 100% of cPRK patients and 92% of LASEK patients (P=0.87) were satisfied or very satisfied with the surgery at final follow-up. Conclusion: cPRK and LASEK seemed safe and with high patient satisfaction 4 to 7 years after surgery for high myopia. However, c...

  12. Development and numerical solution of a mechanistic model for corneal tissue ablation with the 193 nm argon fluoride excimer laser (United States)

    Fisher, Brian T.; Hahn, David W.


    We detail the development and implementation of a global ablation model that incorporates a dynamically changing tissue absorption coefficient. Detailed spectroscopic measurements rule out plasma-shielding effects during the laser-tissue interaction and thereby support a photochemical mechanism. The model predicts ablation rate behavior that agrees well with a variety of experimental ablation rate data and that substantially deviates from a static Beer-Lambert model. The dynamic model predicts an enhancement in the tissue absorption coefficient of about 25%-50% as compared with the initial, static value. In addition, the model predicts an increase in the tissue ablation rate as corneal hydration increases, which may provide additional insight into variations in refractive surgery outcome.

  13. Research in Laser Processes (United States)


    THEORY OF/^W PRESSURE DEPENDENCE General model The total density of excited-state species fNaf ] as- sociated with the Na’OP) configuration...critical laser power. In addition to raising the discharge impedance, this lower nr condition would prob- ably yield higher efficiency in a real case

  14. Photon technology. Laser processing technology; Photon technology. Laser process gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Survey has been conducted to develop laser processing technology utilizing the interaction between substance and photon. This is a part of the leading research on photon technology development. The photon technology development is aimed at novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photons. In the field of laser processing, high quality photons are used as tools, special functions of atoms and molecules will be discovered, and processing for functional fabrication (photon machining) will be established. A role of laser processing in industries has become significant, which is currently spreading not only into cutting and welding of materials and scalpels but also into such a special field as ultrafine processing of materials. The spreading is sometimes obstructed due to the difficulty of procurement of suitable machines and materials, and the increase of cost. The purpose of this study is to develop the optimal laser technology, to elucidate the interaction between substance and photon, and to develop the laser system and the transmission and regulation systems which realize the optimal conditions. 387 refs., 115 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Pulsed laser ablation of LaSrCoO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Span, E.A.F.; Roesthuis, Frank J.G.; Blank, David H.A.; Rogalla, Horst


    The ablation process of La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 by a spatial uniform 248 nm excimer laser beam has been characterized. Ablation rates, changes in the target surface morphology and composition have been studied as a function of the laser fluence. The dependence of the ablation rate on the laser fluence has

  16. LASER PHYSICS: Formation of XeCl excimer molecules as a result of mixing of gas streams excited by a continuous discharge (United States)

    Mikhkel'soo, V. T.; Treshchalov, A. B.; Peét, V. É.; Yalviste, É. Kh; Belokon', A. A.; Braĭnin, B. I.; Khritov, K. M.


    A longitudinal continuous discharge in two independent supersonic gas streams, which were subsequently mixed, was used for nonequilibrium electronic excitation of components undergoing reactions and emitting chemiluminescence. Formation of XeCl excimer molecules as a result of mixing of excited He:Xe = 95:5 and He:HCl(Cl2) = 99:1 streams was deduced from the XeCl* fluorescence spectra (B→X and C→A bands). The steady-state concentration of the XeCl molecules in B and C states determined in the mixing region was ~1010 cm-3 when the pump power was 50 W, so that the efficiency of conversion of the input electrical energy into the excimer fluorescence was ~1%.

  17. Seven year follow-up after advanced surface ablation with excimer laser for treatment of myopia: Long-term outcomes of cooling PRK and LASEK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus Søgaard; Lyhne, Niels; Grauslund, Jakob

    , Odense University Hospital. Inclusion criteria: Age 20-50 years at time of surgery, pre-operative CDVA ≤ 0.10 (logMAR) and no other ocular conditions than myopia with or without astigmatism of maximum 3 D. Exclusion criteria: Pregnancy and eyes having undergone re-treatment. A MEL80 flying-spot excimer......, corneal densitometry and patient satisfaction, although the long-term predictability of cPRK seemed better. Financial Disclosures: None...

  18. Fundamental Laser Welding Process Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove


    In a number of systematic laboratory investigations the fundamental behavior of the laser welding process was analyzed by the use of normal video (30 Hz), high speed video (100 and 400 Hz) and photo diodes. Sensors were positioned to monitor the welding process from both the top side and the rear...... side of the specimen.Special attention has been given to the dynamic nature of the laser welding process, especially during unstable welding conditions. In one series of experiments, the stability of the process has been varied by changing the gap distance in lap welding. In another series...... video pictures (400 Hz), a clear impact on the seam characteristics has been identified when a hump occurs.Finally, a clear correlation between the position of the focus point, the resultant process type and the corresponding signal intensity and signal variation has been found for sheets welded...

  19. ArF excimer laser modulation of TNF-alpha and gelatinase B in NIH 3T3 cells; Modulation de l`expression du TNF-alpha et de la gelatinase B, apres irradiation de fibroblastes NIH 3T3 par un laser a excimeres a 193 NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudy-Vives, C.; Courant, D.; Perot, J.C.; Garcia, J.; Fretier, P.; Court, L.; Dormont, D.


    The effects on TNF-alpha and gelatinase B activity in mammalian cells induced by 193 nm argon fluoride excimer laser have been investigated. The data show that a secretion of 92 kDa type IV collagenase and TNF-alpha were increased in cell culture supernatants. Moreover, the 193 nm laser radiation produces a decrease of cell proliferation and an increase of cell activation 8 hours after irradiation. The total protein amount increases with the delivered dose. Same, but less effects were obtained after exposure to a conventional UV lamp at 254 nm. (author). 8 refs.

  20. Shadowgraphic imaging of material removal during laser drilling with a long pulse eximer laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonderbeek, A.; Biesheuvel, C.A.; Hofstra, R.M.; Boller, Klaus J.; Meijer, J.


    After the development of a novel XeCl excimer laser with a nearly diffraction-limited beam and 175 ns pulse length, research was done on different industrial applications of this laser. Hole drilling, one of these applications, was studied extensively. A better understanding of the drilling process

  1. International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers, 8th, Madrid, Spain, Sept. 10-14, 1990, Proceedings (United States)

    Orza, Jose M.; Domingo, C.


    Papers are presented on current research developments and applications related to high-powered lasers. Recent advances in excimer laser technology, electron-beam-pumped excimer lasers, discharge technology for excimer lasers, and pulsed XeF lasers are examined. Consideration is given to short-wavelength lasers, chemical oxygen iodine lasers, and vibrational chemical lasers. Papers are presented on CO2, CO, N2O lasers, coupled CO2 lasers, laser induced perturbation in pulsed CO2 lasers, construction of sealed-off CO2 lasers, and computer modeling of discharge-excited CO gas flow. Topics discussed include gas-dynamic lasers, discharge and flow effects, matrix and laser optics and laser beam parameters. Laser-matter interactions, laser-induced surface plasma, plasma motion velocity along laser beams and thermocapillary effects are also discussed. Applications of laser technology are examined and high-speed laser welding, welding results, laser ablation, laser steel processing, and numerical modeling of laser-matter interaction in high-intensity laser applications are considered. (For individual items see A93-26381 to A93-26422)

  2. Power and pulse energy scaling for high-volume UV-laser microprocessing (United States)

    Delmdahl, Ralph; Haupt, Oliver; Bragin, Igor; Albrecht, Hans-Stephan


    In industrial laser micro processing, throughput is as important as process quality. Treating large areas in minimum time is pivotal in achieving reduced unit costs in high-volume production. Excimer lasers meet the requirements for clean and precise structuring and enable the smallest structures in an efficient way. The latest technical developments in high power excimer lasers is bound to take cost-efficient UV-laser micro processing to the next level and bridges the gap between achievable precision and achievable throughput. New excimer laser developments and beam concepts together with latest performance data for upscaling both UV power and UV pulse energy will be the topic of this paper against the background of upcoming market trends and high volume applications.

  3. Laser processing and analysis of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Duley, W W


    It has often been said that the laser is a solution searching for a problem. The rapid development of laser technology over the past dozen years has led to the availability of reliable, industrially rated laser sources with a wide variety of output characteristics. This, in turn, has resulted in new laser applications as the laser becomes a familiar processing and analytical tool. The field of materials science, in particular, has become a fertile one for new laser applications. Laser annealing, alloying, cladding, and heat treating were all but unknown 10 years ago. Today, each is a separate, dynamic field of research activity with many of the early laboratory experiments resulting in the development of new industrial processing techniques using laser technology. Ten years ago, chemical processing was in its infancy awaiting, primarily, the development of reliable tunable laser sources. Now, with tunability over the entire spectrum from the vacuum ultraviolet to the far infrared, photo­ chemistry is undergo...

  4. Material Processing Opportunites Utilizing a Free Electron Laser (United States)

    Todd, Alan


    Many properties of photocathode-driven Free Electron Lasers (FEL) are extremely attractive for material processing applications. These include: 1) broad-band tunability across the IR and UV spectra which permits wavelength optimization, depth deposition control and utilization of resonance phenomena; 2) picosecond pulse structure with continuous nanosecond spacing for optimum deposition efficiency and minimal collateral damage; 3) high peak and average radiated power for economic processing in quantity; and 4) high brightness for spatially defined energy deposition and intense energy density in small spots. We discuss five areas: polymer, metal and electronic material processing, micromachining and defense applications; where IR or UV material processing will find application if the economics is favorable. Specific examples in the IR and UV, such as surface texturing of polymers for improved look and feel, and anti-microbial food packaging films, which have been demonstrated using UV excimer lamps and lasers, will be given. Unfortunately, although the process utility is readily proven, the power levels and costs of lamps and lasers do not scale to production margins. However, from these examples, application specific cost targets ranging from 0.1=A2/kJ to 10=A2/kJ of delivered radiation at power levels from 10 kW to 500 kW, have been developed and are used to define strawman FEL processing systems. Since =46EL radiation energy extraction from the generating electron beam is typically a few percent, at these high average power levels, economic considerations dictate the use of a superconducting RF accelerator with energy recovery to minimize cavity and beam dump power loss. Such a 1 kW IR FEL, funded by the US Navy, is presently under construction at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. This dual-use device, scheduled to generate first light in late 1997, will test both the viability of high-power FELs for shipboard self-defense against cruise

  5. Spectrum characteristic study of sodium-ethane excimer pairs (United States)

    Hu, Shu; Gai, Baodong; Wang, Pengyuan; Li, Hui; Tan, Yannan; Liu, Jinbo; Guo, Jingwei


    Excimer pumped sodium laser (XPNaL) can accurately achieve lasing at 589.16 nm without any complicated control system to reduce the wavelength error, so XPNaL will provide a novel technical system for sodium beacon laser. In this paper, we studied the Na-C2H6 system, which was an efficient excimer pair. We excited the Na-C2H6 system using a pulsed dye laser with wavelength of 553 nm, and measured lifetime of sodium D2 line based on the fluorescence spectra. Meanwhile, we have also detected strong amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) signal in Na-C2H6 system, through the experimental study, the Na-C2H6 system is considered to own the potential to be utilized in high power XPNaL.

  6. Fs-laser processing of polydimethylsiloxane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Petar A., E-mail:; Nedyalkov, Nikolay N. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Shose, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Valova, Eugenia I.; Georgieva, Zhenya S.; Armyanov, Stefan A.; Kolev, Konstantin N. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Amoruso, Salvatore; Wang, Xuan; Bruzzese, Ricardo [CNR-SPIN, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Sawczak, Miroslaw; Śliwiński, Gerard [Photophysics Department, The Szewalski Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland)


    We present an experimental analysis on surface structuring of polydimethylsiloxane films with UV (263 nm) femtosecond laser pulses, in air. Laser processed areas are analyzed by optical microscopy, SEM, and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The laser-treated sample shows the formation of a randomly nanostructured surface morphology. μ-Raman spectra, carried out at both 514 and 785 nm excitation wavelengths, prior and after laser treatment allow evidencing the changes in the sample structure. The influence of the laser fluence on the surface morphology is studied. Finally, successful electro-less metallization of the laser-processed sample is achieved, even after several months from the laser-treatment contrary to previous observation with nanosecond pulses. Our findings address the effectiveness of fs-laser treatment and chemical metallization of polydimethylsiloxane films with perspective technological interest in micro-fabrication devices for MEMS and nano-electromechanical systems.

  7. Intramolecular excimer and exciplex emission of 1,4-dipyrenyl substituted cyclohexasilane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Walree, C.A.; Kaats-Richters, V.E.M.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Williams, R.M.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.


    Intramolecular excimer emission is observed for cis-1,4-di(1-pyrenyl)decamethylcyclohexasilane in nonpolar solvents. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and kinetic modelling indicate that the driving force of excimer formation is very small, and that the process is governed by the flexibility

  8. Sensor integration for robotic laser welding processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakovou, D.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Meijer, J.; Ostendorf, A; Hoult, A.; Lu, Y.


    The use of robotic laser welding is increasing among industrial applications, because of its ability to weld objects in three dimensions. Robotic laser welding involves three sub-processes: seam detection and tracking, welding process control, and weld seam inspection. Usually, for each sub-process,

  9. Photon technology. Laser process technology; Photon technology. Laser process gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For developing laser process technology by interaction between substance and photon, the present state, system, R and D issues and proposal of such technology were summarized. Development of the photon technology aims at the modification of bonding conditions of substances by quantum energy of photon, and the new process technology for generating ultra- high temperature and pressure fields by concentrating photon on a minute region. Photon technology contributes to not only the conventional mechanical and thermal forming and removal machining but also function added machining (photon machining) in quantum level and new machining technology ranging from macro- to micro-machining, creating a new industrial field. This technology extends various fields from the basis of physics and chemistry to new bonding technology. Development of a compact high-quality high-power high-efficiency photon source, and advanced photon transmission technology are necessary. The basic explication of an unsolved physicochemical phenomenon related to photon and substance, and development of related application technologies are essential. 328 refs., 147 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Excimer Ladar Pointer Trackers (United States)

    Grossman, Jon; Brindley, William E.

    Spaceborne optical pointing and tracking systems have historically used passive sensors. With the advent of space based laser programs ,such as submarine laser communication ( SLC SAT ) and laser atmospheric wind sounder ( LAWS ), it is now possible to conceive of laser based active pointing and tracking systems. In this paper we present some the advantages of going to an active pointer-tracker, the advantages of going to a short wavelength system, and what the performance of this system would be based on current technology.

  11. Laser cutting: industrial relevance, process optimization, and laser safety (United States)

    Haferkamp, Heinz; Goede, Martin; von Busse, Alexander; Thuerk, Oliver


    Compared to other technological relevant laser machining processes, up to now laser cutting is the application most frequently used. With respect to the large amount of possible fields of application and the variety of different materials that can be machined, this technology has reached a stable position within the world market of material processing. Reachable machining quality for laser beam cutting is influenced by various laser and process parameters. Process integrated quality techniques have to be applied to ensure high-quality products and a cost effective use of the laser manufacturing plant. Therefore, rugged and versatile online process monitoring techniques at an affordable price would be desirable. Methods for the characterization of single plant components (e.g. laser source and optical path) have to be substituted by an omnivalent control system, capable of process data acquisition and analysis as well as the automatic adaptation of machining and laser parameters to changes in process and ambient conditions. At the Laser Zentrum Hannover eV, locally highly resolved thermographic measurements of the temperature distribution within the processing zone using cost effective measuring devices are performed. Characteristic values for cutting quality and plunge control as well as for the optimization of the surface roughness at the cutting edges can be deducted from the spatial distribution of the temperature field and the measured temperature gradients. Main influencing parameters on the temperature characteristic within the cutting zone are the laser beam intensity and pulse duration in pulse operation mode. For continuous operation mode, the temperature distribution is mainly determined by the laser output power related to the cutting velocity. With higher cutting velocities temperatures at the cutting front increase, reaching their maximum at the optimum cutting velocity. Here absorption of the incident laser radiation is drastically increased due to

  12. Line beam processing for laser lift-off of GaN from sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmdahl, Ralph; Paetzel, Rainer; Brune, Jan; Senczuk, Rolf [Coherent GmbH, Hans-Boeckler-Str. 12, 37079 Goettingen (Germany); Gossler, Christian; Moser, Ruediger; Kunzer, Michael; Schwarz, Ulrich T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics IAF, Tullastr. 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany)


    Gallium nitride (GaN) layers grown on sapphire substrate wafers have been successfully separated using a novel line beam laser lift-off (LLO) approach. The absorption of the 248 nm excimer laser radiation by the GaN through the sapphire wafer results in the formation of metallic gallium and nitrogen gas. The sapphire wafer was easily removable by heating above the gallium melting point. The metallic gallium phase has been inspected via diverse microscopic surface analysis techniques after line beam LLO processing. The measurements indicate that the sapphire separation process using line beam laser scanning has only a marginal impact on the structural quality of the GaN layer. Line beam LLO processing has inherent upscaling advantages over conventional square field LLO. Processing results are evaluated in view of aptness for mass production of high brightness light emitting diodes (HB-LEDs). Differential interference contrast image of GaN film after 248-nm LLO with line beam (A) and square beam (B). (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Laser Processing of Multilayered Thermal Spray Coatings: Optimal Processing Parameters (United States)

    Tewolde, Mahder; Zhang, Tao; Lee, Hwasoo; Sampath, Sanjay; Hwang, David; Longtin, Jon


    Laser processing offers an innovative approach for the fabrication and transformation of a wide range of materials. As a rapid, non-contact, and precision material removal technology, lasers are natural tools to process thermal spray coatings. Recently, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) was fabricated using thermal spray and laser processing. The TEG device represents a multilayer, multimaterial functional thermal spray structure, with laser processing serving an essential role in its fabrication. Several unique challenges are presented when processing such multilayer coatings, and the focus of this work is on the selection of laser processing parameters for optimal feature quality and device performance. A parametric study is carried out using three short-pulse lasers, where laser power, repetition rate and processing speed are varied to determine the laser parameters that result in high-quality features. The resulting laser patterns are characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electrical isolation tests between patterned regions. The underlying laser interaction and material removal mechanisms that affect the feature quality are discussed. Feature quality was found to improve both by using a multiscanning approach and an optional assist gas of air or nitrogen. Electrically isolated regions were also patterned in a cylindrical test specimen.

  14. Laser Processing of Multilayered Thermal Spray Coatings: Optimal Processing Parameters (United States)

    Tewolde, Mahder; Zhang, Tao; Lee, Hwasoo; Sampath, Sanjay; Hwang, David; Longtin, Jon


    Laser processing offers an innovative approach for the fabrication and transformation of a wide range of materials. As a rapid, non-contact, and precision material removal technology, lasers are natural tools to process thermal spray coatings. Recently, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) was fabricated using thermal spray and laser processing. The TEG device represents a multilayer, multimaterial functional thermal spray structure, with laser processing serving an essential role in its fabrication. Several unique challenges are presented when processing such multilayer coatings, and the focus of this work is on the selection of laser processing parameters for optimal feature quality and device performance. A parametric study is carried out using three short-pulse lasers, where laser power, repetition rate and processing speed are varied to determine the laser parameters that result in high-quality features. The resulting laser patterns are characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electrical isolation tests between patterned regions. The underlying laser interaction and material removal mechanisms that affect the feature quality are discussed. Feature quality was found to improve both by using a multiscanning approach and an optional assist gas of air or nitrogen. Electrically isolated regions were also patterned in a cylindrical test specimen.

  15. Development mechanism of high pressure argon plasma produced by irradiation of excimer laser. Ekishima reza ni yori seiseishita koatsuryoku arugon purazuma no seicho kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, J.; Tsuda, N.; Uchida, Y.; Furuhashi, H. (Aichi Inst. of Technology, Aichi (Japan)); Sahashi, T. (Daido Inst. of Technology, Aichi (Japan))


    The studies of a high temperature and high density laser plasma are being carried out centering around solid targets, but a high density plasma can be generated also by focused irradiation of a laser light onto a high pressure gas target. However, in this case, studies on a high pressure laser plasma using the ultra-violet beam are seldom conducted. In this paper, the generation mechanism of a plasma generated mainly behind the focal point of the lens is mentioned in case when the ultra violet laser beam is focused and irradiated onto a high pressure argon gas, and it has been compared for study with the plasma generated by a ruby laser. Part of the obtained results is as follows; it has been elucidated that the plasma generated behind the focal point by focusing and irradiating an ultra violet laser beam onto a high pressure argon gas is growing simultaneously by the radiation supported shock wave and the breakdown wave, same as the case of a visible laser beam. When the ultra violet beam with frequency higher than the plasma frequency is irradiated, a plasma grows in front of the focal point too. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Applications of lasers and electro-optics (United States)

    Tan, B. C.; Low, K. S.; Chen, Y. H.; Ahmad, Harith; Tou, T. Y.

    Supported by the IRPA Programme on Laser Technology and Applications, many types of lasers have been designed, constructed and applied in various areas of science, medicine and industries. Amongst these lasers constructed were high power carbon dioxide lasers, rare gas halide excimer lasers, solid state Neodymium-YAG lasers, nitrogen lasers, flashlamp pumped dye lasers and nitrogen and excimer laser pumped dye lasers. These lasers and the associated electro-optics system, some with computer controlled, are designed and developed for the following areas of applications: (1) industrial applications of high power carbon dioxide lasers for making of i.c. components and other materials processing purposes -- prototype operational systems have been developed; (2) Medical applications of lasers for cancer treatment using the technique of photodynamic therapy -- a new and more effective treatment protocol has been proposed; (3) agricultural applications of lasers in palm oil and palm fruit-fluorescence diagnostic studies -- fruit ripeness signature has been developed and palm oil oxidation level were investigated; (4) development of atmospheric pollution monitoring systems using laser lidar techniques -- laboratory scale systems were developed; and (5) other applications of lasers including laser holographic and interferometric methods for the non destructive testing of materials.

  17. In-process debris removal in femtosecond laser processing (United States)

    Abe, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hidetomo; Ota, Michiharu; Hayasaki, Yoshio


    Debris deposited around laser-processed structures, which is a critical issue in high-precision laser processing, should be removed. A new method for laser cleaning of debris was developed. A glass surface was irradiated with a line-focused beam for laser cleaning, together with a focused beam for laser processing. Both beams were formed by computer-generated holograms (CGHs) displayed on a spatial light modulator. The distance between the two beams was controlled with the CGHs, and the time difference was controlled with an optical delay line. These optical structures were the novel aspect of our laser processing system. When two beams were superposed at the same position on a sample, we did not find a suitable beam parameter for debris removal, but we found that the processing area was spatially enlarged depending on the temporal overlap. In contrast, when two beams separated by an adequate distance were radiated on a sample, we found suitable beam parameters for debris removal. Debris removal was effectively performed when the scanning speed of the laser beams was low, because the low scanning speed produced a temperature higher than the glass transition temperature, and the heated and melted debris was ablated due to a smaller ablation threshold than that of the glass substrate. This in-process laser debris removal method has the advantages of needing no additional equipment other than the optics, no additional operations, no special materials, and no specific operating environment.

  18. Effect of force on ablation depth for a XeCl excimer laser beam delivered by an optical fiber in contact with arterial tissue under saline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, G. H.; van den Broecke, D. G.; Sprangers, R. L.; van Gemert, M. J.


    The effect of force applied to a 430 micron single fiber, delivering 60 pulses of 308 nm XeCl laser radiation at 20 Hz, on the ablation depth in porcine aortic tissue under saline has been investigated. Energy densities of 8, 15, 25, 28, 31, 37, and 45 mJ/mm2 were used. Force was applied by adding

  19. Laser processing for thin-film photovoltaics (United States)

    Compaan, Alvin D.


    Over the past decade major advances have occurred in the field of thin- film photovoltaics (PV) with many of them a direct consequence of the application of laser processing. Improved cell efficiencies have been achieved in crystalline and polycrystalline Si, in hydrogenated amorphous silicon, and in two polycrystalline thin-film materials. The use of lasers in photovoltaics includes laser hole drilling for emitter wrap-through, laser trenching for buried bus lines, and laser texturing of crystalline and polycrystalline Si cells. In thin-film devices, laser scribing is gaining increased importance for module interconnects. Pulsed laser recrystallization of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon is used to form highly conductive p-layers in p-i-n amorphous silicon cells and in thin-film transistors. Optical beam melting appears to be an attractive method for forming metal semiconductor alloys for contact formation. Finally, pulsed lasers are used for deposition of the entire semiconductor absorber layer in two types of polycrystalline thin-film cells-those based on copper indium diselenide and those based on cadmium telluride. In our lab we have prepared and studied heavily doped polycrystalline silicon thin films and also have used laser physical vapor deposition (LPVD) to prepare 'all-LPVD' CdS/CdTe solar cells on glass with efficiencies tested at NREL at 10.5%. LPVD is highly flexible and ideally suited for prototyping PV cells using ternary or quaternary alloys and for exploring new dopant combinations.

  20. UV laser ablation of parylene films from gold substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O. R. Musaev, P. Scott, J. M. Wrobel, and M. B. Kruger


    Parylene films, coating gold substrates, were removed by laser ablation using 248 nm light from an excimer laser. Each sample was processed by a different number of pulses in one of three different environments: air at atmospheric pressure, nitrogen at atmospheric pressure, and vacuum. The laser-induced craters were analyzed by optical microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Multi-pulse ablation thresholds of gold and parylene were estimated.

  1. Laser Ablation for Medical Applications (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken-Ichi

    Medical applications of laser are measurement, laser surgery, in-situ monitoring, and processing of medical devices. In this paper, author briefly reviews the trends of medical applications, describes some new applications, and then discuss about the future trends and problems of medical applications. At present, the domestic market of laser equipment for medical applications is nearly 1/10 of that for industrial applications, which has registered significant growth continuously. Laser surgery as a minimum invasive surgery under arthroscope is expected to decrease the pain of patients. Precise processing such as cutting and welding is suitable for manufacturing medical devices. Pulsed laser deposition has been successfully applied to the thin film coating. The corneal refractive surgery by ArF excimer laser has been widely accepted for its highly safe operation. Laser ablation for retinal implant in the visual prosthesis is one of the promising applications of laser ablation in medicine. New applications with femtosecond laser are expected in the near future.

  2. Bulk Laser Material Modification: Towards a Kerfless Laser Wafering Process (United States)

    LeBeau, James

    Due to the ever increasing relevance of finer machining control as well as necessary reduction in material waste by large area semiconductor device manufacturers, a novel bulk laser machining method was investigated. Because the cost of silicon and sapphire substrates are limiting to the reduction in cost of devices in both the light emitting diode (LED) and solar industries, and the present substrate wafering process results in >50% waste, the need for an improved ingot wafering technique exists. The focus of this work is the design and understanding of a novel semiconductor wafering technique that utilizes the nonlinear absorption properties of band-gapped materials to achieve bulk (subsurface) morphological changes in matter using highly focused laser light. A method and tool was designed and developed to form controlled damage regions in the bulk of a crystalline sapphire wafer leaving the surfaces unaltered. The controllability of the subsurface damage geometry was investigated, and the effect of numerical aperture of the focusing optic, energy per pulse, wavelength, and number of pulses was characterized for a nanosecond pulse length variable wavelength Nd:YAG OPO laser. A novel model was developed to describe the geometry of laser induced morphological changes in the bulk of semiconducting materials for nanosecond pulse lengths. The beam propagation aspect of the model was based on ray-optics, and the full Keldysh multiphoton photoionization theory in conjuncture with Thornber's and Drude's models for impact ionization were used to describe high fluence laser light absorption and carrier generation ultimately resulting in permanent material modification though strong electron-plasma absorption and plasma melting. Although the electron-plasma description of laser damage formation is usually reserved for extremely short laser pulses (plane of damage in the bulk of sapphire wafers. This was accomplished using high numerical aperture optics, a variable

  3. Effect of laser radiation on multi-wall carbon nanotubes: study of shell structure and immobilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyoergy, Enikoe, E-mail:; Perez del Pino, Angel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICMAB-CSIC) (Spain); Roqueta, Jaume; Ballesteros, Belen [Centro de Investigaciones en Nanociencia y Nanotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CIN2-CSIC) (Spain); Cabana, Laura; Tobias, Gerard [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICMAB-CSIC) (Spain)


    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with diameters between 10 and 15 nm were transferred and immobilized onto SiO{sub 2} glass substrates by ultraviolet matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (UV-MAPLE). Toluene was chosen as solvent material for the preparation of the composite MAPLE targets. An UV KrF* ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau}{sub FWHM} {approx_equal} 25 ns, {nu} = 10 Hz) excimer laser source was used for the irradiation experiments. The effects of incident laser fluence on the structure of the laser transferred MWCNTs was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology of the laser processed MWCNTs was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy in acoustic (dynamic) configuration. Network-like structures constituted by individual nanotubes and nanotube bundles were created onto solid substrates. Changes in the nanotubes' shell structure can be induced through the tuning of the laser fluence value incident onto the composite MAPLE targets.

  4. Laser Processing of Metals and Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singaravelu, Senthilraja [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)


    A laser offers a unique set of opportunities for precise delivery of high quality coherent energy. This energy can be tailored to alter the properties of material allowing a very flexible adjustment of the interaction that can lead to melting, vaporization, or just surface modification. Nowadays laser systems can be found in nearly all branches of research and industry for numerous applications. Sufficient evidence exists in the literature to suggest that further advancements in the field of laser material processing will rely significantly on the development of new process schemes. As a result they can be applied in various applications starting from fundamental research on systems, materials and processes performed on a scientific and technical basis for the industrial needs. The interaction of intense laser radiation with solid surfaces has extensively been studied for many years, in part, for development of possible applications. In this thesis, I present several applications of laser processing of metals and polymers including polishing niobium surface, producing a superconducting phase niobium nitride and depositing thin films of niobium nitride and organic material (cyclic olefin copolymer). The treated materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high resolution optical microscopy, surface profilometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Power spectral density (PSD) spectra computed from AFM data gives further insight into the effect of laser melting on the topography of the treated niobium.

  5. Effects of excimer laser irradiation on the expression of Th17, Treg, TGF-beta1, and IL-6 in patients with psoriasis vulgaris (United States)

    Xiong, Guo-Xin; Li, Xin-Zhong


    The effects of laser irradiation on the expression of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells and their related cytokines, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), respectively, in the peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis vulgaris were investigated. 38 patients with psoriasis vulgaris in the stable state were selected as the treatment group that was treated twice a week for eight weeks. Another 38 healthy persons were chosen as the control group. Before and after treatment, the percentages of Th17 cells and Treg cells in the patients’ peripheral blood were detected using flow cytometry, the content of TGF-β1 and IL-6 in the patients’ sera were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the extent and severity of lesions were determined by weighing the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). After laser treatment, the percentage of Th17 cells, the Th17/Treg cell ratio and the level of IL-6 in the peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the same patients before the treatment (P  psoriasis vulgaris was 84.21%, and the PASI score was significantly lower (P  psoriasis vulgaris.

  6. Heat pump processes induced by laser radiation (United States)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.


    A carbon dioxide laser system was constructed for the demonstration of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation. The system consisted of a frequency doubling stage, a gas reaction cell with its vacuum and high purity gas supply system, and provisions to measure the temperature changes by pressure, or alternatively, by density changes. The theoretical considerations for the choice of designs and components are dicussed.

  7. Introduction to gas lasers with emphasis on selective excitation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Colin S


    Introduction to Gas Lasers: Population Inversion Mechanisms focuses on important processes in gas discharge lasers and basic atomic collision processes that operate in a gas laser. Organized into six chapters, this book first discusses the historical development and basic principles of gas lasers. Subsequent chapters describe the selective excitation processes in gas discharges and the specific neutral, ionized and molecular laser systems. This book will be a valuable reference on the behavior of gas-discharge lasers to anyone already in the field.

  8. Effect of paraelectrode processes on contraction of space charge in periodic-pulse lasers (United States)

    Arytyunyan, R. V.; Baranov, V. Yu.; Borisov, V. M.; Vinokhodov, A. Yu.; Kiryukhin, Yu. B.


    A characteristic feature of periodic-pulse electric-discharge CO2-lasers and excimer lasers is contraction of the space charge as the pulse repetition rate increases. The emission energy per pulse decreases as a consequence, with the average laser power first ceasing to increase linearly beyond a certain corner repetition rate and then decreasing beyond a certain critical repetition rate. A study of this phenomenon was made, for the purpose of separating the effect of paracathode processes from the effect of gas dynamics and then evaluating the effect of the former alone. Paraelectrode perturbations were simulated by focusing the radiation from the an XeCl-laser on the cathode surface in an atmosphere of nonabsorbing gases. Laser pulses of up to approximately 0.5 J energy and of approximately 50 ns duration were focused within a spot of 1 mm(2) area on a cathode inside a discharge chamber, with the power density of incident radiation regulated by means of an attenuator. A space charge within a volume of 2.5x4.5x9 cm(3) was generated between this specially shaped cathode and a mesh anode with an approximately 50% optical transmission coefficient. The space charge in helium and in neon was photographed, and the time lag of a discharge pulse behind a contracting laser pulse was measured as a function of the laser pulse energy for these two gases, as well as for a He+C12 gas mixture. The general trend was found to be the same in each case, the time lag increasing with increasing energy first at a slower rate up to a critical energy level and then faster. It has been established that plasma does not build up on the cathode before the laser pulse energy reaches 30 mJ (for a 3 mm(2) surface area), while plasma glow begins as the laser pulse energy reaches 150 mJ. A contracted channel begins to form within the laser-cathode interaction space, with an attendant fast increase of the time lag owing to evaporation of the cathode metal.

  9. Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger Technology Development (United States)

    Hansen, Scott; Wright, Sarah; Wallace, Sarah; Hamilton, Tanner; Dennis, Alexander; Zuhlke, Craig; Roth, Nick; Sanders, John


    The reliance on non-permanent coatings in Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) designs is a significant technical issue to be solved before long-duration spaceflight can occur. Therefore, high reliability CHXs have been identified by the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) as critical technologies needed to move beyond low earth orbit. The Laser Processed Condensing Heat Exchanger project aims to solve these problems through the use of femtosecond laser processed surfaces, which have unique wetting properties and potentially exhibit anti-microbial growth properties. These surfaces were investigated to identify if they would be suitable candidates for a replacement CHX surface. Among the areas researched in this project include microbial growth testing, siloxane flow testing in which laser processed surfaces were exposed to siloxanes in an air stream, and manufacturability.

  10. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation processing of triacetate-pullulan polysaccharide thin films for drug delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-36, RO-077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania) and Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail:; Dorcioman, G. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-36, RO-077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ristoscu, C. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-36, RO-077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Axente, E. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-36, RO-077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grigorescu, S. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-36, RO-077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Moldovan, A. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-36, RO-077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-36, RO-077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kocourek, T. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Jelinek, M. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Albulescu, M. [National Institute for Chemical-Pharmaceutical R and D, 112 Vitan, 74373 Bucharest 3 (Romania); Buruiana, T. [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi 6600 (Romania); Mihaiescu, D. [University of Agriculture Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 59 Marasti, Bucharest (Romania); Stamatin, I. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box MG-38, 3 Nano-SAE Research Center, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5345 (United States)


    We report the first successful deposition of triacetate-pullulan polysaccharide thin films by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation. We used a KrF* excimer laser source ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau} {approx} 20 ns) operated at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. We demonstrated by FTIR that our thin films are composed of triacetate-pullulan maintaining its chemical structure and functionality. The dependence on incident laser fluence of the induced surface morphology is analysed.

  11. Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Laser Processes (United States)

    Purtonen, Tuomas; Kalliosaari, Anne; Salminen, Antti

    Monitoring of laser processes has been researched actively since the 1980's in several institutes around the world. The goal of process monitoring is to gather information on the process and to improve the understanding of the occurring phenomena, and to use the gathered data to createquality control methods and adaptive, closed loop control of the process. The methods used forlaser process monitoring can be divided into optical and acoustic methods of which the optical methods are more common. Today, monitoring has been commercially applied to even the newest laser processes, e.g. additive manufacturing. For laser welding, the process monitoring has been developed even further and closed-loop systems have been demonstrated several years ago. The improvements in digital camera technology and data processing have resulted in development of systems that use feature recognition for determining certain features of the process. Monitoring systems have developed from simple systems using single sensors to a more sophisticated systems utilizing a multitude of different detectors and detection methods.

  12. Laser Induced Surface Chemical Epitaxy (United States)


    eV was observed in this study for DMTe adlay ,,;s annealed at 423 K, a condition which is likely to produce a metallic Te adlayer , the Cd 3d5 /2...processes were studied by irradiating the adlayer with ultraviolet photons produced by a Questek excimer laser. These were introduced into the deposition...binding energy observed for similarly annealed DMCd adlayers was 405.1 eV. Based on room temperature measurements and ligand shift and electronegativity

  13. Optimisation of the Laser Cutting Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Birgitte; Olsen, Flemmming Ove


    The problem in optimising the laser cutting process is outlined. Basic optimisation criteria and principles for adapting an optimisation method, the simplex method, are presented. The results of implementing a response function in the optimisation are discussed with respect to the quality as well...

  14. Dynamic optics for ultrafast laser processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salter Patrick


    Full Text Available We present a range of dynamic optical methods to control focal fields for material processing using ultrafast lasers. Adaptive aberration correction maintains focal quality when focusing deep into materials. Dynamic parallelisation methods permit independent control of hundreds of fabrication spots. New adaptive methods for control of pulse front tilt are also presented.

  15. Discharge-current characteristics in UV-preionized Kr/He, F2/He gas-mixtures and KrF excimer laser gas. Shigaisen yobi denri Kr/He, F2/He kongo kitai hoden oyobi KrF laser reiki hoden no denryu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, N.; Kawakami, H.; Yukimura, K. (Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan))


    In order to study effects of Kr and F2 on discharge characteristics of KrF excimer laser gas, gap phenomena in Kr/He and F2/He gas-mixtures were observed and discharge current (I[sub d]) was measured. In the range where Kr concentration was over 10% in Kr/He gas, in which production of filamentation as well as glow discharge started, discontinuous change in I[sub d] in the second or third half cycle was observed. According to the results of experiments and model analyses, it was considered that the discontinuity of the current showed the transition point to filamentation. When F2 concentration was in the range between 0.1 and 0.3% in F2/He mixture gas, filamentation and arc with glow were observed. Sine-waveform I[sub d] ended in the first half cycle, and began to flow again after cessation or had almost constant current due to arc and others. When F2 was over 0.4%, only are discharge was observed. It was thus found that F2 has a large effect on discharge characteristics of KrF laser gas. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Open architecture control for laser materials processing (United States)

    Ortmann, Juergen; Kahmen, A.; Kaierle, Stefan; Kreutz, Ernst-Wolfgang; Poprawe, Reinhart


    In laser materials processing, usually CNC controls come into operation that are fitted to conventional applications of machining, like milling. Because of the flexibility required and the large variety of applications in laser technology the use of an open architecture control is necessary. Open controls based on the OSACA (Open System Architecture for Controls within Automation systems) specification gain an increasing importance when innovative technology is integrated into controls. OSACA defines a uniform system platform that provides services for communication and configuration. The OSACA platform has been developed as a modular system for different operating systems with or without real-time capability and different hardware platforms. The functionality of the control is subdivided into single functional units, which communicate provided by the OSACA platform. Every unit can access the internal control data in a standardized way. The contribution reports about the implementation of an OSACA based control into a laser manufacturing plant. The problems and components concerning a linkage to the laser control and the implementation of some laser specific control units are discussed.

  17. Femtosecond laser studies of ultrafast intramolecular processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The goal of this research is to better understand the detailed mechanisms of chemical reactions by observing, directly in time, the dynamics of fundamental chemical processes. In this work femtosecond laser pulses are used to initiate chemical processes and follow the progress of these processes in time. The authors are currently studying ultrafast internal conversion and subsequent intramolecular relaxation in unsaturated hydrocarbons. In addition, the authors are developing nonlinear optical techniques to prepare and monitor the time evolution of specific vibrational motions in ground electronic state molecules.

  18. Wear performance of laser processed tantalum coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrick, Stanley; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit, E-mail:


    This first generation investigation evaluates the in vitro tribological performance of laser-processed Ta coatings on Ti for load-bearing implant applications. Linear reciprocating wear tests in simulated body fluid showed one order of magnitude less wear rate, of the order of 10{sup -4} mm{sup 3}(N.m){sup -1}, for Ta coatings compared to Ti. Our results demonstrate that Ta coatings can potentially minimize the early-stage bone-implant interface micro-motion induced wear debris generation due to their excellent bioactivity comparable to that of hydroxyapatite (HA), high wear resistance and toughness compared to popular HA coatings. Highlights: {yields} In vitro wear performance of laser processed Ta coatings on Ti was evaluated. {yields} Wear tests in SBF showed one order of magnitude less wear for Ta coatings than Ti. {yields} Ta coatings can minimize early-stage micro-motion induced wear debris generation.

  19. Selective laser cleaning of chlorine on ancient coins (United States)

    Aiello, Domenico; Buccolieri, Alessandro; Buccolieri, Giovanni; Castellano, Alfredo; Di Giulio, Massimo; Leo, Laura Sandra; Lorusso, Antonella; Nassisi, Gloria; Nassisi, Vincenzo; Torrisi, Lorenzo


    Results about the efficiency of the laser cleaning on the reduction of corrosion products from the surface of ancient coins are reported. In this work an ancient copper coin datable from 1500 to 1600 A.D. and a UV excimer laser were utilized. The goal of this work consists to study the potentiality of UV laser treatment in the reduction of the chlorine concentration on the coin surface which is the main responsible of the corrosion processes of the ancient coins. We used Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques to estimate the chemical composition of the coin surface, before and after UV excimer laser cleaning. In particular, we measured the chlorine, copper and calcium concentrations. We found that a radiation dose of about 19 J/cm2 was able to reduce the chlorine concentration from 2.3 % w/w to 0.6 % w/w without damaging the metal bulk.

  20. Pressure and gap length dependence of gap breakdown voltage and discharge current of discharge-pumped KrF excimer laser. Hoden reiki KrF laser no zetsuen hakai den prime atsu to reiki denryu no atsuryoku, gap cho izon sei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukimura, K.; Kawakami, H. (Doshisha Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Hitomi, K. (Kyoto Polytechnic College, Kyoto (Japan))


    On the gap destruction characteristics of UV-preionized discharge-pumped KrF excimer laser (charge transfer type) and the electric characteristics of the excited discharge, studies were made by changing the pressure (1.5-3 atm) and the discharge gap length (14-21 mm) of the discharge medium. (1) Gap breakdown voltage and the maximum current of the excited discharge give a similarity by a product of pressure and the gap length at the charge volatge. (2) Insulation breakdown of the gap occurs at the wave front of the applied voltage and the breakdown time gets delayed by the decreasing voltage applied. By setting the ionization index at constant value 20, the gap breakdown voltage is estimated at the error within 10%. (3) The relation between the maximum current, pressure and the gap length product changes the characteristics by the charge voltage of the primary condenser. With the result combined with the standardization of voltage/current of the excited discharge, the electric characteristics at the specific pressure and gap length can be readily known. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Femtosecond laser processing of fuel injectors - a materials processing evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, B C; Wynne, A


    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a new laser-based machining technology that utilizes ultrashort-pulse (0.1-1.0 picosecond) lasers to cut materials with negligible generation of heat or shock. The ultrashort pulse laser, developed for the Department of Energy (Defense Programs) has numerous applications in operations requiring high precision machining. Due to the extremely short duration of the laser pulse, material removal occurs by a different physical mechanism than in conventional machining. As a result, any material (e.g., hardened steel, ceramics, diamond, silicon, etc.) can be machined with minimal heat-affected zone or damage to the remaining material. As a result of the threshold nature of the process, shaped holes, cuts, and textures can be achieved with simple beam shaping. Conventional laser tools used for cutting or high-precision machining (e.g., sculpting, drilling) use long laser pulses (10{sup -8} to over 1 sec) to remove material by heating it to the melting or boiling point (Figure 1.1a). This often results in significant damage to the remaining material and produces considerable slag (Figure 1.2a). With ultrashort laser pulses, material is removed by ionizing the material (Figure 1.1b). The ionized plasma expands away from the surface too quickly for significant energy transfer to the remaining material. This distinct mechanism produces extremely precise and clean-edged holes without melting or degrading the remaining material (Figures 1.2 and 1.3). Since only a very small amount of material ({approx} <0.5 microns) is removed per laser pulse, extremely precise machining can be achieved. High machining speed is achieved by operating the lasers at repetition rates up to 10,000 pulses per second. As a diagnostic, the character of the short-pulse laser produced plasma enables determination of the material being machined between pulses. This feature allows the machining of multilayer materials, metal on metal or metal on

  2. Internal Dynamics of Dendritic Molecules Probed by Pyrene Excimer Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Duhamel


    Full Text Available This review exposes the current poor understanding of the internal segmental chain dynamics of dendrimers in solution probed by monitoring the process of excimer formation between pyrene labels covalently attached to the chain ends of dendrimers. The review begins by covering the bases of fluorescence and the kinetics of pyrene excimer formation before describing a procedure based on the Model Free (MF analysis that is used to analyze quantitatively the fluorescence decays acquired for dendrimers, the ends of which have been fully and covalently labeled with pyrene. Comparison of the various trends obtained by different research groups describing the efficiency of pyrene excimer formation with the generation number of dendrimers illustrates the lack of consensus between the few studies devoted to the topic. One possible reason for this disagreement might reside in the presence of minute amounts of unattached pyrene labels which act as potent fluorescent impurities and affect the analysis of the fluorescence spectra and decays in an uncontrolled manner. The review points out that the MF analysis of the fluorescence decays acquired with pyrene-labeled dendrimers enables one to account for the presence of unattached pyrene and to retrieve information about the internal segmental dynamics of the dendrimer. It provides guidelines that should enable future studies on pyrene-labeled dendrimers to yield results that are more straightforward to interpret.

  3. Unique effects of the chain lengths and anions of tetra-alkylammonium salts on quenching pyrene excimer. (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Sook; Zhao, Jing; Lei, Yu; Nieh, Mu-Ping


    Pyrene (Py) excimer, through its unique fluorescence quenching, exhibits high sensitivity and high selectivity in detecting specific electron-deficient molecules, providing a potential platform for sensing technology, optical switch, and probing hydrophobicity of molecular environment. In solution state, its quenching mechanism has been well-studied. However, there remain many unknown properties regarding the quenching mechanism of the solid-state Py excimer. In this paper, the effects of a series of tetra-alkylammonium salts (with a variety of chain lengths and anions) on Py excimer quenching are investigated to identify the controlling parameters of the fluorescence quenching in the binary system. Several experimental approaches including steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, UV absorption, (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and time-dependent fluorescence decay are employed to seek for the fundamental understanding of the quenching mechanism. The result indicates a unique quenching effect of tetrabutylammonium cation on the pyrene excimer, and which is not observed in the other cations with different chain lengths (the same associated hexafluorophosphate anions). Meanwhile, hexafluorophosphate anion (in the presence of tetrabutylammonium) is able to effectively retain Py excimer fluorescence when the system is prepared by evaporating solvent at high temperature. It is also confirmed that dynamic quenching is involved in the process. Hydrophobic environment around Py molecules shows strong correlation with the formation of Py excimer. The knowledge obtained in this study provides the insights to how the interaction between salt and Py molecule affects the excimer fluorescence.

  4. Selectively deposited copper on laser-treated polyimide using electroless plating (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Phillips, Harvey M.; Zheng, HongYu; Tam, Siu Chung; Liu, Wen Qing; Wen, Gongling; Gong, Zhiben; Lam, Yee Loy


    Many reviews about the interconnection line fabrication by laser processing method were reported recently. UV laser process polyimide has been studied thoroughly during the past decade. In this report, we discussed the utilization of surface potential changing on polyimide film irradiated by excimer KrF laser and metallized the UV laser treated polyimide surface by electroless copper deposition. A new negatively charged polymer stabilized Pd solution was applied as catalyst in this experiment. We also produced pattern-wised fine line on KrF laser induced PI surface using this method.

  5. A Multi-Scale Modeling of Laser Cladding Process (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cao, J; Choi, J


    Laser cladding is an additive manufacturing process that a laser generates a melt-pool on the substrate material while a second material, as a powder or a wire form, is injected into that melt-pool...

  6. Laser bending process of preloaded sheet metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lang


    Full Text Available Laser bending process of preloaded sheet metal was reviewed on theoretical researches, forming experiments, numerical simulations and material performance studies of formed sheets. Considering the pre-bending platforms that used in the forming experiments can only work on few simple pre-bending types and small sized sheet metals, a large and flexible pre-bending platform was developed by authors. Experiments were done on this platform. The results of experiments showed that different pre-bending types lead to bending sheet metals into different curved shapes and large sized structure components of flight vehicles can be formed using this process. Based on the current research status, further developments and challenges of this process are discussed.

  7. Physics of Laser Materials Processing Theory and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gladush, Gennady G


    This book describes the basic mechanisms, theory, simulations and technological aspects of Laser processing techniques. It covers the principles of laser quenching, welding, cutting, alloying, selective sintering, ablation, etc. The main attention is paid to the quantitative description. The diversity and complexity of technological and physical processes is discussed using a unitary approach. The book aims on understanding the cause-and-effect relations in physical processes in Laser technologies. It will help researchers and engineers to improve the existing and develop new Laser machining techniques. The book addresses readers with a certain background in general physics and mathematical analysis: graduate students, researchers and engineers practicing laser applications.

  8. Information system for laser materials processing (United States)

    Liao, Xian-Ning; Beckmann, Leo H. J. F.


    The computer information system combines the features of a data base management system (DBMS), some artificial intelligent (A.I.) techniques and the computer language C into one integrated system capable of handling a variety of data and knowledge types available in the area of laser materials processing (LMP). Experimental data and general guideline data and knowledge are stored in data bases using the DBMS. Models for parameter prediction and process simulation are implemented in the computer language C. Some heuristic reasoning rules are implemented to handle the searching of general knowledge and experimental data from the data bases. A so-called "control center", which is implemented in Prolog, functions as a shell, providing an interactive user environment and guiding the user in accessing different parts of the system.

  9. Energy enhancer for mask based laser materials processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove


    A device capable of drastically improving the energy efficiency of present mask based laser materials processing systems is presented. Good accordance between experiments and simulations for a TEA-CO2 laser system designed for laser marking has been demonstrated. The energy efficiency may...

  10. Processing of poly(1,3-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy propane)-co-(sebacic anhydride)) 20:80 (P(CPP:SA)20:80) by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation for drug delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)], E-mail:; Cojanu, C.; Popescu, A.; Grigorescu, S. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Nastase, C.; Nastase, F. [University of Bucharest, 3 Nano-SAE Research Center, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Doraiswamy, A.; Narayan, R.J. [Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Stamatin, I. [University of Bucharest, 3 Nano-SAE Research Center, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Troy, NY (United States)


    We have demonstrated successful thin film growth of poly(1,3-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy, propane)-co-(sebacic anhydride)) (20:80) by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation using a KrF* excimer laser ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau} = 25 ns, {nu} = 10 Hz). The deposited thin films have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. We have demonstrated that the main functional groups of poly(1,3-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy, propane)-co-(sebacic anhydride)) (20:80) are present in the deposited film. The effect of matrix on both thin film structure and surface morphology was also examined. The goal of this work is to explore laser processing of this material to create suitable constructs for drug delivery applications.

  11. Data processing of laser airborne depth mapping (United States)

    Jian, Hongyan; Chen, Weibiao; Wang, Ying; Chu, Chunlin


    A laser airborne depth mapping (LADM) for the topography of coastal water was developed in China. System was implemented in South China Sea between 2001 and 2002. Data processing subsystem is introduced in this paper. Three automated waveform processing algorithms have been developed around several sets of heuristic rules to extract reliably accurate depths with a low false alarm rate. The position, pulse width and ratio of signal to noise are obtained by the low-pass differentiator algorithm (LD). The floor reflecting is determined by the signal above some thresholds in LD method. According to the characteristics of water attenuation, the received signal is revised by the inverse of the water attenuation coefficient (here after, RA method). The bottom is easier to distinguished from the enhanced contrast between the floor reflecting and water scattering. The LD and RA algorithms show a consist results in the post-flight data processing. A more simple and fast algorithms of delayed signal subtracter (DS) is used on flight as a real time data processing, in which the signal is delayed some time abd subtracted by the original signal. The three methods are analyzed in details. The result of data processing isalso presented.

  12. Process observation in selective laser melting (SLM) (United States)

    Thombansen, U.; Abels, P.


    In additive manufacturing, the quality of products can be traced by observation of process variables track by track and layer by layer. The stacking of layer wise information can be used to consolidate the entire build up history of a product thus leading to a truly three dimensional quality histogram. The first step that is necessary to achieve such a quality histogram is the acquisition of process measurands that are related to product quality. Successful acquisition of measurements for thermal radiation has been reported in several publications. The authors of such papers report the detection of changes in boundary conditions of the process by observing the thermal radiation of the process. It has been reported that for example a change in laser power has an influence on the thermal emission and that different readings are received for processing a thin powder layer on a solid work piece compared to scanning pure powder in the situation of an overhang structure. A correlation to the underlying reason for the increase in thermal radiation however is mostly related to the experimental setup rather than to in process measurements. This report demonstrates an approach of acquiring and combining synchronous measurements of different physical properties of the process. The coaxial observation system used in the experiments enables the synchronous acquisition of measurements of the thermal emission and the acquisition of images that visualize the surface of the powder bed in the vicinity of the interaction zone. The images are used to monitor the motion of powder particles as they are influenced by the melting process. This amount of particle motion is then correlated to areas of different powder thicknesses. The combination of this information with excessive readings in thermal emission classifies the event to be a situation of noncritical deviation of thermal emission. In fact, this combination of extracted features establishes a first key criterion for an

  13. Precision laser processing for micro electronics and fiber optic manufacturing (United States)

    Webb, Andrew; Osborne, Mike; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Dinkel, Duane W.


    The application of laser based materials processing for precision micro scale manufacturing in the electronics and fiber optic industry is becoming increasingly widespread and accepted. This presentation will review latest laser technologies available and discuss the issues to be considered in choosing the most appropriate laser and processing parameters. High repetition rate, short duration pulsed lasers have improved rapidly in recent years in terms of both performance and reliability enabling flexible, cost effective processing of many material types including metal, silicon, plastic, ceramic and glass. Demonstrating the relevance of laser micromachining, application examples where laser processing is in use for production will be presented, including miniaturization of surface mount capacitors by applying a laser technique for demetalization of tracks in the capacitor manufacturing process and high quality laser machining of fiber optics including stripping, cleaving and lensing, resulting in optical quality finishes without the need for traditional polishing. Applications include telecoms, biomedical and sensing. OpTek Systems was formed in 2000 and provide fully integrated systems and sub contract services for laser processes. They are headquartered in the UK and are establishing a presence in North America through a laser processing facility in South Carolina and sales office in the North East.

  14. Parallel femtosecond laser processing with vector-wave control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayasaki Yoshio


    Full Text Available Parallel femtosecond laser processing with a computer-generated hologram displayed on a spatial light modulator, has the advantages of high throughput and high energy-use efficiency. for further increase of the processing efficiency, we demonstrated parallel femtosecond laser processing with vector-wave control that is based on polarization control using a pair of spatial light modulators.

  15. Material Processing with High Power CO2-Lasers (United States)

    Bakowsky, Lothar


    After a period of research and development lasertechnique now is regarded as an important instrument for flexible, economic and fully automatic manufacturing. Especially cutting of flat metal sheets with high power C02-lasers and CNC controlled two or three axes handling systems is a wide spread. application. Three dimensional laser cutting, laser-welding and -heat treatment are just at the be ginning of industrial use in production lines. The main. advantages of laser technology. are - high. accuracy - high, processing velocity - law thermal distortion. - no tool abrasion. The market for laser material processing systems had 1985 a volume of 300 Mio S with growth rates between, 20 % and 30 %. The topic of this lecture are hiTrh. power CO2-lasers. Besides this systems two others are used as machining tools, Nd-YAG- and Eximer lasers. All applications of high. power CO2-lasers to industrial material processing show that high processing velocity and quality are only guaranteed in case of a stable intensity. profile on the workpiece. This is only achieved by laser systems without any power and mode fluctuations and by handling systems of high accuracy. Two applications in the automotive industry are described, below as examples for laser cutting and laser welding of special cylindrical motor parts.

  16. High power lasers in manufacturing


    Chatwin, Chris R


    Lecture covers a brief history of lasers and the important beam parameters for manufacturing applications. It introduces the main laser types that are appropriate for manufacturing: carbon dioxide lasers, Nd YAG, Diode and fibre lasers, excimer lasers. It then looks at applications to different products and also micro-engineering

  17. Photo-induced growth of dielectrics with excimer lamps (United States)

    Boyd, Ian W.; Zhang, Jun-Ying


    The underlying principles and properties of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (excimer lamps), generated by a dielectric barrier discharge in a rare-gas (Rg) or a mixture of Rg and halogen, are discussed. Compared with conventional sources, these excimer lamps offer narrow-band radiation at various wavelengths from 108-354 nm and over large areas with high efficiencies and high power densities. The variety of available wavelengths offers an enormous potential for new industrial applications in materials processing. Previously, photo-oxidation of silicon, germanium and silicon-germanium and photo-deposition of single- and multi-layered films of silicon oxide, silicon nitride, and silicon oxynitride have been demonstrated by using excimer lamps. This paper reviews the progress on excimer lamp-assisted growth of high dielectric constant (Ta2O5, TiO2 and PZT) and low dielectric constant (polyimide and porous silica) thin films by photo-CVD and sol-gel processing, summarizes the properties of photo-induced growth of Ta2O5 films and discusses the effect and mechanism of low temperature UV annealing with 172 nm radiation. Metal oxide semiconductor capacitors based on the photo-induced Ta2O5 films grown directly on Si at low temperatures exhibit excellent electrical properties. Leakage current densities as low as 5.2×10-7 A cm-2 and 2.41×10-7 A cm-2 at 1 MV cm-1 have been achieved for the as-grown Ta2O5 films deposited by photo-induced sol-gel processing and photo-CVD, respectively-several orders of magnitude lower than for any other as-grown films prepared by any other technique. A subsequent low temperature (400°C) UV annealing step improves these to 10-8 A cm-2. These values are comparable to those only previously achieved for films annealed at high temperatures between 600°C and 1000°C. These properties make the photo-induced growth of Ta2O5 layers suitable alternative to SiO2 for high density DRAM application.

  18. Laser processing of polyethylene glycol derivative and block copolymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, MG-36, RO-77125, Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail:; Popescu, C.; Popescu, A.C.; Grigorescu, S.; Duta, L.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, MG-36, RO-77125, Bucharest (Romania); Andronie, A.; Stamatin, I. [University of Bucharest, 3Nano-SAE Research Center, P.O. Box MG-11, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ionescu, O.S.; Mihaiescu, D. [University of Agriculture Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 59 Marasti, Bucharest (Romania); Buruiana, T. [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda, 41A, Iasi (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Material Science, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590 (United States)


    We report the deposition by MAPLE of: (i) a novel polyethylene glycol derivative with carboxyl functional groups and (ii) a block copolymer: poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether-block-poly(caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether. We used a KrF* excimer laser source ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau} = 25 ns, {nu} = 5 Hz). The laser fluence was set within the 200-700 mJ/cm{sup 2} range. The deposited thin films have been investigated by FTIR and AFM. We have concluded that the main functional groups of starting materials are present in the transferred film. We also examined the influence of laser fluence on both thin film structure and morphology.

  19. Thermoreflectance spectroscopy—Analysis of thermal processes in semiconductor lasers (United States)

    Pierścińska, D.


    This review focuses on theoretical foundations, experimental implementation and an overview of experimental results of the thermoreflectance spectroscopy as a powerful technique for temperature monitoring and analysis of thermal processes in semiconductor lasers. This is an optical, non-contact, high spatial resolution technique providing high temperature resolution and mapping capabilities. Thermoreflectance is a thermometric technique based on measuring of relative change of reflectivity of the surface of laser facet, which provides thermal images useful in hot spot detection and reliability studies. In this paper, principles and experimental implementation of the technique as a thermography tool is discussed. Some exemplary applications of TR to various types of lasers are presented, proving that thermoreflectance technique provides new insight into heat management problems in semiconductor lasers and in particular, that it allows studying thermal degradation processes occurring at laser facets. Additionally, thermal processes and basic mechanisms of degradation of the semiconductor laser are discussed.

  20. Nonminimum Phase Behavior of Laser Material Processing (cd-rom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Weerkamp, N.P.; Meijer, J.; Postma, S.; Postma, S.


    Optical sensors are increasingly applied in laser material processing to monitor and control the lasermaterial interaction zone. Dynamic models, relating the sensor signals (e.g. as temperature or molten area) to the process inputs (e.g. laser power or beam velocity), provide the basis for the

  1. Additive Manufacturing of High-Entropy Alloys by Laser Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Janssen, Niels; Smith, Stefan; De Hosson, J. Th M.

    This contribution concentrates on the possibilities of additive manufacturing of high-entropy clad layers by laser processing. In particular, the effects of the laser surface processing parameters on the microstructure and hardness of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were examined. AlCoCrFeNi alloys with


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEHOSSON, JTM; VANDENBURG, M; Burg, M. van den


    This paper concentrates on the mechanical performance of various ceramic coatings of Cr2O3 on steel (SAF2205), as produced by CO2 laser processing. It is concluded that a firmly bonded coating of Cr2O3 on steel could be produced by high power laser processing. The actual interface strength of a

  3. High-power CO lasers for materials processing (United States)

    Averin, A.; Erofeev, E.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Malysh, M.


    Two high-power CO laser installations for industrial applications are being developed now in Russia within the framework of the Eureka Project EU113 (`CO-Eurolaser'). The electron- beam-controlled-discharge (EBCD) method for pumping those lasers is used. The first one, EBCD 10 kW CO laser, operates in continuous wave and `gentle' repetitively pulsed (RP) (peak power 20 kW, laser pulse duration 0.5 - 1 ms, pulse repetition rate 500 - 1,000 Hz) modes. The second laser, EBCD 5 - 10 kW CO laser will operate in `tough' RP mode (peak power 0.2 - 1.0 MW, single pulse energy 100 J, pulse duration 0.1 - 0.5 ms, repetition rate 50 - 100 Hz). A detander-compressor device, the main characteristics of which are reported, will be used for cooling the laser mixture of the second CO laser. Those high-power CO laser installations are supposed to be used for investigation of different laser materials processing methods on 5 micrometers wavelength for deep penetration welding, cutting, and surface treatment and also for comparative materials processing studies on CO and CO2 laser wavelengths.

  4. Laser Materials Processing for NASA's Aerospace Structural Materials (United States)

    Nagarathnam, Karthik; Hunyady, Thomas A.


    Lasers are useful for performing operations such as joining, machining, built-up freeform fabrication, and surface treatment. Due to the multifunctional nature of a single tool and the variety of materials that can be processed, these attributes are attractive in order to support long-term missions in space. However, current laser technology also has drawbacks for space-based applications. Specifically, size, power efficiency, lack of robustness, and problems processing highly reflective materials are all concerns. With the advent of recent breakthroughs in solidstate laser (e.g., diode-pumped lasers) and fiber optic technologies, the potential to perform multiple processing techniques in space has increased significantly. A review of the historical development of lasers from their infancy to the present will be used to show how these issues may be addressed. The review will also indicate where further development is necessary to realize a laser-based materials processing capability in space. The broad utility of laser beams in synthesizing various classes of engineering materials will be illustrated using state-of-the art processing maps for select lightweight alloys typically found on spacecraft. Both short- and long-term space missions will benefit from the development of a universal laser-based tool with low power consumption, improved process flexibility, compactness (e.g., miniaturization), robustness, and automation for maximum utility with a minimum of human interaction. The potential advantages of using lasers with suitable wavelength and beam properties for future space missions to the moon, Mars and beyond will be discussed. The laser processing experiments in the present report were performed using a diode pumped, pulsed/continuous wave Nd:YAG laser (50 W max average laser power), with a 1064 nm wavelength. The processed materials included Ti-6AI-4V, Al-2219 and Al-2090. For Phase I of this project, the laser process conditions were varied and optimized

  5. Laser characterization with advanced digital signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Zibar, Darko


    The use of machine learning techniques to characterize lasers with low output power is reviewed. Optimized phase tracking algorithms that can produce accurate noise spectra are discussed, and a method for inferring the amplitude noise spectrum and rate equation model of the laser under test is pr...

  6. Progress in ultrafast laser processing and future prospects (United States)

    Sugioka, Koji


    The unique characteristics of ultrafast lasers have rapidly revolutionized materials processing after their first demonstration in 1987. The ultrashort pulse width of the laser suppresses heat diffusion to the surroundings of the processed region, which minimizes the formation of a heat-affected zone and thereby enables ultrahigh precision micro- and nanofabrication of various materials. In addition, the extremely high peak intensity can induce nonlinear multiphoton absorption, which extends the diversity of materials that can be processed to transparent materials such as glass. Nonlinear multiphoton absorption enables three-dimensional (3D) micro- and nanofabrication by irradiation with tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses inside transparent materials. Thus, ultrafast lasers are currently widely used for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review presents progress in ultrafast laser processing, including micromachining, surface micro- and nanostructuring, nanoablation, and 3D and volume processing. Advanced technologies that promise to enhance the performance of ultrafast laser processing, such as hybrid additive and subtractive processing, and shaped beam processing are discussed. Commercial and industrial applications of ultrafast laser processing are also introduced. Finally, future prospects of the technology are given with a summary.

  7. Fs-laser processing of medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, P.A., E-mail: [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsaridradsko shose Blvd., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Stankova, N.E.; Nedyalkov, N.N. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsaridradsko shose Blvd., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Fukata, N. [International Centre for Materials for NanoArchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Hirsch, D.; Rauschenbach, B. [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Amoruso, S.; Wang, X. [Dipartimento di Fisica Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II and CNR-SPIN, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Kolev, K.N.; Valova, E.I.; Georgieva, J.S.; Armyanov, St.A. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)


    Highlights: • Fs-laser (263, 527 and 1055 nm) processing of PDMS-elastomer is studied. • High quality trenches are produced on the PDMS surface. • The trenches are analyzed by Laser Microscope and by μ-Raman spectrometry. • Selective Ni metallization of the trenches is accomplished via electro-less plating. • The metalized trenches are studied by SEM. - Abstract: Medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is a biomaterial widely used in medicine and high-tech devices, e.g. MEMS and NEMS. In this work, we report an experimental investigation on femtosecond laser processing of PDMS-elastomer with near infrared (NIR), visible (VIS) and ultraviolet (UV) pulses. High definition trenches are produced by varying processing parameters as laser wavelength, pulse duration, fluence, scanning speed and overlap of the subsequent pulses. The sample surface morphology and chemical composition are investigated by Laser Microscopy, SEM and Raman spectroscopy, addressing the effects of the various processing parameters through comparison with the native materials characteristics. For all the laser pulse wavelengths used, the produced tracks are successfully metalized with Ni via electro-less plating method. We observe a negligible influence of the time interval elapsed between laser treatment and metallization process. Our experimental findings suggest promising perspectives of femtosecond laser pulses in micro- and nano-fabrication of hi-tech PDMS devices.

  8. UV Laser Processing for Semiconductor Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krüger, Olaf; Grundmüller, Richard


    The application of reliable laser sources is well‐established in several fields of industry including automotive, electronics, and medical manufacturing on macro, micro, and even nanometer scales [1...

  9. UV Laser Processing for Semiconductor Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olaf Kruger; Richard Grundmuller


      The application of reliable laser sources is well-established in several fields of industry including automotive, electronics, and medical manufacturing on macro, micro, and even nanometer scales [1...

  10. Investigation of Laser Shock Processing. Volume 2 (United States)


    initiation or crack growth. 12 i- i ’i i i - : i ii i -i - -] Ftioi :0 N 4 1owV4* au OTC r4 N0 Ab h ot Cu.) 0~ LO0 C6F 0 0 C6 4) 0.). w r4 -v it.I 06 goo 0 to0...from interaction of the laser beam with the target. . zoe Produccion Ozone is produced whenever flashlamps, which are used to pump the laser medium

  11. Methods for Optimisation of the Laser Cutting Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Birgitte

    This thesis deals with the adaptation and implementation of various optimisation methods, in the field of experimental design, for the laser cutting process. The problem in optimising the laser cutting process has been defined and a structure for at Decision Support System (DSS) for the optimisat......This thesis deals with the adaptation and implementation of various optimisation methods, in the field of experimental design, for the laser cutting process. The problem in optimising the laser cutting process has been defined and a structure for at Decision Support System (DSS......) for the optimisation of the laser cutting process has been suggested. The DSS consists of a database with the currently used and old parameter settings. Also one of the optimisation methods has been implemented in the DSS in order to facilitate the optimisation procedure for the laser operator. The Simplex Method has...... been adapted in two versions. A qualitative one, that by comparing the laser cut items optimise the process and a quantitative one that uses a weighted quality response in order to achieve a satisfactory quality and after that maximises the cutting speed thus increasing the productivity of the process...

  12. Selective irradiation of radicals for biomedical treatment using vacuum ultraviolet light from an excimer lamp (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Zen, Shungo; Yonemori, Seiya


    In plasma medicine, radicals are considered to play important roles. However, the medical effect of each radical, such as OH and O, is unknown. To examine the effect of each radical, selective production of radicals is needed. We developed selective production of radicals for biomedical treatment using a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light emitted from an excimer lamp. Selective irradiation of OH radicals can be achieved by irradiating the 172-nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp to a humid helium flow in a quartz tube. The water molecules are strongly photodissociated by the VUV light to produce OH radicals. A photochemical simulation for the selective OH production is developed to calculate the OH density. The calculated OH density is compared with OH density measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Selective production of other radicals than OH is also discussed.

  13. Process map for laser heat treatment of carbon steels (United States)

    Ki, Hyungson; So, Sangwoo


    We propose a process map for diode-laser heat treatment of carbon steels. After first identifying a heat treatable region in terms of laser intensity and interaction time using a heat conduction model, two most important factors in heat treatment, carbon diffusion time in austenite and cooling time, are calculated and plotted in the heat treatable region. Because overall characteristics of laser heat treatment for a given steel type can be graphically visualized on a map, this map can be used in the determination of optimal process parameters. Hardening depth is also calculated using the concept of the critical effective carbon diffusion time. For demonstration and validation purposes, we have systematically conducted laser heat treatment on AISI 1020 and 1035 steel specimens using a 3 kW diode laser and measured surface hardness and hardening depth. The experimental results are in agreement with the calculated process map.

  14. Laser Processing of Materials Fundamentals, Applications and Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Schaaf, Peter


    Laser materials processing has made tremendous progress and is now at the forefront of industrial and medical applications. The book describes recent advances in smart and nanoscaled materials going well beyond the traditional cutting and welding applications. As no analytical methods are described the examples are really going into the details of what nowadways is possible by employing lasers for sophisticated materials processing giving rise to achievements not possible by conventional materials processing.

  15. A study into CO2 laser cutting process (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.

    To improve the laser cutting process, the modeling of the heating mechanism is essential. In the present study a mathematical modeling of CO2 laser cutting process is introduced and numerical solution of the heat transfer equation is obtained. The melting front velocities at different laser output power and workpiece thicknesses are predicted. The temporal development of the melting front profile is computed. The study is extended to include the experimental study of the transient behavior of the vapor ejected from the kerf in the initial stage of the cutting process. To achieve this two methods namely He-Ne laser transmittance and fiber-optic methods are introduced. It is found that the melting front velocity is high in the early stage of the cutting process which agrees with the experimental findings. Zusammenfassung Zur Verbesserung des Laser-Schneideprozesses ist eine Modellvorstellung bezüglich des Aufheizmechanismus erforderlich, die in dieser Untersuchung in einer mathematischen Modellierung des CO2-Laser-Schneidvorgangs besteht, womit numerische Lösungen der Wärmeübergangsgleichung gewonnen werden. Die Schmelzfrontgeschwindigkeit ergibt sich dabei als Funktion der Laser-Leistung und der Werkstückdicken. Auch wird die zeitliche Entwicklung der Schmelzfrontprofile berechnet. In Erweiterung der Studie erfogt die experimentelle Untersuchung des instationären Dampfaustrags an der Kerbe zu Beginn des Schneidprozesses, wobei zwei Methoden zum Einsatz kommen: He-Ne-Laser Transmittanz und faseroptische Techniken. Die rechnerisch vorausgesagte hohe Schmelzfrontgeschwindigkeit zu Beginn des Schneidprozesses wird durch den experimentellen Befund bestätigt.

  16. Metal Processing with Ultra-Short Laser Pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, P S; Feit, M D; Komashko, A M; Perry, M D; Rubenchik, A M; Stuart, B C


    Femtosecond laser ablation has been shown to produce well-defined cuts and holes in metals with minimal heat effect to the remaining material. Ultrashort laser pulse processing shows promise as an important technique for materials processing. We will discuss the physical effects associated with processing based experimental and modeling results. Intense ultra-short laser pulse (USLP) generates high pressures and temperatures in a subsurface layer during the pulse, which can strongly modify the absorption. We carried out simulations of USLP absorption versus material and pulse parameters. The ablation rate as function of the laser parameters has been estimated. Since every laser pulse removes only a small amount of material, a practical laser processing system must have high repetition rate. We will demonstrate that planar ablation is unstable and the initially smooth crater bottom develops a corrugated pattern after many tens of shots. The corrugation growth rate, angle of incidence and the polarization of laser electric field dependence will be discussed. In the nonlinear stage, the formation of coherent structures with scales much larger than the laser wavelength was observed. Also, there appears to be a threshold fluence above which a narrow, nearly perfectly circular channel forms after a few hundred shots. Subsequent shots deepen this channel without significantly increasing its diameter. The role of light absorption in the hole walls will be discussed.

  17. Mechanisms of Carbon Nanotube Production by Laser Ablation Process (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.; Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Smalley, Richard E.; Nocholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)


    We will present possible mechanisms for nanotube production by laser oven process. Spectral emission of excited species during laser ablation of a composite graphite target is compared with that of laser irradiated C60 vapor. The similarities in the transient and spectral data suggest that fullerenes are intermediate precursors for nanotube formation. The confinement of the ablation products by means of a 25-mm diameter tube placed upstream of the target seems to improve the production and purity of nanotubes. Repeated laser pulses vaporize the amorphous/graphitic carbon and possibly catalyst particles, and dissociate fullerenes yielding additional feedstock for SWNT growth.

  18. Development of pulse laser processing for mounting fiber Bragg grating (United States)

    Nishimura, Aikihko; Shimada, Yukihiro; Yonemoto, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishibashi, Hisayoshi


    Pulse laser processing has been developed for the application of industrial plants in monitoring and maintenance. Surface cleaning by nano-second laser ablation was demonstrated for decontamination of oxide layers of Cr contained steel. Direct writing by femtosecond processing induced a Bragg grating in optical fiber to make it a seismic sensor for structural health monitoring. Adhesive cement was used to fix the seismic sensor on the surface of reactor coolant pipe material. Pulse laser processing and its related technologies were presented to overcome the severe accidents of nuclear power plants.

  19. Computer Processing Of Tunable-Diode-Laser Spectra (United States)

    May, Randy D.


    Tunable-diode-laser spectrometer measuring transmission spectrum of gas operates under control of computer, which also processes measurement data. Measurements in three channels processed into spectra. Computer controls current supplied to tunable diode laser, stepping it through small increments of wavelength while processing spectral measurements at each step. Program includes library of routines for general manipulation and plotting of spectra, least-squares fitting of direct-transmission and harmonic-absorption spectra, and deconvolution for determination of laser linewidth and for removal of instrumental broadening of spectral lines.

  20. Laser processing of polymer constructs from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). (United States)

    Volova, T G; Tarasevich, A A; Golubev, A I; Boyandin, A N; Shumilova, A A; Nikolaeva, E D; Shishatskaya, E I


    CO2 laser radiation was used to process poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) constructs - films and 3D pressed plates. Laser processing increased the biocompatibility of unperforated films treated with moderate uniform radiation, as estimated by the number and degree of adhesion of NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. The biocompatibility of perforated films modified in the pulsed mode did not change significantly. At the same time, pulsed laser processing of the 3D plates produced perforated scaffolds with improved mechanical properties and high biocompatibility with bone marrow-derived multipotent, mesenchymal stem cells, which show great promise for bone regeneration.

  1. Pre-Industry-Optimisation of the Laser Welding Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui

    This dissertation documents the investigations into on-line monitoring the CO2 laser welding process and optimising the process parameters for achieving high quality welds. The requirements for realisation of an on-line control system are, first of all, a clear understanding of the dynamic...... phenomena of the laser welding process including the behaviour of the keyhole and plume, and the correlation between the adjustable process parameters: laser power, welding speed, focal point position, gas parameters etc. and the characteristics describing the quality of the weld: seam depth and width......, porosity etc. Secondly, a reliable monitoring system for sensing the laser-induced plasma and plume emission and detecting weld defects and process parameter deviations from the optimum conditions. Finally, an efficient control system with a fast signal processor and a precise feed-back controller...

  2. Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma during laser processing of aluminium (United States)

    Lober, R.; Mazumder, J.


    The role of the plasma in laser-metal interaction is of considerable interest due to its influence in the energy transfer mechanism in industrial laser materials processing. A 10 kW CO2 laser was used to study its interaction with aluminium under an argon environment. The objective was to determine the absorption and refraction of the laser beam through the plasma during the processing of aluminium. Laser processing of aluminium is becoming an important topic for many industries, including the automobile industry. The spectroscopic relative line to continuum method was used to determine the electron temperature distribution within the plasma by investigating the 4158 Å Ar I line emission and the continuum adjacent to it. The plasmas are induced in 1.0 atm pure Ar environment over a translating Al target, using f/7 and 10 kW CO2 laser. Spectroscopic data indicated that the plasma composition and behaviour were Ar-dominated. Experimental results indicated the plasma core temperature to be 14 000-15 300 K over the incident range of laser powers investigated from 5 to 7 kW. It was found that 7.5-29% of the incident laser power was absorbed by the plasma. Cross-section analysis of the melt pools from the Al samples revealed the absence of any key-hole formation and confirmed that the energy transfer mechanism in the targets was conduction dominated for the reported range of experimental data.

  3. Process optimisation in selective laser melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vaerenbergh, J.


    The work presented here summarises part of the work I have done for the past six years. After a few interesting months of research on laser cutting of thick steel plates, I was lucky to land up in the emerging domain of Rapid Prototyping (RP): producing complex products layer by layer, directly from

  4. Process control of laser surface alloying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Meijer, J.; Olde Benneker, Jeroen


    In spite of the many advantages of laser surface treatment, such as high production rates and low induced thermal distortion, and its great potential for modifying the surface properties of a wide range of new and existing materials, industrial applications are still limited. This is not only

  5. Optical properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) during nanosecond laser processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankova, N.E., E-mail: [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsaridradsko shose Boul., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasov, P.A.; Nikov, Ru.G.; Nikov, R.G.; Nedyalkov, N.N.; Stoyanchov, T.R. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsaridradsko shose Boul., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Fukata, N. [International Center for Materials for NanoArchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Kolev, K.N.; Valova, E.I.; Georgieva, J.S.; Armyanov, St.A. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)


    Highlights: • Ns-laser (266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm) processing of medical grade PDMS is performed. • Investigation of the optical transmittance as a function of the laser beam parameters. • Analyses of laser treated area by optical & laser microscope and μ-Raman spectrometry. • Application as (MEAs) neural interface for monitor and stimulation of neural activity. - Abstract: This article presents experimental investigations of effects of the process parameters on the medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer processed by laser source with irradiation at UV (266 and 355 nm), VIS (532 nm) and NIR (1064 nm). Systematic experiments are done to characterize how the laser beam parameters (wavelength, fluence, and number of pulses) affect the optical properties and the chemical composition in the laser treated areas. Remarkable changes of the optical properties and the chemical composition are observed. Despite the low optical absorption of the native PDMS for UV, VIS and NIR wavelengths, successful laser treatment is accomplished due to the incubation process occurring below the polymer surface. With increasing of the fluence and the number of the pulses chemical transformations are revealed in the entire laser treated area and hence decreasing of the optical transmittance is observed. The incubation gets saturation after a certain number of pulses and the laser ablation of the material begins efficiently. At the UV and VIS wavelengths the number of the initial pulses, at which the optical transmittance begins to reduce, decreases from 16 up to 8 with increasing of the laser fluence up to 1.0, 2.5 and 10 J cm{sup −2} for 266, 355 and 532 nm, respectively. In the case of 1064 nm the optical transmittance begins to reduce at 11th pulse incident at a fluence of 13 J cm{sup −2} and the number of the pulses decreases to 8 when the fluence reaches value of 16 J cm{sup −2}. The threshold laser fluence needed to induce incubation process after certain

  6. Numerical Model based Reliability Estimation of Selective Laser Melting Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    parameters such as laser power, speed, beam profile, etc. Subsequently, uncertainties in the processing parameters are utilized to predict a range for the various outputs, using a Monte Carlo method based uncertainty analysis methodology, and the reliability of the process is established....... various numerical modelling and experimental studies are being carried out to better understand and control the process, there is still a lack of research into establishing the reliability of the process.In this paper, a combined modelling-experimental approach is introduced to establish the reliability...... of the selective laser melting process. A validated 3D finite-volume alternating-direction-implicit numerical technique is used to model the selective laser melting process, and is calibrated against results from single track formation experiments. Correlation coefficients are determined for process input...

  7. Laser processing of materials based on microscopic properties (United States)

    Haglund, Richard F.


    Laser processing of materials has achieved significant successes in such areas as pulsed laser deposition, micro-and nanostructuring and surface modification and analysis. However, materials synthesis, fabrication and process monitoring with atomic and molecular specificity at the micro-and nanoscale is just now on the horizon. If the grand challenges attendant to those objectives were met, one could fairly conceive of photonic fabrication systems with important similarities to those of the semiconductor industry while enlarging the palette of materials that could be built, assembled and fabricated using the unique electronic and vibrational interactions of light with matter. This paper discusses the possibilities for meeting some of these grand challenges, starting from selected examples of novel approaches to laser-materials interactions across a range of wavelengths, pulse durations, intensities, and pulse-sequencing strategies. The implications for the design of new lasers and new materials-processing strategies are considered.

  8. Plasma generated during underwater pulsed laser processing (United States)

    Hoffman, Jacek; Chrzanowska, Justyna; Moscicki, Tomasz; Radziejewska, Joanna; Stobinski, Leszek; Szymanski, Zygmunt


    The plasma induced during underwater pulsed laser ablation of graphite is studied both experimentally and theoretically. The results of the experiment show that the maximum plasma temperature of 25000 K is reached 20 ns from the beginning of the laser pulse and decreases to 6500 K after 1000 ns. The observed OH absorption band shows that the plasma plume is surrounded by the thin layer of dissociated water vapour at a temperature around 5500 K. The hydrodynamic model applied shows similar maximum plasma temperature at delay times between 14 ns and 30 ns. The calculations show also that already at 14th ns, the plasma electron density reaches 0.97·1027 m-3, which is the critical density for 1064 nm radiation. At the same time the plasma pressure is 2 GPa, which is consisted with earlier measurements of the peak pressure exerted on a target in similar conditions.

  9. Study of the influences of laser parameters on laser assisted machining processes


    Tagliaferri, Flaviana; Leopardi, Giacomo; Semmler, Ulrich; Kuhl, Michael; Palumbo, Biagio


    Hybrid machining processes using additional energy sources such as laser assisted machining (LAM) have increased considerably during the last years. The benefits of LAM for reducing tool wear and cutting forces are well known, especially for superalloys. However, optimal machining results depend on both the laser parameters and the cutting process parameters. It is difficult to find optimal LAM settings due to the complexity of the influencing parameters and their mutual interactions. The aim...

  10. Tomographical process monitoring of laser transmission welding with OCT (United States)

    Ackermann, Philippe; Schmitt, Robert


    Process control of laser processes still encounters many obstacles. Although these processes are stable, a narrow process parameter window during the process or process deviations have led to an increase on the requirements for the process itself and on monitoring devices. Laser transmission welding as a contactless and locally limited joining technique is well-established in a variety of demanding production areas. For example, sensitive parts demand a particle-free joining technique which does not affect the inner components. Inline integrated non-destructive optical measurement systems capable of providing non-invasive tomographical images of the transparent material, the weld seam and its surrounding areas with micron resolution would improve the overall process. Obtained measurement data enable qualitative feedback into the system to adapt parameters for a more robust process. Within this paper we present the inline monitoring device based on Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography developed within the European-funded research project "Manunet Weldable". This device, after adaptation to the laser transmission welding process is optically and mechanically integrated into the existing laser system. The main target lies within the inline process control destined to extract tomographical geometrical measurement data from the weld seam forming process. Usage of this technology makes offline destructive testing of produced parts obsolete. 1,2,3,4

  11. Wafer scale integration of reduced graphene oxide by novel laser processing at room temperature in air (United States)

    Bhaumik, Anagh; Narayan, Jagdish


    Physical properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) strongly depend on the ratio of sp2 to sp3 hybridized carbon atoms, the presence of different functional groups, and the characteristics of the substrates. This research for the very first time illustrates successful wafer scale integration of 2D rGO with Cu/TiN/Si, employing pulsed laser deposition followed by laser annealing of carbon-doped copper layers using nanosecond excimer lasers. The XRD, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy measurements indicate the presence of large area rGO onto Si having Raman active vibrational modes: D, G, and 2D. A high resolution SEM depicts the morphology and formation of rGO from zone-refined carbon formed after nanosecond laser annealing. Temperature-dependent resistance data of rGO thin films follow the Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping (VRH) model in the low-temperature region and Arrhenius conduction in the high-temperature regime. The photoluminescence spectra also reveal a less intense and broader blue fluorescence spectra, indicating the presence of miniature sized sp2 domains in the near vicinity of π* electronic states which favor the VRH transport phenomena. This wafer scale integration of rGO with Si employing a laser annealing technique will be useful for multifunctional integrated electronic devices and will open a new frontier for further extensive research in these functionalized 2D materials.

  12. Femtosecond-laser processing of nitrobiphenylthiol self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schröter, Anja; Franzka, Steffen [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); CENIDE – Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Koch, Jürgen; Chichkov, Boris N. [LZH – Laser Zentrum Hannover e. V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Ostendorf, Andreas [Fakultät für Maschinenbau, Ruhruniversität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Hartmann, Nils, E-mail: [Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); CENIDE – Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)


    Single-pulse femtosecond laser patterning of nitrobiphenylthiol monolayers on Au-coated Si substrates at λ = 800 nm, τ < 30 fs and ambient conditions has been investigated. After laser processing wet etching experiments are performed. Laser irradiation reduces the chemical resistance of the coating. In particular, the monolayer acts as a positive-tone resist. Burr-free pattern transfer is feasible at laser pulse fluences between 1 and 2.7 J/cm{sup 2}. Minimum structure sizes at a 1/e laser spot diameter of about 1 μm are close to 300 nm, i.e. sub-wavelength processing is demonstrated. Noteworthy, however, no indications for negative-tone resist properties of processed monolayers are evident, that is, cross-linking of the biphenyl moieties, if at all, is marginal. Also, complementary labeling experiments provide no evidence for chemical transformation of the nitro end groups into amine functionalities. Perspectives of resonant fs-laser processing in exploiting the particular prospects of nitrobiphenylthiol monolayers as negative-tone resists and chemically patternable platforms are discussed.

  13. Removable partial denture alloys processed by laser-sintering technique. (United States)

    Alageel, Omar; Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Alsheghri, Ammar; Song, Jun; Caron, Eric; Tamimi, Faleh


    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are traditionally made using a casting technique. New additive manufacturing processes based on laser sintering has been developed for quick fabrication of RPDs metal frameworks at low cost. The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanical, physical, and biocompatibility properties of RPD cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys produced by two laser-sintering systems and compare them to those prepared using traditional casting methods. The laser-sintered Co-Cr alloys were processed by the selective laser-sintering method (SLS) and the direct metal laser-sintering (DMLS) method using the Phenix system (L-1) and EOS system (L-2), respectively. L-1 and L-2 techniques were 8 and 3.5 times more precise than the casting (CC) technique (p laser-sintered and cast alloys were biocompatible. In conclusion, laser-sintered alloys are more precise and present better mechanical and fatigue properties than cast alloys for RPDs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Devojno


    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis of ultrasonic surface plastic deformation and subsequent laser thermal strengthening of gray cast iron parts in the regime of hardening from a solid state with the purpose to obtain strengthened surface layers of bigger depth and less roughness of the processed surface. Program complex ANSYS 11.0 has been used for calculation of temperature fields induced by laser exposure.  The appropriate regime of laser processing without surface fusion has been selected on the basis of the applied complex. The possibility of displacement in the bottom boundary of α–γ-transformation temperature  for СЧ20 with 900 °С up to 800 °С is confirmed due to preliminary ultrasonic surface plastic deformation of the surface that allows to expand technological opportunities of laser quenching  of gray  cast iron from a solid state. 

  15. Effect of laser pulse duration on damage to metal mirrors for laser IFE (United States)

    Pulsifer, John E.; Tillack, Mark S.; Harilal, S. S.


    A Grazing Incidence Metal Mirror (GIMM) is a chief candidate for beam delivery for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). The goal for GIMM survival is greater than 3×10 8 laser pulses with 5 J/cm2 laser fluence normal to the incident beam. Laser-induced damage to metal mirrors is primarily a thermomechanical process. Long-term exposure leads to microstructural evolution analogous to fatigue. We have performed laser-induced damage experiments on high damage threshold aluminum mirrors using commercial KrF excimer (248 nm) lasers. We have studied mirror response to standard, 25 ns long-pulses as well as to IFE prototypic, 5 ns short-pulses achieved using a Pockels Cell. Short-pulse damage fluence was found to be better than predicted using simple thermal diffusion scaling from long-pulse results.

  16. Parametric Study of Carbon Nanotube Production by Laser Ablation Process (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Holmes, William; Hadjiev, Victor; Scott, Carl


    Carbon nanotubes form a new class of nanomaterials that are presumed to have extraordinary mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. The single wall nanotubes (SWNTs) are estimated to be 100 times stronger than steel with 1/6th the weight; electrical carrying capacity better than copper and thermal conductivity better than diamond. Applications of these SWNTs include possible weight reduction of aerospace structures, multifunctional materials, nanosensors and nanoelectronics. Double pulsed laser vaporization process produces SWNTs with the highest percentage of nanotubes in the output material. The normal operating conditions include a green laser pulse closely followed by an infrared laser pulse. Lasers ab late a metal-containing graphite target located in a flow tube maintained in an oven at 1473K with argon flow of 100 sccm at a 500 Torr pressure. In the present work a number of production runs were carried out, changing one operating condition at a time. We have studied the effects of nine parameters, including the sequencing of the laser pulses, pulse separation times, laser energy densities, the type of buffer gas used, oven temperature, operating pressure, flow rate and inner flow tube diameters. All runs were done using the same graphite target. The collected nanotube material was characterized by a variety of analytical techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Results indicate trends that could be used to optimize the process and increase the efficiency of the production process.

  17. Optimizing a Laser Process for Making Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Holmes, William


    A systematic experimental study has been performed to determine the effects of each of the operating conditions in a double-pulse laser ablation process that is used to produce single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The comprehensive data compiled in this study have been analyzed to recommend conditions for optimizing the process and scaling up the process for mass production. The double-pulse laser ablation process for making SWCNTs was developed by Rice University researchers. Of all currently known nanotube-synthesizing processes (arc and chemical vapor deposition), this process yields the greatest proportion of SWCNTs in the product material. The aforementioned process conditions are important for optimizing the production of SWCNTs and scaling up production. Reports of previous research (mostly at Rice University) toward optimization of process conditions mention effects of oven temperature and briefly mention effects of flow conditions, but no systematic, comprehensive study of the effects of process conditions was done prior to the study described here. This was a parametric study, in which several production runs were carried out, changing one operating condition for each run. The study involved variation of a total of nine parameters: the sequence of the laser pulses, pulse-separation time, laser pulse energy density, buffer gas (helium or nitrogen instead of argon), oven temperature, pressure, flow speed, inner diameter of the flow tube, and flow-tube material.

  18. Properties of ceramic oxides processed by laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virto, M.


    Full Text Available Laser floating zone melting method is of relevant importance. The high absorbance of the energy generated by CO2 and Nd:YAG laser systems into ceramics specimens allows its transformation in monocrystals structures (ZrO2 or Al2O3, in eutectic crystals (ZrO2-Ca, or in textured polycrystal as Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8. The flexible control of laser parameters allows to obtain products with interesting properties.

    La utilización de equipos láser como fuente de calor para el procesado de cerámicas presenta importantes ventajas, como el alcanzar temperaturas muy elevadas, próximas a los 3000 C, efectuar tratamientos muy localizados en superficies sin afectar el volumen del material, así como la realización de tratamientos en zonas de difícil acceso, entre muchas otras. La fusión zonal asistida por láser constituye actualmente una de las técnicas más versátiles en el campo del crecimiento cristalino; la elevada absorción de la energía láser generada con sistemas CO2 y YAG:Nd en el interior de un compacto cerámico permite su eficaz transformación en monocristal, como es el caso del ZrO2 y Al2O3, eutéctico monocristalino de dos o más fases, caso del ZrO2-CaO, o policristal texturado como el superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8. La flexibilidad de control de los parámetros de crecimiento permite obtener productos con propiedades muy atractivas para su utilización en dispositivos de diversa naturaleza y de gran interés comercial.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterenborg, H. J.; de Gruijl, F. R.; Kelfkens, G.; van der Leun, J. C.


    The relative risk of occupational exposure to radiation from UV lasers was estimated using a mathematical model based on both epidemiological data and animal experiments. Calculations were performed for the 193 nm ArF excimer laser cornea shaping, the 308 nm XeCl excimer laser for coronary

  20. Image Processing In Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem (United States)

    Lesh, James R.; Ansari, Homayoon; Chen, Chien-Chung; Russell, Donald W.


    Conceptual design of image-processing circuitry developed for proposed tracking apparatus described in "Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication" (NPO-19069). In proposed system, desired frame rate achieved by "windowed" readout scheme in which only pixels containing and surrounding two spots read out and others skipped without being read. Image data processed rapidly and efficiently to achieve high frequency response.

  1. Refresher Course on Lasers and Applications in Chemical Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical Processes sponsored by Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore at National Centre for Ultrafast Processes, University of Madras, Chennai. January 19-31,2004. A Refresher Course on Lasers and ... curriculum vitae (including name, date of birth, email and postal address, educational qualifications, teaching ...

  2. Optical process model for laser-assisted tape winding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Akkerman, Remko; Reichardt, J.M.; Drechsler, K.


    The present work is part of the EU-funded ambliFibre project in which a model-based on-line monitoring solution is being developed for the laser assisted tape winding (LATW) process of tubular fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite parts. Within this framework, an optical process simulation tool

  3. Growth of Al doped ZnO thin films by a synchronized two laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyoergy, E. [Institute of Atomic Physics, P.O. Box MG 36, 77125 Bucharest (Romania) and Consejo Superior de Investigationes Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)]. E-mail:; Santiso, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigationes Cientificas, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Giannoudakos, A. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, Vasileos Konstantinou Ave. 48, 11635 Athens (Greece); Kompitsas, M. [National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, Vasileos Konstantinou Ave. 48, 11635 Athens (Greece); Mihailescu, I.N. [Institute of Atomic Physics, P.O. Box MG 36, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Pantelica, D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 76900 Bucharest (Romania)


    We report the deposition of Al doped ZnO thin films with the aid of a synchronised two laser system. The laser system consists of an ArF* excimer laser ({lambda} = 193 nm, {tau} {approx} 12 ns) and a Nd:YAG laser ({lambda} = 355 nm, {tau} {approx} 10 ns), for the time-matched ablation of the host (Zn) and dopant (Al) targets in oxygen atmosphere. Our approach allows for the independent and accurate setting of the laser fluences of the two lasers, in accordance with the energy requirements of the host and dopant materials. The method proposed by us permits also an in situ change of the doping conditions throughout the thin film growth process. The controlled modification of the dopant profile inside the growing film can be obtained relatively easily by the appropriate variation of the Nd:YAG laser fluence and/or number of pulses applied to the Al dopant target during the deposition process.

  4. Testing relativity again, laser, laser, laser, laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einstein, A.


    laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser,

  5. Research on Image processing in laser triangulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Kai; Wang Qianqian; Wang Yang; Liu Chenrui, E-mail: [School of Optoelectronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081 Beijing (China)


    Laser Triangulation Ranging is a kind of displacement distance measurement method which is based on the principle of optical triangulation using laser as the light source. It is superior in simple structure, high-speed, high-accuracy, anti-jamming capability and adaptability laser triangulation ranging. Therefore it is widely used in various fields such as industrial production, road test, three-dimensional face detection, and so on. In current study the features of the spot images achieved by CCD in laser triangulation system were analyzed, and the appropriate algorithms for spot images were discussed. Experimental results showed that the precision and stability of the spot location were enhanced significantly after applying these image processing algorithms.

  6. Refraction Measurements Of Excimer Area Ablated Animal Corneas Using A Modified Autorefractor (United States)

    Clapham, Terrance N.; Herekar, Satish; Koons, Stephen


    Developing refractive surgery techniques usually requires pre-clinical trials with animals before human clinicals are performed. In order to assess the results of the surgery, an accurate and repeatable measurement of the resultant refraction must be made. Normal techniques such as retinoscopy, subjective examinations, and conventional autorefractions all run into problems when animals are involved. The authors have modified a conventional autorefractor and have made measurements on rabbits and monkeys both before and after refractive surgery treatments with an excimer laser. The results showed refractive changes with degrees of myopic correction.

  7. Laser Processing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics - Release of Carbon Fiber Segments During Short-pulsed Laser Processing of CFRP (United States)

    Walter, Juergen; Brodesser, Alexander; Hustedt, Michael; Bluemel, Sven; Jaeschke, Peter; Kaierle, Stefan

    Cutting and ablation using short-pulsed laser radiation are promising technologies to produce or repair CFRP components with outstanding mechanical properties e.g. for automotive and aircraft industry. Using sophisticated laser processing strategies and avoiding excessive heating of the workpiece, a high processing quality can be achieved. However, the interaction of laser radiation and composite material causes a notable release of hazardous substances from the process zone, amongst others carbon fiber segments or fibrous particles. In this work, amounts and geometries of the released fiber segments are analyzed and discussed in terms of their hazardous potential. Moreover, it is investigated to what extent gaseous organic process emissions are adsorbed at the fiber segments, similar to an adsorption of volatile organic compounds at activated carbon, which is typically used as filter material.

  8. Numerical and experimental investigations of laser forming processes (United States)

    Li, Wenchuan


    Laser forming is a recently developed and highly flexible metal forming process. It uses laser-induced thermal distortion to shape a metal workpiece without hard tooling or external forces. A number of issues concerning laser forming are not yet fully understood. Understanding these aspects of laser forming is a challenging problem of considerable academic interest and practical applications. Efforts are made to advance knowledge in these areas. Numerical simulation models using finite element analysis are developed. The simulation results are compared to, and are consistent with, the experimental observations under a wide range of conditions. The laser forming process is investigated under the condition of constant line energy. Under this condition, the effects of velocity on temperature, net energy input, strain rate and internal flow stress are studied. Their collective effects on deformation and microstructure are presented. The influence of the strain rate in laser forming is investigated. To isolate and effectively study the strain rate effects, which are temperature dependent, a "constant peak temperature" method is developed with the aid of the numerical modeling and solution. Under the constant peak temperature condition, the effects of strain rate on forming efficiency, residual stress and hardness of the formed parts are studied. A new laser-scanning scheme is postulated to obtain convex forming insensitive to the initial state. This postulate is validated by experimental and numerical results. Effects of the scanning scheme parameters on the certainty of the convex forming, and dependence of the bending angle on the Fourier number, laser power, and velocity are further investigated. Mechanisms of the process of laser bending of tubes are examined to better understand the deformation characteristics such as wall thickness variation, cross-section ovalization, bending radius, and asymmetry. Factors important to these characteristics are experimentally and

  9. Influence of sputtering conditions on the optical and electrical properties of laser-annealed and wet-etched room temperature sputtered ZnO:Al thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukhicha, Rym, E-mail: [CNRS, LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Charpentier, Coralie [CNRS, LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Total S and M — New Energies Division, R and D Division, Department of Solar Energies EN/BO/RD/SOL, Tour Michelet, 24 cours Michelet, La Défense 10, 92069 Paris La Défense Cedex (France); Prod' Homme, Patricia [Total S and M — New Energies Division, R and D Division, Department of Solar Energies EN/BO/RD/SOL, Tour Michelet, 24 cours Michelet, La Défense 10, 92069 Paris La Défense Cedex (France); Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere [CNRS, LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Lerat, Jean-François; Emeraud, Thierry [Photovoltaic Business Unit, Excico Group NV, Kempische Steenweg 305/2, B-3500 Hasselt (Belgium); Johnson, Erik [CNRS, LPICM, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)


    We explore the influence of the sputtering deposition conditions on the outcome of an excimer laser anneal and chemical etching process with the goal of producing highly textured substrates for thin film silicon solar cells. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering from a ceramic target at room temperature. The effects of the process pressure (0.11–1.2 Pa) and oxygen flow (0–2 sccm) on the optical and electrical properties of ZnO:Al thin films have been studied both before and after an excimer laser annealing treatment followed by a dilute HCl chemical etch. The as-deposited films varied from completely opaque to yellowish. Thin film laser annealing dramatically improves the optical properties of the most opaque thin films. After laser annealing at the optimum fluence, the average transmittance in the visible wavelength range was around 80% for most films, and reasonable electrical performance was obtained for the films deposited at lower pressures and without oxygen flux (7 Ω/□ for films of 1 μm). After etching, all films displayed a dramatic improvement in haze, but only the low pressure, low oxygen films retained acceptable electrical properties (< 11 Ω/□). - Highlights: • Al:ZnO thin films were deposited at room temperature. • The ZnO:Al films were excimer laser annealed and then wet-etched. • The optical and electrical properties were studied in details.

  10. Laser and electron beam processing of silicon and gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, J.


    Laser (photon) and electron beams provide a controlled source of heat by which surface layers of silicon and gallium arsenide can be rapidly melted and cooled with rates exceeding 10/sup 80/C/sec. The melting process has been used to remove displacement damage in ion implanted Si and GaAs, to remove dislocations, loops and precipitates in silicon and to study impurity segregation and solubility limits. The mechanisms associated with various phenomena will be examined. The possible impact of laser and electron beam processing on device technology, particularly with respect to solar cells is discussed.

  11. Enhancement of surface integrity of titanium alloy with copper by means of laser metal deposition process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erinosho, MF


    Full Text Available The laser metal deposition process possesses the combination of metallic powder and laser beam respectively. However, these combinations create an adhesive bonding that permanently solidifies the laser-enhanced-deposited powders. Titanium alloys (Ti...

  12. Martensitic transformations in laser processed coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burg, M. van den; De Hosson, J.T.M. (Univ. of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Applied Physics)


    This paper concentrates on laser coating of Fe-22 wt% Cr and a duplex steel SAF2205 by injecting Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3] powder into the melt pool. In particular the work focuses on the stabilization of high temperature distorted spinel phases due to the high quench rates involved as well as on the a quantitative crystallographic analysis of the resulting morphologies. The microstructure observed in TEM indicates that the material does not solidify in the distorted spinel structure. The presence of a small amount of cubic (Fe, Cr)-spinel suggests that the distorted spinel in fact might be nucleated from the cubic spinel phase. The plate like morphology of the distorted spinel phase in combination with the twinned internal structure of the plates put forward the idea that the transformation might be martensitic. Martensitic calculations executed with the lattice parameters of the cubic and distorted (Fe, Cr)-spinel phases are in excellent agreement with the experimental data confirming that the transformation might be martensitic indeed.

  13. High speed ultrafast laser surface processing (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Mincuzzi, Girolamo; Kling, Rainer; Lopez, John; Hoenninger, Clemens; Audouard, Eric; Mottay, Eric P.


    Surface functionalization is a rapidly growing application for industrial ultrafast lasers. There is an increasing interest for high throughput surface processing, especially for texturing and engraving large manufacturing tools for different industrial fields such as injection molding, embossing and printing. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, colored or deep black metal surfaces can now be industrially produced. The engraving speed is continuously improving following improvements in beam scanning technology and high average power industrial ultrafast lasers. Several tenths of MHz for the laser repetition rate and several hundreds of meter per second for the beam speed are available. More than 100 m/s scanning speed is then possible for laser surface structuring. But these surfaces are quite hard to produce since it is necessary to have a good compromise between high removal rate and high surface quality (low roughness, burr-free, narrow heat affected zone). In this work, we apply a simple engineering model based on the two temperature description of ultra-fast ablation to estimate key processing parameters. In particular, the pulse-to-pulse overlap which depends on the scanning velocity, the spot size, and the laser repetition rate all have to be adjusted to optimize the depth and roughness, otherwise heat accumulation and heat affected zone may appear. Optimal sequences of time and spatial superposition of pulses are determined and applied with a polygonal scanner. Ablation depth and processing speed obtained are compared with experimental results.

  14. Formation of aggregated nanoparticle spheres through femtosecond laser surface processing (United States)

    Tsubaki, Alfred T.; Koten, Mark A.; Lucis, Michael J.; Zuhlke, Craig; Ianno, Natale; Shield, Jeffrey E.; Alexander, Dennis R.


    A detailed structural and chemical analysis of a class of self-organized surface structures, termed aggregated nanoparticle spheres (AN-spheres), created using femtosecond laser surface processing (FLSP) on silicon, silicon carbide, and aluminum is reported in this paper. AN-spheres are spherical microstructures that are 20-100 μm in diameter and are composed entirely of nanoparticles produced during femtosecond laser ablation of material. AN-spheres have an onion-like layered morphology resulting from the build-up of nanoparticle layers over multiple passes of the laser beam. The material properties and chemical composition of the AN-spheres are presented in this paper based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB) milling, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. There is a distinct difference in the density of nanoparticles between concentric rings of the onion-like morphology of the AN-sphere. Layers of high-density form when the laser sinters nanoparticles together and low-density layers form when nanoparticles redeposit while the laser ablates areas surrounding the AN-sphere. The dynamic nature of femtosecond laser ablation creates a variety of nanoparticles that make-up the AN-spheres including Si/C core-shell, nanoparticles that directly fragmented from the base material, nanoparticles with carbon shells that retarded oxidation, and amorphous, fully oxidized nanoparticles.

  15. Laser Process for Selective Emitter Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Poulain


    Full Text Available Selective emitter solar cells can provide a significant increase in conversion efficiency. However current approaches need many technological steps and alignment procedures. This paper reports on a preliminary attempt to reduce the number of processing steps and therefore the cost of selective emitter cells. In the developed procedure, a phosphorous glass covered with silicon nitride acts as the doping source. A laser is used to open locally the antireflection coating and at the same time achieve local phosphorus diffusion. In this process the standard chemical etching of the phosphorous glass is avoided. Sheet resistance variation from 100 Ω/sq to 40 Ω/sq is demonstrated with a nanosecond UV laser. Numerical simulation of the laser-matter interaction is discussed to understand the dopant diffusion efficiency. Preliminary solar cells results show a 0.5% improvement compared with a homogeneous emitter structure.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Będkowski Janusz


    Full Text Available he first part of the paper includes a description of the rules used to generate the algorithm needed for the purpose of parallel computing and also discusses the origins of the idea of research on the use of graphics processors in large scale processing of laser scanning data. The next part of the paper includes the results of an efficiency assessment performed for an array of different processing options, all of which were substantially accelerated with parallel computing. The processing options were divided into the generation of orthophotos using point clouds, coloring of point clouds, transformations, and the generation of a regular grid, as well as advanced processes such as the detection of planes and edges, point cloud classification, and the analysis of data for the purpose of quality control. Most algorithms had to be formulated from scratch in the context of the requirements of parallel computing. A few of the algorithms were based on existing technology developed by the Dephos Software Company and then adapted to parallel computing in the course of this research study. Processing time was determined for each process employed for a typical quantity of data processed, which helped confirm the high efficiency of the solutions proposed and the applicability of parallel computing to the processing of laser scanning data. The high efficiency of parallel computing yields new opportunities in the creation and organization of processing methods for laser scanning data

  17. General machining concept for producing micro-optics with high-power UV lasers (United States)

    Toenshoff, Hans K.; Overmeyer, Ludger; Ostendorf, Andreas; Wais, Johannes


    The development of new processes for the micro-treatment of material is the basis for increasing integration and miniaturization of mechanical, optical and electronic components. Pulsed high power excimer lasers offer in combination with a micro-machining system, the possibility of manufacturing highly complex components in different materials like ceramics, glass or metals, Because of the increasing number of technical applications, the need for automatic processing has grown in the last few years. While complete working stations are available for Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers, there is a lack for automatic micro-removal with excimer lasers. For complex microstructures like micro- optics, manual programming of the workpiece handling system becomes uneconomic because of the very high number of laser pulses required. Especially for prototypes and small batches where the workpiece geometries change quickly, the development of a universal and automatic machining concept plays a key role for this technology. For this reason, a general machining concept based on excimer laser removal has been realized beginning with the possibility to construct the workpiece geometry by CAD-design tools. A preprocessor allows to calculate the removal volume based on laser specific ablation volumes. The superposition of each laser pulse removal leads to complex 3D surface structures. Moreover, a general movement strategy optimizes the processing speed. For closing the process chain the realized preprocessor automatically generates the necessary NC-data for the implemented CNC-control system. Functionality of this concept has been proven by manufacturing different two and three dimensional micro-structures like micro-optical components.

  18. Process characteristics of laser beam welding at reduced ambient pressure (United States)

    Börner, Christian; Krüssel, Thomas; Dilger, Klaus


    This paper describes the idea of using a similar vacuum necessary for electron beam welding also for welding with a solid-state laser. While for electron beam welding a fine vacuum is required for the process, with laser beam welding the pressure can be varied as an additional process parameter in order to influence the process result. Test results show that by a reduction of the ambient pressure the metal vapor plume is suppressed and consequently the spattering decreases. Plume and spatters disappear completely at a pressure reduction to p = 10 hPa and below. This enables quality of weldings with the solid-state laser which even with CO2 lasers are only difficult to realize. The quality of these weld seams is comparable to electron beam weldings. In addition, further beneficial properties arise in the quality of the weld seam. With the same process parameters but reduced ambient pressure, the reduction of the pressure effects an increase of the penetration depth and a distinctive modification of the seam geometry. Mild steel plates with a thickness of 10 mm have been successfully welded with a laser power of PL = 6000 W and a feed rate of vW = 2.0 m/min, with a remarkable seam quality without any irregularities. Another advantage of welding with the laser at reduced pressure is the possibility of avoiding a sagging of the seam during welding of thick sheets. Despite excessive energy and power, no geometric irregularities are identified in the cross section. Under atmospheric pressure, the high excess of power would lead to an intense seam collapse. On sheets with thicknesses of 3 mm, the notches occurring by penetration welding can also be avoided by applying reduced pressure.

  19. Temporal fluctuations in excimer-like interactions between pi-conjugated chromophores

    CERN Document Server

    Stangl, Thomas; Schmitz, Daniela; Remmerssen, Klaas; Henzel, Sebastian; Hoeger, Sigurd; Vogelsang, Jan; Lupton, John M


    Inter- or intramolecular coupling processes between chromophores such as excimer formation or H- and J-aggregation are crucial to describing the photophysics of closely packed films of conjugated polymers. Such coupling is highly distance dependent, and should be sensitive to both fluctuations in the spacing between chromophores as well as the actual position on the chromophore where the exciton localizes. Single-molecule spectroscopy reveals these intrinsic fluctuations in well-defined bi-chromophoric model systems of cofacial oligomers. Signatures of interchromophoric interactions in the excited state - spectral red-shifting and broadening, and a slowing of photoluminescence decay - correlate with each other but scatter strongly between single molecules, implying an extraordinary distribution in coupling strengths. Furthermore, these excimer-like spectral fingerprints vary with time, revealing intrinsic dynamics in the coupling strength within one single dimer molecule, which constitutes the starting point ...

  20. Material removal effect of microchannel processing by femtosecond laser (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Chen, Lei; Chen, Jianxiong; Tu, Yiliu


    Material processing using ultra-short-pulse laser is widely used in the field of micromachining, especially for the precision processing of hard and brittle materials. This paper reports a theoretical and experimental study of the ablation characteristics of a silicon wafer under micromachining using a femtosecond laser. The ablation morphology of the silicon wafer surface is surveyed by a detection test with an optical microscope. First, according to the relationship between the diameter of the ablation holes and the incident laser power, the ablation threshold of the silicon wafer is found to be 0.227 J/cm2. Second, the influence of various laser parameters on the size of the ablation microstructure is studied and the ablation morphology is analyzed. Furthermore, a mathematical model is proposed that can calculate the ablation depth per time for a given laser fluence and scanning velocity. Finally, a microchannel milling test is carried out on the micromachining center. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed models are verified by comparing the estimated depth to the actual measured results.

  1. Depth-prediction method for direct laser-scribing processes (United States)

    Canteli, D.; García-Ballesteros, J. J.; Molpeceres, C.; Gandía, J. J.; Torres, I.


    Many semiconductor technologies require the patterning of films to create features not easily achieved during growth or deposition. In the case of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), this is typically realized through direct laser-scribing. Although there are models conceived to predict the depth of a scribe, the necessary parameters to obtain a given depth are usually found by trial and error. This is mostly due to the models usually being highly elaborated and dependent on difficult to measure variables. In this paper we introduce a method for predicting the ablation depth in direct laser-scribing processes based on laser-processing parameters and convenient properties like the ablation threshold fluence and the laser penetration depth. In order to apply this method though, the materials must comply with two conditions: a) the material does not develop incubation with successive pulses and b) the ablation depth obtained at any position by a single pulse is determined by the fluence reaching that point. We present experimental data using nanosecond sources and a wavelength of 355 nm for TCOs Indium doped Tin Oxide and Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide that endorse the proposed method as a tool for predicting the ablated depth in laser scribes.

  2. New process for screen cutting: water-jet guided laser (United States)

    Perrottet, Delphine; Amorosi, Simone; Richerzhagen, Bernold


    Today's OLED manufacturers need high-precision, fast tools to cut the metal screens used to deposit the electroluminescent layers onto the substrate. Conventional methods -tching and dry laser cutting - are not satisfying regarding the demands of high-definition OLED displays. A new micro machining technology, the water jet guided laser - a hybrid of laser and water jet technologies that has been actively used in recent years in the electronic and semiconductor field - is now available to OLED manufacturers. This technology represents a significant improvement in screen, mask and stencil cutting, as it combines high precision and high speed. It is able to cut small apertures with totally clean edges (no dross or slag), as the water jet removes the particles and a thin water film is maintained on the material surface during the process. Because the water jet cools the material between the laser pulses, the cut material is free of any thermal stress. The water jet guided laser is also a very fast process: as an example, rectangular slots can be cut in 30 to 50 microns thick stainless steel or nickel at a rate between 25'000 and 30'000 holes per hour.

  3. Advantages of Laser Polarimetry Applied to Tequila Industrial Process Control (United States)

    Fajer, V.; Rodriguez, C.; Flores, R.; Naranjo, S.; Cossio, G.; Lopez, J.


    The development of a polarimetric method for crude and cooked agave juice quality control not only by direct polarimetric measurement also by means of laser polarimeter LASERPOL 101M used as a liquid chromatographic detector is presented. The viability and advantage of this method for raw material quality control and during Tequila industrial process is shown.

  4. A Reaction Coating on Aluminium Alloys by Laser Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De


    An aluminium oxide layer of 100 µm in thickness has been successfully coated on aluminium alloy 6061 and pure aluminium using a powder mixture of silicon oxide and aluminium by laser processing. A strong Al/Al2O3 interface was formed. The exothermic chemical reaction between SiO2 and Al may promote

  5. Laser materials processing of complex components. From reverse engineering via automated beam path generation to short process development cycles. (United States)

    Görgl, R.; Brandstätter, E.


    The article presents an overview of what is possible nowadays in the field of laser materials processing. The state of the art in the complete process chain is shown, starting with the generation of a specific components CAD data and continuing with the automated motion path generation for the laser head carried by a CNC or robot system. Application examples from laser welding, laser cladding and additive laser manufacturing are given.

  6. Research progress of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng WANG


    Full Text Available During the high-power laser welding process, plasmas are induced by the evaporation of metal under laser radiation, which can affect the coupling of laser energy and the workpiece, and ultimately impact on the reliability of laser welding quality and process directly. The research of laser-induced plasma is a focus in high-power deep penetration welding field, which provides a promising research area for realizing the automation of welding process quality inspection. In recent years, the research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics is mainly in two aspects, namely the research of plasma signal detection and the research of laser welding process modeling. The laser-induced plasma in the laser welding is introduced, and the related research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics at home and abroad is analyzed. The current problems in the field are summarized, and the future development trend is put forward.

  7. Analysis of hazardous substances released during CFRP laser processing (United States)

    Hustedt, Michael; Walter, Juergen; Bluemel, Sven; Jaeschke, Peter; Kaierle, Stefan


    Due to their outstanding mechanical properties, in particular their high specific strength parallel to the carbon fibers, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) have a high potential regarding resource-efficient lightweight construction. Consequently, these composite materials are increasingly finding application in important industrial branches such as aircraft, automotive and wind energy industry. However, the processing of these materials is highly demanding. On the one hand, mechanical processing methods such as milling or drilling are sometimes rather slow, and they are connected with notable tool wear. On the other hand, thermal processing methods are critical as the two components matrix and reinforcement have widely differing thermophysical properties, possibly leading to damages of the composite structure in terms of pores or delamination. An emerging innovative method for processing of CFRP materials is the laser technology. As principally thermal method, laser processing is connected with the release of potentially hazardous, gaseous and particulate substances. Detailed knowledge of these process emissions is the basis to ensure the protection of man and the environment, according to the existing legal regulations. This knowledge will help to realize adequate protective measures and thus strengthen the development of CFRP laser processing. In this work, selected measurement methods and results of the analysis of the exhaust air and the air at the workplace during different laser processes with CFRP materials are presented. The investigations have been performed in the course of different cooperative projects, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in the course of the funding initiative "Photonic Processes and Tools for Resource-Efficient Lightweight Structures".

  8. Spectral caustics in laser assisted Breit–Wheeler process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nousch


    Full Text Available Electron–positron pair production by the Breit–Wheeler process embedded in a strong laser pulse is analyzed. The transverse momentum spectrum displays prominent peaks which are interpreted as caustics, the positions of which are accessible by the stationary phases. Examples are given for the superposition of an XFEL beam with an optical high-intensity laser beam. Such a configuration is available, e.g., at LCLS at present and at European XFEL in near future. It requires a counter propagating probe photon beam with high energy which can be generated by synchronized inverse Compton backscattering.

  9. Crystallographic data processing for free-electron laser sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Thomas A., E-mail:; Barty, Anton; Stellato, Francesco [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Holton, James M. [University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kirian, Richard A. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Zatsepin, Nadia A. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Chapman, Henry N. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)


    A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A detailed analysis of the nature and impact of indexing ambiguities is presented. Simulations of the Monte Carlo integration scheme, which accounts for the partially recorded nature of the diffraction intensities, are presented and show that the integration of partial reflections could be made to converge more quickly if the bandwidth of the X-rays were to be increased by a small amount or if a slight convergence angle were introduced into the incident beam.

  10. Laser post-processing of Inconel 625 made by selective laser melting (United States)

    Witkin, David; Helvajian, Henry; Steffeney, Lee; Hansen, William


    The effect of laser remelting of surfaces of as-built Selective Laser Melted (SLM) Inconel 625 was evaluated for its potential to improve the surface roughness of SLM parts. Many alloys made by SLM have properties similar to their wrought counterparts, but surface roughness of SLM-made parts is much higher than found in standard machine shop operations. This has implications for mechanical properties of SLM materials, such as a large debit in fatigue properties, and in applications of SLM, where surface roughness can alter fluid flow characteristics. Because complexity and netshape fabrication are fundamental advantages of Additive Manufacturing (AM), post-processing by mechanical means to reduce surface roughness detracts from the potential utility of AM. Use of a laser to improve surface roughness by targeted remelting or annealing offers the possibility of in-situ surface polishing of AM surfaces- the same laser used to melt the powder could be amplitude modulated to smooth the part during the build. The effects of remelting the surfaces of SLM Inconel 625 were demonstrated using a CW fiber laser (IPG: 1064 nm, 2-50 W) that is amplitude modulated with a pulse profile to induce remelting without spallation or ablation. The process achieved uniform depth of melting and improved surface roughness. The results show that with an appropriate pulse profile that meters the heat-load, surface features such as partially sintered powder particles and surface connected porosity can be mitigated via a secondary remelting/annealing event.

  11. Laser processing of natural mussel adhesive protein thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doraiswamy, A. [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7575 (United States); Narayan, R.J. [Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7575 (United States)]. E-mail:; Cristescu, R. [Plasma and Radiation Physics, National Institute for Lasers, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mihailescu, I.N. [Plasma and Radiation Physics, National Institute for Lasers, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [United States Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)


    A novel laser processing technique is presented for depositing mussel adhesive protein thin films. Synthetic adhesives (e.g., acrylics, cyanoacrylates, epoxies, phenolics, polyurethanes, and silicones) have largely displaced natural adhesives in the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, electronic, and marine equipment industries over the past century. However, rising concerns over the environmental and health effects of solvents, monomers, and additives used in synthetic adhesives have led the adhesives community to seek natural alternatives. Marine mussel adhesive protein is a formaldehyde-free natural adhesive that demonstrates excellent adhesion to several classes of materials, including pure metals, metal oxides, polymers, and glasses. We have demonstrated the deposition of Mytilus edulis foot protein-1 thin films using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The Fourier transform infrared spectrum data suggest that the matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation process does not cause significant damage to the chemical structure of M. edulis foot protein-1. In addition, matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation appears to provide a better control over film thickness and film roughness than conventional solvent-based thin film processing techniques. MAPLE-deposited mussel adhesive protein thin films have numerous potential electronic, medical, and marine applications.

  12. Laser in ophthalmology. Laser i oftalmologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrdalen, P. (Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway))


    The article presents a brief history of the use of laser in ophthalmology in Norway, from the introduction of the first argon-photocoalulator in 1972 to the excimer laser in 1990. The argon-photocoagulator is in daily us in all Eye Departments in Norway and the main group of patients treated are those with diabetic retionopathy. Glaucoma has been treated with argon-laser with good results for the last ten years. YAG-laser, introduced in Norway in 1985, is used to treat secondary cataracts which occur after extracapsular cataract extractions and implantation of artificial lenses. In 1990, the excimer laser was introduced for refractive surgery (myopia, astigmatism). 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. [INVITED] Computational intelligence for smart laser materials processing (United States)

    Casalino, Giuseppe


    Computational intelligence (CI) involves using a computer algorithm to capture hidden knowledge from data and to use them for training ;intelligent machine; to make complex decisions without human intervention. As simulation is becoming more prevalent from design and planning to manufacturing and operations, laser material processing can also benefit from computer generating knowledge through soft computing. This work is a review of the state-of-the-art on the methodology and applications of CI in laser materials processing (LMP), which is nowadays receiving increasing interest from world class manufacturers and 4.0 industry. The focus is on the methods that have been proven effective and robust in solving several problems in welding, cutting, drilling, surface treating and additive manufacturing using the laser beam. After a basic description of the most common computational intelligences employed in manufacturing, four sections, namely, laser joining, machining, surface, and additive covered the most recent applications in the already extensive literature regarding the CI in LMP. Eventually, emerging trends and future challenges were identified and discussed.

  14. Semiclassical approximation for strong-laser-field processes (United States)

    Milošević, D. B.


    The exact time-evolution operator of an atom in the presence of a strong laser field is expressed using the phase-space path integral. Presenting this result in the form of a perturbative expansion in the effective interaction of the electron with the rest of the atom enables straightforward derivation of the well-known strong-field approximation and its higher-order corrections. Alternatively, one can use this exact result to obtain a semiclassical approximation by expansion in powers of small fluctuations around the classical trajectories. We present a derivation of such a semiclassical approximation. The obtained result for the momentum-space matrix element of the total time-evolution operator can be useful for studying various processes in strong-field physics. Using the example of above-threshold ionization, it is shown how this approximation can be applied to laser-induced processes. More attention is devoted to the laser-assisted scattering. Using the example of few-cycle laser-pulse-assisted electron-atom potential scattering, we show similarities and differences between the semiclassical and the strong-field approximations. For low energies, the semiclassical scattering cross section is modified and there are trajectories along which the electron is temporarily captured by the atomic potential. Applying stationary-phase method to the integral over the scattering time, we clearly identified relevant semiclassical electron trajectories.

  15. Choice of the laser wavelength for a herpetic keratitis treatment (United States)

    Razhev, Alexander M.; Bagayev, Sergei N.; Chernikh, Valery V.; Kargapoltsev, Evgeny S.; Trunov, Alexander; Zhupikov, Andrey A.


    For the first time the effect of the UV laser radiation to human eye cornea with herpetic keratitis was experimentally investigated. In experiments the UV radiation of ArF (193 nm), KrCl (223 nm), KrF (248 nm) excimer lasers were used. Optimal laser radiation parameters for the treatment of the herpetic keratitis were determined. The immuno-biochemical investigations were carried out and the results of clinical trials are presented. The maximum ablation rate was obtained for the 248 nm radiation wavelength. The process of healing was successful but in some cases the haze on the surface of the cornea was observed. When used the 193 nm radiation wavelength the corneal surface was clear without any hazes but the epithelization process was slower than for 248 nm wavelength and in some cases the relapse was occurred. The best results for herpetic keratitis treatment have been achieved by utilizing the 223 nm radiation wavelength of the KrCl excimer laser. The use of the 223 nm radiation wavelength allows treating the herpetic keratitis with low traumatic process of ablation and provides high quality of corneal surface.

  16. Pressure dependence of emission intensity of rare-gas excimer light produced by silent discharge; Teikiatsu ryoiki ni okeru musei hoden reiki ki gas excimer hikari shutsuryoku no atsuryoku izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Yukimura, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)


    To establish the pressure dependence of silent discharge excited rare gas excimer light emission, a vacua ultraviolet light was subjected to spectroscopic analysis at a pressure lower than 20kPa. Researches are under way to apply the discharge excited rare gas excimer lamp as a vacuum ultraviolet light source for the development of new materials and for the conservation of environments. When the pressure is as low as 1.8kPa or 4.4kPa, the emission has peaks at wavelengths centering on 147nm and 149nm, both of which are the resonance lines of the xenon atom. Excimer generation becomes prominent as the pressure increases, with the second continuum of light growing dominant at 35kPa to weaken relatively the resonance lines and the first continuum of light. In the first continuum, emission increases only at a suppressed rate, as compared with emission in the second continuum, due for instance to a collision caused relaxation process in which excimers are lost. In the case of xenon in the vicinity of 10-11kPa, the first continuum of light and the second continuum of light are approximately equal in emission intensity, producing a vacuum ultraviolet light source with a bandwidth relatively large for a single gas spectrum. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Optical microdevices fabricated using femtosecond laser processing (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Otuka, Adriano J. G.; Tomázio, Nathália B.; Tribuzi, Vinicius; Ferreira, Paulo Henrique D.; De Boni, Leonardo; Mendonça, Cleber R.


    Femtosecond laser processing techniques have been widely employed to produce micro or nanodevices with special features. These devices can be selectively doped with organic dyes, biological agents, nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes, increasing the range of applications. Acrylate polymers can be easily doped with various compounds, and therefore, they are interesting materials for laser fabrication techniques. In this work, we use multiphoton absorption polymerization (MAP) and laser ablation to fabricate polymeric microdevices for optical applications. The polymeric sample used in this work is composed in equal proportions of two three-acrylate monomers; while tris(2-hydroxyethyl)isocyanurate triacrylate gives hardness to the structure, the ethoxylated(6) trimethyl-lolpropane triacrylate reduces the shrinkage tensions upon polymerization. These monomers are mixed with a photoinitiator, the 2,4,6-trimetilbenzoiletoxifenil phosphine oxide, enabling the sample polymerization after laser irradiation. Using MAP, we fabricate three-dimensional structures doped with fluorescent dyes. These structures can be used in several optical applications, such as, RGB fluorescent microdevices or microresonators. Using azo compounds like dopant in the host resin, we can apply these structures in optical data storage devices. Using laser ablation technique, we can fabricate periodic microstructures inside polymeric bulks doped with xanthene dyes and single-walled carbon nanotubes, aiming applications in random laser experiments. In structured bulks we observed multi-narrow emission peaks over the xanthene fluorescence emission. Furthermore, in comparison with non-structured bulks, we observed that the periodic structure decreased the degree of randomness, reducing the number of peaks, but defining their position.

  18. Deposition and characterization of ITO films produced by laser ablation at 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmelund, E.; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Schou, Jørgen


    and at high substrate temperatures, the specific resistivity of the films, 2–3×10-4 Ω cm, is comparable to values obtained with excimer lasers, whereas the resistivities obtained at room temperature are somewhat higher than those of films produced by excimer lasers. The transmission coefficient of visible...... light, about 0.9, is also comparable to values for films deposited by excimer lasers. The crystalline structure of films produced at 355 nm is similar to that of samples produced by these lasers.......Indium tin oxide (ITO) films have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at 355 nm. Even though the absorption of laser light at the wavelength 355 nm is much smaller than that of the standard excimer lasers for PLD at 248 nm and 193 nm, high-quality films can be produced. At high fluence...

  19. Developments of laser processing technologies in the Japanese MITI project (United States)

    Yoshida, Takehito; Sato, Toshio; Yoshida, Yoshiaki; Matsuno, Ken-ichi


    The 'Advanced Photon Processing and Measurement Technologies' project was started in August 1997 as part of the Industrial Science and Technology Frontier Program of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan. Thirteen private companies, one university, and four national research institutes are developing new technologies using high-quality photon beams, in the three technology fields: 'Photon-applied processing technology', 'Photon- applied measurement technology', and 'Photon generation technology'. Recent topics in the 'Photon generation technology' field are 3.3 kW output power form LD-pumped all-solid-state Nd:YAG lasers of both rod-type and slab- type, and 20 W VU output power via CLBO crystals. There are various topics also in the other two technologies. In 'Photon-applied processing technology' field, high speed defects-free welding properties have been confirmed for 10 mm thick stainless steel, by using a 8.5 kW iodine laser and nitrogen assist gas. Furthermore, we have developed integrated process systems of pulsed laser ablation in helium background gas, size classification using a differential mobility analyzer, and deposition onto a substrate, for the purpose of synthesizing for semiconductor and refractory metal nanoparticles size-controlled accurately. Consequently, we have deposited the size- controlled accurately. Consequently, we have deposited the size-controlled nanoparticles onto substrates with sharp size distributions in geometrical standard deviation: 1.2.

  20. The use of WaveLight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA Protocol. Part 2: the consequences of treating astigmatism on an incorrect axis via excimer laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motwani M


    Full Text Available Manoj Motwani Motwani LASIK Institute, San Diego, CA, USA Purpose: To show how an incorrect manifest astigmatism axis can cause an abnormal induced astigmatism on a new axis. Patients and methods: Four eyes of three patients were treated primarily with WaveLight® EX500 wavefront optimized (WFO treatments for astigmatism. All four eyes needed enhancements and were analyzed retrospectively via WaveLight® Contoura to determine the reason for the incorrect astigmatism treatment. Two of the eyes were retreated with topographic-guided ablation, and two were treated with WFO correction. Results: The eyes that had an incorrect manifest axis resulted in a new abnormal induced astigmatism on a wholly new axis. Treatment with topographic-guided ablation completely eliminated the newly induced astigmatism. Treatment with WFO of an abnormal induced astigmatism corrected the refraction but still left topographic evidence of the abnormal astigmatism behind. One eye was incorrectly treated for astigmatism due to coma affecting refraction when the patient was dilated. This eye had a normal induced astigmatism on a perpendicular axis and was corrected using WFO. The use of manifest refraction with WaveLight® Contoura topographic-guided ablation will lead to incorrect astigmatism correction when the manifest astigmatism and axis differ from the WaveLight® Contoura measured. Conclusion: Correction of an incorrect manifest refraction astigmatic axis does not simply create undercorrection of the astigmatism but induces an entirely new abnormal astigmatism on a different axis. Manifest refraction is less accurate and can lead to abnormal astigmatism when laser ablation is performed. Keywords: WaveLight Contoura, astigmatism treatment, asymmetric astigmatism, topographic guide ablation, higher order aberrations, Contoura with LYRA Protocol, LASIK, PRK

  1. Investigations in optoelectronic image processing in scanning laser microscopy (United States)

    Chaliha, Hiranya Kumar

    A considerable amount of work has been done on scann-ing laser microscopy since its applications were first pointed out by Roberts and Young[1], Minsky [2] and Davidovits et al [3]. The advent of laser has made it possible to focus an intense beam of laser light in a scanning optical microscope (SOM) [4, 5] and hence explore regions of microscopy[6] uncovered by conven-tional microscopy. In the simple SOM [7, 8, 9], the upper spatial frequency in amplitude transmittance or reflectance of an object for which transfer function is nonzero is same as that in a conventional optical microscope. However, in Type II SOM [7] or confocal SOM that employs a coherent or a point detector, the spatial frequency bandwidth is twice that obtained in a conventional microscope. Besides this confocal set-up is found to be very useful in optical sectioning and consequently in 3-D image processing[10, 11, 12] specially of biological specimens. Such systems are also suitable for studies of semiconductor materials [13], super-resolution [14] and various imaginative ways of image processing[15, 16, 17] including phase imaging[18]. A brief survey of related advances in scanning optical microscopy has been covered in the chapter 1 of the thesis. The performance of SOM may be investigated by concent-rating also on signal derived by one dimensional scan of the object specimen. This simplified mode may also be adapted to give wealth of information for biological and semiconductor specimens. Hence we have investigated the design of a scanning laser system suited specifically for studies of line scan image signals of microscopic specimens when probed through a focused laser spot. An electro-mechanical method of scanning of the object specimen has been designed with this aim in mind. Chapter 2, Part A of the thesis deals with the design consider-ations of such a system. For analysis of scan signals at a later instant of time so as to facilitate further processing, an arrangement of microprocessor

  2. Optimizing process time of laser drilling processes in solar cell manufacturing by coaxial camera control (United States)

    Jetter, Volker; Gutscher, Simon; Blug, Andreas; Knorz, Annerose; Ahrbeck, Christopher; Nekarda, Jan; Carl, Daniel


    In emitter wrap through (EWT) solar cells, laser drilling is used to increase the light sensitive area by removing emitter contacts from the front side of the cell. For a cell area of 156 x 156 mm2, about 24000 via-holes with a diameter of 60 μm have to be drilled into silicon wafers with a thickness of 200 μm. The processing time of 10 to 20 s is determined by the number of laser pulses required for safely opening every hole on the bottom side. Therefore, the largest wafer thickness occurring in a production line defines the processing time. However, wafer thickness varies by roughly +/-20 %. To reduce the processing time, a coaxial camera control system was integrated into the laser scanner. It observes the bottom breakthrough from the front side of the wafer by measuring the process emissions of every single laser pulse. To achieve the frame rates and latency times required by the repetition rate of the laser (10 kHz), a camera based on cellular neural networks (CNN) was used where the images are processed directly on the camera chip by 176 x 144 sensor-processor-elements. One image per laser pulse is processed within 36 μs corresponding to a maximum pulse rate of 25 kHz. The laser is stopped when all of the holes are open on the bottom side. The result is a quality control system in which the processing time of a production line is defined by average instead of maximum wafer thickness.

  3. Investigation of stress induced by CO2 laser processing of fused silica optics for laser damage growth mitigation. (United States)

    Gallais, Laurent; Cormont, Philippe; Rullier, Jean-Luc


    Laser damage mitigation' is a process developed to prevent the growth of nanosecond laser-initiated damage sites under successive irradiation. It consists of re-fusing the damage area with a CO2 laser. In this paper we investigate the stress field created around mitigated sites which could have an influence on the efficiency of the process. A numerical model of CO2 laser interaction with fused silica is developed. It takes into account laser energy absorption, heat transfer, thermally induced stress and birefringence. Residual stress near mitigated sites in fused silica samples is characterized with specific photoelastic methods and theoretical data are compared to experiments. The stress distribution and quantitative values of stress levels are obtained for sites treated with the CO2 laser in various conditions of energy deposition (beam size, pulse duration, incident power). The results provided evidence that the presence of birefringence/residual stress around the mitigated sites has an effect on their laser damage resistance.

  4. An Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Average Laser Power and Angular Scanning Speed Effects on Laser Tube Bending Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imhan Khalil Ibraheem


    Full Text Available Laser tube bending is a new technique of laser material forming to produce a complex and accurate shape due to its flexibility and high controllability. Moreover, the defects during conventional tube forming such as thinning, wrinkling, spring back and ovalization can be avoided in laser tube bending process, because there is no external force used. In this paper an analytical investigation has been conducted to analyses the effects of average laser power and laser scanning speed on laser tube bending process, the analytical results have been verified experimentally. The model used in this study is in the same trend of the experiment. The results show that the bending angle increased with the increasing of average laser power and decreased with the increasing of angular scanning speed.

  5. 3D microstructuring with F2 lasers (United States)

    Toenshoff, Hans K.; von Alvensleben, Ferdinand; Ostendorf, Andreas; Koerber, Klaus; Kulik, Christian


    F2 lasers emitting radiation with a wavelength (lambda) equals 157 nm allow the direct laser based micro-structuring of materials like PTFE (e.g. Teflon) or quartz glass for MST-applications. This paper reports about the fundamental basis of controlling and modelling the structuring process and about existing tools for the 3-D micron structuring with F2 excimer lasers. The concept of three-dimensional micro-structuring is based on gradual ablation, using single laser pulses. A CNC-controlled precision machining centre with a vacuum encapsulated beam guiding system has been developed. For the material processing with F2 lasers a model of the single ablation size was qualified, which provides an exact description of the laser pulse taking the material properties, the energy density and the lateral dimensions of the single ablation into account. The non- linear characteristics between pulse geometry and process parameters were experimentally determined and implemented into software for automated NC-data generation. A special software tool makes the simulation of manufacturing micro-components possible. It is based on the complex NC-code and on the exact model of the single ablation. Using this simulation, the process parameters can be optimised before processing with a laser micro-machining centre. The described technology was verified by manufacturing 3-D micro-structures in several materials, such as quartz glass and PTFE.

  6. [Plasma spectral analysis of laser cleaning process in air]. (United States)

    Tong, Yan-Qun; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Yao, Hong-Bing; Meng, Chun-Mei; Guan, Hai-Bing


    It is quick and accurate to on-line monitor the sample condition of laser cleaning by means of laser-induced plasma spectrum in air. In the present article, the echelle grating spectrometer was used to detect the plasma spectral lines induced by pulsed laser interaction with copper coin samples with or without contamination. The spectrogram showed that there were clear Cu I spectrum lines and air atom spectrum lines of N I and O I. In order to eliminate the uncertainty of single measurement, the statistical regularity of N I and O I spectrum lines was analyzed. Their intensity distribution laws were consistent and their relative standard deviations were the same basically. So a single measurement spectrum could be used to monitor cleaning process. The spectra of copper samples with contamination consisted of many elements atomic spectral lines and continuous spectral lines. But there are Cu I spectral lines in the spectra of clean copper samples. As a result, the authors could detect the change of spectral lines to judge whether the laser cleaning samples were clean.

  7. Femtosecond laser processing of optical fibres for novel sensor development (United States)

    Kalli, Kyriacos; Theodosiou, Antreas; Ioannou, Andreas; Lacraz, Amedee


    We present results of recent research where we have utilized a femtosecond laser to micro-structure silica and polymer optical fibres in order to realize versatile optical components such as diffractive optical elements on the fibre end face, the inscription of integrated waveguide circuits in the fibre cladding and novel optical fibre sensors designs based on Bragg gratings in the core. A major hurdle in tailoring or modifying the properties of optical fibres is the development of an inscription method that can prove to be a flexible and reliable process that is generally applicable to all optical fibre types; this requires careful matching of the laser parameters and optics in order to examine the spatial limits of direct laser writing, whether the application is structuring at the surface of the optical fibre or inscription in the core and cladding of the fibre. We demonstrate a variety of optical components such as two-dimensional grating structures, Bessel, Airy and vortex beam generators; moreover, optical bridging waveguides inscribed in the cladding of single-mode fibre as a means to selectively couple light from single-core to multi-core optical fibres, and demonstrate a grating based sensor; finally, we have developed a novel femtosecond laser inscription method for the precise inscription of tailored Bragg grating sensors in silica and polymer optical fibres. We also show that this novel fibre Bragg grating inscription technique can be used to modify and add versatility to an existing, encapsulated optical fibre pressure sensor.

  8. Numerical modeling of laser assisted tape winding process (United States)

    Zaami, Amin; Baran, Ismet; Akkerman, Remko


    Laser assisted tape winding (LATW) has become more and more popular way of producing new thermoplastic products such as ultra-deep sea water riser, gas tanks, structural parts for aerospace applications. Predicting the temperature in LATW has been a source of great interest since the temperature at nip-point plays a key role for mechanical interface performance. Modeling the LATW process includes several challenges such as the interaction of optics and heat transfer. In the current study, numerical modeling of the optical behavior of laser radiation on circular surfaces is investigated based on a ray tracing and non-specular reflection model. The non-specular reflection is implemented considering the anisotropic reflective behavior of the fiber-reinforced thermoplastic tape using a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The proposed model in the present paper includes a three-dimensional circular geometry, in which the effects of reflection from different ranges of the circular surface as well as effect of process parameters on temperature distribution are studied. The heat transfer model is constructed using a fully implicit method. The effect of process parameters on the nip-point temperature is examined. Furthermore, several laser distributions including Gaussian and linear are examined which has not been considered in literature up to now.

  9. Method for controlling a laser additive process using intrinsic illumination (United States)

    Tait, Robert; Cai, Guoshuang; Azer, Magdi; Chen, Xiaobin; Liu, Yong; Harding, Kevin


    One form of additive manufacturing is to use a laser to generate a melt pool from powdered metal that is sprayed from a nozzle. The laser net-shape machining system builds the part a layer at a time by following a predetermined path. However, because the path may need to take many turns, maintaining a constant melt pool may not be easy. A straight section may require one speed and power while a sharp bend would over melt the metal at the same settings. This paper describes a process monitoring method that uses the intrinsic IR radiation from the melt pool along with a process model configured to establish target values for the parameters associated with the manufacture or repair. This model is based upon known properties of the metal being used as well as the properties of the laser beam. An adaptive control technique is then employed to control process parameters of the machining system based upon the real-time weld pool measurement. Since the system uses the heat radiant from the melt pool, other previously deposited metal does not confuse the system as only the melted material is seen by the camera.

  10. Near-infrared laser-induced fluorescence detection in column liquid chromatography. A comparison of various lasers and detection systems. II*. Pulsed lasers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mank, A.J.G.; Velthorst, N.H.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Gooijer, C.


    The applicability of two pulsed lasers, a XeCl-excimer/dye laser and a Nd:YAG/dye laser combination, as excitation sources for near-infrared (NIR) laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection in column liquid chromatography (LC) is studied. Using gradient LC, the best detection limit for the model

  11. Laser materials processing of complex components: from reverse engineering via automated beam path generation to short process development cycles (United States)

    Görgl, Richard; Brandstätter, Elmar


    The article presents an overview of what is possible nowadays in the field of laser materials processing. The state of the art in the complete process chain is shown, starting with the generation of a specific components CAD data and continuing with the automated motion path generation for the laser head carried by a CNC or robot system. Application examples from laser cladding and laser-based additive manufacturing are given.

  12. Laser-high-speed-DSC: Process-oriented Thermal Analysis of PA 12 in Selective Laser Sintering (United States)

    Lanzl, Lydia; Wudy, Katrin; Drexler, Maximilian; Drummer, Dietmar

    In the Selective Laser Sintering process very high heating rates occur due to the melting of the material by a laser. Extreme scanning rates could not be measured by conventional thermal analysis methods, since typical heating rates for DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) are between 5-20K min-1. By using a Laser-High-Speed-DSC, a self-developed combination of a Flash-DSC and a fitted laser head, the sample is directly heated by a CO2 laser like in the SLS process. These experiments allow a process-oriented thermal analyzation of the material. In this paper, the set-up and function of this new measuring method is introduced. Furthermore, the reliability of the measurements is evaluated by statistical design of experiment methods. By using this new measuring method, the time-dependent melting behavior of the polymer can be analyzed. Moreover, sample temperatures and heating rates dependent on laser exposure times can be quantified.

  13. Development of a high-power blue laser (445  nm) for material processing. (United States)

    Wang, Hongze; Kawahito, Yosuke; Yoshida, Ryohei; Nakashima, Yuya; Shiokawa, Kunio


    A blue diode laser has a higher absorption rate than a traditional laser, while the maximum power is limited. We report the structure and laser beam profile of a 250 W high-power blue laser (445 nm) for material processing. The absorption rate of the blue laser system for the steel was 2.75 times that of a single-mode fiber laser system (1070 nm). The characteristics of the steel after laser irradiation were determined, validating the potential of this high-power blue laser for material processing, such as heat treatment and cladding. The cost of the developed laser system was lower than that of the existing one. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first blue laser with a power as high as 250 W.

  14. Three-dimensional numerical simulation during laser processing of CFRP (United States)

    Ohkubo, Tomomasa; Sato, Yuji; Matsunaga, Ei-ichi; Tsukamoto, Masahiro


    We performed three-dimensional numerical simulation about laser processing of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) using OpenFOAM as libraries of finite volume method (FVM). Although a little theoretical or numerical studies about heat affected zone (HAZ) formation were performed, there is no research discussing how HAZ is generated considering time development about removal of each material. It is important to understand difference of removal speed of carbon fiber and resin in order to improve quality of cut surface of CFRP. We demonstrated how the carbon fiber and resin are removed by heat of ablation plume by our simulation. We found that carbon fiber is removed faster than resin at first stage because of the difference of thermal conductivity, and after that, the resin is removed faster because of its low combustion temperature. This result suggests the existence of optimal contacting time of the laser ablation and kerf of the target.

  15. Multifunctional industrial combustion process monitoring with tunable diode lasers (United States)

    Von Drasek, William A.; Charon, Olivier; Mulderink, Ken; Sonnenfroh, David M.; Allen, Mark G.


    12 To address the inherent issues with extractive sampling, Air Liquide and PSI are collaborating on the development of an in-situ multi-functional near-IR tunable diode laser system. The system is specifically targeted for application in harsh combustion environments with flue gas temperatures > 1600 degree(s)C and high particle densities. The multiplexing capability of the diode laser system allows near simultaneous detection of CO, O2, and H2O. These are essential species in characterizing the combustion state of the process, i.e., fuel-rich or fuel-lean, and the flue gas temperature. Sensor development and testing are conducted on a 700 kW oxy-fuel pilot furnace to evaluate the performance under simulated industrial conditions. Here we present pilot test results for dynamic stoichiometry changes, effect of particle entrainment, and air infiltration monitoring.

  16. Laser-induced breakdown spectra of Zn2 molecule in the violet region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of excimer and van der Waals molecules such as Hg2, Cd2 and Zn2 are of current interest as they are potential candidates for the possible development of new high power excimer lasers. Group IIB metal dimers (Hg2, Cd2 and Zn2) have essentially repulsive ground states with very shallow van der Walls minima.

  17. Micropatterning of a Bipolar Plate Using Direct Laser Melting Process (United States)

    Jang, Jeong-hwan; Joo, Byeong-don; Mun, Sung-min; Moona, Young-hoon


    Direct laser melting (DLM) technology has been used to fabricate the micro-pattern of the bipolar plate in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). A suitable approach to enhance the performance of the bipolar plate has been performed to optimize the DLM process. To fabricate the micro pattern, a DLM process with 316L stainless steel powder has been used. For the melted height of 1 mm, the DLM process conditions were optimized such as; laser power of 200 W, scan rate of 36.62 mm/s and the 8-layer structures. To characterize the effect of material type, the bipolar plates of various types were analyzed. In case of the 316L stainless steel DLM patterning, a current density of 297 mA/cm2 was achieved but the case of the 316L stainless steel plate, 248 mA/cm2 current density that is lower than that of other materials was achieved. The overall cell performance of 316L stainless steel DLM patterning bipolar plate was better than that of the 316L stainless steel plate. This has significant advantages for the micropatterning using DLM process. The use of 316L stainless steel powder material as micro pattern material will reduce the machining cost as well as volume of the fuel cell stack.

  18. Part height control of laser metal additive manufacturing process (United States)

    Pan, Yu-Herng

    Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) has been used to not only make but also repair damaged parts in a layer-by-layer fashion. Parts made in this manner may produce less waste than those made through conventional machining processes. However, a common issue of LMD involves controlling the deposition's layer thickness. Accuracy is important, and as it increases, both the time required to produce the part and the material wasted during the material removal process (e.g., milling, lathe) decrease. The deposition rate is affected by multiple parameters, such as the powder feed rate, laser input power, axis feed rate, material type, and part design, the values of each of which may change during the LMD process. Using a mathematical model to build a generic equation that predicts the deposition's layer thickness is difficult due to these complex parameters. In this thesis, we propose a simple method that utilizes a single device. This device uses a pyrometer to monitor the current build height, thereby allowing the layer thickness to be controlled during the LMD process. This method also helps the LMD system to build parts even with complex parameters and to increase material efficiency.

  19. Statistical analysis of parameter effects on bending angle in laser forming process by pulsed Nd:YAG laser (United States)

    Hoseinpour Gollo, M.; Mahdavian, S. M.; Moslemi Naeini, H.


    In recent years, laser application has been introduced for bending and forming as new processes in manufacturing. The capability of laser bending demands more studies to recognize parameters influencing bending angle of sheet metals. In this study the effects of parameters such as material, laser power, beam diameter, scan velocity, sheet thickness, pass number and pulse duration on bending angle were studied by FEM initially and then followed by experiments. Furthermore, the Taguchi experimental design method was employed to pin point parameters, which significantly affect the bending process of laser bending of St12 and 304 alloy steels, which have a wide range of applications in products manufacturing. A regression analysis was conducted and a closed form equation was derived. The closed form equation can be used in industry to determine which process parameters (factors) enhance the bending angle in laser bending process.

  20. Processes and strategies for solid state Q-switch laser marking of polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, Johan


    The overview of all laser marking processes for a wide range of materials shows the versatile aspect of laser technology. The statement that all materials can be written by laser is temping but not correct. The writing of liquids and gasses is possible but not practical. The overview of processes

  1. Thick metallic coatings produced by coaxial and side laser cladding : Processing and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelík, V.; De Hosson, J.T.M.


    Cobalt and iron-based, defect-free coatings with thicknesses from 1 to 3.3. mm were created by a laser cladding process on different steel substrates. Extensive laser cladding experiments with a gradual change of laser power were used to study relations between main processing parameters and

  2. Study of a fiber laser assisted friction stir welding process (United States)

    Casalino, G.; Campanelli, S.; Ludovico, A. D.; Contuzzi, N.; Angelastro, A.


    Friction stir welding is a relatively new joining technique. This technique, which is considered a derivative of the more common friction welding method, was developed mainly for aluminum and its alloys. In recent years, this method has been used to join various other alloys. FSW has many advantages, including the following: the welding procedure is relatively simple with no consumables or filler metal; joint edge preparation is not needed; oxide removal prior to welding is unnecessary; high joint strength has been achieved in aluminum and magnesium alloys; FSW can be used with alloys that cannot be fusion welded due to crack sensitivity. The drawbacks of FSW include the need for powerful fixtures to clamp the workpiece to the welding table, the high force needed to move the welding tool forward, the relatively high wear rate of the welding tool, and weld speeds in FSW are slower, which can lead to longer process times. To overcome these drawbacks, a fiber laser-assisted friction stir welding system was designed (FLAFSW). The system combined a conventional commercial friction machine and a fiber pumped laser system. The scope is to investigate the influence of the laser assistance on the weld quality. A number of different aluminum plates, which are still mentioned to be difficult to be joint as intermetallic phases appear during melting welding techniques, were used. The evaluation of quality was performed through analysis of appearance, mechanical and microstructure characterization of the weld.

  3. Femtosecond laser processing with a holographic line-shaped beam. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Shiono, Koji; Hayasaki, Yoshio


    Line-shaped femtosecond pulses are well-suited to large-area machining with high throughput in laser cutting, peeling, and grooving of materials. First, we demonstrated the single-shot fabrication of a line structure in a glass surface using a line-shaped pulse generated by a holographic cylindrical lens displayed on a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator. We found the line structure was uniform and smooth near the ends because of the ability to precisely control the intensity distribution and to achieve single-shot fabrication. Second, we demonstrated a line-shaped beam deformed three-dimensionally for showing the potential of holographic line-shaped beam processing. Third, we demonstrated laser peeling of an indium tin oxide film. We found that little debris around the fabricated area was observed, because the debris was removed by the beam itself. Last, we demonstrated laser grooving of stainless steel. We found the swelling of the surface included upwardly growing nanogratings, although many line-shaped pulse irradiations were given. The swelling was caused by the depositions of the debris on the top of the nanogratings.

  4. Cavitation bubble oscillation period as a process diagnostic during the laser shock peening process (United States)

    Glaser, D.; Polese, C.


    Laser shock peening (LSP) technology is a laser-induced shock process implemented as a surface enhancement technique to introduce beneficial compressive residual stresses into metallic components. The process employs water to confine and enhance the pressure pulse delivered to the target. For thick water layers, or fully water immersed LSP, a cavitation bubble is generated by the surface vaporization of the LSP laser pulse. This research shows that the first bubble oscillation period of the cavitation bubble can be used to characterize effective and repeatable energy delivery to the target. High-speed shadowgraphy is implemented to show that variations in the bubble period occur before visual observations of dielectric breakdown in water. The diagnostic potential of the first bubble oscillation period is used to identify the dielectric breakdown threshold of water, which shows an increase with increasing water quality measured by water conductivity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Laser sintering is one of the techniques used in additive manufacturing processes. The main objective of the work is to study the effects of process parameters on wetting phenomenon and interfacial energy during laser melting of stainless steel powder. This paper reports wetting of laser melted powder particles and its use for the determination of surface energy of stainless steel powder under laser beam exposure. Process parameters such as laser power, scan speed and beam diameter are considered for study. This study also identifies the process parameters for better wettability which produces smooth surfaces.

  6. Efficacy of fractional lasers in treating alopecia: a literature review. (United States)

    Perper, Marina; Aldahan, Adam S; Fayne, Rachel A; Emerson, Christopher P; Nouri, Keyvan


    Hair loss stemming from different types of alopecia, such as androgenic alopecia and alopecia areata, negatively affects over half the population and, in many circumstances, causes serious psychosocial distress. Current treatment options for alopecia, such as minoxidil, anthralin, and intralesional corticosteroids, vary efficacy and side effect profiles. It is known that low-level laser/light therapies (LLLT), or photobiomodulations, such as the US FDA-cleared HairMax Lasercomb®, He-Ne laser, and excimer laser, are relatively affordable, user-friendly, safe, and effective forms of treatment for hair loss. While less is known about the effectiveness of fractional lasers for combating hair loss, research suggests that by creating microscopic thermal injury zones, fractional lasers may cause an increase in hair growth from a wound healing process, making them potential therapeutic options for alopecia. A literature review was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of fractional lasers on hair regrowth. The specific fractional laser therapies include the 1550-nm nonablative fractional erbium-glass laser, the ablative fractional 2940-nm erbium:YAG laser, and the ablative fractional CO 2 fractional laser. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary to further evaluate the effectiveness of the lasers, as well as to establish appropriate parameters and treatment intervals.

  7. Direct laser processing of bulk lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Sheldon A.; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bose, Susmita [W.M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Bandyopadhyay, Amit, E-mail: [W.M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)


    Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{sup TM}) has been used to fabricate dense, net shape melt-cast structures of lead zirconate titanate (PZT), in a single step, directly on a metallic substrate by complete melting and resolidification of PZT powders. From our results, it appears that reasonable dielectric properties can be obtained in LENS{sup TM} processed PZT structures without post-fabrication heat treatments. Our results also demonstrate potential application of LENS{sup TM} towards direct fabrication of PZT based embedded sensors and transducers on structural components.

  8. Laser processing of diamond-like carbon metal composites (United States)

    Narayan, Roger Jagdish


    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a hydrogen-free amorphous material that contains a large fraction of sp 3-hybridized carbon atoms. DLC exhibits hardness, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance properties close to those of diamond. Unfortunately, DLC films contain a large amount of compressive stresses and exhibit poor adhesion to many metal substrates. We have adopted a novel pulsed laser deposition process to incorporate metal atoms into diamond-like carbon films. Visible Raman spectroscopy data suggest that DLC-metal composite films possess less internal compressive stress than as-prepared DLC films. DLC-metal composite films have several potential applications, including use in machine tools and medical prostheses.

  9. Modeling laser velocimeter signals as triply stochastic Poisson processes (United States)

    Mayo, W. T., Jr.


    Previous models of laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) systems have not adequately described dual-scatter signals in a manner useful for analysis and simulation of low-level photon-limited signals. At low photon rates, an LDV signal at the output of a photomultiplier tube is a compound nonhomogeneous filtered Poisson process, whose intensity function is another (slower) Poisson process with the nonstationary rate and frequency parameters controlled by a random flow (slowest) process. In the present paper, generalized Poisson shot noise models are developed for low-level LDV signals. Theoretical results useful in detection error analysis and simulation are presented, along with measurements of burst amplitude statistics. Computer generated simulations illustrate the difference between Gaussian and Poisson models of low-level signals.

  10. Reversible Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Myopia Correction: A Non-Human Primate Study of Lenticule Re-Implantation after Refractive Lenticule Extraction: e67058

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andri K Riau; Romesh I Angunawela; Shyam S Chaurasia; Wing S Lee; Donald T Tan; Jodhbir S Mehta


      LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) is a common laser refractive procedure for myopia and astigmatism, involving permanent removal of anterior corneal stromal tissue by excimer ablation beneath a hinged flap...

  11. Reversible femtosecond laser-assisted myopia correction: a non-human primate study of lenticule re-implantation after refractive lenticule extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riau, Andri K; Angunawela, Romesh I; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Lee, Wing S; Tan, Donald T; Mehta, Jodhbir S


    LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) is a common laser refractive procedure for myopia and astigmatism, involving permanent removal of anterior corneal stromal tissue by excimer ablation beneath a hinged flap...

  12. Excimer laser surface ablation: a review of recent literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brart, David PS


    ...‐epithelial keratomileusis ( LASEK ), microkeratome‐assisted PRK (epi‐ LASIK ) and trans‐epithelial (laser‐assisted) PRK , to help elucidate where and how surface ablation may best fit into current refractive surgical practice...

  13. Optical engineering of an excimer laser ophthalmic surgery system (United States)

    Yoder, Paul R., Jr.


    We outline the interrelationships between the various major subsystems of an apparatus being developed in the USA for in vivo surgical recontouring of the human cornea to correct refractive errors and/or to remove damaged tissue. We then discuss five significant optical engineering problems that had to be solved during the design of this apparatus in order for the overall system to function properly.

  14. Femtosecond Fiber Lasers Based on Dissipative Processes for Nonlinear Microscopy (United States)

    Wise, Frank W.


    Recent progress in the development of femtosecond-pulse fiber lasers with parameters appropriate for nonlinear microscopy is reviewed. Pulse-shaping in lasers with only normal-dispersion components is briefly described, and the performance of the resulting lasers is summarized. Fiber lasers based on the formation of dissipative solitons now offer performance competitive with that of solid-state lasers, but with the benefits of the fiber medium. Lasers based on self-similar pulse evolution in the gain section of a laser also offer a combination of short pulse duration and high pulse energy that will be attractive for applications in nonlinear bioimaging. PMID:23869163

  15. Influence of humidity on photochemical ozone generation with 172nm xenon excimer lamps (United States)

    Salvermoser, M. J.; Kogelschatz, U.; Murnick, D. E.


    The reaction kinetics of photochemical ozone (O{3}) generation in humid air and oxygen (O{2}) using efficient, narrow band vacuum ultra violet (VUV) 172 nm xenon excimer lamps is discussed. Trace amounts of water (H{2}O) vapor in the process gas leads to hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO{2}) radical formation. These radicals drive a catalytic O{3} destruction cycle limiting O{3} saturation concentration. This catalytic O{3} destruction cycle was included into a quantitative kinetic model describing photochemical O{3} production. Experimental O{3} saturation concentrations obtained with coaxial VUV driven photochemical O{3} generators compare satisfactorily with the models predictions.

  16. Laser-induced multi-energy processing in diamond growth (United States)

    Xie, Zhiqiang

    Laser-induced multi-energy processing (MEP) introduces resonant vibrational excitations of precursor molecules to conventional chemical vapor deposition methods for material synthesis. In this study, efforts were extended to explore the capability of resonant vibrational excitations for promotion of energy efficiency in chemical reactions, for enhancement of diamond deposition, and for control of chemical reactions. The research project mainly focused on resonant vibrational excitations of precursor molecules using lasers in combustion flame deposition of diamond, which led to: 1) promotion of chemical reactions; 2) enhancement of diamond growth with higher growth rate and better crystallizations; 3) steering of chemical reactions which lead to preferential growth of {100}-oriented diamond films and crystals; and 4) mode-selective excitations of precursor molecules toward bond-selective control of chemical reactions. Diamond films and crystals were deposited in open air by combustion flame deposition through resonant vibrational excitations of precursor molecules, including ethylene (C2H4) and propylene (C3H 6). A kilowatt wavelength-tunable CO2 laser with spectral range from 9.2 to 10.9 microm was tuned to match vibrational modes of the precursor molecules. Resonant vibrational excitations of these molecules were achieved with high energy efficiency as compared with excitations using a common CO2 laser (fixed wavelength at 10.591microm). With resonant vibrational excitations, the diamond growth rate was increased; diamond quality was promoted; diamond crystals with lengths up to 5 mm were deposited in open air; preferential growth of {100}-oriented diamond films and single crystals was achieved; mode-selective excitations of precursor molecules were investigated toward control of chemical reactions. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES), mass spectrometry (MS), and molecular dynamic simulations were conducted to obtain an in-depth understanding of the resonant

  17. Keratin film ablation for the fabrication of brick and mortar skin structure using femtosecond laser pulses (United States)

    Haq, Bibi Safia; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Dou, Yuehua; Alam, Khan; Attaullah, Shehnaz; Zari, Islam


    The patterning of thin keratin films has been explored to manufacture model skin surfaces based on the "bricks and mortar" view of the relationship between keratin and lipids. It has been demonstrated that laser light is capable of preparing keratin-based "bricks and mortar" wall structure as in epidermis, the outermost layer of the human skin. "Bricks and mortar" pattern in keratin films has been fabricated using an ArF excimer laser (193 nm wavelength) and femtosecond laser (800 and 400 nm wavelength). Due to the very low ablation threshold of keratin, femtosecond laser systems are practical for laser processing of proteins. These model skin structures are fabricated for the first time that will help to produce potentially effective moisturizing products for the protection of skin from dryness, diseases and wrinkles.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots immobilized on solid substrates through laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyoergy, E. [Centre d' Investigacions en Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Institut Catala de Nanotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CIN2, ICN-CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain); National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Perez del Pino, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICMAB, CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain); Roqueta, J.; Ballesteros, B. [Centre d' Investigacions en Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Institut Catala de Nanotecnologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CIN2, ICN-CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain); Miguel, A.S.; Maycock, C.; Oliva, A.G. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (ITQB-UNL), Oeiras (Portugal)


    CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) have been immobilized onto solid substrates by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). An UV KrF* ({lambda} = 248 nm, {tau}{sub FWHM} {approx_equal} 25 ns) excimer laser source was used for irradiations of the composite MAPLE targets. The targets were prepared by the dispersion of the CdSe/ZnS QDs in a solvent with high absorption at the incident laser radiation. The dependence of the surface morphology, crystalline structure, chemical composition, and functional properties of the laser transferred CdSe/ZnS QDs on the processing conditions as incident laser fluence value and ambient atmosphere inside the irradiation chamber was investigated. The possible physical mechanisms implied in the laser ablation process were identified. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Free Electron Laser Synthesis of Functional Coatings (United States)

    Schaaf, Peter; Höche, Daniel

    Functional and smart surfaces and coatings play an increasingly decisive role in the applicability and performance of modern materials. From an industrial point of view, there is a great interest with respect to friction, wear, corrosion, and further properties. Many methods have been developed for the improvement of the respective surface and material properties. Traditionally, these treatments range from simple PVD and CVD processes to complicated plasma and hybrid methods. Recently, it has been established that short laser pulses of high energy can induce a direct laser synthesis of functional coatings if the material's surface is irradiated in a reactive atmosphere. The process is based on a complicated combination of laser plasma - gas - material surface interactions. Tests for steel, aluminum, magnesium, titanium, and silicon in nitrogen, methane, and hydrogen atmospheres have been carried out successfully; with these materials, interesting coatings can be produced by direct laser synthesis, for example, AlN and SiC. Various laser types can be used for this purpose: Excimer, Nd:YAG, CO2 Laser, and even the free electron laser (FEL).

  20. Laser dimpling process parameters selection and optimization using surrogate-driven process capability space (United States)

    Ozkat, Erkan Caner; Franciosa, Pasquale; Ceglarek, Dariusz


    Remote laser welding technology offers opportunities for high production throughput at a competitive cost. However, the remote laser welding process of zinc-coated sheet metal parts in lap joint configuration poses a challenge due to the difference between the melting temperature of the steel (∼1500 °C) and the vapourizing temperature of the zinc (∼907 °C). In fact, the zinc layer at the faying surface is vapourized and the vapour might be trapped within the melting pool leading to weld defects. Various solutions have been proposed to overcome this problem over the years. Among them, laser dimpling has been adopted by manufacturers because of its flexibility and effectiveness along with its cost advantages. In essence, the dimple works as a spacer between the two sheets in lap joint and allows the zinc vapour escape during welding process, thereby preventing weld defects. However, there is a lack of comprehensive characterization of dimpling process for effective implementation in real manufacturing system taking into consideration inherent changes in variability of process parameters. This paper introduces a methodology to develop (i) surrogate model for dimpling process characterization considering multiple-inputs (i.e. key control characteristics) and multiple-outputs (i.e. key performance indicators) system by conducting physical experimentation and using multivariate adaptive regression splines; (ii) process capability space (Cp-Space) based on the developed surrogate model that allows the estimation of a desired process fallout rate in the case of violation of process requirements in the presence of stochastic variation; and, (iii) selection and optimization of the process parameters based on the process capability space. The proposed methodology provides a unique capability to: (i) simulate the effect of process variation as generated by manufacturing process; (ii) model quality requirements with multiple and coupled quality requirements; and (iii

  1. Competitive Excimer Formation and Energy Transfer in Zr-Based Heterolinker Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Mario; Sánchez, Félix; Douhal, Abderrazzak


    The spectroscopy and dynamics of a series of Zr-based MOFs in dichloromethane suspension are reported. These Zr-NADC MOFs were constructed by using different mixtures of 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate (NDC) and 4-amino-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylate (NADC) as organic linkers. The fraction of NADC relative to NDC in these heterolinker MOFs ranges from 2 to 35 %. The results indicate two competitive photoprocesses: NDC excimer formation and an energy transfer (ET) from excited NDC linkers to NADC linkers. Increasing the fraction of NADC linkers in the Zr-NADC nanostructure decreases the mean time constant of NDC excimer formation, while the NADC emission intensity experiences a drop at the highest fraction of this linker in the MOF. The first observation is explained by an increase in the energy-transfer probability between the two linkers, and the second by emission quenching in the NADC linkers due to ultrafast charge transfer assisted by the amino group. Femtosecond time-resolved emission studies showed that the ET process (recorded as decaying and rising components) from excited NDC to NADC takes place in 1.2 ps. Direct excitation of the NADC linkers (at 410 nm) shows a decaying, but not rising, component of 250-480 fs, which could reflect the formation of a nonemissive charge-separation state. The results show that by using MOFs having heterolinkers it is possible to trigger and tune excimer formation and ET processes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Nonlinear quantum electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuren, Sebastian


    Various nonlinear electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong plane-wave laser fields are considered with an emphasis on short-pulse effects. In particular, the momentum distribution of photoproduced electron-positron pairs is calculated numerically and a semiclassical interpretation of its characteristic features is established. By proving the optical theorem, compact double-integral expressions for the total pair-creation probability are obtained and numerically evaluated. The exponential decay of the photon wave function in a plane wave is included by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations to leading-order in the quasistatic approximation. In this respect, the polarization operator in a plane wave is investigated and its Ward-Takahashi identity verified. A classical analysis indicates that a photoproduced electron-positron pair recollides for certain initial conditions. The contributions of such recollision processes to the polarization operator are identified and calculated both analytically and numerically. Furthermore, the existence of nontrivial electron-spin dynamics induced by quantum fluctuations is verified for ultra-short laser pulses. Finally, the exchange of weak gauge bosons is considered, which is essential for neutrino-photon interactions. In particular, the axial-vector-vector coupling tensor is calculated and the so-called Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly investigated.

  3. Laser Synthesis and Processing of Colloids: Fundamentals and Applications. (United States)

    Zhang, Dongshi; Gökce, Bilal; Barcikowski, Stephan


    Driven by functionality and purity demand for applications of inorganic nanoparticle colloids in optics, biology, and energy, their surface chemistry has become a topic of intensive research interest. Consequently, ligand-free colloids are ideal reference materials for evaluating the effects of surface adsorbates from the initial state for application-oriented nanointegration purposes. After two decades of development, laser synthesis and processing of colloids (LSPC) has emerged as a convenient and scalable technique for the synthesis of ligand-free nanomaterials in sealed environments. In addition to the high-purity surface of LSPC-generated nanoparticles, other strengths of LSPC include its high throughput, convenience for preparing alloys or series of doped nanomaterials, and its continuous operation mode, suitable for downstream processing. Unscreened surface charge of LSPC-synthesized colloids is the key to achieving colloidal stability and high affinity to biomolecules as well as support materials, thereby enabling the fabrication of bioconjugates and heterogeneous catalysts. Accurate size control of LSPC-synthesized materials ranging from quantum dots to submicrometer spheres and recent upscaling advancement toward the multiple-gram scale are helpful for extending the applicability of LSPC-synthesized nanomaterials to various fields. By discussing key reports on both the fundamentals and the applications related to laser ablation, fragmentation, and melting in liquids, this Article presents a timely and critical review of this emerging topic.

  4. Novel Process for Laser Stain Removal from Archaeological Oil Paintings (United States)

    El-Nadi, Lotfia; El-Feky, Osama; Abdellatif, Galila; Darwish, Sawsan


    Some samples of oil paintings (5 × 5 cm) were prepared on wooden panel with four types of fungi commonly encountered on oil paintings were selected for this study. Each of the fungi is associated with different colored stains. Fungus Alternaria tenuis is associated by a dense black stain, Chetomium globosum by a brownish gray stain, Aspergillus flavus by a yellowish stain, and Fusaruim oxysporum by a pinkish stain. Fungi growing on oil paintings affect the surface characteristics by forming a variety of colored patches typically composed of many complex chemical substances that are produced during metabolic processes. These colored stains may be encrusted in spores, present in mycelium or secreted to a substance such as oil paintings surfaces. While the fungal stains can sometimes be extracted with appropriate solvents, there are some stains that resist solvent extraction entirely. Developing new solvent system that might attack the paint structure, and is time consuming and requires a great deal of trial and error. Mechanical stain removal is also problematic in that it often produces abrasion of the surface, markedly deteriorating the artwork, and is extra ordinarily fine and tedious. For these reasons, we decided to examine an alternative physical technique as a new approach to deal with stain removal. Since the stains are due to the existence of fungi, we thought it a good idea to remove them by singlet oxygen. We applied the photo dynamic process through which the fungi stains were covered with organic dye derivatives in solution under controlled illumination in the lab. The samples were then irradiated by low power Laser light from a He-Ne laser, the dye will be photodecomposed and produce singlet oxygen. We report in this work the results obtained as a function of: - The concentration and types of the organic dye in solution, - The presence of certain amounts of liquids added to the solution, - The scanning speed of the laser beam on the sample surface

  5. Vacuum Compatibility of Laser Sintered Metals with Post-processing (United States)

    Rivera, W. F.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Bates, E. M.; Birmingham, W.


    We present the results of the outgassing rate of selective laser sintered parts using the throughput method; this method gives the outgassing rate per unit area of the parts by taking the difference in pressure and multiplying it to the known conductance, and dividing it by the surface area of the sample. The samples undergo post-processing: the technique we are investigating is plasma vapor deposition, which turns the target material (silicon, copper, etc.) into a stream of charged particles creating a smooth and uniform layer onto the substrate. Plasma vapor deposition homogenizes the surface morphology of the sample, reducing the surface area and developing a surface layer which should decrease the outgassing rate and make it impermeable to gasses and unreactive to chemisorption. The outgassing data is compared for each sample before and after post-processing.

  6. Detection of Process Failures in Layerwise Laser Melting with Optical Process Monitoring (United States)

    Craeghs, Tom; Clijsters, Stijn; Kruth, Jean.-Pierre; Bechmann, Florian; Ebert, Marie.-Christin

    Layerwise Laser Melting (LLM) is an Additive Manufacturing process which allows producing complex metallic parts by building parts layer by layer. Monitoring and control of the melting process is needed for further development of the process and future adoption of the process by industry since it allows to monitor the quality of the building process during the actual build job. Furthermore, melt pool monitoring enables a better and more fundamental understanding of the thermal behavior of the process. This paper describes a system for monitoring of the melt pool during LLM and a data processing algorithm to map the measured melt pool data in space. With this so called mapping approach the data interpretation can be significantly reduced. It will be shown that with this system a wide range of process failures can be detected during the process.

  7. Understanding laser beam brightness: a review and new prospective in material processing


    Shukla, Pratik; Lawrence, Jonathan; Zhang,Yu


    This paper details the importance of brightness in relation to laser beams. The ‘brightness’ of lasers is a term that is generally not given much attention in laser applications or in published literature. With this said, it is theoretically and practically an important parameter in laser-material processing. This study is first of a kind which emphasizes in-depth, the concept of brightness of lasers by firstly reviewing the existing literature and the progress with high brightness laser-mate...

  8. Predictive modeling, simulation, and optimization of laser processing techniques: UV nanosecond-pulsed laser micromachining of polymers and selective laser melting of powder metals (United States)

    Criales Escobar, Luis Ernesto

    One of the most frequently evolving areas of research is the utilization of lasers for micro-manufacturing and additive manufacturing purposes. The use of laser beam as a tool for manufacturing arises from the need for flexible and rapid manufacturing at a low-to-mid cost. Laser micro-machining provides an advantage over mechanical micro-machining due to the faster production times of large batch sizes and the high costs associated with specific tools. Laser based additive manufacturing enables processing of powder metals for direct and rapid fabrication of products. Therefore, laser processing can be viewed as a fast, flexible, and cost-effective approach compared to traditional manufacturing processes. Two types of laser processing techniques are studied: laser ablation of polymers for micro-channel fabrication and selective laser melting of metal powders. Initially, a feasibility study for laser-based micro-channel fabrication of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) via experimentation is presented. In particular, the effectiveness of utilizing a nanosecond-pulsed laser as the energy source for laser ablation is studied. The results are analyzed statistically and a relationship between process parameters and micro-channel dimensions is established. Additionally, a process model is introduced for predicting channel depth. Model outputs are compared and analyzed to experimental results. The second part of this research focuses on a physics-based FEM approach for predicting the temperature profile and melt pool geometry in selective laser melting (SLM) of metal powders. Temperature profiles are calculated for a moving laser heat source to understand the temperature rise due to heating during SLM. Based on the predicted temperature distributions, melt pool geometry, i.e. the locations at which melting of the powder material occurs, is determined. Simulation results are compared against data obtained from experimental Inconel 625 test coupons fabricated at the National

  9. Laser-based analytical monitoring in nuclear-fuel processing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, J.P.


    The use of laser-based analytical methods in nuclear-fuel processing plants is considered. The species and locations for accountability, process control, and effluent control measurements in the Coprocessing, Thorex, and reference Purex fuel processing operations are identified and the conventional analytical methods used for these measurements are summarized. The laser analytical methods based upon Raman, absorption, fluorescence, and nonlinear spectroscopy are reviewed and evaluated for their use in fuel processing plants. After a comparison of the capabilities of the laser-based and conventional analytical methods, the promising areas of application of the laser-based methods in fuel processing plants are identified.

  10. Seam gap bridging of laser based processes for the welding of aluminium sheets for industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalderink, B.J.; Aalderink, Benno; Pathiraj, B.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.


    Laser welding has a large potential for the production of tailor welded blanks in the automotive industry, due to the low heat input and deep penetration. However, due to the small laser spot and melt pool, laser-based welding processes in general have a low tolerance for seam gaps. In this paper,

  11. Closed loop control of penetration depth during CO2 laser lap welding processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibillano, T.; Rizzi, D.; Mezzapesa, F.P.; Lugara, P.M.; Konuk, A.R.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert; Ancona, A.


    In this paper we describe a novel spectroscopic closed loop control system capable of stabilizing the penetration depth during laser welding processes by controlling the laser power. Our novel approach is to analyze the optical emission from the laser generated plasma plume above the keyhole, to

  12. Effects of advanced laser processing on the microstructure and residual stresses of H13 tool steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojan, Karel; Ocelík, Václav; Ganev, Nikolaj; Němeček, Stanislav; Čapek, Jiří


    The aim of this paper is to describe the effects of laser processing on the microstructure and residual stresses of laser cladded H13 tool steel on the classical construct steel S355 substrate. This research paper concludes that in this case of laser cladding, phase transformation and not shrinkage

  13. Modelling and control for laser based welding processes: modern methods of process control to improve quality of laser-based joining methods (United States)

    Zäh, Ralf-Kilian; Mosbach, Benedikt; Hollwich, Jan; Faupel, Benedikt


    To ensure the competitiveness of manufacturing companies it is indispensable to optimize their manufacturing processes. Slight variations of process parameters and machine settings have only marginally effects on the product quality. Therefore, the largest possible editing window is required. Such parameters are, for example, the movement of the laser beam across the component for the laser keyhole welding. That`s why it is necessary to keep the formation of welding seams within specified limits. Therefore, the quality of laser welding processes is ensured, by using post-process methods, like ultrasonic inspection, or special in-process methods. These in-process systems only achieve a simple evaluation which shows whether the weld seam is acceptable or not. Furthermore, in-process systems use no feedback for changing the control variables such as speed of the laser or adjustment of laser power. In this paper the research group presents current results of the research field of Online Monitoring, Online Controlling and Model predictive controlling in laser welding processes to increase the product quality. To record the characteristics of the welding process, tested online methods are used during the process. Based on the measurement data, a state space model is ascertained, which includes all the control variables of the system. Depending on simulation tools the model predictive controller (MPC) is designed for the model and integrated into an NI-Real-Time-System.

  14. Airborne Laser Scanning and Image Processing Techniques for Archaeological Prospection (United States)

    Faltýnová, M.; Nový, P.


    Aerial photography was, for decades, an invaluable tool for archaeological prospection, in spite of the limitation of this method to deforested areas. The airborne laser scanning (ALS) method can be nowadays used to map complex areas and suitable complement earlier findings. This article describes visualization and image processing methods that can be applied on digital terrain models (DTMs) to highlight objects hidden in the landscape. Thanks to the analysis of visualized DTM it is possible to understand the landscape evolution including the differentiation between natural processes and human interventions. Different visualization methods were applied on a case study area. A system of parallel tracks hidden in a forest and its surroundings - part of old route called "Devil's Furrow" near the town of Sázava was chosen. The whole area around well known part of Devil's Furrow has not been prospected systematically yet. The data from the airborne laser scanning acquired by the Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre was used. The average density of the point cloud was approximately 1 point/m2 The goal of the project was to visualize the utmost smallest terrain discontinuities, e.g. tracks and erosion furrows, which some were not wholly preserved. Generally we were interested in objects that are clearly not visible in DTMs displayed in the form of shaded relief. Some of the typical visualization methods were tested (shaded relief, aspect and slope image). To get better results we applied image-processing methods that were successfully used on aerial photographs or hyperspectral images in the past. The usage of different visualization techniques on one site allowed us to verify the natural character of the southern part of Devil's Furrow and find formations up to now hidden in the forests.

  15. Design process for NIF laser alignment and beam diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grey, A., LLNL


    In a controller for an adaptive optic system designed to correct phase aberrations in a high power laser, the wavefront sensor is a discrete Hartmann-Shack design. It uses an army of lenslets (like a fly` s eye) to focus the laser into 77 spots on a CCD camera. Average local tilt of the wavefront across each lenslet changes the position of its focal spot. The system requires 0.1 pixel accuracy in determining the focal spot location. We determine a small area around each spot` s previous location. Within this area, we calculate the centroid of the light intensity in x and y. This calculation fails if the spot regions overlap. Especially during initial acquisition of a highly distorted beam, distinguishing overlapping spots is difficult. However, low resolution analysis of the overlapping spots allows the system to estimate their positions. With this estimate, it can use the deformable mirror to correct the beam enough so we can detect the spots using conventional image processing.

  16. Laser process and corresponding structures for fabrication of solar cells with shunt prevention dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Dennis, Tim; Waldhauer, Ann; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John


    Contact holes of solar cells are formed by laser ablation to accommodate various solar cell designs. Use of a laser to form the contact holes is facilitated by replacing films formed on the diffusion regions with a film that has substantially uniform thickness. Contact holes may be formed to deep diffusion regions to increase the laser ablation process margins. The laser configuration may be tailored to form contact holes through dielectric films of varying thicknesses.

  17. Process and structures for fabrication of solar cells with laser ablation steps to form contact holes (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D; Dennis, Tim; Waldhauer, Ann; Kim, Taeseok; Cousins, Peter John


    Contact holes of solar cells are formed by laser ablation to accomodate various solar cell designs. Use of a laser to form the contact holes is facilitated by replacing films formed on the diffusion regions with a film that has substantially uniform thickness. Contact holes may be formed to deep diffusion regions to increase the laser ablation process margins. The laser configuration may be tailored to form contact holes through dielectric films of varying thickness.

  18. TruMicro Series 2000 sub-400 fs class industrial fiber lasers: adjustment of laser parameters to process requirements (United States)

    Kanal, Florian; Kahmann, Max; Tan, Chuong; Diekamp, Holger; Jansen, Florian; Scelle, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Sutter, Dirk


    The matchless properties of ultrashort laser pulses, such as the enabling of cold processing and non-linear absorption, pave the way to numerous novel applications. Ultrafast lasers arrived in the last decade at a level of reliability suitable for the industrial environment.1 Within the next years many industrial manufacturing processes in several markets will be replaced by laser-based processes due to their well-known benefits: These are non-contact wear-free processing, higher process accuracy or an increase of processing speed and often improved economic efficiency compared to conventional processes. Furthermore, new processes will arise with novel sources, addressing previously unsolved challenges. One technical requirement for these exciting new applications will be to optimize the large number of available parameters to the requirements of the application. In this work we present an ultrafast laser system distinguished by its capability to combine high flexibility and real time process-inherent adjustments of the parameters with industry-ready reliability. This industry-ready reliability is ensured by a long experience in designing and building ultrashort-pulse lasers in combination with rigorous optimization of the mechanical construction, optical components and the entire laser head for continuous performance. By introducing a new generation of mechanical design in the last few years, TRUMPF enabled its ultrashort-laser platforms to fulfill the very demanding requirements for passively coupling high-energy single-mode radiation into a hollow-core transport fiber. The laser architecture presented here is based on the all fiber MOPA (master oscillator power amplifier) CPA (chirped pulse amplification) technology. The pulses are generated in a high repetition rate mode-locked fiber oscillator also enabling flexible pulse bursts (groups of multiple pulses) with 20 ns intra-burst pulse separation. An external acousto-optic modulator (XAOM) enables linearization

  19. Laser-induced Multi-energy Processing in Diamond Growth (United States)


    established areas include laser welding , soldering, drilling, and cutting in laser mechanical technology [16, 17], laser hardening, rapid solidification...Jacobson, D. C., McCormack, M., and White, A. E., “Electron Field-Emission From Ion- Implanted Diamond”, Applied Physics Letters 67, 1157 (1995

  20. Mechanisms of tissue damage during ArF excimer endolaser microsurgery (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel V.; Turovets, Igor; Lewis, Aaron


    The novel fiberoptic delivery system for the 193 nm excimer laser has been developed for vitreoretinal microsurgery. During the application of this laser in a liquid environment both the short-living cavitation bubbles and hydrogen gas-containing insoluble bubbles are produced. In present work we study the influence of these bubbles generated in free liquid on membranous tissue. Damage zones resulting from application of pulse trains at various repetition rates were investigated using vital stains which indicate the increase of cell membrane permeability. Cavitation bubbles were created by laser above the tissue in a highly absorbing liquid--Hartmann's solution with an addition of 7% albumin. These conditions simulate a situation in which a thin membrane separated from the underlying retina by layer of liquid is cut. After application of 50 pulses at 20 Hz at energy levels varying from 14 to 68 (mu) J per pulse we have detected cell damage at corresponding distances varying from 100 to 1200 microns. In Hartmann's solution (physiological medium), where the cavitation bubbles could not be formed at the same applied energies, the laser damage has been detected only at the distances varying from 150 to 200 microns. Penetration depth of the laser radiation in this solution is about 50 microns. The cells damage in this case probably has a photochemical nature. The difference in damage distance obtained at 1 and 20 Hz repetition rates can be explained by the influence of insoluble gas bubbles that grow at the tip exit and play a role of a transparent medium for the laser radiation. This effect probably determines the minimal distance at which the surgeon can apply the laser in standard physiological medium without being concerned with underlying cells damage. On the other hand, this phenomenon enable to destroy the upper level of cells in tissue without the deep penetrating mechanical influence associated with cavitation bubble-based tissue removal.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Gurinovich


    Full Text Available The comparative researches of microstructure of highstrength cast iron after laser and plasma processing are carried out. It is shown that the peculiarity of plasma processing is formation of deeper layers with hardness 950010000 MPa. At laser processing the depth of the strengthened layers is less (about 0,5-0,8 mm, and their hardness is higher (to 11000 MPa.

  2. Metal surface nitriding by laser induced plasma (United States)

    Thomann, A. L.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Andreazza-Vignolle, C.; Andreazza, P.; Hermann, J.; Blondiaux, G.


    We study a nitriding technique of metals by means of laser induced plasma. The synthesized layers are composed of a nitrogen concentration gradient over several μm depth, and are expected to be useful for tribological applications with no adhesion problem. The nitriding method is tested on the synthesis of titanium nitride which is a well-known compound, obtained at present by many deposition and diffusion techniques. In the method of interest, a laser beam is focused on a titanium target in a nitrogen atmosphere, leading to the creation of a plasma over the metal surface. In order to understand the layer formation, it is necessary to characterize the plasma as well as the surface that it has been in contact with. Progressive nitrogen incorporation in the titanium lattice and TiN synthesis are studied by characterizing samples prepared with increasing laser shot number (100-4000). The role of the laser wavelength is also inspected by comparing layers obtained with two kinds of pulsed lasers: a transversal-excited-atmospheric-pressure-CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm) and a XeCl excimer laser (λ=308 nm). Simulations of the target temperature rise under laser irradiation are performed, which evidence differences in the initial laser/material interaction (material heated thickness, heating time duration, etc.) depending on the laser features (wavelength and pulse time duration). Results from plasma characterization also point out that the plasma composition and propagation mode depend on the laser wavelength. Correlation of these results with those obtained from layer analyses shows at first the important role played by the plasma in the nitrogen incorporation. Its presence is necessary and allows N2 dissociation and a better energy coupling with the target. Second, it appears that the nitrogen diffusion governs the nitriding process. The study of the metal nitriding efficiency, depending on the laser used, allows us to explain the differences observed in the layer features

  3. Effects of laser wavelength and fluence on the growth of ZnO thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craciun, V.; Amirhaghi, S.; Craciun, D.; Elders, J.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Boyd, Ian W.

    Transparent, electrically conductive and c-axis oriented ZnO thin films have been grown by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on silicon and Corning glass substrates employing either a KrF excimer laser (λ = 248 nm) or a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (λ = 532 nm). The crystalline

  4. Effects of Beam Size and Pulse Duration on the Laser Drilling Process

    CERN Document Server

    Afrin, Nazia; Chen, J K; Zhang, Yuwen


    A two-dimensional axisymmetric transient laser drilling model is used to analyze the effects of laser beam diameter and laser pulse duration on the laser drilling process. The model includes conduction and convection heat transfer, melting, solidification and vaporization, as well as material removal resulting from the vaporization and melt ejection. The validated model is applied to study the effects of laser beam size and pulse duration on the geometry of the drilled hole. It is found that the ablation effect decrease with the increasing beam diameter due to the effect of increased vaporization rate, and deeper hole is observed for the larger pulse width due to the higher thermal ablation efficiency.

  5. Simple and effective graphene laser processing for neuron patterning application


    Matteo Lorenzoni; Fernando Brandi; Silvia Dante; Andrea Giugni; Bruno Torre


    A straightforward fabrication technique to obtain patterned substrates promoting ordered neuron growth is presented. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) single layer graphene (SLG) was machined by means of single pulse UV laser ablation technique at the lowest effective laser fluence in order to minimize laser damage effects. Patterned substrates were then coated with poly-D-lysine by means of a simple immersion in solution. Primary embryonic hippocampal neurons were cultured on our substrate, de...

  6. Enhancement of low power CO2 laser cutting process for injection molded polycarbonate (United States)

    Moradi, Mahmoud; Mehrabi, Omid; Azdast, Taher; Benyounis, Khaled Y.


    Laser cutting technology is a non-contact process that typically is used for industrial manufacturing applications. Laser cut quality is strongly influenced by the cutting processing parameters. In this research, CO2 laser cutting specifications have been investigated by using design of experiments (DOE) with considering laser cutting speed, laser power and focal plane position as process input parameters and kerf geometry dimensions (i.e. top and bottom kerf width, ratio of the upper kerf to lower kerf, upper heat affected zone (HAZ)) and surface roughness of the kerf wall as process output responses. A 60 Watts CO2 laser cutting machine is used for cutting the injection molded samples of polycarbonate sheet with the thickness of 3.2 mm. Results reveal that by decreasing the laser focal plane position and laser power, the bottom kerf width will be decreased. Also the bottom kerf width decreases by increasing the cutting speed. As a general result, locating the laser spot point in the depth of the workpiece the laser cutting quality increases. Minimum value of the responses (top kerf, heat affected zone, ratio of the upper kerf to lower kerf, and surface roughness) are considered as optimization criteria. Validating the theoretical results using the experimental tests is carried out in order to analyze the results obtained via software.

  7. Laser synthesized super-hydrophobic conducting carbon with broccoli-type morphology as a counter-electrode for dye sensitized solar cells (United States)

    Gokhale, Rohan; Agarkar, Shruti; Debgupta, Joyashish; Shinde, Deodatta; Lefez, Benoit; Banerjee, Abhik; Jog, Jyoti; More, Mahendra; Hannoyer, Beatrice; Ogale, Satishchandra


    A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode.A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and equipment details, solar cell fabrication protocol, electrolyte spreading time measurement details, XPS spectra, electronic study, film adhesion test detailed analysis and field emission results. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32082g

  8. Predictive Crack Growth Technique for Laser Peening Process Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Spradlin


    Full Text Available Laser peening (LP has shown excellent fatigue life extension in numerous tests with typical treatments garnering 2-4 times the fatigue performance of an untreated component. Initially, large test programs were implemented to determine the best LP parameters for a given scenario, eventually being augmented by physics-based modeling due to the large design space available to the LP process. Approval for these processes continues to be on a case-by-case basis, contingent on multiple factors: cost, applicability, time, % fatigue life extension, and ability to track crack growth. Because LP induces compressive residual stresses in the near surface region, the compensatory tensile residual stresses are shifted sub-surface. While an axial tensile load would be mitigated by surface compressive stresses, sub-surface a crack can propagate rapidly via tensile stresses. Current predictive methods lack the ability to track this sub-surface behavior, limiting the accuracy of fatigue crack growth predictions throughout the various design stages of an LP treatment. This work demonstrates a framework that incorporates user-defined geometry, material data, crack growth data, mechanical loading, and residual stresses to predict the crack front shape evolution in 3D solids. A baseline case with no residual stresses is simulated and compared with a closed form solution.

  9. Anisotropic crystallization in solution processed chalcogenide thin film by linearly polarized laser (United States)

    Gu, Tingyi; Jeong, Hyuncheol; Yang, Kengran; Wu, Fan; Yao, Nan; Priestley, Rodney D.; White, Claire E.; Arnold, Craig B.


    The low activation energy associated with amorphous chalcogenide structures offers broad tunability of material properties with laser-based or thermal processing. In this paper, we study near-bandgap laser induced anisotropic crystallization in solution processed arsenic sulfide. The modified electronic bandtail states associated with laser irradiation lead to a distinctive photoluminescence spectrum, compared to thermally annealed amorphous glass. Laser crystalized materials exhibit a periodic subwavelength ripple structure in transmission electron microscopy experiments and show polarization dependent photoluminescence. Analysis of the local atomic structure of these materials using laboratory-based X-ray pair distribution function analysis indicates that laser irradiation causes a slight rearrangement at the atomic length scale, with a small percentage of S-S homopolar bonds converting to As-S heteropolar bonds. These results highlight fundamental differences between laser and thermal processing in this important class of materials.

  10. The effect of optical system design for laser micro-hole drilling process (United States)

    Ding, Chien-Fang; Lan, Yin-Te; Chien, Yu-Lun; Young, Hong-Tsu


    Lasers are a promising high accuracy tool to make small holes in composite or hard material. They offer advantages over the conventional machining process, which is time consuming and has scaling limitations. However, the major downfall in laser material processing is the relatively large heat affect zone or number of molten burrs it generates, even when using nanosecond lasers over high-cost ultrafast lasers. In this paper, we constructed a nanosecond laser processing system with a 532 nm wavelength laser source. In order to enhance precision and minimize the effect of heat generation with the laser drilling process, we investigated the geometric shape of optical elements and analyzed the images using the modulation transfer function (MTF) and encircled energy (EE) by using optical software Zemax. We discuss commercial spherical lenses, including plano-convex lenses, bi-convex lenses, plano-concave lenses, bi-concave lenses, best-form lenses, and meniscus lenses. Furthermore, we determined the best lens configuration by image evaluation, and then verified the results experimentally by carrying out the laser drilling process on multilayer flexible copper clad laminate (FCCL). The paper presents the drilling results obtained with different lens configurations and found the best configuration had a small heat affect zone and a clean edge along laser-drilled holes.

  11. Laser Micro Bending Process of Ti6Al4V Square Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen


    Full Text Available Laser micro bending process of Ti6Al4V square bar are carried out using a 3D thermo-mechanical finite element analytical model (FEM. The transient temperature fields, displacement fields, stress fields and strain fields are obtained and analyzed. The results show that the bending angel during laser micro bending process is in good agreement with experimental measurements. The effects of process parameters on temperature and deformation are also investigated here. During the bending process the temperature increases with the increase of the laser power and the irradiation time. Radiation of the laser beam yields to a rapid temperature increase at the irradiated surface, which leads to the high temperature gradients between the irradiated surface and the unirradiated surface, which suggest that the mechanism of laser micro bending is the temperature gradient mechanism. The z displacement of forward direction and reverse direction increase when the laser power and irradiation time increase. Laser micro bending process can obtain the larger bending angles reverse to laser beam using higher laser power and shorter irradiation time.

  12. Optimization of laser hole drilling process on thick gold spherical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Hohlraums of high-Z materials are used as soft X-ray sources to study indi- rect drive fusion, equation of state of materials etc. Here, we describe a method to develop spherical gold hohlraums of large wall thickness (~70–80 µm) on which laser entrance and diagnostics holes are drilled using a 10 Hz Nd:YLF laser.

  13. Frequency doubling of copper lasers using temperature-tuned ADP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molander, W.A.


    The ability to generate high average power uv at 255 nm by frequency doubling the green line (510.6 nm) of copper lasers would greatly extend the utility of copper lasers. Material processing and microlithography are two areas of interest. The frequency-doubled copper laser could replace the KrF excimer laser, which has a similar wavelength (248 nm), in some applications. The frequency-doubled copper laser has a narrow linewidth and excellent beam quality at a competitive cost. Other attractive features are high reliability, low operating costs, and the absence of toxic gases. This paper will report recent progress in high-efficiency, high-average-power harmonic generation of the copper laser green line using noncritical phase matching in ADP. Frequency doubling of the yellow line (578.2 nm) and sum-frequency mixing of the two lines are also of interest. These processes, however, cannot be phase-matched in ADP and, therefore, will not be discussed here. The results reported and the issues identified here would be important in these other processes and also in many other frequency conversion schemes in the uv such as 4{omega} conversion of Nd{sup 3+}:YAG lasers.

  14. Continuously tunable solution-processed organic semiconductor DFB lasers pumped by laser diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkhammer, Sönke; Liu, Xin; Huska, Klaus


    solutions on cm-scale surface gratings of different periods. We report optically pumped continuously tunable laser emission of 13 nm in the blue, 16 nm in the green and 19 nm in the red spectral region on a single chip respectively. Tuning behavior can be described with the Bragg-equation and the measured...... thickness profile. The laser threshold is low enough that inexpensive laser diodes can be used as pump sources....

  15. Laser processing of ormosils for tissue engineering applications (United States)

    Matei, A.; Zamfirescu, M.; Radu, C.; Dinescu, M.; Buruiana, E. C.; Buruiana, T.; Sima, L. E.; Petrescu, S. M.


    Hybrid methacrylates based on silane derivates (ormosils) have been considered for applications in electronics, microtechnology, corrosion resistant coatings, dentistry, and biomedical implants. The presence of both inorganic chains, responsible for chemical and thermal stability, hardness, and transparency, and organic groups, which bring new advantages such as the possibility of functionalization and easy, low temperature processing, can result in the appearance of unique properties. 2D structures of hybrid polymers were produced by Two Photon Polymerization (2PP). A Ti: Sapphire laser having 200 fs pulse duration and 2 kHz repetition rate, working at a wavelength of 775 nm, was used for the 2PP experiments. The biocompatibility of the obtained structures (scaffolds) was tested in different cell cultures, which is a first step toward exploring their potential for applications in tissue engineering. Cells morphology, adhesion, and alignment were studied on polymeric structures with different shapes, obtained in various experimental conditions. Their interaction with normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEM) and dysplastic oral keratinocytes (DOK) was investigated, with the aim of obtaining an epidermal graft.

  16. Dynamic photophysical processes in laser irradiated human cortical skull bone (United States)

    Mandelis, Andreas; Kwan, Chi-Hang; Matvienko, Anna


    Modulated luminescence (LUM) technique was applied to analyze photophysical processes in the cortical layer of human skull bones. The theoretical interpretation of the results was based on the optical excitation and decay rate equations of the fluorophore and on the molecular interaction parameter with the photon field density in the matrix of the bone. Using comparisons of the theory with the frequency response of dental LUM it was concluded that the optically active molecular species (fluorophore) in the bones is hydroxyapatite. An effective relaxation lifetime of skull cortical bone was derived theoretically and was found to depend on the intrinsic fluorophore decay lifetime, on the photon field density, and on the thickness of the bone. The experimentally measured dependencies were in excellent agreement with the theoretical model. The theory was able to yield measurements of the optical scattering coefficient, optical absorption coefficient, and mean coupling coefficient. These results show that the quantitative LUM can be used as a sensitive method to measure optical properties of the active fluorophore in cortical skull bones and the optical-field-induced molecular interaction parameter. When calibrated vs. laser intensity, the modulated luminescence can also be used to measure human skull thickness. These traits can be applied to monitor the bone mineral density (BMD) and, ultimately can be used as potential markers of bone health or disease, such as osteoporosis or bone cancer.

  17. Spatial and temporal laser pulse design for material processing on ultrafast scales (United States)

    Stoian, R.; Colombier, J. P.; Mauclair, C.; Cheng, G.; Bhuyan, M. K.; Velpula, P. K.; Srisungsitthisunti, P.


    The spatio-temporal design of ultrafast laser excitation can have a determinant influence on the physical and engineering aspects of laser-matter interactions, with the potential of upgrading laser processing effects. Energy relaxation channels can be synergetically stimulated as the energy delivery rate is synchronized with the material response on ps timescales. Experimental and theoretical loops based on the temporal design of laser irradiation and rapid monitoring of irradiation effects are, therefore, able to predict and determine ideal optimal laser pulse forms for specific ablation objectives. We illustrate this with examples on manipulating the thermodynamic relaxation pathways impacting the ablation products and nanostructuring of bulk and surfaces using longer pulse envelopes. Some of the potential control factors will be pointed out. At the same time the spatial character can dramatically influence the development of laser interaction. We discuss spatial beam engineering examples such as parallel and non-diffractive approaches designed for high-throughput, high-accuracy processing events.

  18. Use of laser therapy in the healing process: a literature review. (United States)

    Loreti, Eduardo Henrique; Pascoal, Veronica Lourenço Wittmer; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Silva, Ian Victor; Pedrosa, Diego França


    The purpose of this work was to conduct a literature search on the use of laser therapy in the tissue repair process, addressing different lasers and parameters used by the authors. We conducted a literature review of electronic databases to search for articles that investigate the effects of laser therapy on wound healing in rats, mice, and humans with specific diseases, published from January 2008 to March 2013. In the 31 articles selected, the most frequently used type of laser was gallium-aluminium-arsenium (GaAIAs) in male rats. We noted that the protocol for laser application differed from author to author, making it difficult to compare results regarding the choice of parameters and treatment protocol. Laser therapy had a positive effect on the healing process of cutaneous lesions in rats, which was not observed in humans.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Many additive manufacturing processes use energy from laser beam to melt powder particles to form layered objects. This paper mainly focused its attention on some of the major factors which plays a vital role during laser melting, namely energy penetration, shrinkage, absorptivity and marangoni effect. A study was performed to simulate and validate the effect of energy density on Marangoni effect and energy penetration. Analytical solutions to moving heat source problems were developed and their effects on process parameters viz. energy penetration through a layer of powder particles were validated. The numerical investigations demonstrated the significant effect of energy density on laser beam towards the laser track. Finally, experiments were performed to validate the simulations using Nd: YAG laser on SS316L powder particles. Thus this study would enable in optimizing the process parameters of the additive manufacturing process.

  20. Cutting Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Using Laser Cutting Process without Assist Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ozaki


    Full Text Available Recently, laser cutting is used in many industries. Generally, in laser cutting of metallic materials, suitable assist gas and its nozzle are needed to remove the molten metal. However, because of the gas nozzle should be set closer to the surface of a workpiece, existence of the nozzle seems to prevent laser cutting from being used flexible. Therefore, the new cutting process, Assist Gas Free laser cutting or AGF laser cutting, has been developed. In this process, the pressure at the bottom side of a workpiece is reduced by a vacuum pump, and the molten metal can be removed by the air flow caused by the pressure difference between both sides of the specimen. In this study, cutting properties of austenitic stainless steel by using AGF laser cutting with 2 kW CO2 laser were investigated. Laser power and cutting speed were varied in order to study the effect of these parameters on cutting properties. As a result, austenitic stainless steel could be cut with dross-free by AGF laser cutting. When laser power was 2.0 kW, cutting speed could be increased up to 100 mm/s, and kerf width at specimen surface was 0.28 mm.

  1. Simulation of the main physical processes in remote laser penetration with large laser spot size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Khairallah


    Full Text Available A 3D model is developed to simulate remote laser penetration of a 1mm Aluminum metal sheet with large laser spot size (∼ 3x3cm2, using the ALE3D multi-physics code. The model deals with the laser-induced melting of the plate and the mechanical interaction between the solid and the melted part through plate elastic-plastic response. The effect of plate oscillations and other forces on plate rupture, the droplet formation mechanism and the influence of gravity and high laser power in further breaking the single melt droplet into many more fragments are analyzed. In the limit of low laser power, the numerical results match the available experiments. The numerical approach couples mechanical and thermal diffusion to hydrodynamics melt flow and accounts for temperature dependent material properties, surface tension, gravity and vapor recoil pressure.

  2. A review and meta-analysis of corneal cross-linking for post-laser vision correction ectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wan


    Conclusion: The study showed that CXL is a promising treatment to stabilize the keratectasia after Excimer Laser Refractive Surgery. Further long-term follow-up studies are necessary to assess the persistence of the effect of the CXL.

  3. Laser in operative dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yasini


    Full Text Available Today laser has a lot of usage in medicine and dentistry. In the field of dentistry, laser is used in soft tissue surgery, sterilization of canals (in root canal therapy and in restorative dentistry laser is used for cavity preparation, caries removal, sealing the grooves (in preventive dentistry, etching enamel and dentin, composite polymerization and removal of tooth sensitivity. The use of Co2 lasers and Nd: YAG for cavity preparation, due to creating high heat causes darkness and cracks around the region of laser radiation. Also due to high temperature of these lasers, pulp damage is inevitable. So today, by using the Excimer laser especially the argon floride type with a wavelength of 193 nm, the problem of heat stress have been solved, but the use of lasers in dentistry, especially for cavity preparation needs more researches and evaluations.

  4. Controlling atomic structures and photoabsorption processes by an infrared laser


    Tong, X. M.; Toshima, N.


    We propose a theoretical method to calculate the infrared (IR) laser-assisted photoabsorption cross sections over a broad energy range by a single calculation. In this method we define an initial wave function as the product of the dipole operator and the atomic ground state, propagate the initial wave function in the IR laser field with different initial phases, then calculate the generalized autocorrelation function, which is defined as the averaged value of the autocorrelation function ove...

  5. A Study on the Optimization Performance of Fireworks and Cuckoo Search Algorithms in Laser Machining Processes (United States)

    Goswami, D.; Chakraborty, S.


    Laser machining is a promising non-contact process for effective machining of difficult-to-process advanced engineering materials. Increasing interest in the use of lasers for various machining operations can be attributed to its several unique advantages, like high productivity, non-contact processing, elimination of finishing operations, adaptability to automation, reduced processing cost, improved product quality, greater material utilization, minimum heat-affected zone and green manufacturing. To achieve the best desired machining performance and high quality characteristics of the machined components, it is extremely important to determine the optimal values of the laser machining process parameters. In this paper, fireworks algorithm and cuckoo search (CS) algorithm are applied for single as well as multi-response optimization of two laser machining processes. It is observed that although almost similar solutions are obtained for both these algorithms, CS algorithm outperforms fireworks algorithm with respect to average computation time, convergence rate and performance consistency.

  6. Laser process effects on physical texture and wetting in implantable Ti-alloys (United States)

    Paital, Sameer R.; He, Wei; Daniel, Claus; Dahotre, Narendra B.


    Wetting is an important aspect for implantable biomaterials, as it affects the initial interaction with physiological fluids, which in turn dictates the protein adsorption, cell attachment, and tissue integration at the interface. In light of this in the present overview, surface engineering techniques based on laser processing of implantable titanium alloys for improved wettability and cell compatibility is discussed. Here three different laser processing techniques, laser interference patterning, continuous wave laser direct melting, and pulsed laser direct melting and the influence of each type of processing on the micro-texture evolution are studied Finally, the effect of micro-textures on the wettability and thereby its in vitro bioactivity and in vitro biocompatibility is systematically discussed.

  7. Automated control of the laser welding process of heart valve scaffolds


    Weber Moritz; Hoheisel Anna L.; Glasmacher Birgit


    Using the electrospinning process the geometry of a heart valve is not replicable by just one manufacturing process. To produce heart valve scaffolds the heart valve leaflets and the vessel have to be produced in separated spinning processes. For the final product of a heart valve they have to be mated afterwards. In this work an already existing three-axes laser was enhanced to laser weld those scaffolds. The automation control software is based on the robot operating system (ROS). The mecha...

  8. Process control & monitoring for laser micromaching of Si3N4 ceramics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, L


    Full Text Available Laser machining which is a non-contact process that offers the advantage of machining advanced ceramics. In laser machining Si3N4, surface temperature is increased and controlled to evaporate the YSiAlON glassy phase of the Si3N4. However...

  9. Structure-property relationship of ceramic coatings on metals produced by laser processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hosson, J.T.M.; van den Burg, M.; Mazumder, J; Conde, O; Villar, R; Steen, W


    This paper concentrates on the mechanical performance of various ceramic coatings of Cr2O3 on steel (SAF2205), as produced by CO2 laser processing. The thickness of the coating that can be applied by laser coating is limited to about 200 mu m setting a limit to the maximum strain energy release rate


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Burg, M.; de Hosson, J.T.M.


    This paper concentrates on the mechanical performance of various ceramic coatings of Cr2O3 on Steel (SAF2205), as produced by CO2 laser processing. The thickness of the coating that can be applied by laser coating is limited to about 200 mu m setting a limit to the maximum strain energy release rate

  11. Femtosecond laser inscription of phase-shifted grating by post-processing (United States)

    Zhou, Xian; Dai, Yutang; Liu, Fufei; Karanja, Joseph Muna; Zou, Meng


    The method of fabricating phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating (PSFBG) that does not need a phase mask by femtosecond laser (fs) post-processing is demonstrated. A central region of standard single mode fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is irradiated by fs laser. A rotating jig is designed to hold and rotate the fiber when the fiber is irradiated by laser. The bandwidth of transmission peak of PSFBG and the transmission loss is growing with increasing of laser energy. PSFBG produced by this method is simple, fast and reproducible.

  12. Femto- and pico second laser micro-nano processing for patterning surfaces by removal and deposition of materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis in 't veld, A.J.


    Ultra short laser pulses in the femto and pico second regime are the most important driver of new laser processes. 3D - Laser micro machining in a direct write mode is already available on an industrial scale whereas in the coming years laser nano machining will be further developed. The key for

  13. Pilot study of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for tissue differentiation by monitoring the plume created during laser surgery — An approach on a feedback Laser control mechanism (United States)

    Kanawade, Rajesh; Mehari, Fanuel; Knipfer, Christian; Rohde, Maximilian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Schmidt, Michael; Stelzle, Florian


    This study focuses on tissue differentiation using 'Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy' (LIBS) by monitoring the plasma plume created during laser surgery processes. This technique is aimed at controlling a laser surgery feedback system in real time. An Excimer laser (Ar-F 193 nm) was used for the ablation of tissue samples. Fat, muscle, nerve and skin tissue samples of bisected ex-vivo pig heads were prepared as test objects for the ablation procedure. A single fiber was used to collect emissions and deliver them to a spectrometer. The obtained LIBS spectra in the measured emissions were analyzed to determine each tissue type according to their chemical composition. The elements found in the samples and their emission spectra were in agreement with those described in literature. The collected LIBS spectra were analyzed to differentiate the tissues using statistical data analysis: Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC). The obtained preliminary results suggest a successful differentiation of the target tissues with high sensitivity and specificity. The main goal of this study was to qualitatively identify tissue types during laser ablation, which will provide a real time feedback mechanism for clinical Laser surgery applications to significantly improve the accuracy and safety of laser surgery procedures.

  14. In vitro biological outcome of laser application for modification or processing of titanium dental implants. (United States)

    Hindy, Ahmed; Farahmand, Farzam; Tabatabaei, Fahimeh Sadat


    There are numerous functions for laser in modern implant dentistry including surface treatment, surface coating, and implant manufacturing. As laser application may potentially improve osseointegration of dental implants, we systematically reviewed the literature for in vitro biological responses to laser-modified or processed titanium dental implants. The literature was searched in PubMed, ISI Web, and Scopus, using keywords "titanium dental implants," "laser," "biocompatibility," and their synonyms. After screening the 136 references obtained, 28 articles met the inclusion criteria. We found that Nd:YAG laser was the most commonly used lasers in the treatment or processing of titanium dental implants. Most of the experiments used cell attachment and cell proliferation to investigate bioresponses of the implants. The most commonly used cells in these assays were osteoblast-like cells. Only one study was conducted in stem cells. These in vitro studies reported higher biocompatibility in laser-modified titanium implants. It seems that laser radiation plays a vital role in cell response to dental implants; however, it is necessary to accomplish more studies using different laser types and parameters on various cells to offer a more conclusive result.

  15. Improvement in Surface Characterisitcs of Polymers for Subsequent Electroless Plating Using Liquid Assisted Laser Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marla, Deepak; Zhang, Yang; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud


    Metallization of polymers is a widely used process in the electronic industry that involves their surface modification as a pre-treatment step. Laser-based surface modification is one of the commonly used techniques for polymers due to its speed and precision. The process involves laser heating...... of the polymer surface to generate a rough or porous surface. Laser processing in liquid generates superior surface characteristics that result in better metal deposition. In this study, a comparison of the surface characteristics obtained by laser processing in water vis-à-vis air along with the deposition...... characteristics are presented. In addition, a numerical model based on the finite volume method is developed to predict the temperature profile during the process. Based on the model results, it is hypothesized that physical phenomena such as vapor bubble generation and plasma formation may occur in the presence...

  16. Process control in continuous high-power CO2 laser beam welding (United States)

    Seidel, Bernd; Beersiek, Jorg; Beyer, Eckhard


    The use of high power CO2 lasers in welding enables processing with high laser intensities at the workpiece which is connected with the formation of a laser induced plasma at the surface of the workpiece. Therefore the effect of deep penetration welding by formation of a plasma filled keyhole and plasma plume above the workpiece is possible, including the risk of plasma shielding, which means strong absorption of the incident laser beam above the workpiece and thus interruption of the welding process. The conditions for ignition of plasma shielding, which is determined by electron density, are mainly influenced by laser intensity, process gas and material. Variations of these parameters have been conducted in order to find limits for the appearance of plasma shielding. Experimental data are used to verify a model concerning the absorption mechanism of a stationary shielding plasma state. The dynamic behavior is treated by time resolved spectroscopic analysis of the light emitted by the plasma above the workpiece yielding monitoring signals that have a strong correlation with the formation of plasma shielding. Based on these investigations a closed-loop process control in continuous high power laser welding has been developed. Using the intensity of a spectral line of laser induced plasma as monitoring signal and the regulation of laser intensity via laser power, plasma shielding can be suppressed. From the industrial point of view increase in economy and reliability of the laser welding process combined with quality improvements which are induced by the application of the plasma shielding controller (PSC) are of great importance. For this reason three examples of PSC application are presented.

  17. Morphological studies of laser-induced photoacoustic damage (United States)

    Flotte, Thomas J.; Yashima, Yutaka; Watanabe, Shinichi; McAuliffe, Daniel J., Sr.; Jacques, Steven L.


    Argon-fluoride excimer laser ablation of stratum comeum causes deeper tissue damage than expected for thermal or photochemical mechanisms, suggesting thatphotoacoustic waves have arole in tissue damage. Laserirradiation (193 nm, 14 ns pulses, 1-2 Hz) attworadiantexposures, 60 and 160 mJ/cm2perpulse was usedto ablate the stratumcomeumofskin. Light and electron microscopy ofimmediate biopsies demonstrated damage to fibroblasts as deep as 88 and 220 jun, respectively, below the ablation site. Ablation throughwaterwas usedtoinertially confine the ablation zone. Partial ablationofs.c. through airproducedno damage, whereas partial ablation through water damaged skin to amean depth of 1 14.5 8.8( Full thickness ablation of s.c. through air and water produced damage zones measuring 192.2 16.2 and 293.0 71.6 rim, respectively (p mechanism ofdamage. The depths ofdamage for thelarge spot, line, and small spots were 43 1 164 urn, 269 96xni, andno damage. The spot size dependence ofthedepthofdamage is consistentwiththe geometric attenuation one would expect to be present from a pressure wave related phenomena. Sequential biopsies were taken over a 7 day period for light and transmission electron microscopy. At 24 hours, there was necrosis of the epidermis and papillary dermis subjacent to the ablation site, with neutrophils surrounding and demarcating the affected area. The necrotic zone sloughedby48 hours. Thereepithelializationwas completeby7 days. The sequenceofrepairis similartoknife wound healing which we have previously studied, and is analogous to other wound healing processes. We have used an experimental model of ArF excimer laser ablation of stratum corneum to investigate laser-induced photoacoustic damage. The evidence for the injury being due to pressure transients is indirectbutcompelling. Whether these pressuretransients are acoustic transients orshockwaves has notbeendetermined, although itis ourprejudicethatshockwaves are the predominant force under these

  18. Functionalised polyurethane for efficient laser micromachining (United States)

    Brodie, G. W. J.; Kang, H.; MacMillan, F. J.; Jin, J.; Simpson, M. C.


    Pulsed laser ablation is a valuable tool that offers a much cleaner and more flexible etching process than conventional lithographic techniques. Although much research has been undertaken on commercially available polymers, many challenges still remain, including contamination by debris on the surface, a rough etched appearance and high ablation thresholds. Functionalizing polymers with a photosensitive group is a novel way and effective way to improve the efficiency of laser micromachining. In this study, several polyurethane films grafted with different concentrations of the chromophore anthracene have been synthesized which are specifically designed for 248 nm KrF excimer laser ablation. A series of lines etched with a changing number of pulses and fluences by the nanosecond laser were applied to each polyurethane film. The resultant ablation behaviours were studied through optical interference tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The anthracene grafted polyurethanes showed a vast improvement in both edge quality and the presence of debris compared with the unmodified polyurethane. Under the same laser fluence and number of pulses the spots etched in the anthracene contained polyurethane show sharp depth profiles and smooth surfaces, whereas the spots etched in polyurethane without anthracene group grafted present rough cavities with debris according to the SEM images. The addition of a small amount of anthracene (1.47%) shows a reduction in ablation threshold from unmodified polyurethane showing that the desired effect can be achieved with very little modification to the polymer.

  19. Investigation of a novel hybrid process of laser drilling assisted with jet electrochemical machining (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Xu, Jiawen; Wang, Jiming


    Recast layer and spatter are two inherent defects commonly associated with holes produced with laser drilling. This paper reports a novel hybrid process of laser drilling assisted with jet electrochemical machining (JECM-LD) that aims to minimize such defects and improve the quality of laser-drilled holes. The process based on the application of a jet electrolyte, being aligned coaxially with the focused laser beam, on the workpiece surface during laser drilling. The effect of the jet electrolyte mainly is an electrochemical reaction with materials. The jet electrolyte also cools the workpiece and transports debris during the process. On the basis of a measurement of laser attenuation in electrolyte, an experimental apparatus system is made and JECM-LD experiments have been performed on 0.5-mm-thick 321S20 stainless steel with two lasers at wavelength of 1064 and 532 nm. It is shown that recast layer and spatter have been effectively reduced during the JECM-LD compared with laser drilling in ambient atmosphere conditions.

  20. Laser studies of chemical reaction and collision processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)


    This work has concentrated on several interrelated projects in the area of laser photochemistry and photophysics which impinge on a variety of questions in combustion chemistry and general chemical kinetics. Infrared diode laser probes of the quenching of molecules with {open_quotes}chemically significant{close_quotes} amounts of energy in which the energy transferred to the quencher has, for the first time, been separated into its vibrational, rotational, and translational components. Probes of quantum state distributions and velocity profiles for atomic fragments produced in photodissociation reactions have been explored for iodine chloride.