WorldWideScience

Sample records for exchanges twenty-five years

  1. Twenty-Five Year Site Plan FY2013 - FY2037

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is the nation's premier national security science laboratory. Its mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the United States (U.S.) nuclear stockpile; reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, proliferation, and terrorism; and solve national problems in defense, energy, and the environment. The fiscal year (FY) 2013-2037 Twenty-Five Year Site Plan (TYSP) is a vital component for planning to meet the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) commitment to ensure the U.S. has a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent. The Laboratory also uses the TYSP as an integrated planning tool to guide development of an efficient and responsive infrastructure that effectively supports the Laboratory's missions and workforce. Emphasizing the Laboratory's core capabilities, this TYSP reflects the Laboratory's role as a prominent contributor to NNSA missions through its programs and campaigns. The Laboratory is aligned with Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) modernization activities outlined in the NNSA Strategic Plan (May 2011) which include: (1) ensuring laboratory plutonium space effectively supports pit manufacturing and enterprise-wide special nuclear materials consolidation; (2) constructing the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement Nuclear Facility (CMRR-NF); (3) establishing shared user facilities to more cost effectively manage high-value, experimental, computational and production capabilities; and (4) modernizing enduring facilities while reducing the excess facility footprint. Th is TYSP is viewed by the Laboratory as a vital planning tool to develop an effi cient and responsive infrastructure. Long range facility and infrastructure development planning are critical to assure sustainment and modernization. Out-year re-investment is essential for sustaining existing facilities, and will be re-evaluated on an annual

  2. Twenty-five years of post-Bretton Woods experience: some lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. ASKARI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1971 many academic economists were predicting that the Bretton Woods system of fixed parities would collapse. Some, most notably Milton Friedman, became excited about the possibility of a floating system because the benefits of international capital mobility can only be achieved through the flexibility in the exchange rate. These economists argued that a floating exchange rate system can ensure positive results more than the fixed parities system. Twenty-five years later, however, there is still no consensus on the matter. The author reviews the post-Bretton Woods experience to highlight some policies and approaches that might be helpful for the future.

  3. Twenty-five years after the first TIPS in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao Jaureguízar, J I

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation, 25 years ago, of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting, better known by the acronym TIPS, represents an indisputable improvement in the treatment and management of patients with symptoms due to portal hypertension. This article discusses the origins of the technique and the technical innovations that have been progressively added through the years. The implantation of coated stents, which protect the stent from processes in the parenchymal track that can lead to stenosis, have helped ensure long-term patency, thus reducing the need for reintervention. Solid evidence from valuable publications has situated TIPS at the forefront of the treatment options in a wide variety of clinical situations associated with portal hypertension. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognition and Emotion over twenty-five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatley, Keith; Parrott, W Gerrod; Smith, Craig; Watts, Fraser

    2011-12-01

    In the 25 years since its foundation, Cognition and Emotion has become a leading psychological journal of research on emotion. Here we review some of the ways in which this has occurred. Questions have included how parallel systems of cognition and emotion can operate in emotion regulation and psychological therapies (including the issue of free will), how the cognitive approach to emotion works, how emotion affects attention, memory, and decision making, and how emotion research is moving beyond the individual mind into the space of the interpersonal.

  5. Twenty five years National Astronomical Observatory: Publications and dissertations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Ilian

    The idea to estimate the merits and to measure the impact of the National Astronomical Observatory of Bulgaria by creating the list with all publications and dissertations based fully or in part on the data collected during last 25 years with its telescopes is presented. The process of compiling the list is described. Its last version contains complete bibliographical data about more than 1000 publications with total volume of about 5500 journal pages. All of them are printed out in 1980--2005. The accumulated impact-factor exceeds 1000, the number of citations is expected to be between 3000 and 5000. The number of successful dissertations is close to 40, while the bachelor and master theses are near 100.

  6. Twenty-five years of airway research: personal thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, Jay A

    2010-11-01

    The airway research presented for 25 years annually at the Transatlantic Airway Conferences is impressive! The imaginative Conference design, the quality of speakers, and the generosity of the sponsor are outstanding. The breadth of the Conferences is too broad for an objective review here. Instead, I offer some subjective thoughts by one who has observed the evolution of modern pulmonology. Pulmonology came late as a specialty. The National Institutes of Health deserves credit for recognizing the increasing importance of lung disease through its funded grants and changing the designation to the Heart and Lung Institute. The combined effect of enthusiastic young investigators and an increasing commitment from what was to become the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute provided us pulmonologists with a jump start. Here, I note the importance of the emergence of modern biology in shaping evolving airway research, and our special opportunities because of accessible anatomic features of airways. My presentation of opportunities here in immunology and in signaling may be the result of individual prejudice! Cystic fibrosis was chosen for discussion because of the importance of cloning the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene and the limited novel therapies thus far, with a plea for new ideas. The gene was (brilliantly) cloned 2 decades ago, but insights that give rise to novel life-saving therapies are still lacking. I finish with accolades to those who seek to learn from a variety of sources, including artists; I am proud and grateful that I became an early convert from cardiology to pulmonology. It continues to be an exciting experience.

  7. Reflections on the first twenty-five years of the University of Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Flinders University of South Australia), and South Africa. (the University of Cape Town), where they had gone for part of their medical studies. The chronology of events and the rationale for this hybrid training have been previously described.3-5. Reflections on the first twenty-five years of the. University of Malawi College ...

  8. What history tells us VII. Twenty-five years ago: the production of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-11-13

    Nov 13, 2006 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 5. What history tells us VII. Twenty-five years ago: the production of mouse embryonic stem cells. Michel Morange. Series Volume 31 Issue 5 December 2006 pp 537-541. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Looking backward, 1984-1959: twenty-five years of library automation--a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizer, I H

    1984-01-01

    A brief profile of Janet Doe is given. Twenty-five years of library automation are reviewed from the author's point of view. Major projects such as the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network and the Regional Online Union Catalog of the Greater Midwest Regional Medical Library Network are discussed. Important figures in medical library automation are considered, as is the major role played by the National Library of Medicine. Images PMID:6388691

  10. Twenty-five years of continuous sulphur dioxide emission reduction in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vestreng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last twenty-five years European emission data have been compiled and reported under the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP as part of the work under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP. This paper presents emission trends of SO2 reported to EMEP and validated within the programme for the period 1980–2004. These European anthropogenic sulphur emissions have been steadily decreasing over the last twenty-five years, amounting from about 55 Tg SO2 in 1980 to 15 Tg SO2 in 2004. The uncertainty in sulphur emission estimates for individual countries and years are documented to range between 3% and 25%. The relative contribution of European emissions to global anthropogenic sulphur emissions has been halved during this period. Based on annual emission reports from European countries, three emission reduction regimes have been identified. The period 1980–1989 is characterized by low annual emission reductions (below 5% reduction per year and 20% for the whole period and is dominated by emission reductions in Western Europe. The period 1990–1999 is characterised by high annual emission reductions (up to 11% reduction per year and 54% for the whole period, most pronounced in Central and Eastern Europe. The annual emission reductions in the period 2000–2004 are medium to low (below 6% reduction per year and 17% for the whole period and reflect the unified Europe, with equally large reductions in both East and West. The sulphur emission reduction has been largest in the sector Combustion in energy and transformation industries, but substantial decreases are also seen in the Non-industrial combustion plants together with the sectors Industrial combustion and Industrial production processes. The majority of European countries have reduced their emissions by more than

  11. Twenty-five years of transient counting experience in French PWR units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelet, B. [Electricite de France (EDF DPN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Savoldelli, D.; Fritz, R. [Electricite de France (EDF DPN), 93 - Noisy le Grand (France)

    2001-07-01

    For nearly twenty five years, EDF has been checking that the actual operating transients are neither more severe nor more numerous than the design basis transients. This activity of transient cycle counting and bookkeeping has enabled EDF to own a database of more than 800 reactor.years for the PWR units. The current method of transient cycle counting is presented. In the paper, we will point out the main results of transient cycle counting and lessons learned. In general, the frequencies of transients are lower than the design frequencies. In few cases, they are higher, such as the transient frequencies of the RCS lines connected to auxiliary systems often due to operating procedures or particular periodic testing. Few periodic tests were not taken into account in the design basis transient file ; they have been detected thanks to the transient cycle counting. In the last 1980's, we achieved the first updating of the design basis transient file for the PWR 900 MWe series. In the early 1990's, we updated the design basis transient file of the PWR 1300 MWe series. In fact, since design and start-up, the operating conditions have been modified (fuel cycle with stretch-out, modification of the hot leg and cold leg temperatures for the PWR 1300 MWe,...). This was the cause of many unclassified transients. In the new design basis transient file, we have created new transients and increased the frequencies of some of them. This has enabled to consider the updated design basis transient file more representative of actual operating transients. For some years, we have increasingly associated the operators with the transient cycle counting concern. We noticed progress (decreased frequencies of most transients). (authors)

  12. When a Celebrity Endorser is Disgraced: A Twenty Five Year Event Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bratz, S.; Molchanov, A.E.; Stork, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how the announcement of negative information about a celebrity endorser impacts firm value, as measured by abnormal stock returns. The unique data sample consists of 93 celebrity disgraces that occurred between 1986 and 2011, affecting firms listed on US stock exchanges. Some

  13. [Twenty Five Years of Cuadernos de Bioética (1990-2015): Present and Future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Colomer, Modesto; Aranda García, Ana; Pastor, Luis Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In this article a brief history of the journal ″Cuadernos de Bioética″ is made, a general analysis of the published works in the diverse journal sections is realized. The last changes in it over recent years are also indicated. The article ends with some considerations on the recent history of the magazine and stating some of the lines of improvement that has raised the current editorial board for the next years.

  14. Reflections on the first twenty-five years of the University of Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    September 2016 marks 25 years since the College of Medicine of the University of Malawi was established. In this article we reflect on its conception, birth, adolescence, and youth. The contributions of multiple stakeholders are celebrated while being mindful of the ongoing efforts to consolidate past and current gains.

  15. Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal Study. Twenty Five Year Update, 1977-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, R. Vivian; Carpenter, Linda Jean

    This paper presents data from a 25-year study of women in intercollegiate sports. The opportunity for female athletes to participate in intercollegiate athletics generally increased over time. The same six sports continue to be the most popular: basketball, volleyball, soccer, tennis, cross country, and softball, with soccer exhibiting the…

  16. The Adult Netherlands Twin Register: Twenty-Five Years of Survey and Biological Data Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, G.; Vink, J.M.; Abdellaoui, A.; den Braber, A.; van Beek, J.H.D.A.; Draisma, H.H.M.; van Dongen, J.; van t Ent, D.; Geels, L.M.; van Lien, R.; Ligthart, R.S.L.; Kattenberg, V.M.; Mbarek, H.; de Moor, M.H.M.; Neijts, M.; Pool, R.; Stroo, N.; Kluft, C.; Suchiman, H.E.D.; Slagboom, P.E.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the Adult Netherlands Twin Register (ANTR) has collected a wealth of information on physical and mental health, lifestyle, and personality in adolescents and adults. This article provides an overview of the sources of information available, the main research findings, and an

  17. The Adult Netherlands Twin Register: Twenty-five years of survey and biological data collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, G.; Vink, J.M.; Abdellaoui, A.; Braber, A. den; Beek, J.H.D.H. van; Draisma, H.H.M.; Dongen, J. van; Ent, D. van 't; Geels, L.M.; Lien, R. van; Ligthart, R.S.L.; Kattenberg, M.; Mbarek, H.; Moor, M.H.M. de; Neijts, M.; Pool, R.; Stroo, N.; Kluft, C.; Suchiman, H.E.D.; Slagboom, P.E.; Geus, E.J.C. de; Boomsma, D.I.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the Adult Netherlands Twin Register (ANTR) has collected a wealth of information on physical and mental health, lifestyle, and personality in adolescents and adults. This article provides an overview of the sources of information available, the main research findings, and an

  18. From Unity to Diversity: Twenty-Five Years of Language-Teaching Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This article was written for the 25th anniversary of "English Teaching Forum" and published in 1987. In this article, the author describes methodological developments in the field of English language teaching over the past 25 years. The author has found it helpful to think of methodology being depicted as a triangle, with each angle of the…

  19. Twenty-five-year atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach: a comprehensive overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.; Leal, S.C.; Navarro, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach was born 25 years ago in Tanzania. It has evolved into an essential caries management concept for improving quality and access to oral care globally. RESULTS: Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have indicated that the high

  20. Desegregation in Higher Education: Twenty-Five Years of Controversy from Geier to Ayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ellen B.

    1993-01-01

    In 1977, a federal court ordered the merger of the University of Tennessee in Nashville (UT-N) and Tennessee State University (TSU), a historically black public institution in Nashville. A study of 15 years of effort reveals that the merger did not alter the role of TSU as an institution essentially black in character and mission. (MLF)

  1. Twenty-five year experience with renal transplantation at Santa Casa Hospital, Porto Alegre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Elizete; dos Santos, Auri Ferreira; Bittar, Antonio Eduardo; Bruno, Rosana Mussoi; Pozze, Roberta; Duarte, Marcele; Bianco, Patrícia D'Almeida; Goldani, João Carlos; Messias, Alexandre; Losekan, Alexandre; Bender, Dolores; Bianchini, João Jorge; Garcia, Clotilde Druck; Barros, Viviane; Schneider, Luciane H; Vitola, Santo Pascoal; Guerra, Enilde; Didoné, Eduardo; Pires, Fabian; da Rocha, Vitor Hugo Bazan; Michelon, Tatiane; Fernandes, Sandra; Neumann, Jorge; Garcia, Valter Duro

    2002-01-01

    From 1977 to July 2002, 1,376 renal transplants were performed at Santa Casa of Porto Alegre. The number of transplants and the patient and graft survival rates have been rising each year since 1987. The overall one-year graft survival rates were 90% for living donor recipients and 80% for cadaver donor recipients, respectively; however, the patient and graft survival rates increased significantly between the early (1977-1995) and more recent (1996-2002) periods. Pediatric patients (less than 18 years old) accounted for 15.8% of the transplants that were performed, most of them from living related donors. The patient and graft survival rates did not differ statistically when we compared recipients of transplants from "ideal" and marginal cadaver donors, even when we considered only those risk factors that affected graft function in assigning a marginal donor. During the 25-year observation period, 537 grafts have been lost (39%), including those patients who died with functioning graft. We are currently following 834 patients with a functioning graft, with an average follow-up of 67+54 months.

  2. Policy towards the elderly : Twenty-five years of Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandenHeuvel, W

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the developments in national policy, formulated by the stare and discussed in parliament, towards the elderly in the Netherlands during the last 25 years. A first policy memorandum was published in 1970, based on work of governmental bodies in the sixties. This memorandum

  3. Inner London's Education Authority: Reflections on ILEA Twenty-Five Years after Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    It is 25 years since the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) was abolished and management of education in central London transferred to 13 London boroughs. The author reflects on the experience of being an ex-ILEA head teacher, and of managing one of the new local education authorities in the immediate post-ILEA period. He begins by commenting…

  4. A Summer at the University: A twenty five years experience with High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Nelson

    2014-03-01

    After running a summer school for enthusiastic high school students for 25 years, we reached the point where three of my colleagues at the physics department, are exstudents from two physics courses offered (more than ten years ago) within our program. There are also graduates in some others Faculties in different universities. Here we would like to describe the evolution of this project since its beginning, with 60 students in an introductory physics class to the 3000 now attending (January 2014) the around 60 courses offered in almost all areas of knowledge, from theater to Biotechnology. Lately, as we became aware of the relevance of teaching sciences to young kids in elementary school, we started a winter section addressing this group of students. The courses are mainly a hands on experience. In this talk we will comment about our learning experience working on this kind of projects and our projections for the future. Partial travel support from Escuela de Verano.

  5. Twenty-five year trends in body mass index by education and income in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prättälä, Ritva; Sippola, Risto; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana; Laaksonen, Mikko T; Mäkinen, Tomi; Roos, Eva

    2012-10-31

    The socioeconomic gradient in obesity and overweight is amply documented. However, the contribution of different socioeconomic indicators on trends of body mass index (BMI) over time is less well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of education and income with (BMI) from the late 1970s to the early 2000s. Data were derived from nationwide cross-sectional health behaviour surveys carried out among Finns annually since 1978. This study comprises data from a 25-year period (1978-2002) that included 25 339 men and 25 330 women aged 25-64 years. BMI was based on self-reported weight and height. Education in years was obtained from the questionnaire and household income from the national tax register. In order to improve the comparability of the socioeconomic position measures, education and income were divided into gender-specific tertiles separately for each study year. Linear regression analysis was applied. An increase in BMI was observed among men and women in all educational and income groups. In women, education and income were inversely associated with BMI. The magnitudes of the associations fluctuated but stayed statistically significant over time. Among the Finnish men, socioeconomic differences were more complicated. Educational differences were weaker than among the women and income differences varied according to educational level. At the turn of the century, the high income men in the lowest educational group had the highest BMI whereas the income pattern in the highest educational group was the opposite. No overall change in the socio-economic differences of BMI was observed in Finland between 1978 and 2002. However, the trends of BMI diverged in sub-groups of the studied population: the most prominent increase in BMI took place in high income men with low education and in low income men with high education. The results encourage further research on the pathways between income, education, living conditions and the increasing

  6. Twenty-five years of critical care nursing scholarship in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Sharon; Elliott, Doug

    2013-02-01

    Australian Critical Care has been published since 1988 and has been an important medium for the development of critical care nursing scholarship in Australia over 25 years. To review scholarship in critical care nursing in Australia since 1988 and record its progress in the context of developments in nursing education and intensive and critical care practice. Australian Critical Care issues since 1988 were reviewed, and abstracts from the Australian and New Zealand Annual Scientific Meeting on Intensive Care published in Australian Critical Care since the 1991 Meeting. Available evidence for the contribution of this body of scholarship to critical care nursing practice and patient care was considered. Original research reports and review articles have steadily increased from 1988 to 2012. The peak years for research publications were 2001, 2005 and 2012, and for reviews 2010 and 2011. Approximately 760 abstracts were presented at the Annual Scientific Meeting from 1991 to 2010; overall 24% were found lead to peer-reviewed publications, with an increase to 30% in recent years. Over 25 years, the scholarship of critical care nursing in Australia has evolved into an established area of disciplinary knowledge, based firmly in practice. Our discipline has witnessed the opportunity for PhD training, the introduction of professorial positions, a knowledge base built on original research and rigorous reviews, and sustainable dissemination. The challenges are to further strengthen this development, increase publication of research that is done, to demonstrate the influence on practice and to develop sustainable research funding. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Twenty-five years of confirmatory adaptive designs: opportunities and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Peter; Bretz, Frank; Dragalin, Vladimir; König, Franz; Wassmer, Gernot

    2016-02-10

    'Multistage testing with adaptive designs' was the title of an article by Peter Bauer that appeared 1989 in the German journal Biometrie und Informatik in Medizin und Biologie. The journal does not exist anymore but the methodology found widespread interest in the scientific community over the past 25 years. The use of such multistage adaptive designs raised many controversial discussions from the beginning on, especially after the publication by Bauer and Köhne 1994 in Biometrics: Broad enthusiasm about potential applications of such designs faced critical positions regarding their statistical efficiency. Despite, or possibly because of, this controversy, the methodology and its areas of applications grew steadily over the years, with significant contributions from statisticians working in academia, industry and agencies around the world. In the meantime, such type of adaptive designs have become the subject of two major regulatory guidance documents in the US and Europe and the field is still evolving. Developments are particularly noteworthy in the most important applications of adaptive designs, including sample size reassessment, treatment selection procedures, and population enrichment designs. In this article, we summarize the developments over the past 25 years from different perspectives. We provide a historical overview of the early days, review the key methodological concepts and summarize regulatory and industry perspectives on such designs. Then, we illustrate the application of adaptive designs with three case studies, including unblinded sample size reassessment, adaptive treatment selection, and adaptive endpoint selection. We also discuss the availability of software for evaluating and performing such designs. We conclude with a critical review of how expectations from the beginning were fulfilled, and - if not - discuss potential reasons why this did not happen. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Twenty-Five Year Survival of Children with Intellectual Disability in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Jenny; Nembhard, Wendy N; Wong, Kingsley; Leonard, Helen

    2017-09-01

    To investigate survival up to early adulthood for children with intellectual disability and compare their risk of mortality with that of children without intellectual disability. This was a retrospective cohort study of all live births in Western Australia between January 1, 1983 and December 31, 2010. Children with an intellectual disability (n = 10 593) were identified from the Western Australian Intellectual Disability Exploring Answers Database. Vital status was determined from linkage to the Western Australian Mortality database. Kaplan-Meier product limit estimates and 95% CIs were computed by level of intellectual disability. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated from Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusting for potential confounders. After adjusting for potential confounders, compared with those without intellectual disability, children with intellectual disability had a 6-fold increased risk of mortality at 1-5 years of age (adjusted HR [aHR] = 6.0, 95%CI: 4.8, 7.6), a 12-fold increased risk at 6-10 years of age (aHR = 12.6, 95% CI: 9.0, 17.7) and a 5-fold increased risk at 11-25 years of age (aHR = 4.9, 95% CI: 3.9, 6.1). Children with severe intellectual disability were at even greater risk. No difference in survival was observed for Aboriginal children with intellectual disability compared with non-Aboriginal children with intellectual disability. Although children with intellectual disability experience higher mortality at all ages compared with those without intellectual disability, the greatest burden is for those with severe intellectual disability. However, even children with mild to moderate intellectual disability have increased risk of death compared with unaffected children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Metastatic primary adenocarcinoma of the bladder in a twenty-five years old woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Valerio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary adenocarcinoma of the bladder is a rare tumor. The classification between primary vesical and urachal is debated. We present the case of a young female who presented clinicopathological features of a metastatic urachal adenocarcinoma, but the histological result revealed primary adenocarcinoma of the bladder contrary to expectancy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of a metastatic adenocarcinoma of the bladder in a 25 years old female. This case emphasizes the challenge for urologists to recognize and manage this aggressive tumor in the setting described.

  10. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 2: the years 1937 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B

    2016-12-01

    Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed plant biology journal. It was started in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published plant science title. A previous article [Jackson MB. 2015. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936). Annals of Botany 115: : 1-18] summarized events leading to its founding, highlighted the individuals involved and examined the Journal's achievements and management practices over the first 50 years to 1937. This second article covers the next 75 years. The account draws principally on the Journal's own records, minute books, financial accounts, original letters and notes held by the Annals of Botany Company, the Journal's owners and managers. In 1937, its 51st year, the Journal was re-launched as Annals of Botany New Series and its volume numbers were reset to No. I. The present article evaluates the evolution of the New Series up to 2012, Annals of Botany's 125th anniversary year. The period includes a 2-year run-up to World War II, six war years and their immediate aftermath, and then on through increasingly competitive times. The ebb and flow of the Journal's fortunes are set against a roll-call of the often highly distinguished scientists who managed and edited the Journal. The article also examines an internal crisis in the 1980s that radically altered the Journal's organization in ways that were, ultimately, to its benefit. The narrative is set against changes to economic conditions in Great Britain over the period, to the evolving nature and geographical distribution of much experimental plant science and to the digital revolution that, from the late 20th century, transformed the workings of Annals of Botany and of scientific publishing more generally. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Spatial variability studies in São Paulo, Brazil along the last twenty five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Rosa Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil properties vary in space due to many causes. For this reason it is wise to know the magnitude and behaviour of the variability for adequate data analysis and decision making. Our work on spatial variability of soil properties in São Paulo, Brazil began in 1982 with a very simple soil sampling in a small field. Much progress has been made since then on sampling designs, field equipment and methods, and mostly on computation equipment and softwares. This paper reports the results corresponding to some aspects of this progress, as far as the field, analysis and computation work are concerned. The objective of this study was to illustrate the use of geostatistics in data analysis for three sampling conditions on long term no-tillage system. The analysis is done on a wide range of field scales, variables, sampling schemes as well as repeating sampling scheme for the same variable in different years. Semivariograms are compared for the same variables in different scales and sampling dates and depths as to provide a guide for sampling spacing and number of samples. Normalized crop yield parameters for many years are used in the discussion of time variability and on the use of yield maps to locate management zones. The time of the year in which measurements of soil physical properties are made affected the results both in terms of descriptive statistical and spatial dependence parameters. Crop yields changed (soybean decrease and maize increase with time of no-tillage but the real cause was not identified. The length of time with no-tillage affected the range of dependence for the main crops (increased for soybean, maize and oats and therefore increased the size of the homogeneous management zones. The evolution of the sampling grid from 20 m with 63 sampling points to 10 m with 302 sampling points allowed for a much better knowledge of the spatial variability of crop yields but it had the reverse effect on the spatial variability of soil physical

  12. Mission possible: twenty-five years of university and college collaboration in baccalaureate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawaduk, Cheryl; Duncan, Susan; Mahara, M Star; Tate, Betty; Callaghan, Doris; McCullough, Deborah; Chapman, Marilyn; Van Neste-Kenny, Jocelyne

    2014-10-01

    In Canada, nurse educators from five postsecondary institutions in the province of British Columbia established a collaborative nursing education initiative in 1989, with a vision to transform RN college diploma programs to baccalaureate degree programs. The principles, processes, and structures that served to develop and sustain this nursing education initiative are briefly reviewed. Curriculum, scholarship, and education legislation serve as platforms to critically explore a 25-year history (1989-2014) of successes, challenges, and transitions within this unique nursing education collaboration. The importance of curriculum development as faculty development, program evaluation as an adjunct to pedagogical scholarship, diversity of cross-institutional mandates, political interplay in nursing education, collegiality, and courageous leadership are highlighted. Nurse educators seeking to create successful collaborations must draw upon well-defined principles and organizational structures and processes to guide pedagogical practices and inquiry while remaining mindful of and engaged in professional and societal developments. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Gasification of waste. Summary and conclusions of twenty-five years of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensfelt, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Oestman, Anders [Kemiinformation AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    An overview of nearly thirty years development of waste gasification and pyrolysis technology is given, and some major general conclusions are drawn. The aim has been to give new developers an overview of earlier major attempts to treat MSW/RDF with thermochemical processes, gasification or pyrolysis. Research work in general is not covered, only R and D efforts that have led to substantial testing in pilot scale or demonstration. For further details, especially related to ongoing R and D, readers are referred to other recent reviews. The authors' view is that gasification of RDF with appropriate gas cleaning can play an important role in the future, for environmentally acceptable and efficient energy production. A prerequisite is that some of the major mistakes can be avoided, such as: (1) too rapid scale-up without experimental base, (2) unsuitable pretreatment of MSW to RDF and poor integration with material recycling, and (3) too limited gas/flue gas cleaning.

  14. Twenty-five years of co-management of caribou in northern Québec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Dion

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hunting Fishing and Trapping Co-ordinating Committee (HFTCC, created at the signature of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement has been meeting regularly since 1977. Early in the process, it became clear that the perception of the role and powers of the Committee were not commonly shared by the native and non-native members of the Committee. Nevertheless, the Committee has been used primarily as a consultative body for wildlife related issues. Of all the files on which the Committee worked, Caribou management, (including the development of outfitting and commercial hunting for this species has been among one of the most discussed subjects during the meetings. An analysis of important decisions taken and of the process that led to them reveal that very rarely was the Committee able to formulate unanimous resolutions to the Governments concerning caribou management. In fact, only a few unanimous resolutions could be traced and many were ignored. This took place during a period of abundance and growth of the caribou herds. As a result, the Committee has gone through the cycle of growth of the George River Herd without a management plan, without a long term outfitting management plan and for the last 8 years, without a population estimate of the herds. This situation did not prevent the Committee from allocating quotas for a commercial hunt, open a winter sport hunt and to give permanent status to outfitting camps that were once established as mobile camps. It was hoped then that increased harvest would help maintain the population at carrying capacity. This short-term reaction however, never evolved into a more elaborate plan. Of course this must be looked at in the context of the HFTCC having a lot more to worry about than the Caribou. Although all members know of the population cycles of caribou, the decision process that must be triggered, should a crisis occur is not in place. This presently results into a polarization of concerned

  15. Twenty-five years of sport performance research in the Journal of Sports Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Alan; Atkinson, Greg; Hughes, Mike

    2008-02-15

    In this historical review covering the past 25 years, we reflect on the content of manuscripts relevant to the Sport Performance section of the Journal of Sports Sciences. Due to the wide diversity of sport performance research, the remit of the Sport Performance section has been broad and includes mathematical and statistical evaluation of competitive sports performances, match- and notation-analysis, talent identification, training and selection or team organization. In addition, due to the academic interests of its section editors, they adopted a quality-assurance role for the Sport Performance section, invariably communicated through key editorials that subsequently shaped the editorial policy of the Journal. Key high-impact manuscripts are discussed, providing readers with some insight into what might lead an article to become a citation "classic". Finally, landmark articles in the areas of "science and football" and "notation analysis" are highlighted, providing further insight into how such articles have contributed to the development of sport performance research in general and the Journal of Sports Sciences in particular.

  16. Twenty-five-year study of radionuclides in the Susquehanna river via periphyton biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Ruth; Palms, John; Kreeger, Danielle; Harris, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This 25-y study monitored aquatic and terrestrial gamma-ray-emitting radionuclide levels near a nuclear power plant. It is the only known, long-term environmental survey of its kind. It was conducted neither by a utility owner, nor by a government agency, but rather by a private, environmental research institution. Compared to dozens of other flora and fauna, periphyton was found to be the best indicator to biomonitor the Susquehanna River, which runs near PPL Susquehanna's nuclear plant. Sampling began in 1979 before the first plant start-up and continued for the next 24 years. Monitoring began two months after the Three Mile Island accident of 28 March 1979 and includes Three Mile Island area measurements. Ongoing measurements detected fallout from Chernobyl in 1986, as well as I not released from PPL Susquehanna. Although this paper concentrates on radionuclides found in periphyton, the scope of the entire environmental program includes a wide variety of aquatic and land-based plants, animals, and inorganic matter. Other species and matter studied were fish, mussels, snails, crayfish, insects, humus, mushrooms, lichens, squirrels, deer, cabbage, tomatoes, coarse and flocculated sediment, and more. Results show periphyton works well for detection of radionuclide activity, even in concentrations less than 100 Bq kg (picocuries per gram amounts). Data indicate that PPL Susquehanna's radionuclide releases have had no known environmental or human health impact.

  17. Twenty-five years of progress in understanding pollination mechanisms in palms (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfod, Anders S; Hagen, Melanie; Borchsenius, Finn

    2011-12-01

    With more than 90 published studies of pollination mechanisms, the palm family is one of the better studied tropical families of angiosperms. Understanding palm-pollinator interactions has implications for tropical silviculture, agroforestry and horticulture, as well as for our understanding of palm evolution and diversification. We review the rich literature on pollination mechanisms in palms that has appeared since the last review of palm pollination studies was published 25 years ago. Visitors to palm inflorescences are attracted by rewards such as food, shelter and oviposition sites. The interaction between the palm and its visiting fauna represents a trade-off between the services provided by the potential pollinators and the antagonistic activities of other insect visitors. Evidence suggests that beetles constitute the most important group of pollinators in palms, followed by bees and flies. Occasional pollinators include mammals (e.g. bats and marsupials) and even crabs. Comparative studies of palm-pollinator interactions in closely related palm species document transitions in floral morphology, phenology and anatomy correlated with shifts in pollination vectors. Synecological studies show that asynchronous flowering and partitioning of pollinator guilds may be important regulators of gene flow between closely related sympatric taxa and potential drivers of speciation processes. Studies of larger plant-pollinator networks point out the importance of competition for pollinators between palms and other flowering plants and document how the insect communities in tropical forest canopies probably influence the reproductive success of palms. However, published studies have a strong geographical bias towards the South American region and a taxonomic bias towards the tribe Cocoseae. Future studies should try to correct this imbalance to provide a more representative picture of pollination mechanisms and their evolutionary implications across the entire family.

  18. 1972-1997, Twenty-five years of energy and environmental history : lessons learned.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-17

    Given the events of the past 25 years concerning energy and environmental issues and our reaction to them, what lessons can we learn? First, the individual American consumer wants and expects energy to be a stable commodity with low prices and easy availability. As evidenced by the heated debate over increasing the federal gasoline tax by $.05 per gallon (which would still leave Americans paying only one-third of what Europeans pay for gasoline), increases in energy prices elicit very strong public and political opposition. As further evidence, it has been argued that the general public support of the Gulf War was due, in part, to a recognition of the need to maintain a stable source of cheap oil from the region. The American public wants to maintain the benefits of cheap and abundant energy and expects its political leaders to make it happen. A second lesson is that if constraints on the energy supply do occur (e.g., the OPEC-imposed oil embargo) ardor environmental impacts from energy use do appear to be significant (e.g., SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions), the preference is for a technology fix rather than a behavioral change. This is evidenced by our reliance on moving low-sulfur coal more than 1,000 miles from Wyoming to burn in Illinois power plants rather than reducing the demand for electricity with energy-efficient measures in residential, commercial, and industrial activities. National research programs to produce an automobile that gets 80+ miles per gallon take higher priority over working to get people to use mass transit to reduce their driving mileage. Americans expect that advanced technology can be relied upon to come up with solutions to energy and environmental problems without having to change their lifestyles. The experience with natural gas, in which a regulatory change (deregulation) was combined with technology developments (horizontal drilling and improved gas turbines for electricity generation) to increase available supply and hold

  19. Twenty Five Years in Cheminformatics - A Career Path Through a Diverse Series of Roles and Responsibilities (INVITED TALK) (ACS Spring meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony Williams is a Computational Chemist at the US Environmental Protection Agency in the National Center for Computational Toxicology. He has been involved in cheminformatics and the dissemination of chemical information for over twenty-five years. He has worked for a Fortune ...

  20. Twenty-Five Years of Research on the Lived Experience of Being Gifted in School: Capturing the Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Laurence J.; Micko, Karen J.; Cross, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Through a synthesis of 25 years worth of studies concerning the lived experience of children who are gifted and talented within the context of school, a more comprehensive picture can be presented. The intent is to provide information for teachers, parents, administrators, and psychologists to better understand and support advanced development.…

  1. Twenty-Five Years of Flux Observations at the Harvard Forest; Mature Northeastern Forests are a Consistent Carbon Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, J. W.; Swofsy, S. C.; Fitzjarrald, D. R.; David, O.; Barker Plotkin, A.

    2016-12-01

    Because trees grow slowly, long-term observations are essential for detecting responses to climate change and vegetation dynamics in forests. At the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts, eddy-covariance fluxes have been measured since 1991 in a hardwood-dominated stand. Flux measurements commenced in 2004 for a hemlock-dominated stand. The oldest trees in the hardwood stand date to the early 1900's. The hemlock stand was never cleared and some existing trees approach 200 years old. Plot-based observations surrounding the towers provide complementary data on species composition woody biomass and litter production. Co-location at a Long-Term Ecological Research Site provides additional ecological context and detailed historical perspective.Over the measurement period above-ground biomass has increased more than 30%. Mean annual temperatures have been rising on average 0.3C per decade. The hardwood stand is a net carbon sink, with periods of increasing carbon uptake punctuated by downturns in response to combinations of unfavorable conditions. The hemlock stand has lower peak carbon uptake rates than the oak dominated hardwood stand, but because it is evergreen, carbon uptake starts early in the spring and continues until late fall if temperatures are above freezing. The resulting rates of woody biomass accumulation in the two stands are remarkably similar despite differences in age. Over the past 5 years an infestation by hemlock woolly adelgids (HWA) has led to a noticeable decline in CO2 uptake by the Hemlock stand, and steadily increasing tree mortality. HWA will ultimately kill all the hemlocks and they will be replaced by hardwoods (mostly black birch) that are sprouting under canopy gaps. A key observation from this work is that in the absence of severe disturbance or management activity, mature northeastern forests are consistent carbon sinks. Moderate disturbances by ice-storms, cold-cloudy springs, and summer droughts cause at most a reduction in carbon

  2. Twenty-five years of the WHO vaccines prequalification programme (1987-2012): lessons learned and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellepiane, Nora; Wood, David

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) vaccines prequalification programme was established in 1987. It is a service provided to United Nations procurement agencies to ensure that the vaccines supplied through these agencies are consistently safe and effective under conditions of use in national immunization programmes. This review describes the purpose and aims of the programme, its evolution during 25 years of existence, its added value, and its role in the context of the WHO strategy to ensure the global availability of vaccines of assured quality. The rationale for changes introduced during the implementation of the programme is provided. The paper also discusses the resources involved, both human and financial, its performance, strengths and weaknesses and steps taken to maximize its efficiency. This historical perspective is used to inform proposed future changes to the service. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Twenty-five years of home parenteral nutrition outsourcing: the experience at Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Martín Fuentes, María; García Vázquez, Natalia; Crespo Yanguas, Marta; Lisbona Catalán, Arturo; Campos Del Portillo, Rocío; Palma Milla, Samara

    2014-12-01

    For the last 20 years, most adult patients following home parenteral nutrition (HPN) under the care of the Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Dept. of the La Paz University Hospital (Unidad de Nutrición Clínica y Dietética del Hospital Universitario La Paz), Madrid, Spain, have received their nutrition formula via a catering system (Nutriservice) responsible for its preparation and home distribution. To assess the clinical characteristics, quality of life and degree of satisfaction with the care received, of patients undergoing HPN who received their nutrition formulae via the named catering service. The characteristics of the patients who received HPN via this service between 1992 and 2013 were retrospectively collected. Those patients still undergoing treatment completed a quality of life questionnaire, plus a survey of their satisfaction with the catering system and the care provided by our department. Seventy eight patients were examined; 57.7% were men. The mean age of the patients was 53.1±14.3 years. The most common underlying disease was cancer, both in advanced stage (33.8% of all cases) and in stages in which active treatment was being provided (34%). The most common indication for HPN was intestinal obstruction (46%). The median duration of HPN treatment was 96 [1-5334] days. The most common complication was catheter infection (72%). For the analysis of the results, the patients were divided depending on disease type: those with advanced stage cancer, those with cancer under active treatment and with a better prognosis, and those with non-oncological disease. The patients undergoing active oncological treatment believed the quality of their lives to have been improved by the Nutriservice catering system, and rated the care received by our department positively. In our experience, patients with cancer are those who most commonly receive HPN, especially those with advanced disease. Given the seriousness of their conditions, and the complexity surrounding

  4. Modernism and structuralism: Serbian ethnology/anthropology in the last twenty five years of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Modernisation of Serbian ethnology/anthropology in the second quarter of the twentieth century was marked by structuralism. More precisely, structural analysis that became a must of the analytical interpretation was based on the work of Claude Levi-Strauss, but also on those of the predecessors of structural analysis, like Van Gennep and Prop; British followers of structuralism like E. Leach and M. Douglas, as well as on the Russian semiotic school and Barth’s semiology. Taking aside predecessors of structural analysis, main sources of Serbian structural-semiotic revolution came from Levi-Strauss structural anthropology. When in the 1970s Serbian readers faced anthropological books coming from different intellectual backgrounds and representing major theoretical trends in anthropology, Serbian ethnology, firmly based on its hundred years old romantic roots, gave equally opportunities to all theoretical approaches that fought for the intellectual domination in the discipline. This paper tries to answer the question why structural analysis played a crucial part in the modernisation of Serbian ethnology/anthropology, while the ideas coming from functionalism, culture and personality school, or neo-evolutionism did not have the same revolutionary and deep impact.

  5. Twenty-Five Years of Postseismic Viscous Relaxation Following the Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M. H.; Burgmann, R.; Johanson, I. A.

    2014-12-01

    The 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake provides the first opportunity of probing the crustal and upper mantle rheology in the San Francisco Bay Area since the 1906 Mw 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Here we use geodetic observations including GPS and InSAR to characterize the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake postseismic displacement from 1989.8 to 2013. Pre-earthquake deformation rates are constrained by nearly 20 years of USGS trilateration measurements and removed from the postseismic measurements prior to the analysis. We observe 1-4 mm/yr GPS horizontal displacement toward the Loma Prieta epicenter until 2000, and ~2 mm/yr surface subsidence of the northern Santa Cruz Mountains between 1992 and 2002, which is not associated with the seasonal and longer-term hydrological deformation in the adjoining Santa Clara Valley. Previous work indicates afterslip dominated in the early (1989-1994) postseismic period, so we focus on modeling the postseismic viscoelastic relaxation between 1994 and 2010 based on geodetic observations. The best fitting result predicts an 11-km-thick viscoelastic lower crust with viscosity of about 1019 Pa s below a 19-km-thick elastic upper crust, underlain by a bi-viscous upper mantle with transient viscosity of 1016.5-17.5 and steady-state viscosity of 1017.5-18.5 Pa s. The millimeter scale postseismic deformation does not resolve the viscosity in different layers very well, but the inferred lithospheric rheology is consistent with estimates in southern California. The viscoelastic relaxation may also contribute to the enduring increase of aseismic slip and repeating earthquake activity on the San Andreas Fault near San Juan Bautista, which continued for at least a decade after the Loma Prieta event.

  6. Twenty-Five Years of Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Review of Environmental Problems and Remedial Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loar, James M.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Smith, John G.

    2011-06-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water

  7. Review of the international symposium, sister chromatid exchanges: twenty-five years of experimental research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, R.R.; Lambert, B.; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Hollaender, A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to honor initial research at Brookhaven by bringing internationally recognized leaders in the fields of genetics, cytogenetics, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, radiation biology, toxicology, and environmental health together into an open forum to present and discuss: (1) current knowledge of the induction and formation of SCEs and their relationship to other biological endpoints, including carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, transformation, clastogenesis, DNA damage and repair, and cellular toxicity; (2) the optimal strategies for the utilization of SCEs in genetic toxicology testing schemes involving in vitro and in vivo exposure situations; (3) the most valid statistical methods for analyzing SCE data obtained from cells in culture, from cells in intact organisms, and from cells in humans; (4) the relevance of SCEs as an indicator of human disease states, both inherited and acquired, and of progress in disease treatment; and (5) the use of SCEs as an indicator of human exposure to genotoxic agents and their relevance as a prognosticator of future adverse health outcomes. This report summarizes the presentations. 7 references. (ACR)

  8. Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Outcomes of Histiocytic and Dendritic Cell Neoplasms: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience Over the Last Twenty Five Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalia, Samir, E-mail: samir.dalia@mercy.net [Mercy Clinic Oncology and Hematology-Joplin, 3001 MC Clelland Park Blvd, Joplin, MO 64804 (United States); Jaglal, Michael; Chervenick, Paul [Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33602 (United States); Cualing, Hernani [IHCFLOW Histopathology Laboratory, University of South Florida, 18804 Chaville Rd., Lutz, FL 33558 (United States); Sokol, Lubomir [Department of Malignant Hematology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33602 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Neoplasms of histiocytic and dendritic cells are rare disorders of the lymph node and soft tissues. Because of this rarity, the corresponding biology, prognosis and terminologies are still being better defined and hence historically, these disorders pose clinical and diagnostic challenges. These disorders include Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), histiocytic sarcoma (HS), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS), interdigtating cell sarcoma (IDCS), indeterminate cell sarcoma (INDCS), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumors (FRCT). In order to gain a better understanding of the biology, diagnosis, and treatment in these rare disorders we reviewed our cases of these neoplasms over the last twenty five years and the pertinent literature in each of these rare neoplasms. Cases of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms diagnosed between 1989–2014 were identified using our institutional database. Thirty two cases were included in this analysis and were comprised of the following: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (20/32), histiocytic sarcoma (6/32), follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32), indeterminate dendritic cell sarcoma (1/32), and fibroblastic reticular cell tumor (1/32). Median overall survival was not reached in cases with LCH and showed 52 months in cases with HS, 12 months in cases with FDCS, 58 months in cases with IDCS, 13 months in the case of INDCS, and 51 months in the case of FRCT. The majority of patients had surgical resection as initial treatment (n = 18). Five patients had recurrent disease. We conclude that histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are very rare and perplexing disorders that should be diagnosed with a combination of judicious morphology review and a battery of immunohistochemistry to rule out mimics such as carcinoma, lymphoma, neuroendocrine tumors and to better sub-classify these difficult to diagnose lesions. The mainstay of treatment for localized disease remains surgical resection

  9. Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Outcomes of Histiocytic and Dendritic Cell Neoplasms: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience Over the Last Twenty Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Dalia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasms of histiocytic and dendritic cells are rare disorders of the lymph node and soft tissues. Because of this rarity, the corresponding biology, prognosis and terminologies are still being better defined and hence historically, these disorders pose clinical and diagnostic challenges. These disorders include Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH, histiocytic sarcoma (HS, follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS, interdigtating cell sarcoma (IDCS, indeterminate cell sarcoma (INDCS, and fibroblastic reticular cell tumors (FRCT. In order to gain a better understanding of the biology, diagnosis, and treatment in these rare disorders we reviewed our cases of these neoplasms over the last twenty five years and the pertinent literature in each of these rare neoplasms. Cases of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms diagnosed between 1989–2014 were identified using our institutional database. Thirty two cases were included in this analysis and were comprised of the following: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (20/32, histiocytic sarcoma (6/32, follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32, interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (2/32, indeterminate dendritic cell sarcoma (1/32, and fibroblastic reticular cell tumor (1/32. Median overall survival was not reached in cases with LCH and showed 52 months in cases with HS, 12 months in cases with FDCS, 58 months in cases with IDCS, 13 months in the case of INDCS, and 51 months in the case of FRCT. The majority of patients had surgical resection as initial treatment (n = 18. Five patients had recurrent disease. We conclude that histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are very rare and perplexing disorders that should be diagnosed with a combination of judicious morphology review and a battery of immunohistochemistry to rule out mimics such as carcinoma, lymphoma, neuroendocrine tumors and to better sub-classify these difficult to diagnose lesions. The mainstay of treatment for localized disease remains surgical

  10. Changes in the Economy, the Labor Market, and Expectations for the Future: What Might Europe and the United States Look Like in Twenty-Five Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Sandra; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the labor markets and economies of modern societies have been confronted by a marked intensification of cross-border exchange between modern states that has attained a new and previously unattained quality over the past thirty years. In the economic and sociological literature, this development is usually labeled…

  11. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887-1936).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Much of the content is drawn from the Journal's own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal's future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford's Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. One hundred and twenty-five years of the Annals of Botany. Part 1: the first 50 years (1887–1936)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Annals of Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing papers on a wide range of topics in plant biology. It first appeared in 1887, making it the oldest continuously published botanical title. The present article gives a historical account of events leading to the founding of the Journal and of its development over the first 50 years. Sources of Information Much of the content is drawn from the Journal’s own records and from extensive Minutes, financial accounts, personal letters and notes relating to the Annals of Botany that were repatriated from University College, University of London in 1999. Documents held at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and at the Oxford University Press Museum were also consulted. Content Emphasis is placed on the individuals who instigated, edited and managed the Annals of Botany up to 1937, especially the nine founding members of the Journal and the background that brought them together and motivated them to start the Annals of Botany. A falling out between two of the founders in 1899 is highlighted since not only did this threaten the Journal’s future but also gives much insight into the personalities of those most closely involved in the Journal during its formative years. The article also examines the way the Journal was funded and how it dealt with its publisher (the University of Oxford’s Clarendon Press), turned itself into a registered company (the Annals of Botany Company) and coped with the travails of the First World War, currency inflation and the Great Depression. Plans to re-start the Journal as a New Series, beginning in 1937, are discussed in the context of the competition the Annals of Botany then faced from younger journals. PMID:25561090

  13. Twenty-Five year (1982-2007) history of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe animal vectors and ethephon control on the Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas. Nicholls

    2009-01-01

    This is a summary of the 25-year history of studies of mammal and bird vectors of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), ethephon control of dwarf mistletoe, and the ecology of the most important dwarf mistletoe vector, the gray jay (Persisoreus canadensis), on the USDA Forest Service, Fraser Experimental Forest...

  14. Reductions in Radiographic Progression in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Over Twenty-Five Years: Changing Contribution From Rheumatoid Factor in Two Multicenter UK Inception Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Lewis; Norton, Sam; Nikiphorou, Elena; Jayakumar, Keeranur; McWilliams, Daniel F; Rennie, Kirsten L; Dixey, Josh; Kiely, Patrick; Walsh, David Andrew; Young, Adam

    2017-12-01

    To assess the 5-year progression of erosions and joint space narrowing (JSN) and their associations with rheumatoid factor (RF) status in 2 large, multicenter, early rheumatoid arthritis cohorts, spanning 25 years. Radiographic joint damage was recorded using the Sharp/van der Heijde (SHS) method in the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Study (ERAS), 1986-2001, and the Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Network (ERAN), 2002-2013. Mixed-effects negative binomial regression estimated changes in radiographic damage over 5 years, including erosions and JSN, separately. RF, along with age, sex, and baseline markers of disease activity were controlled for. A total of 1,216 patients from ERAS and 446 from ERAN had radiographic data. Compared to ERAS, ERAN patients had a lower mean total SHS score at baseline (ERAN 6.2 versus ERAS 10.5; P < 0.001) and mean annual rate of change (ERAN 2.5 per year versus ERAS 6.9 per year; P < 0.001). Seventy-four percent of ERAS and 27% of ERAN patients progressed ≥5 units. Lower scores at baseline in ERAN were largely driven by reductions in JSN (ERAS 3.9 versus ERAN 1.2; P < 0.001), along with erosions (ERAS 1.9 versus ERAN 0.8; P < 0.001). RF was associated with greater progression in each cohort, but the absolute difference in mean annual rate of change for RF-positive patients was substantially higher for ERAS (RF positive 8.6 versus RF negative 5.1; P < 0.001), relative to ERAN (RF positive 2.0 versus RF negative 1.9; P = 0.855). Radiographic progression was shown to be significantly reduced between the 2 cohorts, and was associated with lower baseline damage and other factors, including changes in early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use. The impact of RF status as a prognostic marker of clinically meaningful change in radiographic progression has markedly diminished in the context of more modern treatment. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  15. Twenty-five years of optical coherence tomography: the paradigm shift in sensitivity and speed provided by Fourier domain OCT [Invited

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Johannes F.; Leitgeb, Rainer; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become one of the most successful optical technologies implemented in medicine and clinical practice mostly due to the possibility of non-invasive and non-contact imaging by detecting back-scattered light. OCT has gone through a tremendous development over the past 25 years. From its initial inception in 1991 [Science 254, 1178 (1991)1957169] it has become an indispensable medical imaging technology in ophthalmology. Also in fields like cardiology and gastro-enterology the technology is envisioned to become a standard of care. A key contributor to the success of OCT has been the sensitivity and speed advantage offered by Fourier domain OCT. In this review paper the development of FD-OCT will be revisited, providing a single comprehensive framework to derive the sensitivity advantage of both SD- and SS-OCT. We point out the key aspects of the physics and the technology that has enabled a more than 2 orders of magnitude increase in sensitivity, and as a consequence an increase in the imaging speed without loss of image quality. This speed increase provided a paradigm shift from point sampling to comprehensive 3D in vivo imaging, whose clinical impact is still actively explored by a large number of researchers worldwide. PMID:28717565

  16. Twenty-five years of research on the effects of exercise training in breast cancer survivors: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglini, Claudio L; Mills, Robert C; Phillips, Brett L; Lee, Jordan T; Story, Christina E; Nascimento, Marcelo Gb; Hackney, Anthony Carl

    2014-05-10

    To investigate the role of exercise training the past 25 years on major physiological-psychological outcomes studied thus far in this patient population. PubMed, MedlinePlus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Embase, Scorpus, and Google Scholar were searched from September to November 2013 to identify exercise training studies that used objective measurements of fitness and/or patient reported outcomes assessed pre and post-exercise training with statistical analyses performed in at least one of the following outcome measurements: Cardiorespiratory function, body composition, muscular strength, fatigue, depression, and overall quality of life. Five reviewers independently identified the studies that met the criteria for the review and discrepancies were resolved by consensus among all authors. Fifty-one studies were included in this review with 5 from the period between 1989-1999, 11 from 2000-2006, and 35 from 2007-2013. The evolution of study designs changed from aerobic only exercise training interventions (1989-1999), to a combination of aerobic and resistance training (2000-2006), to studies including an arm of resistance training or examining the effects of resistance training as the main mode of exercise (2007-2013). Overall, the benefits of exercise showed improvements in cardiorespiratory function, body composition, strength, and patient reported outcomes including fatigue, depression, and quality of life. Exercise training appears to be safe for most breast cancer patients and improvements in physiological, psychological, and functional parameters can be attained with regular participation in moderate intensity exercise.

  17. Distribution of native mussel (unionidae) assemblages in coastal areas of Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and connecting channels, twenty-five years after a dreissenid invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, David T.; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Crail, Todd D.; Szalay, Ferenc de; Griffith, Traci A.; Kapusinski, Douglas; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Meyer, Elizabeth S.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Prescott, Trevor J.; Rowe, Matthew T.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Walsh, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, unionid mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been adversely impacted by invasive dreissenid mussels, which directly (e.g., by attachment to unionid shells) and indirectly (e.g., by competing for food) cause mortality. Despite the invasion, unionids have survived in several areas in the presence of dreissenid mussels. We investigated current spatial patterns in these native mussel refuges based on surveys for unionid mussels across 48 sampling locations (141 sites) in 2011 and 2012, and documented species abundance and diversity in coastal areas of lakes St. Clair and Erie. The highest-quality assemblages of native mussels (densities, richness, and diversity) appear to be concentrated in the St. Clair delta, where abundance continues to decline, as well as in in Thompson Bay of Presque Isle in Lake Erie and in just a few coastal wetlands and drowned river-mouths in the western basin of Lake Erie. The discovery of several new refuge areas suggests that unionids have a broader distribution within the region than previously thought.

  18. Twenty-five years of research on the effects of exercise training in breast cancer survivors: A systematic review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglini, Claudio L; Mills, Robert C; Phillips, Brett L; Lee, Jordan T; Story, Christina E; Nascimento, Marcelo GB; Hackney, Anthony Carl

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of exercise training the past 25 years on major physiological-psychological outcomes studied thus far in this patient population. METHODS: PubMed, MedlinePlus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Embase, Scorpus, and Google Scholar were searched from September to November 2013 to identify exercise training studies that used objective measurements of fitness and/or patient reported outcomes assessed pre and post-exercise training with statistical analyses performed in at least one of the following outcome measurements: Cardiorespiratory function, body composition, muscular strength, fatigue, depression, and overall quality of life. Five reviewers independently identified the studies that met the criteria for the review and discrepancies were resolved by consensus among all authors. RESULTS: Fifty-one studies were included in this review with 5 from the period between 1989-1999, 11 from 2000-2006, and 35 from 2007-2013. The evolution of study designs changed from aerobic only exercise training interventions (1989-1999), to a combination of aerobic and resistance training (2000-2006), to studies including an arm of resistance training or examining the effects of resistance training as the main mode of exercise (2007-2013). Overall, the benefits of exercise showed improvements in cardiorespiratory function, body composition, strength, and patient reported outcomes including fatigue, depression, and quality of life. CONCLUSION: Exercise training appears to be safe for most breast cancer patients and improvements in physiological, psychological, and functional parameters can be attained with regular participation in moderate intensity exercise. PMID:24829866

  19. Twenty five years of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine - progress and priorities for future of radiation medicine and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyka, D

    2017-12-01

    , the addi tional departments of oncology and chemotherapy were equipped and started activities, databases of cancer cases in exposed population and separate groups of exposed were introduced, as well as an international database of radiation injuries. The Clinical and Epidemiological registry of the NRCRM is in function and developed. An adapta tion of research directions with a respect to the pathomorphosis of radiation induced diseases in the remote period after irradiation will continue.Performed complex studies of the effects of incorporation of 131I on the fetus and the next gen eration of experimental animals became important for understanding the mechanisms of formation of radiation effects. Introduction of new foodstuffs and supplements with radiation protective proper ties was of positive effect for population protection during the first years.In the area of dosimetry a substantial progress has been achieved in reconstruction of thyroid doses in the Ukrainian population, dosimetric passportisation of settlements, radiochemistry, the creation of new methods for reconstructive dosimetry for cleanup workers - SEAD, RADRUE, and ROCKVILLE. All developments are implemented to practice, tens of thousands of doses have been restored. International recognition has received for the method of in utero doses reconstruction. As editor in chief, I regard it successful to incorporate our bilingual edition «Problems of Radiation Medicine and Radiobiology» into the NCBI MedLine, SCOPUS and other data bases, that creates an unique opportunity to widely disseminate results of the Center's research.Strategies for the future. Ukraine belongs to countries with a priority development of nuclear energy. Even with the increase in the production of clean energy, there is no other way than the further deployment of a complete nuclear fuel cycle and energy industrial complex, the expansion of the nuclear technologies to all sectors of the economy.The main potential threats to radiation

  20. Compendium in astronomy a volume dedicated to professor John Xanthakis on the occasion of completing twenty-five years of scientific activities as fellow of the National Academy of Athens

    CERN Document Server

    Theocaris, Pericles; Mavridis, L

    1982-01-01

    When we first approached some colleagues allover the world to sound them about a volume dedicated to Professor John Xanthakis on the occasion of completing twenty-five years of scientific activities as fellow of the National Academy of Athens, any possible doubts as to the feasibility of the project were quickly dispelled by their warm and encouraging response. In a short time 50 authors from 15 countries, coming from a wide range of Professor Xanthakis' immediate colleagues, pupils and friends joined to produce the 36 contributions included in this volume. Some of those who where originally approached found themselves un­ able to contribute, because of the time-limit necessarily imposed. Happi­ ly, they were only few in number, and we should like to record our grat­ itude to them for their good wishes for the success of the venture. Their warm words were among the many sources of inspiring encouragement extended to us.

  1. Tradition and interpretation: Twenty-five attempted approaches - in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a collection of essays in honour of prof E Earle Ellis twenty-five scholars surveyed the present (1987) state of New Testament scholarship and presented their own contributions. The title, Tradition and interpretation in the New Testament, epitomises the paradigm by means of which the authors dealt with issues such as ...

  2. Hersom and the Development of Educational Research. Commentary on and Reprint of "Twenty-Five Years of Research in Education: The Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 1955 to 1979," by Naomi Hersom, originally published in 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodysh, Henry W.

    1994-01-01

    A former editor of this journal, 1977-81, selects an outstanding article from his tenure that analyzes the journal's influence on Canadian educational research. Mapping the journal's shifting emphasis over 25 years, the article selected synthesizes central elements shaping the nature of research and examines descriptive, analytic, and…

  3. Spiritual and salutary effects of tempering of young athletes by the nature on the system of Porfiry Ivanov (as from the twenty-five years of experience of the author

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhailo Khoroshukha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to fill and to substantiate expediency of using health system of Porfiry Ivanov on the principles of theoretical and empirical materials to resolve the questions of valeological attitude of young athletes to their health. Material and Methods: this paper presents matter staffs of many years of researches, which have been provided young athletes around 13–16 years old of Brovary high college of physical training. Results: research suggests that, we denote positive characters in dynamics of changes in physical staffs and psycho-emotional being of organism of the figure athletes, who are doing system of Porfiry Ivanov, and there were also registered the facts, that there were not any case of catarrhal diseases. General grounds of health system of P. K. Ivanov has been analyzed as from the side of valeological knowledge. Conclusions: it was proved, that health improving system of P. K. Ivanov, could be one of alternative programs on forming of healthy lifestyle of scholar’s youth

  4. Química analítica brasileira durante os 25 anos da SBQ: contexto atual e senso comum Twenty-five years of sbq influence on brazilian analytical chemistry: current status and common sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Fatibello-Filho

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an overview of the development of analytical chemistry in Brazil in the last 25 years under the influence of Brazilian Chemical Society (SBQ. It is shown that the common sense that analytical chemistry is still an under-developed area is not true. Data from specialized literature show a significant contribution of Brazilian analytical chemists in high impact periodicals and for several areas there is a good adherence among works carried out in Brazil and abroad according to a comparison of studies presented in the 11th Brazilian Meeting on Analytical Chemistry (Campinas, September, 2001 and the XI European Conference on Analytical Chemistry (Lisboa, September, 2000. According to the opinion of investigators in this area, there are some topics that require a focused attention for proper evolution. However, there is an absolute consensus about the evolution of graduate programs and the need to improve and extend strategies to absorb newcomers in the area. Some suggestions are presented considering possible pathways of analytical chemistry in Brazil.

  5. The prevalence of disc aging and back pain after fusion extending into the lower lumbar spine. A matched MR study twenty-five years after surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsson, A.J.; Nachemson, A.L. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics; Cederlund, C.G.; Ekholm, S. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2001-03-01

    To determine the long-term outcome after fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in terms of degenerative disc findings diagnosed using MR imaging and to elucidate the clinical consequences. Material and methods: Thirty-two patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, who had undergone spinal fusion using Harrington rods to the lower lumbar spine with one or two unfused discs below the fusion, were re-examined 25 years after the fusion. The re-examinations included validated questionnaires, clinical examination, full standing frontal and lateral radiographs and MR examination of the lower lumbar region. Curve size and degenerative findings on MR images were evaluated by two unbiased radiologists, blinded to the clinical findings. A matched control group of 32 persons without scoliosis was subjected to the same examinations. Results and conclusion: There were significantly more degenerative disc changes (p<0.0001), disc height reduction (p=0.0010) and end-plate changes (p<0.0001 for both upper and lower end-plates) in the lowest unfused disc in the patient group compared with the control group. The MR findings in the lowest unfused disc, but not the one above, in the patient group correlated to lumbar pain intensity as well as to the diminished lumbar lordosis.

  6. Accretion Disks around Black Holes: Twenty Five Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    After the revolutionary model of Shakura and Sunyaev in 1973, a quarter of a century has passed by. Has our understanding of the physics of black hole accretion improved? We make a critical review on the development of various models and emphasize on the advective disks solutions. We briefly compare the predictions of both the time independent and time dependent solutions of this model with the observational results. Some of the spin-offs of this model to other branches of astrophysics such as nuclear astrophysics, gravity wave astronomy, physics of jets, etc. are also mentioned ^{1-2}.

  7. Creative Thinking in Music, Twenty-Five Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the May 1990 "Music Educators Journal" Special Focus Issue on Creativity, the profession finds itself in a new and more challenging time. Our field is changing before our eyes as new ideas about the music we teach, the people who are taught, and the way music as art is delivered and consumed affect our pedagogy.…

  8. The Reform of Military Education: Twenty-Five Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    disempowered and timid faculty was supposed to challenge anything, much less DoD’s assumptions, was never explained when administrators added that kind...Students who were unlikely candidates for graduate study in the first place will pass with good grades alongside their more exceptional colleagues...in a week or to write an eight-page paper. Time becomes precious and expectations rise. Grades , as at the best civilian universities, inflate while the

  9. Twenty-five years of Social Science in Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, John; Walker, Laurens

    2011-02-01

    In this essay, we take the publication of the seventh edition of the casebook Social Science in Law (2010) as an opportunity to reflect on continuities and changes that have occurred in the application of social science research to American law over the past quarter-century. We structure these reflections by comparing and contrasting the original edition of the book with the current one. When the first edition appeared, courts' reliance on social science was often confused and always contested. Now, courts' reliance on social science is so common as to be unremarkable. What has changed--sometimes radically--are the substantive legal questions on which social science has been brought to bear.

  10. Twenty-Five Years of Academic Library Building Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, David

    1984-01-01

    Review of academic library planning developments highlights modular design concept prevalent in 1960s. Problem areas (irregular shapes, interior or exterior courts, monumentality, too much or too little glass) and the use atria, designer lighting, monumental effects, and unusual shapes to relieve perceived monotony are discussed. Five sources are…

  11. Shared Year Exchange in Nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsegaard, Helle Wendner; Wederkinck, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien.......Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien....

  12. The Twenty-five Maiden Ladies’ Tomb and Predicaments of the Feminist Movement in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anru Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available “The Twenty-five Maiden Ladies’ Tomb” is the collective burial site of the female workers who died in a ferry accident on their way to work in 1973. The fact that of the more than 70 passengers on board all 25 who died were unmarried young women, and the taboo in Taiwanese culture that shuns unmarried female ghosts, made the Tomb a fearsome place. Feminists in Gaoxiong (高雄 had for some years wanted the city government to change the tomb’s public image. Their calls were not answered until the Gaoxiong mayor’s office finally allocated money to clean up the gravesite and, as part of the city’s plans to develop urban tourism, to remake it into the tourist-friendly “Memorial Park for Women Labourers”. Consequently, even though the tomb renovation seemed to indicate a triumph of the feminist endeavour, it was more a result of the Gaoxiong city government’s efforts towards culture-led urban revitalization.

  13. Pleasantness and arousal in twenty-five positive emotions elicited by durable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortíz Nicolás, J.C.; Aurisicchio, M.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports quantitative research into two basic dimensions of emotions: pleasantness and arousal. Fifty-nine participants evaluated these two dimensions for a set of twenty-five positive emotions in relation to human-product interactions. Three levels of arousal were iden- tified:

  14. TWENTY-FIVE-GAUGE PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY IN COMPLEX RETINAL DETACHMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH GIANT RETINAL TEAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Kumawat, Devesh; Bhari, Anju; Chandra, Parijat

    2017-03-22

    To study the structural and functional outcomes of 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in giant retinal tear-associated retinal detachments. Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with giant retinal tear, who underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy over a period of 15 months at a tertiary eye care center by a single surgeon, were recruited in this retrospective interventional study. Giant retinal tears were mostly traumatic (35.3%) or associated with myopia (35.3%) and occurred in young (mean age 25.7 years) males (94.1%). Most eyes had best-corrected visual acuity ≤20/1,200 (in 82.3%), foveal detachment (in 88.2%), and proliferative vitreoretinopathy ≤Grade B (in 82.3%). The giant retinal tear extent was more than 180° in 29.4% and the fellow eye was involved in 35.2% of eyes. All eyes underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with encircling band in 41.1%, perfluorocarbon liquid use in 82.3%, and endotamponade with sulphur hexafluoride (23.6%) or silicone oil (76.4%). At mean follow-up of 10.2 months, reattachment rate was 88.2%. Only 35.2% of eyes achieved final visual acuity ≥20/80 with a cause of poor vision being cataract, secondary glaucoma, macular pucker, and corneal edema. Twenty-five-gauge pars plana vitrectomy can achieve excellent attachment rates in eyes with giant retinal tear-associated retinal detachment. It can be as efficient as larger-gauge vitrectomy, at the same time retaining all advantages of smaller-gauge surgery.

  15. Ten years Foundation Flora Malesiana twenty-five years of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, H.J.; Leenhouts, P.W.

    1960-01-01

    As a phylogenist, I have often experienced that a relatively small number of scientifically working botanists realize the importance — or even the existence — of the factor time. It is true that many of them never come across that factor; for a man who through his microscope analyses the structure

  16. Fungal peritonitis in patients on peritoneal dialysis: Twenty five years of experience in a teaching hospital in Argentina Peritonitis fúngica en pacientes en diálisis peritoneal: la experiencia de 25 años en un hospital universitario de la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Predari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication of peritoneal dialysis. The aim of this study was to analyze peritonitis rates, associated factors, clinical course, microbiological aspects, therapeutic regimens, and outcome of patients with fungal peritonitis in the dialysis center of a teaching hospital over the last 25 years. A hundred and eighty three episodes of peritonitis were detected and microbiologically documented in 57 patients. Fungi were identified in eight episodes (4.37% occurring in seven female patients. The fungal peritonitis rate was 0.06 episodes/patient-year. Gram and Giemsa stains were positive in five out of eight dialysate fluids. The causative microorganisms were: Candida albicans in five episodes, and Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Neosartorya hiratsukae in the remaining three. Antibiotics were administered to all but one patient, within 3 months before fungal peritonitis was detected. All patients required hospitalization, and antifungal therapy was administered in all episodes. The Tenckhoff catheter was removed in seven out of eight fungal peritonitis. All patients recovered from the fungal episodes. In the group of patients studied, it is concluded that recent exposure to antibiotics and female sex, were strongly associated with the development of fungal peritonitis by yeasts. The peritonitis caused by the environmental filamentous fungus did not require antibiotic pressure. Direct microscopy of the dialysate pellet was extremely useful for the prompt management of the fungal episode. Fungal peritonitis preceded by multiple episodes of bacterial peritonitis always determined the definitive dropout of the patient from the peritoneal dialysis program. Patients with de novo yeastrelated peritonitis could continue on the program.La peritonitis fúngica es una complicación infrecuente pero grave de la diálisis peritoneal. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron el análisis de las tasas de peritonitis

  17. Twenty-five years of artificial photosynthesis research at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otvos, J.W.; Calvin, M.

    1996-02-01

    This report summarizes the research done on artificial photosynthesis by the Calvin Group between 1970 and 1995 when the program was terminated. It contains a compilation of the personnel involved as well as a bibliography of publications supported by the project.

  18. Looking backwards, looking forward: hopes for bioethics' next twenty-five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Susan

    2011-02-01

    I reflect on the past, present, and future of the field of bioethics. In so doing, I offer a very situated overview of where bioethics has been, where it now is, where it seems to be going, where I think we could do better, and where I dearly hope the field will be heading. I also propose three ways of re-orienting our theoretic tools to guide us in a new direction: (1) adopt an ethics of responsibility; (2) explore the responsibilities of various kinds of actors and relationships among them; (3) expand the types of participants engaged in bioethics. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Twenty-five years of collecting and taxonomy of wild potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild and cultivated potatoes (Solanum section Petota) are a difficult group taxonomically, complicated by interspecific hybridization, introgression, allopolyploidy, a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction, and possible recent species divergence. Various workers have interpreted the variation t...

  20. Twenty-Five Years Later: Some Reflections on Adaptive Issues in Early Infant-Mother Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Louis W.

    Discussion reflects on the notions of the constructionist viewpoint in development, of integration, and of individual uniqueness, by drawing on studies of mother-infant interaction, the development of 24-hour infant state organization and regulation, and life span development. The logic of construction by which an individual shapes his or her…

  1. Twenty-Five Years of the Fuzzy Factor: Fuzzy Logic, the Courts, and Student Press Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plopper, Bruce L.; McCool, Lauralee

    A study applied the structure of fuzzy logic, a fairly modern development in mathematical set theory, to judicial opinions concerning non-university, public school student publications, from 1975 to 1999. The study examined case outcomes (19 cases generated 27 opinions) as a function of fuzzy logic, and it evaluated interactions between fuzzy…

  2. Twenty five years of invasion: management of the round goby Neogobius melanostomus in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaveer, Henn; Galil, Bella S.; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2015-01-01

    The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814), is one of the most invasive non-indigenous species in the Baltic Sea. It dominates coastal fisheries in some localities and is frequently found in offshore pelagic catches. This paper identifies management issues and suggests actions to be co......, and hull fouling of inland and sea-going vessels, including recreational boats. Extensive involvement of stakeholders is crucial at all phases of the management process....

  3. Twenty-five years of monitoring a Townsend's Big-Eared Bat (Corynorhinus townsendii) maternity roost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Halstead, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    A Corynorhinus townsendii maternity roost located in an abandoned ranch house in central California was monitored for 25 y. Prior to the discovery of the bats in 1987, the house was broken into regularly and disturbance levels were quite high. Upon discovery of the roost, the house was fortified and vandalism was greatly reduced. The number of females and the number of volant young greatly increased during our study and was directly correlated with the decline in vandalism. Bats emerged from the house 43.6 (± 10.9 SD) min after local sunset. Bats emerged later in the evening during spring and fall, when it was warmer, and when it was windier. We also evaluated duration of emergence (47.11 [45.0–49.7] min), and seasonal patterns of re-entry into the roost. Several factors suggested that potential predation, most likely by owls, influenced both the timing and duration of evening emergences.

  4. The United States Air Force Academy’s First Twenty-Five Years, Some Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    the first and last two steps in the method, the more interesting and challenging "why" part of the process. The domain of digital integrated circuits... langauge section produced its own textbook designed to meet the specialized pro- fessional needs of future Air Force officers. The first of these, a...a strong linguistic background, but were not pro- ficient enough to validate, to complete the foreign langauge requirement in just one semester

  5. Central Asia — twenty-five years after the breakup of the USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uuriintuya Batsaikhan

    2017-09-01

    The major obstacles to political reform and structural diversification in the five Central Asian economies are internal and external geopolitical factors and deeply embedded institutional weaknesses within each country, particularly in areas where economic management interacts with authoritarian political systems and imperfect legal institutions.

  6. Twenty-five years of education in psychology and psychology in education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozensky, Ronald H; Grus, Catherine L; Fouad, Nadya A; McDaniel, Susan H

    2017-11-01

    This article is part of a special issue of the American Psychologist celebrating the American Psychological Association's (APA's) 125th anniversary. The article reviews the last quarter century (1991-2016) of accomplishments by psychology's education and training community and APA's Education Directorate. The purpose is to highlight key trends and developments over the past quarter century that illustrate ways the Directorate sought to advance education in psychology and psychology in education, as the Directorate's mission statement says. The focus of the Directorate has been on building a cooperative culture across psychology's broad education and training community. Specifically APA has (a) promoted quality education-from prekindergarten through lifelong learning, (b) encouraged accountability through guidelines and standards for education and training, and (c) supported the discovery and dissemination of new knowledge to enhance health, education, and well-being. After identifying challenges and progress, the article discusses the future of the field of psychology and the preparation of its workforce of tomorrow. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Treatment preparatory to psychoanalysis: a reconsideration after twenty-five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Stephen B

    2010-02-01

    The author's initial article on treatment preparatory to psychoanalysis (1983) challenged the long-held belief that a therapy with the same analyst would contaminate a subsequent analytic transference. The current article reconsiders the original process of transition from therapy to analysis and describes methods that can further its effectiveness. Although specific noninterpretive interventions to enhance preparation for analysis are rarely written about, they are discussed among colleagues and in supervision. Levy (1987) has described a bias against the description of strategic or tactical choices in analysis. It is increasingly clear that some patients' fear of exposing shameful defectiveness underlies their resistance to entering analysis, as does the originally described fear of an uncontrolled regression. It is useful to delay interpretation until shame sensitivity can be assessed and modulated. In the past there was pressure to keep the preparatory therapy brief so that the analyst would not become too well known to the patient. Less concern about strict anonymity allows more time for the patient's resistances to abate before the recommendation is made. Methods are described and clinical illustrations show how a deepening process can be fostered, how indications of readiness for the transition can be assessed, and when and how the recommendation can be made.

  8. Hydrography of Bahia Todos Santos, Baja California: Results of more than twenty five years of investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Serrano, H.; Canino-Herrera, S. R.; Morales-Chavez, R.; Martinez-Garcia, G. M.

    2007-05-01

    The first study of Bahia Todos Santos (BTS) was reported by Walton in 1955. We conducted oceanographic studies in BTS since 1979. The BTS has a connection with a coastal lagoon named Estero de Punta Banda (EPB), two islands at the western portion and the Port of Ensenada. The general hydrographic characteristics are: In winter the water became homogeneous, less saline (California water mass with a relatively high salinity (>33.6) low temperature (13°C), low oxygen (~3mL L-1) and rich in nutrient concentration. The isothermal top layer has relatively high temperature (>17°C) and oxygen concentration (>6mL L-1). The intermediate transition layer (seasonal thermocline) has minimum salinity, maximum oxygen and high stability. During fall there is distribution of heat from the surface layer to the entire water column. The thermic waves propagate with decrease amplitude in ~3 months, from surface to bottom water. The California Current flow generally southward off the western United States and northern Mexico and is one of the major coastal upwelling of the word oceans. The upwelling events in BTS appear regularly at the SW portion and were typically characterized by an increase in pCO2, decrease of O2, increase of nutrients and a lower temperature. Upwelling activity increases surface nutrient availability causing rise in the primary productivity and hence increased zooplankton biomass. The annual upwelling event which had a maximum strength on May, the seasonal warming and cooling, and the water advection were the dominant modifying processes for the variability of seawater characteristics. Higher salinities are located close to the coastline and lower off the bay. The levels of oxygen, alkalinity, pH and chlorophyll indicate that the maximum concentration of phytoplankton is located at the center of the bay. The nitrification support the primary productivity and the NO3 levels were below detection limits; the N/P ratio in 2005 was from 10 to 25; and for 2006 was below 5. There is a net enrichment of anthropogenic nutrients at BTS. The heavy metals and pesticides studies started since the early 80's with problems still to solve for Tl, Cd. There is a net Pb enrichment and higher Cr concentrations at the NE of the bay. The EPB is a wetland ~7 Km. long located at the SE part of the BTS. The EPB is a net source of DIP (deltaDIP = +0.13 mmol m-2 day-1), that brings agricultural runoff to the BTS. It is typically a hypersaline system during summer and a net heterotrophic (p-r = -14 mmol m-2 day-1), and a net denitrifying (nfix-denit = -2.1 mmol m-2 day-1) system. Some anomalies were in 2005 the presence of a huge red tide observed inside BTS (about 50% of the bay) that last for more than six months, this HAB's has killed many fishes (anoxia) and marine mammals. The hydrographic conditions during the red tide were, temperature anomalies higher than 2°C above normal; high nutrient concentration above the normal. In 2006 the values were normal again. The Port of Ensenada, increased in size and activities (tourism, transportation, coastguards for national security, cement industry, research) these developments generate some management problems, like the beach and coastline modification. The aground of the APL Panama, activates the management agencies to prevent and control pollution.

  9. The VELA Program. A Twenty-Five Year Review of Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Lincoln Laboratory, pp. 9-13, 1977. McKenzie , D., "A Possible Mechanism for Epeirogenic Uplift," Nature, 307, 616-618, 1984. Melia, PJ., and R.L...wave which depends on 6, (see McKenzie , 1960). Fig. 4. Geometry and nota- tions used in the diffraction formula, ir. is the interface plane and Q, the...Louis, MO 63156 Massinon, B. Murphy, J.R. L. D. G. S-Cubed Section Traitment de Donnees 11800 Sunrise Valley Dr., Suite 1212 Geophysique Reston, VA

  10. Twenty-five years requests for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in Dutch general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquet, R.L.; Visser, G.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Peters, L.; Bartelds, A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: World-wide there is a great deal of interest in Dutch policy on euthanasia (E) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Apart from appreciation there is also concern that the increasing acceptance of E/PAS might lead to an ever growing number of requests for help to implement E/PAS.

  11. From ROOTS to GRAVI-1: Twenty Five Years for Understanding How Plants Sense Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In the 1970s, when I started to work on gravitropism at the University Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris), it was well known that statocytes contain voluminous amyloplasts (statoliths) that sediment under the influence of gravity. The role of these organelles in gravisensing was strongly disputed. In 1974, I attended a session of a meeting on gravitropism in Würzburg, where I presented results that supported the involvement of statoliths in the perception of gravity. This meeting had a strong impact on my research, since at that time the Council of Europe was looking for people interested in performing experiments in Space. Our first experiment (ROOTS) was carried out in the Biorack Facility (ESA) in the frame of the Spacelab D1 mission (1985). We had a very efficient help from CNES which developed a very fine hardware to grow lentil seedlings and to chemically fix them at the end of the experiment. The results obtained were surprising since we observed that in microgravity the statoliths were located at one pole of the statocyte and not distributed at random as it was expected. The goal of the following experiment (Spacelab IML-1 mission, 1992) was to determine the threshold stimulation time at 1 × g (created by centrifugation). It was estimated at 25 s. In the frame of the SMM/03 and SMM/06 missions (1996, 1997), we proved that the statoliths are attached to actin filaments by motor proteins (myosin) that make these organelles move in one preferential direction in microgravity. The analysis of gravisensitivity with clinostats incited us to compare gravisensitivity of lentil roots grown in microgravity or on a 1 × g centrifuge (SMM05 mission, 1997). It was found that the latter were less sensitive than the former. We showed that this was due to the fact that the statoliths are not distributed in the same way in both cases (microgravity or 1 × g centrifuge). All these studies led us to propose a mode of gravity sensing by plants in which elements of the cytoskeleton and stretch activated ion channels are involved. The last experiment (GRAVI-1) which has been carried out (in ISS with the EMCS facility, 2007) dealt with the threshold acceleration that is perceived by roots.

  12. Twenty-Five Years of Groupthink Theory and Research: Lessons from the Evaluation of a Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner; Pratkanis

    1998-02-01

    In this paper, we examine the historical development of the groupthink model and discuss recent responses to the body of empirical evidence amassed on the model. We conclude by articulating general lessons implied by the evolution of research on the groupthink model. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  13. Twenty-Five Years of Ojibwe Treaty Rights in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesper, Larry

    2012-01-01

    The recognition and implementation of American Indian treaty rights beginning in the last quarter of the twentieth century are transforming the ways in which landscapes are managed, tribal and state institutions are structured, and civic identities are constructed in a number of states that surround Indian nations. This national treaty-rights…

  14. Twenty-five years of materialism: do the US and Europe diverge?

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Bartolini; Francesco Sarracino

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the World Values Survey and the European Values Study, we compare the trends of materialism over the last quarter of century among the US and six major European countries: France, Spain, Italy, Germany, Great Britain and Sweden. We use the definition of materialism adopted by positive psychologists. We find that the trends in Europe and in the US diverged. In the US materialism increased, while in Europe it decreased. However, some mixed patterns arise. In particular, Great Br...

  15. Twenty-five astronomical observations that changed the world and how to make them yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Marett-Crosby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human history is also the record of our fascination with the sky, and to look upwards is to follow in the steps of such greats as Galileo and Newton. What they and others once saw in the heavens for the first time, amateur astronomers can discover anew using this guide to twenty-five of the greatest journeys through space.   Starting with our most visible companion the Moon, each chapter offers a step-by-step walk-through of famous astronomical observations from the history of science. Beginning with the easiest targets, sometimes even accessible with the naked eye, the challenges become progressively more difficult. Beginner astronomers and more experienced hobbyists alike can reacquaint themselves with the wonders of our fellow planets and even reach far beyond our own solar system to touch on such incredible phenomena as the birth of new stars in nebula systems and the deceptive nothingness of black holes. The would-be astronaut can spy the International Space Station in orbit with binoculars or the dooms...

  16. Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Twenty Five Cases of Acute Hepatitis Following Ingestion of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung Ah; Yoo, Seung Suk; Kim, Hong Jun; Choi, Su Nyoung; Ha, Chang Yoon; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo; Jung, Woon Tae; Lee, Ok Jae; Lee, Jong Sil; Shim, Sang Goon

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Complementary medicines, including herbal preparations and nutritional supplements, are widely used without prescriptions. As a result, there has been growing interest in the risk of hepatotoxicity with these agents. It is difficult to determine causal relationships between these herbal preparations and hepatotoxicity. We report on 25 patients diagnosed with toxic hepatitis following ingestion of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Methods Twenty-five patients (median age, 48 years [24 to 65 years]; M:F=18:7) with suspected P. multiflorum Thunb-induced liver injury were admitted to our hospital between 2007 and 2009. We analyzed clinical and histological data, including the types and the duration of P. multiflorum Thunb intake and the duration of hospital care. We also determined the type of liver injury using the R ratio (serum activity of ALT/serum activity of ALP). Results The types of complementary medicine used included tea (n=16), liquor (n=5), tea and liquor (n=2), powder (n=1), and honeyed pudding (n=1). The most common presenting sign was jaundice (76%), and 18 patients (72%) had evidence of hepatocellular liver injury. Histological findings were consistent with acute hepatitis in all cases (n=10) for which liver biopsy was performed. Twenty-three patients (91.6%) recovered with conservative management, 1 patient (4%) had a liver transplant, and 1 patient (4%) died of hepatic failure. Conclusions In our cases, we found that P. multiflorum Thunb could be hepatotoxic and could lead to severe drug-induced liver injury, and even death. PMID:22195249

  17. What makes a bully a cyberbully? Unravelling the characteristics of cyberbullies across twenty-five European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Görzig, Anke; Ólafsson, Kjartan

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of bullies who act face-to-face and those who do so in cyberspace were compared directly in one sample across twenty-five countries. The role of cross-country differences in technological infrastructure was also explored. Cyberbullies compared to face-to-face bullies were more likely to engage in risky online activities, spend more time online, and found it easier to be themselves online. Private access to the internet did not make a difference. Gender differences showed g...

  18. Cumulative Index to Twenty Five Semiannual Reports of the Commission to the Congress. January 1947 - January 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    The first twenty five semiannual reports of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress cover the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January 1947 through January 1959. In addition to the semiannual summaries, a series of special reports on important atomic energy programs were included in many of the semiannual reports. This cumulative name and subject index provides a guide to the information published in these reports. Beginning in 1960, the Commission will be issuing annual reports, each separately indexed, ceasing the semiannual reporting.

  19. Twenty-five million liters of blood into the sewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, M

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory medicine has evolved tremendously but not so much to the individual patient's benefit as far as the volume of blood samples is concerned. It can be calculated that with the current collection methods and the small amounts of blood or serum required by modern laboratory analyzers in the Western world alone each 25 million liter of patients' blood is thrown into waste containers. That is four times more than the total volume of blood that is transfused each year. And this is not a trivial issue, as studies show that many patients develop 'hospital acquired anemia' due to blood collection and this is associated with an adverse outcome. It is time that collection methods for blood samples are adapted to the much smaller volumes that are required by new generation laboratory analyzers, in particular for vulnerable groups, such as hematology or oncology patients, critically ill patients, or children. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  20. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: an exploratory twenty-five-year trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Gary D; Shedlock, James

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents an exploratory trend analysis of the statistics published over the past twenty-four editions of the Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada. The analysis focuses on the small subset of nineteen consistently collected data variables (out of 656 variables collected during the history of the survey) to provide a general picture of the growth and changing dimensions of services and resources provided by academic health sciences libraries over those two and one-half decades. The paper also analyzes survey response patterns for U.S. and Canadian medical school libraries, as well as osteopathic medical school libraries surveyed since 1987. The trends show steady, but not dramatic, increases in annual means for total volumes collected, expenditures for staff, collections and other operating costs, personnel numbers and salaries, interlibrary lending and borrowing, reference questions, and service hours. However, when controlled for inflation, most categories of expenditure have just managed to stay level. The exceptions have been expenditures for staff development and travel and for collections, which have both outpaced inflation. The fill rate for interlibrary lending requests has remained steady at about 75%, but the mean ratio of items lent to items borrowed has decreased by nearly 50%.

  1. Twenty-five years with the biopsychosocial model of low back pain-is it time to celebrate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pincus, Tamar; Kent, Peter; Bronfort, Gert

    2013-01-01

    An integrated review of current knowledge about the biopsychosocial model of back pain for understanding etiology, prognosis, and interventions, as presented at the plenary sessions of the XII International Forum on LBP Research in Primary Care (Denmark; October 17-19, 2012)....

  2. Offshore Installations and Their Relevance to the Coast Guard through the Next Twenty-Five Years. Volume II. Detailed Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    the sea floor or capable of keeping station within a small radius. The report is in three volumes: o Volume I contains a description of the research...CATEGORIES I MISSION Food Harvesting/Production Fisheries Management Sea Ranches Fish Migration Tracking Station Offshore Processing of Seafood...utility sector, although production of synthetic fuel from coal is also projected to grow rapidly. Hydroelectic In 1937 hydroelectric plant accounted

  3. Twenty-five years of managing vegetation in conifer plantations in northern and central California: results, application, principles, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1970s, the outlook for conifer seedlings in new plantations in the Western United States was dismal&too many were dying or growing below the potential of the site. This situation was untenable, and a large study aimed at increasing the survival and growth of planted conifer seedlings was implemented. This was the National Administrative Study on...

  4. [Twenty five years of health reports in Barcelona: a commitment to transparency and a tool for action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Carme; Bartoll, Xavier; García-Altés, Anna; Pasarín, M Isabel; Piñeiro, Manel; Villalbí, Joan R

    2011-10-01

    After a quarter century of annual health reports in the city of Barcelona, this study documents the experience and draws some elements that may be useful in other contexts, specifying the analysis on the Health Report of 2008. We show the conceptual framework, the process of preparing the report, sources of information used and the contents. We evaluate the dissemination of the health report, both at the political level, as well as the media, professionals and the public. Furthermore, we examine the impact of the report as a tool for social change and planning.

  5. Twenty five years of requests for euthanasia and physician assisted suicide in Dutch general practice: trend analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquet, R.L.; Bartelds, A.; Visser, G.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Peters, L.

    2003-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed that the Dutch policy on euthanasia (E) and physician assisted suicide (PAS) may lead to an exponential increase in the number of requests and use. Many Dutch general practitioners, nursing home physicians, and pharmacists have a fairly positive attitude and have become

  6. Twenty-five thousand years of fluctuating selection on leopard complex spotting and congenital night blindness in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Arne; Reissmann, Monika; Benecke, Norbert; Bellone, Rebecca; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Cieslak, Michael; Fortes, Gloria G.; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; Hofreiter, Michael; Pruvost, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Leopard complex spotting is inherited by the incompletely dominant locus, LP, which also causes congenital stationary night blindness in homozygous horses. We investigated an associated single nucleotide polymorphism in the TRPM1 gene in 96 archaeological bones from 31 localities from Late Pleistocene (approx. 17 000 YBP) to medieval times. The first genetic evidence of LP spotting in Europe dates back to the Pleistocene. We tested for temporal changes in the LP associated allele frequency and estimated coefficients of selection by means of approximate Bayesian computation analyses. Our results show that at least some of the observed frequency changes are congruent with shifts in artificial selection pressure for the leopard complex spotting phenotype. In early domestic horses from Kirklareli–Kanligecit (Turkey) dating to 2700–2200 BC, a remarkably high number of leopard spotted horses (six of 10 individuals) was detected including one adult homozygote. However, LP seems to have largely disappeared during the late Bronze Age, suggesting selection against this phenotype in early domestic horses. During the Iron Age, LP reappeared, probably by reintroduction into the domestic gene pool from wild animals. This picture of alternating selective regimes might explain how genetic diversity was maintained in domestic animals despite selection for specific traits at different times. PMID:25487337

  7. Beyond agrification : twenty five years of policy and innovation for non-food application of renewable resources in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Slingerland, M.A.; Elbersen, H.W.; Rabbinge, R.

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this review describes policy developments in the Netherlands since the 1980s around innovations for non-food application of renewable resources. Next, these developments are analyzed using the Strategic Niche Management (SNM) theory. The drivers at the regime level and the quality

  8. Twenty-five years of research on violence in digital games and aggression: Reply to Elson & Ferguson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bushman, B.J.; Huesmann, L.R.

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, we first analyze Elson and Ferguson's (2013) attempt to offer a theory that would explain why exposure to family, community, school, and media violence could be related to increased aggression, but not cause such aggression. We conclude that the "new" theory they offer is not

  9. Twenty-Five Years and Counting of "Sweet Valley": Jessica and Elizabeth in Romance Novels for Young Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2010-01-01

    With the 2008 reissue of Francine Pascal's (1983) "Sweet Valley High", the popular cultural icons of twins Jessica and Elizabeth have been revitalized. Jessica and Elizabeth are the much-beloved protagonists in romance novels strategically targeted for young adults in "Sweet Valley High" or "Sweet Valley U", and for first- and second-grade readers…

  10. [Twenty-five years' experience in epidemiology and prophylaxis of epidemics at the Centre for Salmonella of Hamburg (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkle, S; Rohde, R

    1979-04-01

    Salmonella-epidemiology has changed fundamentally since underdeveloped countries have entered international trade and export food-supplies which, due to less stringent controls, are already contaminated either in the countries of origin or in transit. This is shown by numerous case histories of food-poisoning. Multifarious causes of infection from imported food-stuffs are exposed and also the epidemiological consequences from latently infected fat-stock and poultry. Prophylactic measures and advice on preventive treatment are given. The progressive automation in many factories and plants, with aspirations to the highes-degree of efficiency, frequently hides potential sources of infection with a shining facade of chrome and plastic. In the planning and servicing of technical installations, which later may well prove to be a source of infection, sanitary experts are rarely consulted, or if so too late. This paper also emphasises the considerable influence of mass-tourism with the consequent introduction of exotic Salmonella serotypes, and also the potential danger of faeca contamination on motorway rest-stops.

  11. Offshore Installations and Their Relevance to the Coast Guard through the Next Twenty-Five Years. Volume III. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    Staurolite Garnet Refractory muds Calcium carbonate - Heavy metals Heavy mineral sands Magnetite Ilmenite Rutile Monazite Chromite Zircon Cassiterite...Xenotime Beryl Columbite Cinnabar - "Native" metals Gold Platinum Copper Gemstones Diamond Precious corars Pearls A-5-1 Surficial/Substracial...oxides. In some locations, however, they are relatively rich in nickel, copper , cobalt, molybdenum and vanadium. Nodules are abundant over large areas

  12. Double Pomeron Exchange: the early years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrow, Michael G. [Fermilab

    2014-09-01

    I review the early experimental searches for double pomeron exchange, the first observations at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) and further studies at the SPS and Tevatron (fixed target). I only have space for a superficial coverage of some highlights, and will not cover later colliders with √s > GeV.

  13. KEK Engineering Department activity report. Fiscal year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Yoshitaka; Takenaka, Tateru; Kobayashi, Yoshiharu; Ikeda, Mitsuo; Satoh, Setsuo; Tanaka, Nobuaki (eds.)

    2002-02-01

    As Engineering Department of KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) was established on April, 1977, it will be the twenty-five memorial day on March, 2002. Among them, KEK published a number of research results in Japan and foreign countries, to develop as an academic research institute with international scale on both quality and quantity. On a memorial twenty-five years, here was published an engineering department activity report for indicator of further development. It contains prize of engineering, engineering exchange meetings, seminars, co-operational research and development projects, symposiums, specialty trainings, foreign language trainings, and so on. (G.K.)

  14. A History of the Rhodesian Stock Exchange: The Formative Years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. A History of the Rhodesian Stock Exchange: The Formative Years, 1946-1952. George Karekwaivenani. Abstract. No Abstract Available Zambezia (2003), XXX (i): 9-34. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. Student Exchange Programs: Statistical Report. Academic Year, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Over 55 years ago, the Western states formed the Western Regional Education Compact and agreed to share higher education resources in the West through the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE). Through WICHE's three student exchange programs, nearly 26,000 residents of 15 Western states are enrolled at reduced levels of…

  16. Twenty-five milligrams of clomiphene citrate presents positive effect on treatment of male testosterone deficiency - a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Teodósio Da Ros

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Male testosterone deficiency is associated with bad sexual function and quality of life (QoL. The aim of this study was to determine whether a daily dose of 25 mg clomiphene citrate (CC is effective in stimulating the endogenous testosterone production pathway and to address the applicability of this medication as a therapeutic option for symptomatic hypogonadism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study. Men with low sexual desire and testosterone levels (T below 400 ng/dL were selected to receive CC. Blood samples were obtained to determine baseline measurements of serum T, estradiol, LH, lipid profile and fasting plasma glucose. Each patient was treated with a daily dose of 25 mg CC for at least 3 months. Patients were asked if they experienced any side effects related to the use of CC and if they experienced any improvement in their sexual profile. Paired samples T-test was utilized to analyze responses to therapy. RESULTS: Our cohort consisted of 125 men with hypogonadism and low libido. Mean age was 62 years (± 11.1 years. Serum T levels ranged from 309 ng/dL (baseline, mean value to 642 ng/dL (3 months after CC initiation, mean value (p < 0.001. Serum cholesterol levels ranged from 197 to 186 mg/dL (p = 0.003. There were no statistically significant differences when comparing pre and post-treatment HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose and prolactin. All men reported improvements in the post-treatment QoL scores. No serious adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The CC was effective in stimulating the endogenous production of testosterone. A lower level of total cholesterol was verified after three months of treatment. This medication should be considered as a therapeutic option for some patients with symptomatic male testosterone deficiency.

  17. Localized Giant Cell Tumors of the Flexor Tendon Sheath of the Finger: An Analysis of Twenty Five Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Tanrivermis Sayit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of this retrospective study were to evaluate localized giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath (GCTTS with Magnetic Resonance (MR imaging findings and to review the epidemiological features of the disease. We also evaluated the literature regarding GCTTS and performed an analysis of the available information. Material and Method: We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 25 histologically proven cases of GCTTS of the finger during the period between 2012-2014. In addition, a retrospective analysis of the patients’ records was carried out, and age, gender, site and size of lesion, recurrence, and MRI findings were reviewed. Results: The patients were predominantly female (n = 16 and had a mean age of 51.9 ± 12.8 years. Nine patients were male with a mean age of 45.1 ± 13.4 years. The size of the tumors ranged from 6 mm to 30 mm, with a mean size of 15.3±6.8 mm. Tumors were present on the right hand in 15 patients and on the left hand in 10 patients. Among women, 11 tumors were located on the right hand and 5 were found on the left. In men, 4 of the tumors were located on the right hand and 5 were on the left. The most frequent digit on which tumors were found was the index finger, accounting for 40% of cases (n=10. The most frequent location was the index finger for both women (n=6 and men (n=4. All of the lesions were described as well-circumscribed, encapsulated, lobulated, or multilobulated solitary masses with MR imaging. Signal intensity on T1 weighted images (WI was equal to that of skeletal muscle in 23 cases. In two cases, signal intensity was slightly higher. On T2WIs, the signal intensities tended to be between those of skeletal muscle and fat in all of the cases. All of the lesions showed mild to moderate contrast enhancement when compared with precontrast images. There was no statistically significant differences between male and female patients in terms of age, tumor side, involved digit, and highest tumor size

  18. Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Christine

    Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London: Action towards an image of greatness contributes to the growing field of research on social entrepreneurship. The thesis is the result of an interesting, anthropological study of a social voluntary organisation, City Year London, a British affiliate...... of an American charity. Young volunteers were followed in their daily activities working as mentors for public primary school children, and the interaction between staff and volunteers in City Year London were observed. Also, interviews with both volunteers and staff were carried out. The thesis explores...... the empirical findings applying an understanding of learning as social exchange of value. The rich empirical data has led to analyses that draw on and contribute to economic anthropology, learning theories and social entrepreneurship....

  19. TITLE: Twenty-five years after “Wingspread” – Environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs) and human health: EDSP, HTS, AOPs, and TSCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper is to provide the reader with a view of the Endocrine Disruptor Chemical (EDC) research field and its relevance to human health. My perspective is from working on the effects of EDCs that act via the androgen (A) or estrogen (E) signaling pathways in a regul...

  20. Twenty-five years later--what do we know about religion/spirituality and psychological well-being among breast cancer survivors? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Judith A; Brockopp, Dorothy Y

    2012-03-01

    A diagnosis of cancer is a life-changing event for most people. The trauma and uncertainties of a breast cancer diagnosis can affect survivors' psychological well-being. Religion and/or spirituality can provide a means of support for many women as they live with the realities of a diagnosis of cancer. The purpose of this focused review is to critically analyze and synthesize relationships among psychological well-being, religion, and spirituality among women with breast cancer. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, Cochrane CENTRAL, and PsycINFO databases were searched: January 1985-March 2010. The search terms religi*(religious/religion), spiritu*(spiritual/spirituality), breast cancer, psychological adjustment, psychological outcomes, psychological distress, psychological well-being, and outcomes were searched for separately and in combination. Eighteen quantitative studies were analyzed in order to examine associations among religion, spirituality, and psychological well-being for women diagnosed with breast cancer. These three variables were operationally defined as follows: (a) religious practice, religious coping, and perception of God; (b) spiritual distress, spiritual reframing, spiritual well-being, and spiritual integration; and (c) combined measure of both the religion and spirituality constructs. Results of this review suggest that within this population, limited relationships exist among religion, spirituality, and psychological well-being. Given the various definitions used for the three variables, the strength and clarity of relationships are not clear. In addition, the time of assessment along the course of the disease varies greatly and in some instances is not reported. Diagnosis and/or prognosis, factors that could influence psychological well-being, are frequently not factored into results. There does, however, appear to be sufficient evidence to include a brief, clinically focused assessment of women diagnosed with breast cancer regarding the importance of a given belief system as they face the diagnosis and treatment of their disease. The implications for cancer survivors are as follows: (a) Psychological well-being of women diagnosed with breast cancer may depend to some extent on their belief system. (b) Coping through "turning to God" for women without a significant prior relationship with God, or minimal spiritual behaviors, may experience diminished well-being. (c) Longitudinal studies suggest that struggling with, or questioning, one's belief system in early survivorship may also be associated with lower levels of well-being. This diminished well-being often resolves over time.

  1. Lithospheric rheology constrained from twenty-five years of postseismic deformation following the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mong-Han; Bürgmann, Roland; Pollitz, Fred

    2016-02-01

    The October 17, 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake provides the first opportunity of probing the crustal and upper mantle rheology in the San Francisco Bay Area since the 1906 Mw 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Here we use geodetic observations including GPS and InSAR to characterize the Loma Prieta earthquake postseismic displacements from 1989 to 2013. Pre-earthquake deformation rates are constrained by nearly 20 yr of USGS trilateration measurements and removed from the postseismic measurements prior to the analysis. We observe GPS horizontal displacements at mean rates of 1-4 mm/yr toward Loma Prieta Mountain until 2000, and ∼2 mm/yr surface subsidence of the northern Santa Cruz Mountains between 1992 and 2002 shown by InSAR, which is not associated with the seasonal and longer-term hydrological deformation in the adjoining Santa Clara Valley. Previous work indicates afterslip dominated in the early (1989-1994) postseismic period, so we focus on modeling the postseismic viscoelastic relaxation constrained by the geodetic observations after 1994. The best fitting model shows an elastic 19-km-thick upper crust above an 11-km-thick viscoelastic lower crust with viscosity of ∼ 6 ×1018 Pas, underlain by a viscous upper mantle with viscosity between 3 ×1018 and 2 ×1019 Pas. The millimeter-scale postseismic deformation does not resolve the viscosity in the different layers very well, and the lower-crustal relaxation may be localized in a narrow shear zone. However, the inferred lithospheric rheology is consistent with previous estimates based on post-1906 San Francisco earthquake measurements along the San Andreas fault system. The viscoelastic relaxation may also contribute to the enduring increase of aseismic slip and repeating earthquake activity on the San Andreas fault near San Juan Bautista, which continued for at least a decade after the Loma Prieta event.

  2. Statistical Report: Academic Year 2014-15. Student Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report covers fall 2014 enrollments for WUE [Western Undergraduate Exchange], WRGP [Western Regional Graduate Program], and PSEP [Professional Student Exchange Program]. It details the funds that flow between students' home states and the enrolling PSEP institutions that receive them. This newly expanded format gives detailed enrollment for…

  3. Student Exchange Programs Statistical Report, Academic Year 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Through the three student exchange programs administered by the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE), approximately 23,300 residents of 15 Western states are enrolled at reduced levels of tuition across a spectrum of undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs. This annual report covers Fall 2007 enrollments in the…

  4. The month-of-the-year effect on Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Panait

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the presence of month-of-the-year effect on Bucharest Stock Exchange using a both a linear regression and a GARCH-M model with dummy variables for both the mean and the variance equation. We have collected monthly returns for five Romanian official exchange indices and for one MSCI Barra country index during May 2007-March 2013, thereby including both the 2007-2009 financial crisis and the recovery that followed during 2009-2013. Our results show that none of the coefficients of the two models are statistically significant, which lead us to conclude that we can not confirm the presence of the January effect or of any other month-of-the-year effect on the Romanian capital market.

  5. Year-long carbon dioxide exchange above a broadleaf deciduous forest in Sapporo, Northern Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, Y.; Kitamura, K.; Suzuki, S.; Abe, S. [Hokkaido Research Center, Sapporo (Japan). Forestry and Forest Products Research Inst.

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a full year (2000) of measurements of CO{sub 2} flux at a successional forest of mature birch and growing oak with Sasa-bamboo in Sapporo, Japan. Eddy covariance fluxes of CO{sub 2} were obtained using a closed-path infrared gas analyzer. Changes in CO{sub 2} storage under the eddy-flux measurement level were quantified using vertical profiles of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Seasonal variations in net CO{sub 2} exchange between the forest and the atmosphere are discussed in terms of both phenological developments of the forest canopy and micro meteorological variables. To estimate the annual exchange of CO{sub 2}, the net CO{sub 2} exchange data both during periods of poor turbulence and during periods of missing data were replaced by simple parametric models based on measurements of soil temperatures and photosynthetically active radiation. The corrected annual carbon sequestration estimate was 260 g C m{sup 2}. The estimates of annual gross carbon gain and loss at the forest were 1120 and 860 g C m{sup 2}.

  6. Comparison of hyaluronic acid-containing topical eye drops with carbomer-based topical ocular gel as a tear replacement in canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca: A prospective study in twenty five dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Williams

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hyaluronic acid containing eye drop in ameliorating ocular surface pathology and discomfort in canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS. Twenty five dogs with KCS treated with a topical carbomer (CA-based tear replacement gel were moved to treatment with a hyaluronic acid (HA-containing tear replacement eye drop. Dogs were subject to a full ophthalmic examination at the beginning of the study and after two and four weeks of treatment, Schirmer tear tests (STTs were performed at each examination. Conjunctival hyperemia, ocular discharge and ocular irritation were evaluated and scored on a 0-3 semi-quantitative scale. Values were compared before and after 4 weeks of treatment using a paired t-test. Evaluation scores were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The transfer from CA-based to HA-containing tear replacement significantly decreased the conjunctival hyperemia score from 2.12 ± 0.73 to 1.26 ± 0.59 and ocular discomfort was lowered from 2.11 ± 0.97 to 0.93 ± 0.75. Ocular discharge was reduced from a score of 1.04 ± 0.82 to 0.70 ± 0.53, however, the decrease did not reach statistical significance. Schirmer tear test was increased with statistical significance (p < 0.001 but given that the increase was only from 5.42 ± 3.50 to 6.19 ± 3.86 mm min-1; this was not considered clinically significant. This study demonstrated that HA-containing eye drops used twice daily in dogs with KCS had greater ameliorative effects on ocular surface health and discomfort than did CA-based topical gels used as or more frequently.

  7. Twenty-five years of study of the atmospheric contamination by means of proton-induced X-ray emission analysis; Veinticinco anos de estudio de la contaminacion atmosferica mediante microanalisis de rayos X inducidos por particula (PIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldape U, F.; Flores M, J., E-mail: francisca.aldape@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Estudios del Ambiente, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    At the present time, the microanalysis technique PIXE is accepted by the scientific community as one of the basic techniques used in the study of airborne particle matter, due to the multiple qualities that this offers for the study of this type of pollutants. The nuclear techniques have important applications in the study and technology of solid materials, archaeology and biomedical studies, and particularly in the study of the particles suspended in the air where the PIXE technique is more used because provides reliable results for the identification and quantification of chemical elements from the aluminum until the uranium, including all the metallic elements. Among the main reasons that have motivated the study of the particles suspended in the air is the fact that these cause effects in the human health. At the moment, the sanitary problems associated to the particles are a reason of great concern in many countries where in very populated cities the total of particles in suspension often surpasses the limits settled down by the World Organization of the Health. (Author)

  8. Offshore Installations and Their Relevance to the Coast Guard through the Next Twenty-Five Years. Volume I. Basic Report: Forecast of Offshore Installations and Their Implications to the Coast Guard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    meLt over the present system. - Protectionism will continue to thwart efforts toward a stable world economy. - Immigration , both legal and illegal, will...to the point that OSI’s will constitute safe havens for illegal immigration , and secure caches for contraband goods, especially drugs. Forecast 2...For resource exploitation Comnerce For passage Personh movment For waste disposal Among nations For experimentation/research - Marine logistics as

  9. Twenty-five years of research in hydro-ecology at the EDF research and development division; Vingt-cinq ans de recherches en hydroecologie a la Direction des Etudes et Recherches d`EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosse, Ph. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1999-10-01

    Hydro-ecology (or aquatic ecology) is the study of aquatic systems in their interacting aspects: physical, chemical and biological. The creation in 1974 of the Environment Department at EDF Research and Development Division marked the start in France of quantitative hydro-ecology applied to power generation installations. The studies developed around several main themes, determined both the expansion of the nuclear programme and by changes in French environmental regulations, in particular the 1976 law on impact studies, the 1984 fishing and hydro-biology law and the 1992 water law. In this framework, he effect of artificial warming of rivers, eutrophication of continental and marine waters, transfers of mineral micro-pollutants and radionuclides in rivers, and problems specific to hydropower installations such as guaranteed in stream flow or fish pass design, have been studies. This work, conducted in collaboration with many other laboratories, has led to the development of original quantitative approaches, notably in the field of numerical modelling. The paper selects several of the tools developed whose scope of application is wider than the environment and management of thermal or hydropower plants. Two major applications grouping the experience acquired in hydro-ecology are presented: the AGIRE software and the global environment study of the Singrauli area in India. (author) 103 refs.

  10. Twenty-five years with the biopsychosocial model of low back pain-is it time to celebrate? A report from the twelfth international forum for primary care research on low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Tamar; Kent, Peter; Bronfort, Gert; Loisel, Patrick; Pransky, Glenn; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2013-11-15

    An integrated review of current knowledge about the biopsychosocial model of back pain for understanding etiology, prognosis, and interventions, as presented at the plenary sessions of the XII International Forum on LBP Research in Primary Care (Denmark; October 17-19, 2012). To evaluate the utility of the model in reference to rising rates of back pain-related disability, by identifying (a) the most promising avenues for future research in biological, psychological, and social approaches, (b) promising combinations of all 3 approaches, and (c) obstacles to effective implementation of biopsychosocial-based research and clinical practice. The biopsychosocial model of back pain has become a dominant model in the conceptualization of the etiology and prognosis of back pain, and has led to the development and testing of many interventions. Despite this back pain remains a leading source of disability worldwide. The review is a synthesis based on the plenary sessions and discussions at the XII International Forum on LBP Research in Primary Care. The presentations included evidence-based reviews of the current state of knowledge in each of the 3 areas (biological, psychological, and social), identification of obstacles to effective implementation and missed opportunities, and identification of the most promising paths for future research. Although there is good evidence for the role of biological, psychological, and social factors in the etiology and prognosis of back pain, synthesis of the 3 in research and clinical practice has been suboptimal. The utility of the biopsychosocial framework cannot be fully assessed until we truly adopt and apply it in research and clinical practice. N/A.

  11. Methane Exchange in a Coastal Fen in the First Year after Flooding - A Systems Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Juliane; Köhler, Stefan; Glatzel, Stephan; Jurasinski, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Background Peatland restoration can have several objectives, for example re-establishing the natural habitat, supporting unique biodiversity attributes or re-initiating key biogeochemical processes, which can ultimately lead to a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Every restoration measure, however, is itself a disturbance to the ecosystem. Methods Here, we examine an ecosystem shift in a coastal fen at the southern Baltic Sea which was rewetted by flooding. The analyses are based on one year of bi-weekly closed chamber measurements of methane fluxes gathered at spots located in different vegetation stands. During measurement campaigns, we recorded data on water levels, peat temperatures, and chemical properties of peat water. In addition we analyzed the first 20 cm of peat before and after flooding for dry bulk density (DBD), content of organic matter and total amounts of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and other nutrients. Results Rewetting turned the site from a summer dry fen into a shallow lake with water levels up to 0.60 m. We observed a substantial die-back of vegetation, especially in stands of sedges (Carex acutiformis Ehrh). Concentrations of total organic carbon and nitrogen in the peat water, as well as dry bulk density and concentrations of C, N and S in the peat increased. In the first year after rewetting, the average annual exchange of methane amounted to 0.26 ± 0.06 kg m-2. This is equivalent to a 190-times increase in methane compared to pre-flooding conditions. Highest methane fluxes occurred in sedge stands which suffered from the heaviest die-back. None of the recorded environmental variables showed consistent relationships with the amounts of methane exchanged. Conclusions Our results suggest that rewetting projects should be monitored not only with regard to vegetation development but also with respect to biogeochemical conditions. Further, high methane emissions that likely occur directly after rewetting by flooding should

  12. Methane Exchange in a Coastal Fen in the First Year after Flooding--A Systems Shift.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Hahn

    Full Text Available Peatland restoration can have several objectives, for example re-establishing the natural habitat, supporting unique biodiversity attributes or re-initiating key biogeochemical processes, which can ultimately lead to a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Every restoration measure, however, is itself a disturbance to the ecosystem.Here, we examine an ecosystem shift in a coastal fen at the southern Baltic Sea which was rewetted by flooding. The analyses are based on one year of bi-weekly closed chamber measurements of methane fluxes gathered at spots located in different vegetation stands. During measurement campaigns, we recorded data on water levels, peat temperatures, and chemical properties of peat water. In addition we analyzed the first 20 cm of peat before and after flooding for dry bulk density (DBD, content of organic matter and total amounts of carbon (C, nitrogen (N, sulfur (S, and other nutrients.Rewetting turned the site from a summer dry fen into a shallow lake with water levels up to 0.60 m. We observed a substantial die-back of vegetation, especially in stands of sedges (Carex acutiformis Ehrh. Concentrations of total organic carbon and nitrogen in the peat water, as well as dry bulk density and concentrations of C, N and S in the peat increased. In the first year after rewetting, the average annual exchange of methane amounted to 0.26 ± 0.06 kg m-2. This is equivalent to a 190-times increase in methane compared to pre-flooding conditions. Highest methane fluxes occurred in sedge stands which suffered from the heaviest die-back. None of the recorded environmental variables showed consistent relationships with the amounts of methane exchanged.Our results suggest that rewetting projects should be monitored not only with regard to vegetation development but also with respect to biogeochemical conditions. Further, high methane emissions that likely occur directly after rewetting by flooding should be considered when

  13. Year-round measurements of CH4 exchange in a forested drained peatland using automated chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkiakoski, Mika; Koskinen, Markku; Penttilä, Timo; Arffman, Pentti; Ojanen, Paavo; Minkkinen, Kari; Laurila, Tuomas; Lohila, Annalea

    2016-04-01

    regression and use this value in later analysis. The forest floor at the site (including the ground vegetation) acted as a CH4 sink most of the time. CH4 emission peaks were occasionally observed, particularly in spring during the snow melt, and during rainfall events in summer. Diurnal variation was observed mainly in summer. The net CH4 exchange for the two year measurement period in the six chambers varied from -31 to -155 mg CH4 m-2 yr-1, the average being -67 mg CH4 m-2 yr-1. However, this does not include the ditches which typically act as a significant source for CH4.

  14. Needle Exchange and the HIV Epidemic in Vancouver: Lessons Learned from 15 years of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyshka, Elaine; Strathdee, Steffanie; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    During the mid-1990s, Vancouver experienced a well characterized HIV outbreak among injection drug users (IDU) and many questioned how this could occur in the presence of a high volume needle exchange program (NEP). Specific concerns were fuelled by early research demonstrating that frequent needle exchange program attendees were more likely to be HIV positive than those who attended the NEP less frequently. Since then, some have misinterpreted this finding as evidence that NEPs are ineffective or potentially harmful. In light of continuing questions about the Vancouver HIV epidemic, we review 15 years of peer-reviewed research on Vancouver’s NEP to describe what has been learned through this work. Our review demonstrates that: 1) NEP attendance is not causally associated with HIV infection, 2) frequent attendees of Vancouver’s NEP have higher risk profiles which explain their increased risk of HIV seroconversion, and 3) a number of policy concerns, as well as the high prevalence of cocaine injecting contributed to the failure of the NEP to prevent the outbreak. Additionally, we highlight several improvements to Vancouver’s NEP that contributed to declines in syringe sharing and HIV incidence. Vancouver’s experience provides a number of important lessons regarding NEP. Keys to success include refocusing the NEP away from an emphasis on public order objectives by separating distribution and collection functions, removing syringe distribution limits and decentralizing and diversifying NEP services. Additionally, our review highlights the importance of context when implementing NEPs, as well as ongoing evaluation to identify factors that constrain or improve access to sterile syringes. PMID:22579215

  15. 25 years of HIV-1 research - progress and perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wainberg, Mark A; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five years after the discovery and isolation of the human immunodeficiency virus by French and American scientists, much progress has been made in basic research, clinical treatment, and public...

  16. Plasma exchange in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis--a 25-year perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szpirt, Wladimir M

    2015-01-01

    Demonstration of a pathogenic role for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) underlies the scientific rationale for plasma exchange (PLEX) in the treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Most clinical evidence of efficacy concerns the use of PLEX for the recovery of renal function...... in severe nephritis, when used in conjunction with immunosuppressive drug therapy. The development of PLEX for this indication, the strength of the clinical trial evidence supporting its use, its roles in other AAV indications and ongoing research are discussed....

  17. Tradition and interpretation: Twenty-five attempted approaches in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tradilion and interpretation stantiates this interesting hypothesis by means of his methodology and his trend of thought elsewhere. .... hermeneutical paradigm, exegetical method(s) and the methodology of his argu mentation for his hypothesis on the .... pp 301-318, esp pp 306-308). Henge! ought to take notice of this article ...

  18. Isolation and characterization of twenty-five polymorphic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siniperca scherzeri Steindachner) is one of the commercially important freshwater species mainly distributed in east Asia (Deng et al. 2010). Unfortu- nately, the wild S. scherzeri population is declining due to overexploitation and environmental ...

  19. Tradition and interpretation: Twenty-five attempted approaches in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The origin and purpose of Matthew's sermon on the mount (by Graham N. Stanton). Der gekreuzigte Christas: .... Judaistic elements cannot be ruled out at all. Elsewhere I have reasoned out this ... This idea, Strecker rightly says, is in line with the cosmic dimension and the missio nary perspective underlying the whole ...

  20. Water exchange through the Kerama Gap estimated with a 25-year Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenzheng; Yu, Fei; Nan, Feng

    2017-03-01

    V ariations in water exchange through the Kerama Gap (between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima Island) from 1979 to 2003 were estimated with the 0.08° Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The model results show that the mean transport through the Kerama Gap (KGT) from the Pacific Ocean to the East China Sea (ECS) was 2.1 Sv, which agrees well with the observed mean KGT (2.0 Sv) for 2009-2010. Over the time period examined, the monthly KGT varied from -10.9 Sv to 15.8 Sv and had a standard deviation of ± 5.0 Sv. The water mainly enters the ECS via the subsurface layer (300-500 m) along the northeastern slope of the Kerama Gap and mainly flows out of the ECS into the southwest of the Kerama Gap. The seasonal and interannual variations of the KGT and the Kuroshio upstream transport were negatively correlated. The Kuroshio upstream transport was largest in summer and smallest in autumn while the KGT was smallest in summer (1.02 Sv) and largest in spring (2.94 Sv) and autumn (2.44 Sv). The seasonal and interannual variations in the Kuroshio downstream (across the PN-line) transport differed significantly from the Kuroshio upstream transport but corresponded well with the KGT and the sum of the transport through the Kerama Gap and the Kuroshio upstream, which indicates that information about variation in the KGT is important for determining variation in the Kuroshio transport along the PN-line.

  1. Water exchange through the Kerama Gap estimated with a 25-year Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenzheng; Yu, Fei; Nan, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Variations in water exchange through the Kerama Gap (between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima Island) from 1979 to 2003 were estimated with the 0.08° Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The model results show that the mean transport through the Kerama Gap (KGT) from the Pacific Ocean to the East China Sea (ECS) was 2.1 Sv, which agrees well with the observed mean KGT (2.0 Sv) for 2009-2010. Over the time period examined, the monthly KGT varied from -10.9 Sv to 15.8 Sv and had a standard deviation of ± 5.0 Sv. The water mainly enters the ECS via the subsurface layer (300-500 m) along the northeastern slope of the Kerama Gap and mainly flows out of the ECS into the southwest of the Kerama Gap. The seasonal and interannual variations of the KGT and the Kuroshio upstream transport were negatively correlated. The Kuroshio upstream transport was largest in summer and smallest in autumn while the KGT was smallest in summer (1.02 Sv) and largest in spring (2.94 Sv) and autumn (2.44 Sv). The seasonal and interannual variations in the Kuroshio downstream (across the PN-line) transport differed significantly from the Kuroshio upstream transport but corresponded well with the KGT and the sum of the transport through the Kerama Gap and the Kuroshio upstream, which indicates that information about variation in the KGT is important for determining variation in the Kuroshio transport along the PN-line.

  2. Intergenerational relations across four years: wellbeing is affected by quality not by support exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Schuengel, C.; Schulze, H.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Providing support to an aging parent may pose challenges to adult children but also provide an opportunity to “ give back ” to loved ones. The current study investigated changes in emotional and instrumental support and quality across a period of 4 years. Additionally, associations between

  3. Language Learning and Acculturation: Lessons from High School and Gap-Year Exchange Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spenader, Allison J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between acculturation and language learning during a year-long study abroad program at the pre-collegiate level. The researcher presents the experiences of four U.S. American sojourners to Sweden as case studies. This mixed-methods study looks specifically at students with no prior knowledge of the target…

  4. Factors Affecting the Return Stock Company in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX LQ45 in Years 2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangki A. Sorongan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the effect of partially and jointly independent variable of Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Return on Equity (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Net Profit Margin (NPM against the dependent variable on the stock return. Objects of this research were companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI LQ45 continuously for four years in the period 2012-2015. Companies that qualify for this research were 28 companies. Based on this research, the conclusions indicate that all four independent variables; Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Return on Equity (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Net Profit Margin (NPM, either jointly or partially give the significant effect on return stock.

  5. The use of laboratory-determined ion exchange parameters in the predictive modelling of field-scale major cation migration in groundwater over a 40-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, Harriet F; Tellam, John H; Parker, Karen E

    2004-01-01

    An attempt has been made to estimate quantitatively cation concentration changes as estuary water invades a Triassic Sandstone aquifer in northwest England. Cation exchange capacities and selectivity coefficients for Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) were measured in the laboratory using standard techniques. Selectivity coefficients were also determined using a method involving optimized back-calculation from flushing experiments, thus permitting better representation of field conditions; in all cases, the Gaines-Thomas/constant cation exchange capacity (CEC) model was found to be a reasonable, though not perfect, first description. The exchange parameters interpreted from the laboratory experiments were used in a one-dimensional reactive transport mixing cell model, and predictions compared with field pumping well data (Cl and hardness spanning a period of around 40 years, and full major ion analyses in approximately 1980). The concentration patterns predicted using Gaines-Thomas exchange with calcite equilibrium were similar to the observed patterns, but the concentrations of the divalent ions were significantly overestimated, as were 1980 sulphate concentrations, and 1980 alkalinity concentrations were underestimated. Including representation of sulphate reduction in the estuarine alluvium failed to replicate 1980 HCO(3) and pH values. However, by including partial CO(2) degassing following sulphate reduction, a process for which there is 34S and 18O evidence from a previous study, a good match for SO(4), HCO(3), and pH was attained. Using this modified estuary water and averaged values from the laboratory ion exchange parameter determinations, good predictions for the field cation data were obtained. It is concluded that the Gaines-Thomas/constant exchange capacity model with averaged parameter values can be used successfully in ion exchange predictions in this aquifer at a regional scale and over extended time scales, despite the numerous assumptions inherent in

  6. Testing the Monetary Model for Exchange Rate Determination in South Africa: Evidence from 101 Years of Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riané de Bruyn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence in favor of the monetary model of exchange rate determination for the South African Rand is, at best, mixed. A co-integrating relationship between the nominal exchange rate and monetary fundamentals forms the basis of the monetary model. With the econometric literature suggesting that the span of the data, not the frequency, determines the power of the co-integration tests and the studies on South Africa primarily using short-span data from the post-Bretton Woods era, we decided to test the long-run monetary model of exchange rate determination for the South African Rand relative to the US Dollar using annual data from 1910 – 2010. The results provide some support for the monetary model in that long-run co-integration is found between the nominal exchange rate and the output and money supply deviations. However, the theoretical restrictions required by the monetary model are rejected. A vector error-correction model identifies both the nominal exchange rate and the monetary fundamentals as the channel for the adjustment process of deviations from the long-run equilibrium exchange rate. A subsequent comparison of nominal exchange rate forecasts based on the monetary model with those of the random walk model suggests that the forecasting performance of the monetary model is superior.

  7. Investigation of market efficiency and Financial Stability between S&P 500 and London Stock Exchange: Monthly and yearly Forecasting of Time Series Stock Returns using ARMA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, Mohammad Mahdi; Nassir Zadeh, Farzaneh

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the presence and changes in, long memory features in the returns and volatility dynamics of S&P 500 and London Stock Exchange using ARMA model. Recently, multifractal analysis has been evolved as an important way to explain the complexity of financial markets which can hardly be described by linear methods of efficient market theory. In financial markets, the weak form of the efficient market hypothesis implies that price returns are serially uncorrelated sequences. In other words, prices should follow a random walk behavior. The random walk hypothesis is evaluated against alternatives accommodating either unifractality or multifractality. Several studies find that the return volatility of stocks tends to exhibit long-range dependence, heavy tails, and clustering. Because stochastic processes with self-similarity possess long-range dependence and heavy tails, it has been suggested that self-similar processes be employed to capture these characteristics in return volatility modeling. The present study applies monthly and yearly forecasting of Time Series Stock Returns in S&P 500 and London Stock Exchange using ARMA model. The statistical analysis of S&P 500 shows that the ARMA model for S&P 500 outperforms the London stock exchange and it is capable for predicting medium or long horizons using real known values. The statistical analysis in London Stock Exchange shows that the ARMA model for monthly stock returns outperforms the yearly. ​A comparison between S&P 500 and London Stock Exchange shows that both markets are efficient and have Financial Stability during periods of boom and bust.

  8. Exchange Transfusion in the Treatment of Neonatal Septic Shock: A Ten-Year Experience in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Pugni, Lorenza; Ronchi, Andrea; Bizzarri, Bianca; Consonni, Dario; Pietrasanta, Carlo; Ghirardi, Beatrice; Fumagalli, Monica; Ghirardello, Stefano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Septic shock, occurring in about 1% of neonates hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), is a major cause of death in the neonatal period. In the 1980s and 90s, exchange transfusion (ET) was reported by some authors to be effective in the treatment of neonatal sepsis and septic shock. The main aim of this retrospective study was to compare the mortality rate of neonates with septic shock treated only with standard care therapy (ScT group) with the mortality rate of those treated w...

  9. Latest developments in biofilm technologies for wastewater treatment: Twenty five years of research of the environmental engineering group (University of Cantabria, Spain); Tecnologias de biopelicula innovadoras para la depuracion de aguas residuales: veinticinco anos de investigacion del Grupo de Ingenieria Ambiental de la Universidad de Camtabria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejero Monzon, J. I.; Esteban-Garcia, A. L.; Florio, L. del; Diez Montero, R.; Lobo Garcia de Cortazar, A.; Rodriguez-Hernandez, L.

    2012-07-01

    Biological wastewater treatments are based on the use of active biomass, or set of organisms, in charge of carrying out the removal of contaminants. the biomass can be dispersed in suspension within the bulk liquid (activated sludge processes) or attached to a support media (biofilm processes). Biofilm technology was historically the first to be spread and applied. Nevertheless, since the 1950s, activated sludge technology gained more and more popularity given the supposed operation simplicity and higher quality of the effluent. Recently, new developments pushed forward the biofilm technology again. In this context, the Environmental Engineering Group of the University of Cantabria, since its foundation more than 2 decades ago, has been working on research and development of innovative wastewater treatment technologies based on biofilm. In this article, the know-how of the Group is illustrated, including the development of innovative submerged fixed bed reactors with and without (micro) filtration membranes, processes of biofilm supported by and aerated through membranes, as well as integrated systems (hybrid or combined) aimed at nutrient removal. submerged aerated fixed technologies, especially in hybrid configuration, as much as sludge blanket reactors (combined with biofilm processes) allow for increasing biomass concentration and may provide an attractive solution to upgrade existing WWTP. In combination with membrane filtration, they produce an effluent suitable for reuse o discharge in sensitive areas. On the other, hand, the possibility of aerating (diffusing the gas) directly through the membrane lumen into the biomass thereby grown, without need of oxygenating the whole wastewater flow to be treated, may be a real energetic paradigm shift. The developed technologies are here described alongside their experimental and modeling assessment, ranging from laboratory and bench scale up to pilot scale systems treating real municipal wastewater. (Author)

  10. « Iran, the Revolutions of October », in : M. Hamid Ansari, ed., Iran Today, Twenty-five Years after the Islamic Revolution. New Delhi, Rupca and Observer Research Foundation, 2005, pp. 102-110.

    OpenAIRE

    VAN ENGELAND, Anicée

    2007-01-01

    L’Iran est entrée dans une nouvelle dynamique et ce depuis 2003 : trois évènements majeurs, tous survenus en octobre 2003, ont marqué le début de cette nouvelle ère. Il s’agit de l’attribution du prix Nobel à Šīrīn ‘Ebādī, de l’acceptation par l’Iran des règles internationales concernant les armes nucléaires et de la décision de la compagnie Renault de s’implanter en Iran. Ces trois évènements ont provoqué maintes tensions intérieures et ont eu aussi un impact essentiel sur l’équilibre des po...

  11. Barter exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    Although barter is often perceived as something that proceeded money, barter is still used. The focus of the paper is on barter exchanges. Barter exchanges are used both in developing countries as well as in developed countries (including the U.S.). They are used by both organizations...... and individuals. They usually allow to exchange good but some include also services. Some exchanges allow only for bi-directional barter, i.e. when only two parties are involved in the exchange. But probably most of the barter exchanges use barter money; this makes it easier to exchange goods and services...

  12. Continuous education of teachers of elementary school (early years key in the context of meeting and intergenerational exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Henrique da Silva Ramos

    2017-03-01

    This study is based on a Master’s research in progress thataims to analyze that formative relationships are established betweenbeginning young teachers, recently graduated or with a maximum of fiveyears of teaching experience - and experienced teachers - aged forty yearsor more and about fifteen or more years of teaching, within an elementaryschool (early years, conceived as a training space. It has been hypothesized

  13. Can Good Infection Control Be Obtained in One-stage Exchange of the Infected TKA to a Rotating Hinge Design? 10-year Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zahar, Akos; Kendoff, Daniel O; Klatte, Till O; Gehrke, Thorsten A

    2016-01-01

    ...). Although two-stage exchange is the preferred management method of patients with chronic PJI in TKA in North America, one-stage exchange is an alternative treatment method, but long-term studies...

  14. Selection of words for implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS in non-verbal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carine; Bevilacqua, Monica; Ishihara, Mariana; Fiori, Aline; Armonia, Aline; Perissinoto, Jacy; Tamanaha, Ana Carina

    2017-03-09

    It is known that some autistic individuals are considered non-verbal, since they are unable to use verbal language and barely use gestures to compensate for the absence of speech. Therefore, these individuals' ability to communicate may benefit from the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System - PECS. The objective of this study was to verify the most frequently used words in the implementation of PECS in autistic children, and on a complementary basis, to analyze the correlation between the frequency of these words and the rate of maladaptive behaviors. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample was composed of 31 autistic children, twenty-five boys and six girls, aged between 5 and 10 years old. To identify the most frequently used words in the initial period of implementation of PECS, the Vocabulary Selection Worksheet was used. And to measure the rate of maladaptive behaviors, we applied the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). There was a significant prevalence of items in the category "food", followed by "activities" and "beverages". There was no correlation between the total amount of items identified by the families and the rate of maladaptive behaviors. The categories of words most mentioned by the families could be identified, and it was confirmed that the level of maladaptive behaviors did not interfere directly in the preparation of the vocabulary selection worksheet for the children studied.

  15. Lateral expansion and carbon exchange of a boreal peatland in Finland resulting in 7000 years of positive radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Paul J. H.; Kähkölä, Noora; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Lohila, Annalea; Minkkinen, Kari; Laurila, Tuomas; Väliranta, Minna

    2017-03-01

    Data on past peatland growth patterns, vegetation development, and carbon (C) dynamics during the various Holocene climate phases may help us to understand possible future climate-peatland feedback mechanisms. In this study, we analyzed and radiocarbon dated several peat cores from Kalevansuo, a drained bog in southern Finland. We investigated peatland succession and C dynamics throughout the Holocene. These data were used to reconstruct the long-term atmospheric radiative forcing, i.e., climate impact of the peatland since initiation. Kalevansuo peat records revealed a general development from fen to bog, typical for the southern boreal zone, but the timing of ombrotrophication varied in different parts of the peatland. Peat accumulation patterns and lateral expansion through paludification were influenced by fires and climate conditions. Long-term C accumulation rates were overall lower than the average values found from literature. We suggest the low accumulation rates are due to repeated burning of the peat surface. Drainage for forestry resulted in a nearly complete replacement of typical bog mosses by forest species within 40 years after drainage. The radiative forcing reconstruction suggested positive values (warming) for the first 7000 years following initiation. The change from positive to negative forcing was triggered by an expansion of bog vegetation cover and later by drainage. The strong relationship between peatland area and peat type with radiative forcing suggests a possible feedback for future changing climate, as high-latitude peatlands may experience prominent regime shifts, such as fen to bog transitions.

  16. [Comparison of two different surgical treatments of presbyopia for hyperopic patients over 55 years old: Presbylasik (Supracor) and Prelex (presbyopic lens exchange)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyal, L; Abrieu-Lacaille, M; Bonnel, S; Sendon, D; de Rivoyre, B; Berguiga, M; Rambaud, C; Froussart-Maille, F; Rigal-Sastourné, J-C

    2015-04-01

    The management of presbyopic patients is a medical, surgical and economic issue. We wondered which procedure, whether a Presbylasik technique called Regular Supracor or the intraocular surgery of clear lens replacement by a trifocal diffractive lens (presbyopic lens exchange [Prelex]), provided the best results (in visual acuity and satisfaction) for our hyperopic and presbyopic patients between 55 and 70. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of the two techniques (at one week and three months) and to assess patients' quality of life. This study is a retrospective monocentric clinical trial conducted between June 2011 and March 2014, on 21 hyperopic presbyopic patients (mean age 60.9 years), in the "hôpital d'instruction des armées-Percy" (Clamart); 13 patients underwent the corneal treatment of Presbylasik (with the Intralase FS60 femtosecond laser [AMO, USA] and the Technolas 217P excimer laser [Technolas Perfect Vision, GmbH] following the Zyoptix Tissue-Saving algorithm adjusted with a nomogram and the Regular Supracor mode), and 8 patients underwent clear lens extraction (Prelex), through bimanual phacoemulsification and implantation of diffractive trifocal intraocular lenses (Finevision Micro F, PhysIOL(*)). Mean uncorrected binocular distance and near vision visual acuity in the Supracor group were respectively 0.03 (-0.2-0.1) LogMar and 0.23 (0.06-0.36) one week postoperatively and 0.031 (-0.2-0.1) and 0,166 (0.06-0.36) three months postoperatively. In the Prelex group, the mean uncorrected one week binocular VA was 0.025 (0-0.1) for distance vision and 0.165 (0.06-0.18) for near distance and the three months visual acuity was 0 (-0.1-0.1) and 0.105 (0.06-0.18) for distance and near vision. All Prelex patients were spectacle-free at all distances, whereas 4 Supracor patients required spectacles for near vision postoperatively. Seven of 11 patients in the Supracor group and 100% of the Prelex patients were completely satisfied. Both

  17. The epidemiology of NCAA men’s lacrosse injuries, 2009/10-2014/15 academic years

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Quigley, Adam; Yeargin, Susan W; Lincoln, Andrew E; Mensch, James; Caswell, Shane V; Dompier, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    ...) men’s lacrosse during the 2009/10–2014/15 academic years.Twenty-five men’s lacrosse programs provided 63 team-seasons of data for the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) during the 2009/10...

  18. Middle Years Students' Experiences in Nature: A Case Study on Nature-Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Marj; Paige, Kathy; Lloyd, David

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, children today are becoming disconnected from the natural environments resulting in a diminished sense of self, place and community. In an attempt to find out their perceptions, attitudes and values about the natural world, twenty-five Year 6 and 7 students from a northern Adelaide primary school participated in a nature-play case…

  19. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benford, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Pasqualetti, M.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Measurements of CO2 exchange with an automated chamber system throughout the year: challenges in measuring night-time respiration on porous peat soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koskinen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We built an automatic chamber system to measure greenhouse gas (GHG exchange in forested peatland ecosystems. We aimed to build a system robust enough which would work throughout the year and could measure through a changing snowpack in addition to producing annual GHG fluxes by integrating the measurements without the need of using models. The system worked rather well throughout the year, but it was not service free. Gap filling of data was still necessary. We observed problems in carbon dioxide (CO2 respiration flux estimation during calm summer nights, when a CO2 concentration gradient from soil/moss system to atmosphere builds up. Chambers greatly overestimated the night-time respiration. This was due to the disturbance caused by the chamber to the soil-moss CO2 gradient and consequent initial pulse of CO2 to the chamber headspace. We tested different flux calculation and measurement methods to solve this problem. The estimated flux was strongly dependent on (1 the starting point of the fit after closing the chamber, (2 the length of the fit, (3 the type of the fit (linear and polynomial, (4 the speed of the fan mixing the air inside the chamber, and (5 atmospheric turbulence (friction velocity, u*. The best fitting method (the most robust, least random variation for respiration measurements on our sites was linear fitting with the period of 120–240 s after chamber closure. Furthermore, the fan should be adjusted to spin at minimum speed to avoid the pulse-effect, but it should be kept on to ensure mixing. If night-time problems cannot be solved, emissions can be estimated using daytime data from opaque chambers.

  1. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  2. Ten Years of Growing Season Water, Energy and Carbon Exchange From an Oil sands Reclamation Site, Fort McMurray, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Drewitt, G. B.

    2013-12-01

    The oil sands mining industry in Canada has made a commitment to restore disturbed areas to an equivalent capability to that which existed prior to mining. Certification requires successful reclamation, which can in part be evaluated through long-term ecosystem studies. A reclamation site, informally named South Bison Hill (SBH) has had growing season water, energy and carbon fluxes measured via the eddy covariance method for 10 years since establishment. SBH was capped with a 0.2 m peat-glacial till mixture overlying 0.8 m of reworked glacial till soil. The site was seeded to barley cultivar (Hordeum spp.) in the summer of 2002 and later planted to white spruce (Picea glauca) and aspen (Populus spp.) in the summer/fall of 2004. Since 2007, the major species atop SBH has been aspen, and by 2012 was on average ~ 4 m in height. Climatically, mean growing temperature did not vary greatly, yet there was considerable difference in rainfall among years, with 2012 having the greatest rainfall at 321 mm, whereas 2011 and 2007 were notably dry at 180 and 178 mm, respectively. The partitioning of energy varied among years, but the fraction of latent heat as a portion of net radiation increased with the establishment of aspen, along with concomitant increases in LAI and growing season net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Peat growing season ET was smallest in 2004 at 2.3 mm/d and greatest in 2010 at ~3.9 mm/d. ET rates showed a marked increase in 2008 corresponding with the increase in LAI attributed to the aspen cover. Since the establishment of a surface cover and vegetation in 2003, SBH has been a growing season sink for carbon dioxide. Values of NEE follow similar patterns to those of ET, with values gradually becoming more negative (greater carbon uptake) as the aspen forest established. Comparison with other disturbed and undisturbed boreal aspen stands show that SBH exhibits similar water, energy and carbon flux patterns during the growing season.

  3. The use of a double heat pipe heat exchanger system for reducing energy consumption of treating ventilation air in an operating theatre. A full year energy consumption model simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yau, Y.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2008-07-01

    In two earlier papers [Y.H. Yau, Application of a heat pipe heat exchanger to dehumidification enhancement in tropical HVAC systems - a baseline performance characteristics study, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 46 (2) (2007) 164-171; ], two series of experiments were conducted under controlled conditions to establish the baseline performance characteristics of the heat pipe heat exchanger (HPHX). In the present paper, a complete empirical transient systems simulation program model is assembled to estimate the air states as well as the entire typical meteorological year energy consumption of an operating theatre located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The current heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for the operating theatre are found to be inherently energy-inefficient and can be further improved with a double heat pipe heat exchanger system. The impact on actual energy consumption of a custom-built Trane Air Handler Unit 0704 2-2MB is simulated with two 8-row heat pipe heat exchanger installed in the heating, ventilating and air conditioning system compared to the existing without HPHX HVAC system. Based on this investigation, the application of a double heat pipe heat exchanger system (Plant E) in the conventional Air Handler Unit operating in a tropical climate is strongly recommended as an efficient mean for humidity control and energy savings to maintain acceptable room conditions per American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) requirements [ASHRAE, ASHRAE Handbook HVAC Applications SI Edition, ASHRAE, Atlanta, GA, USA, 1995]. (author)

  4. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  5. Brief report: parental burden and grief one year after the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M. Hunfeld (Joke); A. Tempels; J. Passchier (Jan); F.W.J. Hazebroek (Frans); D. Tibboel (Dick)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess parental burden and grief one year after having a child with a congenital anomaly. METHOD: Twenty-five couples completed the Impact on Family Scale (IFS) and 22 couples answered the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS). In addition, 27 mothers

  6. Power Polarity In The Far Eastern World System, 1025 BC–AD 1850: Narrative And 25-Year Interval Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wikinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Power polarity in the Far Eastern macro-social system is assessed at twenty five year intervals 1050 BC-AD 1850. Consistent with analysis of Indic system data, there is no support for the theory that the normal world-system power configuration is multipolar, hegemonic, or universal-empire. Instead several different "stability epochs" are discerned.

  7. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  8. Twenty-Five Centuries of Quantum Physics: From Pythagoras to Us, and from Subjectivism to Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    Three main theses are proposed. The first is that the idea of a quantum or minimal unit is not peculiar to quantum theory, since it already occurs in the classical theories of elasticity and electrolysis. Second, the peculiarities of the objects described by quantum theory are the following: their basic laws are probabilistic; some of their properties, such as position and energy, are blunt rather than sharp; two particles that were once together continue to be associated even after becoming spatially separated; and the vacuum has physical properties, so that it is a kind of matter. Third, the orthodox or Copenhagen interpretation of the theory is false, and may conveniently be replaced with a realist (though not classicist) interpretation. Heisenberg's inequality, Schrödinger's cat and Zeno's quantum paradox are discussed in the light of the two rival interpretations. It is also shown that the experiments that falsified Bell's inequality do not refute realism but the classicism inherent in hidden variables theories.

  9. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Twenty-Five. The Polish-English Contrastive Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    Papers in this volume on contrastive linguistics include the following: "Auxiliaries in English and Danish" (Niels Davidsen-Nielsen); "On Tongue Twisters" (Wlodzimierz Sobkowiak); "On Derivational and Phrasal Adverbials of Manner" (James L. Wyatt); "Scrambling and the Polish Word Order. An Alternative Hypothesis" (Przemyslaw Tajsner); "Verbs of…

  10. Ranking of Rankings: Benchmarking Twenty-Five Higher Education Ranking Systems in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Ingo; Hendel, Darwin D.; Horn, Aaron S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ranking practices of 25 European higher education ranking systems (HERSs). Ranking practices were assessed with 14 quantitative measures derived from the Berlin Principles on Ranking of Higher Education Institutions (BPs). HERSs were then ranked according to their degree of congruence with the BPs.…

  11. Managing the culturally diverse medical practice team: twenty-five strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura

    2014-01-01

    A common misconception is that the phrase workplace diversity means meeting certain quotas in employee race or gender categories. In fact, diversity is much more than that. This article explores the unique benefits and challenges of managing a culturally diverse medical practice team and offers practice managers 25 practical strategies. It describes the two types of diversity training that are beneficial to practice managers and the kinds of policies, practices, and procedures that foster and promote diversity. This article also explores ethnocentrism, racism, ageism, sexism, stereotyping, and other potentially divisive issues among a diverse medical practice team. It provides an assessment instrument practice managers can use to evaluate their own diversity management skills. Finally, this article defines specifically what is meant by the term diversity and explores the top 10 diversity issues in workplaces today.

  12. Twenty-five pitfalls in the analysis of diffusion MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Derek K; Cercignani, Mara

    2010-08-01

    Obtaining reliable data and drawing meaningful and robust inferences from diffusion MRI can be challenging and is subject to many pitfalls. The process of quantifying diffusion indices and eventually comparing them between groups of subjects and/or correlating them with other parameters starts at the acquisition of the raw data, followed by a long pipeline of image processing steps. Each one of these steps is susceptible to sources of bias, which may not only limit the accuracy and precision, but can lead to substantial errors. This article provides a detailed review of the steps along the analysis pipeline and their associated pitfalls. These are grouped into 1 pre-processing of data; 2 estimation of the tensor; 3 derivation of voxelwise quantitative parameters; 4 strategies for extracting quantitative parameters; and finally 5 intra-subject and inter-subject comparison, including region of interest, histogram, tract-specific and voxel-based analyses. The article covers important aspects of diffusion MRI analysis, such as motion correction, susceptibility and eddy current distortion correction, model fitting, region of interest placement, histogram and voxel-based analysis. We have assembled 25 pitfalls (several previously unreported) into a single article, which should serve as a useful reference for those embarking on new diffusion MRI-based studies, and as a check for those who may already be running studies but may have overlooked some important confounds. While some of these problems are well known to diffusion experts, they might not be to other researchers wishing to undertake a clinical study based on diffusion MRI. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-five. Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Minnesota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  14. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  15. Link between carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteria carriage and cross-border exchanges: eight-year surveillance in a large French multihospitals institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sandra; Lepainteur, Margaux; Kassis-Chikhani, Najiby; Huang, Michele; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Jarlier, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris launched a specific strategy to survey and control the spread of emerging multidrug-resistant bacteria such as carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteria (CPE). Among the 63 CPE events that occurred between 2004 and 2011, 87% involved patients with a link with cross-border exchanges, justifying the recommendation to screen and isolate such patients. © 2012 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  16. Changes In Stock Returns And Trading Volume Of American Depositary Receipts Around Their U.S. Stock Exchange Listing Switches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kam C Chan; Annie Wong

    2012-01-01

    .... stock exchange to a more prestigious U.S. stock exchange; namely from the NASDAQ or American Stock Exchange to the New York Stock Exchange or from the American Stock Exchange to the NASDAQ since year 2000...

  17. Report about term infants with severe hyperbilirubinemia undergoing exchange transfusion in Southwestern China during an 11-year period, from 2001 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canfeng Yu

    Full Text Available This study was intended to explore the etiology and risk factors of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and to analyze the adverse events associated with ECT (Exchange Transfusion, as well as to identify the factors related to the poor prognosis.All of the full-term neonates who had undergone ECT for hyperbilirubinemia at Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2001 to December 2011 were enrolled in this study. General demographic characteristics, comorbidities, pre- and post-exchange TSB(Total Serum Bilirubin levels, duration and frequency of ECT, and clinical outcomes were recorded and analyzed anonymously.Of 614 total infants, 368 patients (59.9% with ABO incompatibility were identified, of whom 197 (53.5% developed acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE and 16 (4.3% suffered a poor prognosis. The etiology was unidentified in 103 patients (16.8%, of whom 62 (60.1% developed ABE and 9 (8.7% had a poor prognosis. Identified adverse events secondary to ECT included thrombocytopenia (54.6%, hyperglycemia (42.8%, apnea (3.3% and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC (1.3%. No ECT-related mortality was documented in this study.The etiology, peak TSB level before ECT, and time of ECT had a significant impact on the outcome of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. ABO incompatibility was the most common cause of extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Pathological weight loss could be involved in the development of extreme hyperbilirubinemia with an unidentified cause.

  18. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  19. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  20. Ecosystem CO2 Exchange Across Semiarid Southwestern North America: A Synthesis of Multi-Year Flux Site Observations and its Comparison with Estimates from Terrestrial Biome Models and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, J. A.; Scott, R. L.; Goulden, M.; Litvak, M. E.; Kolb, T.; Yepez, E. A.; Garatuza, J.; Oechel, W. C.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Ponce-Campos, G. E.; Bowling, D. R.; Meyers, T. P.; Maurer, G.

    2016-12-01

    Global carbon cycle studies reveal that semiarid ecosystems dominate the increasing trend and interannual variability of the land CO2 sink. However, the regional terrestrial biome models (TBM) and remote sensing products (RSP) used in large-scale analyses are poorly constrained by ecosystem flux measurements in semiarid regions, which are under-represented in global flux datasets. Here we present eddy covariance measurements from 25 diverse ecosystems in semiarid southwestern North America with ranges in annual precipitation of 100 - 1000 mm, annual temperatures of 2 - 25 °C, and records of 3 - 10 years each (150 site-years in total). We identified seven subregions with unique seasonal dynamics in climate and ecosystem-atmosphere exchange, including net and gross CO2 exchange (photosynthesis and respiration) and evapotranspiration (ET), and we evaluated how well measured dynamics were captured by satellite-based greenness observations of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). Annual flux integrals were calculated based on site-appropriate ecohydrologic years. Net ecosystem production (NEP) varied between -550 and + 420 g C m-2, highlighting the wide range of regional sink/source function. Annual photosynthesis and respiration were positively related to water availability but were suppressed in warmer years at a given site and at climatically warmer sites, in contrast to positive temperature responses at wetter sites. When precipitation anomalies were spatially coherent across sites (e.g. related to El Niño Southern Oscillation), we found large regional annual anomalies in net and gross CO2 uptake. TBM and RSP were less effective in capturing spatial gradients in mean ET and CO2 exchange across this semiarid region as compared to wetter regions. Measured interannual variability of ET and gross CO2 exchange was 3 - 5 times larger than estimates from TBM or RSP. These results suggest that semiarid regions play an even larger role in regulating interannual variability

  1. HEAT EXCHANGERS IN SEWAGE PIPES

    OpenAIRE

    Podobeková, Veronika; Peráčková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses utilization of heat from waste water in sewage. During the year, temperature of water in sewage ranges between 10 °C and 20 °C and the heat from sewage could be used for heating, cooling and hot water preparation in building. The heat is extracted through a transfer surface area of the heat exchanger into the heat pump, which is able to utilize the low–potential energy. Different design and types of the heat exchangers in sewage are dealt with: heat exchangers embedded i...

  2. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waffelaert, Pascale

    2007-09-01

    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This

  3. The pump, the exchanger, and the holy spirit: origins and 40-year evolution of ideas about the ouabain-Na+pump endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Mordecai P

    2018-01-01

    Two prescient 1953 publications set the stage for the elucidation of a novel endocrine system: Schatzmann's report that cardiotonic steroids (CTSs) are all Na + pump inhibitors, and Szent-Gyorgi's suggestion that there is an endogenous "missing screw" in heart failure that CTSs like digoxin may replace. In 1977 I postulated that an endogenous Na + pump inhibitor acts as a natriuretic hormone and simultaneously elevates blood pressure (BP) in salt-dependent hypertension. This hypothesis was based on the idea that excess renal salt retention promoted the secretion of a CTS-like hormone that inhibits renal Na + pumps and salt reabsorption. The hormone also inhibits arterial Na + pumps, elevates myocyte Na + and promotes Na/Ca exchanger-mediated Ca 2+ gain. This enhances vasoconstriction and arterial tone-the hallmark of hypertension. Here I describe how those ideas led to the discovery that the CTS-like hormone is endogenous ouabain (EO), a key factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension and heart failure. Seminal observations that underlie the still-emerging picture of the EO-Na + pump endocrine system in the physiology and pathophysiology of multiple organ systems are summarized. Milestones include: 1) cloning the Na + pump isoforms and physiological studies of mutated pumps in mice; 2) discovery that Na + pumps are also EO-triggered signaling molecules; 3) demonstration that ouabain, but not digoxin, is hypertensinogenic; 4) elucidation of EO's roles in kidney development and cardiovascular and renal physiology and pathophysiology; 5) discovery of "brain ouabain", a component of a novel hypothalamic neuromodulatory pathway; and 6) finding that EO and its brain receptors modulate behavior and learning.

  4. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  5. Heat Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Bottomley, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Heat Exchange’ is an international touring exhibition of enamel metalwork curated by Turrell.E (UK), Gegenwart (Germany/UK) and Cameron (Australia). Bottomley was one of twenty-three international artists invited to join a transcontinental on-line blog and forum that recorded individual contemporary approaches to working with vitreous enamel the year prior to the 2012 exhibition that coincided with the SNAG (Society of North American Goldsmiths) National Conference in Phoenix Arizona USA.Vitr...

  6. Carbon assimilation, translocation and respiration in Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba stands measured by gas exchange and isotopic techniques during two contrasting climatic years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrichkova, Olga; Scartazza, Andrea; Zampedri, Roberto; Cavagna, Mauro; Sottocornola, Matteo; Matteucci, Giorgio; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Global warming is tremendously influencing the climate of mountain areas through constantly rising temperatures and changes in local hydrological cycle. Increase of precipitation extremes, seasonal shifts of rainfall regime, heat waves are becoming more and more frequent events here. Vulnerability and plasticity of the local individual tree species under changing climate has still to be evaluated under field conditions. Two consecutive years, 2012 and 2013 were quite distinct in the climatic conditions during the plant growing season. Summer 2012 was characterized by a prolonged summer drought with almost no precipitation in central Italy from the end of May up to the end of August. The situation was aggravated by a very dry winter during this year. Mean annual temperatures in 2012 were 2oC higher in respect to the temperatures measured in the last 10 years. Conversely, year 2013 was milder with occasional rain events also during the summer months and temperatures close to the average values. In the Alpine zone the difference between two years were less pronounced with 2012 being slightly warmer than average and 2013 was characterized by unusually abundant spring precipitations. Taking advantage of these two contrasting years, we have monitored a functional response of one deciduous and one coniferous mountain forest stands growing in different mountain climate zones to variations in the local climate. The first, a deciduous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest, is located in the Appennine region of Italy at 1700 m height (Collelongo site, AQ) and characterized by a Mountain-Mediterranean climate. The second is a mixed forest dominated by Silver fir (Abies alba) which was chosen as a target species for our study. The site is located at 1350m height in the south-eastern Alps (Lavarone, TN) and is characterized by a mountain temperate climate. Sampling of plant material and point flux measurements were performed in the beginning, middle and the end of the growing

  7. Heat Exchanger Lab for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Jonathan W.; Evans, Edward A.; Chase, George G.

    2015-01-01

    Third year chemical engineering undergraduate students at The University of Akron designed and fabricated a heat exchanger for a stirred tank as part of a Chemical Engineering Laboratory course. The heat exchanger portion of this course was three weeks of the fifteen week long semester. Students applied concepts of scale-up and dimensional…

  8. Staff Exchange or Legal Alien Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rune Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    SRA would very much like to support the exchange of best practice between members throughout the year and the Membership Committee is presently looking into the opportunities for a Staff Exchange or Legal Alien Program. However the International Section has already had the chance to provide...

  9. VT Telephone Exchange Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The UtilityTelecom_EXCHANGE represents Vermont Telephone Exchange boundaries as defined by the VT Public Service Board. The original data was...

  10. Essential Specification Elements for Heat Exchanger Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, L.

    2015-07-01

    Performance upgrade and equipment degradation are the primary impetuses for a nuclear power plant to engage in the large capital cost project of heat exchanger replacement. Along with attention to these issues, consideration of heat exchanger Codes and Standards, material improvements, thermal redesign, and configuration are essential for developing User’s Design Specifications for successful replacement projects. The User’s Design Specification is the central document in procuring ASME heat exchangers. Properly stated objectives for the heat exchanger replacement are essential for obtaining the materials, configurations and thermal designs best suited for the nuclear power plant. Additionally, the code of construction required and the applied manufacturing standard (TEMA or HEI) affects how the heat exchanger may be designed or configured to meet the replacement goals. Knowledge of how Codes and Standards affect design and configuration details will aid in writing the User’s Design Specification. Joseph Oat Corporation has designed and fabricated many replacement heat exchangers for the nuclear power industry. These heat exchangers have been constructed per ASME Section III to various Code-Years or ASME Section VIII-1 to the current Code-Year also in accordance with TEMA and HEI. These heat exchangers have been a range of like-for-like replacement to complete thermal, material and configuration redesigns. Several examples of these heat exchangers with their Code, Standard and specification implications are presented. (Author.

  11. Biochemical activity and chemical-structural properties of soil organic matter after 17 years of amendments with olive-mill pomace co-compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, V; Macci, C; Peruzzi, E; Masciandaro, G

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates soil fertility, biochemical activity and the soil's ability to stabilize organic matter after application of composted olive-mill pomace. This organic amendment was applied in two different olive groves in southern Spain having different soil typologies (carbonated and silicic). Olive grove soils after 17 years of organic management with application of olive-mill pomace co-compost were of higher quality than those with conventional management where no co-compost had been applied. The main chemical parameters studied (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases, cation exchange capacity, total extractable carbon (TEC), and humic-to-fulvic acids ratio), significantly increased in soils treated with the organic amendment. In particular, the more resistant pool of organic matter (TEC) enhanced by about six and eight fold in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively. Moreover, the amended silicic soils showed the most significant increases in enzyme activities linked to C and P cycles (β-glucosidase twenty-five fold higher and phosphatase seven fold higher). Organic management in both soils induced higher organic matter mineralization, as shown by the higher pyrrole/phenol index (increasing 40% and 150% in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively), and lower furfural/pyrrole index (decreasing 27% and 71% in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively). As a result of mineralization, organic matter incorporated was also more stable as suggested by the trend of the aliphatic/aromatic index (decreasing 36% and 30% in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively). Therefore, management system and soil type are key factors in increasing long-term C stability or sequestration in soils. Thus application of olive-oil extraction by-products to soils could lead to important mid-to -long-term agro-environmental benefits, and be a valuable alternative use for one of the most widespread polluting wastes in the Mediterranean

  12. Ideal Heat Exchange System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    The requirements with which a heat exchange system should comply in order that at certain values of the total contact surface and heat load the entropy production in it should be minimal have been determined. It has been shown that this system can serve as a standard for real systems of irreversible heat exchange. We have found the conditions for physical realizability of a heat exchange system in which heat exchange occurs by a law linear with respect to the temperature difference between contacting flows. Analogous conditions are given without deriving for the case of heat exchange by the Fourier law.

  13. Resolution exchange simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Edward; Ytreberg, F Marty; Zuckerman, Daniel M

    2006-01-20

    We extend replica-exchange simulation in two ways and apply our approaches to biomolecules. The first generalization permits exchange simulation between models of differing resolution--i.e., between detailed and coarse-grained models. Such "resolution exchange" can be applied to molecular systems or spin systems. The second extension is to "pseudoexchange" simulations, which require little CPU usage for most levels of the exchange ladder and also substantially reduce the need for overlap between levels. Pseudoexchanges can be used in either replica or resolution exchange simulations. We perform efficient, converged simulations of a 50-atom peptide to illustrate the new approaches.

  14. Economic analysis of intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange therapies for the treatment of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in a university-based hospital in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Paulo Machado de Brito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Direct costs for treating Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS represent a significant financial burden to public hospitals. Few studies compared the cost of plasma exchange (PE treatment with human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg. Objectives: To compare the cost of two therapies for GBS: IVIg and PE. Secondary objective was to evaluate compliance to IVIg prescription guidelines of the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee (PTC. Methods: A cross-sectional study included 25 patients with GBS admitted in a university affiliated hospital from June, 2003 through June, 2008. The costs of IVIg (n=20 and PE (n=5 were evaluated through the cost minimization method, considering direct medical costs yield by the management of the institution. Patients receiving treatments other than PE or IVIg were excluded. Data were collected by medical records review. Clinical endpoint was disability on discharge, established by the 7-point scale of Hughes. Compliance to the PTC guidelines was evaluated considering the dose and prescription regime of IVIg. Results: Twenty-five participants, ranging from 2 to 70 years of age, were included. No difference occurred in any medical variables related to the treatment or in the main clinical outcome measured by the Hughes’ scale. The mean direct cost of PE treatment was US$ 6,059± 1,701 per patient, and the same expense for IVIg was US$ 18,344±12,259 (P = 0.035. Total inpatient cost was US$ 25,730± 18,714 in the PE group, and 34,768± 27,766 (p=0.530 in the IVIg group. Conclusions: In a university-based hospital, PE is equally effective and less expensive than IVIg to treat GBS.

  15. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  16. 25 years - Happy Birthday!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    The nasty PC virus turned twenty-five years this month. The very first computer virus ever was created in January 1986. Dubbed "©Brain", this virus was aiming to infect DOS-based PCs. While this instance was relatively harmless and their creators claim sincere intentions, the world has changed since then. Today's viruses and worms are malign and aim for making profit. They attack now everything connected to a network: Windows PCs, but also Linux PCs and Macs; iPhones and other mobile devices; directly the operating system, but also applications like Adobe Reader (PDF), Firefox, ... Thus, protect your computers from viruses and malware. Any unprotected computer connected to the Internet is likely to be infected within minutes! Keep your system up to date. Enable the regular automatic installation of updates/patches. If you can, use operating systems managed by CERN’s IT department; Use anti-virus software. The CERN anti-virus solution is even free for your home an...

  17. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The Laser Processed Heat Exchanger project will investigate the use of laser processed surfaces to reduce mass and volume in liquid/liquid heat exchangers as well as the replacement of the harmful and problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHX). For this project, two scale unit test articles will be designed, manufactured, and tested. These two units are a high efficiency liquid/liquid HX and a high reliability CHX.

  18. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  19. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, F. D.

    1991-07-01

    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchanger. The DSI completed a heat exchanger stress analysis of the ten-module heat exchanger bank; and performed a shell-side flow inhomogeneity analysis of the three-module heat exchanger bank. The company produced 50 tubestrips using an in-house CNC milling machine and began pressing them onto tube arrays. The DSI revised some of the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips into the array to improve some of the prototype tooling.

  20. Missionaries, Anthropologists, and Cultural Change [Part I]. Studies in Third World Societies. Publication Number Twenty-Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Darrell L., Ed.

    The topics of anthropologist-missionary relationships, theology and missiology, research methods and missionary contributions to ethnology, and missionary training and methods, along with specific case studies are presented. The 13 essays are: (1) "Prospects for a Better Understanding and Closer Cooperation between Anthropologists and…

  1. Neutral detergent-soluble fiber improves gut barrier function in twenty-five-day-old weaned rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Conde, M S; García, J; Chamorro, S; Eiras, P; Rebollar, P G; Pérez de Rozas, A; Badiola, I; de Blas, C; Carabaño, R

    2007-12-01

    The effect of neutral detergent-soluble fiber level on gut barrier function and intestinal microbiota was examined in weaned rabbits. A control diet (AH) containing 103 g of neutral detergent-soluble fiber/ kg of DM included alfalfa hay as main source of fiber. Another diet (B-AP) was formulated by replacing half of the alfalfa hay with a mixture of beet and apple pulp resulting in 131 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM. A third diet (OH) was obtained by substituting half of the alfalfa hay with a mix of oat hulls and a soybean protein concentrate and contained 79 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM. Rabbits weaned at 25 d and slaughtered at 35 d were used to determine ileal digestibility, jejunal morphology, sucrase activity, lamina propria lymphocytes, and intestinal microbiota. Suckling 35-d-old rabbits were used to assess mucosa morphology. Mortality (from weaning to 63 d of age) was also determined. Villous height of the jejunal mucosa increased with soluble fiber (P = 0.001). Rabbits fed with the greatest level of soluble fiber (BA-P diet) showed the highest villous height/ crypt depth ratio (8.14; P = 0.001), sucrase specific activity (8,671 mumol of glucose/g of protein; P = 0.019), and the greatest ileal starch digestibility (96.8%; P = 0.002). The opposite effects were observed in rabbits fed decreased levels of soluble fiber (AH and OH diets; 4.70, 5,848 mumol of glucose/g of protein, as average, respectively). The lowest ileal starch digestibility was detected for animals fed OH diet (93.2%). Suckling rabbits of the same age showed a lower villous height/crypt depth ratio (6.70) compared with the B-AP diet group, but this ratio was higher than the AH or OH diet groups. Lower levels of soluble fiber tended (P = 0.074) to increase the cellular immune response (CD8+ lymphocytes). Diet affected IL-2 production (CD25+, P = 0.029; CD5+CD25+, P = 0.057), with no clear relationship between soluble fiber and IL-2. The intestinal microbiota biodiversity was not affected by diets (P >/= 0.38). Rabbits fed the B-AP and AH diets had a reduced cecal frequency of detection compatible with Campylobacter spp. (20.3 vs. 37.8, P = 0.074), and Clostridium perfringens (4.3 vs. 17.6%, P = 0.047), compared with the OH diet group. Moreover, the mortality rates decreased from 14.4 (OH diet) to 5.1% (B-AP diet) with the increased presence of soluble fiber in the diet. In conclusion, increased levels of dietary soluble fiber improve mucosal integrity and functionality.

  2. GRUNDTVIG in transnational exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg.......Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg....

  3. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivan Catton

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  4. Education and Industry Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Gerald A.

    1974-01-01

    Through an exchange plan a school representative worked at the personnel counter of a local company, and a supervisor from that company worked with counselors, faculty, administrators, and students from the local school. The exchange of ideas and insights were of benefit to the school and the company. (KP)

  5. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  6. Above- and Below-ground Biomass, Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange, and Soil Respiration in a Poplar Populus deltoides Bartr.) stand : Changes after 3 years of Growth under Elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Grieve, K.; Bil, K.; Kudeyarov, V.; Handley, L.; Murthy, R.

    2003-12-01

    Stands of cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.) trees were grown as a coppiced system under ambient (40 Pa), twice ambient (80 Pa), and three times ambient (120 Pa) partial pressure CO2 for the past three years in the Intensively-managed Forest Mesocosm (IFM) of the Biosphere 2 Center. Over three years Net Ecosystem CO2 exchange (NECE) was measured continuously and in the third year, nine whole trees were harvested from each CO2 treatment over the growing season. Both above- and below-ground parameters were measured. Three years of growth under elevated CO2 showed the expected stimulation in foliar biomass (8.7, 11.9, and 13.1 kg for the 40, 80, and 120 Pa treatments, respectively). Rates of NECE also followed an expected increase with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, with maximum CO2 uptake rates reaching 10.5, 15.6, and 19.6 μ moles m-2 s-1 in the 40, 80, and 120 Pa treatments, respectively. However, above ground woody biomass and root biomass were not much stimulated beyond 80 Pa CO2. Wood/foliage and above/below ground biomass ratios reflect this decline. Under conditions of non-limiting nutrients and water, we found consistent increases in the above/below ground biomass ratio and wood to foliage biomass ratios in the 80 compared to the 40 Pa pCO2. Woody biomass production and the above/below ground biomass ratio were lower under the 120 Pa than any other treatment. Although biomass production did not change appreciably between 80 and 120 Pa CO2 treatments, both substrate induced and in-situ soil respiration values are also significantly higher in the 120Pa treatment, though no differences were present prior to CO2 treatments (Murthy et al. 2003). The unique closed-system operation of the IFM allowed for measures of soil CO2 efflux to be measured at both the soil collar and stand scales using a box model that takes into account all inputs and outputs from the stand. In-situ soil respiration rates increased significantly with increased atmospheric CO2

  7. Science Translational Medicine – improving human health care worldwide by providing an interdisciplinary forum for idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe, Katherine

    2010-09-01

    . Broder’s Research Perspective “Twenty-Five Years of Translational Medicine in Antiretroviral Therapy: Promises to Keep”, published in Science Translational Medicine, 7 July 2010; Volume 2, Issue 39. Dr. Broder’s perspective marks the 25th anniversary of modern antiretroviral drug discovery and development. In the early 1980s, Dr. Broder’s research team adapted the nucleotide analog AZT for treating HIV infection, thus ushering in the era of antiretroviral therapies that have enabled HIV-positive individuals to live longer. The Podcast interview was conducted by Annalisa VanHook, Associate Online Editor, AAAS.

  8. Heat exchanger design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Thulukkanam, Kuppan

    2013-01-01

    Completely revised and updated to reflect current advances in heat exchanger technology, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Second Edition includes enhanced figures and thermal effectiveness charts, tables, new chapter, and additional topics--all while keeping the qualities that made the first edition a centerpiece of information for practicing engineers, research, engineers, academicians, designers, and manufacturers involved in heat exchange between two or more fluids.See What's New in the Second Edition: Updated information on pressure vessel codes, manufacturer's association standards A new c

  9. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  10. Ion Exchange Formation via Sulfonated Bicomponent Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, Hannah L.

    For many years ion exchange resins were used to: remove heavy metals from water, recover materials from wastewater, and eliminate harmful gases from the air. While use of these resin beads dominates the ion exchange industry, the beads have limitations that should be considered when decisions are made to employ them. For instance, officials must balance the inherent zero sum surface area and porosity of the materials. This series of studies investigates the use of bicomponent nonwovens as a base substrate for producing high surface area ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metal ions. Functionalized materials were produced in a two-step process: (1) PET/PE spunbond bicomponent fibers were fractured completely, producing the high surface area nonwoven to be used as the base ion exchange material, and (2) the conditions for functionalizing the PET fibers of the nonwoven webs were investigated where an epoxy containing monomer was grafted to the surface followed by sulfonation of the monomer. The functionalization reactions of the PET fibers were monitored based on: weight gain, FTIR, TOF-SIMS, and SEM. Ion exchange properties were evaluated using titration and copper ion removal capacity from test solutions. The relationship between web structure and removal efficiency of the metal ions was defined through a comparison of the bicomponent and homocomponent nonwovens for copper ion removal efficiency. The investigation revealed that utilizing the high surface area, fractured bicomponent nonwoven ion exchange materials with capacities comparable to commercially available ion exchange resins could be produced.

  11. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  12. Microplate Heat Exchanger Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a microplate heat exchanger for cryogenic cooling systems used for continuous flow distributed cooling systems, large focal plane arrays, multiple cooling...

  13. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  14. HUD Exchange Grantee Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  15. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  16. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2015-06-02

    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  17. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  18. Can positive social exchanges buffer the detrimental effects of negative social exchanges? Age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Katherine L; Windsor, Tim D; Pearson, Elissa L; Crisp, Dimity A

    2013-01-01

    Findings from existing research exploring whether positive social exchanges can help to offset (or 'buffer' against) the harmful effects of negative social exchanges on mental health have been inconsistent. This could be because the existing research is characterized by different approaches to studying various contexts of 'cross-domain' and 'within-domain' buffering, and/or because the nature of buffering effects varies according to sociodemographic characteristics that underlie different aspects of social network structure and function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the buffering effects of global perceptions of positive exchanges on the link between global negative exchanges and mental health varied as a function of age and gender. We used a series of regressions in a sample of 556 Australian older adults (ages 55-94) to test for three-way interactions among gender, positive social exchanges, and negative social exchanges, as well as age and positive and negative social exchanges, in predicting mental health, controlling for years of education, partner status, and physical functioning. We found that positive exchanges buffered against negative exchanges for younger old adults, but not for older old adults, and for women, but not for men. Our findings are interpreted in light of research on individual differences in coping responses and interpersonal goals among late middle-aged and older adults. Our findings are in line with gerontological theories (e.g., socioemotional selectivity theory), and imply that an intervention aimed at using positive social exchanges as a means of coping with negative social exchanges might be more successful among particular populations (i.e., women, 'younger' old adults). Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. IRON EXCHANGE IN MYCOBACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    V. L. Dobin; V. G. Demikhov; M. P. Zharikova

    2016-01-01

    The review analyzes the major foreign publications on the iron exchange in mycobacteria for the recent years. The issues of iron absorption by tuberculous mycobacteria, its preservation and regulation of their metabolism have been reviewed. Deeper and more detail description of the above process will provide new opportunities for therapeutic interventions into it and assist in development of new tuberculosis treatment techniques.

  20. IRON EXCHANGE IN MYCOBACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Dobin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review analyzes the major foreign publications on the iron exchange in mycobacteria for the recent years. The issues of iron absorption by tuberculous mycobacteria, its preservation and regulation of their metabolism have been reviewed. Deeper and more detail description of the above process will provide new opportunities for therapeutic interventions into it and assist in development of new tuberculosis treatment techniques.

  1. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As

  2. Six years of experience with decommissioning and dismantling VAK. Sechs Jahre Erfahrungen mit Stillegung und Rueckbau des VAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachl, L. (Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany))

    1991-12-01

    After some twenty-five years of successful operation, VAK was shutdown permanently on November 25, 1985. Decommissioning will be carried out in three phases by the year 2000. In the first phase, mainly the components of the turbine hall, which is not part of the controlled area, will be dismantled and scrapped. In phase two, the radioactive materials in the plant will be contained and reduced in volume. The third and final phase includes the complete disposal of the plant. (orig./HP).

  3. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches 90.degree.. Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  4. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  5. Heat exchanger panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

  6. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  7. ION EXCHANGE IN GLASS-CERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Halsey Beall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years ion-exchange in glasses has found a renewed interest with a lot of new development and research in industrial and academic labs and the commercialization of materials with outstanding mechanical properties. These glasses are now widely used in many electronic devices including hand-held displays and tablets. The exchange is generally conducted in a bath of molten salt below the transition temperature of the glass. The exchange at the surface of an alkali ion by a bigger one brings compressive stress at the surface. The mechanical properties are dependent on the stress level at the surface and the depth of penetration of the bigger ion. As compared to glasses, glass-ceramics have the interest to display a wide range of aspects (transparent to opaque and different mechanical properties (especially higher modulus and toughness. There has been little research on ion-exchange in glass-ceramics. In these materials the mechanisms are much more complex than in glasses because of their polyphasic nature: ion-exchange generally takes place mostly in one phase (crystalline phase or residual glass. The mechanism can be similar to what is observed in glasses with the replacement of an ion by another in the structure. But in some cases this ion-exchange leads to microstructural modifications (for example amorphisation or phase change.This article reviews these ion-exchange mechanisms using several transparent and opaque alumino-silicate glass-ceramics as examples. The effect of the ion exchange in the various glass-ceramics will be described, with particular emphasis on flexural strength.

  8. Ion Exchange in Glass-Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, George; Comte, Monique; Deneka, Matthew; Marques, Paulo; Pradeau, Philippe; Smith, Charlene

    2016-08-01

    In the past few years ion-exchange in glasses has found a renewed interest with a lot of new development and research in industrial and academic labs and the commercialization of materials with outstanding mechanical properties. These glasses are now widely used in many electronic devices including hand-held displays and tablets. The exchange is generally conducted in a bath of molten salt below the transition temperature of the glass. The exchange at the surface of an alkali ion by a bigger one brings compressive stress at the surface. The mechanical properties are dependent on the stress level at the surface and the depth of penetration of the bigger ion. As compared to glasses, glass-ceramics have the interest to display a wide range of aspects (transparent to opaque) and different mechanical properties (especially higher modulus and toughness). There has been little research on ion-exchange in glass-ceramics. In these materials the mechanisms are much more complex than in glasses because of their polyphasic nature: ion-exchange generally takes place mostly in one phase (crystalline phase or residual glass). The mechanism can be similar to what is observed in glasses with the replacement of an ion by another in the structure. But in some cases this ion-exchange leads to microstructural modifications (for example amorphisation or phase change). This article reviews these ion-exchange mechanisms using several transparent and opaque alumino-silicate glass-ceramics as examples. The effect of the ion exchange in the various glass-ceramics will be described, with particular emphasis on flexural strength.

  9. Failure of cement-in-shell acetabular liner exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, Caroline M; Biant, Leela C; Kavanagh, Thomas G; Field, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Cement-in-shell acetabular liner exchange is a revision surgery option for cases of total hip arthroplasty (THA) with polyethylene wear where direct liner exchange is not possible. A replacement liner is cemented into a well fixed uncemented acetabular shell, avoiding the morbidity associated with acetabular shell component revision. We present a case of dissociation of an acetabular liner at the cement-liner interface, three years following liner exchange without radiographic evidence to indicate the diagnosis.

  10. Nature's Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

  11. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  12. Technology Performance Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    To address the need for accessible, high-quality data, the Department of Energy has developed the Technology Performance Exchange (TPEx). TPEx enables technology suppliers, third-party testing laboratories, and other entities to share product performance data. These data are automatically transformed into a format that technology evaluators can easily use in their energy modeling assessments to inform procurement decisions.

  13. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at Standard.Telephone@cern.ch.

  14. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  15. Heat exchanger. Varmeveksler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, I.E.; Wagner, W.R.

    1986-03-17

    The invention concerns a manifold for a plate-type heat exchanger, and includes a side channel connected the inlet of the manifold. The plates can be designed as an integral assembly together with the integrated side- and external end-manifolds as well. 16 drawings.

  16. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Jonscher, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A problem exists in reducing the total heating power required to extract oxygen from lunar regolith. All such processes require heating a great deal of soil, and the heat energy is wasted if it cannot be recycled from processed material back into new material. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-hand - ed auger, and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite direction by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement, a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith, and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two. The unique feature of this system is that it allows for counterflow heat exchange to occur between solids, instead of liquids or gases, as is commonly done. In addition, in variants of this concept, the hydrogen reduction can be made to occur within the counterflow heat exchanger itself, enabling a simplified lunar ISRU (in situ resource utilization) system with excellent energy economy and continuous nonbatch mode operation.

  17. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  18. STEP - Product Model Data Sharing and Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroszynski, Uri

    1998-01-01

    - Product Data Representation and Exchange", featuring at present some 30 released parts, and growing continuously. Many of the parts are Application Protocols (AP). This article presents an overview of STEP, based upon years of involvement in three ESPRIT projects, which contributed to the development...

  19. WICHE's PSEP: Professional Student Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) has been providing Western residents with "affordable access to the healthcare professions" for more than 55 years through its Professional Student Exchange Program (PSEP). If an individual enrolls through WICHE's PSEP, he pays reduced tuition at out-of-state public and…

  20. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope exchange reactions between clay minerals and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, J.R.; Kharaka, Y.K.

    1976-01-01

    The extent of hydrogen and oxygen isotope exchange between clay minerals and water has been measured in the temperature range 100-350?? for bomb runs of up to almost 2 years. Hydrogen isotope exchange between water and the clays was demonstrable at 100??. Exchange rates were 3-5 times greater for montmorillonite than for kaolinite or illite and this is attributed to the presence of interlayer water in the montmorillonite structure. Negligible oxygen isotope exchange occurred at these low temperatures. The great disparity in D and O18 exchange rates observed in every experiment demonstrates that hydrogen isotope exchange occurred by a mechanism of proton exchange independent of the slower process of O18 exchange. At 350?? kaolinite reacted to form pyrophyllite and diaspore. This was accompanied by essentially complete D exchange but minor O18 exchange and implies that intact structural units in the pyrophyllite were inherited from the kaolinite precursor. ?? 1976.

  1. THE JU-LMU LINK FOR MEDICAL EDUCATION: EXCHANGING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anke Wanger, Minas Woldetsadik, Matthias Siebeck

    the community-based education method (CBE) successfully used in Jimma to the LMU. In order to achieve this, mutual exchange of staff and students between these two universities is necessary. METHODS: As the first part of this exchange, six interns in their final year in Medical. School at Jimma University and five staff ...

  2. Efficacy of exchange blood transfusion in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thirteen cases of priapism seen in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) were treated by exchange blood transfusion (EBT) at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital during a five-year period (1996-2000). Each patient was scheduled to receive a total of 12-unit exchange, but due to voluntary ...

  3. Data Exchange Inventory (DEXI) System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEXI is an intranet application used by SSA users to track all incoming and outgoing data exchanges between SSA and our data exchange partners. Information such as...

  4. Dynamical Clustering of Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Fenn, Daniel J.; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J; Mark McDonald; Stacy Williams; Johnson, Neil F.; Jones, Nick S

    2009-01-01

    We use techniques from network science to study correlations in the foreign exchange (FX) market over the period 1991--2008. We consider an FX market network in which each node represents an exchange rate and each weighted edge represents a time-dependent correlation between the rates. To provide insights into the clustering of the exchange rate time series, we investigate dynamic communities in the network. We show that there is a relationship between an exchange rate's functional role withi...

  5. Serial tempering without exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymeyer, Hugh

    2010-09-21

    Serial tempering is a computational method that turns the temperature T (or more generally any independent λ parameter) into a dynamical variable. It is shown that, under conditions for which this variable is fast, serial tempering is equivalent to the umbrella sampling method with a single effective potential. This equivalence is demonstrated using both a small one-dimensional system and a small solvated peptide. The suggestion is then made to replace the serial tempering protocol with the equivalent umbrella sampling calculation. This approach, serial tempering without exchange (STeWiE), has the same performance as serial tempering in the limit that exchanges are frequent, is simpler to implement, and has fewer adjustable parameters than conventional serial tempering. The equivalence of serial tempering and STeWiE also provides a convenient route for estimating and optimizing the performance of serial tempering simulations and other generalized-ensemble methods.

  6. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation......, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  7. Extratropical Stratosphere-Troposphere Mass Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the exchange of gases between the stratosphere and the troposphere is important for determining how pollutants enter the stratosphere and how they leave. This study does a global analysis of that the exchange of mass between the stratosphere and the troposphere. While the exchange of mass is not the same as the exchange of constituents, you can t get the constituent exchange right if you have the mass exchange wrong. Thus this kind of calculation is an important test for models which also compute trace gas transport. In this study I computed the mass exchange for two assimilated data sets and a GCM. The models all agree that amount of mass descending from the stratosphere to the troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere extra tropics is approx. 10(exp 10) kg/s averaged over a year. The value for the Southern Hemisphere by about a factor of two. ( 10(exp 10) kg of air is the amount of air in 100 km x 100 km area with a depth of 100 m - roughly the size of the D.C. metro area to a depth of 300 feet.) Most people have the idea that most of the mass enters the stratosphere through the tropics. But this study shows that almost 5 times more mass enters the stratosphere through the extra-tropics. This mass, however, is quickly recycled out again. Thus the lower most stratosphere is a mixture of upper stratospheric air and tropospheric air. This is an important result for understanding the chemistry of the lower stratosphere.

  8. Exchange rate rebounds after foreign exchange market interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the rebounds in the exchange rate after foreign exchange intervention. When intervention is strongly effective, the exchange rate rebounds at next day. The effect of intervention is reduced slightly by the rebound after the intervention. The exchange rate might have been 67.12-77.47 yen to a US dollar without yen-selling/dollar-purchasing intervention of 74,691,100 million yen implemented by the Japanese government since 1991, in comparison to the actual exchange rate was 103.19 yen to the US dollar at the end of March 2014.

  9. O3 and NOx Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubet, B.; Castell, J.F.; Laville, P.; Personne, E.; Tuzet, A.; Ammann, C.; Emberson, L.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kowalski, A.S.; Merbold, L.; Stella, P.; Tuovinen, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This discussion was based on the background document “Review on modelling atmosphere-biosphere exchange of Ozone and Nitrogen oxides”, which reviews the processes contributing to biosphere-atmosphere exchange of O3 and NOx, including stomatal and non-stomatal exchange of O3 and NO, NO2.

  10. The stability of exchange networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doğan, G.; Assen, M. van; Rijt, A. van de; Buskens, V.W.

    2009-01-01

    Economic and sociological exchange theories predict divisions of exchange benefits given an assumed fixed network of exchange relations. Since network structure has been found to have a large impact on actors’ payoffs, actors have strong incentives for network change.Weanswer the question what

  11. Integrated foreign exchange risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of impor...

  12. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...

  13. Scraped surface heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chetan S; Hartel, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHEs) are commonly used in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries for heat transfer, crystallization, and other continuous processes. They are ideally suited for products that are viscous, sticky, that contain particulate matter, or that need some degree of crystallization. Since these characteristics describe a vast majority of processed foods, SSHEs are especially suited for pumpable food products. During operation, the product is brought in contact with a heat transfer surface that is rapidly and continuously scraped, thereby exposing the surface to the passage of untreated product. In addition to maintaining high and uniform heat exchange, the scraper blades also provide simultaneous mixing and agitation. Heat exchange for sticky and viscous foods such as heavy salad dressings, margarine, chocolate, peanut butter, fondant, ice cream, and shortenings is possible only by using SSHEs. High heat transfer coefficients are achieved because the boundary layer is continuously replaced by fresh material. Moreover, the product is in contact with the heating surface for only a few seconds and high temperature gradients can be used without the danger of causing undesirable reactions. SSHEs are versatile in the use of heat transfer medium and the various unit operations that can be carried out simultaneously. This article critically reviews the current understanding of the operations and applications of SSHEs.

  14. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  15. Paste heat exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-07-30

    The subject of coal paste heat exchangers is discussed in this letter report from Gelsenberg A.G. to I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G. Gelsenberg had given little consideration to the heating of coal paste by means of regeneration (heat exchange) because of the lack of experience in paste regeneration with bituminous coal, especially at 700 atmospheres. At the I.G. Farben plant at Poelitz, paste regeneration was carried out so that low concentration coal paste was heated in the regenerator together with the process gas, and the remaining coal was fed into the cold pass of the preheater in a thicker paste. Later tests proved this process viable. Gelsenberg heated normal coal paste and the gas in heat exchangers with the goal of relieving the preheater. Good results were achieved without change in design. The coal paste was heated with process gas in the regenerator at up to 315 degrees with constant pressure difference, so that after three months no decrease in K-values and no deposition or thickening was observed. Through the omission of paste gas, the pressure difference of the system became more constant and did not rise above the former level. The temperature also was more controllable, the chamber smoother running. Principal thermal data are given in a table. 1 table, 1 graph.

  16. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  17. Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange in Radiochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarnemark, G.

    In 1805, Bucholz extracted uranium from a nitric acid solution into ether and back-extracted it into pure water. This is probably the first reported solvent-extraction investigation. During the following decades, the distribution of neutral compounds between aqueous phases and pure solvents was studied, e.g., by Peligot, Berthelot and Jungfleisch, and Nernst. Selective extractants for analytical purposes became available during the first decades of the twentieth century. From about 1940, extractants such as organophosphorous esters and amines were developed for use in the nuclear fuel cycle. This connection between radiochemistry and solvent-extraction chemistry made radiochemists heavily involved in the development of new solvent extraction processes, and eventually solvent extraction became a major separation technique in radiochemistry. About 160 years ago, Thompson and Way observed that soil can remove potassium and ammonium ions from an aqueous solution and release calcium ions. This is probably the first scientific report on an ion-exchange separation. The first synthesis of the type of organic ion exchangers that are used today was performed by Adams and Holmes in 1935. Since then, ion-exchange techniques have been used extensively for separations of various radionuclides in trace as well as macro amounts. During the last 4 decades, inorganic ion exchangers have also found a variety of applications. Today, solvent extraction as well as ion exchange are used extensively in the nuclear industry and for nuclear, chemical, and medical research. Some of these applications are discussed in the chapter.

  18. The Dynamics of Multilateral Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F.

    The article formulates a dynamic mathematical model where arbitrarily many players produce, consume, exchange, loan, and deposit arbitrarily many goods over time to maximize utility. Consuming goods constitutes a benefit, and producing, exporting, and loaning away goods constitute a cost. Utilities are benefits minus costs, which depend on the exchange ratios and bargaining functions. Three-way exchange occurs when one player acquires, through exchange, one good from another player with the sole purpose of using this good to exchange against the desired good from a third player. Such a triple handshake is not merely a set of double handshakes since the player assigns no interest to the first good in his benefit function. Cognitive and organization costs increase dramatically for higher order exchanges. An exchange theory accounting for media of exchange follows from simple generalization of two-way exchange. The examples of r-way exchange are the triangle trade between Africa, the USA, and England in the 17th and 18th centuries, the hypothetical hypercycle involving RNAs as players and enzymes as goods, and reaction-diffusion processes. The emergence of exchange, and the role of trading agents are discussed. We simulate an example where two-way exchange gives zero production and zero utility, while three-way exchange causes considerable production and positive utility. Maximum utility for each player is reached when exchanges of the same order as the number of players in society are allowed. The article merges micro theory and macro theory within the social, natural, and physical sciences.

  19. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND BANKRUPTCY RISK: EVIDENCE OF TEHRAN STOCK EXCHANGE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reza Khabir; Mohammad Reza Vatanparast

    2016-01-01

    .... The statistical population was chosen among Tehran Stock Exchange companies and by using systematic write off method the financial information related to 81 companies in a five year period of2009...

  20. "The Exchange of Ideas Was Mutual, I Have to Say": Negotiating Researcher and Teacher "Roles" in an Early Years Educators' Professional Development Programme on Inquiry-Based Mathematics and Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippou, Stavroula; Papademetri-Kachrimani, Chrystalla; Louca, Loucas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of 14 early years educators who participated in a continuing professional development (CPD) programme coordinated by two of the paper's authors. The programme was part of a three-year research project, which aimed at introducing early childhood educators to an inquiry-based approach to mathematics and science…

  1. Cryogenic regenerative heat exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Robert A

    1997-01-01

    An in-depth survey of regenerative heat exchangers, this book chronicles the development and recent commercialization of regenerative devices for cryogenic applications. Chapters cover historical background, concepts, practical applications, design data, and numerical solutions, providing the latest information for engineers to develop advanced cryogenic machines. The discussions include insights into the operation of a regenerator; descriptions of the cyclic and fluid temperature distributions in a regenerator; data for various matrix geometries and materials, including coarse and fine bronze, stainless steel-woven wire mesh screens, and lead spheres; and unique operating features of cryocoolers that produce deviations from ideal regenerator theory.

  2. Sports activity following total knee arthroplasty in patients older than 60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Hermann O; Reinhold, Maik; Bernstein, Anke; Suedkamp, Norbert P; Stoehr, Amelie

    2015-01-01

    In a retrospective study with a population over 65 years, sports activity was conducted 6 years after cruciate retaining (CR) total condylar knee arthroplasty (TKA) with rotating platform (RP). Eighty-one Patients (71.8±5.4years) were examined at follow-up 6.4±0.9 years postoperative. Sport was practiced 5.3 hours every week in mean. Patients were active in sports 3.5times per week. Twenty-five percent performed high impact sports, 47% medium impact sports and 52% low impact sports at follow-up. In KOOS sports 60±28 was reached, in WOMAC 12.1±15.1. It can be concluded that in this population 50% of patients were active in medium and low impact sport 6 years after surgery. However, a quarter of patients were also active in high impact sports. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of real exchange rate on unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Bakhshi; Mehrzad Ebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    Unemployment is one of the problems that global economics, especially the economy of developing countries such as Iran is faced with. Therefore, there have been many studies to investigate the variables which affect unemployment in macroeconomics. Considering exchange rate volatility in recent years which have affected most of major variables of economy in Iran, this study tried to investigate the relationship between exchange rate and unemployment in Iran using the annual data of 30 years (f...

  4. On the Cultural Legacy of the Cold War: Sino-US Educational Exchange (1949-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ning

    2006-01-01

    The Cold War affected the Sino-US educational exchange between 1949 and 1990. During those years, preparation for educational exchanges, personal contact and cross-government relations characterized the three periods of the exchanges. However, even though the relationship had developed very fast, it was by no means smooth sailing. These exchanges…

  5. 76 FR 2934 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Exchange Fees for Fiscal Year 2011 January 11... one or more exchanges in connection with the Options Order Protection and Locked/Crossed Market Plan... Fees Schedule: Booth Fees: The Exchange currently charges $185 per month for use of a perimeter booth...

  6. 77 FR 58899 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Mercantile Exchange Inc.; Notice of Filing and Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Mercantile Exchange Inc.; Notice of Filing and Order..., Chicago Mercantile Exchange Inc. (``CME'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission... GBP to 51 years and 10 days. The Manual of Operations for CME Cleared Interest Rate Swaps (the ``IRS...

  7. Harnessing the Internet for International Exchanges on Learning Cities: The Pie Experience 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) project was developed to facilitate online exchanges of information and experience between learning cities around the world and, in doing this, to test the potential of the internet to enable such low-cost exchanges. The author provides a personal assessment of the PIE experience over the three years 2011…

  8. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  9. Characteristics of model heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolínský, Jan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is thermal analysis of model water to water heat exchanger at different mass flow rates. Experimental study deals with determination of total heat transfer - power of the heat exchanger. Furthermore the paper deals with analysis of heat exchanger charakcteristic using a definition of thermal efficiency. It is demonstrated that it is advisable to monitor the dependence of thermal efficiency and flow ratio.

  10. What Drives Stock Exchange Integration?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ekaterina Dorodnykh

    2013-01-01

    .... After a broad discussion of the existent literature, the investigation combines a large number of potentially relevant determinants for the explanation of whether stock exchanges are participating...

  11. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Elfassy, David

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling guide to Exchange Server, fully updated for the newest version Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 is touted as a solution for lowering the total cost of ownership, whether deployed on-premises or in the cloud. Like the earlier editions, this comprehensive guide covers every aspect of installing, configuring, and managing this multifaceted collaboration system. It offers Windows systems administrators and consultants a complete tutorial and reference, ideal for anyone installing Exchange Server for the first time or those migrating from an earlier Exchange Server version.Microsoft

  12. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  13. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed

  14. Therapeutic plasma exchange in Casablanca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazi, I; Merimi, F; Majd, A; Benchemsi, N

    2008-08-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is an extracorporeal blood purification method for the treatment of diseases in which pathological proteins have to be eliminated. In the aim to demonstrate our single center activity, we analyzed our data since 2 years. Between years 2002 and 2005, 104 TPE procedures were performed on 42 patients. Median age and male/female ratio were 32 (range, 17-56) and 24/18, respectively. Departments those referred the majority of the TPE were neurology (n=32), nephrology (n=5) and intensive care unit (n=5). The most common indications were: polyradiculoneuropathies (53%), myasthenia gravis (17%) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (12%). The median TPE procedure per patient was 2.3 (range, 1-10). In the majority of patients, vascular access was provided by puncture of two large, durable peripheral antecubital veins. The procedures were performed with the "Haemonetic Ultralight" discontinuous flow cell separator devices. Citrate solution was used as an anticoagulant in all cases. The substitution fluids most often used in our unit are Albumin 20% solution (92 times), Albumin 4% (10 times) and fresh frozen plasma (twice). Seventy five percent of the patients showed improvement, 7% remained the same and 18% worsened. Thirteen adverse reactions were recorded. The creation of a national registry by the local society is a vital move to improve TPE practice in our country.

  15. Ligand Exchange Kinetics of Environmentally Relevant Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasci, Adele Frances [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The interactions of ground water with minerals and contaminants are of broad interest for geochemists but are not well understood. Experiments on the molecular scale can determine reaction parameters (i.e. rates of ligand exchange, activation entropy, activation entropy, and activation volume) that can be used in computations to gain insight into reactions that occur in natural groundwaters. Experiments to determine the rate of isotopic ligand exchange for three environmentally relevant metals, rhodium (Rh), iron (Fe), and neptunium (Np), are described. Many environmental transformations of metals (e.g. reduction) in soil occur at trivalent centers, Fe(III) in particular. Contaminant ions absorb to mineral surfaces via ligand exchange, and the reversal of this reaction can be dangerous, releasing contaminants into the environment. Ferric iron is difficult to study spectroscopically because most of its complexes are paramagnetic and are generally reactive toward ligand exchange; therefore, Rh(III), which is diamagnetic and less reactive, was used to study substitution reactions that are analogous to those that occur on mineral oxide surfaces. Studies on both Np(V) and Np(VI) are important in their own right, as 237Np is a radioactive transuranic element with a half-life of 2 million years.

  16. Exchange of Standardized Flight Dynamics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Berry, David; Flores-Amaya, Felipe; Folliard, J.; Kiehling, R.; Ogawa, M.; Pallaschke, S.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft operations require the knowledge of the vehicle trajectory and attitude and also that of other spacecraft or natural bodies. This knowledge is normally provided by the Flight Dynamics teams of the different space organizations and, as very often spacecraft operations involve more than one organization, this information needs to be exchanged between Agencies. This is why the Navigation Working Group within the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems), has been instituted with the task of establishing standards for the exchange of Flight Dynamics data. This exchange encompasses trajectory data, attitude data, and tracking data. The Navigation Working Group includes regular members and observers representing the participating Space Agencies. Currently the group includes representatives from CNES, DLR, ESA, NASA and JAXA. This Working Group meets twice per year in order to devise standardized language, methods, and formats for the description and exchange of Navigation data. Early versions of some of these standards have been used to support mutual tracking of ESA and NASA interplanetary spacecraft, especially during the arrival of the 2003 missions to Mars. This paper provides a summary of the activities carried out by the group, briefly outlines the current and envisioned standards, describes the tests and operational activities that have been performed using the standards, and lists and discusses the lessons learned from these activities.

  17. 78 FR 69910 - Joint Industry Plan; BATS Exchange, Inc., BATS-Y Exchange, Inc., BOX Options Exchange LLC, C2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... COMMISSION Joint Industry Plan; BATS Exchange, Inc., BATS-Y Exchange, Inc., BOX Options Exchange LLC, C2... LLC, NYSE Arca, Inc. and Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed National Market System Plan... and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed National Market System (``NMS'') Plan Governing...

  18. Liquid/liquid heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.

    1980-01-01

    Conceptual design for heat exchanger, utilizing two immiscible liquids with dissimilar specific gravities in direct contact, is more efficient mechanism of heat transfer than conventional heat exchangers with walls or membranes. Concept could be adapted for collection of heat from solar or geothermal sources.

  19. Educators Exchange: A Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, William B.

    The Educators Exchange Program (EEP) was established under a training and educational exchange agreement reached by California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In the program, the District provided a 4-week technological training program to faculty at Centros de Capacitacion Tecnologica Industrial…

  20. Risk Balance in Exchange Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Dashti (Mohammad); Y. Wang (Yanjing); I. Cervesato

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study the behaviour of rational agents in exchange protocols which rely on trustees. We allow malicious parties to compromise the trustee by paying a cost and, thereby, present a game analysis that advocates exchange protocols which induce balanced risks on the participants. We also

  1. Professional Exchange: Mapping the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    New associate editor of Professional Exchange section of "Journal of Mental Health Counseling" discusses importance of section. Lists potential topics suggested in 1989, then adds several other topics to the list. Concludes with guidelines for submission to Professional Exchange section. (NB)

  2. Ecological Controls on Land-Atmosphere Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulden, M. L.; Litvak, M. E.; Winston, G.; Miller, S. D.; Read, E.; Elliot, R.

    2002-12-01

    We have been using long-term eddy covariance to investigate the patterns of energy and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and a freshwater marsh in California, and also between the atmosphere and a series of boreal forest stands in Manitoba, Canada. Most researchers believe that ecological phenomenon, such as plant herbivore interactions and interspecific differences in plant life-history strategy, are relatively unimportant in determining the interannual and landscape patterns of Land-Atmosphere exchange. However, we have found that interactions between plants and herbivores exert a large control on the interannual patterns of energy and CO2 exchange in the freshwater marsh, and that interspecific differences in plant strategy are critical for understanding the landscape scale patterns of energy and CO2 exchange in the boreal forest. Despite a relatively constant climate and flooding regime at the California marsh, annual Carbon balance varied by 6 tC ha-1 or more from year to year. These deviations were caused in part by variation in herbivory by rodents and insects. Likewise, peak CO2 uptake by boreal forest stands recovering from fire differed less than expected, with a 4-year-old stand assimilating CO2 at rates comparable to that by middle aged stands, and faster than that by old stands. These patterns reflect differences in the life history strategies of the dominant plants, with the youngest stands dominated by fast growing ruderals, the middle aged stands dominated by fast growing competitive species, and the old stands dominated by slow growing stress tolerant species.

  3. Transendothelial lipoprotein exchange and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Jensen, Kurt Svarre

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria associates with increased risk of atherosclerosis in individuals without diabetes. We hypothesized that transendothelial lipoprotein exchange is elevated among such individuals, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein accumulation and thus atherosclerosis....... METHODS: Using an in vivo isotope technique, transendothelial exchange of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured in 77 non-diabetic individuals. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL was reinjected intravenously, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was calculated as index of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS......: There was no difference in transendothelial LDL exchange between subjects with microalbuminuria versus normoalbuminuria (mean (95% confidence interval) 3.8%/h (3.3-4.3%/h) versus 4.2%/h (3.7-4.7%/h); P=0.33). In contrast, there was a positive correlation between transendothelial LDL exchange and (logarithmically...

  4. Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ohadi, Michael; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Cetegen, Edvin

    2013-01-01

    In Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, the authors’ focus on the new generation highly efficient heat exchangers and presentation of novel data and technical expertise not available in the open literature.  Next generation micro channels offer record high heat transfer coefficients with pressure drops much less than conventional micro channel heat exchangers. These inherent features promise fast penetration into many mew markets, including high heat flux cooling of electronics, waste heat recovery and energy efficiency enhancement applications, alternative energy systems, as well as applications in mass exchangers and chemical reactor systems. The combination of up to the minute research findings and technical know-how make this book very timely as the search for high performance heat and mass exchangers that can cut costs in materials consumption intensifies.

  5. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  6. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  7. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  8. Influence of Anticholinesterase on Distribution of Ventilation and Gas Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    the observed pressure profile measured at the catheter tip. Following catheter placement, mechanical ventilation with a tidal volume of 15 ml/kg was...OTEC FILE COPY USAFSAM-TR-90-30 AD-A229 341 INFLUENCE OF ANTICHOLINESTERASE ON DISTRIBUTION OF VENTILATION AND GAS EXCHANGE Harold I. Modell, Ph.D...Distribution of Ventilation and Gas Exchange 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Modell, Harold I. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year

  9. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.

  10. Twenty years of society of medical informatics of b&h and the journal acta informatica medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-03-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina "Acta Informatica Medica"; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics on biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and e) Ten years from the introduction of "Distance learning" in medical curriculum. All of the five mentioned activities in the area of Medical informatics had special importance and gave appropriate contribution in the development of Health/Medical informatics in Bosnia And Herzegovina.

  11. Twenty Years of Society of Medical Informatics of B&H and the Journal Acta Informatica Medica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina „Acta Informatica Medica“; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics on biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and e) Ten years from the introduction of “Distance learning” in medical curriculum. All of the five mentioned activities in the area of Medical informatics had special importance and gave appropriate contribution in the development of Health/Medical informatics in Bosnia And Herzegovina. PMID:23322947

  12. Eventos adversos associados à exsanguíneotransfusão na doença hemolítica perinatal: experiência de dez anos Adverse events related to exchange transfusion in newborn infants with hemolytic disease: ten years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Amaral M. Sá

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Determinar a incidência dos eventos adversos atribuíveis à exsanguíneotransfusão ocorridos em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN e sua associação com a gravidade clínica do paciente. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos no estudo todos os recém-nascidos internados com diagnóstico de doença hemolítica perinatal por aloimunização Rh em uma unidade neonatal no período de dez anos. Os pacientes foram separados em dois grupos de acordo com o quadro clínico anterior à exsanguíneotransfusão e calculou-se o risco relativo para cada evento adverso entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: 300 recém-nascidos foram internados com diagnóstico de anemia hemolítica por aloimunização Rh durante o período do estudo. Desses, 143 foram submetidos a 207 exsanguíneotransfusões, sendo que 93 (65% realizaram apenas um procedimento. A principal indicação da exsanguíneotransfusão foi a velocidade de hemólise (57%. A incidência de eventos adversos foi 22,7% e a mortalidade associada ao procedimento ocorreu em 0,7% dos pacientes. Os eventos adversos, em sua maioria, foram assintomáticos e o mais comum foi a plaquetopenia. Os pacientes do Grupo 2, que apresentarem icterícia associada a outros agravos clínicos antes do procedimento, tiveram um risco 2,1 vezes maior de apresentar eventos adversos graves (RR: 2,1; IC 95%: 1,3-3,4. Houve apenas um óbito relacionado ao procedimento no período. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de a exsanguíneotransfusão ser um procedimento frequentemente utilizado em casos de hiperbilirrubinemia grave, é alta a incidência de eventos adversos a ela relacionada, principalmente se a condição clínica do paciente for instável antes do procedimento.OBJECTIVE:To determine the incidence of adverse events associated with exchange-transfusions performed during the past ten years and to evaluate if there is association between the severity of patient's clinical condition before the procedure and the incidence of adverse

  13. Relational and XML Data Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Arenas, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Data exchange is the problem of finding an instance of a target schema, given an instance of a source schema and a specification of the relationship between the source and the target. Such a target instance should correctly represent information from the source instance under the constraints imposed by the target schema, and it should allow one to evaluate queries on the target instance in a way that is semantically consistent with the source data. Data exchange is an old problem that re-emerged as an active research topic recently, due to the increased need for exchange of data in various for

  14. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  15. Fire Protection Informational Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (C02); 2. Methane {CH4 ); 3. Nitrous oxide (N20); 4...Hydrofluorocarbons 4% Hydrofluorocarbons 8% Methane 17% Methane 7°1. Black Carbon 19% Black Carbon 78% Carbon Dioxide (a) 1 00-year and (b) 20-Year Global... Methanol Pool Fi 60 50 ~ 40 ::J 8 30 20 • First experiments conducted in methanol fire • Nonsooting fuel is simpler starting point for

  16. ON CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF UNPRECEDENTED RUBLE EXCHANGE GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov Egor Nikolaevich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide an analysis of real effective exchange rate dynamics in Russia throughout the last decade. Authors analysed the causes and consequences of real effective exchange growth and assessed how Russian ruble real effective exchange rate comply with its equilibrium level. Authors present results of empiric analysis of relationship between real effective exchange rate and labour productivity in industry of 20 european, asian countries and Russia. The result of this writing was the formulation of key copyright conclusions, namely: 1. The price level in the country (and the level of the real exchange rate of the national currency is a key factor of competitiveness. Accordingly, the real exchange rate of the national currency - is one of the most important policy tools. 2. The ruble today seriously overvalued. Overvaluation of the national currency relative to the equilibrium level is extremely harmful to the economy. Less recognized, but also widespread YaV it possible to the idea that an undervalued currency is a prerequisite for rapid economic growth. 3. A direct consequence of the growth of the real exchange rate in the past 12 years has been the growth of the external debt of the private sector. 4. Restraining the growth rate of the national currency - is also a common practice for countries who are concerned about the level of competitiveness. But Russia is this day-the only country of the G-20, which is impossible to control the REER.

  17. Optimized heat exchanger unit in a thermoacoustic refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fawal, Mawahib Hassan; Mohd-Ghazali, Normah

    2012-06-01

    Due to concern over the environmental impact caused by hazardous refrigerants, the last ten years or so has seen increasing research into thermoacoustic refrigeration. A thermoacoustic refrigerator is a device which uses acoustic power to pump heat. It holds the merits of simple mechanical design, absence of harmful refrigerants and having no or few moving parts. However, the performance of the thermoacoustic refrigerator, particularly the standing wave types, is currently not competitive compared to its counterpart conventional vapor-compression refrigerator. Thermoacoustic refrigeration prototypes, built up-to-date, achieved 0.1-0.2 relative coefficient of performance (COPR) compared with that of 0.33-0.5 for the conventional vapor-compression refrigerators. The poor heat exchanger design is one of the reasons for this poor efficiency. This paper discussed the influence of the thermoacoustic refrigerator heat exchanger's parameters on its design and the optimization of the performance of the system using the Lagrange multiplier method. The results showed that, the dissipated power is less than the published value by about 49% in the cold heat exchanger and about 38.5% in the hot heat exchanger. Furthermore, the increase of the cold heat exchanger effectiveness is found to be 3%. Thus, the decrease in the dissipated power in both heat exchangers with effective cold heat exchanger increases the performance of the thermoacoustic refrigerator.

  18. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    This project seeks to improve the efficiency of the plutonium anion-exchange process for purifying Pu through the development of alternate ion-exchange media. The objective of the project in FY15 was to develop and test a porous foam monolith material that could serve as a replacement for the current anion-exchange resin, Reillex® HPQ, used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for purifying Pu. The new material provides advantages in efficiency over the current resin by the elimination of diffusive mass transport through large granular resin beads. By replacing the large resin beads with a porous foam there is much more efficient contact between the Pu solution and the anion-exchange sites present on the material. Several samples of a polystyrene based foam grafted with poly(4-vinylpyridine) were prepared and the Pu sorption was tested in batch contact tests.

  19. Liquid droplet heat exchanger studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Hedges, D. E.; Yungster, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recent analytical and experimental investigations of the liquid droplet heat exchanger (LDHX) concept for space power applications are described. The performance of the LDHX is compared to that of a conventional heat exchanger for heat rejection applications in a Brayton cycle, using the mass-specific heat exchanger effectiveness as a figure of merit. It is shown that the LDHX has an order of magnitude advantage over the conventional heat exchanger. Furthermore, significant improvement in cycle efficiency and power to mass ratio is possible. Two-phase flow experiments in a laboratory scale LDHX, using air and water as the two media, show very good agreement with the quasi-one-dimensional model used in the parametric studies.

  20. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  1. VLER Health Exchange by Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — “Connect Your Docs” through the Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record (VLER) Health Exchange program. This program gives VA and community health care providers secure...

  2. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat...

  3. Annual report: Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories, fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaeh, R.A.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1992. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included. Topics covered in this report include highlights for fiscal year 1992, personnel, procurements (small business procurements, disadvantaged business procurements, woman-owned business procurements, New Mexico commercial business procurements, Bay area commercial business procurements), commitments by states and foreign countries, and transportation activities. Also listed are the twenty-five commercial contractors receiving the largest dollar commitments, commercial contractors receiving commitments of $1,000 or more, integrated contractor and federal agency commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California, and transportation commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California.

  4. International Prices and Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Gopinath, Gita; Burstein, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    We survey the recent empirical and theoretical developments in the literature on the relation between prices and exchange rates. After updating some of the major findings in the empirical literature we present a simple framework to interpret this evidence. We review theoretical models that generate insensitivity of prices to exchange rate changes through variable markups, both under flexible prices and nominal rigidities, first in partial equilibrium and then in general equilibrium.

  5. Exchange rate determination in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thai-Ha Le

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of the exchange rate in Vietnam and suggests policy implications. Gregory-Hansen cointegration tests and generalised variance decomposition (VDC) analysis were applied to monthly data from July 2004 to December 2013. The model was built based on the three popular approaches to exchange rate determination, which are purchasing power parity (PPP) approach, balance of payment (BOP) approach, and monetary and portfolio approach. This study finds that the p...

  6. Creating Sister Cities: An Exchange Across Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. T.; Cabezon, S. A.; Hardy, E.; Harrison, R. J.

    2008-06-01

    Sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), this project creates a cultural and educational exchange program between communities in South and North America, linking San Pedro de Atacama in Chile and Magdalena, New Mexico in the United States. Both communities have similar demographics, are in relatively undeveloped regions of high-elevation desert, and are located near major international radio astronomy research facilities. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is just 40 km east of San Pedro; the Very Large Array (VLA) is just 40 km west of Magdalena. In February 2007, the Mayor of San Pedro and two teachers visited Magdalena for two weeks; in July 2007 three teachers from Magdalena will visit San Pedro. These visits enable the communities to lay the foundation for a permanent, unique partnership. The teachers are sharing expertise and teaching methodologies for physics and astronomy. In addition to creating science education opportunities, this project offers students linguistic and cultural connections. The town of San Pedro, Chile, hosts nearly 100,000 tourists per year, and English language skills are highly valued by local students. Through exchanges enabled by email and distance conferencing, San Pedro and Magdalena students will improve English and Spanish language skills while teaching each other about science and their respective cultures. This poster describes the AUI/NRAO Sister Cities program, including the challenges of cross-cultural communication and the rewards of interpersonal exchanges between continents and cultures.

  7. An evaluation of a European teacher exchange programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kate; Muir, Nita; Thompson, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study evaluated a European teacher exchange programme within a UK School of Nursing and Midwifery. A cross case study design was employed over a three year period. A range of data methods were used which gave a clear, detailed and rich picture of the exchange experience. Overall analysis of the data generated two key themes, namely that of value and role identity. The study highlighted factors which were deemed to have positive and negative influences on the teacher exchange experience. It is concluded that a teacher exchange programme is of value to the School, by aiding personal and professional development and internationalisation. Recommendations from the study are included in the paper. 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The electricity exchange. On the organisation and latent functions of electricity exchange trading as seen from the viewpoint of market sociology; Die Stromboerse. Ueber Form und latente Funktionen des boerslichen Stromhandels aus marktsoziologischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacovelli, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    Electricity exchange trading in Germany has existed since the year 2000. Since this time, the Leipzig electricity exchange, a reference market for off-exchange electricity trading, has operated in an environment marked by both criticism and acceptance. Taking this field of controversy as a point of departure the present empirical study in market sociology undertakes to investigate the organisation and latent functions of electricity exchange trading. The ensuing analysis provides answers to questions as to how prices are formed on the electricity exchange and what officially incommunicable functions are served by price formation on exchanges.

  9. History of respiratory gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 6th century B.C. the Greeks speculated on a substance pneuma that meant breath or soul, and they argued that this was essential for life. An important figure in the 2nd century A.D. was Galen whose school developed an elaborate cardiopulmonary system that influenced scientific thinking for 1400 years. A key concept was that blood was mixed with pneuma from the lung in the left ventricle thus forming vital spirit. It was also believed that blood flowed from the right to the left ventricle of the heart through pores in the interventricular septum but this view was challenged first by the Arab physician Ibn al-Nafis in the 13th century and later by Michael Servetus in the 16th century. The 17th century saw an enormous burgeoning of knowledge about the respiratory gases. First Torricelli explained the origin of atmospheric pressure, and then a group of physiologists in Oxford clarified the properties of inspired gas that were necessary for life. This culminated in the work of Lavoisier who first clearly elucidated the nature of the respiratory gases, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. At that time it was thought that oxygen was consumed in the lung itself, and the fact that the actual metabolism took place in peripheral tissues proved to be a very elusive concept. It was not until the late 19th century that the issue was finally settled by Pflüger. In the early 20th century there was a colorful controversy about whether oxygen was secreted by the lung. During and shortly after World War II, momentous strides were made on the understanding of pulmonary gas exchange, particularly the role of ventilation-perfusion inequality. A critical development in the 1960s was the introduction of blood gas electrodes, and these have transformed the management of patients with severe lung disease. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  10. Exchange rate risk in Central European countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Poghosyan, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2010), s. 22-39 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/08/1376; GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : foreign exchange risk * time-varying risk premium * stochastic discount factor Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.278, year: 2010 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1178_str_22_39_-_ko%C4%8Denda.pdf

  11. Ion thruster charge-exchange plasma flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Gabriel, S. B.; Kitamura, S.

    1982-01-01

    The electron bombardment ion thruster has been under development for a number of years and during this time, studies of the plasmas produced by the thrusters and their interactions with spacecraft have been evaluated, based on available data. Due to diagnostic techniques used and facility effects, there is uncertainty as to the reliability of data from these early studies. This paper presents data on the flow of the charge-exchange plasma produced just downstream of the thruster's ion optics. The 'end-effect' of a cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to determine ion density and directed ion velocity. Results are compared with data obtained from a retarding potential analyzer-Faraday cup.

  12. Student Exchange Programs: Statistical Report. Academic Year, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Regional cooperation is crucial in times of economic downturn. In 2011, 14 out of 15 of the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) states are facing dramatic cuts in their budgets and the trend is expected to continue. Despite hard times, students and their families in the West continue to benefit from hundreds of millions of…

  13. Student Exchange Program: Statistical Report: Academic Year, 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    There has been renewed interest in regional cooperation since the economic downturn began in late 2007. In 2012, 14 of 15 Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) states are facing dramatic cuts in their budgets, and economists are cautious about predicting exactly when the economy might begin to improve. Fortunately, the…

  14. Leadership Style and Team Process: A Comparison of the Managerial Grid and Situational Leadership. Training and Development Research Center Project Number Twenty-Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Faye

    This monograph identifies literature on human systems developed from the primary constructs of "task" and of "maintenance" or "relationship." It reviews definitions of leadership and team process and the use of the primary constructs in leadership literature and in team process literature. Then, the monograph…

  15. Effects of dietary fiber on the ideal standardized ileal digestible threonine:lysine ratio for twenty-five to fifty kilogram growing gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, J K; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J E; Touchette, K J; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine effects of fiber on the ideal Thr:Lys ratio for 25- to 50-kg gilts. In Exp. 1, the objective was to determine the requirement for standardized ileal digestible Lys for gilts from 25 to 50 kg BW. Seventy gilts (24.54 ± 3.28 kg BW) were used in a growth assay with 2 pigs per pen, 5 diets, and 7 replicate pens per diet. The 5 diets were based on corn and soybean meal and contained between 0.80 and 1.32% SID Lys. Results indicated that 1.09% SID Lys was needed to optimize ADG and G:F. In Exp. 2, the objective was to determine the standardized ileal digestibility of AA in corn, soybean meal, field peas, fish meal, and soybean hulls. Six ileal-cannulated gilts (26.5 ± 0.74 kg BW) were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 6 diets and 6 periods. Values for standardized ileal digestibility of AA were calculated for all ingredients. In Exp. 3, the objective was to determine the effect of fiber on the ideal SID Thr:Lys ratio for gilts from 25 to 50 kg BW. A total of 192 gilts (26.29 ± 4.64 kg BW) were used in a growth assay with 2 pigs per pen and 8 replicate pens per treatment. Six low-fiber diets and 6 high-fiber diets were formulated using the same batches of ingredients as in Exp. 2. Within each level of fiber, diets with SID Thr:Lys ratios ranging from 45:100 to 90:100 were formulated using the SID values calculated in Exp. 2. In both types of diets, ADG and G:F linearly and quadratically ( gilts (29.0 ± 0.74 kg BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates with 9 replicate pigs per diet. Retention of N (% of intake) was greater (P gilts increase the requirement for Thr and that diets with higher fiber levels should be formulated to a greater SID Thr:Lys ratio.

  16. Asset management using genetic algorithm: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Sarijaloo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effect of market management using Markowitz theorem. The study uses the information of 50 best performers on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2009 and, using Markowitz theorem, the efficient asset allocation are determined and the result are analyzed. The proposed model of this paper has been solved using genetic algorithm. The results indicate that Tehran Stock Exchange has managed to perform much better than average world market in most years of studies especially on year 2009. The results of our investigation have also indicated that one could reach outstanding results using GA and forming efficient portfolio.

  17. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  18. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  19. Electrically Switched Cesium Ion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JPH Sukamto; ML Lilga; RK Orth

    1998-10-23

    This report discusses the results of work to develop Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) for separations of ions from waste streams relevant to DOE site clean-up. ESIX combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for radionuclide separation that lowers costs and minimizes secondary waste generation typically associated with conventional ion exchange. In the ESIX process, an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto. a high surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. As a result, the production of secondary waste is minimized, since the large volumes of solution associated with elution, wash, and regeneration cycles typical of standard ion exchange are not needed for the ESIX process. The document is presented in two parts: Part I, the Summary Report, discusses the objectives of the project, describes the ESIX concept and the approach taken, and summarizes the major results; Part II, the Technology Description, provides a technical description of the experimental procedures and in-depth discussions on modeling, case studies, and cost comparisons between ESIX and currently used technologies.

  20. Pervaporation with ion exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeddeker, K.W.; Wenzlaff, A.

    1986-01-01

    Sorption and pervaporation of aqueous-organic solvent systems (water-ethanol; water-carboxylic acids) with commercial ion exchange membranes are compared to obtain information on polymersolvent interaction vs. coupling. Close agreement between sorption selectivity and pervaporation selectivity indicates coupling. If pervaporation is less selective than sorption, polymer-solvent interaction overtakes coupling, the limit of de-coupling being phase separation within the sorbate as signaled by a sudden increase in permeability of the lesser interacting component. As long as sorption and pervaporation operate in parallel, favoring enrichment of the same component, coupling enhances the separation effect. If pervaporation counteracts sorption, coupling is detrimental to the separation effect. Potential applications include the dehydration of pre-concentrated water-ethanol using anion exchange membranes, and the enrichment of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solution by pervaporative removal of water through cation exchange membranes.

  1. Multinational telecommunications operators : impact of market factors and foreign currency exchange rate variations in their stock returns

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Maria da Conceição T. F. Monteiro H.

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Finanças Firms are exposed to foreign exchange risk when the results of their projects depend on future exchange rates and those exchange rates can not be fully anticipated. Through the last 50 years, exchange risk management has received increasing attention in both corporate practice and literature. Firms are also exposed to other market factors, domestic and internationally, with a major impact on their stock returns. During the past decade the telecommunications sector has ...

  2. Changing epidemiology of AA amyloidosis: clinical observations over 25 years at a single national referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Thirusha; Pinney, Jennifer H; Gilbertson, Janet A; Hutt, David F; Rowczenio, Dorota M; Mahmood, Shameem; Sachchithanantham, Sajitha; Fontana, Marianna; Youngstein, Taryn; Quarta, Candida C; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D; Gillmore, Julian D; Hawkins, Philip N; Lachmann, Helen J

    2017-09-01

    Systemic AA amyloidosis is a serious complication of chronic inflammation; however, there are relatively few published data on its incidence. We investigated the changing epidemiology of AA amyloidosis over a 25-year period at a single national referral centre. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with AA amyloidosis who had attended the centre between 1990 and 2014 inclusive. Six hundred and twenty-five patients were studied in three cohorts: C1: 1990-1997; C2: 1998-2006; C3: 2007-2014. Mean age at presentation increased from 46 in C1 to 56 in C3 (p AA amyloidosis over a quarter of a century, reflecting advances in therapeutics and overall management of complex chronic disease in an ageing population. AA amyloidosis of uncertain aetiology presents an emerging major problem. Newer techniques such as next-generation sequencing may aid diagnosis and effective treatment, thereby improving overall survival.

  3. What characterizes cleaners sustaining good musculoskeletal health after years with physically heavy work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Blangsted, A K; Christensen, H

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this case-control study was to investigate characteristics of cleaners with good musculoskeletal health after years with physically heavy work. METHODS: One hundred and 41 female seniority cleaners participated. Twenty-five reported no musculoskeletal symptoms, whereas 83...... work factors, and leisure time physical activity were assessed by a postal questionnaire. RESULTS: Cleaners with good musculoskeletal health were not reporting different exposure to physical risk factors at work or leisure time physical activity, but had higher muscular strength and reported higher...... influence at work than cleaners with severe symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that muscular strength and influence at work are of relevance for sustaining good musculoskeletal health in workers with physically heavy work....

  4. Recent advances in polymer monoliths for ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordborg, Anna; Hilder, Emily F

    2009-05-01

    The use of polymeric materials in ion-exchange chromatography applications is advantageous because of their typically high mechanical stability and tolerance of a wide range of pH conditions. The possibility of using polymeric monoliths in ion-exchange chromatography is therefore obvious and many of the same strategies developed for polymeric particles have been adapted for use with polymeric monoliths. In this review different strategies for the synthesis of polymeric monoliths with ion-exchange functionality are discussed. The incorporation of ion-exchange functionality by co-polymerization is included, as also are different post-polymerization alterations to the monolith surface such as grafting. The formulations and strategies presented include materials intended for use in analytical separations in ion-exchange chromatography, sample pre-treatment or enrichment applications, and materials for capillary electrochromatography. Finally, examples of the use of polymeric monoliths in ion-exchange chromatography applications are included with examples published in the years 2003 to 2008.

  5. Oscillating-Coolant Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J.; Blosser, Max L.; Camarda, Charles J.

    1992-01-01

    Devices useful in situations in which heat pipes inadequate. Conceptual oscillating-coolant heat exchanger (OCHEX) transports heat from its hotter portions to cooler portions. Heat transported by oscillation of single-phase fluid, called primary coolant, in coolant passages. No time-averaged flow in tubes, so either heat removed from end reservoirs on every cycle or heat removed indirectly by cooling sides of channels with another coolant. Devices include leading-edge cooling devices in hypersonic aircraft and "frost-free" heat exchangers. Also used in any situation in which heat pipe used and in other situations in which heat pipes not usable.

  6. CHANGES IN EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen SANDU (TODERASCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experience of recentyears showsthat it hasa fundamentalroleformation mechanismof the exchange rateinmacroeconomic stabilization. Global economiccrises, oil shockshave shownthe difficultyoffloatingsustainabilitybyparticipants in the system. EuropeanMonetary System, focused onconcertedfloatingcurrenciestoECU, was formedunder the conditionsin which somecountries have adoptedregional monetaryarrangements(EU countries, with suchbasescurrencyregimeshybridthat combinesspecific mechanismsto those offixedratefree floating. This paperaims to demonstratethe important role thatithasthe choice ofexchange rateregimeas abasic elementin thefoundationofmacroeconomic stabilizationinstruments. Consideredan expression of thestateof the domestic economyandinternationalcompetitiveness, the exchange rate is determined bya complex set ofexternal factorsorinternalstabilityisa prerequisite forthe crisis.

  7. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  8. [Histone variants and histone exchange].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2006-04-01

    Histones, as the basic components of nucleosome, are essential to chromatin structure and function. To adapt to various states of chromatin, corresponding histone variants are incorporated in nucleosome, and certain modifications also occur on the variants' tails. These variants change the conformation and stability of nucleosome to facilitate transcriptional activation or deactivation, DNA repairing, heterochromatin formation, and others. During histone exchange, chromatin remodeling complex facilitates histone variant deposition into nucleosome, and different variants have diverse deposition pathways. Recently, research on histone variants is not only a new hotspot in epigenetics, but also a new annotation of "histone code". In addition, histone exchange reveals new changing mechanism of DNA-histone interaction.

  9. Exchange asymmetry in experimental settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Mark D. Morrison; Jacob A. Benfield; Gretchen Nurse Rainbolt; Paul A. Bell

    2015-01-01

    We review past trading experiments and present 11 new experiments designed to show how the trading rate responds to alterations of the experimental procedure. In agreement with earlier studies, results show that if the trade decision is converted to one resembling a choice between goods the exchange asymmetry disappears, but otherwise the asymmetry is...

  10. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  11. Our International Art Exchange Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocciolone, Kathy R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses an international art exchange project designed to teach fifth-grade students that the culture of a country is reflected in its art and that art is a universal language. Describes the contributions from Scotland, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Japan, and India. Points out ways to use materials in schools. (KO)

  12. Milk fouling in heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, T.J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The mechanisms of fouling of heat exchangers by milk were studied. Two major fouling mechanisms were indentified during the heat treatment of milk: (i) the formation and the subsequent deposition of activated serum protein molecules as a result of the heat denaturation; (ii) the

  13. Update of telephone exchange switches

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Within the scope of the CERN phone services improvement, a software update will be done on exchange switches on Wednesday 27 october from 7.00 pm to 12.00 pm. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this intervention. We appology in advance for any inconveniences that may occur.

  14. Maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th of September from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this lapse of time. We apology in advance for any inconveniences that this may cause.

  15. The Commodity and its Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    and the value of the quota are examined through the concrete exchange of fishing rights, and it is explained why quota trade can give rise to speculation and monopolies. In the final part of the chapter, it is argued that the value of transferable fishing quotas rely on a social relation between owners...... and nonowners of quota, as a form of monopoly rent....

  16. Baltic Exchange teper v Tallinne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  17. Energy Exchange NASA Opening Plenary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Rick Marrs, Deputy Assistant Administrator Office of Strategic Infrastructure NASA Headquarters will be speaking during the 2017 Energy Exchange opening plenary. His presentation showcases the NASA mission, sustainability at NASA, NASA's strategic Sustainability Performance Plan, Existing PV Partnerships, and NASA funded Solar Initiatives at KSC.

  18. Homans on Exchange: Hedonism Revived

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Bengt

    1970-01-01

    George C. Homan's theory on social exchange is critically examined and found to have serious shortcomings with regard to its deductive and inductive aspects. An expecially prominent shortcoming concerns the tautological character of his concept of reward," which makes his theory deductively unclear and empirically untestable. Homan's critique…

  19. Common knowledge in email exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietsma, F.; Apt, K.R.; van Eijck, D.J.N.; Verbrugge, R.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to

  20. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  1. Inflationary trispectrum from graviton exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seery, David; Sloth, Martin Snoager; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    We compute the connected four-point correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with standard kinetic terms, where the correlation is established via exchange of a graviton between two pairs of scalar fluctuations. Any such correlation yields a contrib...

  2. Direct use geothermal applications for brazed plate heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K.

    1993-02-01

    Brazed plate heat exchanger were placed in three geothermal fluids (Klamath Falls, OR; Boise, ID; and Pagosa Springs, CO) in order to determine the effect of H[sub 2]S on braze material. Based on subsequent analysis, it appears that the rate of corrosion of the braze material is much slower than corrosion of copper tube materials in the same fluids. Minimum expected life of the heat exchangers based on these corrosion rates is reported to be 12 years in fluids of less than 1 ppm H[sub 2]S and 10 years in fluids of less than 5 ppm. Based on these expected lives, and using a 3% inflation rate and 8% discount rate, brazed plate heat exchangers are a clear economic choice in which the capital cost is 50% or less of the cost of a plate and frame heat exchanger for the same duty. Due to their single pass design, brazed plate heat exchangers are generally limited to approach temperatures of 10[degree] or greater. Size limitations restrict applications to 100 gpm and/or 200 ft[sup 2] heat transfer surface area.

  3. Direct use geothermal applications for brazed plate heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K.

    1992-01-01

    Brazed plate heat exchanger were placed in three geothermal fluids (Klamath Falls, OR; Boise, ID; and Pagosa Springs, CO) to determine the effect of H[sub 2]S on braze material. Based on subsequent analysis, it appears that the rate of corrosion of the braze material is much slower than corrosion of copper tube materials in the same fluids. Minimum expected life of the heat exchangers based on these corrosion rates is reported to be 12 years in fluids of less than 1 ppm H[sub 2]S and 10 years in fluids of less than 5 ppm. Based on these expected lives, and using a 3% inflation rate and 8% discount rate, brazed plate heat exchangers are a clear economic choice in which the capital cost is 50% or less of the cost of a plate and frame heat exchanger for the same duty. Due to their single pass design, brazed plate heat exchangers are generally limited to approach temperatures of 10[degrees] or greater. Size limitations restrict applications to 100 gpm and/or 200 ft[sup 2] heat transfer surface area.

  4. Direct use geothermal applications for brazed plate heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K.

    1993-02-01

    Brazed plate heat exchanger were placed in three geothermal fluids (Klamath Falls, OR; Boise, ID; and Pagosa Springs, CO) in order to determine the effect of H{sub 2}S on braze material. Based on subsequent analysis, it appears that the rate of corrosion of the braze material is much slower than corrosion of copper tube materials in the same fluids. Minimum expected life of the heat exchangers based on these corrosion rates is reported to be 12 years in fluids of less than 1 ppm H{sub 2}S and 10 years in fluids of less than 5 ppm. Based on these expected lives, and using a 3% inflation rate and 8% discount rate, brazed plate heat exchangers are a clear economic choice in which the capital cost is 50% or less of the cost of a plate and frame heat exchanger for the same duty. Due to their single pass design, brazed plate heat exchangers are generally limited to approach temperatures of 10{degree} or greater. Size limitations restrict applications to 100 gpm and/or 200 ft{sup 2} heat transfer surface area.

  5. Direct use geothermal applications for brazed plate heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K.

    1992-12-31

    Brazed plate heat exchanger were placed in three geothermal fluids (Klamath Falls, OR; Boise, ID; and Pagosa Springs, CO) to determine the effect of H{sub 2}S on braze material. Based on subsequent analysis, it appears that the rate of corrosion of the braze material is much slower than corrosion of copper tube materials in the same fluids. Minimum expected life of the heat exchangers based on these corrosion rates is reported to be 12 years in fluids of less than 1 ppm H{sub 2}S and 10 years in fluids of less than 5 ppm. Based on these expected lives, and using a 3% inflation rate and 8% discount rate, brazed plate heat exchangers are a clear economic choice in which the capital cost is 50% or less of the cost of a plate and frame heat exchanger for the same duty. Due to their single pass design, brazed plate heat exchangers are generally limited to approach temperatures of 10{degrees} or greater. Size limitations restrict applications to 100 gpm and/or 200 ft{sup 2} heat transfer surface area.

  6. Exchange Rate Expectations and the Current Exchange Rate: A Test of the Monetarist Approach

    OpenAIRE

    V S Somanath

    1984-01-01

    The monetarist model of the exchange rate includes expectations of the future exchange rate as a determinant of the current exchange rate. This paper investigates whether expectations are a significant determinant of the exchange rate. An expectations process that is consistent with a basic monetarist exchange rate model is considered. Alternative measures of expectations are generated using this process. In the empirical tests, while the standard forward exchange premium measure of expectati...

  7. Phase exposure-dependent exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, T. R.; Schreyer, L. G.; Zamani, K.

    2017-01-01

    Solutes and suspended material often experience delays during exchange between phases one of which may be moving. Consequently transport often exhibits combined effects of advection/dispersion, and delays associated with exchange between phases. Such processes are ubiquitous and include transport in porous/fractured media, watersheds, rivers, forest canopies, urban infrastructure systems, and networks. Upscaling approaches often treat the transport and delay mechanisms together, yielding macroscopic "anomalous transport" models. When interaction with the immobile phase is responsible for the delays, it is not the transport that is anomalous, but the lack of it, due to delays. We model such exchanges with a simple generalization of first-order kinetics completely independent of transport. Specifically, we introduce a remobilization rate coefficient that depends on the time in immobile phase. Memory-function formulations of exchange (with or without transport) can be cast in this framework, and can represent practically all time-nonlocal mass balance models including multirate mass transfer and its equivalent counterparts in the continuous time random walk and time-fractional advection dispersion formalisms, as well as equilibrium exchange. Our model can address delayed single-/multievent remobilizations as in delay-differential equations and periodic remobilizations that may be useful in sediment transport modeling. It is also possible to link delay mechanisms with transport if so desired, or to superpose an additional source of nonlocality through the transport operator. This approach allows for mechanistic characterization of the mass transfer process with measurable parameters, and the full set of processes representable by these generalized kinetics is a new open question.

  8. Compact Ceramic Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, Charles [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a step change in power plant efficiency at a commercially viable cost, by obtaining performance data for prototype, compact, ceramic microchannel heat exchangers. By performing the tasks described in the initial proposal, all of the milestones were met. The work performed will advance the technology from Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3) to Technology Readiness Level 4 (TRL 4) and validate the potential of using these heat exchangers for enabling high efficiency solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or high-temperature turbine-based power plants. The attached report will describe how this objective was met. In collaboration with The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), specifications were developed for a high temperature heat exchanger for three commercial microturbines. Microturbines were selected because they are a more mature commercial technology than SOFC, they are a low-volume and high-value target for market entry of high-temperature heat exchangers, and they are essentially scaled-down versions of turbines used in utility-scale power plants. Using these specifications, microchannel dimensions were selected to meet the performance requirements. Ceramic plates were fabricated with microchannels of these dimensions. The plates were tested at room temperature and elevated temperature. Plates were joined together to make modular, heat exchanger stacks that were tested at a variety of temperatures and flow rates. Although gas flow rates equivalent to those in microturbines could not be achieved in the laboratory environment, the results showed expected efficiencies, robust operation under significant temperature gradients at high temperature, and the ability to cycle the stacks. Details of the methods and results are presented in this final report.

  9. The JU-LMU Link for Medical Education: Exchanging Problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METHODS: As the first part of this exchange, six interns in their final year in Medical School at Jimma University and five staff members visited LMU in Munich in June and July 2002. ... For the future we plan to integrate Ethiopian students coming to LMU for PBL introduction into the courses held for the German students.

  10. Scholars from Asia and Africa exchange knowledge at CPR South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... ... south's 2017 conference, drew activists, scholars, and former telecom regulators to Myanmar to exchange insights in August. Over the last ten years, the CPRsouth program has fostered the emergence of policy leaders with the skills and experience to engage in public interest research to inform policy.

  11. A re-examination of the exchange rate overshooting hypothesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dornbusch's exchange rate overshooting hypothesis has guided monetary policy conduct for many years, despite the fact that empirical evidence on its validity is mixed. This study re-examines the validity of the overshooting hypothesis by using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) procedure. Specifi cally, the study ...

  12. Overcoming Barriers: Engaging Younger Students in an Online Intercultural Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiser, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale project involving an online school exchange between two classes of 12-/13-year olds located in the North of England and the Ruhr area of Germany. The overarching aim of the project was to develop intercultural understanding in foreign language learning through communication in an online environment. Analysing…

  13. Positive and negative exchanges in social relationships as predictors of depression: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Mai; McMunn, Anne; Zaninotto, Paola; Nazroo, James

    2011-06-01

    To investigate whether the impact of negative and positive social exchanges on depression depends on relationship type among late middle age and older adults. Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging, baseline positive and negative exchanges with partners, children, other family and friends were linked to 2-year changes in depression on the eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Positive and negative exchanges with partners and with children were independently associated with depression, adjusting for age, gender, wealth, and baseline depression. Negative but not positive exchanges with other family and with friends were associated with depression. The association between depression and positive/negative exchanges was weaker among the above 70s compared with those aged 50 to 70. Negative and positive exchanges with partners and children appear equally salient for depression onset although negative exchanges with family and friends contribute to depression whereas positive exchanges do not.

  14. Understanding the "Other Side": Intercultural learning in a Spanish-English E-Mail Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dowd, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Reviews recent research on intercultural learning and reports on a yearlong e-mail exchange between Spanish and English second year university students. Identifies key characteristics of e-mail exchanges that helped to develop learners' intercultural communicative competence. Outlines elements of e-mail messages that may enable students to develop…

  15. Teacher Exchange In England: A Model to Improve Writing in the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Luiza B.; Martin, Jeanette V.

    Teachers participating in the Teacher Center-United Kingdom Exchange Program at New Mexico State University were required to keep a journal throughout the entire exchange year. The objective of the exercise was to improve writing and reduce writing anxiety among the teachers, and to influence them to implement journal writing in their public…

  16. Effects of Monetary Shocks on Exchange Rate: Empirical Evidence from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Chandan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of monetary policy shocks on exchange rate in a Multiple Indicator Approach (MIA framework. This study has employed a monetary policy index of key monetary policy instruments in India (Bank rate, Cash Reserve Ratio, Repo and Reverse Repo rates. The study finds the empirical evidence for puzzling behavior of price level and exchange rate. Both price and exchange rate increase initially in response to a contractionary policy shock. Policy shocks affect output, inflation and exchange rate to an appreciable extent over a forecasting horizon of one year.

  17. The Rebirth of Educational Exchange: Anglo-German University Level Youth Exchange Programmes after the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    In the early years of the Second World War the British had already begun post-war planning for education in Germany. They expressed a need to re-educate Germans and re-establish personal contacts with German people. One tool conceived to achieve these policy objectives was educational exchange. This paper will examine British educational exchange…

  18. Socio-technical HCI for Ethical Value Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelnour-Nocera, José; Nielsen, Lene; Christensen, Lars Rune

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring ethical value exchange is moving to the forefront of the global challenges that HCI will have to address in the coming years In this position paper, we argue that applying a context-sensitive, sociotechnical approach to HCI can help meet the challenge. The background is that the life...... interaction design (HWID) to meet the challenges of designing for ethical value exchange. We present three cases of service design, and suggest how to add a fourth similar case using the HWID approach during the INTERACT ‘field trip plus workshop’. We conclude that applying a context sensitive sociotechnical...

  19. Modular Heat Exchanger With Integral Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1992-01-01

    Modular heat exchanger with integral heat pipe transports heat from source to Stirling engine. Alternative to heat exchangers depending on integrities of thousands of brazed joints, contains only 40 brazed tubes.

  20. Flexible Exchange of Farming Device Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    A new trend in the farming business is to replace conventional farming devices with computerized farming devices. Accordingly, numerous computer-based farming devices for logging, processing and exchanging data have recently been installed on moving farm machinery such as tractors. The exchange...... of data generally takes place between the devices and farming systems, mostly installed at the premises of farmers, contractors, advisory services etc. In most cases, data exchange is based on farming data exchange standards and is bi-directional. Bi-directional data exchange allows different devices...... and systems to exchange data based on a predefined set of rules. In consequence, many hand-coded data exchange solutions have been developed in the farming business. Although efforts regarding incorporating data exchange standards have been made, their actual usage so far has been limited, due to the fact...

  1. Plasma exchange in progressive systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Owlia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune systemic disease of unknown etiology. Present treatment modalities have limited impact on clinical/ laboratory outcomes. For the first time in our center, we used plasma exchange (PEx in a rather young woman with recent onset but progressive SSc. She is a 39-year-old woman with a recent history of skin stiffness, Raynaud’s phenomenon, nail fold capillary changes and newly diagnosis of SSc presented to us due to worsening her clinical symptoms even after initiation of routine remedies such as low dose oral prednisolone, Ca-channel blockers, azathioprine and pentoxyfylline. After obtaining written consent, interdisciplinary discussion with experts in this field and agreement we started a series of plasma exchange with FFP replacement for her. A dramatic clinical response was observed in respect to Raynaud’s phenomenon, skin stiffness, tendon rub after three sessions of PEx. Her modified Rodnan skin score (MRSS dropped from 36 (before commencement of therapy to 28 in day 4 and 18 in day 20 after 15 sessions of PEx. In conclusion PEx could significantly modify the course of SSc as observed in our case study. Elimination of culprit immune mediators/cytokines/autoantibodies could be the possible mechanism of action of PEx. 

  2. Analysis of the Chinese Exchange Rate Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngrok Cheng

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Asian Financial Crisis now is moving to a relatively stable phase, and at this time, whether Chinese RMB will depreciate is raising the concern of the outside world. If we simply consider economic factors, we will find REER (Real Effective Exchange Rate increased around 10%, where depreciation factors are lurking. However, after Vice Premier Zhu Rongji took the responsibility of economic operation and fixed the fundamental key of developing stably, many foreign departments present good impetus of development. After that, Foreign Exchange Rate Reservation increases and major focus is put on long-term operation for debt structure. On the contrary, If Chinese RMB depreciates dramatically, there will be some uneasiness towards domestic economy and also the burden of paying debt should be increased, people may suffer the loss quite a lot. Especially even we consider the responsibility as the central country in this region and the political & economical factors causing the harmonious atmosphere of Sino-American relationship, it can be predicted that Chinese RMB cannot depreciate dramatically within 1-2 years.

  3. Variability in carbon exchange of European croplands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddy J, Moors; Jacobs, Cor; Jans, Wilma

    2010-01-01

    as the standard deviation of these cropping periods was 251 gC m-2. These numbers do not include lateral inputs such as the carbon content of applied manure, nor the carbon exchange out of the cropping period. Both are expected to have a major effect on the C budget of high energy summer crops such as maize. NEE...... measured at these sites or reported at the NUTS2 level dataset of EUROSTAT is a relatively poor predictor of NEE. To investigate the difference in the variability in CO2 emissions of different crops at the same location and to compare this variation with the variation of the same crop at different...... locations and with the inter-annual variation the measured dataset at the flux sites was extended with simulated data. These simulations show that the variability in carbon exchange is determined by: firstly the choice of crop and the location and to a lesser extent by the yearly differences in climate....

  4. Rethinking exchange market models as optimization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquini, Evandro; Omar, Nizam

    2018-02-01

    The exchange market model has mainly been used to study the inequality problem. Although the human society inequality problem is very important, the exchange market models dynamics until stationary state and its capability of ranking individuals is interesting in itself. This study considers the hypothesis that the exchange market model could be understood as an optimization procedure. We present herein the implications for algorithmic optimization and also the possibility of a new family of exchange market models

  5. Latin American foreign exchange intervention - Updated

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva, Sergio; Nunes, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    We examine Latin American foreign exchange intervention in a framework where the exchange rate regime is endogenous and there exists an inefficient, equilibrium foreign exchange intervention bias. The model suggests that greater central bank independence is associated with lesser intervention in the foreign exchange market, and also with leaning-against-the-wind intervention. Both results are confirmed by data from 13 Latin American countries.

  6. How to stabilize the currency exchange rate

    OpenAIRE

    BLINOV, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, many countries had to deal with the weakening of their currencies. Issues regarding exchange rate management by the Central Banks have again become the focal point of heated debate. For example, the Russian Ruble exchange rate has been fluctuating hugely. The problem now is not so much the Ruble's weakness as instability of its exchange rate, volatility. The management of the Central Bank claims that stabilization of the Ruble exchange rate is not possible though it is the respons...

  7. Heat exchanger and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Terry D.; McKellar, Michael G.

    2015-12-22

    Heat exchangers include a housing having an inlet and an outlet and forming a portion of a transition chamber. A heating member may form another portion of the transition chamber. The heating member includes a first end having a first opening and a second end having a second opening larger than the first opening. Methods of conveying a fluid include supplying a first fluid into a transition chamber of a heat exchanger, supplying a second fluid into the transition chamber, and altering a state of a portion of the first fluid with the second fluid. Methods of sublimating solid particles include conveying a first fluid comprising a material in a solid state into a transition chamber, heating the material to a gaseous state by directing a second fluid through a heating member and mixing the first fluid and the second fluid.

  8. The picture exchange communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, A S; Frost, L A

    1998-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was developed as a means to teach children with autism and related developmental disabilities a rapidly acquired, self-initiating, functional communication system. Its theoretical roots combine principles from applied behavior analysis and guidelines established within the field of alternative and augmentative communication. This approach has several potential advantages relative to imitation-based strategies (both vocal and gestural) and symbol selection strategies. The system begins with the exchange of simple icons but rapidly builds "sentence" structure. The system also emphasizes developing the request function prior to developing responding to simple questions and commenting. The development of requesting with a sentence structure also permits the rapid development of attributes more traditionally taught within a receptive mode. The relationship between the introduction of PECS and various other behavioral issues (i.e., social approach and behavior management) as well as its relationship to the codevelopment of speech are reviewed.

  9. Analysis of Leader Member Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Santoso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out how the relationship of superiors and subordinates works or we call it, LEADER MEMBER EXCHANGE (LMX in another term. The object of this research is an Integrated Nursing Home for Impaired Speech and Hearing (INISPH, ''Meohai” Kendari, with 5 superiors and subordinates of this institution as the research informants. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative analysis. The research found that the relationship of superiors and subordinates or Leader Member Exchange (LMX, has been well-intertwined, based on the affection, loyalty, enormous contribution, and respect one another toward the profession done in creating a close relationship to achieve the goal.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v15i2.3244

  10. Value Appropriation in Business Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J.; Geersbro, Jens

    2014-01-01

    master the difficult balance between value creation and appropriation. This review has provided an overview of the many managerial options for value appropriation and created knowledge on the effects of the various appropriation mechanisms enabling managers to secure company rents while not jeopardizing......Purpose – Value appropriation is a central, yet neglected aspect in business exchange research. The purpose of the paper is to generate an overview of research on active value appropriation in business exchange and provide the foundation for further research into value appropriation, as well...... as some initial guidance for managers. Design/methodology/approach – Literatures investigating value appropriation were identified by the means of a systematic review of the overall management literature. Findings – The authors provide an overview and comparison of the literatures and find that they apply...

  11. High Temperature Composite Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Andrew J.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.

    2002-01-01

    High temperature composite heat exchangers are an enabling technology for a number of aeropropulsion applications. They offer the potential for mass reductions of greater than fifty percent over traditional metallics designs and enable vehicle and engine designs. Since they offer the ability to operate at significantly higher operating temperatures, they facilitate operation at reduced coolant flows and make possible temporary uncooled operation in temperature regimes, such as experienced during vehicle reentry, where traditional heat exchangers require coolant flow. This reduction in coolant requirements can translate into enhanced range or system payload. A brief review of the approaches and challengers to exploiting this important technology are presented, along with a status of recent government-funded projects.

  12. Groundwater–Surface Water Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin

    The exchange of groundwater-surface water has been invetigated in the western part of Denmark. Holtum AA provides the framework for all the performed investigations. Several methods are used, primarily eld based measurements ombined with numerical models to achieve insight to the governing...... processes of interaction between groundwater and surface water. By using heat as a tracer it has been possible to use temperature directly as calibrationtargets in a groundwater and heat transport model. Thus, it is possible to use heat investigate the change in groundwater discharge in dynamic conditions...... by using simple temperature devices along a stream to delineate the areas of interest in regard to GW{SW exchange. Thus, at several locations in a stream a temperature data logger was placed in the water column and right at the streambed-water interface. By looking at the correlation of streambed...

  13. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease following exchange transfusion 96 newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatami S.F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease of the newborn is a common cause of clinical jaundice and causes two-thirds of the hemolytic disease in newborns. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease and its complications in newborns undergoing exchange transfusion.Methods: This prospective and descriptive study was performed in jaundiced newborn infants during a three-year period. Inclusion criteria were: maternal blood type O, newborn blood type A or B, rising indirect hyperbilirubinemia in the first two days of life, positive immunohematologic test for newborns and exchange transfusion. Exclusion criteria were: incomplete information, other accompanying diseases that induce hyperbilirubinemia. All newborn infants received phototherapy before and after exchange transfusion. We did not use intravenous immunoglobulin, hemoxygenase inhibitor drugs and blood products before exchange transfusion.Results: Double-volume exchange transfusion via umbilical cord catheter was performed in 96 patients, 19 (20% of whom suffered from ABO incompatibility. Of these 19 newborns, two-thirds (13 were preterm infants. The minimum level of serum bilirubin was 10 mg/dl and the maximum serum bilirubin level was 35 mg/dl. In six patients (32% serum bilirubin levels were >25mg/dl. The most common blood group was type A for newborns. Immunohematologic tests were positive in 84% of the mothers. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease was the fourth and second most common reasons for blood exchange transfusion in preterm and term infants, respectively. Laboratory complications were more common than clinical complications. The etiology of 48% of the alloimmunization and 42% of the hemolytic disease in these newborns was ABO incompatibility.Conclusions: Mothers with blood group O and newborns with blood group A or B with positive immunohematologic tests in first hours of life are at high risk for hemolytic disease

  14. ON CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF UNPRECEDENTED RUBLE EXCHANGE GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Егор Николаевич Поляков

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide an analysis of real effective exchange rate dynamics in Russia throughout the last decade. Authors analysed the causes and consequences of real effective exchange growth and assessed how Russian ruble real effective exchange rate comply with its equilibrium level. Authors present results of empiric analysis of relationship between real effective exchange rate and labour productivity in industry of 20 european, asian countries and Russia.The result of this writing was the formulation of key copyright conclusions, namely:1. The price level in the country (and the level of the real exchange rate of the national currency is a key factor of competitiveness. Accordingly, the real exchange rate of the national currency - is one of the most important policy tools.2. The ruble today seriously overvalued. Overvaluation of the national currency relative to the equilibrium level is extremely harmful to the economy. Less recognized, but also widespread YaV it possible to the idea that an undervalued currency is a prerequisite for rapid economic growth.3. A direct consequence of the growth of the real exchange rate in the past 12 years has been the growth of the external debt of the private sector.4. Restraining the growth rate of the national currency - is also a common practice for countries who are concerned about the level of competitiveness. But Russia is this day-the only country of the G-20, which is impossible to control the REER.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-4

  15. Electrically controlled cesium ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Several sites within the DOE complex (Savannah River, Idaho, Oak Ridge and Hanford) have underground storage tanks containing high-level waste resulting from nuclear engineering activities. To facilitate final disposal of the tank waste, it is advantageous to separate and concentrate the radionuclides for final immobilization in a vitrified glass matrix. This task proposes a new approach for radionuclide separation by combining ion exchange (IX) and electrochemistry to provide a selective and economic separation method.

  16. Value-Added Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolfs Bems; Robert C. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    This paper updates the conceptual foundations for measuring real effective exchange rates (REERs) to allow for vertical specialization in trade. We derive a value-added REER describing how demand for the value added that a country produces changes as the price of its value added changes relative to competitors. We then compute this index for 42 countries from 1970-2009 using trade measured in value added terms and GDP deflators. There are substantial differences between value-added and conven...

  17. Exchange, phenomenology and the Self

    OpenAIRE

    Galonska, Deniece; Yener, Efe Can; Sørensen, Karen Mallya; Olesen, Tine Lautrup

    2016-01-01

    The research project aims to investigate the ‘Self’ concerning the experience of being an international exchange student. As the research approaches the three participants as unique individuals, phenomenology provided a foundation regarding the ontological stance and a method. The philosophy of phenomenology and its different interview methods will be discussed, in relation to perspectives by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger, with attention aimed at the question whether or not objectiv...

  18. Review of Fractal Heat Exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhiwei; Hwang, Yunho; Aute, Vikrant; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Nature has inspired many scientists and engineers to solve problems through observation and mimicry. One such example is heat transfer enhancement. The enormous natural heat and mass transfer phenomena have led engineers to seek solutions to heat transfer enhancement problems from nature. Fractal geometries are found in respiratory and vascular systems of plants and animals, such as blood vessels, human lungs, leaves, coastlines, etc. Inspired by this, fractal heat exchangers have been develo...

  19. Prison needle exchange programs work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    On 27 October 2004 the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the Ontario Medical Association (OMA) released reports recommending that needle exchange programs (NEPs) be implemented in prisons, based on evidence that such programs promote and protect the health of both prisoners and prison staff. At the same time, the Scottish Prison Service announced that it was looking at providing such programs, and an Iranian physician reported on a pilot project in his country.

  20. Ion-exchange chromatographic protein refolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freydell, E.; Wielen, van der L.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Ottens, M.

    2010-01-01

    The application of ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography to protein refolding (IExR) has been successfully proven, as supported by various studies using different model proteins, ion-exchange media and flow configurations. Ion-exchange refolding offers a relatively high degree of process

  1. Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Caprirolo; Vladimir Lavrac

    2003-01-01

    The paper is divided in three sections presenting some stylized facts concerning monetary and exchange rate policy framework in Slovenia. Three periods are covered: Money-based Stabilization Policy (1991-1995), Price and Real Exchange Rate Stability Dual Targeting Policy (1996-2001), and Exchange Rate Based Stabilization Policy and Accession to ERM2 (2001-).

  2. 78 FR 38203 - Refunds and Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Service through the manager, Payment Technology, USPS Headquarters. Subsequently, as part of this final... from the manager, Payment Technology (see 608.8.1 for address). * * * * * 9.0 Exchanges and Refunds... Not Exchangeable The following postage items cannot be exchanged: a. Adhesive stamps, unless mistakes...

  3. Cryogenic Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrit, Jay; Douay, Christelle; Dubois, Francis; Defresne, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N[subscript 2] and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of…

  4. The magic of knowledge exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    “If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these apples then you and I will still each have one apple. But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us will have two ideas”. (George Bernard Shaw). The CERN Global Network is a new, ideal place for past and present members of the CERN community to share ideas and create new links.   On 29 April, CERN’s Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Group launched the CERN Global Network, a tool whose aim is to facilitate knowledge exchanges inside and outside CERN. "Among the greatest ambassadors of knowledge are people who have been trained and educated at CERN and also at other institutes: here is where the Global Network comes into play", says Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General. “During the first phase, the Network will be open to current and former members of the CERN personnel, that is, staff, fellows, apprentices, associates, students a...

  5. DIVALENT ION EXCHANGE WITH ALKALI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunge, A.L.; Klein, G.; Radke, C.J.

    1980-05-01

    Exchange of hardness ions is important in enhanced oil recovery with chemical additives. In both micellar-polymer and caustic flooding processes, multivalent ions released from rock surfaces can interact with anionic surfactants, rendering them preferentially oil soluble and/or insoluble in water. Because hardness cations are sparingly soluble and precipitate in alkaline solutions, such solutions may be more efficient as surfactant flood preflushes than are softened brines. Multivalent ion precipitation may also occur in alkaline waterflooding. To permit design of such processes, this paper presents a chromatographic theory for simultaneous ion exchange with precipitation of divalent ions. Theoretical effluent histories and concentration profiles are presented for the cases of finite pulses and continuous injection of hydroxide ions into linear cores. Complete capture of the insoluble salt particles is assumed. Results are given for the case of instantaneous equilibration of the solution with the precipitate, as well for the case of complete nonequilibrium, in which the solid precipitate does not redissolve. The efficiency of alklaine preflushing is shown to depend on the exchange isotherm, initial divalent loading of the rock, injected pH and salinity, the solubility product of the precipitated salt, and pulse size. The effect of slug size on complete equilibrium removal of hardness ions is reduced efficiency with increasing size until a critical volume approximating continuous injection is reached. Increasing injected pH and salinity provides a more favorable response. Experimental data for Berea sandstone and an argillaceous sand compare favorably with the proposed theory.

  6. EXCHANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, J.C. (ed.)

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics on computer environments: Releasing computer software outside EG G Idaho; Ilford digital photo imager; mandatory upgrade of PC ORPS software; ORPS host computer upgrade; EROB computer users see network change; password expiration notice; big iron still has place in HPC market; handy scripts to copy and move files; more on workstation password expiration; training center course schedule for April 1993; Microsoft Word Version 5.1a- button bar; file attributes can provide you greater flexibility; constructing a personal WordPerfect dictionary; and Windows shortcuts.

  7. Applications of health information exchange information to public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE) can support several aspects of public health practice by increasing the availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness individual-level patient information. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served...... as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using...... qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. We derived the codes for the template analysis through a literature review. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature...

  8. Football and exchange rates: empirical support for behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Gulin; Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Burak

    2007-10-01

    Recently, economic theory has been expanded to incorporate emotions, which have been assumed to play an important role in financial decisions. The present study illustrates this by showing a connection between the sports performance of popular national football teams (Besiktas, Fenerbahce, and Galatasaray) and performance of the Turkish economy. Specifically, a significant positive association was found between the success of three major professional Turkish football teams and the exchange rate of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. The effect of the football success of several Turkish football teams on the exchange rate of the Turkish lira was examined using the simultaneous multiple regression model with predictor measures of wins, losses, and ties for different combinations of teams to predict the depreciation rate of the Turkish lira between the years 1987 and 2003. Wins by Turkish football teams against foreign (non-Turkish) rivals increased with exchange rate depreciation of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar.

  9. THE IMPLICATIONS OF VARYING EXCHANGE RATES FOR THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandu Carmen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The benefit of international trade is a more efficient employment of the productive forces of the world. (John Stuart Mill The exchange rate is a primary factor that influences economy. This instrument is used by some countries in order to improve the lack of balance caused as a result of the financial crisis felt in many countries considered by then infallible. The negative effects of the financial crisis can also be found in the decreased volume of commodities involved in international trade exchanges, as a consequence of modified prices and decreased offer. The globalizing trend leads to a constant expansion of exchanges between countries and to the consolidation of international cooperation. Except that economic interdependence generates an increased risk under the influence of economic, financial, monetary or political factors. The currency risk can generate either a gain or loss during foreign trade operations. The long period of RON depreciation made possible the entry of Romanian products on the international markets due to their prices. Sheltered by the gain generated by the evolution of the exchange rate, most of the exporters were not concerned by the increase of product competitiveness or by avoiding the currency risk. The fact that, for many years, the evolution of the exchange rate generated substantial losses for the exporters shows that risk coverage in Romania is, in most cases, a purely theoretical concept.

  10. Plasma Exchange in the Management of Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Titeca-Beauport

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Report of a case of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS with multiple organ involvement leading to a life-threatening condition despite early combination corticosteroid and heparin therapy. Initiation of plasma exchange led to rapid improvement of the patient’s general condition. Design. Case report. Setting. University teaching hospital medical intensive care unit. Patient. Single case: 52-year-old man hospitalized for catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS with cardiac, renal, and cutaneous involvement. Despite early methylprednisolone and heparin therapy, the patient’s condition progressively deteriorated, resulting in acute renal failure, right adrenal hemorrhage, and pulmonary involvement, leading to acute respiratory distress on day 6, requiring high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy with FiO2 of 1.0. Interventions. Plasma exchange was started on day 6. Endpoints and Main Results. A marked improvement of the patient’s general condition was observed after initiation of plasma exchange, with successful weaning of oxygen therapy and normalization of platelet count, troponin, and serum creatinine within four days. Conclusions. This case illustrates the efficacy of plasma exchange in CAPS and the difficulty for physicians to determine the optimal timing of plasma exchange.

  11. A look into the crystal ball: The next 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Helmut

    1994-01-01

    The PTTI Planning Meeting was born at about the same time as the atomic definition of the unit of time, the second. This use of the cesium resonance was made possible by advances in quantum electronics during the preceding decade which resulted in commercial availability of cesium, rubidium, and hydrogen clocks and frequency standards. Twenty-five years later these types of clocks still are the backbone of time and frequency applications; together with a variety of crystal oscillators, transmitters, and receivers, as well as signal distribution, conditioning and switching systems, atomic clocks are an essential part of the infrastructure of modern navigation and communication technology. The next 25 years undoubtedly will see a pervasive expansion of PTTI into the infrastructure that supports and leverages industrial, social, environmental, defense, and even individual human activities. Speculation as to what capabilities, services, and personal conveniences may become available will be limited by two factors: the degree to which existing device concepts can be made more affordable and reliable, and the ability to miniaturize for purposes of compatibility with electronic integration. With regard to the latter, history teaches us that the required technological breakthrough is unlikely to originate in existing technology; thus, we may expect a paradigm shift in PTTI device concepts not unlike the shift in the 1960s from vacuum tubes to semiconductors.

  12. The determinants of exchange rate in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel BENAZIC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dilemma for every country with an independent monetary policy is which kind of exchange rate arrangement should be applied. Through the exchange rate policy, countries can influence their economies, i.e. price stability and export competiveness. Croatia is a new EU member state, it has its own monetary policy and currency but it is on the way to euro introduction. Regarding the experiences from the beginning of the 1990s when Croatia was faced with serious monetary instabilities and hyperinflation, the goal of Croatian National Bank (CNB is to ensure price stability and one way to do so is through exchange rate policy. Croatia, as a small and open economy, has applied a managed floating exchange rate regime. The exchange rate is determined primarily by the foreign exchange supply and demand on the foreign exchange market, with occasional market interventions by the CNB. Therefore, in order to maintain exchange rate stability, policymakers must be able to recognize how changes in these factors affect changes in the exchange rate. This research aims to find a relationship among the main sources of foreign currency inflow and outflow and the level of exchange rate in Croatia. The analysis is carried out by using the bounds testing (ARDL approach for co-integration. The results indicate the existence of a stable co-integration relationship between the observed variables, whereby an increase in the majority of variables leads to an exchange rate appreciation.

  13. A Review of Industrial Heat Exchange Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junjie

    2018-01-01

    Heat exchanger is an energy exchange equipment, it transfers the heat from a working medium to another working medium, which has been wildly used in petrochemical industry, HVAC refrigeration, aerospace and so many other fields. The optimal design and efficient operation of the heat exchanger and heat transfer network are of great significance to the process industry to realize energy conservation, production cost reduction and energy consumption reduction. In this paper, the optimization of heat exchanger, optimal algorithm and heat exchanger optimization with different objective functions are discussed. Then, optimization of the heat exchanger and the heat exchanger network considering different conditions are compared and analysed. Finally, all the problems discussed are summarized and foresights are proposed.

  14. Environmental variation is directly responsible for short- but not long-term variation in forest-atmosphere carbon exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Richardson; David Y. Hollinger; John D. Aber; Scott V. Ollinger; Bobby H. Braswell

    2007-01-01

    Tower-based eddy covariance measurements of forest-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange from many sites around the world indicate that there is considerable year-to-year variation in net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Here, we use a statistical modeling approach to partition the interannual variability in NEE (and its component fluxes, ecosystem...

  15. RRB's SVES Input File - Post Entitlement State Verification and Exchange System (PSSVES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Several PSSVES request files are transmitted to SSA each year for processing in the State Verification and Exchange System (SVES). This is a first step in obtaining...

  16. NACP North American 8-km Net Ecosystem Exchange and Component Fluxes, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides modeled carbon flux estimates at 8-km spatial resolution over North America for the year 2004 of (1) net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon...

  17. Heat exchanger with oscillating flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Various heat exchange apparatuses are described in which an oscillating flow of primary coolant is used to dissipate an incident heat flux. The oscillating flow may be imparted by a reciprocating piston, a double action twin reciprocating piston, fluidic oscillators or electromagnetic pumps. The oscillating fluid flows through at least one conduit in either an open loop or a closed loop. A secondary flow of coolant may be used to flow over the outer walls of at least one conduit to remove heat transferred from the primary coolant to the walls of the conduit.

  18. Information exchanges in cournot duopolies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faíña Medín J. Andrés

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the profitability of information sharing among Cournot oligopolists receiving private information about random demand. We model the random demand as a linear demand having, 1 an unknown intercept, and 2 an unknown slope. In each of these two scenarios, firms observe private signals about the unknown parameter. We show that in the scenario-1, if the private signal observed by firms is accurate enough, information exchange is profitable and in the scenario-2, if there is a sufficiently large variation in the demand slope and private signals are accurate enough, firms earn strictly higher profits by sharing their information rather than keeping it private.

  19. EPR of exchange coupled systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bencini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    From chemistry to solid state physics to biology, the applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) are relevant to many areas. This unified treatment is based on the spin Hamiltonian approach and makes extensive use of irreducible tensor techniques to analyze systems in which two or more spins are magnetically coupled. This edition contains a new Introduction by coauthor Dante Gatteschi, a pioneer and scholar of molecular magnetism.The first two chapters review the foundations of exchange interactions, followed by examinations of the spectra of pairs and clusters, relaxation in oligon

  20. 25 Years of GenBank

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has helped advance scientific discoveries worldwide Since its origin 25 years ago, the database of nucleic acid ... by those who conduct the sequencing, mostly individual labs and large-scale sequencing projects. GenBank exchanges data ...

  1. 31 CFR 515.325 - National securities exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National securities exchange. 515.325... Definitions § 515.325 National securities exchange. The term national securities exchange shall mean an exchange registered as a national securities exchange under section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of...

  2. 31 CFR 500.325 - National securities exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National securities exchange. 500.325... Definitions § 500.325 National securities exchange. The term national securities exchange shall mean an exchange registered as a national securities exchange under section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of...

  3. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  4. How did China's foreign exchange reform affect the efficiency of foreign exchange market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ye; Wang, Yiming; Su, Chi-wei

    2017-10-01

    This study compares the market efficiency of China's onshore and offshore foreign exchange markets before and after the foreign exchange reform on August 11, 2015. We use the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of the onshore and offshore RMB/USD spot exchange rate series as basis. We then find that the onshore foreign exchange market before the reform has the lowest market efficiency, which increased after the reform. The offshore foreign exchange market before the reform has the highest market efficiency, which dropped after the reform. This finding implies the increased efficiency of the onshore foreign exchange market and the loss of efficiency in the offshore foreign exchange market. We also find that the offshore foreign exchange market is more efficient than the onshore market and that the gap shrank after the reform. Changes in intervention of the People's Bank of China since the reform is a possible explanation for the changes in the efficiency of the foreign exchange market.

  5. Phase-exchange thermoacoustic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Avshalom; Meir, Avishai; Ramon, Guy Z.; WET Lab Team

    2017-11-01

    Phase-exchange thermoacoustic engines are reliable machines holding great promise in converting heat from low grade heat sources to mechanical or electrical power. In these engines the working fluid is a gas mixture containing one condensable component, decreasing the temperature difference required for ignition and steady state operation. Our experimental setup consists of a vertical acoustic resonator containing a mixture of air-water vapor. Water evaporates near the heat source, condenses at the heat sink and is drawn back down by gravity and capillary forces where it re-evaporates, sustaining a steady state closed thermodynamic cycle. We investigated the stability limit, namely the critical point at which temperature difference in the engine enables onset of self-excited oscillations, and the steady state of the engine. A simple theoretical model was derived, describing mechanisms of irreversible entropy generation and production of acoustic power in such engines. This model captures the essence in the differences between regular and phase-exchange thermoacoustic engines, and shows good agreement with experimental results of stability limit. Steady state results reveal not only a dramatic decrease in temperature difference, but also an increase in engine performances. The authors acknowledge the support from the Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP).

  6. Dipole-induced exchange bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Felipe; Morales, Rafael; Schuller, Ivan K; Kiwi, Miguel

    2017-11-09

    The discovery of dipole-induced exchange bias (EB), switching from negative to positive sign, is reported in systems where the antiferromagnet and the ferromagnet are separated by a paramagnetic spacer (AFM-PM-FM). The magnitude and sign of the EB is determined by the cooling field strength and the PM thickness. The same cooling field yields negative EB for thin spacers, and positive EB for thicker ones. The EB decay profile as a function of the spacer thickness, and the change of sign, are attributed to long-ranged dipole coupling. Our model, which accounts quantitatively for the experimental results, ignores the short range interfacial exchange interactions of the usual EB theories. Instead, it retains solely the long range dipole field that allows for the coupling of the FM and AFM across the PM spacer. The experiments allow for novel switching capabilities of long range EB systems, while the theory allows description of the structures where the FM and AFM are not in atomic contact. The results provide a new approach to design novel interacting heterostructures.

  7. Exchange of astronomy teaching experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    The Working Group of the European Association for Astronomy Education responsible for Teacher Training organises an annual Summer School for teachers under expert guidance. For a week the teachers participating can exchange experiences, increase their knowledge and discuss different ideas and perspectives. In general, the instructors are professional astronomers, professors and teachers from different countries. The papers presented offer very practical activities, paying special attention to didactic aspects, and take the form of general lectures to all 40 participants and workshops to reduced groups of 20 participants. There are also day and night observations, without expensive equipment or complicated procedures, that are easy to set up and based on topics that it is possible to use in the classroom. The Summer Schools promote a scientific astronomical education at all levels of astronomy teaching, reinforce the link between professional astronomers and teachers with experience of teaching astronomy, allow debates among the participants on their pedagogical activities already carried out in their own classroom and help them to organise activities outside it. Astronomy teachers need special training, access to specific research, to new educational materials and methods and the opportunity to exchange experiences. All these things are provided by the Summer School.

  8. Trace Gas Exchange of Biofuel Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Li, R.; Eller, A. S.; Gray, C.; Fierer, N.; Fall, R.; Harley, P. C.; Roberts, J. M.; Yuan, B.; Qian, Y.; Westra, P.; Fryrear, C.; Collins, M.; Whitman, K.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    In 2010 leaf level gas exchange and VOC fluxes from switchgrass and corn grown at the CSU horticultural farm in Ft Collins (CO) were measured using a PTR-MS coupled to a modified Li6400 cuvette system. Both species are C4 plants with corn currently being the dominant biofuel crop in the USA whilst switchgrass being a promising candidate for cellulosic fuel ethanol production. Amongst the strongest VOC emissions from both plants were methanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, acetone and toluene. The switchgrass VOC emissions compare reasonably well with the only published data measured from potted plants in a whole plant enclosure (Eller et al. 2011). VOC emission studies on corn are almost as scarce as those of switchgrass. Considering the acreage of corn grown in the USA every year, VOC flux measurements of this plant species are largely under-represented in the literature. The emission rates that do exist in the literature do not compare well with the numbers found in this study (e.g. Das et al. 2003; 35μg methanol per hour per gram biomass). To investigate the biosphere atmosphere exchange of corn fields in more detail the field campaign BioCORN 2011 was initiated. In summer 2011 an eddy covariance system was set up in a corn field at ARDEC (CSU, Ft Collins, CO) to investigate the energy flux and the trace gas exchange of the US' dominant biofuel crop. Besides energy flux, evapotranspiration and CO2 flux a comprehensive suite of volatile organic compounds and inorganic species (O3, NO, NO2, CO) are measured for virtual disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC) analysis and true eddy covariance (EC) fluxes, respectively. VOCs are monitored by PTR-MS and, for the first time, fluxes of formic acid are measured utilizing NI-CIMS data for vDEC analysis. Besides the EC approach leaf level flux measurements and soil flux measurements are performed using a GC-MS system (TACOH) coupled to a modified Li6400 system and to soil chambers, respectively. Ethanol and methanol are amongst the

  9. Risk Based Inspection of Gas-Cooling Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Priyanta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On October 2013, Pertamina Hulu Energi Offshore North West Java (PHE – ONWJ platform personnel found 93 leaking tubes locations in the finfan coolers/ gas-cooling heat exchanger. After analysis had been performed, the crack in the tube strongly indicate that stress corrosion cracking was occurred by chloride. Chloride stress corrosion cracking (CLSCC is the cracking occurred by the combined influence of tensile stress and a corrosive environment. CLSCC is the one of the most common reasons why austenitic stainless steel pipework or tube and vessels deteriorate in the chemical processing, petrochemical industries and maritime industries. In this thesis purpose to determine the appropriate inspection planning for two main items (tubes and header box in the gas-cooling heat exchanger using risk based inspection (RBI method. The result, inspection of the tubes must be performed on July 6, 2024 and for the header box inspection must be performed on July 6, 2025. In the end, RBI method can be applicated to gas-cooling heat exchanger. Because, risk on the tubes can be reduced from 4.537 m2/year to 0.453 m2/year. And inspection planning for header box can be reduced from 4.528 m2/year to 0.563 m2/year.

  10. DHE (downhole heat exchangers). [Downhole Heat Exchangers (DHE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culver, G.

    1990-11-01

    The use of downhole heat exchangers (DHE) for residential or commercial space and domestic water heating and other applications has several desirable features. Systems are nearly or completely passive -- that is, no or very little geothermal water or steam is produced from the well either reducing or completely eliminating surface environmental concerns and the need for disposal systems or injection wells. Initial cost of pumps and installation are eliminated or reduced along with pumping power costs and maintenance costs associated with pumping often corrosive geothermal fluids. Many residential and small commercial systems do not require circulating pumps because the density difference in the incoming and outgoing sides of the loop are sufficient to overcome circulating friction losses in the entire system. The major disadvantage of DHEs is their dependence on natural heat flow. In areas where geological conditions provide high permeability and a natural hydraulic gradient, DHEs can provide a substantial quantity of heat. A single 500-ft (152 m) well in Klamath Falls, Oregon, supplies over one megawatt thermal and output is apparently limited by the surface area of pipe that can be installed in the well bore. In contrast, DHEs used in conjunction with heat pumps may supply less than 8 KW from a well of similar depth. Here output is limited by conductive heat flow with perhaps a small contribution from convection near the well bore. The highest capacity DHE reported to date, in Turkey, supplies 6 MW thermal from an 820-ft (250 m) well. There were two main goals for this project. The first was to gather, disseminate and exchange internationally information on DHES. The second was to perform experiments that would provide insight into well bore/aquifer interaction and thereby provide more information on which to base DHE designs. 27 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Investigating the effects of liquidity and exchange rate on Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younos Vakil Alroaia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of two macroeconomic factors; namely exchange rate and liquidity on stock index. The proposed study was applied in Iran and on major index of Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2001-2011. They reported that the currency exchange maintained negative impact on stock exchange for the period of investigation. This is due to the fact that when currency devalued, working capital decreases and firms did not enough money to purchase raw materials, pay wages, etc. In addition, liquidity marinated a direct and positive relationship with exchange index. However, the impact of liquidity seems to be bigger than currency exchange.

  12. Needs Assessment for Exchange Students in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentei Takaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the growing mobility of international students in Asia and the Pacific, Taiwan has become actively involved in promoting international academic exchange. This research investigates the experience of exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China and examines their needs while studying in Taiwan. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China. The findings suggest that while exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China both encountered difficulties during their study in Taiwan, exchange students from the Philippines were inclined to encounter more difficulties compared to those from mainland China due to language difficulties. Based on the findings of this study, suggested support services for future exchange students in Taiwan are outlined to match the needs of students from both Chinese and non-Chinese-speaking backgrounds.

  13. Listening to agent agendas in student exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Gertrud

    2003-01-01

    The paper is based upon a research study of short-term student exchanges. The study took place from 1996-2000, and comprises seven classes of students from six Danish business schools. Short-term student exchanges in terms of EU funded exchanges and local school exchanges are means to develop...... the students’ understanding of their own cultural background and of foreign cultures. The research study is an attempt to look at internationalisation and student exchanges from a student perspective. Thus the structural aim and the structural framework are considered given elements. The study is based upon...... institutional scepticism and placed within the theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism. The methodology applied is qualitative, grounded theory, and the data originate from diaries, semi-structured interviews and semi-open questionnaires. The findings show that the students have their own exchange...

  14. Incentives and Information Exchange in International Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Keen, M.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The exchange of taxpayer-specific information between national tax authorities has recently emerged as a key and controversial topic in international tax policy discussions, most notably with the OECD s harmful tax practices project and the EU s savings tax initiative.This paper analyses the effects of information exchange and withholding taxes, recognizing that countries which agree to exchange information do not forfeit the ability to levy withholding taxes, and also focusing in particular ...

  15. Development of nursing students during international exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Varusk, Inge

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to gather information about the experiences which nursing exchange students have had when they have been abroad. This aim of this literature review was to evaluates and presents the most current and relevant information of the topic as possible. The findings were divided into two themes – how nursing exchange students had evolved on a personal and on a professional level. Most of the findings were about how the nursing exchange students had evolved on a person...

  16. [Plasma exchange in nephrology: Indications and technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridel, Christophe; Kissling, Sébastien; Mesnard, Laurent; Hertig, Alexandre; Rondeau, Éric

    2017-02-01

    Plasma exchange is a non-selective apheresis technique that can be performed by filtration or centrifugation allowing rapid purification of high molecular weight pathogens. An immunosuppressive treatment is generally associated to reduce the rebound effect of the purified substance. Substitution solutes such as human albumin and macromolecules are needed to compensate for plasma extraction. Compensation by viro-attenuated plasma is reserved solely for the treatment of thrombotic microangiopathies or when there is a risk of bleeding, because this product is very allergenic and expensive. The treatment goal for a plasma exchange session should be between one and one and one-half times the patient's plasma volume estimated at 40 mL/kg body weight. The anticoagulation is best ensured by the citrate. Complications of plasma exchange are quite rare according to the French hemapheresis registry. The level of evidence of efficacy of plasma exchange in nephrology varies from one pathology to another. Main indications of plasma exchange in nephrology are Goodpasture syndrome, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis when plasma creatinine is greater than 500 μmol/L, and thrombotic microangiopathies. During renal transplantation, plasma exchange may be proposed in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) desensitization protocols or ABO-incompatible graft. After renal transplantation, plasma exchange is indicated as part of the treatment of acute humoral rejection or recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on the graft. Plasma exchanges are also proposed in the management of cryoglobulinemia or polyarteritis nodosa. Hemodialysis with membranes of very high permeability tends to replace plasma exchange for myeloma nephropathy. The benefit from plasma exchange has not been formally demonstrated for the treatment of severe lupus or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. There is no indication of plasma exchange in the treatment of scleroderma or nephrogenic

  17. Electric control of exchange bias training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echtenkamp, W; Binek, Ch

    2013-11-01

    Voltage-controlled exchange bias training and tunability are introduced. Isothermal voltage pulses are used to reverse the antiferromagnetic order parameter of magnetoelectric Cr(2)O(3), and thus continuously tune the exchange bias of an adjacent CoPd film. Voltage-controlled exchange bias training is initialized by tuning the antiferromagnetic interface into a nonequilibrium state incommensurate with the underlying bulk. Interpretation of these hitherto unreported effects contributes to new understanding in electrically controlled magnetism.

  18. China: Exchange Rate Policy and Asian Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia García-Herrero; Tuuli Koivu

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows empirically that China s trade balance is sensitive to fluctuations in the renminbi real effective exchange rate. However, the current size of the trade surplus is such that exchange rate policy, alone, will probably not be able to address the imbalance. The reduction in the trade surplus is limited mainly because Chinese imports do not react as expected to exchange rate appreciation. In fact, they tend to fall rather than increase. By estimating bilateral import equations fo...

  19. Perspective: Exchange reactions in thiolate-protected metal clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Niihori

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thiolate-protected metal clusters can exchange ligands or metal atoms with other substances such as coexisting ligands, complexes, and metal clusters in solution. Using these reactions, it is possible to synthesize metal clusters with new physical and chemical properties. Although the occurrence of such reactions was recognized nearly 20 years ago, their details were not well understood. In recent years, techniques for the precise synthesis of metal clusters and their characterization have progressed considerably and, as a result, details of these reactions have been clarified. In this perspective, we focus on the most-studied thiolate-protected gold clusters and provide a summary of recent findings as well as future expectations concerning the exchange reactions of these clusters.

  20. Fluid to fluid contact heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    Heat transfer and pressure drop test results for a fluid to fluid contact heat exchanger are reported. The heat exchanger, fabricated and tested to demonstrate one method of transferring heat between structures in space, had a total contact area of 0.18 sq m. It utilized contact surfaces which were flexible and conformed to the mating contact surfaces upon pressurization of the fluid circulating within the heat exchanger. During proof-of-concept performance tests, the heat exchanger was operated in a typical earth environment. It demonstrated a contact conductance of 3.8 kW/sq m C at contact pressures in the 15 to 70 kPa range.

  1. Ion Exchange and Liquid Column Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Harold F.

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes recent advances in principles and methodology in ion exchange and chromatography. Two tables list representative examples for inorganic ions and organic compounds. Cites 544 references. (CS)

  2. Entropy exchange for infinite-dimensional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhoubo; Hou, Jinchuan

    2017-02-06

    In this paper the entropy exchange for channels and states in infinite-dimensional systems are defined and studied. It is shown that, this entropy exchange depends only on the given channel and the state. An explicit expression of the entropy exchange in terms of the state and the channel is proposed. The generalized Klein's inequality, the subadditivity and the triangle inequality about the entropy including infinite entropy for the infinite-dimensional systems are established, and then, applied to compare the entropy exchange with the entropy change.

  3. Micro tube heat exchangers for Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mezzo fabricates micro tube heat exchangers for a variety of applications, including aerospace, automotive racing, Department of Defense ground vehicles, economizers...

  4. Foreign Exchange Risk in International Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina-Olivia Balu

    2007-03-01

    In this article we will focus on forward and futures contracts for managing foreign exchange risk. A forward is a contract to buy or sell currency at an agreed upon exchange rate at a specific date in the future. Futures are similar to forwards except that they’re traded on exchanges which specify settlement dates. Also we make some recommendations related to the foreign exchange risk-management practices that are useful for companies involved in international trade and for financial institutions interested in providing hedging products to these companies.

  5. Data Exchange Management Information System (DEMIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEMIS combines a database (Operational Data Store - ODS) of data exchange-related Management Information (MI) with the agency's querying and reporting utility, the...

  6. Health and sexual behaviour among exchange students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Carina; Peterson, Ulla; Swahnberg, Katarina; Oscarsson, Marie

    2016-08-26

    The objective was to describe the exchange students' health and sexual behaviour associated with their exchange studies, and examine the extent to which they had received preventive efforts against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) and safer sex before departure. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a web survey with questions about sexual behaviour, self-esteem and psychological well-being. Data were analysed using descriptive and analytical statistics. A total of 136 outgoing exchange students from a Swedish University participated. Most of the exchange students rated their health as good, had psychological well-being and rated their self-esteem as being high. Approximately half of the exchange students had sex with a new partner during the exchange semester, and 87% of them had sexually risky behaviour. More than half (61%) of the exchange students had received preventive efforts before departure. No statistically significant difference regarding preventive information was found between those who reported sexually risky behaviour and those who did not. The group that had sexually risky behaviour desired free condoms and access to clinics for sexual health. CONCLUSIONS EXCHANGE STUDENTS RATED THEIR HEALTH AS GOOD, AND THE MAJORITY OF THEM PARTICIPATED IN INFORMATION SESSIONS THAT ADDRESSED PREVENTIVE EFFORTS ON HIV/STI AND SAFER SEX BEFORE DEPARTURE SEXUALLY RISKY BEHAVIOUR DURING EXCHANGE STUDIES WAS REPORTED AND HIGHLIGHTS THE NEED FOR MORE EFFECTIVE PREVENTIVE MEASURES; FOR EXAMPLE, A RECOLLECTION OF READING STI INFORMATION. © Author(s) 2016.

  7. Exchange effects in a cold plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ekman, Robin; Brodin, Gert

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the exchange corrections to linear electrostatic wave propagation in a plasma using a quantum kinetic formalism. Specifically we have considered the zero temperature limit. In order to simplify the calculations we have focused on the long wavelength limit, i.e. wavelengths much longer than the de Broglie wavelength. For the case of ion-acoustic waves we have calculated the exchange correction both to the damping rate and the real part of the frequency. For Langmuir waves the frequency shift due to exchange effects is found. Our results are compared with the frequency shifts deduced from commonly used exchange potentials which are computed from density functional theory.

  8. Provably-Secure Authenticated Group Diffie-Hellman KeyExchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2007-01-01

    Authenticated key exchange protocols allow two participantsA and B, communicating over a public network and each holding anauthentication means, to exchange a shared secret value. Methods designedto deal with this cryptographic problem ensure A (resp. B) that no otherparticipants aside from B (resp. A) can learn any information about theagreed value, and often also ensure A and B that their respective partnerhas actually computed this value. A natural extension to thiscryptographic method is to consider a pool of participants exchanging ashared secret value and to provide a formal treatment for it. Startingfrom the famous 2-party Diffie-Hellman (DH) key exchange protocol, andfrom its authenticated variants, security experts have extended it to themulti-party setting for over a decade and completed a formal analysis inthe framework of modern cryptography in the past few years. The presentpaper synthesizes this body of work on the provably-secure authenticatedgroup DH key exchange.

  9. Algorithms for Lightweight Key Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rafael; Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Santonja, Juan; Zamora, Antonio

    2017-06-27

    Public-key cryptography is too slow for general purpose encryption, with most applications limiting its use as much as possible. Some secure protocols, especially those that enable forward secrecy, make a much heavier use of public-key cryptography, increasing the demand for lightweight cryptosystems that can be implemented in low powered or mobile devices. This performance requirements are even more significant in critical infrastructure and emergency scenarios where peer-to-peer networks are deployed for increased availability and resiliency. We benchmark several public-key key-exchange algorithms, determining those that are better for the requirements of critical infrastructure and emergency applications and propose a security framework based on these algorithms and study its application to decentralized node or sensor networks.

  10. Monetary Exchange with Multilateral Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julien, Benoît; Kennes, John; King, Ian

    This paper analyzes monetary exchange in a search model allowing for multilateral matches to be formed, according to a standard urn-ballprocess. We consider three physical environments: indivisible goods and money, divisible goods and indivisible money, and divisible goods and money. We compare....... In particular, surplus maximization can be achieved in this setting, in equilibrium, with a positive money supply. Moreover, with flexible prices and directed search, the first best allocation can be attained through price posting or through auctions with lotteries, but not through auctions without lotteries....... Finally, analysis of the case of divisible goods and money can be performed without the assumption of large families (as in Shi (1997)) or the day and night structure of Lagos and Wright (2005)....

  11. Educational Exchanges Across the Equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, D. J.; Walker, C. E.; Smith, M.; Pompea, S. M.; Orellana, D.

    2003-12-01

    What is color? What is light? How can we use a spectrometer to help students understand the answers to these questions? Even half a world apart and between people of different languages and cultures, how to teach these ideas to students can be a lively subject for discussion. And it is! Aided by Internet 2-based videoconferencing, NOAO North and South have sponsored three teacher professional development videoconference workshops, dubbed ASTRO-Chile, linking teachers in Tucson, AZ, and La Serena, Chile. The teachers exchange methods and ideas about how to explain and demonstrate physical concepts, important to the study of astronomy, to students of various ages. The workshops are conducted in Spanish with four bilingual science teachers from the Tucson area discussing pedagogical approaches with their teaching counterparts in Chile. Demonstrations and project presentations, from both sites, are included as part of each workshop. This work is supported, in part, through funding from the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  12. Exchanger system for anhydrite pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penet, A.

    1980-12-01

    This paper deals with the problem of roadway behaviour affecting airways, bottom roads and top roads in advancing faces in the HBNPC area. The support work in these zones used to be undertaken manually and involved a lot of man hours. These operations are now mechanized in the form of pneumatic stowing with anhydrite. The latter is delivered by pipeline using compressed air. The 'exchanger' is a sort of branching system in the pipeline enabling the flow to be switched from the top end of the face to the bottom end and vice versa (diagram). The associated operations can be undertaken with ease. The effect the system has on costs will soon be known. (In French)

  13. Macroeconomic sources of foreign exchange risk in new EU members

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Poghosyan, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 11 (2009), s. 2164-2173 ISSN 0378-4266 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/08/1376; GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : foreign exchange risk * time-varying risk premium * Stochastic discount factor * new EU member countries Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.908, year: 2009

  14. Idea Exchange Music Hub Hits the Right Note in Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Bester

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cambridge Libraries and Galleries has made many changes over the last two years, rebranding as Idea Exchange and adding 3D printers, creative spaces and many on-site events. This article focuses on one of the organization’s newest innovations, the addition of a Music Hub, and the challenges of creating a space where members can learn and collaborate musically without disturbing those around them.

  15. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of two preseasonal regimens of glutaraldehyde modified, tyrosine-adsorbed parietaria pollen extract over a period of three years in monosensitive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, J M; Wheeler, A W; Hernández, J; Youlten, L J; Pascual, A; García-Sellés, F J; Pagán, J A; López-Sánchez, J D; Miralles, J C; Sarrió, F; Milán, J M; Contreras, L G; Vidal, D

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy over a period of three years (1988-90) of two preseasonal dosage regimens of a Parietaria allergoid (Bencard Tyrosine Parietaria) in patients who were only sensitive to this pollen. Fifty patients were included (14 men and 36 women, age: mean, 28 years; range, 14-47 years). Twenty five patients (group A) were treated each january with the basic course of Bencard Tyrosine Parietaria. This consisted of injecting subcutaneously 0.5 ml from each of three vials, with one week between each injection. A further injection using the vial with the highest dose was given one week later. Each january and february, twenty five patients (group B) were treated with the basic course of Bencard Tyrosine Parietaria, repeating the last dose five times, with one week between each injection. Immunotherapy with a tyrosine-adsorbed Parietaria judaica allergoid is an effective method for mitigating nasal (p Parietaria pollen, as verified by skin test and nasal challenge, decreased during immunotherapy (p < 0.001). Histamine release by peripheral blood basophils decreased during the course of the study, falling from 43.5 ng/ml to 12.3 ng/ml in group A and from 42.9 ng/ml to 10.0 ng/ml in group B; during the second and third years, IgG levels were increased one and four months after starting treatment with the extract, while this was not the case after ten months; IgE levels were also increased. Finally, overall tolerance to this immunotherapy product was good in almost all patients.

  16. Authenticated group Diffie-Hellman key exchange: theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevassut, Olivier [Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2002-10-01

    Authenticated two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals A and B, communicating over a public network, and each holding a pair of matching public/private keys to agree on a session key. Protocols designed to deal with this problem ensure A (B resp.)that no other principals aside from B (A resp.) can learn any information about this value. These protocols additionally often ensure A and B that their respective partner has actually computed the shared secret value. A natural extension to the above cryptographic protocol problem is to consider a pool of principals agreeing on a session key. Over the years several papers have extended the two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange to the multi-party setting but no formal treatments were carried out till recently. In light of recent developments in the formalization of the authenticated two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange we have in this thesis laid out the authenticated group Diffie-Hellman key exchange on firmer foundations.

  17. Injection risk behavior among women syringe exchangers in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Paula J; Sears, Clare; Guydish, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Women who inject drugs in cities where syringe exchange programs (SEPs) are well established may have different risks for HIV infection. In 1997, we interviewed 149 female syringe exchangers in San Francisco, CA, a city with high rates of injection drug use that is home to one of the largest and oldest SEPs in the United States. In this report, we describe their sociodemographics, health, and risk behavior, and we examine factors associated with recent syringe sharing. Fifty percent of respondents were women of color and the median age was 38 years. Most (86%) injected heroin and nearly half were currently homeless or had recently been incarcerated. One-third of all women reported needle sharing in the prior month. This was higher than the rate of needle sharing reported by a mixed gender sample of San Francisco exchangers in 1993, although it resembled the rate reported by a mixed gender sample in 1992. In a multivariate analysis, syringe sharing was associated with age, housing status, and sexual partnerships. Syringe sharers were more likely to be young, homeless, or have a sexual partner who was also an injection drug user. While wide access to sterile syringes is an important strategy to reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users (IDU), syringe exchange alone cannot eradicate risky injection by female IDU. Additional efforts to reduce risky injection practices should focus on younger and homeless female IDU, as well as address selective risk taking between sexual partners.

  18. Exchange Rate Policy in Morocco and Persistence of Real Exchange Rate Misalignments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohamed Bouzahzah; Radouane Bachar

    2014-01-01

    .... The objective of this article is to highlight the persistent nature of misalignments of the real exchange rate of the Dirham, especially since the adoption by Morocco of a policy exchange rate based...

  19. Similar net ecosystem exchange of beech stands located in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granier, A.; Pilegaard, K.; Jensen, N.O.

    2002-01-01

    Net ecosystem exchange (NEE), as measured with eddy covariance was compared for two European beech stands for the years 1996-1999: a young beech forest (32 year-old) growing in east France, and a mature beech stand (80 year-old) located in Denmark. Those sites are included in the Carboeuroflux...

  20. Photosynthesis drives anomalies in net carbon-exchange of pine forests at different latitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyssaert, S.; Janssens, I.A.; Sulkava, M.; Papale, D.; Dolman, A.J.; Reichstein, M.; Hollmén, J.; Martin, J.G.; Suni, T.; Vesala, T.; Loustau, D.; Law, B.E.; Moors, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    The growth rate of atmospheric CO2 exhibits large temporal variation that is largely determined by year-to-year fluctuations in land¿atmosphere CO2 fluxes. This land¿atmosphere CO2-flux is driven by large-scale biomass burning and variation in net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Between- and within years,

  1. Gingivitis and plaque scores of 8- to 11-year-old Burmese children following participation in a 2-year school-based toothbrushing programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosema, N A M; van Palenstein Helderman, W H; Van der Weijden, G A

    2012-08-01

    The present study assessed whether gingivitis and plaque scores of 8- to 11-year-old school children who participated in a SBTB programme for 2 years were lower than those of children who did not participate in the programme. The present study was performed using an examiner-blind, parallel group design and was performed in Burma (Myanmar) in 2006. Three of the five schools where daily SBTB programmes took place after lunch and which were performed under teacher supervision were randomly selected; three non-participating schools (non-SBTB) from the same area were assigned as controls. Twenty-five children per school were examined for gingivitis (bleeding on marginal probing) and plaque (Quigley & Hein). In total, 150 8- to 11-year-old children participated, with 75 children in either group. The test group (SBTB) exhibited an overall mean bleeding score of 0.76. For the control group (non-SBTB), this score was 0.83. With respect to the overall mean plaque scores, the test group exhibited a score of 2.93, whereas the control group exhibited a score of 2.91. No statistically significant differences between the test and the control group were observed. The present study did not reveal a statistically significant effect of daily SBTB programmes in 8- to 11-year-old school children with respect to gingivitis and plaque scores. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. 76 FR 25774 - Determination of Foreign Exchange Swaps and Foreign Exchange Forwards Under the Commodity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... exchange derivatives, such as foreign exchange options, currency swaps, or non-deliverable forwards (``NDFs... markets for derivative instruments. In general, the payment obligations on currency swaps, interest rate... derivatives. Foreign exchange options, currency swaps, and NDFs may not be exempted from the CEA's definition...

  3. Interest Rate Rules, Exchange Market Pressure, and Successful Exchange Rate Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.; Mavromatis, K.

    2016-01-01

    Central banks with an exchange rate objective set the interest rate in response to what they call ''pressure.'' Instead, existing interest rate rules rely on the exchange rate minus its target. To stay closer to actual policy, we introduce a rule that uses exchange market pressure (EMP), the

  4. Australian Universities' Strategic Goals of Student Exchange and Participation Rates in Outbound Exchange Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda; Barker, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    International student exchange programmes are acknowledged as one aspect of a broader suite of internationalisation strategies aimed at enhancing students' intercultural understanding and competence. The decision to participate in an exchange programme is dependent on both individual and contextual factors such as student exchange policies and…

  5. Exchange Studies as Actor-Networks: Following Korean Exchange Students in Swedish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Song-ee

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the…

  6. 77 FR 24752 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; International Securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66834; File Nos. SR-EDGA-2012-08; SR-EDGX-2012-07; SR- ISE-2012-21] Self... Exchange AG Will Transfer Its Interest in ISE Holdings, Inc. to a Newly Formed Swiss Corporation, Eurex... (``EDGA''), EDGX Exchange, Inc. (``EDGX''), International Securities Exchange, LLC (``ISE'' and, with EDGA...

  7. Assessing heat exchanger performance data using temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To ensure operation of heat exchangers, the goal is to verify that the exchanger is performing, or will perform, at its design. This is especially relevant to coolers that typically operate at heat loads reduced from their design basis. In addition, any calculated performance acceptance criteria must also consider uncertainty and ...

  8. Identifying the weights in exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.

    2012-01-01

    Exchange market pressure (EMP) measures the pressure on a currency to depreciate, and it is particularly relevant in crisis periods. EMP adds to the actual depreciation a weighted combination of policy instruments used to ward off depreciation, such as interest rates and foreign exchange

  9. The Story of Foreign Trade and Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cedric

    This comic-style booklet is one of a series of educational booklets published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The booklet uses everyday language and lively illustrations to explain the benefits of international trade; the effects of tariffs and quotas; the significance of foreign exchange rates; how the foreign exchange market facilities…

  10. Timing matters in foreign exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2012-02-01

    We show using nonlinear time series analysis that the timing of trades in foreign exchange markets has significant information. We apply a set of methods for analyzing point process data developed in neuroscience and nonlinear science. Our results imply that foreign exchange markets might be chaotic and have short-term predictability.

  11. Individual Differences in Reactions to Inequitable Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Barbara B.; Penner, Louis A.

    1983-01-01

    Investigates the role of sociopathic tendencies in reactions to inequitable exchanges in 273 males and females classified as high or low in sociopathy. Subjects read narratives of inequitable exchanges and assumed the role of the exploiter and the role of the victim in each. (Author/RH)

  12. Synthesis, characterization and ion exchange properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The material has been characterized on the basis of chemical composition, pH titration, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis. The effect on the exchange capacity of drying the exchanger at different temperatures has been studied. The analytical importance of the material has been ...

  13. 22 CFR 41.62 - Exchange visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exchange visitors. 41.62 Section 41.62 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF NONIMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND... intends to participate, in an exchange visitor program designated by the Bureau of Education and Cultural...

  14. Intersite Coulomb interaction and Heisenberg exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eder, R; van den Brink, J.; Sawatzky, G.A

    1996-01-01

    Based on exact diagonalization results for small clusters we discuss the effect of intersite Coulomb repulsion in Mott-Hubbard or charge transfers insulators. Whereas the exchange constant J for direct exchange is enhanced by intersite Coulomb interaction, that for superexchange is suppressed. The

  15. Exchange Rate Deregulation and Industrial Performance: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that a long-run relationship exists between the industrial productivity growth rate, ration of industrial production to gross domestic product, exchange rate, interest rate and terms of trade, and that exchange rate deregulation has significant impact on industrial performance. In order to determine the short term ...

  16. Are Student Exchange Programs Worth It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Dolores; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2007-01-01

    The number of university students participating in exchange programs has risen sharply over the last decade. A survey of Swiss university graduates (classes of 1999 and 2001) shows that participation in student exchange programs depends significantly on the socio-economic background of students. We further analyze whether the participants benefit…

  17. 76 FR 33993 - Exchange Visitor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... due to this employment and accordingly, such students will be deemed to be in valid J-1 Exchange... Part 62 RIN 1400-ZA20 Exchange Visitor Program AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of... Libyan students. This action is necessary to mitigate the adverse impact upon these students due to...

  18. Pan-American Teletandem Language Exchange Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Scott, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a TeleTandem language exchange project between English speaking Spanish students at Georgia College, USA, and Spanish speaking English students at Universidad de Concepción, Chile. The aim of the project was to promote linguistic skills and intercultural competence through a TeleTandem exchange. Students used Skype and Google…

  19. Ion exchange in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.P.

    1990-12-31

    Ion exchange is used in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle -- from the purification of uranium from its ore to the final recovery of uranium and transmutation products. Ion exchange also plays a valuable role in the management of nuclear wastes generated in the fuel cycle.

  20. Ion exchange in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Ion exchange is used in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle -- from the purification of uranium from its ore to the final recovery of uranium and transmutation products. Ion exchange also plays a valuable role in the management of nuclear wastes generated in the fuel cycle.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and ion exchange properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    zirconium(IV) oxychloride. Its ion exchange capacity for Na+ and K+ was found to be 2⋅20 and 2⋅35 meq g–1 dry exchanger, respectively. The material has been characterized on the basis of chemical composition, pH titration, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis. The effect on the.

  2. Anion exchange membrane design for reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güler, E.

    2014-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a clean, sustainable technology for the generation of energy from the mixing of solutions with different salinity. The ion exchange membranes are key elements in RED. Especially the study of anion exchange membranes is crucial since limited research has been done

  3. Microsoft Exchange Server PowerShell cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    This book is for messaging professionals who want to build real-world scripts with Windows PowerShell 5 and the Exchange Management Shell. If you are a network or systems administrator responsible for managing and maintaining Exchange Server 2013, you will find this highly useful.

  4. Health information exchange among US hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; DesRoches, Catherine M; Jha, Ashish K

    2011-11-01

    To determine the proportion of US hospitals engaged in health information exchange (HIE) with unaffiliated providers and to identify key hospital-level and market-level factors associated with participating in exchange. Using the 2009 American Hospital Association Information Technology survey, supplemented by Dartmouth Atlas, Area Resource File, and other national data, we examined which hospitals participated in regional efforts to electronically exchange clinical data. We used logistic regression models to determine hospital-level characteristics and market-level characteristics associated with hospitals' likelihood of participating in HIE. We found that 10.7% of US hospitals engaged in HIE with unaffiliated providers. In communities where exchange occurred, for-profit hospitals and those with a small market share were far less likely to engage in HIE than nonprofit hospitals or those with a larger market share. Hospitals in more concentrated markets were more likely to exchange and hospitals in markets with higher Medicare spending were less likely to exchange. At the start of implementation of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, only a small minority of US hospitals electronically exchange clinical data with unaffiliated providers. Health information exchange is a key part of reforming the healthcare system, and factors related to competitiveness may be holding some providers back.

  5. A comparative study of United States and China exchange rate behavior: A co integration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shafi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rates always affect the prices of the imports and export of products and services in which countries are trading with other parts of the world. Therefore, exchange rate calculation is one of the essential issues for making appropriate policies. This research investigates the determinants of trade, i.e. import, export, industrial growth, consumption level and oil prices fluctuation, which bring changes in exchange rate and their influence eventually on balance of payments. Data of defined variables was collected on yearly basis for China and USA for thirty one years. By applying cointegration, it is estimated that there existed a long run relationship in both countries. USA and China had significant and correct signs on the short run dynamic and some of the factors did not. Exchange rate did not granger cause balance of payment and balance of payment did not granger cause exchange rate. In conclusion, we found that determinants of balance of trade could affect the exchange rates, also, these rates had considerable effect (positive or negative on balance of payments. In this twofold study, we found relationship of exchange rate with selected determinants of trade, and also examined their bilateral effect, and then made contrast of both countries.

  6. Exchange fluctuation theorem for correlated quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevtic, Sania; Rudolph, Terry; Jennings, David; Hirono, Yuji; Nakayama, Shojun; Murao, Mio

    2015-10-01

    We extend the exchange fluctuation theorem for energy exchange between thermal quantum systems beyond the assumption of molecular chaos, and describe the nonequilibrium exchange dynamics of correlated quantum states. The relation quantifies how the tendency for systems to equilibrate is modified in high-correlation environments. In addition, a more abstract approach leads us to a "correlation fluctuation theorem". Our results elucidate the role of measurement disturbance for such scenarios. We show a simple application by finding a semiclassical maximum work theorem in the presence of correlations. We also present a toy example of qubit-qudit heat exchange, and find that non-classical behaviour such as deterministic energy transfer and anomalous heat flow are reflected in our exchange fluctuation theorem.

  7. Pseudo exchange bias due to rotational anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrmann, A., E-mail: andrea.ehrmann@fh-bielefeld.de [Faculty of Engineering and Mathematics, Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences, 33619 Bielefeld (Germany); Komraus, S.; Blachowicz, T.; Domino, K. [Institute of Physics – Center for Science and Education, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Nees, M.K.; Jakobs, P.J.; Leiste, H. [Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mathes, M.; Schaarschmidt, M. [ACCESS e. V., 57072 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Ferromagnetic nanostructure arrays with particle dimensions between 160 nm and 400 nm were created by electron-beam lithography. The permalloy structures consist of rectangular-shaped walls around a square open space. While measuring their magnetic properties using the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE), in some angular regions an exchange bias (EB) seemed to appear. This paper gives an overview of possible reasons for this “pseudo exchange bias” and shows experimentally and by means of micromagnetic simulations that this effect can be attributed to unintentionally measuring minor loops. - Highlights: • Pseudo exchange bias can be found in square Py nanorings of different dimensions. • Pseudo exchange bias stems from unintentionally measuring minor loops. • New approach in explaining “real” exchange bias effect in coupled FM/AFM systems. • Theoretical base to explain other measurements of a rotational anisotropy.

  8. Fertility as a process of social exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Heady

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available By marrying and raising children, parents participate in a system of gift-exchange in which the gifts in question are human lives, and the parties to the exchange are the kinship groups recognised in the society concerned. Fertility reflects the attitudes of prospective parents to their place in the existing system of reproductive exchange, and the relationships of cooperation and authority which it implies - as well as their confidence in the system's continuing viability. It is shown that this view is compatible with earlier ideas about self-regulating population systems - and that changing economic circumstances are an important source of discrepancy between existing exchange systems and the attitudes and expectations of prospective parents. The discussion is developed with reference to data on European societies, including a case-study from the Alps, and concludes with an assessment of the relevance of the anthropological theory of gift exchange to contemporary fertility patterns in Europe and beyond.

  9. "Price-quakes" shaking the world's stock exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jørgen Vitting; Nowak, Andrzej; Rotundo, Giulia; Parrott, Lael; Martinez, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Systemic risk has received much more awareness after the excessive risk taking by major financial instituations pushed the world's financial system into what many considered a state of near systemic failure in 2008. The IMF for example in its yearly 2009 Global Financial Stability Report acknowledged the lack of proper tools and research on the topic. Understanding how disruptions can propagate across financial markets is therefore of utmost importance. Here, we use empirical data to show that the world's markets have a non-linear threshold response to events, consistent with the hypothesis that traders exhibit change blindness. Change blindness is the tendency of humans to ignore small changes and to react disproportionately to large events. As we show, this may be responsible for generating cascading events--pricequakes--in the world's markets. We propose a network model of the world's stock exchanges that predicts how an individual stock exchange should be priced in terms of the performance of the global market of exchanges, but with change blindness included in the pricing. The model has a direct correspondence to models of earth tectonic plate movements developed in physics to describe the slip-stick movement of blocks linked via spring forces. We have shown how the price dynamics of the world's stock exchanges follows a dynamics of build-up and release of stress, similar to earthquakes. The nonlinear response allows us to classify price movements of a given stock index as either being generated internally, due to specific economic news for the country in question, or externally, by the ensemble of the world's stock exchanges reacting together like a complex system. The model may provide new insight into the origins and thereby also prevent systemic risks in the global financial network.

  10. “Price-Quakes” Shaking the World's Stock Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jørgen Vitting; Nowak, Andrzej; Rotundo, Giulia; Parrott, Lael; Martinez, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Background Systemic risk has received much more awareness after the excessive risk taking by major financial instituations pushed the world's financial system into what many considered a state of near systemic failure in 2008. The IMF for example in its yearly 2009 Global Financial Stability Report acknowledged the lack of proper tools and research on the topic. Understanding how disruptions can propagate across financial markets is therefore of utmost importance. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we use empirical data to show that the world's markets have a non-linear threshold response to events, consistent with the hypothesis that traders exhibit change blindness. Change blindness is the tendency of humans to ignore small changes and to react disproportionately to large events. As we show, this may be responsible for generating cascading events—pricequakes—in the world's markets. We propose a network model of the world's stock exchanges that predicts how an individual stock exchange should be priced in terms of the performance of the global market of exchanges, but with change blindness included in the pricing. The model has a direct correspondence to models of earth tectonic plate movements developed in physics to describe the slip-stick movement of blocks linked via spring forces. Conclusions/Significance We have shown how the price dynamics of the world's stock exchanges follows a dynamics of build-up and release of stress, similar to earthquakes. The nonlinear response allows us to classify price movements of a given stock index as either being generated internally, due to specific economic news for the country in question, or externally, by the ensemble of the world's stock exchanges reacting together like a complex system. The model may provide new insight into the origins and thereby also prevent systemic risks in the global financial network. PMID:22073168

  11. "Price-quakes" shaking the world's stock exchanges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Vitting Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systemic risk has received much more awareness after the excessive risk taking by major financial instituations pushed the world's financial system into what many considered a state of near systemic failure in 2008. The IMF for example in its yearly 2009 Global Financial Stability Report acknowledged the lack of proper tools and research on the topic. Understanding how disruptions can propagate across financial markets is therefore of utmost importance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we use empirical data to show that the world's markets have a non-linear threshold response to events, consistent with the hypothesis that traders exhibit change blindness. Change blindness is the tendency of humans to ignore small changes and to react disproportionately to large events. As we show, this may be responsible for generating cascading events--pricequakes--in the world's markets. We propose a network model of the world's stock exchanges that predicts how an individual stock exchange should be priced in terms of the performance of the global market of exchanges, but with change blindness included in the pricing. The model has a direct correspondence to models of earth tectonic plate movements developed in physics to describe the slip-stick movement of blocks linked via spring forces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown how the price dynamics of the world's stock exchanges follows a dynamics of build-up and release of stress, similar to earthquakes. The nonlinear response allows us to classify price movements of a given stock index as either being generated internally, due to specific economic news for the country in question, or externally, by the ensemble of the world's stock exchanges reacting together like a complex system. The model may provide new insight into the origins and thereby also prevent systemic risks in the global financial network.

  12. [Utilization of Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange in Biopharmaceutical Industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coufalová, D; Vojtěšek, B; Hernychova, L

    The development of biopharmaceutics is the fastest growing segment of the present pharmaceutical industry. The analysis of proteins therapeutics is a challenging task due to their large size and complexity of spatial structure. Any changes in the primary, secondary, tertiary or quaternary protein structure can have huge impact on their function, efficiency and toxicity. Mass spectrometry proved itself to be a powerful tool for analysis of primary protein structure (amino acid sequence) and thanks to the development of new techniques in last years it is able to analyse higher order protein structures. One of these new techniques is hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX). HDX is based on exchange of amid protons with deuterium from solution on the protein backbone chain. Protons on the surface of protein are exchanging with deuterium much faster than protons buried inside of protein. HDX results could provide information about spatial protein structure and also about protein-protein interactions and protein-ligand interactions. Furthermore, by analysing of deuterium exchange in different time points this method could give information about dynamic changes of protein structure and dynamics of proteins interactions. Because of possibilities of this method, HDX become attractive method for characterization of protein biopharmaceuticals. This review article is focused on the utilization of mass spectrometry in biopharmaceutical industry and mainly on HDX method and its applications.Key words: mass spectrometry - proteomics - protein conformation - drug discovery - drug industry - hydrogen/deuterium exchangeThe work was supported by the project MEYS - NPS I - LO1413.The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study.The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 23. 5. 2016Accepted: 10. 6. 2016.

  13. 40 CFR 63.654 - Heat exchange systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... any one of the criteria in paragraphs (b)(1) through (2) of this section. (1) All heat exchangers that... any heat exchangers that are in organic HAP service as defined in this subpart). (c) The owner or... each heat exchanger exit line for each heat exchanger or group of heat exchangers in organic HAP...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1409 - Heat exchange system provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... locations where the cooling water enters and exits each heat exchanger or any combination of heat exchangers.... (iii) For samples taken at the entrance and exit of each heat exchanger or any combination of heat exchangers, the entrance is the point at which the cooling water enters the individual heat exchanger or...

  15. 17 CFR 229.802 - Exchange Act industry guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exchange Act industry guides. 229.802 Section 229.802 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K List of Industry Guides § 229.802 Exchange Act industry...

  16. The European-American exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, F

    1993-01-01

    The European-American exchange of infectious diseases was responsible for the demographic havoc of the native population in the New World after 1492. Prior to this date medical writers describe the presence in Spain of viral diseases like influenza, parotitis, smallpox, measles, poliomyelitis, and rabies; there were also rickettsiasis, diphtheria, salmonellosis, plague, tubercolosis, leprosy, malaria, scabies and tinea. In America, before European arrivals, there were no records of human viral diseases, though there were records of rickettsiasis, treponematosis--pinta, yaws and syphilis--leihsmaniasis, amibiasis and perhaps leprosy. With the discovery of America in 1492, Columbus's sailors were contaminated by yaws and spread this disease into Europe. In 1493 influenza, as a zoonosis, was introduced into Santo Domingo and was responsible for the annihilation of the natives of the Antilles in less than a quarter of a century; in 1518 smallpox was also introduced in Santo Domingo and then to the American continent by negro slaves: by the same means measles were introduced in 1531. The previous existence or introduction of other infectious diseases in America is also discussed.

  17. The interplanetary exchange of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2008-02-01

    Panspermia, the transfer of organisms from one planet to another, either through interplanetary or interstellar space, remains speculation. However, its potential can be experimentally tested. Conceptually, it is island biogeography on an interplanetary or interstellar scale. Of special interest is the possibility of the transfer of oxygenic photosynthesis between one planet and another, as it can initiate large scale biospheric productivity. Photosynthetic organisms, which must live near the surface of rocks, can be shown experimentally to be subject to destruction during atmospheric transit. Many of them grow as vegetative cells, which are shown experimentally to be susceptible to destruction by shock during impact ejection, although the effectiveness of this dispersal filter can be shown to be mitigated by the characteristics of the cells and their local environment. Collectively these, and other, experiments reveal the particular barriers to the cross-inoculation of photosynthesis. If oxygen biosignatures are eventually found in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets, understanding the potential for the interplanetary exchange of photosynthesis will aid in their interpretation.

  18. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. Date Change type Affected areas March 26 Update of the voice messaging system All CERN sites April...

  19. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. Date Change type Affected areas April 8 Update of switch in LHC 7 LHC 7 Point April 9 Update of...

  20. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. DateChange typeAffected areas March 26Update of the voice messaging systemAll CERN sites April 4Updat...

  1. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. DateChange typeAffected areas April 11 Update of switch in LHC 4 LHC 4 Point April 14 Update of switch in LHC 5 LHC 5 Point April 15 Update of switches in LHC 3 and LHC 2 Points LHC 3 and LHC 2 April 22 Update of switch N4 Meyrin Ouest April 23 Update of switch  N6 Prévessin Site Ap...

  2. Effect of a 2-year home-based endurance training intervention on physiological function and PSA doubling time in prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Thine; Lindegaard, Birgitte; Winding, Kamilla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Physical activity after prostate cancer diagnosis has been shown to reduce the risk of disease progression. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effect of a 2-year home-based endurance training intervention on body composition, biomarkers levels, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time...... as a surrogate end-point for progressing disease. METHODS: Out-clinic patients with either biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy or patients managed on active surveillance were randomized to either 24 months (3 times/week) of home-based endurance training or usual care. Aerobic fitness, body...... composition, insulin sensitivity, and biomarkers were measured at 0, 6, and 24 months of intervention. PSA doubling time (PSADT) was calculated based on monthly PSA measurements. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled, and 19 patients completed the study. PSADT increased in the training group from 28...

  3. [Alterations in neuro-development in the 1st year of life in newborn infants weighing 2000 grams or less at birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Carrocera, L A; Turcio Cortázar, E; Garza Morales, S; Rodríguez Pérez, L; Udaeta Mora, E

    1992-05-01

    The infants with low weight at birth have great chance of exhibiting early death or neurodevelopmental sequelae. We prospectively evaluated the neurological and psychological development during the first year of life in 118 infants who weighted less than 2,000 g at birth. All patients were examined with the Amiel Tison and Grenier test (neurologic evaluation), Gesell test (psychological) and Brunette-Lezine test (Psychomotor scale). Mean gestational age was 33 weeks (SD = 3.1) and birth mean weight was 1495 g (SD = 291). Seventy per cent were delivered by cesarean section. Neurological abnormalities were found in 20 infants (alteration of muscular tone in all and motor deficit in 50%). Twenty five per cent had abnormal Gesell test and 17% psychomotor retardation (13% mild and 4% severe).

  4. Successful Use of Plasma Exchange in the Treatment of Corticosteroid-Refractory Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Associated with Gastrointestinal Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Tsujimoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 33-year-old woman having corticosteroid-refractory eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA who presented with abdominal pain and responded dramatically to plasma exchange. Eosinophilia, asthma history, neuropathy, pulmonary infiltrates, and paranasal sinus abnormalities confirmed the diagnosis of EGPA. Treatment was initiated with 1 g/day of methylprednisolone pulse therapy for 3 days followed by 60 mg/day of intravenous prednisolone without relieving abdominal pain. Then, plasma exchange was performed thrice. Abdominal pain disappeared after the first plasma exchange. Indication of plasma exchange for EGPA remains controversial; however, it may represent a valid option in cases with gastrointestinal involvement.

  5. 26 CFR 1.1037-1 - Certain exchanges of United States obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... solely for another marketable U.S. bond which then has a fair market value of $95. B's loss of $2 on the... the new bond 1 year and sells it in the market for $99 plus interest. At this time he has a gain of $2... exchange has a fair market value of $96. Less than one month after the exchange, A sells the new bond for...

  6. [Development of chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis for enantioseparation of D,L-amino acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyu; Qi, Li; Su, Yuan; Qiao, Juan; Chen, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Enantioseparation of D, L-amino acids is of great significance in life science. As one of the most useful methods, chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis possesses many advantages, including high efficiency, fast speed and tunable migration order, and it has attracted great research interest. This review summarizes the development of chiral ligand exchange capillary electrophoresis for enantioseparation of D, L-amino acids in recent years.

  7. Carbon exchange between the atmosphere and subtropical forested cypress and pine wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    W. B. Shoemaker; Barr, J G; Botkin, D.B.; Graham, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and forested subtropical wetlands is largely unknown. Here we report a first step in characterizing this atmospheric–ecosystem carbon (C) exchange, for cypress strands and pine forests in the Greater Everglades of Florida as measured with eddy covariance methods at three locations (Cypress Swamp, Dwarf Cypress and Pine Upland) for one year. Links between water and C cycles are examined at these three sites, and methane emissio...

  8. Discovering Stock Price Prediction Rules of Bombay Stock Exchange Using Rough Fuzzy Multi Layer Perception Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Arindam; De, Kajal; Chatterjee, Dipak

    2013-01-01

    In India financial markets have existed for many years. A functionally accented, diverse, efficient and flexible financial system is vital to the national objective of creating a market driven, productive and competitive economy. Today markets of varying maturity exist in equity, debt, commodities and foreign exchange. In this work we attempt to generate prediction rules scheme for stock price movement at Bombay Stock Exchange using an important Soft Computing paradigm viz., Rough Fuzzy Multi...

  9. A student's analysis of the Moi University-Linköping University exchange programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenda, A S

    2012-11-01

    Introduction : Moi University College of Health Sciences was established in 1989. It is comprised of the schools of medicine, nursing, public health and dentistry. Since its inception, the college has been in collaboration with Linköping University in Sweden. This collaboration has taken the form of student and staff exchanges, as well as infrastructure and library improvements. This study was carried out to analyse the exchange programme and highlight some of the strengths that the exchange programme brings to the students' academic experience. Methods : A qualitative cross-sectional survey was conducted among the students who participated in the elective/exchange programme in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by the participants. Additional data were obtained from the recommendations and conclusions from the reports that the students wrote after their participation in the exchange programme. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were also carried out. Results : A total of 46 students participated in the exchange programme: 27 from Moi University and 19 from Linköping University. The disciplines of students reflected the undergraduate courses offered by these universities. The exchange programme's strengths were exposing students to new cultural settings, different healthcare system organisation and influencing future academic and personal lives, as well as making education global. The main challenge facing the exchange programme was language. Discussion : This study shows the exchange programme as a strong pillar of the medical education curriculum, enabling students to get a global perspective on their education, while exposing them to significant cultural and healthcare organisation diversity. There is a need to expand the collaboration so that more students have the opportunity to experience the overseas exchange programme.

  10. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Intermediate Heat Exchanger Acquisition Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizia, Ronald Eugene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-04-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C to 950°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor, and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. The purpose of this report is to address the acquisition strategy for the NGNP Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX).This component will be operated in flowing, impure helium on the primary and secondary side at temperatures up to 950°C. There are major high temperature design, materials availability, and fabrication issues that need to be addressed. The prospective materials are Alloys 617, 230, 800H and X, with Alloy 617 being the leading candidate for the use at 950°C. The material delivery schedule for these materials does not pose a problem for a 2018 start up as the vendors can quote reasonable delivery times at the moment. The product forms and amount needed must be finalized as soon as possible. An

  11. Comparative research of international exchange of plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The well known events which had taken place in our country over the period 1989-2001 provoked adverse effects on foreign trade exchange of the total economy, agriculture and commodities of plant origin. These effects and changes were analyzed using corresponding indices for the sub periods 1989-1992 and 1998-2001. The foreign trade exchange balance was substantially negative in both sub periods over the analyzed period showing an aggravating trend. Export covering import declined from 78.09% to only 47.71%. The positive balance of exchange of agricultural, especially commodities of plant origin in the first four years was turned into a negative balance of exchange in the second four years. Export covering import at the agricultural level declined from 164.79% to 78.58% and at the level of commodities of plant origin from 201,76% to 87.35%. There was a significant disturbance of commodity and regional structure exchange. The share of agriculture in the total export of the country was raised from 13.82% to 18.16%. The share of plant originating commodities in the total export of agriculture was raised from 71,96% to 86,34%. Basic agricultural products predominated in the export. In addition, in the domestic export the share of developed countries decreased which contributed to poor export results and increased the import dependence of the country. Considering the above said, the need arises to increase substantially agricultural production, i.e. commodities of plant origin. The structure and output of these productions should meet the needs of both domestic and foreign markets. International standards need to be applied in order to take hold of new foreign markets, exporting high technology processed products, using intensive and efficient promotive activities. Subsequently, greater investments and a planned production are needed, liberalization and especially the system of import control in foreign trade exchange of agricultural products, i

  12. Diffusive and Arrestedlike Dynamics in Currency Exchange Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara-Rahola, J.; Puertas, A. M.; Sánchez-Granero, M. A.; Trinidad-Segovia, J. E.; de las Nieves, F. J.

    2017-02-01

    This work studies the symmetry between colloidal dynamics and the dynamics of the Euro-U.S. dollar currency exchange market (EURUSD). We consider the EURUSD price in the time range between 2001 and 2015, where we find significant qualitative symmetry between fluctuation distributions from this market and the ones belonging to colloidal particles in supercooled or arrested states. In particular, we find that models used for arrested physical systems are suitable for describing the EURUSD fluctuation distributions. Whereas the corresponding mean-squared price displacement (MSPD) to the EURUSD is diffusive for all years, when focusing in selected time frames within a day, we find a two-step MSPD when the New York Stock Exchange market closes, comparable to the dynamics in supercooled systems. This is corroborated by looking at the price correlation functions and non-Gaussian parameters and can be described by the theoretical model. We discuss the origin and implications of this analogy.

  13. Socio-technical HCI for Ethical Value Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelnour-Nocera, José; Nielsen, Lene; Christensen, Lars Rune

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring ethical value exchange is moving to the forefront of the global challenges that HCI will have to address in the coming years In this position paper, we argue that applying a context-sensitive, sociotechnical approach to HCI can help meet the challenge. The background is that the life...... of marginalized people in contemporary society is challenging and uncertain. The marginalized can face health and cognitive issues as well as a lack of stability of social structures such as family, work and social inclusion. Three questions are of concern when innovating together with people ‘at the margins...... interaction design (HWID) to meet the challenges of designing for ethical value exchange. We present three cases of service design, and suggest how to add a fourth similar case using the HWID approach during the INTERACT ‘field trip plus workshop’. We conclude that applying a context sensitive sociotechnical...

  14. Structure and Evolution of the Foreign Exchange Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwapień, J.; Gworek, S.; Drożdż, S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate topology and temporal evolution of the foreign currency exchange market viewed from a weighted network perspective. Based on exchange rates for a set of 46 currencies (including precious metals), we construct different representations of the FX network depending on a choice of the base currency. Our results show that the network structure is not stable in time, but there are main clusters of currencies, which persist for a long period of time despite the fact that their size and content are variable. We find a long-term trend in the network's evolution which affects the USD and EUR nodes. In all the network representations, the USD node gradually loses its centrality, while, on contrary, the EUR node has become slightly more central than it used to be in its early years. Despite this directional trend, the overall evolution of the network is noisy.

  15. 75 FR 55381 - Joint Industry Plan; Order Approving Amendment To Add EDGA Exchange, Inc. and EDGX Exchange, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... COMMISSION Joint Industry Plan; Order Approving Amendment To Add EDGA Exchange, Inc. and EDGX Exchange, Inc... participants to the Joint-SRO Plan are the American Stock Exchange LLC (n/k/a NYSE Amex, Inc.), BATS Exchange... exchange or national securities association may become a party to the Plan by: (i) Executing a copy of the...

  16. Optimization of parameters of heat exchangers vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei MELEKHIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic due to the decision of problems of the economy of resources in heating systems of vehicles. To solve this problem we have developed an integrated method of research, which allows to solve tasks on optimization of parameters of heat exchangers vehicles. This method decides multicriteria optimization problem with the program nonlinear optimization on the basis of software with the introduction of an array of temperatures obtained using thermography. The authors have developed a mathematical model of process of heat exchange in heat exchange surfaces of apparatuses with the solution of multicriteria optimization problem and check its adequacy to the experimental stand in the visualization of thermal fields, an optimal range of managed parameters influencing the process of heat exchange with minimal metal consumption and the maximum heat output fin heat exchanger, the regularities of heat exchange process with getting generalizing dependencies distribution of temperature on the heat-release surface of the heat exchanger vehicles, defined convergence of the results of research in the calculation on the basis of theoretical dependencies and solving mathematical model.

  17. High heat flux single phase heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Izenson, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux, single-phase heat exchanger for spacecraft thermal management. The intended application is a net generation interface heat exchanger to couple the crew module water thermal bus to the two-phase ammonia main thermal bus in the Space Station Freedom. The large size of the interface heat exchanger is dictated by the relatively poor water-side heat transfer characteristics. The objective of this program is to develop a single-phase heat transfer approach which can achieve heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients comparable to those of the evaporation ammonia side. A new heat exchanger concept has been developed to meet these objecties. The main feature of this heat exchanger is that it can achieve very high heat fluxes with a pressure drop one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of previous microchannel or jet impingement high heat flux heat exchangers. This paper describes proof-of-concept experiments performed in air and water and presents analytical model of the heat exchanger.

  18. Searching for an Appropriate Exchange Rate Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjong Wang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to survey current debates on the choice of exchange rate regime in emerging market economies. The issue of choosing an appropriate exchange rate regime is being actively discussed since the recent Asian crisis. As a lesson from the recent crises, one widely shared conclusion is that soft peg exchange rate regimes are extremely vulnerable in a world of volatile capital movements. Consequently, new orthodoxy based on the impossible trinity hypothesis favours two corner solutions ― greater flexibility or credible institutional assurance, like a currency board system or dollarization. Nevertheless, questions whether such corner solutions are adequate for developing countries are rising of late. "Fear of floating" is still conspicuous in many developing countries having adopted nominally a free-floating exchange rate regime. Developing countries are sensitive to exchange rate fluctuations because the cost of exchange rate volatility is greater than the benefit when compared to developed countries. Monitoring bands is a compromise solution, but it still needs further enhancement of estimation techniques for fundamental equilibrium exchange rates in order to make those estimation results more workable in practice. Other alternatives include the creation of soft peg of the G-3 currencies. Despite counterarguments, the stability of G-3 currencies could prove to be beneficial to emerging market economies.

  19. Tear exchange and contact lenses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntz, Alex; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Sorbara, Luigina; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Tear exchange beneath a contact lens facilitates ongoing fluid replenishment between the ocular surface and the lens. This exchange is considerably lower during the wear of soft lenses compared with rigid lenses. As a result, the accumulation of tear film debris and metabolic by-products between the cornea and a soft contact lens increases, potentially leading to complications. Lens design innovations have been proposed, but no substantial improvement in soft lens tear exchange has been reported. Researchers have determined post-lens tear exchange using several methods, notably fluorophotometry. However, due to technological limitations, little remains known about tear hydrodynamics around the lens and, to-date, true tear exchange with contact lenses has not been shown. Further knowledge regarding tear exchange could be vital in aiding better contact lens design, with the prospect of alleviating certain adverse ocular responses. This article reviews the literature to-date on the significance, implications and measurement of tear exchange with contact lenses. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Research of Spined Heat-Exchanging Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akulov Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Work is devoted to a research of spined heat-exchanging pipes that are assumed to use in air-cooler exchangers (ACE. The proposed new geometry of finning allows intensifying heat exchange and improving the efficiency of air coolers. It is caused by the increased area of finned surface with a value of finning ratio (the ratio of the area of the smooth pipe to a finned one to 42.7, while in the commercially available ACE, the figure is 22. Besides, the geometrical arrangement of the pin fins turbulizes the airflow. It should be mentioned that an easier method of manufacturing of heat exchanging pipes is proposed to use, which will reduce their costs. The proposed heat exchange pipes are made by winding cut aluminum strip to the supporting pipe or stretching stamped blanks on it. To increase the efficiency of the heat exchange surface pin fins should be as thin and long as possible; however, their strength should be sufficient for deformation-free operation. Fins should be staggered to maximize the distance between them. Spined heat-exchange pipes are designed to operate in a commercially produced ACE and their service is carried out similarly to commercially produced transversely finned pipes.