WorldWideScience

Sample records for exchanger molten salt

  1. Thermal energy storage heat exchanger: Molten salt heat exchanger design for utility power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferarra, A.; Yenetchi, G.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of thermal energy storage (TES) in the latent heat of molten salts as a means of conserving fossil fuels and lowering the cost of electric power was evaluated. Public utility systems provided electric power on demand. This demand is generally maximum during late weekday afternoons, with considerably lower overnight and weekend loads. Typically, the average demand is only 60% to 80% of peak load. As peak load increases, the present practice is to purchase power from other grid facilities or to bring older less efficient fossil-fuel plants on line which increase the cost of electric power. The widespread use of oil-fired boilers, gas turbine and diesel equipment to meet peaking loads depletes our oil-based energy resources. Heat exchangers utilizing molten salts can be used to level the energy consumption curve. The study begins with a demand analysis and the consideration of several existing modern fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants for use as models. Salts are evaluated for thermodynamic, economic, corrosive, and safety characteristics. Heat exchanger concepts are explored and heat exchanger designs are conceived. Finally, the economics of TES conversions in existing plants and new construction is analyzed. The study concluded that TES is feasible in electric power generation. Substantial data are presented for TES design, and reference material for further investigation of techniques is included.

  2. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  3. Microemulsion of Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    then to an oil-rich, upper phase as salinity increases in a system of brine/octane/ TRS surfactant/tertiary amyl alcohol . Borkovec et al. (1988) have...11 4. Partial Pseudotemary Phase Diagram .................................. 12 5. Micrograph of Molten Salts/SDS/Pentanol/Decane System...negligible interfacial tension between microdomains. Theoretical work in ternary and pseudotemary systems has shown that the middle phase is a

  4. Steady RANS methodology for calculating pressure drop in an in-line molten salt compact crossflow heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carasik, Lane B.; Shaver, Dillon R.; Hassan, Yassin A.; Haefner, Jonah B.

    2017-11-01

    The development of molten salt cooled reactors (MSR) and fluoride-salt cooled high temperature reactors (FHR) requires the use of advanced design tools for the primary heat exchanger design. Due to geometric and flow characteristics, compact (pitch to diameter ratios equal to or less than 1.25) heat exchangers with a crossflow flow arrangement can become desirable for these reactors. Unfortunately, the available experimental data is limited for compact tube bundles or banks in crossflow. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to alleviate the lack of experimental data in these tube banks. Previous computational efforts have been primarily focused on large S/D ratios (larger than 1.4) using unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes and Large Eddy Simulation frameworks. These approaches are useful, but have large computational requirements that make comprehensive design studies impractical. A CFD study was conducted with steady RANS in an effort to provide a starting point for future design work. The study was performed for an in-line tube bank geometry with FLiBe (LiF-BeF2), a frequently selected molten salt, as the working fluid. Based on the estimated pressure drops, the pressure and velocity distributions in the domain, an appropriate meshing strategy was determined and presented. Periodic boundaries in the spanwise direction transverse flow were determined to be an appropriate boundary condition for reduced computational domains. The domain size was investigated and a minimum of 2-flow channels for a domain is recommended to ensure the behavior is accounted for. Lastly, the standard low Re κ-ε (Lien) turbulence model was determined to be the most appropriate for steady RANS of this case at the time of writing.

  5. Detection and removal of molten salts from molten aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Butcher; D. Smith; C. L. Lin; L. Aubrey

    1999-08-02

    Molten salts are one source of inclusions and defects in aluminum ingots and cast shapes. A selective adsorption media was used to remove these inclusions and a device for detection of molten salts was tested. This set of experiments is described and the results are presented and analyzed.

  6. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  7. Fluoroacidity evaluation in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieber, A.L. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, Universite de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Massot, L., E-mail: massot@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, Universite de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Gibilaro, M.; Cassayre, L.; Chamelot, P.; Taxil, P. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, Universite de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > Si(IV) ions are reduced into Si in a one-step process exchanging 4 electrons in molten fluorides. > Si(IV) ions stability in molten fluorides depends on the free F{sup -} ions. > Study of SiF{sub 4(g)} release kinetics allows qualitative fluoroacidity evaluation. > Several compositions of molten fluoride mixtures have been investigated. - Abstract: The fluoroacidity of several alkaline fluoride media was studied by monitoring the concentration of electroactive species which is decreasing vs. time due to a gas species release, such as silicon fluorides, as indicated by the reaction: SiF{sub 4+x}{sup x-} = SiF{sub 4(g)} + xF{sup -}. This article relates the Si(IV) reaction study to define a relative fluoroacidity scale by studying the silicon ions stability in different melts. Electrochemical techniques allow the measurement of SiF{sub 4+x}{sup x-} concentration evolution and thus the reaction rate constant to be calculated at different temperatures and for several fluoride media. The article shows that the free F{sup -} content depends on the fluoride mixture and that the rate values are correlated with the fluoroacidity allowing a qualitative estimation. Then a fluoride solvents fluoroacidity scale was proposed, scaling the different eutectic melts from basic melt to acidic one: NaF-KF < LiF-KF < NaF-MgF{sub 2} < NaF-CaF{sub 2} < LiF-NaF < LiF < LiF-CaF{sub 2}.

  8. Electricity generation using molten salt technology

    OpenAIRE

    Osarinmwian, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The anodic release of carbon dioxide gas in the molten salt Hall-Heroult process can be used to power a turbine for electricity generation. The application of this new concept in molten salt reprocessing in the nuclear industry is considered because it could facilitate the suitability of carbon dioxide cycles to certain types of nuclear reactor. The theoretical power of 27.8 MW generated by a molten salt Hall-Heroult reactor is comparable with a next-generation biomass plant that sources low-...

  9. Electrochemical ion separation in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoerke, Erik David; Ihlefeld, Jon; Waldrip, Karen; Wheeler, Jill S.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Small, Leo J.; Wheeler, David R.

    2017-12-19

    A purification method that uses ion-selective ceramics to electrochemically filter waste products from a molten salt. The electrochemical method uses ion-conducting ceramics that are selective for the molten salt cations desired in the final purified melt, and selective against any contaminant ions. The method can be integrated into a slightly modified version of the electrochemical framework currently used in pyroprocessing of nuclear wastes.

  10. Extracting information from the molten salt database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzuric, Slobodan; Suh, Changwon; Gaune-Escard, Marcelle; Rajan, Krishna

    2006-12-01

    Molten salt technology is a catchall phrase that includes some very diverse technologies; electrochemistry, heat transfer, chemical oxidation/reduction baths, and nuclear reactors. All of these technologies are linked by the general characteristics of molten salts that can function as solvents, have good heat-transfer characteristics, function like a fluid, can attain very high temperatures, can conduct electricity, and also may have chemical catalytic properties. The Janz molten salt database is the most comprehensive compilation of property data about molten salts available today and is widely used for both fundamental and applied purposes. Databases are traditionally viewed as “static” documents that are used in a “search and retrieval” mode. These static data can be transformed by informatics and data mining tools into a dynamic dataset for analysis of the properties of the, materials and for making predictions. While this approch has been successful in the chemical and biochemical sciences in searching for and establishing structure-property relationships, it is not widely used in the materials science community. Because the design of the original molten salt database was not oriented toward this informatics goal, it was essential to evaluate this dataset in terms of data mining standards. Two techniques were used—a projection (principal components analysis (PCA)) and a predictive method (partial least squares (PLS))—in conjunction with fundamental knowledge acquired from the long-term practice of molten salt chemistry.

  11. LIFE Materails: Molten-Salt Fuels Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R; Brown, N; Caro, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Kaufman, L; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Powers, J; Shaw, H; Turchi, P

    2008-12-11

    The goals of the Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) is to use fusion neutrons to fission materials with no enrichment and minimum processing and have greatly reduced wastes that are not of interest to making weapons. Fusion yields expected to be achieved in NIF a few times per day are called for with a high reliable shot rate of about 15 per second. We have found that the version of LIFE using TRISO fuel discussed in other volumes of this series can be modified by replacing the molten-flibe-cooled TRISO fuel zone with a molten salt in which the same actinides present in the TRISO particles are dissolved in the molten salt. Molten salts have the advantage that they are not subject to radiation damage, and hence overcome the radiation damage effects that may limit the lifetime of solid fuels such as TRISO-containing pebbles. This molten salt is pumped through the LIFE blanket, out to a heat exchanger and back into the blanket. To mitigate corrosion, steel structures in contact with the molten salt would be plated with tungsten or nickel. The salt will be processed during operation to remove certain fission products (volatile and noble and semi-noble fission products), impurities and corrosion products. In this way neutron absorbers (fission products) are removed and neutronics performance of the molten salt is somewhat better than that of the TRISO fuel case owing to the reduced parasitic absorption. In addition, the production of Pu and rare-earth elements (REE) causes these elements to build up in the salt, and leads to a requirement for a process to remove the REE during operation to insure that the solubility of a mixed (Pu,REE)F3 solid solution is not exceeded anywhere in the molten salt system. Removal of the REE will further enhance the neutronics performance. With molten salt fuels, the plant would need to be safeguarded because materials of interest for weapons are produced and could potentially be removed.

  12. Investigation of molten salt fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kenichi; Enuma, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Yoshihiko; Konomura, Mamoru; Ichimiya, Masakazu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2000-06-01

    Phase I of Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor System is being performed for two years from Japanese Fiscal Year 1999. In this report, results of the study on fluid fuel reactors (especially a molten salt fast breeder reactor concept) are described from the viewpoint of technical and economical concerns of the plant system design. In JFY1999, we have started to investigate the fluid fuel reactors as alternative concepts of sodium cooled FBR systems with MOX fuel, and selected the unique concept of a molten chloride fast breeder reactor, whose U-Pu fuel cycle can be related to both light water reactors and fast breeder reactors on the basis of present technical data and design experiences. We selected a preliminary composition of molten fuel and conceptual plant design through evaluation of technical and economical issues essential for the molten salt reactors and then compared them with reference design concepts of sodium cooled FBR systems under limited information on the molten chloride fast breeder reactors. The following results were obtained. (1) The molten chloride fast breeder reactors have inherent safety features in the core and plant performances, ad the fluid fuel is quite promising for cost reduction of the fuel fabrication and reprocessing. (2) On the other hand, the inventory of the molten chloride fuel becomes high and thermal conductivity of the coolant is inferior compared to those of sodium cooled FBR systems, then, the size of main components such as IHX's becomes larger and the amount of construction materials is seems to be increased. (3) Furthermore economical vessel and piping materials which contact with the molten chloride salts are required to be developed. From the results, it is concluded that further steps to investigate the molten chloride fast breeder reactor concepts are too early to be conducted. (author)

  13. Hybrid Molten Salt Reactor (HMSR) System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolley, Robert D [PPPL; Miller, Laurence F [PPPL

    2014-04-01

    Can the hybrid system combination of (1) a critical fission Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) having a thermal spectrum and a high Conversion Ratio (CR) with (2) an external source of high energy neutrons provide an attractive solution to the world's expanding demand for energy? The present study indicates the answer is an emphatic yes.

  14. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  15. Experimental studies of actinides in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reavis, J.G.

    1985-06-01

    This review stresses techniques used in studies of molten salts containing multigram amounts of actinides exhibiting intense alpha activity but little or no penetrating gamma radiation. The preponderance of studies have used halides because oxygen-containing actinide compounds (other than oxides) are generally unstable at high temperatures. Topics discussed here include special enclosures, materials problems, preparation and purification of actinide elements and compounds, and measurements of various properties of the molten volts. Property measurements discussed are phase relationships, vapor pressure, density, viscosity, absorption spectra, electromotive force, and conductance. 188 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Molten nitrate salt technology development status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carling, R.W.; Kramer, C.M.; Bradshaw, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.; Goods, S.H.; Mar, R.W.; Munford, J.W.; Karnowsky, M.M.; Biefeld, R.N.; Norem, N.J.

    1981-03-01

    Recognizing thermal energy storage as potentially critical to the successful commercialization of solar thermal power systems, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established a comprehensive and aggressive thermal energy storage technology development program. Of the fluids proposed for heat transfer and energy storage molten nitrate salts offer significant economic advantages. The nitrate salt of most interest is a binary mixture of NaNO/sub 3/ and KNO/sub 3/. Although nitrate/nitrite mixtures have been used for decades as heat transfer and heat treatment fluids the use has been at temperatures of about 450/sup 0/C and lower. In solar thermal power systems the salts will experience a temperature range of 350 to 600/sup 0/C. Because central receiver applications place more rigorous demands and higher temperatures on nitrate salts a comprehensive experimental program has been developed to examine what effects, if any, the new demands and temperatures have on the salts. The experiments include corrosion testing, environmental cracking of containment materials, and determinations of physical properties and decomposition mechanisms. This report details the work done at Sandia National Laboratories in each area listed. In addition, summaries of the experimental programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of New York, EIC Laboratories, Inc., and the Norwegian Institute of Technology on molten nitrate salts are given. Also discussed is how the experimental programs will influence the near-term central receiver programs such as utility repowering/industrial retrofit and cogeneration. The report is designed to provide easy access to the latest information and data on molten NaNO/sub 3//KNO/sub 3/ for the designers and engineers of future central receiver projects.

  17. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a

  18. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  19. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

    1999-08-17

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

  20. Transient simulation of molten salt central receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupis, Dimitri; Wang, Chuan; Carcorze-Soto, Jorge; Chen, Yen-Ming; Maggi, Andrea; Losito, Matteo; Clark, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing concentrated solar power (CSP) utilizing 60/40wt% NaNO3-KNO3 molten salt as the working fluid in a tower receiver for the global renewable energy market. In the CSP power generation cycle, receivers undergo a daily cyclic operation due to the transient nature of solar energy. Development of robust and efficient start-up and shut-down procedures is critical to avoiding component failures due to mechanical fatigue resulting from thermal transients, thus maintaining the performance and availability of the CSP plant. The Molten Salt Central Receiver (MSCR) is subject to thermal transients during normal daily operation, a cycle that includes warmup, filling, operation, draining, and shutdown. This paper describes a study to leverage dynamic simulation and finite element analysis (FEA) in development of start-up, shutdown, and transient operation concepts for the MSCR. The results of the FEA also verify the robustness of the MSCR design to the thermal transients anticipated during the operation of the plant.

  1. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-02-01

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other. Electrostatic stabilization of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute-solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute-solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  2. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2017-02-15

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other. Electrostatic stabilization of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute-solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute-solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  3. Advancing Molten Salts and Fuels at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Salvador B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-26

    SNL has a combination of experimental facilities, nuclear engineering, nuclear security, severe nuclear accidents, and nuclear safeguards expertise that can enable significant progress towards molten salts and fuels for Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs). The following areas and opportunities are discussed in more detail in this white paper.

  4. Conceptual design of Indian molten salt breeder reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-08-28

    Aug 28, 2015 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 85; Issue 3. Conceptual design of Indian molten salt breeder ... India has recently started carrying out fundamental studies so as to arrive at a conceptual design of Indian molten salt breeder reactor (IMSBR). Presently, various design options and ...

  5. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  6. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauzi, Anas Muhamad, E-mail: Anas@uniten.edu.my [Centre of Nuclear Energy, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector [School of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Civil Engineering (MACE), University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-29

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

  7. Dynamic modeling of molten salt power towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Robert; Högemann, Daniel; Hackmann, Jonas; Uhlig, Ralf; Schwarzbözl, Peter; Augsburger, Germain; Clark, Michael

    2017-06-01

    A detailed understanding of the transient behavior of a receiver using molten salt as heat transfer fluid is of great importance for an efficient and safe operation. To analyze the transient operation a dynamic model for the flow in the receiver is currently under development, which will be capable to analyze the one-phase flow during normal operation and the two-phase flow during filling and draining. The model can be coupled to raytracing simulation in order to use a realistic flux density distribution as input for the model. In the paper the modelling approach for the receiver model is described shortly and validation results are discussed. This includes a detailed discussion of the heat transfer during the filling procedure, where an interesting phenomenon was discovered. Finally, the results for a parameter variation of the filling procedure and the simulation results for the impact of certain cloud events on the operation of the receiver are presented.

  8. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-02-15

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes1, 2, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other2. Electrostatic stabilization3, 4 of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains2, 5. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute–solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute–solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  9. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia

    2012-05-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 C

  10. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia; Piyush Sabharwall

    2012-09-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 °C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700

  11. Apparatus and method for stripping tritium from molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David E.; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-02-07

    A method of stripping tritium from flowing stream of molten salt includes providing a tritium-separating membrane structure having a porous support, a nanoporous structural metal-ion diffusion barrier layer, and a gas-tight, nonporous palladium-bearing separative layer, directing the flowing stream of molten salt into contact with the palladium-bearing layer so that tritium contained within the molten salt is transported through the tritium-separating membrane structure, and contacting a sweep gas with the porous support for collecting the tritium.

  12. Molten salt oxidation of organic hazardous waste with high salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengqian; Chi, Yong; Jin, Yuqi; Jiang, Xuguang; Buekens, Alfons; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Jian

    2018-02-01

    Organic hazardous waste often contains some salt, owing to the widespread use of alkali salts during industrial manufacturing processes. These salts cause complications during the treatment of this type of waste. Molten salt oxidation is a flameless, robust thermal process, with inherent capability of destroying the organic constituents of wastes, while retaining the inorganic ingredients in the molten salt. In the present study, molten salt oxidation is employed for treating a typical organic hazardous waste with a high content of alkali salts. The hazardous waste derives from the production of thiotriazinone. Molten salt oxidation experiments have been conducted using a lab-scale molten salt oxidation reactor, and the emissions of CO, NO, SO2, HCl and dioxins are studied. Impacts are investigated from the composition of the molten salts, the types of feeding tube, the temperature of molten carbonates and the air factor. Results show that the waste can be oxidised effectively in a molten salt bath. Temperature of molten carbonates plays the most important role. With the temperature rising from 600 °C to 750 °C, the oxidation efficiency increases from 91.1% to 98.3%. Compared with the temperature, air factor has but a minor effect, as well as the composition of the molten salts and the type of feeding tube. The molten carbonates retain chlorine with an efficiency higher than 99.9% and the emissions of dioxins are below 8 pg TEQ g-1 sample. The present study shows that molten salt oxidation is a promising alternative for the disposal of organic hazardous wastes containing a high salt content.

  13. Advanced Instrumentation for Molten Salt Flow Measurements at NEXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyishimire, Olive

    2017-09-01

    The Nuclear Energy eXperiment Testing (NEXT) Lab at Abilene Christian University is building a Molten Salt Loop to help advance the technology of molten salt reactors (MSR). NEXT Lab's aim is to be part of the solution for the world's top challenges by providing safe, clean, and inexpensive energy, clean water and medical Isotopes. Measuring the flow rate of the molten salt in the loop is essential to the operation of a MSR. Unfortunately, there is no flow meter that can operate in the high temperature and corrosive environment of a molten salt. The ultrasonic transit time method is proposed as one way to measure the flow rate of high temperature fluids. Ultrasonic flow meter uses transducers that send and receive acoustic waves and convert them into electrical signals. Initial work presented here focuses on the setup of ultrasonic transducers. This presentation is the characterization of the pipe-fluid system with water as a baseline for future work.

  14. Dynamics and control of molten-salt breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sing, Vikram; Lish, Matthew R.; Chvala, Ondrej; Upadhyaya, Belle R. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Preliminary results of the dynamic analysis of a two-fluid molten-salt breeder reactor (MSBR) system are presented. Based on an earlier work on the preliminary dynamic model of the concept, the model presented here is nonlinear and has been revised to accurately reflect the design exemplified in ORNL-4528. A brief overview of the model followed by results from simulations performed to validate the model is presented. Simulations illustrate stable behavior of the reactor dynamics and temperature feedback effects to reactivity excursions. Stable and smooth changes at various nodal temperatures are also observed. Control strategies for molten-salt reactor operation are discussed, followed by an illustration of the open-loop load-following capability of the molten-salt breeder reactor system. It is observed that the molten-salt breeder reactor system exhibits “self-regulating” behavior, minimizing the need for external controller action for load-following maneuvers.

  15. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinsu; Jeong, Yongjin; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Utilizing the uranium-thorium fuel cycle shows considerable potential for the possibility of MSR. The concept of MSBR should be revised because of molten salt reactor's advantage such as outstanding neutron economy, possibility of continuous online reprocessing and refueling, a high level of inherent safety, and economic benefit by keeping off the fuel fabrication process. For the development of MSR research, this paper provides the MSBR single-cell, two-cell and whole core model for computer code input, and several calculation results including depletion calculation of each models. The calculations are carried out by using MCNP6, a Monte Carlo computer code, which has CINDER90 for depletion calculation using ENDF-VII nuclear data. From the calculation results of various reactor design parameters, the temperature coefficients are all negative at the initial state and MTC becomes positive at the equilibrium state. From the results of core rod worth, the graphite control rod alone cannot makes the core subcritical at initial state. But the equilibrium state, the core can be made subcritical state only by graphite control rods. Through the comparison of the results of each models, the two-cell method can represent the MSBR core model more accurately with a little more computational resources than the single-cell method. Many of the thermal spectrum MSR have adopted a multi-region single-fluid strategy.

  16. Hydrogen permeation through Flinabe fluoride molten salts for blanket candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiumi, Ryosuke, E-mail: r.nishiumi@aees.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Fukada, Satoshi; Nakamura, Akira; Katayama, Kazunari

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • H{sub 2} diffusivity, solubility and permeability in Flinabe as T breeder are determined. • Effects in composition differences among Flibe, Fnabe and Flinabe are compared. • Changes of pressure dependence of Flinabe permeation rate are clarified. - Abstract: Fluoride molten salt Flibe (2LiF + BeF{sub 2}) is a promising candidate for the liquid blanket of a nuclear fusion reactor, because of its large advantages of tritium breeding ratio and heat-transfer fluid. Since its melting point is higher than other liquid candidates, another new fluoride molten salt Flinabe (LiF + NaF + BeF{sub 2}) is recently focused on because of its lower melting point while holding proper breeding properties. In this experiment, hydrogen permeation behavior through the three molten salts of Flibe (2LiF + BeF{sub 2}), Fnabe (NaF + BeF{sub 2}) and Flinabe are investigated in order to clarify the effects of their compositions on hydrogen transfer properties. After making up any of the three molten salts and purifying it using HF, hydrogen permeability, diffusivity and solubility of the molten salts are determined experimentally by using a system composed of tertiary cylindrical tubes. Close agreement is obtained between experimental data and analytical solutions. H{sub 2} permeability, diffusivity and solubility are correlated as a function of temperature and are compared among the three molten salts.

  17. Novel Molten Salts Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Ramana G. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2013-10-23

    go/no-go goals stipulated by the DOE for this project. Energy densities of all salt mixtures were higher than that of the current solar salt. The salt mixtures costs have been estimated and TES system costs for a 2 tank, direct approach have been estimated for each of these materials. All estimated costs are significantly below the baseline system that used solar salt. These lower melt point salts offer significantly higher energy density per volume than solar salt – and therefore attractively smaller inventory and equipment costs. Moreover, a new TES system geometry has been recommended A variety of approaches were evaluated to use the low melting point molten salt. Two novel changes are recommended that 1) use the salt as a HTF through the solar trough field, and 2) use the salt to not only create steam but also to preheat the condensed feedwater for Rankine cycle. The two changes enable the powerblock to operate at 500°C, rather than the current 400°C obtainable using oil as the HTF. Secondly, the use of salt to preheat the feedwater eliminates the need to extract steam from the low pressure turbine for that purpose. Together, these changes result in a dramatic 63% reduction required for 6 hour salt inventory, a 72% reduction in storage volume, and a 24% reduction in steam flow rate in the power block. Round trip efficiency for the Case 5 - 2 tank “direct” system is estimated at >97%, with only small losses from time under storage and heat exchange, and meeting RFP goals. This attractive efficiency is available because the major heat loss experienced in a 2 tank “indirect” system - losses by transferring the thermal energy from oil HTF to the salt storage material and back to oil to run the steam generator at night - is not present for the 2 tank direct system. The higher heat capacity values for both LMP and HMP systems enable larger storage capacities for concentrating solar power.

  18. Corrosion of metals in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossen, J.P.T.

    1991-05-15

    Part 1 of this report describes the results of a literature study on the corrosion behavior of metals in molten carbonates. The results form the basis for a doctorate study related to improving the durability of metal separator plates for molten carbonate fuel cells. To gain a better understanding also the literature on corrosion in molten sulfates has been reviewed, the results of which are summarized in Part 2 of this report. For each part a separate abstract has been prepared. 83 figs., 23 tabs., 1 app., 78 refs.

  19. The Twentieth International Symposium on Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    Heterocyclic Carbene Involved?" by Hyung Kim "Carbon Dioxide Absorption Behavior and Cabronate Ion Transport of Lithium Orthosilicate/Molten Carbonate...Electrodeposition of Metals" by Remana Reddy "In Situ TEM Observations of Lithium Electrodeposition/Stripping Process in Ionic Liquid" by Tetsuya Tsuda "Green... America . iii Preface The 20th International Symposium on Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids Symposium was held on October 2 - 7, 2016, in Honolulu, Hawaii as

  20. Deuterium retention in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hai-Shan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Xu, Yu-Ping [Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Sun, Ning-Bo; Zhang, Ying-Chun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China); Oya, Yasuhisa [Radioscience Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Zhao, Ming-Zhong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Mao, Hong-Min [Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Ding, Fang; Liu, Feng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Luo, Guang-Nan, E-mail: gnluo@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Hefei Center for Physical Science and Technology, Hefei (China); Hefei Science Center of Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • We investigate D retention in electrodeposition W coatings. • W coatings are exposed to D plasmas in the EAST tokamak. • A cathodic current density dependence on D retention is found. • Electrodeposition W exhibits lower D retention than VPS-W. - Abstract: Molten salt electrodeposition is a promising technology to manufacture the first wall of a fusion reactor. Deuterium (D) retention behavior in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten (W) coatings has been investigated by D-plasma exposure in the EAST tokamak and D-ion implantation in an ion beam facility. Tokamak exposure experiments demonstrate that coatings prepared with lower current density exhibit less D retention and milder surface damage. Deuterium-ion implantation experiments indicate the D retention in the molten salt electrodeposition W is less than that in vacuum plasma spraying W and polycrystalline W.

  1. Renewing Liquid Fueled Molten Salt Reactor Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towell, Rusty; NEXT Lab Team

    2016-09-01

    Globally there is a desperate need for affordable, safe, and clean energy on demand. More than anything else, this would raise the living conditions of those in poverty around the world. An advanced reactor that utilizes liquid fuel and molten salts is capable of meeting these needs. Although, this technology was demonstrated in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL in the 60's, little progress has been made since the program was cancelled over 40 years ago. A new research effort has been initiated to advance the technical readiness level of key reactor components. This presentation will explain the motivation and initial steps for this new research initiative.

  2. An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattrick Calderoni

    2010-09-01

    Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R&D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part of the

  3. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  4. Thermochemical investigation of molten fluoride salts for Generation IV nuclear applications - an equilibrium exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.P.M. van der

    2006-01-01

    The concept of the Molten Salt Reactor, one of the so-called Generation IV future reactors, is that the fuel, a fissile material, which is dissolved in a molten fluoride salt, circulates through a closed circuit. The heat of fission is transferred to a second molten salt coolant loop, the heat of

  5. Nonmetal-metal transition in metal–molten-salt solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestrelli, P.-L.; Alavi, A.; Parrinello, M.; Frenkel, D.

    1996-01-01

    The method of ab initio molecular dynamics, based on finite-temperature density-functional theory, is used to study the nonmetal-metal transition in two different metal–molten-salt solutions, Kx(KCl)1-x and Nax(NaBr)1-x. As the excess metal concentration is increased the electronic density becomes

  6. A Novel Modeling of Molten-Salt Heat Storage Systems in Thermal Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Peón Menéndez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many thermal solar power plants use thermal oil as heat transfer fluid, and molten salts as thermal energy storage. Oil absorbs energy from sun light, and transfers it to a water-steam cycle across heat exchangers, to be converted into electric energy by means of a turbogenerator, or to be stored in a thermal energy storage system so that it can be later transferred to the water-steam cycle. The complexity of these thermal solar plants is rather high, as they combine traditional engineering used in power stations (water-steam cycle or petrochemical (oil piping, with the new solar (parabolic trough collector and heat storage (molten salts technologies. With the engineering of these plants being relatively new, regulation of the thermal energy storage system is currently achieved in manual or semiautomatic ways, controlling its variables with proportional-integral-derivative (PID regulators. This makes the overall performance of these plants non optimal. This work focuses on energy storage systems based on molten salt, and defines a complete model of the process. By defining such a model, the ground for future research into optimal control methods will be established. The accuracy of the model will be determined by comparing the results it provides and those measured in the molten-salt heat storage system of an actual power plant.

  7. Molten-salt reactor program. Semiannual progress report for period ending February 29, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1976-08-01

    Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for sections dealing with MSBR design and development; chemistry of fuel-salt and coolant-salt systems and analytical methods; materials development; fuel processing for molten-salt reactors; and salt production. (DG)

  8. SURFACE TENSION TECHNIQUES FOR MOLTEN SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some 200 surface tension determinations were made on 107 single-salt melts using eight experimental techniques. From a consideration of the... surface tension range of applicability and temperature limitation for these techniques are briefly considered.

  9. Transfer characteristics of a lithium chloride–potassium chloride molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Mullen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing is an alternative method of reprocessing spent fuel, usually involving the dissolving spent fuel in a molten salt media. The National Nuclear Laboratory designed, built, and commissioned a molten salt dynamics rig to investigate the transfer characteristics of molten lithium chloride–potassium chloride eutectic salt. The efficacy and flow characteristics of a high-temperature centrifugal pump and argon gas lift were obtained for pumping the molten salt at temperatures up to 500°C. The rig design proved suitable on an industrial scale and transfer methods appropriate for use in future molten salt systems. Corrosion within the rig was managed, and melting techniques were optimized to reduce stresses on the rig. The results obtained improve the understanding of molten salt transport dynamics, materials, and engineering design issues and support the industrialization of molten salts pyroprocessing.

  10. Molten Salt Fuel Version of Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R W; Shaw, H F; Caro, A; Kaufman, L; Latkowski, J F; Powers, J; Turchi, P A

    2008-10-24

    Molten salt with dissolved uranium is being considered for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) fission blanket as a backup in case a solid-fuel version cannot meet the performance objectives, for example because of radiation damage of the solid materials. Molten salt is not damaged by radiation and therefore could likely achieve the desired high burnup (>99%) of heavy atoms of {sup 238}U. A perceived disadvantage is the possibility that the circulating molten salt could lend itself to misuse (proliferation) by making separation of fissile material easier than for the solid-fuel case. The molten salt composition being considered is the eutectic mixture of 73 mol% LiF and 27 mol% UF{sub 4}, whose melting point is 490 C. The use of {sup 232}Th as a fuel is also being studied. ({sup 232}Th does not produce Pu under neutron irradiation.) The temperature of the molten salt would be {approx}550 C at the inlet (60 C above the solidus temperature) and {approx}650 C at the outlet. Mixtures of U and Th are being considered. To minimize corrosion of structural materials, the molten salt would also contain a small amount ({approx}1 mol%) of UF{sub 3}. The same beryllium neutron multiplier could be used as in the solid fuel case; alternatively, a liquid lithium or liquid lead multiplier could be used. Insuring that the solubility of Pu{sup 3+} in the melt is not exceeded is a design criterion. To mitigate corrosion of the steel, a refractory coating such as tungsten similar to the first wall facing the fusion source is suggested in the high-neutron-flux regions; and in low-neutron-flux regions, including the piping and heat exchangers, a nickel alloy, Hastelloy, would be used. These material choices parallel those made for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL. The nuclear performance is better than the solid fuel case. At the beginning of life, the tritium breeding ratio is unity and the plutonium plus {sup 233}U production rate is {approx}0

  11. Electrochemical Synthesis of Magnesium Hexaboride by Molten Salt Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angappan, S.; Kalaiselvi, N.; Sudha, R.; Visuvasam, A.

    2014-01-01

    The present work reports electrochemical synthesis of MgB6 from molten salts using the precursor consists of LiF–B2O3–MgCl2. An attempt has been made to synthesize metastable phase MgB6 crystal by electrolysis method. DTA/TGA studies were made to determine the eutectic point of the melt and it was found to be around 900°C. The electrolysis was performed at 900°C under argon atmosphere, at current density of 1.5 A/cm2. The electrodeposited crystals were examined using XRD, SEM, and XPS. From the above studies, the electrochemical synthesis method for hypothetical MgB6 from chloro-oxy-fluoride molten salt system is provided. Mechanism for the formation of magnesium hexaboride is discussed. PMID:27350961

  12. Design of a helium-cooled molten salt fusion breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Fulton, F.J.; Huegel, F.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Sherwood, A.E.; Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Wong, C.P.C.; DeVan, J.H.

    1985-02-01

    A new conceptual blanket design for a fusion reactor produces fissile material for fission power plants. Fission is suppressed by using beryllium, rather than uranium, to multiply neutrons and also by minimizing the fissile inventory. The molten-salt breeding media (LiF + BeF/sub 2/ + TghF/sub 4/) is circulated through the blanket and on to the online processing system where /sup 233/U and tritium are continuously removed. Helium cools the blanket including the steel pipes containing the molten salt. Austenitic steel was chosen because of its ease of fabrication, adequate radiation-damage lifetime, and low corrosion rate by molten salt. We estimate the breeder, having 3000 MW of fusion power, produces 6400 kg of /sup 233/U per year, which is enough to provide make up for 20 GWe of LWR per year (or 14 LWR plants of 4440 MWt) or twice that many HTGRs or CANDUs. Safety is enhanced because the afterheat is low and the blanket materials do not react with air or water. The fusion breeder based on a pre-MARS tandem mirror is estimated to cost $4.9B or 2.35 times an LWR of the same power. The estimated present value cost of the /sup 2/anumber/sup 3/U produced is $40/g if utility financed or $16/g if government financed.

  13. Renewable energy and the role of molten salts and carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fray D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molten carbonate fuel cells have been under development for a number of years and reliable units are successfully working at 250kW scale and demonstration units have produced up to 2 MW. Although these cells cannot be considered as renewable as the fuel, hydrogen or carbon monoxide is consumed and not regenerated, the excellent reliability of such a cell can act as a stimulus to innovative development of similar cells with different outcomes. Molten salt electrolytes based upon LiCl - Li2O can be used to convert carbon dioxide, either drawn from the output of a conventional thermal power station or from the atmosphere, to carbon monoxide or carbon. Recently, dimensionally stable anodes have been developed for molten salt electrolytes, based upon alkali or alkaline ruthenates which are highly electronically conducting and these may allow the concept of high temperature batteries to be developed in which an alkali or alkaline earth element reacts with air to form oxides when the battery is discharging and the oxide decomposes when the battery is being recharged. Batteries using these concepts may be based upon the Hall-Heroult cell, which is used worldwide for the production of aluminium on an industrial scale, and could be used for load levelling. Lithium ion batteries are, at present, the preferred energy source for cars in 2050 as there are sufficient lithium reserves to satisfy the world’s energy needs for this particular application. Graphite is used in lithium ion batteries as the anode but the capacity is relatively low. Silicon and tin have much higher capacities and the use of these materials, encapsulated in carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles will be described. This paper will review these interesting developments and demonstrate that a combination of carbon and molten salts can offer novel ways of storing energy and converting carbon dioxide into useful products.

  14. Progress in modeling solidification in molten salt coolants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tano, Mauricio; Rubiolo, Pablo; Doche, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    Molten salts have been proposed as heat carrier media in the nuclear and concentrating solar power plants. Due to their high melting temperature, solidification of the salts is expected to occur during routine and accidental scenarios. Furthermore, passive safety systems based on the solidification of these salts are being studied. The following article presents new developments in the modeling of eutectic molten salts by means of a multiphase, multicomponent, phase-field model. Besides, an application of this methodology for the eutectic solidification process of the ternary system LiF-KF-NaF is presented. The model predictions are compared with a newly developed semi-analytical solution for directional eutectic solidification at stable growth rate. A good qualitative agreement is obtained between the two approaches. The results obtained with the phase-field model are then used for calculating the homogenized properties of the solid phase distribution. These properties can then be included in a mixture macroscale model, more suitable for industrial applications.

  15. A study on the corrosion-control test of material for molten salt handling (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Joon; Zhang, J. S.; Oh, S. C.; Cho, S. H.; Park, H. S.; Do, J. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-01-01

    On this technical report, corrosion behaviors of Incoloy 800H, Inconel 600 and Hastelloy C-276 in molten salts were investigated in the temperature range of 650 - 850 deg C. Due to Li{sub 2}O-induced basic fluxing mechanism, the corrosion rates of the alloys in mixed molten salt of LiCl-Li{sub 2}O were significantly higher than those in molten salt of LiCl. In the mixed molten salt, Fe-base alloys showed higher corrosion resistance than the Ni-base alloys, and C-276 with high Mo and W contents exhibited the highest corrosion rate among the examined alloys. the single layer of LiCrO{sub 2} was formed in molten salt of LiCl and two phase structure of a scale consisted of oxides and Ni was formed in the mixed molten salt. 48 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  16. Numerical study of cold filling and tube deformation in the molten salt receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Zhang, Gongchen; Peniguel, Christophe; Liao, Zhirong; Li, Xin; Lu, Jiahui; Wang, Zhifeng

    2017-06-01

    Molten salt tube cold filling is one way to accelerate the startup of molten salt Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant. This practical operation may induce salt solidification and large thermal stress due to tube's large temperature difference. This paper presents the cold filling study and the induced thermal stress quantitatively through simulation approaches. Physical mechanisms and safe working criteria are identified under certain conditions.

  17. Molten Chloride Salts for Heat Transfer in Nuclear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosek, James Wallace

    2011-12-01

    A forced convection loop was designed and constructed to examine the thermal-hydraulic performance of molten KCl-MgCl2 (68-32 at %) salt for use in nuclear co-generation facilities. As part of this research, methods for prediction of the thermo-physical properties of salt mixtures for selection of the coolant salt were studied. In addition, corrosion studies of 10 different alloys were exposed to the KCl-MgCl2 to determine a suitable construction material for the loop. Using experimental data found in literature for unary and binary salt systems, models were found, or developed to extrapolate the available experimental data to unstudied salt systems. These property models were then used to investigate the thermo-physical properties of the LINO3-NaNO3-KNO 3-Ca(NO3), system used in solar energy applications. Using these models, the density, viscosity, adiabatic compressibility, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and melting temperatures of higher order systems can be approximated. These models may be applied to other molten salt systems. Coupons of 10 different alloys were exposed to the chloride salt for 100 hours at 850°C was undertaken to help determine with which alloy to construct the loop. Of the alloys exposed, Haynes 230 had the least amount of weight loss per area. Nickel and Hastelloy N performed best based on maximum depth of attack. Inconel 625 and 718 had a nearly uniform depletion of Cr from the surface of the sample. All other alloys tested had depletion of Cr along the grain boundaries. The Nb in Inconel 625 and 718 changed the way the Cr is depleted in these alloys. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. A high temperature pump, thermal flow meter, and pressure differential device was designed, constructed and tested for use in the loop, The heat transfer of the molten chloride salt was found to

  18. Electrodeposition of alloys or compounds in molten salts and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taxil P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the different modes of preparation of alloys or intermetallic compounds using the electrodeposition in molten salts, more particularly molten alkali fluorides. The interest in this process is to obtain new materials for high technology, particularly the compounds of reactive components such as actinides, rare earth and refractory metals. Two ways of preparation are considered: (i electrocoating of the more reactive metal on a cathode made of the noble one and reaction between the two metals in contact, and (ii electrocoating on an inert cathode of the intermetallic compound by coreduction of the ions of each elements. The kinetic is controlled by the reaction at the electrolyte interface. A wide bibliographic survey on the preparation of various compounds (intermetallic compounds, borides, carbides… is given and a special attention is paid to the own experience of the authors in the preparation of these compounds and interpretation of their results.

  19. Accelerator-driven molten-salt blankets: Physics issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houts, M.G.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Wiley Davidson, J.; Durkee, J.W.; Perry, R.T.; Poston, D.I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1995-01-20

    A number of nuclear physics issues concerning the Los Alamos molten-salt, accelerator-driven plutonium converter are discussed. General descriptions of several concepts using internal and external moderation are presented. Burnup and salt processing requirement calculations are presented for four concepts, indicating that both the high power density externally moderated concept and an internally moderated concept achieve total plutonium burnups approaching 90% at salt processing rates of less than 2 m{sup 3} per year. Beginning-of-life reactivity temperature coefficients and system kinetic response are also discussed. Future research should investigate the effect of changing blanket composition on operational and safety characteristics. {copyright}American Institute of Physcis 1995

  20. Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride To Purify Molten Salt Reactor Coolant and Heat Transfer Fluoride Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; McNamara, Bruce K.

    2017-05-02

    Abstract: The molten salt cooled nuclear reactor is included as one of the Generation IV reactor types. One of the challenges with the implementation of this reactor is purifying and maintaining the purity of the various molten fluoride salts that will be used as coolants. The method used for Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s molten salt experimental test reactor was to treat the coolant with a mixture of H2 and HF at 600°C. In this article we evaluate thermal NF3 treatment for purifying molten fluoride salt coolant candidates based on NF3’s 1) past use to purify fluoride salts, 2) other industrial uses, 3) commercial availability, 4) operational, chemical, and health hazards, 5) environmental effects and environmental risk management methods, 6) corrosive properties, and 7) thermodynamic potential to eliminate impurities that could arise due to exposure to water and oxygen. Our evaluation indicates that nitrogen trifluoride is a viable and safer alternative to the previous method.

  1. Development of a safety analysis code for molten salt reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Dalin [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China); Qiu Suizheng, E-mail: szqiu@mail.xjtu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China); Su Guanghui [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 West Road Xian Ning Street, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The molten salt reactor (MSR) well suited to fulfill the criteria defined by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is presently revisited all around the world because of different attractive features of current renewed relevance. The MSRs are characterized by using the fluid-fuel, so that their technologies are fundamentally different from those used in the conventional solid-fuel reactors. In this work, in particular, the attention is focused on the safety characteristic analysis of the MSRs, in which a point kinetic model considering the flow effects of the fuel salt is established for the MSRs and calculated by developing a microcomputer code coupling with a simplified heat transfer model in the core. The founded models and developed code are applied to analyze the safety characteristics of the molten salt actinide recycler and transmuter system (MOSART) by simulating three types of basic transient conditions including the unprotected loss of flow, unprotected overcooling accident and unprotected transient overpower. Some reasonable results are obtained for the MOSART, which show that the MOSART conceptual design is an inherently stable reactor design. The present study provides some valuable information for the research and design of the new generation MSRs.

  2. Helium-cooled molten-salt fusion breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Fulton, F.J.; Huegel, F.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Sherwood, A.E.; Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Wong, C.P.C.; Devan, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    We present a new conceptual design for a fusion reactor blanket that is intended to produce fissile material for fission power plants. Fast fission is suppressed by using beryllium instead of uranium to multiply neutrons. Thermal fission is suppressed by minimizing the fissile inventory. The molten-salt breeding medium (LiF + BeF/sub 2/ + ThF/sub 4/) is circulated through the blanket and to the on-line processing system where /sup 233/U and tritium are continuously removed. Helium cools the blanket and the austenitic steel tubes that contain the molten salt. Austenitic steel was chosen because of its ease of fabrication, adequate radiation-damage lifetime, and low corrosion by molten salt. We estimate that a breeder having 3000 MW of fusion power will produce 6500 kg of /sup 233/U per year. This amount is enough to provide makeup for 20 GWe of light-water reactors per year or twice that many high-temperature gas-cooled reactors or Canadian heavy-water reactors. Safety is enhanced because the afterheat is low and blanket materials do not react with air or water. The fusion breeder based on a pre-MARS tandem mirror is estimated to cost $4.9B or 2.35 times a light-water reactor of the same power. The estimated cost of the /sup 233/U produced is $40/g for fusion plants costing 2.35 times that of a light-water reactor if utility owned or $16/g if government owned.

  3. Direct electroreduction of indium and tin oxides in molten salts

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Bo; Cui, Peng; Martinez, Ana Maria; Aune, Elizabeth Ragnhild; Haarberg, Geir Martin

    2014-01-01

    Indium is a rare metal. The largest end use for indium is in thinfilm coatings as indium oxide combined with 10 percent tin oxide (ITO). However, indium has recycling rates less than 1%. Indium and tin are especially well suited for fused salt electrolysis because of their low melting points. The electrochemical behaviour of indium and tin oxides was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in molten LiCl-KCl. The direct deoxidation of indium and tin oxides were investigated. A new design of direct...

  4. Dynamic modeling of Badaling molten salt tower CSP pilot plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang; Lu, Jiahui; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Li, Zhi; Li, Xin; Wang, Zhifeng

    2017-06-01

    Under the collaboration framework between EDF China R&D Centre and CAS-IEE, a preliminary numerical model of 1MWth molten salt tower solar power demonstration plant in Badaling, Beijing is presented in this paper. All key components in the plant are presented throughout detailed modules in the model according to its design specifications. Control strategies are also implemented to maintain the design system performance at transient scenario. By this model some key design figures of plant has been validated and it will be used to guide experiment set-up and plant commissioning.

  5. Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system customer interface document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald D.

    2013-09-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate %E2%80%9Csolar salt%E2%80%9D and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 40 bar (600psi), temperature to 585%C2%B0C, and flow rate of 44-50kg/s(400-600GPM) depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

  6. Thermodynamic Assessment of Hot Corrosion Mechanisms of Superalloys Hastelloy N and Haynes 242 in Eutectic Mixture of Molten Salts KF and ZrF4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael V. Glazoff

    2012-02-01

    The KF - ZrF4 system was considered for the application as a heat exchange agent in molten salt nuclear reactors (MSRs) beginning with the work carried out at ORNL in early fifties. Based on a combination of excellent properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity in the molten state, and other thermo-physical and rheological properties, it was selected as one of possible candidates for the nuclear reactor secondary heat exchanger loop.

  7. Molten-salt fuel cells-Technical and economic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, J. Robert

    This paper presents a personal view of the status and research needs of the MCFC and other molten-salt fuel cells. After an overview of current MCFC performance, compared with performance and cost of other fuel cells, improvements in power density and lifetime as well as cost reduction are identified as key priorities to accelerate the commercialization of the MCFC. In spite of its unfavorable public image (compared to, in particular, PEMFC and planar SOFC) MCFC technology has progressed steadily and cost reduction has been significant. Large-scale commercialization, especially in the distributed generation and cogeneration market, remains a possibility but its chances are highly dependent on a forceful and consistent energy policy, for example taking into account the externalities associated with various modes of electric power production from fossil fuels. In spite of steady improvements in performance, important defects in fundamental knowledge remain about wetting properties, oxygen reduction kinetics, corrosion paths and control mechanisms. These must be addressed to stimulate further simplification of design and find solutions to lifetime issues. Recently, alternative concepts of molten-salt fuel cells have been capturing attention. The direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC), reviving an old concept, has caught the attention of energy system analysts and some important advances have been made in this technology. Direct CO and CH 4 oxidation have also been a focus of study. Finally, the potential of nanotechnology for high-temperature fuel cells should not be a priori excluded.

  8. Establishment of cooperation basis of joint research on the mixed waste molten salt oxidation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hee Chul; Cho, Y. J.; Kim, J. H.; Yoo, J. H.; Yun, H. C.; Lee, D. G

    2005-08-01

    Molten salt oxidation, MSO for short, is a robust technology that can effectively treat mixed waste (radioactive waste including hazardous metals or organics). It can safely and economically treat the difficult wastes such as not-easily destroyable toxic organic waste, medical waste, chemical warfare and energetic materials such as propellant and explosives, all of which are not easily treated by an incinerator or other currently existing thermal treatment system. Therefore, molten salt oxidation technology should be developed and utilized to treat a lot of niche waste stored in the nuclear and environmental industries. So, if we put the MSO technology to practical use by Korea-Vietnam joint research, we can reduce R and D fund for MSO technology by ourselves and we can expect an export of the outcome of nuclear R and D in Korea. For Establishment of cooperation basis of joint research concerning molten salt oxidation technology between KOREA and VIETNAM, in this research, We invited two Vietnamese researchers and we introduced our experimental scale molten salt oxidation system in order to let them understand molten salt oxidation technology. We also visited Viet man and we consulted about molten salt oxidation process. We held seminar on the mixed waste molten salt oxidation technology, discussed on the joint research on the mixed waste molten salt oxidation technology and finally we wrote MOU for joint research.

  9. A basic study on fluoride-based molten salt electrolysis technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Kwang Bum [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Byung Gi [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this project is to study on the physicochemical properties of fluoride molten salt, to develop numerical model for simulation of molten salt electrolysis, and to establish experimental technique of fluoride molten salt. Physicochemical data of fluoride molten salt are investigated and summarized. The numerical model, designated as REFIN is developed with diffusion-layer theory and electrochemical reaction kinetics. REFIN is benchmarked with published experimental data. REFIN has a capability to simulate multicomponent electrochemical system at transient conditions. Experimental device is developed to measure electrochemical properties of structural material for fluoride molten salt. Ni electrode is measured with cyclic voltammogram in the conditions of 600 .deg. C LiF-BeF{sub 2} and 700 .deg. C LiF-BeF{sub 2}. 74 refs., 23 figs., 57 tabs. (Author)

  10. On purpose simulation model for molten salt CSP parabolic trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caranese, Carlo; Matino, Francesca; Maccari, Augusto

    2017-06-01

    The utilization of computer codes and simulation software is one of the fundamental aspects for the development of any kind of technology and, in particular, in CSP sector for researchers, energy institutions, EPC and others stakeholders. In that extent, several models for the simulation of CSP plant have been developed with different main objectives (dynamic simulation, productivity analysis, techno economic optimization, etc.), each of which has shown its own validity and suitability. Some of those models have been designed to study several plant configurations taking into account different CSP plant technologies (Parabolic trough, Linear Fresnel, Solar Tower or Dish) and different settings for the heat transfer fluid, the thermal storage systems and for the overall plant operating logic. Due to a lack of direct experience of Molten Salt Parabolic Trough (MSPT) commercial plant operation, most of the simulation tools do not foresee a suitable management of the thermal energy storage logic and of the solar field freeze protection system, but follow standard schemes. ASSALT, Ase Software for SALT csp plants, has been developed to improve MSPT plant's simulations, by exploiting the most correct operational strategies in order to provide more accurate technical and economical results. In particular, ASSALT applies MSPT specific control logics for the electric energy production and delivery strategy as well as the operation modes of the Solar Field in off-normal sunshine condition. With this approach, the estimated plant efficiency is increased and the electricity consumptions required for the plant operation and management is drastically reduced. Here we present a first comparative study on a real case 55 MWe Molten Salt Parabolic Trough CSP plant placed in the Tibetan highlands, using ASSALT and SAM (System Advisor Model), which is a commercially available simulation tool.

  11. Process Heat Exchanger Options for Fluoride Salt High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-04-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  12. Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneda, C. O., LLNL

    1996-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX (octogen). MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic materials waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a vessel containing molten salt (a eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium carbonates). The following pure explosives have been destroyed in our bench-scale experimental unit located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K- 6 (keto-RDX), NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following compositions were also destroyed: Comp B, LX- IO, LX- 1 6, LX- 17, PBX-9404, and XM46 (liquid gun propellant). In this 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NO{sub x} were found to be well below 1%. In addition to destroying explosive powders and compositions we have also destroyed materials that are typical of residues which result from explosives operations. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic-bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the process data obtained on the bench-scale unit we designed and constructed a next-generation 5 kg/hr pilot-scale unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. The pilot unit has completed process implementation operations and explosives safety reviews. To date, in this

  13. REAKTOR INNOVATIVE MOLTEN SALT (IMSR DENGAN SISTEM KESELAMATAN PASIF MENYELURUH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andang Widiharto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan Teknologi Reaktor Nuklir pada masa mendatang mengarah pada peningkatan aspek keselamatan, peningkatan pendayagunaan bahan bakar, reduksi limbah radioaktif, ketahanan terhadap proliferasi bahan-bakar nuklir dan peningkatan aspek ekonomi. reaktor Innovative Molten Salt (IMSR adalah reaktor nuklir yang menggunakan bahan bakar cair berupa garam lebur fluoride (7LiF-ThF4-UF4-MaFx. Reaktor IMSR didesain sebagai reaktor pembiak termal, yaitu membiakkan U-233 dari Th-232. Hal ini untuk menjawab permasalahan sustainabilitas ketersedian sumber daya bahan bakar nuklir dan reduksi limbah radioaktif. Dalam aspek keselamatan, desain reaktor IMSR memiliki sifat inherent safe, yaitu koefisien umpan balik daya yang negatif serta memiliki fitur-fitur keselamatan pasif. Fitur-fitur keselamatan pasif terdiri dari sistem shutdown pasif, sistem pendinginan pasif pasca shutdown serta sistem pendinginan pasif untuk produk fisi. Kecelakaan yang berpotensi terjadi pada IMSR, yaitu kecelakaan kehilangan aliran bahan bakar, kecelakaan kehilangan aliran pendingin, kecelakaan kehilangan kemampuan pengambilan kalor serta kecelakaan kerusakan integritas sistem reaktor, dapat ditangani sepenuhnya secara pasif hingga mencapai kondisi shutdown selamat. Kata kunci: keselamatan pasif, inherent safe, IMSR   The next Nuclear Reactor Technology developments are directed to the increasing of the aspects of safety, fuel utility, radioactive waste reduction, proliferation retention and economy. Innovative Molten Salt Reactor (IMSR is a nuclear reactor design that uses fluoride molten salt (7LiF-ThF4-UF4-MaFx. IMSR is designed as a thermal breeder reactor, i.e. to produce U-233 from Th-232. This is the answer of natural nuclear fuel sustainability and radioactive waste problems. In term of safety aspect, IMSR design has inherent safe characteristics, i.e. negative power feedback coefficient, and passive safety features. The passive safety features are passive shutdown

  14. Molten Salt Power Tower Cost Model for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2013-02-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for molten-salt power tower solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), using data from several prior studies, including a contracted analysis from WorleyParsons Group, which is included herein as an Appendix. The WorleyParsons' analysis also estimated material composition and mass for the plant to facilitate a life cycle analysis of the molten salt power tower technology. Details of the life cycle assessment have been published elsewhere. The cost model provides a reference plant that interfaces with NREL's System Advisor Model or SAM. The reference plant assumes a nominal 100-MWe (net) power tower running with a nitrate salt heat transfer fluid (HTF). Thermal energy storage is provided by direct storage of the HTF in a two-tank system. The design assumes dry-cooling. The model includes a spreadsheet that interfaces with SAM via the Excel Exchange option in SAM. The spreadsheet allows users to estimate the costs of different-size plants and to take into account changes in commodity prices. This report and the accompanying Excel spreadsheet can be downloaded at https://sam.nrel.gov/cost.

  15. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System: Molten Salt Energy Storage (Summer Report 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); mckellar, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yoon, Su-Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Effective energy use is a main focus and concern in the world today because of the growing demand for energy. The nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) is a valuable technical concept that can potentially diversify and leverage existing energy technologies. This report considers a particular NHES design that combines multiple energy systems including a nuclear reactor, energy storage system (ESS), variable renewable generator (VRG), and additional process heat applications. Energy storage is an essential component of this particular NHES because its design allows the system to produce peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant power output. Many energy storage options are available, but this study mainly focuses on a molten salt ESS. The primary purpose of the molten salt ESS is to enable the nuclear reactor to be a purely constant heat source by acting as a heat storage component for the reactor during times of low demand, and providing additional capacity for thermo-electric power generation during times of peak electricity demand. This report will describe the rationale behind using a molten salt ESS and identify an efficient molten salt ESS configuration that may be used in load following power applications. Several criteria are considered for effective energy storage and are used to identify the most effective ESS within the NHES. Different types of energy storage are briefly described with their advantages and disadvantages. The general analysis to determine the most efficient molten salt ESS involves two parts: thermodynamic, in which energetic and exergetic efficiencies are considered; and economic. Within the molten salt ESS, the two-part analysis covers three major system elements: molten salt ESS designs (two tank direct and thermocline), the molten salt choice, and the different power cycles coupled with the molten salt ESS. Analysis models are formulated and analyzed to determine the most effective ESS. The results show that the most

  16. Molten salt based nanofluids based on solar salt and alumina nanoparticles: An industrial approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Belén; Nieto-Maestre, Javier; Guerreiro, Luis; Julia, José Enrique; Collares-Pereira, Manuel; García-Romero, Ana

    2017-06-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) and its associated dispatchability is extremely important in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants since it represents the main advantage of CSP technology in relation to other renewable energy sources like photovoltaic (PV). Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 600°C. Their main problems are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve the thermal properties of molten salts is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. Additionally, the use of molten salt based nanofluids as TES materials and Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) has been attracting great interest in recent years. The addition of tiny amounts of nanoparticles to the base salt can improve its specific heat as shown by different authors1-3. The application of these nano-enhanced materials can lead to important savings on the investment costs in new TES systems for CSP plants. However, there is still a long way to go in order to achieve a commercial product. In this sense, the improvement of the stability of the nanofluids is a key factor. The stability of nanofluids will depend on the nature and size of the nanoparticles, the base salt and the interactions between them. In this work, Solar Salt (SS) commonly used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3 wt.) was doped with alumina nanoparticles (ANPs) at a solid mass concentration of 1% wt. at laboratory scale. The tendency of nanoparticles to agglomeration and sedimentation is tested in the molten state by analyzing their size and concentration through the time. The specific heat of the nanofluid at 396 °C (molten state) is measured at different times (30 min, 1 h, 5 h). Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms of agglomeration. A good understanding of the interactions between the nanoparticle surface and the ionic media would provide

  17. Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonemann, M.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

  18. Conceptual Design of Forced Convection Molten Salt Heat Transfer Testing Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Piyush Sabharwall; Pattrick Calderoni; Alan K. Wertsching; S. Brandon Grover

    2010-09-01

    This report develops a proposal to design and construct a forced convection test loop. A detailed test plan will then be conducted to obtain data on heat transfer, thermodynamic, and corrosion characteristics of the molten salts and fluid-solid interaction. In particular, this report outlines an experimental research and development test plan. The most important initial requirement for heat transfer test of molten salt systems is the establishment of reference coolant materials to use in the experiments. An earlier report produced within the same project highlighted how thermophysical properties of the materials that directly impact the heat transfer behavior are strongly correlated to the composition and impurities concentration of the melt. It is therefore essential to establish laboratory techniques that can measure the melt composition, and to develop purification methods that would allow the production of large quantities of coolant with the desired purity. A companion report describes the options available to reach such objectives. In particular, that report outlines an experimental research and development test plan that would include following steps: •Molten Salts: The candidate molten salts for investigation will be selected. •Materials of Construction: Materials of construction for the test loop, heat exchangers, and fluid-solid corrosion tests in the test loop will also be selected. •Scaling Analysis: Scaling analysis to design the test loop will be performed. •Test Plan: A comprehensive test plan to include all the tests that are being planned in the short and long term time frame will be developed. •Design the Test Loop: The forced convection test loop will be designed including extensive mechanical design, instrument selection, data acquisition system, safety requirements, and related precautionary measures. •Fabricate the Test Loop. •Perform the Tests. •Uncertainty Analysis: As a part of the data collection, uncertainty analysis will

  19. Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, Anoop [Terrafore Inc.

    2013-08-14

    A key technological issue facing the success of future Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants is creating an economical Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. Current TES systems use either sensible heat in fluids such as oil, or molten salts, or use thermal stratification in a dual-media consisting of a solid and a heat-transfer fluid. However, utilizing the heat of fusion in inorganic molten salt mixtures in addition to sensible heat , as in a Phase change material (PCM)-based TES, can significantly increase the energy density of storage requiring less salt and smaller containers. A major issue that is preventing the commercial use of PCM-based TES is that it is difficult to discharge the latent heat stored in the PCM melt. This is because when heat is extracted, the melt solidifies onto the heat exchanger surface decreasing the heat transfer. Even a few millimeters of thickness of solid material on heat transfer surface results in a large drop in heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of solid PCM. Thus, to maintain the desired heat rate, the heat exchange area must be large which increases cost. This project demonstrated that the heat transfer coefficient can be increase ten-fold by using forced convection by pumping a hyper-eutectic salt mixture over specially coated heat exchanger tubes. However,only 15% of the latent heat is used against a goal of 40% resulting in a projected cost savings of only 17% against a goal of 30%. Based on the failure mode effect analysis and experience with pumping salt at near freezing point significant care must be used during operation which can increase the operating costs. Therefore, we conclude the savings are marginal to justify using this concept for PCM-TES over a two-tank TES. The report documents the specialty coatings, the composition and morphology of hypereutectic salt mixtures and the results from the experiment conducted with the active heat exchanger along with the lessons learnt during

  20. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  1. A final report on the Phase 1 testing of a molten-salt cavity receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, J M [ed.; Smith, D C [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States). Nuclear Equipment Div.

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and testing of a solar central receiver using molten nitrate salt as a heat exchange fluid. Design studies for large commercial plants (30--100 MWe) have shown molten salt to be an excellent fluid for solar thermal plants as it allows for efficient thermal storage. Plant design studies concluded that an advanced receiver test was required to address uncertainties not covered in prior receiver tests. This recommendation led to the current test program managed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy. The 4.5 MWt receiver is installed at Sandia National Laboratories' Central Receiver Test Facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The receiver incorporates features of large commercial receiver designs. This report describes the receiver's configuration, heat absorption surface (design and sizing), the structure and supporting systems, and the methods for control. The receiver was solar tested during a six-month period at the Central Receiver Test Facility in Albuquerque, NM. The purpose of the testing was to characterize the operational capabilities of the receiver under a number of solar operating and stand-by conditions. This testing consisted of initial check-out of the systems, followed by steady-state performance, transient receiver operation, receiver operation in clouds, receiver thermal loss testing, receiver start-up operation, and overnight thermal conditioning tests. This report describes the design, fabrication, and results of testing of the receiver.

  2. Molten Salt: Concept Definition and Capital Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, Larry [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Andrew, Daniel [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Adams, Shannon [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Galluzzo, Geoff [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Renewable Power (ORP) has been tasked to provide effective program management and strategic direction for all of the DOE’s Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy’s (EERE’s) renewable power programs. The ORP’s efforts to accomplish this mission are aligned with national energy policies, DOE strategic planning, EERE’s strategic planning, Congressional appropriation, and stakeholder advice. ORP is supported by three renewable energy offices, of which one is the Solar Energy Technology Office (SETO) whose SunShot Initiative has a mission to accelerate research, development and large scale deployment of solar technologies in the United States. SETO has a goal of reducing the cost of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) by 75 percent of 2010 costs by 2020 to reach parity with base-load energy rates, and to reduce costs 30 percent further by 2030. The SunShot Initiative is promoting the implementation of high temperature CSP with thermal energy storage allowing generation during high demand hours. The SunShot Initiative has funded significant research and development work on component testing, with attention to high temperature molten salts, heliostats, receiver designs, and high efficiency high temperature supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycles. DOE retained Black & Veatch to support SETO’s SunShot Initiative for CSP solar power tower technology in the following areas: 1. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of a flexible test facility to be used to test and prove components in part to support financing. 2. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of an integrated high temperature molten salt (MS) facility with thermal energy storage and with a supercritical CO2 cycle generating approximately 10MWe. 3. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of an integrated high temperature falling particle facility with thermal energy storage and with a supercritical CO2

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on molten salts technology and computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Hirokazu; Minato, Kazuo (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    Applications of molten salts technology to separation and synthesis of materials have been studied eagerly, which would develop new fields of materials science. Research Group for Actinides Science, Department of Materials Science, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), together with Reprocessing and Recycle Technology Division, Atomic Energy Society of Japan, organized the Workshop on Molten Salts Technology and Computer Simulation at Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI on July 18, 2001. In the workshop eleven lectures were made and lively discussions were there on the fundamentals and applications of the molten salts technology that covered the structure and basic properties of molten salts, the pyrochemical reprocessing technology and the relevant computer simulation. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Numerical Modelling of Induction Heating for a Molten Salts Pyrochemical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Xuan-Tuyen; Feraud, Jean-Pierre; Ode, Denis [CEA Marcoule: DTEC/SGCS/LGCI Bat. 57 B17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France); Du Terrail Couvat, Yves [SIMaP, Grenoble INP, CNRS: ENSEEG, BP 75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Technological developments in the pyro-chemistry program are required to allow choices for a reprocessing experiment on 100 g of spent nuclear fuel. In this context, a special device must be designed for the solid/gas reaction phases followed by actinide extraction and stripping in molten salt. This paper discusses a modelling approach for designing an induction furnace. Using this numerical approach is a good way to improve thermal performance of the device in terms of magnetic/thermal coupling phenomena. The influence of current frequency is also studied to give another view of the possibilities of an induction furnace. Electromagnetic forces are taken into account in a computational fluid dynamics code derived from a specifically developed exchange library. Induction heating systems are an example of a typical multi-physics problem involving numerically coupled equations. (authors)

  5. Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harto, Andang Widi

    2012-06-01

    Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

  6. Molten Metal Treatment by Salt Fluxing with Low Environmental Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogeshwar Sahai

    2007-07-31

    Abstract: Chlorine gas is traditionally used for fluxing of aluminum melt for removal of alkali and alkaline earth elements. However this results in undesirable emissions of particulate matter and gases such as HCl and chlorine, which are often at unacceptable levels. Additionally, chlorine gas is highly toxic and its handling, storage, and use pose risks to employees and the local community. Holding of even minimal amounts of chlorine necessitates extensive training for all plant employees. Fugitive emissions from chlorine usage within the plant cause accelerated corrosion of plant equipment. The Secondary Aluminum Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) under the Clean Air Act, finalized in March 2000 has set very tough new limits on particulate matter (PM) and total hydrogen chloride emissions from aluminum melting and holding furnaces. These limits are 0.4 and 0.1 lbs per ton of aluminum for hydrogen chloride and particulate emissions, respectively. Assuming new technologies for meeting these limits can be found, additional requirements under the Clean Air Act (Prevention of Significant Deterioration and New Source Review) trigger Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for new sources with annual emissions (net emissions not expressed per ton of production) over specified amounts. BACT currently is lime coated bag-houses for control of particulate and HCl emissions. These controls are expensive, difficult to operate and maintain, and result in reduced American competitiveness in the global economy. Solid salt fluxing is emerging as a viable option for the replacement of chlorine gas fluxing, provided emissions can be consistently maintained below the required levels. This project was a cooperative effort between the Ohio State University and Alcoa to investigate and optimize the effects of solid chloride flux addition in molten metal for alkali impurity and non-metallic inclusion removal minimizing dust and toxic emissions and maximizing energy

  7. Experimental research on molten salt thermofluid technology using a high-temperature molten salt loop applied for a fusion reactor Flibe blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Saburo; Chiba, Shinya E-mail: schiba@karma.qse.tohoku.ac.jp; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Omae, Masahiro; Sagara, Akio

    2002-12-01

    Experimental research on molten salt thermofluid technology using a high-temperature molten salt loop (MSL) is described in this paper. The MSL was designed to be able to use Flibe as a coolant, however, a simulant, heat transfer salt (HTS) has to be used alternatively since Flibe is difficult to operate under avoiding a biohazard of Be. Experiment on heat-transfer enhancement, that is required for applying to cool the high heat flux components of fusion reactors, is ongoing. Preliminary experimental results showed that an internal structure of a mixing chamber in the MSL was important to obtain accurate bulk temperatures under severe thermal conditions. For operating the loop, careful handling are needed to proceed how to melt the salt and to circulate it in starting the operation of the MSL. It is concluded that several improvements proposed from the present experiences should be applied for the future Flibe operation.

  8. Preparation of Al-Sc Master Alloy by Aluminothermic Reaction with Special Molten Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cong; Liu, Xinxin; Ma, Fengmei; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Wenhong; Ma, Chaoli

    Al-Sc master alloy is prepared by aluminothermic reaction with a kind of special molten salt under the normal atmospheric condition. To achieve larger Sc recovery rate, the composition and pretreatment of the molten salt are studied. The optimum molten salt is obtained by melting together Sc2O3, NaF, KCl, NaCl, ScF3 and Na3AlF6 mixture under a mass ratio of 3:5:10:10:2:30, followed by solidifying and crushing. The pretreated salt is added to the Aluminum melt with a mass ratio of 60:100 to prepare Al-Sc master alloy. When the residue of molten salt is reused for three times, the Sc recovery rate can reach 91%. The structure and composition of the residue are examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyzer. Based on the analysis of the residue, mechanism of the aluminothermic reaction to achieve larger Sc recovery rate with this special molten salt is discussed.

  9. Molten Salt Heat Transport Loop: Materials Corrosion and Heat Transfer Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Kumar Sridharan; Dr. Mark Anderson; Dr. Michael Corradini; Dr. Todd Allen; Luke Olson; James Ambrosek; Daniel Ludwig

    2008-07-09

    An experimental system for corrosion testing of candidate materials in molten FLiNaK salt at 850 degree C has been designed and constructed. While molten FLiNaK salt was the focus of this study, the system can be utilized for evaluation of materials in other molten salts that may be of interest in the future. Using this system, the corrosion performance of a number of code-certified alloys of interest to NGNP as well as the efficacy of Ni-electroplating have been investigated. The mechanisums underlying corrosion processes have been elucidated using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the materials after the corrosion tests, as well as by the post-corrosion analysis of the salts using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques.

  10. Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-11

    The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a

  11. Recent development in electrolytic formation of carbon nanotubes in molten salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen G.Z.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the recent research development in the electrolytic production of carbon nano-tubes in molten salts. The experimental procedure and product morphologies of the electrolytic method are described in details. Different hypotheses of the carbon nano-tube formation mechanism in molten salts, particularly it relation with the erosion of the cathode, are compared and discussed. It is anticipated that the electrolytic method can potentially become a cheap and continuous process for the production of curved carbon nano-tubes, carbon sheathed metal nanowires and other carbon based nano-structures.

  12. Comparison of molten chloride and fluoride salts potentialities for An/Ln separation by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplace, A.; Peron, F.; Marrot, F.; Lacquement, J. [DRCP/SCPS/LPP - CEA/CEN Valrho - BP 17171 - 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this paper is the comparison of molten fluoride and chloride salts potentialities for Am/Nd separation by electrodeposition on inert cathode, on a purely thermodynamic point of view. The molten LiF-CaF{sub 2} eutectic (77-23 mol.%, at 780 deg. C) was considered for this study. Cyclic voltammetry showed a one step Am(III)/Am reduction at a potential of {approx_equal}+0.5 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li. A potential difference of 290 mV between Am and Nd metallic deposition was estimated by square-wave voltammetry. This Am/Nd potential difference is more important than in molten chlorides (220 mV in the LiCl-KCl eutectic at 500 deg. C). Moreover in molten fluoride salt, the americium and neodymium (+II) oxidation state is not stable contrary to the molten chloride one where corrosion of deposited Am would be potential. However this larger potential difference in molten fluorides is quite balanced by the higher working temperature. (authors)

  13. Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Simpson, Mike [Idaho National Lab., (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

  14. An evaluation of pressure and flow measurement in the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald J.

    2013-07-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt at plant-like conditions for pressure, flow, and temperature. An important need in thermal storage systems that utilize molten salts is for accurate flow and pressure measurement at temperatures above 535ÀC. Currently available flow and pressure instrumentation for molten salt is limited to 535ÀC and even at this temperature the pressure measurement appears to have significant variability. It is the design practice in current Concentrating Solar Power plants to measure flow and pressure on the cold side of the process or in dead-legs where the salt can cool, but this practice wont be possible for high temperature salt systems. For this effort, a set of tests was conducted to evaluate the use of the pressure sensors for flow measurement across a device of known flow coefficient Cv. To perform this task, the pressure sensors performance was evaluated and was found to be lacking. The pressure indicators are severely affected by ambient conditions and were indicating pressure changes of nearly 200psi when there was no flow or pressure in the system. Several iterations of performance improvement were undertaken and the pressure changes were reduced to less than 15psi. The results of these pressure improvements were then tested for use as flow measurement. It was found that even with improved pressure sensors, this is not a reliable method of flow measurement. The need for improved flow and pressure measurement at high temperatures remains and will need to be solved before it will be possible to move to high temperature thermal storage systems with molten salts.

  15. Preparation of biomorphic silicon carbide–mullite ceramics using molten salt synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei, E-mail: wwchem@126.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Environment Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecology in Arid Areas, Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, 126# Yanta Road, Xi' an 710054, Shaanxi (China); Hou, Guangya [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Wang, Boya; Deng, Shunxi [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Environment Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecology in Arid Areas, Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, 126# Yanta Road, Xi' an 710054, Shaanxi (China)

    2014-09-15

    Biomorphic silicon carbide–mullite ceramics were prepared from beech wood using liquid Si infiltration and molten salts synthesis. The resulting mullite whiskers coating, as well as the growth mechanism in molten Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} environment, have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The biomorphic SiC ceramics derived from the beech wood template have coarse pore walls consisting of β-SiC grains with diameters ranging from 5 μm to 20 μm. After the molten salts reactions between biomorphic SiC substrate and mixture molten salts (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), porous Silicon carbide–mullite ceramics with cilia-like microstructure were obtained. This unique structure has potential application in hot gases filters. An oxidation–dissolution cycle was proposed to explain the mullite whiskers growth in molten salts environment. - Graphical abstract: Biomorphic silicon carbide–mullite ceramics with cilia-like microstructure prepared from beech wood using liquid Si infiltration (LSI) and molten salts reactions (MSR) processes. Mullite whiskers with nanometer-sized diameters and micrometer-sized lengths grow on the surface of SiC substrate, and the biomorphic silicon carbide–mullite ceramics inherit the porous microstructure originated from biomorphic SiC ceramics and beech wood. The mullite whiskers grow on the pores' surface of biomorphic SiC to form cilia-like surface, and this special structure can be used for hot gases filter. - Highlights: • Biomorphic silicon carbide–mullite ceramics were prepared. • An oxidation–dissolution mechanism was proposed to explain the coating formation. • The unique structure has potential application in hot gases filter.

  16. DESAIN KONSEP TANGKI PENAMPUNG BAHAN BAKAR PASSIVE COMPACT MOLTEN SALT REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hadiwinata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR merupakan pengembangan dari reaktor MSR. Desain reaktor PCMSR membutuhkan tempat khusus penampung sementara bahan bakar pada saat terjadi insiden, misalnya kecelakaan yang menyebabkan peningkatan suhu bahan bakar. Tangki penampung bahan bakar tersusun dari 3 bagian yang saling terhubung yaitu bagian penampung cairan bahan bakar, cerobong (chimney, dan penukar kalor. Dalam penelitian ini, tangki dimodelkan secara lump dan dilakukan variasi daya awal reaktor dan ketinggian cerobong. Syarat batas model ditetapkan suhu bahan bakar maksimum 1400 °C, yang didasarkan pada titik didih larutan garam LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4. Analisis dilakukan dengan cara menghitung rugi tekanan total dan transfer kalor untuk variasi daya awal antara 1800-3000 MWth dan ketinggian cerobong antara 1-10 m. Hasil penelitian menunjukan semakin besar daya reaktor, maka tinggi tangki penampung bahan bakar dan tinggi alat penukar kalor yang dibutuhkan akan semakin besar, tejadi kenaikan suhu fluida pendingin dan suhu udara pendingin, dan menyebabkan kenaikan laju aliran masa fluida pendingin, sedangkan laju aliran masa udara menurun. Peningkatan ketinggian cerobong menyebabkan ketinggian tangki penampung bahan bakar dan ketinggian alat penukar kalor semakin menurun, penurunan suhu fluida pendingin, tetapi suhu udara meningkat, dan menyebabkan peningkatan laju aliran masa fluida pendingin, tetapi laju aliran masa udara akan semakin menurun. Kata kunci: PCMSR, cerobong, alat penukar kalor, variasi daya.   The Passsive Compact Molten Salat Reactor (PCMSR reactor is developed from MSR reactor. The PCMSR reactor design requires special place to temporarily storage for reactor fuel when incident occurs, such as when there is an accident which caused the temperature of the fuel increases. The tank consist of three interconnected parts, the reservoir liquid fuel, chimney, and the heat exchanger. In this research, the tank system is modeled based on

  17. A new form of MgTa 2 O 6 obtained by the molten salt method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using molten salt route (with NaCl/KCl as the salt) we have been able to synthesize a new form of magnesium tantalate at 850°C. Powder X-ray diffraction data could be indexed on an orthorhombic unit cell with lattice parameters, `' = 15.36(1) Å, '' = 13.38(1) Å and '' = 12.10(1) Å. High resolution transmission electron ...

  18. A comparison of conventional and prototype nondestructive measurements on molten salt extraction residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, V.L.; Hurd, J.R.; Sedlacek, W.E.; Scarborough, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen molten salt extraction residues were assayed by conventional and prototype nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques to be compared with destructive chemical analysis in an effort to identify acceptable NDA measurement methods for this matrix. NDA results on seven samples and destructive results on four samples are presented.

  19. Ethanol steam reforming heated up by molten salt CSP: Reactor assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Falco, Marcello; Gallucci, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper hydrogen production via reforming of ethanol has been studied in a novel hybrid plant consisting in a ethanol reformer and a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant using molten salt as heat carrier fluid. The heat needed for the reforming of ethanol has been supplied to the system by

  20. Effect of Ni-Co Ternary Molten Salt Catalysts on Coal Catalytic Pyrolysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin; Qi, Cong; Li, Liang; Li, Yimin; Li, Song

    2017-08-01

    In order to facilitate efficient and clean utilization of coal, a series of Ni-Co ternary molten salt crystals are explored and the catalytic pyrolysis mechanism of Datong coal is investigated. The reaction mechanisms of coal are achieved by thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a reactive kinetic model is constructed. The microcosmic structure and macerals are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The catalytic effects of ternary molten salt crystals at different stages of pyrolysis are analyzed. The experimental results show that Ni-Co ternary molten salt catalysts have the capability to bring down activation energy required by pyrolytic reactions at its initial phase. Also, the catalysts exert a preferable catalytic action on macromolecular structure decomposition and free radical polycondensation reactions. Furthermore, the high-temperature condensation polymerization is driven to decompose further with a faster reaction rate by the additions of Ni-Co ternary molten salt crystal catalysts. According to pyrolysis kinetic research, the addition of catalysts can effectively decrease the activation energy needed in each phase of pyrolysis reaction.

  1. Wall heat transfer coefficient in a molten salt bubble column: testing the experimental setup

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skosana, PJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available reactors that are highly exothermic or endothermic. This paper presents the design and operation of experimental setup used for measurement of the heat transfer coefficient in molten salt media. The experimental setup was operated with tap water, heat...

  2. Variation of diffusivity with the cation radii in molten salts of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 1. Variation of diffusivity with the cation radii in molten salts of superionic conductors containing iodine anion: A molecular dynamics study. Srinivasa R Varanasi S Yashonath. Volume 124 Issue 1 January 2012 pp 159-166 ...

  3. Electrochemical Behavior of La on Liquid Bi electrode in LiCl-KCl molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Beom Kyu; Han, Hwa Jeong; Park, Byung Gi [Soonchunyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Pyroprocessing technology aims to achieve a grouped and efficiently separation of all actinide for recycling with a sufficient decontamination of fission products generating the minimum. The main steps of the pyroprocess is electrowinning process, where the remaining elements in a molten salt after electrorifinning process. That process is U, MAs are concurrently recovered at the liquid metal. Recently, a study of the liquid metal and molten salt using an electrochemical is carried out in a variety of fields. However, there is deficient information about the electrode reaction of lanthanide and actinide on the liquid bismuth metal electrodes. In this paper, the electrochemical behavior of La(III), with liquid bismuth was investigated by the electrochemical method. The aim of this study is to investigate the electrochemical behavior of lanthanum or neodymium among lanthanides in molten LiCl-KCl salt at liquid metal bismuth electrode cyclic voltammetry and derive the thermochemical properties. The electrochemical behavior of La was studied in LiCl-KCl-LaCl{sub 3} molten salts using electrochemical techniques Cyclic Voltammetry on liquid Bi electrodes at 773K. During the process of cyclic voltammetry electrolysis, intermetallic compound were observed of La, Lax-Biy, Li-Bi. The diffusion coefficient of La was measured by cyclic voltemmetry and was found to be 8.18x10{sup -5}cm{sup 2}/s.

  4. Transient analysis of a molten salt central receiver (MSCR) in a solar power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, A.; Wang, C.; Akinjiola, O.; Lou, X.; Neuschaefer, C.; Quinn, J.

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing solar power tower plants utilizing molten salt as the working fluid. In solar power tower, the molten salt central receiver (MSCR) atop of the tower is constructed of banks of tubes arranged in panels creating a heat transfer surface exposed to the solar irradiation from the heliostat field. The molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF), in this case 60/40%wt NaNO3-KNO3, flows in serpentine flow through the surface collecting sensible heat thus raising the HTF temperature from 290°C to 565°C. The hot molten salt is stored and dispatched to produce superheated steam in a steam generator, which in turn produces electricity in the steam turbine generator. The MSCR based power plant with a thermal energy storage system (TESS) is a fully dispatchable renewable power plant with a number of opportunities for operational and economic optimization. This paper presents operation and controls challenges to the MSCR and the overall power plant, and the use of dynamic model computer simulation based transient analyses applied to molten salt based solar thermal power plant. This study presents the evaluation of the current MSCR design, using a dynamic model, with emphasis on severe events affecting critical process response, such as MS temperature deviations, and recommend MSCR control design improvements based on the results. Cloud events are the scope of the transient analysis presented in this paper. The paper presents results from a comparative study to examine impacts or effects on key process variables related to controls and operation of the MSCR plant.

  5. Thermal Analysis of Surrogate Simulated Molten Salts with Metal Chloride Impurities for Electrorefining Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson; Vivek Utgikar

    2012-04-01

    This project is a fundamental study to measure thermal properties (liquidus, solidus, phase transformation, and enthalpy) of molten salt systems of interest to electrorefining operations, which are used in both the fuel cycle research & development mission and the spent fuel treatment mission of the Department of Energy. During electrorefining operations the electrolyte accumulates elements more active than uranium (transuranics, fission products and bond sodium). The accumulation needs to be closely monitored because the thermal properties of the electrolyte will change as the concentration of the impurities increases. During electrorefining (processing techniques used at the Idaho National Laboratory to separate uranium from spent nuclear fuel) it is important for the electrolyte to remain in a homogeneous liquid phase for operational safeguard and criticality reasons. The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely affected by the buildup of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are: (i) build up of fissile elements in the salt approaching the criticality limits specified for the vessel (ii) freezing of the salts due to change in the liquidus temperature and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution) of elements. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This work describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, consisting of chlorides of strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium (as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium), used in the processing of used nuclear fuels. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to analyze numerous salt samples providing results on the thermal properties. The property of most interest to pyroprocessing is the liquidus temperature. It was

  6. Silica and alumina nano-enhanced molten salts for thermal energy storage: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Belén; Nieto-Maestre, Javier; Iparraguirre-Torres, Iñigo; Julià, José Enrique; García-Romero, Ana

    2017-06-01

    The study of more efficient materials for thermal energy storage at high temperatures is a broad field of research. The use of the nanotechnology is a strategy recently considered to enhance the thermal properties of these materials. The nano-enhanced Molten Salts (neMS) are constituted by an inorganic salt where tiny quantities of nanoparticles (NPs) are dispersed. These nanomaterials possess a specific heat higher than that of the salt or the isolated NPs. This phenomenon is not still well understood and great research efforts are needed to describe the interactions on the material at a molecular level. The existence of a nanolayer at the interface between the NPs surface and the molten salt with superior thermal properties is the main mechanism proposed up to now. A high available surface of the NPs promotes the formation of higher quantities of these nanostructures. The available surface depends on the NPs size and shape and is strongly reduced if NPs are agglomerated. We have studied and compared the effect on the specific heat of embedding two different ceramic NPs on molten Solar Salt.

  7. Porous membrane electrochemical cell for uranium and transuranic recovery from molten salt electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willit, James L.

    2007-09-11

    An improved process and device for the recovery of the minor actinides and the transuranic elements (TRU's) from a molten salt electrolyte. The process involves placing the device, an electrically non-conducting barrier between an anode salt and a cathode salt. The porous barrier allows uranium to diffuse between the anode and cathode, yet slows the diffusion of uranium ions so as to cause depletion of uranium ions in the catholyte. This allows for the eventual preferential deposition of transuranics present in spent nuclear fuel such as Np, Pu, Am, Cm. The device also comprises an uranium oxidation anode. The oxidation anode is solid uranium metal in the form of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel is placed in a ferric metal anode basket which serves as the electrical lead or contact between the molten electrolyte and the anodic uranium metal.

  8. Stress corrosion cracking of Ti-8Al-1 Mo-1V in molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrl, W. H.; Blackburn, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of Ti-8Al-1 Mo-1V has been studied in several molten salt environments. Extensive data are reported for the alloy in highly pure LiCl-KCl. The influence of the metallurgical heat treatment and texture, and the mechanical microstructure show similarities with aqueous solutions at lower temperature. The fracture path and cracking modes are also similar to that found in other environments. The influence of H2O and H(-) in molten LiCl-KCl lead to the conclusion that hydrogen does not play a major role in crack extension in this environment.

  9. Pore Scale Thermal Hydraulics Investigations of Molten Salt Cooled Pebble Bed High Temperature Reactor with BCC and FCC Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixiong Song

    2014-01-01

    CFD results and empirical correlations’ predictions of pressure drop and local Nusselt numbers. Local pebble surface temperature distributions in several default conditions are investigated. Thermal removal capacities of molten salt are confirmed in the case of nominal condition; the pebble surface temperature under the condition of local power distortion shows the tolerance of pebble in extreme neutron dose exposure. The numerical experiments of local pebble insufficient cooling indicate that in the molten salt cooled pebble bed reactor, the pebble surface temperature is not very sensitive to loss of partial coolant. The methods and results of this paper would be useful for optimum designs and safety analysis of molten salt cooled pebble bed reactors.

  10. Application of Thermodynamic Databases to the Evaluation of Surface Tensions of Molten Alloys, Salt Mixtures and Oxide Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Toshihiro; Iida, Takamichi; Hack, Klaus; Hara, Shigeta

    1996-01-01

    The authors discuss the application of thermodynamic solution databases, which have been constructed so far to calculate thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams, to the evaluation of surface tensions of molten alloys, salt mixtures and oxide mixtures. In particular, the relationship between the excess Gibbs energy in the bulk phase and that in the "surface phase" which are used in Butler's equation for surface tension was derived for molten ionic solutions as well as molten alloys. In thi...

  11. Main Experimental Results of ISTC-1606 for Recycling and Transmutation in Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Feynberg, Olga; Merzlyakov, Aleksandr; Surenkov, Aleksandr [Russian Research Center - Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov sq. 1, Moscow, RF, 123182 (Russian Federation); Subbotin, Vladimir; Zakirov, Raul; Toropov, Andrey; Panov, Aleksandr [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Afonichkin, Valery [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    To examine and demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactors (MSR) to reduce long lived waste toxicity and to produce efficiently electricity in closed fuel cycle, some national and international studies were initiated last years. In this paper main focus is placed on experimental evaluation of single stream Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter (MOSART) system fuelled with different compositions of plutonium plus minor actinide trifluoride (AnF{sub 3}) from LWR spent nuclear fuel without U-Th support. This paper summarizes main experimental results of ISTC-1606 related to physical and chemical properties of fuel salt, container materials for fuel circuit, and fuel salt clean up of MOSART system. As result of ISTC-1606 studies claim is made, that the {sup 7}Li,Na,Be/F and {sup 7}Li,Be/F solvents selected for primary system appear to resolve main reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, materials compatibility, fuel salt clean up and safety problems as applied to the MOSART concept development. The created experimental facilities and the database on properties of fuel salt mixtures and container materials are used for a choice and improvement fuel salts and coolants for new applications of this high temperature technology for sustainable nuclear power development. (authors)

  12. An evaluation of possible next-generation high temperature molten-salt power towers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, Gregory J.

    2011-12-01

    Since completion of the Solar Two molten-salt power tower demonstration in 1999, the solar industry has been developing initial commercial-scale projects that are 3 to 14 times larger. Like Solar Two, these initial plants will power subcritical steam-Rankine cycles using molten salt with a temperature of 565 C. The main question explored in this study is whether there is significant economic benefit to develop future molten-salt plants that operate at a higher receiver outlet temperature. Higher temperatures would allow the use of supercritical steam cycles that achieve an improved efficiency relative to today's subcritical cycle ({approx}50% versus {approx}42%). The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of a 565 C subcritical baseline plant was compared with possible future-generation plants that operate at 600 or 650 C. The analysis suggests that {approx}8% reduction in LCOE can be expected by raising salt temperature to 650 C. However, most of that benefit can be achieved by raising the temperature to only 600 C. Several other important insights regarding possible next-generation power towers were also drawn: (1) the evaluation of receiver-tube materials that are capable of higher fluxes and temperatures, (2) suggested plant reliability improvements based on a detailed evaluation of the Solar Two experience, and (3) a thorough evaluation of analysis uncertainties.

  13. Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

  14. Effect of Using Thorium Molten Salts on the Neutronic Performance of PACER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acır, Adem; Übeyli, Mustafa

    2010-04-01

    Utilization of nuclear explosives can produce a significant amount of energy which can be converted into electricity via a nuclear fusion power plant. An important fusion reactor concept using peaceful nuclear explosives is called as PACER which has an underground containment vessel to handle the nuclear explosives safely. In this reactor, Flibe has been considered as a working coolant for both tritium breeding and heat transferring. However, the rich neutron source supplied from the peaceful nuclear explosives can be used also for fissile fuel production. In this study, the effect of using thorium molten salts on the neutronic performance of the PACER was investigated. The computations were performed for various coolants bearing thorium and/or uranium-233 with respect to the molten salt zone thickness in the blanket. Results pointed out that an increase in the fissile content of the salt increased the neutronic performance of the reactor remarkably. In addition, higher energy production was obtained with thorium molten salts compared to the pure mode of the reactor. Moreover, a large quantity of 233U was produced in the blanket in all cases.

  15. Engineering Evaluation of Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiement for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlberg, Jon A.; Roberts, Kenneth T.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Little, Leslie E.; Brady, Sherman D.

    2009-09-30

    This evaluation was performed by Pro2Serve in accordance with the Technical Specification for an Engineering Evaluation of the Proposed Alternative Salt Transfer Method for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (BJC 2009b). The evaluators reviewed the Engineering Evaluation Work Plan for Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Residual Salt Removal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008). The Work Plan (DOE 2008) involves installing a salt transfer probe and new drain line into the Fuel Drain Tanks and Fuel Flush Tank and connecting them to the new salt transfer line at the drain tank cell shield. The probe is to be inserted through the tank ball valve and the molten salt to the bottom of the tank. The tank would then be pressurized through the Reactive Gas Removal System to force the salt into the salt canisters. The Evaluation Team reviewed the work plan, interviewed site personnel, reviewed numerous documents on the Molten Salt Reactor (Sects. 7 and 8), and inspected the probes planned to be used for the transfer. Based on several concerns identified during this review, the team recommends not proceeding with the salt transfer via the proposed alternate salt transfer method. The major concerns identified during this evaluation are: (1) Structural integrity of the tanks - The main concern is with the corrosion that occurred during the fluorination phase of the uranium removal process. This may also apply to the salt transfer line for the Fuel Flush Tank. Corrosion Associated with Fluorination in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fluoride Volatility Process (Litman 1961) shows that this problem is significant. (2) Continued generation of Fluorine - Although the generation of Fluorine will be at a lower rate than experienced before the uranium removal, it will continue to be generated. This needs to be taken into consideration regardless of what actions are taken with the salt. (3) More than one phase of material

  16. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wishau, R.

    1998-05-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

  17. The elemental move characteristic of nickel-based alloy in molten salt corrosion by using nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qiantao; Liu, Ke; Gao, Jie; Li, Xiaolin; Shen, Hao; Li, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Nickel-based alloys as candidate materials for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR), need to be used under high temperature in molten salt environment. In order to ensure the safety of the reactor running, it is necessary to study the elemental move characteristic of nickel-based alloys in the high temperature molten salts. In this work, the scanning nuclear microprobe at Fudan University was applied to study the elemental move. The Nickel-based alloy samples were corroded by molten salt at different temperatures. The element concentrations in the Nickel-based alloys samples were determined by the scanning nuclear microprobe. Micro-PIXE results showed that the element concentrations changed from the interior to the exterior of the alloy samples after the corrosion.

  18. Computational Analysis of Nanoparticles-Molten Salt Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrated Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vinod [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2017-05-05

    High fidelity computational models of thermocline-based thermal energy storage (TES) were developed. The research goal was to advance the understanding of a single tank nanofludized molten salt based thermocline TES system under various concentration and sizes of the particles suspension. Our objectives were to utilize sensible-heat that operates with least irreversibility by using nanoscale physics. This was achieved by performing computational analysis of several storage designs, analyzing storage efficiency and estimating cost effectiveness for the TES systems under a concentrating solar power (CSP) scheme using molten salt as the storage medium. Since TES is one of the most costly but important components of a CSP plant, an efficient TES system has potential to make the electricity generated from solar technologies cost competitive with conventional sources of electricity.

  19. PERFORMANCE SIMULATION OF PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR COLLECTOR USING TWO FLUIDS (THERMIC OIL AND MOLTEN SALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Boukelia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Parabolic trough solar collector is considered as one of the most proven, mature and commercial concentrating solar systems implemented in arid and semi-arid regions for energy production. It focuses sunlight onto a solar receiver by using mirrors and is finally converted to a useful thermal energy by means of a heat transfer fluid. The aims of this study are (i to develop a new methodology for simulation and performance evaluation of parabolic trough solar collector, in addition (i to compare the efficiencies of this system using two different fluids; thermic oil and molten solar salt. The validation of obtained results using this methodology shows a good agreement with those obtained by the experimental tests. Furthermore, this study favors the using of thermic oil as heat transfer fluid in the receiver instead of molten salt due to the high efficiency of the concentrator based on the first fluid in comparison to the second one.

  20. Design considerations for concentrating solar power tower systems employing molten salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.; Vernon, Milton E.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-09-01

    The Solar Two Project was a United States Department of Energy sponsored project operated from 1996 to 1999 to demonstrate the coupling of a solar power tower with a molten nitrate salt as a heat transfer media and for thermal storage. Over all, the Solar Two Project was very successful; however many operational challenges were encountered. In this work, the major problems encountered in operation of the Solar Two facility were evaluated and alternative technologies identified for use in a future solar power tower operating with a steam Rankine power cycle. Many of the major problems encountered can be addressed with new technologies that were not available a decade ago. These new technologies include better thermal insulation, analytical equipment, pumps and values specifically designed for molten nitrate salts, and gaskets resistant to thermal cycling and advanced equipment designs.

  1. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems. Project 8981, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Kardas, A.; Paul, L.

    1978-03-01

    The feasibility of storing thermal energy at temperatures of 450/sup 0/ to 535/sup 0/C (850/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/F) in the form of latent heat of fusion has been examined for over 30 inorganic salts and salt mixtures. Alkali carbonate mixtures are attractive as phase-change storage materials in this temperature range because of their relatively high storage capacity and thermal conductivity, moderate cost, low volumetric expansion upon melting, low corrosivity, and good chemical stability. An equimolar mixture of Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, which melts at 505/sup 0/C with a latent heat of 148 Btu/lb, was chosen for experimental study. The cyclic charge/discharge behavior of laboratory- and engineering-scale systems was determined and compared with predictions based on a mathematical heat-transfer model that was developed during this program. The thermal performance of one engineering-scale unit remained very stable during 1400 hours of cyclic operation. Several means of improving heat conduction through the solid salt were explored. Areas requiring further investigation have been identified.

  2. In Situ Production of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in a Binary Molten Salt for Concentrated Solar Power Plant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lasfargues

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. The latter is used in concentrated solar power plants as both heat transfer fluid and sensible storage. This work explores the feasibility of producing and dispersing nanoparticles with a novel one pot synthesis method. Using such a method, CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO3-NaNO3 binary salt. Analyses of the results suggested preferential disposition of atoms around produced nanoparticles in the molten salt. Thermal characterization of the produced nano-salt suspension indicated the dependence of the specific heat enhancement on particle morphology and distribution within the salts.

  3. In Situ Production of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in a Binary Molten Salt for Concentrated Solar Power Plant Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasfargues, Mathieu; Stead, Graham; Amjad, Muhammad; Ding, Yulong; Wen, Dongsheng

    2017-05-19

    Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. The latter is used in concentrated solar power plants as both heat transfer fluid and sensible storage. This work explores the feasibility of producing and dispersing nanoparticles with a novel one pot synthesis method. Using such a method, CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO₃-NaNO₃ binary salt. Analyses of the results suggested preferential disposition of atoms around produced nanoparticles in the molten salt. Thermal characterization of the produced nano-salt suspension indicated the dependence of the specific heat enhancement on particle morphology and distribution within the salts.

  4. In Situ Solid-Gas Reactivity of Nanoscaled Metal Borides from Molten Salt Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gouget, Guillaume; Debecker, Damien P.; Kim, Ara; Olivieri, Giorgia; Gallet, Jean-Jacques; Bournel, Fabrice; Thomas, Cyril; Ersen, Ovidiu; Moldovan, Simona; Sanchez, Clément; Carenco , Sophie; Portehault, David

    2017-01-01

    Metal borides have mostly been studied as bulk materials. The nanoscale provides new opportunities to investigate the properties of these materials, e.g., nanoscale hardening and surface reactivity. Metal borides are often considered stable solids because of their covalent character, but little is known on their behavior under a reactive atmosphere, especially reductive gases. We use molten salt synthesis at 750 °C to provide cobalt monoboride (CoB) nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous layer...

  5. Molten salt concentrating solar plants. Their potential contribute to a better grid integration of solar power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falchetta, Massimo [ENEA - Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Rome (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    Solar energy is becoming of increasing importance in Power Systems. Among solar technologies, use of molten salt heat storage in Concentrating Solar Power plants (CSP) is a cost effective way to improve the value for the grid operator of a non controllable energy source as solar power is. In such type of plants, a high temperature fluid is stored on tanks using solar input; the heat is then released when needed to feed a steam turbine and produce electricity on demand. Depending on tank size, technical solutions are commercially available with storage sizes ranging from 6 hours to 15 hours of nominal output, or even more. Options actually commercially available are the central receiver (Tower) with molten salt direct storage and linear parabolic through field with oil as Heat Transfer Fluid and molten salt as indirect storage; parabolic trough field with molten salt as HTF and as direct storage. The paper concentrates more on the last solution, developed by ENEA since 2001 and firstly introduced in the demonstrative 5 MW unit at Archimede ENEL's Power station. The papers present a simplified dynamic simulation approach, able to show the advantages from the point of view of dispatchability of power output and load following ability of this type of plant from a typical year worth of data of DNI and electricity prices on the Italian market. The model includes the main features affecting plant power output, namely optical efficiency as related to ANI (Aperture Normal Irradiation), solar field main dynamics, storage dynamics and typical operating procedures. (orig.)

  6. Electrochemical studies of calcium chloride-based molten salt systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, Jr., Thomas P. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Conductance and EMF studies of CaCl2-based melts were performed in the temperature range 790--990 C. Conductivity data collected using magnesia tubes and capillaries showed deviations from the data recommended by the National Bureau of Standards. These deviations are attributed to the slow dissolution of magnesia by the CaCl2-CaO melt. Conductivity data for molten CaCl2 using a pyrolytic boron nitride capillary were in reasonable agreement with the recommended data; however, undissolved CaO in CaCl2 may have caused blockage of the pyrolytic boron nitride capillary, resulting in fluctuations in the measured resistance. The utility of the AgCl/Ag reference electrode in CaCl2-AgCl and CaCl2-CaO-AgCl melts, using asbestos diaphragms and Vycor glass as reference half-cell membranes, was also investigated. Nernstian behavior was observed using both types of reference half-cell membranes in CaCl2-AgCl melts. The AgCl/Ag reference electrode also exhibited Nernstian behavior in CaCl2-CaO-AgCl melts using a Vycor reference half-cell membrane and a magnesia crucible. The use of CaCl2 as a solvent is of interest since it is used in plutonium metal purification, as well as various other commercial applications. 97 refs., 33 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Diagnosis of sources of current inefficiency in industrial molten salt electrolysis cells by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-07-29

    The purpose of this project was to employ Raman spectroscopy in the study of industrial molten salt electrolysis cells. The objective was to improve the understanding of the chemistry and electrochemistry of the relevant melt systems and, in turn, of energy loss mechanisms in the industrial processes. On this basis new ways to improve the energy efficiency of these industrial reactors might be identified. The research plan has several principal elements. First, there was the design and construction of laboratory scale representations of industrial molten salt electrolysis cells that would at the same time serve a spectrocells. Secondly, there was the mastery of the preparation of the molten salt electrolytes, what in industry is called the ''front end.'' Thirdly, there was the adaptation of commercially available Raman instrumentation in order to facilitate the proposed studies. It is the nature of the specimens that so dramatically distinguished this work from conventional Raman studies for which commercial instrumentation is designed: first, the laboratory scale electrolysis cells are large compared to typical spectrocells; and secondly, the cells operate at, what for Raman studies are, extremely high temperatures. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Validation of the TRACE code for the system dynamic simulations of the molten salt reactor experiment and the preliminary study on the dual fluid molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xun

    2016-06-14

    Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), which was confirmed as one of the six Generation IV reactor types by the GIF (Generation IV International Forum in 2008), recently draws a lot of attention all around the world. Due to the application of liquid fuels the MSR can be regarded as the most special one among those six GEN-IV reactor types in a sense. A unique advantage of using liquid nuclear fuel lies in that the core melting accident can be thoroughly eliminated. Besides, a molten salt reactor can have several fuel options, for instance, the fuel can be based on {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th-{sup 233}U, {sup 238}U-{sup 239}Pu cycle or even the spent nuclear fuel (SNF), so the reactor can be operated as a breeder or as an actinides burner both with fast, thermal or epi-thermal neutron spectrum and hence, it has excellent features of the fuel sustainability and for the non-proliferation. Furthermore, the lower operating pressure not only means a lower risk of the explosion as well as the radioactive leakage but also implies that the reactor vessel and its components can be lightweight, thus lowering the cost of equipments. So far there is no commercial MSR being operated. However, the MSR concept and its technical validation dates back to the 1960s to 1970s, when the scientists and engineers from ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the United States managed to build and run the world's first civilian molten salt reactor called MSRE (Molten Salt Reactor Experiment). The MSRE was an experimental liquid-fueled reactor with 10 MW thermal output using {sup 4}LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ZrF{sub 4}-UF{sub 4} as the fuel also as the coolant itself. The MSRE is usually taken as a very important reference case for many current researches to validate their codes and simulations. Without exception it works also as a benchmark for this thesis. The current thesis actually consists of two main parts. The first part is about the validation of the current code for the old MSRE concept, while the second

  9. Concentrating Solar Power - Molten Salt Pump Development, Final Technical Report (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael McDowell; Alan Schwartz

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long shafted pump to operate at high temperatures for the purpose of producing energy with renewable resources. In Phase I of this three phase project we developed molten salt pump requirements, evaluated existing hardware designs for necessary modifications, developed a preliminary design of the pump concept, and developed refined cost estimates for Phase II and Phase III of the project. The decision has been made not to continue the project into Phases II and III. There is an ever increasing world-wide demand for sources of energy. With only a limited supply of fossil fuels, and with the costs to obtain and produce those fuels increasing, sources of renewable energy must be found. Currently, capturing the sun's energy is expensive compared to heritage fossil fuel energy production. However, there are government requirements on Industry to increase the amount of energy generated from renewable resources. The objective of this project is to design, build and test a long-shafted, molten salt pump. This is the type of pump necessary for a molten salt thermal storage system in a commercial-scale solar trough plant. This project is under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program, managed by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. To reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and to meet the requirements of 'tomorrows' demand, technical innovations are needed. The DOE is committed to reducing the LCOE to 7-10 cents/kWh by 2015, and to 5-7 cents/kWh by 2020. To accomplish these goals, the performance envelope for commercial use of long-shafted molten salt pumps must be expanded. The intent of this project is to verify acceptable operation of pump components in the type of molten salt (thermal storage medium) used in commercial power plants today. Field testing will be necessary to verify the integrity of the pump design, and thus reduce the risk to industry. While the primary

  10. Incorporating supercritical steam turbines into molten-salt power tower plants :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, James Edward; Wolf, Thorsten; Muley, Nishant

    2013-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Siemens Energy, Inc., examined 14 different subcritical and supercritical steam cycles to determine if it is feasible to configure a molten-salt supercritical steam plant that has a capacity in the range of 150 to 200 MWe. The effects of main steam pressure and temperature, final feedwater temperature, and hot salt and cold salt return temperatures were determined on gross and half-net efficiencies. The main steam pressures ranged from 120 bar-a (subcritical) to 260 bar-a (supercritical). Hot salt temperatures of 566 and 600ÀC were evaluated, which resulted in main steam temperatures of 553 and 580ÀC, respectively. Also, the effects of final feedwater temperature (between 260 and 320ÀC) were evaluated, which impacted the cold salt return temperature. The annual energy production and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated using the System Advisory Model on 165 MWe subcritical plants (baseline and advanced) and the most promising supercritical plants. It was concluded that the supercritical steam plants produced more annual energy than the baseline subcritical steam plant for the same-size heliostat field, receiver, and thermal storage system. Two supercritical steam plants had the highest annual performance and had nearly the same LCOE. Both operated at 230 bar-a main steam pressure. One was designed for a hot salt temperature of 600ÀC and the other 565ÀC. The LCOEs for these plants were about 10% lower than the baseline subcritical plant operating at 120 bar-a main steam pressure and a hot salt temperature of 565ÀC. Based on the results of this study, it appears economically and technically feasible to incorporate supercritical steam turbines in molten-salt power tower plants.

  11. Metals recovering from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) using molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flandinet, L. [LEPMI, UMR 5279, CNRS - Grenoble INP-Universite de Savoie, Universite Joseph Fourier, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Tedjar, F. [LEPMI, UMR 5279, CNRS - Grenoble INP-Universite de Savoie, Universite Joseph Fourier, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); RECUPYL SA, Rue de la metallurgie 38420 Domene (France); Ghetta, V. [LPSC, UJF Grenoble 1 - CNRS/IN2P3 - INPG, 53 rue des Martyrs 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Fouletier, J., E-mail: Jacques.Fouletier@lepmi.grenoble-inp.fr [LEPMI, UMR 5279, CNRS - Grenoble INP-Universite de Savoie, Universite Joseph Fourier, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recovering of valuable metals from WPCBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low temperature treatment, i.e., 300 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Copper, and precious metals are recovered, without dissolution or melting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many hazardous gases are dissolved and trapped in the molten salt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Under operation without oxygen the flue gas contains large quantities of hydrogen. - Abstract: Recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) has been taken into consideration in the literature due to the large quantity of concerned wastes and their hazardous contents. The situation is so critical that EU published European Directives imposing collection and recycling with a minimum of material recovery . Moreover, WEEEs contain precious metals, making the recycling of these wastes economically interesting, but also some critical metals and their recycling leads to resource conservation. This paper reports on a new approach for recycling waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). Molten salts and specifically molten KOH-NaOH eutectic is used to dissolve glasses, oxides and to destruct plastics present in wastes without oxidizing the most valuable metals. This method is efficient for recovering a copper-rich metallic fraction, which is, moreover, cleared of plastics and glasses. In addition, analyses of gaseous emission show that this method is environmentally friendly since most of the process gases, such as carbon monoxide and dioxide and halogens, are trapped in the highly basic molten salt. In other respects, under operation without oxygen, a large quantity of hydrogen is produced and might be used as fuel gas or as synthesis gas, leading to a favourable energy balance for this new process.

  12. Customer interface document for the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettit, Kathleen; Kolb, William J.; Gill, David Dennis; Briggs, Ronald D.

    2012-03-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL is a test capability that allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt. The components tested can range from materials samples, to individual components such as flex hoses, ball joints, and valves, up to full solar collecting systems such as central receiver panels, parabolic troughs, or linear Fresnel systems. MSTL provides realistic conditions similar to a portion of a concentrating solar power facility. The facility currently uses 60/40 nitrate 'solar salt' and can circulate the salt at pressure up to 600psi, temperature to 585 C, and flow rate of 400-600GPM depending on temperature. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for customers to evaluate the applicability to their testing needs, and to provide an outline of expectations for conducting testing on MSTL. The document can serve as the basis for testing agreements including Work for Others (WFO) and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA). While this document provides the basis for these agreements and describes some of the requirements for testing using MSTL and on the site at Sandia, the document is not sufficient by itself as a test agreement. The document, however, does provide customers with a uniform set of information to begin the test planning process.

  13. Development of a steady state analysis code for a molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D.L. [State Key Laboratory of Multi Phase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Department of Nuclear and Thermal Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Qiu, S.Z. [State Key Laboratory of Multi Phase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Department of Nuclear and Thermal Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)], E-mail: szqiu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Su, G.H. [State Key Laboratory of Multi Phase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Department of Nuclear and Thermal Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Liu, C.L. [Department of Nuclear and Thermal Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2009-05-15

    The molten salt reactor (MSR), which is one of the 'Generation IV' concepts, can be used for transmutation, and production of electricity, hydrogen and fissile fuels. In this study, a single-liquid-fueled MSR is designed for conceptual research, in which no solid material is present in the core as moderator, except for the external reflector. The fuel salt flow makes the MSR neutronics different from that of conventional reactors using solid fuels, and couples the flow and heat transfer strongly. Therefore, it is necessary to study the core characteristics with due attention to the coupling among flow, heat transfer and neutronics. The standard turbulent model is adopted to establish the flow and heat transfer model, while the diffusion theory is used for the neutronics model, which consists of two-group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes, and balance equations for six groups of delayed neutron precursors. These two models which are coupled through the temperature and heat source are coded in a microcomputer program. The distributions of the velocity, temperature, neutron fluxes, and delayed neutron precursors under the rated condition are obtained. In addition, the effects of the inflow temperature, inflow velocity, and the fuel salt residence time out of the core are discussed in detail. The results provide some valuable information for the research and design of the new generation molten salt reactors.

  14. Metals recovering from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) using molten salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandinet, L; Tedjar, F; Ghetta, V; Fouletier, J

    2012-04-30

    Recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) has been taken into consideration in the literature due to the large quantity of concerned wastes and their hazardous contents. The situation is so critical that EU published European Directives imposing collection and recycling with a minimum of material recovery [1]. Moreover, WEEEs contain precious metals, making the recycling of these wastes economically interesting, but also some critical metals and their recycling leads to resource conservation. This paper reports on a new approach for recycling waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). Molten salts and specifically molten KOH-NaOH eutectic is used to dissolve glasses, oxides and to destruct plastics present in wastes without oxidizing the most valuable metals. This method is efficient for recovering a copper-rich metallic fraction, which is, moreover, cleared of plastics and glasses. In addition, analyses of gaseous emission show that this method is environmentally friendly since most of the process gases, such as carbon monoxide and dioxide and halogens, are trapped in the highly basic molten salt. In other respects, under operation without oxygen, a large quantity of hydrogen is produced and might be used as fuel gas or as synthesis gas, leading to a favourable energy balance for this new process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation of niobium carbide powder by electrochemical reduction in molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Qiushi [School of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Xu, Qian, E-mail: qianxu201@mail.neu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Meng, Jingchun; Lou, Taiping; Ning, Zhiqiang [School of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Qi, Yang [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yu, Kai [School of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-10-25

    The niobium carbide powder was prepared via electrochemical reduction of the mixture of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and carbon in molten CaCl{sub 2}–NaCl. The reaction pathway from the sintered precursor to the final product has been investigated. The effect of the working temperature on the reduction of the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/C composite precursor was considered. The role of carbon during the electrochemical reduction of the composite pellet was discussed. The samples were analysed by XRD and SEM. The results indicated that the NbC powder was approximately 200 nm after the reduction. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} was gradually reduced to Nb, and NbC was subsequently obtained by the reaction of carbon with Nb metal. In addition, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} could spontaneously react with CaO in the melt to form a serious of calcium niobates. The participation of carbon was available for the efficiency of electro-reduction of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. - Graphical abstract: Niobium carbide powder was electrochemically prepared in molten salt, and the reduction pathway was illustrated schematically. - Highlights: • NbC powder was prepared electrochemically in molten salt. • The working temperature was lower than that of carbothermic reduction. • The reduction pathway was discussed compared to direct electro-deoxidation of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}.

  16. Degradation of organochloride pesticides by molten salt oxidation at IPEN: spin-off nuclear activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lainetti, Paulo E.O., E-mail: lainetti@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear spin-off has at least two dimensions. It may provide benefits to the society such as enlarge knowledge base, strengthen infrastructure and benefit technology development. Besides this, to emphasize that some useful technologies elapsed from nuclear activities can affect favorably the public opinion about nuclear energy. In this paper is described a technology developed initially by the Rockwell Int. company in the USA more than thirty years ago to solve some problems of nuclear fuel cycle wastes. For different reasons the technology was not employed. In the last years the interest in the technology was renewed and IPEN has developed his version of the method applicable mainly to the safe degradation of hazardous wastes. This study was motivated by the world interest in the development of advanced processes of waste decomposition, due to the need of safer decomposition processes, particularly for the POPs - persistent organic pollutants and particularly for the organ chlorides. A tendency observed at several countries is the adoption of progressively more demanding legislation for the atmospheric emissions, resultants of the waste decomposition processes. The suitable final disposal of hazardous organic wastes such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), pesticides, herbicides and hospital residues constitutes a serious problem. In some point of their life cycles, these wastes should be destroyed, in reason of the risk that they represent for the human being, animals and plants. The process involves using a chemical reactor containing molten salts, sodium carbonate or some alkaline carbonates mixtures to decompose the organic waste. The decomposition is performed by submerged oxidation and the residue is injected below the surface of a turbulent salt bath along with the oxidizing agent. Decomposition of halogenated compounds, among which some pesticides, is particularly effective in molten salts. The process presents properties such as intrinsically safe

  17. Production and release of ISOL beams from molten fluoride salt targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, T.M., E-mail: taniamel@mail.cern.ch [IFIMUP and IN – Institut of Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); European Organization for Nuclear Research – CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hodak, R. [Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F1, SK-842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia); Ghetta, V.; Allibert, M.; Heuer, D. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie – LPSC, 53 Rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Noah, E. [Section de Physique, Université de Genève, 1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Cimmino, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research – CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Delonca, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research – CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); IRTES-M3M, Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbeliard, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); IRTES-LERMPS, Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbeliard, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Gottberg, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research – CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia CSIC, E28006 Madrid (Spain); Kronberger, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research – CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Survontie 9, Jyväskylä FI-40014 (Finland); Ramos, J.P. [European Organization for Nuclear Research – CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, University of Aveiro, CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); and others

    2014-06-01

    In the framework of the Beta Beams project, a molten fluoride target has been proposed for the production of the required 10{sup 1318}Ne/s. The production and extraction of such rates are predicted to be possible on a circulating molten salt with 160 MeV proton beams at close to 1 MW power. As a most important step to validate the concept, a prototype has been designed and investigated at CERN-ISOLDE using a static target unit. The target material consisted of a binary fluoride system, NaF:LiF (39:61 mol.%), with melting point at 649 °C. The production of Ne beams has been monitored as a function of the target temperature and proton beam intensity. The prototype development and the results of the first online tests with 1.4 GeV proton beam are presented in this paper.

  18. Electrorefining of High Carbon Ferromanganese in Molten Salts to Produce Pure Ferromanganese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao S. J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High carbon ferromanganese is used as a starting material to prepare pure ferromanganese by electrorefining in molten salts. High carbon ferromanganese was applied as the anode, molybdenum was the cathode and Ag/AgCl was the reference electrode. The anodic dissolution was investigated by linear polarization in molten NaCl-KCl system. Then potentiostatic electrolysis was carried out to produce pure ferromanganese from high carbon ferromanganese. The cathodic product was determined to be a mixture of manganese and iron by x-ray diffraction (XRD. The content of carbon in the product was analyzed by carbon and sulfur analyzer. The post-electrolysis anode was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The mechanism of the anode dissolution and the distribution of the main impurity of carbon and silicon after electrolysis were discussed.

  19. Production and Release of ISOL Beams from Molten Fluoride Salt Targets

    CERN Document Server

    Mendonca, T M; Ghetta, V; Alibert, M; Heuer, D; Noah, E; Cimmino, S; Delonca, M; Gottberg, A; Kronberger, M; Ramos, J; Seiffert, C; Stora, T; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the Beta Beams study, a molten fluoride target has been proposed for the production of the required 1013 18Ne/s. The production and extraction of such rates are obtained on a circulating molten salt with proton beam energy beams at close to 1 MW power. As a most important step to validate the concept, a prototype has been designed and investigated at CERN-ISOLDE using a static target unit. The target material consisted of a binary fluoride system, NaF:LiF (39:61 % mol.), with melting point at 649ºC. The production of Ne beams has been monitored as a function of the target temperature and proton beam intensity. The prototype development and the results of the first online tests with 1.4 GeV proton beam are presented in this paper.

  20. Validation of electro-thermal simulation with experimental data to prepare online operation of a molten salt target at ISOLDE for the Beta Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Cimmino, S; Marzari, S; Stora, T

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the Beta Beams is to study oscillation property of pure electrons neutrinos. It produces high energy beams of pure electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos for oscillation experiments by beta decay of He-6 and Ne-18 radioactive ion beams, stored in a decay ring at gamma = 100. The production of He-6 beam has already been accomplished using a thick beryllium oxide target. However, the production of the needed rate of Ne-18 has proven to be more challenging. In order to achieve the requested yield for Ne-18 a new high power target design based on a circulating molten salt loop has been proposed. To verify some elements of the design, a static molten salt target prototype has been developed at ISOLDE and operated successfully. This paper describes the electro-thermal study of the molten salt target taking into account the heat produced by Joule effect, radiative heat exchange, active water cooling due to forced convection and air passive cooling due to natural convection. The numerical results...

  1. Complete Sensitivity/Uncertainty Analysis of LR-0 Reactor Experiments with MSRE FLiBe Salt and Perform Comparison with Molten Salt Cooled and Molten Salt Fueled Reactor Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mueller, Don [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In September 2016, reactor physics measurements were conducted at Research Centre Rez (RC Rez) using the FLiBe (2 7LiF + BeF2) salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) in the LR-0 low power nuclear reactor. These experiments were intended to inform on neutron spectral effects and nuclear data uncertainties for advanced reactor systems using FLiBe salt in a thermal neutron energy spectrum. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in collaboration with RC Rez, performed sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analyses of these experiments as part of the ongoing collaboration between the United States and the Czech Republic on civilian nuclear energy research and development. The objectives of these analyses were (1) to identify potential sources of bias in fluoride salt-cooled and salt-fueled reactor simulations resulting from cross section uncertainties, and (2) to produce the sensitivity of neutron multiplication to cross section data on an energy-dependent basis for specific nuclides. This report provides a final report on the S/U analyses of critical experiments at the LR-0 Reactor relevant to fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) and liquid-fueled molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts. In the future, these S/U analyses could be used to inform the design of additional FLiBe-based experiments using the salt from MSRE. The key finding of this work is that, for both solid and liquid fueled fluoride salt reactors, radiative capture in 7Li is the most significant contributor to potential bias in neutronics calculations within the FLiBe salt.

  2. Assessment of the Neutronic and Fuel Cycle Performance of the Transatomic Power Molten Salt Reactor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Sean [Transatomic Power Corp., Cambridge, MA (United States); Dewan, Leslie [Transatomic Power Corp., Cambridge, MA (United States); Massie, Mark [Transatomic Power Corp., Cambridge, MA (United States); Davidson, Eva E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report presents results from a collaboration between Transatomic Power Corporation (TAP) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide neutronic and fuel cycle analysis of the TAP core design through the Department of Energy Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) Nuclear Energy Voucher program. The TAP concept is a molten salt reactor using configurable zirconium hydride moderator rod assemblies to shift the neutron spectrum in the core from mostly epithermal at beginning of life to thermal at end of life. Additional developments in the ChemTriton modeling and simulation tool provide the critical moderator-to-fuel ratio searches and time-dependent parameters necessary to simulate the continuously changing physics in this complex system. The implementation of continuous-energy Monte Carlo transport and depletion tools in ChemTriton provide for full-core three-dimensional modeling and simulation. Results from simulations with these tools show agreement with TAP-calculated performance metrics for core lifetime, discharge burnup, and salt volume fraction, verifying the viability of reducing actinide waste production with this concept. Additional analyses of mass feed rates and enrichments, isotopic removals, tritium generation, core power distribution, core vessel helium generation, moderator rod heat deposition, and reactivity coeffcients provide additional information to make informed design decisions. This work demonstrates capabilities of ORNL modeling and simulation tools for neutronic and fuel cycle analysis of molten salt reactor concepts.

  3. Two-Dimensional Neutronic and Fuel Cycle Analysis of the Transatomic Power Molten Salt Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Robertson, Sean [Transatomic Power Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dewan, Leslie [Transatomic Power Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States); Massie, Mark [Transatomic Power Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    This status report presents the results from the first phase of the collaboration between Transatomic Power Corporation (TAP) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide neutronic and fuel cycle analysis of the TAP core design through the Department of Energy Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear, Nuclear Energy Voucher program. The TAP design is a molten salt reactor using movable moderator rods to shift the neutron spectrum in the core from mostly epithermal at beginning of life to thermal at end of life. Additional developments in the ChemTriton modeling and simulation tool provide the critical moderator-to-fuel ratio searches and time-dependent parameters necessary to simulate the continuously changing physics in this complex system. Results from simulations with these tools show agreement with TAP-calculated performance metrics for core lifetime, discharge burnup, and salt volume fraction, verifying the viability of reducing actinide waste production with this design. Additional analyses of time step sizes, mass feed rates and enrichments, and isotopic removals provide additional information to make informed design decisions. This work further demonstrates capabilities of ORNL modeling and simulation tools for analysis of molten salt reactor designs and strongly positions this effort for the upcoming three-dimensional core analysis.

  4. Conceptual Design of a 100 MWe Modular Molten Salt Power Tower Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Pacheco; Carter Moursund, Dale Rogers, David Wasyluk

    2011-09-20

    A conceptual design of a 100 MWe modular molten salt solar power tower plant has been developed which can provide capacity factors in the range of 35 to 75%. Compared to single tower plants, the modular design provides a higher degree of flexibility in achieving the desired customer's capacity factor and is obtained simply by adjusting the number of standard modules. Each module consists of a standard size heliostat field and receiver system, hence reengineering and associated unacceptable performance uncertainties due to scaling are eliminated. The modular approach with multiple towers also improves plant availability. Heliostat field components, receivers and towers are shop assembled allowing for high quality and minimal field assembly. A centralized thermal-storage system stores hot salt from the receivers, allowing nearly continuous power production, independent of solar energy collection, and improved parity with the grid. A molten salt steam generator converts the stored thermal energy into steam, which powers a steam turbine generator to produce electricity. This paper describes the conceptual design of the plant, the advantages of modularity, expected performance, pathways to cost reductions, and environmental impact.

  5. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-15

    The sodium–nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250–350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. Finally, the cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  6. Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt

  7. Luminescent Properties of Y2O3:Eu3+ Nanocrystals Prepared by Molten Salt Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of red phosphors Y2O3:Eu3+ were prepared by the molten salt method with different surfactants. Their structures, morphologies, and the photoluminescent properties were investigated at room temperature. The particles size of Y2O3:Eu3+ can be controlled by adjusting the kinds of surfactants. The phosphor Y2O3:Eu3+ prepared with NP-10 [polyoxyethylene (10 nonyl phenyl ether] shows regular morphology and higher crystallinity, and its average particle size is about 200 nm. Bright red light can be observed by naked eyes from the red phosphor under 254 nm excitation.

  8. Multi physics modeling of a molten-salt electrolytic process for nuclear waste treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. R.; Choi, S. Y.; Kim, J. G.; Paek, S.; Ahn, D. H.; Kwon, S. W.; Shim, J. B.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, H. S.; Park, B. G.; Yi, K. W.; Hwang, I. S.

    2010-03-01

    Multi physics electrochemical modeling in a framework of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code was proposed and dealt with in detail to simulate the electro-transport behaviour that appears in a molten-salt electrolytic system. The modeling approach in this study is focused on the mass transport and current arising due to the concentration and the surface overpotential based on a cell configuration and electrolyte turbulence. This comprehensive modelling approach was applied and compared to electroplating model in a prepared rotating cylinder Hull (RCH) cell system.

  9. On-line reprocessing of a molten salt reactor: a simulation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Nicole; Gastaldi, Olivier; Penit, Thomas; Cohin, Olivier; Campion, Pierre-Yves [DEN/CADDTN/STPA/LPC-CEA Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2008-07-01

    The molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of the concepts studied in the frame of GEN IV road-map. Due to the specific features of its liquid fuel, the reprocessing unit may be directly connected to the reactor. A modelling of this unit is presented. The final objective is to create a flexible computer reprocessing code which can use data from neutron calculations and can be coupled to a neutron code. Such a code allows the description of the whole behaviour of MSR, including, in a coupled manner, both the design of the core and the optimised reprocessing scheme effects. (authors)

  10. Migrational polarization in high-current density molten salt electrochemical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunstein, J.; Vallet, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Electrochemical flux equations based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes have been derived in terms of experimental transport coefficients for binary molten salt mixtures analogous to those proposed for high temperature batteries and fuel cells. The equations and some numerical solutions indicate steady state composition gradients of significant magnitude. The effects of migrational separation must be considered along with other melt properties in the characterization of electrode behavior, melt composition, operating temperatures and differences of phase stability, wettability and other physicochemical properties at positive and negative electrodes of high current density devices with mixed electrolytes.

  11. Neutronic Analysis of the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine Using Various Thorium Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acır, Adem

    2013-08-01

    In this study, a neutronic performance of the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) molten salt blanket is investigated. Neutronic calculations are performed by using XSDRNPM/SCALE5 codes in S8-P3 approximation. The thorium molten salt composition considered in this calculation is 75 % LiF—25 % ThF4, 75 % LiF—24 % ThF4—1 % 233UF4, 75 % LiF—23 % ThF4—2 % 233UF4. Also, effects of the 6Li enrichment in molten salt are performed for all heavy metal salt. The radiation damage behaviors of SS-304 structural material with respect to higher fissionable fuel content and 6Li enrichment are computed. By higher fissionable fuel content in molten salt and with 6Li enrichment (20 and 50 %) in the coolant in form of 75 % LiF—23 % ThF4—2 % 233UF4, an initial TBR >1.05 can be realized. On the other hand, the 75 % LiF—25 % ThF4 or 75 % LiF—24 % ThF4—1 % 233UF4 molten salt fuel as regards maintained tritium self-sufficiency is not suitable as regards improving neutronic performance of LIFE engine. A high quality fissile fuel with a rate of ~2,850 kg/year of 233U can be produced with 75 % LiF—23 % ThF4—2 % 233UF4. The energy multiplication factor is increased with high rate fission reactions of 233U occurring in the molten salt zone. Major damage mechanisms in SS-304 first wall stell have been computed as DPA = 48 and He = 132 appm per year with 75 % LiF—23 % ThF4—2 % 233UF4. This implies a replacement of the SS-304 first wall stell of every between 3 and 4 years.

  12. Determination of Stoichiometry of Solutes in Molten Salt Solvents by Correlations of Relative Raman Band Intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boghosian, Soghomon; Berg, Rolf W.

    1999-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been used to determine the stoichiometry of solute complexes in molten salts at high temperatures under static equilibrium conditions, A simple formalism is derived for correlating relative Raman band intensities with stoichiometric coefficients. The experimental procedures...... and sets of experiments required for establishing the stoichiometry are described, The proposed method was applied for studying the dissolution reactions of V2O5 in molten Cs2S2O7 and of Nb2O5 or MoO3 in molten K2S2O7 at temperatures in the range 430-700 degrees C: (1) V2O5 + nS(2)O(7)(2-) (1) --> X-2n- (1......); (2) Nb2O5 + nS(2)O(7)(2-) (1) --> Y2n- (1); (3) MoO3 + nS(2)O(7)(2-) (1) --> Z(2n)- (1). It is shown that the solute complex species formed in the studied reactions have, respectively, the following stoichiometries: (1) n = 2, (VO)(2)O(SO4)(4)(4-); (2) n = 3, NbO(SO4)(3)(3-); (3) n = 1, MoO(SO4)(2)(2-)....

  13. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery with molten salt electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuzhi; Han, Wei; Cui, Baochen; Liu, Xianjun; Zhao, Fulin; Stuart, Jessica; Licht, Stuart

    2017-02-01

    Zinc-air batteries have been proposed for EV applications and large-scale electricity storage such as wind and solar power. Although zinc-air batteries are very promising, there are numerous technological barriers to overcome. We demonstrate for the first time, a new rechargeable zinc-air battery that utilizes a molten Li0.87Na0.63K0.50CO3 eutectic electrolyte with added NaOH. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that a reversible deposition/dissolution of zinc occurs in the molten Li0.87Na0.63K0.50CO3 eutectic. At 550 °C, this zinc-air battery performs with a coulombic efficiency of 96.9% over 110 cycles, having an average charging potential of ∼1.43 V and discharge potential of ∼1.04 V. The zinc-air battery uses cost effective steel and nickel electrodes without the need for any precious metal catalysts. Moreover, the molten salt electrolyte offers advantages over aqueous electrolytes, avoiding the common aqueous alkaline electrolyte issues of hydrogen evolution, Zn dendrite formation, "drying out", and carbonate precipitation.

  14. I-NERI ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Frank

    2009-09-01

    An attractive alternative to the once-through disposal of electrorefiner salt is to selectively remove the active fission products from the salt and recycle the salt back to the electrorefiner (ER). This would allow salt reuse for some number of cycles before ultimate disposal of the salt in a ceramic waste form. Reuse of ER salt would, thus, greatly reduce the volume of ceramic waste produced during the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This final portion of the joint I-NERI research project is to demonstrate the separation of fission products from molten ER salt by two methods previously selected during phase two (FY-08) of this project. The two methods selected were salt/zeolite contacting and rare-earth fission product precipitation by oxygen bubbling. The ER salt used in these tests came from the Mark-IV electrorefiner used to anodically dissolved driver fuel from the EBR-II reactor on the INL site. The tests were performed using the Hot Fuel Dissolution Apparatus (HFDA) located in the main cell of the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels complex on the INL site. Results from these tests were evaluated during a joint meeting of KAERI and INL investigators to provide recommendations as to the future direction of fission product removal from electrorefiner salt that accumulate during spent fuel treatment. Additionally, work continued on kinetic measurements of surrogate quaternary salt systems to provide fundamental kinetics on the ion exchange system and to expand the equilibrium model system developed during the first two phases of this project. The specific objectives of the FY09 I-NERI research activities at the INL include the following: • Perform demonstration tests of the selected KAERI precipitation and INL salt/zeolite contacting processes for fission product removal using radioactive, fission product loaded ER salt • Continue kinetic studies of the quaternary Cs/Sr-LiCl-KCl system to determine the rate of ion

  15. Corrosion resistance of ceramic materials in pyrochemical reprocessing condition by using molten salt for spent nuclear oxide fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, M.; Kato, T.; Hanada, K.; Koizumi, T.; Aose, S.

    2005-02-01

    The corrosion resistance of ceramic materials in pyrochemical reprocessing using molten salts was discussed through the thermodynamic calculation and corrosion test. The corrosion test was basically carried out in alkali molten salt under chlorine gas. In addition, the effects of oxygen, carbon and main fission product's chlorides on ceramics corrosion were evaluated in that condition. Most of ceramic oxides showed good chemical stability on chlorine, oxygen and uranyl chloride from thermodynamic calculation results. On the other hand, from corrosion test result, silicon nitride, mullite (Al6Si2O13) and cordierite (Mg2Al3(AlSi5O18)) have a good corrosion resistance which is corresponding to 0.1 mm/y or less. No cracks on the materials were observed and flexural strength did not drop remarkably after 480 h corrosion testing in molten salt under Cl2 O2 atmosphere.

  16. Characterization and Thermal Properties of Nitrate Based Molten Salt for Heat Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal Tukimon, Mohd; Muhammad, Wan Nur Azrina Wan; Nor Annuar Mohamad, Md; Yusof, Farazila

    2017-10-01

    Molten salt can acts like a storage medium or heat transfer fluid in heat recovery system. Heat transfer fluid is a fluid that has the capability to deliver heat this one side to another while heat recovery system is a system that transfers heat to produce energy. This studies shows about determining the new formulation of different molten nitrate/nitrite salts consisting of LiNO3, KNO2, KNO3 and NaNO2 that give a low temperature of melting point and high average specific heat capacity. Mixed alkaline molten nitrate/nitrite salt can act as a heat transfer fluid due to their advantageous in terms of its properties that feasible in heat recovery system such as high specific heat capacity, low vapour pressure, low cost and wide range of temperature in its application. The mixing of these primary substances will form a new line of quaternary nitrate salt (LiNO3 - KNO2 - KNO3 - NaNO2). The quaternary mixture was heated inside the box furnace at 150°C for four hours and rose up the temperature to 400°C for eight hours to homogenize the mixture. Through heating process, the elements of nitrate/nitrite base were mixed completely. The temperature was then reduced to 115°C for several hours before removing the mixture from the furnace. The melting point of each sample were testified by using thermal gravimetric analysis, TGA/DTA and experiment of determining the specific heat capacity were conducted by using Differential Scanning Calorimeter, DSC. From the result, it is found that the melting point Sample 1 with percentage of weightage (25.4wt% of LiNO3, 33.8wt% of KNO2, 20.7wt% of KNO3 and 20.1wt% of NaNO2) is 94.4°C whereas the average specific heat capacity was 1.0484/g°C while for Sample 3 with percentages of weightage (30.0wt% of LiNO3, 50.2wt% of KNO2, 3.1wt% of KNO3 and 16.7wt% of NaNO2), the melting point is 86.1°C with average specific heat capacity of 0.7274 J/g°C. In the nut shell, the quaternary mixture salts had been a good mixture with good thermal

  17. Transient analyses for a molten salt fast reactor with optimized core geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, R., E-mail: rui.li@kit.edu [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Wang, S.; Rineiski, A.; Zhang, D. [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Merle-Lucotte, E. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie – IN2P3 – CNRS/Grenoble INP/UJF, 53, rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • MSFR core is analyzed by fully coupling neutronics and thermal-hydraulics codes. • We investigated four types of transients intensively with the optimized core geometry. • It demonstrates MSFR has a high safety potential. - Abstract: Molten salt reactors (MSRs) have encountered a marked resurgence of interest over the past decades, highlighted by their inclusion as one of the six candidate reactors of the Generation IV advanced nuclear power systems. The present work is carried out in the framework of the European FP-7 project EVOL (Evaluation and Viability Of Liquid fuel fast reactor system). One of the project tasks is to report on safety analyses: calculations of reactor transients using various numerical codes for the molten salt fast reactor (MSFR) under different boundary conditions, assumptions, and for different selected scenarios. Based on the original reference core geometry, an optimized geometry was proposed by Rouch et al. (2014. Ann. Nucl. Energy 64, 449) on thermal-hydraulic design aspects to avoid a recirculation zone near the blanket which accumulates heat and very high temperature exceeding the salt boiling point. Using both fully neutronics thermal-hydraulic coupled codes (SIMMER and COUPLE), we also re-confirm the efforts step by step toward a core geometry without the recirculation zone in particular as concerns the modifications of the core geometrical shape. Different transients namely Unprotected Loss of Heat Sink (ULOHS), Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF), Unprotected Transient Over Power (UTOP), Fuel Salt Over Cooling (FSOC) are intensively investigated and discussed with the optimized core geometry. It is demonstrated that due to inherent negative feedbacks, an MSFR plant has a high safety potential.

  18. Transient coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor using the Transient Fission Matrix approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laureau, A., E-mail: laureau.axel@gmail.com; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Rubiolo, P.R.; Allibert, M.; Aufiero, M.

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Neutronic ‘Transient Fission Matrix’ approach coupled to the CFD OpenFOAM code. • Fission Matrix interpolation model for fast spectrum homogeneous reactors. • Application for coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor. • Load following, over-cooling and reactivity insertion transient studies. • Validation of the reactor intrinsic stability for normal and accidental transients. - Abstract: In this paper we present transient studies of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). This generation IV reactor is characterized by a liquid fuel circulating in the core cavity, requiring specific simulation tools. An innovative neutronic approach called “Transient Fission Matrix” is used to perform spatial kinetic calculations with a reduced computational cost through a pre-calculation of the Monte Carlo spatial and temporal response of the system. Coupled to this neutronic approach, the Computational Fluid Dynamics code OpenFOAM is used to model the complex flow pattern in the core. An accurate interpolation model developed to take into account the thermal hydraulics feedback on the neutronics including reactivity and neutron flux variation is presented. Finally different transient studies of the reactor in normal and accidental operating conditions are detailed such as reactivity insertion and load following capacities. The results of these studies illustrate the excellent behavior of the MSFR during such transients.

  19. Development status and potential program for development of proliferation-resistant molten-salt reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, J.R.; Bauman, H.F.; Dearing, J.F.; Grimes, W.R.; McCoy, H.E. Jr.

    1979-03-01

    Preliminary studies of existing and conceptual molten-salt reactor (MSR) designs have led to the identification of conceptual systems that are technologically attractive when operated with denatured uranium as the principal fissile fuel. These denatured MSRs would also have favorable resource-utilization characteristics and substantial resistance to proliferation of weapons-usable nuclear materials. The report presents a summary of the current status of technology and a discussion of the major technical areas of a possible base program to develop commercial denatured MSRs. The general areas treated are (1) reactor design and development, (2) safety and safety related technology, (3) fuel-coolant behavior and fuel processing, and (4) reactor materials. A substantial development effort could lead to authorization for construction of a molten-salt test reactor about 5 years after the start of the program and operation of the unit about 10 years later. A prototype commercial denatured MSR could be expected to begin operating 25 years from the start of the program. The postulated base program would extend over 32 years and would cost about $700 million (1978 dollars, unescalated). Additional costs to construct the MSTR, $600 million, and the prototype commercial plant, $1470 million, would bring the total program cost to about $2.8 billion. Additional allowances probably should be made to cover contingencies and incidental technology areas not explicitly treated in this preliminary review.

  20. Corrosion of Ferritic Steels in High Temperature Molten Salt Coolants for Nuclear Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J; El-Dasher, B; de Caro, M S; Ferreira, J

    2008-11-25

    Corrosion of ferritic steels in high temperature molten fluoride salts may limit the life of advanced reactors, including some hybrid systems that are now under consideration. In some cases, the steel may be protected through galvanic coupling with other less noble materials with special neutronic properties such a beryllium. This paper reports the development of a model for predicting corrosion rates for various ferritic steels, with and without oxide dispersion strengthening, in FLiBe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) and FLiNaK (Li-Na-K-F) coolants at temperatures up to 800 C. Mixed potential theory is used to account for the protection of steel by beryllium, Tafel kinetics are used to predict rates of dissolution as a function of temperature and potential, and the thinning of the mass-transfer boundary layer with increasing Reynolds number is accounted for with dimensionless correlations. The model also accounts for the deceleration of corrosion as the coolants become saturated with dissolved chromium and iron. This paper also reports electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of steels at their corrosion potentials in high-temperature molten salt environments, with the complex impedance spectra interpreted in terms of the interfacial charge transfer resistance and capacitance, as well as the electrolyte conductivity. Such in situ measurement techniques provide valuable insight into the degradation of materials under realistic conditions.

  1. Electrochemical Dissolution of Tungsten Carbide in NaCl-KCl-Na2WO4 Molten Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwen; Nie, Zuoren; Xi, Xiaoli; Ma, Liwen; Xiao, Xiangjun; Li, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Tungsten carbide was utilized as anode to extract tungsten in a NaCl-KCl-Na2WO4 molten salt, and the electrochemical dissolution was investigated. Although the molten salt electrochemical method is a short process method of tungsten extraction from tungsten carbide in one step, the dissolution efficiency and current efficiency are quite low. In order to improve the dissolution rate and current efficiency, the sodium tungstate was added as the active substance. The dissolution rate, the anode current efficiency, and the cathode current efficiency were calculated with different contents of sodium tungstate addition. The anodes prior to and following the reaction, as well as the product, were analyzed through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. The results demonstrated that the sodium tungstate could improve the dissolution rate and the current efficiency, due to the addition of sodium tungstate decreasing the charge transfer resistance in the electrolysis system. Due to the fact that the addition of sodium tungstate could remove the carbon during electrolysis, pure tungsten powders with 100 nm diameter were obtained when the content of sodium tungstate was 1.0 pct.

  2. Molten salt-directed synthesis method for LiMn2O4 nanorods as a cathode material for a lithium-ion battery with superior cyclability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, Mesfin A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A molten salt synthesis technique has been used to prepare nanorods of Mn2O3 and single-crystal LiMn2O4 nanorods cathode material with superior capacity retention. The molten salt-directed synthesis involved the use of NaCl as the eutectic melt...

  3. RETRACTED ARTICLE: The Evaluation of Reactor Performance by using Flibe and Flinabe Molten Salts in the APEX Hybrid Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Turgay; Hançerlioğulları, Aybaba

    2012-04-01

    The modeling of APEX hybrid reactor, produced by using ARIES-RS hybrid reactor technology, has been performed by using the MCNP-4B computer code and ENDF/B-V-VI nuclear data. Around the fusion chamber, molten salts Flibe (Li2BeF4) and Flinabe (LiNaBeF4) were used as cooling materials. APEX reactor was modeled in the torus form by adding nuclear materials of low significance in the specified percentages between percent 0-12 to the molten salts. The result of the study indicated that fissile material production, UF4 and ThF4 heavy metal salt increased nearly at the same percentage and it was observed that the percentage of it was practically the same in both materials. In order for the hybrid reactor to work itself in terms of tritium, TBR (tritium breeding ratio) should be lower than 1.05. When flibe molten salt was utilized in the APEX hybrid reactor, TBR was calculated as >1, 22 and when flinabe molten salt was used, TBR was calculated as >1.06.

  4. Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schuller; Frank Little; Darren Malik; Matt Betts; Qian Shao; Jun Luo; Wan Zhong; Sandhya Shankar; Ashwin Padmanaban

    2012-03-30

    We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials, including the specific heat, thermal conductivity, latent heat, and melting point. We also assessed the stability of the composite material with repeated thermal cycling and the effects of adding the nanoparticles on the corrosion of stainless steel by the composite salt. Our results indicate that stable, repeatable 25-50% improvements in specific heat are possible for these materials. We found that using these composite salts as the thermal energy storage material for a concentrating solar thermal power system can reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 10-20%. We conclude that these materials are worth further development and inclusion in future concentrating solar power systems.

  5. Material investigations on the thermal stability of solar salt and potential filler materials for molten salt storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonk, Alexander; Martin, Claudia; Braun, Markus; Bauer, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The thermal and chemical stability of solar salt during isothermal tests is assessed under manifold conditions. Solar salt stored at 560°C under synthetic air stabilizes readily after a few days with both nitrate and nitrite content remaining relatively stable over time. A nitrogen atmosphere enhances degradation due to a continuous reduction of nitrate to nitrite. In an open atmosphere CO2 formation is pronounced owing to the reaction of the molten nitrates with atmospheric CO2. The stability of some filler materials, as potential candidates to be used in thermocline storage concepts, was investigated in long term experiments up to 5.000h. Additional anionic traces in the melt as corrosion products from the filler due to the reaction of instable mineral species with nitrates/nitrites were identified. However, No impact on the the thermal properties of the salt could be determined. These properties remain to be unchanged over a time frame up to 5.000h which is confirmed by relatively stable nitrate/nitrite ratios.

  6. The mechanics of pressed-pellet separators in molten salt batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Kevin Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine Cardinal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Scott Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological constitutive model that describes the macroscopic behavior of pressed-pellet materials used in molten salt batteries. Such materials include separators, cathodes, and anodes. The purpose of this model is to describe the inelastic deformation associated with the melting of a key constituent, the electrolyte. At room temperature, all constituents of these materials are solid and do not transport cations so that the battery is inert. As the battery is heated, the electrolyte, a constituent typically present in the separator and cathode, melts and conducts charge by flowing through the solid skeletons of the anode, cathode, and separator. The electrochemical circuit is closed in this hot state of the battery. The focus of this report is on the thermal-mechanical behavior of the separator, which typically exhibits the most deformation of the three pellets during the process of activating a molten salt battery. Separator materials are composed of a compressed mixture of a powdered electrolyte, an inert binder phase, and void space. When the electrolyte melts, macroscopically one observes both a change in volume and shape of the separator that depends on the applied boundary conditions during the melt transition. Although porous flow plays a critical role in the battery mechanics and electrochemistry, the focus of this report is on separator behavior under flow-free conditions in which the total mass of electrolyte is static within the pellet. Specific poromechanics effects such as capillary pressure, pressure-saturation, and electrolyte transport between layers are not considered. Instead, a phenomenological model is presented to describe all such behaviors including the melting transition of the electrolyte, loss of void space, and isochoric plasticity associated with the binder phase rearrangement. The model is appropriate for use finite element analysis under finite deformation and finite temperature change conditions. The model

  7. Effect of preparation temperature and cycling voltage range on molten salt method prepared SnO2

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reddy, MV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We prepared nano-sized tin (IV) oxide (SnO(sub2)) via molten-salt technique: heating a mixture of tin tetrachloride, lithium nitrate and lithium chloride at 280 °C in air. The powders are characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission scanning...

  8. Utilization of Heavy Metal Molten Salts in the ARIES-RS Fusion Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Übeyli, Mustafa; Yapıcı, Hüseyin

    2008-09-01

    ARIES-RS is one of the major magnetic fusion energy reactor designs that uses a blanket having vanadium alloy structure cooled by lithium [1, 2]. It is a deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion driven reactor, having a fusion power of 2170 MW [1, 2]. This study presents the neutronic analysis of the ARIES-RS fusion reactor using heavy metal molten salts in which Li2BeF4 as the main constituent was mixed with increased mole fractions of heavy metal salt (ThF4 or UF4) starting by 2 mol.% up to 12 mol.%. Neutron transport calculations were carried out with the help of the SCALE 4.3 system by solving the Boltzmann transport equation with the XSDRNPM code in 238 neutron groups and a S 8- P 3 approximation. According to the numerical results, tritium self-sufficiency was attained for the coolants, Flibe with 2% UF4 or ThF4 and 4% UF4. In addition, higher energy multiplication values were found for the salt with UF4 compared to that with ThF4. Furthermore, significant amount of high quality nuclear fuel was produced to be used in external reactors.

  9. A comparison of conventional and prototype nondestructive measurements on molten salt extraction residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, V.L.; Scarborough, A.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1987-01-01

    Impure plutonium metal is routinely processed by molten salt extraction (MSE) to reduce the amount of americium in the metal product. Individuals form four technical groups at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) participated in a study designed to evaluate the accuracy of various nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for measuring the plutonium content in MSE residues. This study was performed to improve in-house accountability of these items and to identify assay methods that would be acceptable for determining receiver's values for MSE salts from off-site sources. Recent upgrades have been made in a segmented gamma scan system, in a thermal neutron coincidence counter, and in the software of a gamma isotopic system that supports the calorimeters at LAPF. The authors evaluated the newer systems against the older systems versus destructive qualitative analyses. Fourteen containers of MSE residues were selected to be studied. Seven of these salts originated at LAPF and seven originated at Rockwell International Rocky Flats plant. Measurements have been performed on these items in their original containers, and the items have been repackaged into a different geometry and assayed again.

  10. A descriptive model of the molten salt reactor experiment after shutdown: Review of FY 1995 progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.; Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    During FY 1995 considerable progress was made toward gaining a better understanding of the chemistry and transport processes that continue to govern the behavior of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE). As measurements in the MSRE proceed, laboratory studies continue, and better analyses are available, our understanding of the state of the MSRE and the best path toward remediation improves. Because of the immediate concern about the deposit in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), laboratory studies in the past year focused on carbon-fluorine chemistry. Secondary efforts were directed toward investigation of gas generation from MSRE salts by both radiolytic and nonradiolytic pathways. In addition to the laboratory studies, field measurements at the MSRE provided the basis for estimating the inventory of uranium and fluorine in the ACB. Analysis of both temperature and radiation measurements provided independent and consistent estimates of about 2.6 kg of uranium deposited in the top of the ACB. Further analysis efforts included a refinement in the estimates of the fuel- salt source term, the deposited decay energy, and the projected rate of radiolytic gas generation. This report also provides the background material necessary to explain new developments and to review areas of particular interest. The detailed history of the MSRE is extensively documented and is cited where appropriate. This work is also intended to update and complement the more recent MSRE assessment reports.

  11. Molten salt rolling bubble column, reactors utilizing same and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Terry D.; Benefiel, Bradley C.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Klinger, Kerry M.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2015-11-17

    Reactors for carrying out a chemical reaction, as well as related components, systems and methods are provided. In accordance with one embodiment, a reactor is provided that includes a furnace and a crucible positioned for heating by the furnace. The crucible may contain a molten salt bath. A downtube is disposed at least partially within the interior crucible along an axis. The downtube includes a conduit having a first end in communication with a carbon source and an outlet at a second end of the conduit for introducing the carbon material into the crucible. At least one opening is formed in the conduit between the first end and the second end to enable circulation of reaction components contained within the crucible through the conduit. An oxidizing material may be introduced through a bottom portion of the crucible in the form of gas bubbles to react with the other materials.

  12. Solar thermal power & gas turbine hybrid design with molten salt storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Fernando; Wiesenberg, Ralf; Santana, Domingo

    2017-06-01

    Taking into consideration the need to decelerate the global climatic change, power generation has to shift from burning fossil fuel to renewable energy source in short medium period of time. In this work, we are presenting a new model of a solar-gas natural hybrid power cycle with the main aim of decoupling the solar generation system from the gas turbine system. The objective is to have high solar power contribution compared to conventional ISCC plants [2], producing firm and dispatchable electricity at the same time. The decoupling is motivated by the low solar contribution reached by the ISCC, which is technically limited to maximum of 15%, [4]. In our case, we have implemented a solar tower with molten salts as working fluid. Central receiver systems get higher performance than others systems, like parabolic trough technology [1], due to the higher temperature achieved in the heat transferred fluid HTF, close to 560°C.

  13. Effect of milling on morphology of molten salt synthesized Sr3Ti2O7 crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijamnajsuk, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Effect of milling liquid (acetone and ethanol, and milling times on morphology of Sr3Ti2O7 (ST7 crystals grow in molten potassium chloride salt at 1250oC for 4 h was investigated. Two kinds of crystals with different morphologies were found: ST7 crystals having a tabular shape of less than 20 μm diameter and small secondary-phase crystals having high symmetry. Milling starting materials in ethanol yielded ST7 crystals that were up to 3 times thinner than those milled with acetone, increasing the (00l Lotgering factor almost twice that when prepared with acetone. Large crystals become a bit smaller and the number of small crystals increased when the milling time increased.

  14. Electrochemical behavior of simulated debris from a severe accident using a molten salt system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yuya; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akira; Mizuguchi, Koji; Fujita, Reiko [Toshiba Corporation, 4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0862 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    In a severe nuclear accident, the fuel in the reactor may melt, forming debris, which contains a UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} stable oxide mixture and parts of the reactor, such as Zircaloy and iron components. Proper handling of the debris is a critically important issue. The debris does not have the same composition as spent fuel, and so it is impossible to apply conventional reprocessing technology directly. In this study, we successfully separated Zr and Fe from simulated debris using NaCl-KCl molten salt electrolysis, and we selectively recovered the Zr and Fe. The simulated debris was made from Zr, Fe, and CeO{sub 2}. The CeO{sub 2} was used for simulating stable UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}. With this approach, it should be possible to reduce the volume of the debris by recovering metals, which can then be treated as low level radioactive wastes.

  15. In Situ Solid-Gas Reactivity of Nanoscaled Metal Borides from Molten Salt Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouget, Guillaume; Debecker, Damien P; Kim, Ara; Olivieri, Giorgia; Gallet, Jean-Jacques; Bournel, Fabrice; Thomas, Cyril; Ersen, Ovidiu; Moldovan, Simona; Sanchez, Clément; Carenco, Sophie; Portehault, David

    2017-08-07

    Metal borides have mostly been studied as bulk materials. The nanoscale provides new opportunities to investigate the properties of these materials, e.g., nanoscale hardening and surface reactivity. Metal borides are often considered stable solids because of their covalent character, but little is known on their behavior under a reactive atmosphere, especially reductive gases. We use molten salt synthesis at 750 °C to provide cobalt monoboride (CoB) nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous layer of cobalt(II) and partially oxidized boron as a model platform to study morphological, chemical, and structural evolutions of the boride and the superficial layer exposed to argon, dihydrogen (H2), and a mixture of H2 and carbon dioxide (CO2) through a multiscale in situ approach: environmental transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron-based near-ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Although the material is stable under argon, H2 triggers at 400 °C decomposition of CoB, leading to cobalt(0) nanoparticles. We then show that H2 activates CoB for the catalysis of CO2 methanation. A similar decomposition process is also observed on NiB nanocrystals under oxidizing conditions at 300 °C. Our work highlights the instability under reactive atmospheres of nanocrystalline cobalt and nickel borides obtained from molten salt synthesis. Therefore, we question the general stability of metal borides with distinct compositions under such conditions. These results shed light on the actual species in metal boride catalysis and provide the framework for future applications of metal borides in their stability domains.

  16. Study on the mechanism of deoxidization and purification for Li2BeF4 molten salt via graphite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Meng-ya; Li, Li; Ding, Ya-ping; Zhang, Guo-xin

    2017-04-01

    Graphite nanoparticles originated from high purity graphite crucible were used for deoxidization and purification of Li2BeF4 molten salt containing a bit of (NH4)2BeF4 under high temperature vacuum condition. And the mechanism of deoxidization and purification via graphite nanoparticles was put forward based on analysis of sample characterization and chemical reaction Gibbs free energy calculation. The morphology, particle size, chemical composition and crystal structure of graphite nanoparticles in Li2BeF4 molten salt were characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, SAED and EDS). Phase analysis, total oxygen content, full elemental and anion concentration for as-prepared Li2BeF4 products were studied by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), LECO nitrogen-oxygen analyzer, Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Ion Chromatography (IC), respectively. The results of sample characterization showed that graphite nanoparticles in Li2BeF4 molten salt were the poly-crystal round sheet shape with an average diameter of <100 nm. The concentration of total oxygen, sulfur and nickel in as-prepared Li2BeF4 molten salt after treatment were 548 ppm, <0.6 ppm and <0.4 ppm, respectively. Experiment and calculation all showed that SO42- and NO3- could react with carbon at 700 °C. And vacuum degassing play an excellent role in deoxidization and purification for Li2BeF4 molten salt via graphite nanoparticles.

  17. Integrated in situ characterization of molten salt catalyst surface: Evidence of sodium peroxide and OH radical formation

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2017-06-26

    Na-based catalysts (i.e., Na2WO4) were proposed to selectively catalyze OH radical formation from H2O and O2 at high temperatures. This reaction may proceed on molten salt state surfaces due to the lower melting point of the used Na salts compared to the reaction temperature. This study provides direct evidence of the molten salt state of Na2WO4, which can form OH radicals, using in situ techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometer, and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS). As a result, Na2O2 species, which were hypothesized to be responsible for the formation of OH radicals, has been identified on the outer surfaces at temperatures ≥800°C, and these species are useful for various gas-phase hydrocarbon reactions including the selective transformation of methane to ethane.

  18. The Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel 316L in Novel Quaternary Eutectic Molten Salt System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Mantha, Divakar; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2017-03-01

    In this article, the corrosion behavior of stainless steel 316L in a low melting point novel LiNO3-NaNO3-KNO3-NaNO2 eutectic salt mixture was investigated at 695 K which is considered as thermally stable temperature using electrochemical and isothermal dipping methods. The passive region in the anodic polarization curve indicates the formation of protective oxides layer on the sample surface. After isothermal dipping corrosion experiments, samples were analyzed using SEM and XRD to determine the topography, corrosion products, and scale growth mechanisms. It was found that after long-term immersion in the LiNO3-NaNO3-KNO3-NaNO2 molten salt, LiFeO2, LiFe5O8, Fe3O4, (Fe, Cr)3O4 and (Fe, Ni)3O4 oxides were formed. Among these corrosion products, LiFeO2 formed a dense and protective layer which prevents the SS 316L from severe corrosion.

  19. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  20. Preparation of Binary and Ternary Oxides by Molten Salt Method and its Electrochemical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. V.; Theng, L. Pei; Soh, Hulbert; Beichen, Z.; Jiahuan, F.; Yu, C.; Ling, A. Yen; Andreea, L. Y.; Ng, C. H. Justin; Liang, T. J. L. Galen; Ian, M. F.; An, H. V. T.; Ramanathan, K.; Kevin, C. W. J.; Daryl, T. Y. W.; Hao, T. Yi; Loh, K. P.; Chowdari, B. V. R.

    2013-07-01

    We report simple binary oxides namely SnO2, TiO2, CuO, MnO2, Fe2O3, Co3O4 and ternary oxides like MnCo2O4 by molten salt method at a temperature range of 280°C to 950°C in air and discuss the effect of morphology, crystal structure and electrochemical properties of binary and ternary oxides. Materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area methods. XRD patterns showed all MSM prepared materials exhibited characteristic lattice parameter values. BET surface area varies depending on the nature of the material, molten salt and preparation temperature and the obtained values are in the range, 1 to 160 m2/g. Electrochemical properties were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical performance studies were carried in the voltage range, 0.005-1.0V for SnO2, 1.0-2.8V for TiO2 and Fe2O3, MCo2O4 (M = Co, Mn), MnO2 and CuO were cycled in the range, 0.005-3.0V. At a current rates of 30-100 mA/g and a scan rate of 0.058 mV/sec was used for galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry. SnO2 showed that an alloying-de-alloying reaction occurs at ˜0.2 and ˜0.5 V vs. Li. TiO2 main intercalation and de-interaction reactions at ˜1.7 and ˜1.8 V vs. Li. Co3O4, MnCo2O4, and MnO2 main discharge potentials at ˜1.2, 0.9V and 0.4V, resp. and charge potentials peak ˜2.0V and 1.5V vs. Li. CuO prepared at 750°C exhibited main anodic peak at ˜2.45V and cathodic peaks at ˜0.85V and ˜1.25V. We discussed the possible reaction mechanisms and Li-storage performance values in detail.

  1. Status Report on Scoping Reactor Physics and Sensitivity/Uncertainty Analysis of LR-0 Reactor Molten Salt Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Mueller, Donald E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Patton, Bruce W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division

    2016-08-31

    Experiments are being planned at Research Centre Rež (RC Rež) to use the FLiBe (2 7LiF-BeF2) salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) to perform reactor physics measurements in the LR-0 low power nuclear reactor. These experiments are intended to inform on neutron spectral effects and nuclear data uncertainties for advanced reactor systems utilizing FLiBe salt in a thermal neutron energy spectrum. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analysis of these planned experiments as part of the ongoing collaboration between the United States and the Czech Republic on civilian nuclear energy research and development. The objective of these analyses is to produce the sensitivity of neutron multiplication to cross section data on an energy-dependent basis for specific nuclides. This report provides a status update on the S/U analyses of critical experiments at the LR-0 Reactor relevant to fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) and liquid-fueled molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts. The S/U analyses will be used to inform design of FLiBe-based experiments using the salt from MSRE.

  2. System design description of forced-convection molten-salt corrosion loops MSR-FCL-3 and MSR-FCL-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntley, W.R.; Silverman, M.D.

    1976-11-01

    Molten-salt corrosion loops MSR-FCL-3 and MSR-FCL-4 are high-temperature test facilities designed to evaluate corrosion and mass transfer of modified Hastelloy N alloys for future use in Molten-Salt Breeder Reactors. Salt is circulated by a centrifugal sump pump to evaluate material compatibility with LiF-BeF/sub 2/-ThF/sub 4/-UF/sub 4/ fuel salt at velocities up to 6 m/s (20 fps) and at salt temperatures from 566 to 705/sup 0/C (1050 to 1300/sup 0/F). The report presents the design description of the various components and systems that make up each corrosion facility, such as the salt pump, corrosion specimens, salt piping, main heaters, salt coolers, salt sampling equipment, and helium cover-gas system, etc. The electrical systems and instrumentation and controls are described, and operational procedures, system limitations, and maintenance philosophy are discussed.

  3. Novel concepts in electrochemical solar cells. Second quarterly progress report, August 15, 1979-October 15, 1979. [Molten salt electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBow, J.; Job, R.; Krishnan, R.; Gale, B.

    1979-01-01

    It is considered that the short term stability of n-GaAs PEC's in a ferrocene-based, ambient temperature molten salt electrolyte is reasonably good. However, longer term evaluation is required to determine the extent and significance of corrosion, stability, etc. Extremely few fundamental studies have been made of the semiconductor/molten salt interphase and experiments in this area would be most useful. Indeed, even the design parameters for PECs of any kind have not been quantitatively delineated and present consideration will be given to models for PEC solar cells and limitations caused by ion transport in the electrolyte. The MoSe/sub 2/ and MoS/sub 2/ electrodes appear to have substrate reproducibility and transport limitations that make them unsuitable candidates for efficient PEC's at this time. Similarly, the lack of availability of high quality CuInSe/sub 2/ and CuInS/sub 2/ substrates limits the quantitative experimental evaluation of their utility for PEC applications. We are presently focusing attention on CdSe/CdTe mixtures and CdS as electrodes as well as Si and GaAs in molten salt and polyelectrolyte solutions. The system for solar cell evaluation and network analysis of substrates and cells was mode operational. Preliminary work on economic and theoretical modelling was begun. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  4. Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: system design. [LiKCO/sub 3/ mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Kardas, A.; Huang, V.M.; Dullea, J.F.; Paul, L.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1977-02-01

    A five-task research program aimed at the development of molten salt thermal energy storage systems commenced in June 1976. The first topical report, covering Task 1, the selection of suitable salt systems for storage at 850 to 1000/sup 0/F, was issued in August 1976. It was concluded that a 35 Wt percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-65 Wt percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (LiKCO/sub 3/) mixture was most suitable for the purpose. Interrelationships between various design parameters were examined using the available solutions, and an engineering-scale storage unit was designed. This unit has an annular configuration with a 1-ft OD, 1.5-ft high, 2-in. dia heat transfer well. Preliminary experiments on a pilot size (3-in. OD) unit showed that temperature profiles and progress of the solid-liquid interface agreed with those predicted theoretically. Also, no supercooling was observed during cooldown, and the presence of significant convective mixing was indicated by negligible temperature gradients. Use of a lithium aluminate volume-change suppressor was investigated, but it appears to be nonessential because of the low volume-change in the LiKCO/sub 3/ system. Consideration of the relative heat-transfer resistances under practical conditions suggested that the use of a conductivity promoter will enhance the heat-transfer rates, thereby requiring smaller heat-transfer areas. Different configurations and materials were considered for this application; an aluminum wool appears to be most suitable. The corrosion resistance of various construction materials was investigated. Stainless steels and aluminum appear to be suitable construction materials for carbonates in the 850 to 1000/sup 0/F range. Testing of the engineering-scale system (Task 3) and verification of the conclusions derived under Task 2 are in progress.

  5. Increasing the Surface Hardness of Cast Iron by Electrodeposition of Borides in Molten Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Azzawi A.H.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the electrodeposition of boron on the surface of cast iron as a coating is applied to increase the hardness and protect the substrate against abrasive wear. The boron containing coating was synthesized by electrodeposition process from a NaCl-KCl (1:1 mol-10 w%NaF-10w% KBF4 molten salt. The effect of electrolysis parameters (temperature and time on the hardness is presented; the current density varied in the range −37 – −4.5 mA/cm2, allowing perfect coverage of and respect for dimensions. The electrochemical process was carried out at different temperatures (750°C-900°C and for different periods of time (5-10 hours. Depending on the current density and duration of electrolysis, the deposits consist of FeB or Fe2B. Microhardness measurements across the boride layer indicated very high hardness values (between 1600 and 2100 HV0.05. The structure of the boride layer is linked to its boron content and thermal history: as-deposited coatings present very small grain sizes and can be considered as nearly amorphous.

  6. Direct Conversion of Greenhouse Gas CO2 into Graphene via Molten Salts Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liwen; Song, Yang; Jiao, Shuqiang; Liu, Yingjun; Ge, Jianbang; Jiao, Handong; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Junxiang; Zhu, Hongmin; Fray, Derek J

    2016-03-21

    Producing graphene through the electrochemical reduction of CO2 remains a great challenge, which requires precise control of the reaction kinetics, such as diffusivities of multiple ions, solubility of various gases, and the nucleation/growth of carbon on a surface. Here, graphene was successfully created from the greenhouse gas CO2 using molten salts. The results showed that CO2 could be effectively fixed by oxygen ions in CaCl2-NaCl-CaO melts to form carbonate ions, and subsequently electrochemically split into graphene on a stainless steel cathode; O2 gas was produced at the RuO2-TiO2 inert anode. The formation of graphene in this manner can be ascribed to the catalysis of active Fe, Ni, and Cu atoms at the surface of the cathode and the microexplosion effect through evolution of CO in between graphite layers. This finding may lead to a new generation of proceedures for the synthesis of high value-added products from CO2, which may also contribute to the establishment of a low-carbon and sustainable world. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Experimental and numerical thermal-hydraulics investigation of a molten salt reactor concept core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaji, Bogdan; Aszodi, Attila [Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Techniques

    2017-09-15

    In the paper measurement results of experimental modelling of a molten salt fast reactor concept will be presented and compared with three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results. Purpose of this article is twofold, on one hand to introduce a geometry modification in order to avoid the disadvantages of the original geometry and discuss new measurement results. On the other hand to present an analysis in order to suggest a method of proper numerical modelling of the problem based on the comparison of calculation results and measurement data for the new, modified geometry. The investigated concept has a homogeneous cylindrical core without any internal structures. Previous measurements on the scaled and segmented plexiglas model of the concept core and simulation results have shown that this core geometry could be optimized for better thermal-hydraulics characteristics. In case of the original geometry strong undesired flow separation could develop, that could negatively affect the characteristics of the core from neutronics point of view as well. An internal flow distributor plate was designed and installed with the purpose of optimizing the flow field in the core by enhancing its uniformity. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement results of the modified experimental model will be presented and compared to numerical simulation results with the purpose of CFD model validation.

  8. Molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood using an electrostatic precipitator for oil collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi S. Nygård

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A tubular electrostatic precipitator (ESP was designed and tested for collection of pyrolysis oil in molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood (0.5-2 mm. The voltage-current (V-I characteristics were studied, showing most stable performance of the ESP when N2 was utilized as inert gas. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out in FLiNaK and (LiNaK2CO3 over the temperature range of 450-600 ℃. The highest yields of pyrolysis oil were achieved in FLiNaK, with a maximum of 34.2 wt% at 500 ℃, followed by a decrease with increasing reactor temperature. The temperature had nearly no effect on the oil yield for pyrolysis in (LiNaK2CO3 (19.0-22.5 wt%. Possible hydration reactions and formation of HF gas during FLiNaK pyrolysis were investigated by simulations (HSC Chemistry software and measurements of the outlet gas (FTIR, but no significant amounts of HF were detected.

  9. Recent Research of Thorium Molten-Salt Reactor from a Sustainability Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kamei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important target of the concept “sustainability” is to achieve fairness between generations. Its expanding interpolation leads to achieve fairness within a generation. Thus, it is necessary to discuss the role of nuclear power from the viewpoint of this definition. The history of nuclear power has been the control of the nuclear fission reaction. Once this is obtained, then the economy of the system is required. On the other hand, it is also necessary to consider the internalization of the external diseconomy to avoid damage to human society caused by the economic activity itself, due to its limited capacity. An extreme example is waste. Thus, reducing radioactive waste resulting from nuclear power is essential. Nuclear non-proliferation must be guaranteed. Moreover, the FUKUSHIMA accident revealed that it is still not enough that human beings control nuclear reaction. Further, the most essential issue for sustaining use of one technology is human resources in manufacturing, operation, policy-making and education. Nuclear power will be able to satisfy the requirements of sustainability only when these subjects are addressed. The author will review recent activities of a thorium molten-salt reactor (MSR as a cornerstone for a sustainable society and describe its objectives and forecasts.

  10. Thermal analysis to support decommissioning of the molten salt reactor experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulfredge, C.D.; Morris, D.G.; Park, J.E.; Williams, P.T.

    1996-06-01

    As part of the decommissioning process for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, several thermal-sciences issues were addressed. Apparently a mixture of UF{sub 6} and F{sub 2} had diffused into the upper portion of one charcoal column in the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), leading to radiative decay heating and possible chemical reaction sources. A proposed interim corrective action was planned to remove the water from the ACB cell to reduce criticality and reactivity concerns and then fill the ACB cell with an inert material. This report describes design of a thermocouple probe to obtain temperature measurements for mapping the uranium deposit, as well as development of steady-state and transient numerical models for the heat transfer inside the charcoal column. Additional numerical modeling was done to support filling of the ACB cell. Results from this work were used to develop procedures for meeting the goals of the MSRE Remediation Project without exceeding appropriate thermal limits.

  11. Experimental results from a laboratory-scale molten salt thermocline storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubert, Bernhard; Müller, Ralf; Willert, Daniel; Fluri, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Single-tank storage presents a valid option for cost reduction in thermal energy storage systems. For low-temperature systems with water as storage medium this concept is widely implemented and tested. For high-temperature systems very limited experimental data are publicly available. To improve this situation a molten salt loop for experimental testing of a single-tank storage prototype was designed and built at Fraunhofer ISE. The storage tank has a volume of 0.4 m3 or a maximum capacity of 72 kWhth. The maximum charging and discharging power is 60 kW, however, a bypass flow control system enables to operate the system also at a very low power. The prototype was designed to withstand temperatures up to 550 °C. A cascaded insulation with embedded heating cables can be used to reduce the effect of heat loss on the storage which is susceptible to edge effects due to its small size. During the first tests the operating temperatures were adapted to the conditions in systems with thermal oil as heat transfer fluid and a smaller temperature difference. A good separation between cold and hot fluid was achieved with temperature gradients of 95 K within 16 cm.

  12. Thorium cycle and molten salt reactors: field parameters and field constraints investigations toward 'thorium molten salt reactor' definition; Cycle thorium et reacteurs a sel fondu: exploration du champ des parametres et des contraintes definissant le 'Thorium Molten Salt Reactor'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, L

    2005-09-15

    Producing nuclear energy in order to reduce the anthropic CO{sub 2} emission requires major technological advances. Nuclear plants of 4. generation have to respond to several constraints, as safety improvements, fuel breeding and radioactive waste minimization. For this purpose, it seems promising to use Thorium Cycle in Molten Salt Reactors. Studies on this domain have already been carried out. However, the final concept suffered from serious issues and was discontinued. A new reflection on this topic is being led in order to find acceptable solutions, and to design the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor concept. A nuclear reactor is simulated by the coupling of a neutron transport code with a materials evolution code. This allows us to reproduce the reactor behavior and its evolution all along its operation. Thanks to this method, we have studied a large number of reactor configurations. We have evaluated their efficiency through a group of constraints they have to satisfy. This work leads us to a better understanding of many physical phenomena controlling the reactor behavior. As a consequence, several efficient configurations have been discovered, allowing the emergence of new points of view in the research of Molten Salt Reactors. (author)

  13. Identification and evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of fluoride fuel and flush salts from the molten salt reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-15

    This document presents an initial identification and evaluation of the alternatives for disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts stored in the drain tanks at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It will serve as a resource for the U.S. Department of Energy contractor preparing the feasibility study for this activity under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). This document will also facilitate further discussion on the range of credible alternatives, and the relative merits of alternatives, throughout the time that a final alternative is selected under the CERCLA process.

  14. Coupled optical and thermal detailed simulations for the accurate evaluation and performance improvement of molten salts solar towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Barberena, Javier; Mutuberria, Amaia; Palacin, Luis G.; Sanz, Javier L.; Pereira, Daniel; Bernardos, Ana; Sanchez, Marcelino; Rocha, Alberto R.

    2017-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Centre of Spain, CENER, and the Technology & Innovation area of ACS Cobra, as a result of their long term expertise in the CSP field, have developed a high-quality and high level of detail optical and thermal simulation software for the accurate evaluation of Molten Salts Solar Towers. The main purpose of this software is to make a step forward in the state-of-the-art of the Solar Towers simulation programs. Generally, these programs deal with the most critical systems of such plants, i.e. the solar field and the receiver, on an independent basis. Therefore, these programs typically neglect relevant aspects in the operation of the plant as heliostat aiming strategies, solar flux shapes onto the receiver, material physical and operational limitations, transient processes as preheating and secure cloud passing operating modes, and more. The modelling approach implemented in the developed program consists on effectively coupling detailed optical simulations of the heliostat field with also detailed and full-transient thermal simulations of the molten salts tube-based external receiver. The optical model is based on an accurate Monte Carlo ray-tracing method which solves the complete solar field by simulating each of the heliostats at once according to their specific layout in the field. In the thermal side, the tube-based cylindrical external receiver of a Molten Salts Solar Tower is modelled assuming one representative tube per panel, and implementing the specific connection layout of the panels as well as the internal receiver pipes. Each tube is longitudinally discretized and the transient energy and mass balances in the temperature dependent molten salts and steel tube models are solved. For this, a one dimensional radial heat transfer model based is used. The thermal model is completed with a detailed control and operation strategy module, able to represent the appropriate operation of the plant. An integration framework has been

  15. Evaluation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment drain tanks for reuse in salt disposal, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This report was prepared to identify the source documentation used to evaluate the drain tanks in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The evaluation considered the original quality of the tanks, their service history, and their intended use during the removal of fluoride salts. It also includes recommendations for a quality verification plan. The estimates of corrosion damage to the salt containing system at the MSRE are low enough to lend optimism that the system will be fit for its intended use, which is disposal of the salt by transferring it to transport containers. The expected corrosion to date is estimated between 10 and 50 mil, or 2 to 10% of the shell wall. The expected corrosion rate when the tanks are used to remove the salt at 110 F is estimated to be .025 to 0.1 mil per hour of exposure to HF and molten salt. To provide additional assurance that the estimates of corrosion damage are accurate, cost effective nondestructive examination (NDE) has been recommended. The NDE procedures are compared with industry standards and give a perspective for the extent of additional measures taken in the recommendation. A methodology for establishing the remaining life has been recommended, and work is progressing towards providing an engineering evaluation based upon thickness and design conditions for the future use of the tanks. These extra measures and the code based analysis will serve to define the risk of salt or radioactive gases leaking during processing and transfer of the salt as acceptable.

  16. Reductive smelting of spent lead-acid battery colloid sludge in a molten Na2CO3 salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-jie; Tang, Chao-bo; Tang, Mo-tang; Chen, Yong-ming

    2015-08-01

    Lead extraction from spent lead-acid battery paste in a molten Na2CO3 salt containing ZnO as a sulfur-fixing agent was studied. Some influencing factors, including smelting temperature, reaction time, ZnO and salt dosages, were investigated in detail using single-factor experiments. The optimum conditions were determined as follows: T = 880°C; t = 60 min; Na2CO3/paste mass ratio = 2.8:1; and the ZnO dosage is equal to the stoichiometric requirement. Under the optimum conditions, the direct recovery rate of lead reached 98.14%. The results suggested that increases in temperature and salt dosage improved the direct recovery rate of lead. XRD results and thermodynamic calculations indicated that the reaction approaches of lead and sulfur were PbSO4→Pb and PbSO4→ZnS, respectively. Sulfur was fixed in the form of ZnS, whereas the molten salt did not react with other components, serving only as a reaction medium.

  17. Renewable and high efficient syngas production from carbon dioxide and water through solar energy assisted electrolysis in eutectic molten salts

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hongjun

    2017-07-13

    Over-reliance on non-renewable fossil fuel leads to steadily increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2, which has been implicated as a critical factor contributing to global warming. The efficient conversion of CO2 into useful product is highly sought after both in academic and industry. Herein, a novel conversion strategy is proposed to one-step transform CO2/H2O into syngas (CO/H2) in molten salt with electrolysis method. All the energy consumption in this system are contributed from sustainable energy sources: concentrated solar light heats molten salt and solar cell supplies electricity for electrolysis. The eutectic Li0.85Na0.61K0.54CO3/nLiOH molten electrolyte is rationally designed with low melting point (<450 °C). The synthesized syngas contains very desirable content of H2 and CO, with tuneable molar ratios (H2/CO) from 0.6 to 7.8, and with an efficient faradaic efficiency of ∼94.5%. The synthesis of syngas from CO2 with renewable energy at a such low electrolytic temperature not only alleviates heat loss, mitigates system corrosion, and heightens operational safety, but also decreases the generation of methane, thus increases the yield of syngas, which is a remarkable technological breakthrough and this work thus represents a stride in sustainable conversion of CO2 to value-added product.

  18. Renewable and high efficient syngas production from carbon dioxide and water through solar energy assisted electrolysis in eutectic molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongjun; Liu, Yue; Ji, Deqiang; Li, Zhida; Yi, Guanlin; Yuan, Dandan; Wang, Baohui; Zhang, Zhonghai; Wang, Peng

    2017-09-01

    Over-reliance on non-renewable fossil fuel leads to steadily increasing concentration of atmospheric CO2, which has been implicated as a critical factor contributing to global warming. The efficient conversion of CO2 into useful product is highly sought after both in academic and industry. Herein, a novel conversion strategy is proposed to one-step transform CO2/H2O into syngas (CO/H2) in molten salt with electrolysis method. All the energy consumption in this system are contributed from sustainable energy sources: concentrated solar light heats molten salt and solar cell supplies electricity for electrolysis. The eutectic Li0.85Na0.61K0.54CO3/nLiOH molten electrolyte is rationally designed with low melting point (energy at a such low electrolytic temperature not only alleviates heat loss, mitigates system corrosion, and heightens operational safety, but also decreases the generation of methane, thus increases the yield of syngas, which is a remarkable technological breakthrough and this work thus represents a stride in sustainable conversion of CO2 to value-added product.

  19. Corrosion behavior of Ni-based structural materials for electrolytic reduction in lithium molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo Haeng; Park, Sung Bin; Lee, Jong Hyeon; Hur, Jin Mok; Lee, Han Soo

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the corrosion behavior of new Ni-based structural materials was studied for electrolytic reduction after exposure to LiCl-Li 2O molten salt at 650 °C for 24-216 h under an oxidizing atmosphere. The new alloys with Ni, Cr, Al, Si, and Nb as the major components were melted at 1700 °C under an inert atmosphere. The melt was poured into a preheated metallic mold to prepare an as-cast alloy. The corrosion products and fine structures of the corroded specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscope (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion products of as cast and heat treated low Si/high Ti alloys were Cr 2O 3, NiCr 2O 4, Ni, NiO, and (Al,Nb,Ti)O 2; those of as cast and heat treated high Si/low Ti alloys were Cr 2O 3, NiCr 2O 4, Ni, and NiO. The corrosion layers of as cast and heat treated low Si/high Ti alloys were continuous and dense. However, those of as cast and heat treated high Si/low Ti alloys were discontinuous and cracked. Heat treated low Si/high Ti alloy showed the highest corrosion resistance among the examined alloys. The superior corrosion resistance of the heat treated low Si/high Ti alloy was attributed to the addition of an appropriate amount of Si, and the metallurgical evaluations were performed systematically.

  20. Study of the pyrochemical treatment-recycling process of the Molten Salt Reactor fuel; Estudio de sistema de un proceso de tratamiento-reciclaje piroquimico del combustible de un reactor de sales fundidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussier, H.; Heuer, D.

    2010-07-01

    The Separation Processes Studies Laboratory (Commissariat a l'energie Atomique) has made a preliminary assessment of the reprocessing system associated with Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). The scheme studied in this paper is based on the principle of reductive extraction and metal transfer that constituted the core process designed for the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR), although the flow diagram has been adapted to the current needs of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR).

  1. Program management plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The primary mission of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Remediation Project is to effectively implement the risk-reduction strategies and technical plans to stabilize and prevent further migration of uranium within the MSRE facility, remove the uranium and fuel salts from the system, and dispose of the fuel and flush salts by storage in appropriate depositories to bring the facility to a surveillance and maintenance condition before decontamination and decommissioning. This Project Management Plan (PMP) for the MSRE Remediation Project details project purpose; technical objectives, milestones, and cost objectives; work plan; work breakdown structure (WBS); schedule; management organization and responsibilities; project management performance measurement planning, and control; conduct of operations; configuration management; environmental, safety, and health compliance; quality assurance; operational readiness reviews; and training.

  2. Study on Utilization of Super Grade Plutonium in Molten Salt Reactor FUJI-U3 using CITATION Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, Cici; Waris, Abdul; Pramuditya, Syeilendra; Asril, Pramutadi AM; Novitrian

    2017-07-01

    FUJI-U3 type of Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has a unique design since it consists of three core regions in order to avoid the replacement of graphite as moderator. MSR uses floride as a nuclear fuel salt with the most popular chemical composition is LiF-BeF2-ThF4-233UF4. ThF4 and 233UF4 are the fertile and fissile materials, respectively. On the other hand, LiF and BeF2 working as both fuel and heat transfer medium. In this study, the super grade plutonium will be utilized as substitution of 233U since plutonium is easier to be obtained compared to 233U as main fuel. Neutronics calculation was performed by using PIJ and CITATION modules of SRAC 2002 code with JENDL 3.2 as nuclear data library.

  3. Experimental tests about the cooling/freezing of the molten salts in the receiver tubes of a solar power plant with parabolic trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Walter; Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Rinaldi, Luca; Di Ascenzi, Primo

    2017-06-01

    In 2003 ENEA realized the PCS experimental Facility at Casaccia Research Centre (Rome, Italy), in order to test in real operating conditions the components of a parabolic trough solar plant, and to evaluate the technical feasibility of using the solar molten salts mixture (60% NaNO3, 40% KNO3, melting point 220÷240°C) in such a type of plant. ENEA also had the need to assess the behaviour of the solar receiver tubes during abnormal operating situations (wrong operation, pump block, power failure, etc.), when a block of the circulation of the molten salts may occur and cause the cooling or, worse, the freezing of the salts mixture inside the pipes. Some experimental tests have been performed, aimed to examine what happens in such a cases. In fact, without quick maneuvers to restart the circulation of the molten salts or to readily empty the receiver tubes, the molten salts contained in them may cool down to temperatures near/below the solidification. In this report are shown the results of the experimental tests carried out on the receiver tubes of the PCS Facility by cooling the process fluid down to temperatures near or below its freezing point. The tests show that the solidification of the salts does not damage the components of the plant but it is manageable and reversible, provided you apply the correct procedures.

  4. Novel band gap-tunable K–Na co-doped graphitic carbon nitride prepared by molten salt method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jiannan [Institute of Eco-environmental Sciences, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Ma, Lin [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Wang, Haoying; Zhao, Yanfeng [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Zhang, Jian [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Hu, Shaozheng, E-mail: hushaozhenglnpu@163.com [Institute of Eco-environmental Sciences, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: K and Na ions co-doped into g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} crystal lattice can tune the position of CB and VB potentials, influence the structural and optical properties, and thus improve the photocatalytic degradation and mineralization ability. - Highlights: • K, Na co-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared in KCl/NaCl molten salt system. • The structural and optical properties of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} were greatly influenced by co-doping. • The position of VB and CB can be tuned by controlling the weight ratio of eutectic salts to melamine. • Co-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} showed outstanding photodegradation ability, mineralization ability, and catalytic stability. - Abstract: Novel band gap-tunable K–Na co-doped graphitic carbon nitride was prepared by molten salt method using melamine, KCl, and NaCl as precursor. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV–vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The CB and VB potentials of graphitic carbon nitride could be tuned from −1.09 and +1.55 eV to −0.29 and +2.25 eV by controlling the weight ratio of eutectic salts to melamine. Besides, ions doping inhibited the crystal growth of graphitic carbon nitride, enhanced the surface area, and increased the separation rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. The visible-light-driven Rhodamine B (RhB) photodegradation and mineralization performances were significantly improved after K–Na co-doping.

  5. Preparation and luminescence characteristics of monazite Eu3+:LaPO4 nanocrystals in NH4NO3 molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyang

    2015-12-01

    Molten-salt method and NH4NO3 flux were developed to fabricate monoclinic monazite Eu3+:LaPO4 nanocrystals for the first time. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, excitation spectra, emission spectra and luminescence decay curves. The as-obtained products were quasihexagonal Eu3+:LaPO4 nanocrystals with the mean size of 30 nm. The room temperature charge transfer bands (CTB) exhibited red-shift and spectral broadening in comparison with 10 K CTB. The optimal Eu3+ concentration was determined to be 8 mol% by a comparative study of the relative emission intensities for different Eu3+ doping concentrations. The higher concentration quenching could be caused by the possible nonradiative energy transfer (electric multipole-multipole interaction). The relationship between the FL lifetime of 5D0 energy level and Eu3+ concentration was investigated based on Auzel's model. This work is important not only to understand the unique physical properties of Eu3+:LaPO4 nanocrystals but also to bring an opportunity for the development of the other nanocrystals via the molten salt synthesis in NH4NO3 flux.

  6. Uncertainty analysis and flow measurements in an experimental mock-up of a molten salt reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaji, Bogdan; Aszodi, Attila [Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Techniques

    2016-09-15

    In the paper measurement results from the experimental modelling of a molten salt reactor concept will be presented along with detailed uncertainty analysis of the experimental system. Non-intrusive flow measurements are carried out on the scaled and segmented mock-up of a homogeneous, single region molten salt fast reactor concept. Uncertainty assessment of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement system applied with the scaled and segmented model is presented in detail. The analysis covers the error sources of the measurement system (laser, recording camera, etc.) and the specific conditions (de-warping of measurement planes) originating in the geometry of the investigated domain. Effect of sample size in the ensemble averaged PIV measurements is discussed as well. An additional two-loop-operation mode is also presented and the analysis of the measurement results confirm that without enhancement nominal and other operation conditions will lead to strong unfavourable separation in the core flow. It implies that use of internal flow distribution structures will be necessary for the optimisation of the core coolant flow. Preliminary CFD calculations are presented to help the design of a perforated plate located above the inlet region. The purpose of the perforated plate is to reduce recirculation near the cylindrical wall and enhance the uniformity of the core flow distribution.

  7. Interaction of molten salts with a semi-anthracite char at 743 K. Influence on the gasification in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Serrano, V.; Alfaro-Dominguez, M.; Higes-Rolando, F.J. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica; Martin-Aranda, M.; Rojas-Cervantes, M.L.; Lopez-Peinado, A.J. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica

    1997-12-31

    The treatments of a semi-anthracite char (AC) with molten salts followed by washing of the intermediate products with distilled water as a rule produce an increase in the surface area of micropores (S{sub mi}) and in the mean equivalent pore diameter (MEPD), which is greater for AC-MgO. The variation of MEPD is only slight for AC-CaO and AC-CoO. The reactivity of the carbon in air at 823 K enhances for a number of samples but especially for AC-CaO and AC-MgO. Washing with HCl generally results in a small increase in S{sub mi} and in a more uniform MEPD. The reactivity of the carbon decreases for most samples including AN and AC. This suggests that mineral components of the starting materials and chemical species present in distilled waterwashed samples (i.e. metal oxides in excess and reaction products of molten salts with the mineral fraction of AC) are catalytically active and that their removal from such samples occurs by washing with HCl. The presence of catalytic species seems to be greater for AC-MgO and AC-CaO than for the other samples. (orig.)

  8. Preliminary analysis of the PreFlexMS molten salt once-through steam generator dynamics and control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabucchi, Stefano; Casella, Francesco; Maioli, Tommaso; Elsido, Cristina; Franzini, Davide; Ramond, Mathieu

    2017-06-01

    Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) coupled with thermal storage have the potential to guarantee both flexible and continuous energy production, thus being competitive with conventional fossil fuel and hydro power plants, in terms of dispatchability and provision of ancillary services. Hence, the plant equipment and control design have to be focused on flexible operation on one hand, and on plant safety concerning the molten salt freezing on the other hand. The PreFlexMS European project aims to introduce a molten salt Once-Through Steam Generator (OTSG) within a Rankine cycle based power unit, a technology that has greater flexibility potential if compared to steam drum boilers, currently used in CSP plants. The dynamic modelling and simulation from the early design stages is, thus, of paramount importance, to assess the plant dynamic behavior and controllability, and to predict the achievable closed-loop dynamic performance, potentially saving money and time during the detailed design, construction and commissioning phases. The present paper reports the main results of the analysis carried out during the first part of the project, regarding the system analysis and control design. In particular, two different control systems have been studied and tested with the plant dynamic model: a decentralized control strategy based on PI controllers and a Linear Model Predictive Control (LMPC).

  9. Dynamic modelling and simulation of linear Fresnel solar field model based on molten salt heat transfer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Elina; Tähtinen, Matti

    2016-05-01

    Demonstrations of direct steam generation (DSG) in linear Fresnel collectors (LFC) have given promising results related to higher steam parameters compared to the current state-of-the-art parabolic trough collector (PTC) technology using oil as heat transfer fluid (HTF). However, DSG technology lacks feasible solution for long-term thermal energy storage (TES) system. This option is important for CSP technology in order to offer dispatchable power. Recently, molten salts have been proposed to be used as HTF and directly as storage medium in both line-focusing solar fields, offering storage capacity of several hours. This direct molten salt (DMS) storage concept has already gained operational experience in solar tower power plant, and it is under demonstration phase both in the case of LFC and PTC systems. Dynamic simulation programs offer a valuable effort for design and optimization of solar power plants. In this work, APROS dynamic simulation program is used to model a DMS linear Fresnel solar field with two-tank TES system, and example simulation results are presented in order to verify the functionality of the model and capability of APROS for CSP modelling and simulation.

  10. Flow effect on {sup 135}I and {sup 135}Xe evolution behavior in a molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jianhui; Guo, Chen [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Cai, Xiangzhou [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Chenggang; Zou, Chunyan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Han, Jianlong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jingen, E-mail: chenjg@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in TMSR Energy System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • {sup 135}Xe and {sup 135}I evolution law in a molten salt reactor is analytically deduced. • The circulation of fuel salt through the primary loop decreases the concentration of {sup 135}I and {sup 135}Xe. • {sup 135}I and {sup 135}Xe concentration reduction is independent with the mass flow rate at normal core operating condition. • Increasing the external core volume would raise {sup 135}I and {sup 135}Xe concentration reduction caused by the flow effect. - Abstract: Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs fissile material dissolved in the fluoride salt as fuel which continuously circulates through the primary loop with the flow cycle time being a few tens of seconds. The nuclei evolution law is quite different from that in a solid fuel reactor. In this paper, we analytically deduce the nuclei evolution law of {sup 135}Xe and {sup 135}I which are entrained in the flowing salt, evaluate its concentration changing with the burnup time, and validate the result with the SCALE6. The circulation of fuel salt could decrease the concentration of {sup 135}Xe and {sup 135}I, and the reduction can achieve to around 40% and 50% for {sup 135}Xe and {sup 135}I respectively at a small power level (e.g., 2 MW) when the core has the same fuel salt volume as that of the outer-loop. Furthermore, it can be found that the reduction is inversely proportional to the core to outer-loop volume ratio, but uncorrelated with the mass flow rate under normal operating condition of a MSR. At low core power scale, the flow effect on {sup 135}Xe concentration reduction is apparent, but it is mitigated as the core power scale increases because of the rise of {sup 135}I concentration, which raises its decay to {sup 135}Xe and compensates the loss of {sup 135}Xe due to decay at the outer-loop. The decreased {sup 135}Xe concentration results in a core reactivity increase varying from around 150 pcm to 1000 pcm depending on the core power and core to outer-loop volume ratio.

  11. Thermodynamic study of the molten salt binary system KHSO4-NaHSO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Hatem, G

    2002-01-01

    The partial molar enthalpies of mixing of NaHSO4 and KHSO4 have been measured at 528 K by dropping samples of pure compounds into molten mixtures of NaHSO4 and KHSO4 in Calvet calorimeter. From these values the molar enthalpy of mixing has been deduced.The same method has been used for the determ...

  12. Effect of lithium nitrate and calcium nitrate composition on the thermal properties of quaternary molten salts mixture for heat transfer application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nuratikah Nadhirah Binti; Yunos, Nursyafiqah Binti; Muhammad, Wan Nur Azrina Binti Wan; Mohamad, Md Nor Anuar Bin; Yusof, Farazila Binti

    2017-10-01

    Mixed molten salt is considered as a promising medium for both heat transfer and energy storage in thermal power because of its many advantages such as low the melting point, large heat capacity, good thermal stability and low cost. In order to determine the thermal properties of the molten salt, the nitrate quaternary mixture of the molten salt are prepared based on the different composition of the lithium nitrate and calcium nitrate. The other salts in the mixture are potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate. Mixture of molten salts were heated in furnace at 150°C for 4 hours and increased the temperature to 400°C for 8 hours for homogenize the salt mixture. Then, decreased the temperature to 115°C for an hour. The melting point and thermal stability of the mixture was determined by using thermogravimetric analysis [TGA] while the heat capacity was determined by using differential scanning calorimetry [DSC]. The lowest melting point using different composition of lithium nitrate, 10wt%NaNO3, 4Owt%KNO3, 20wt%Ca[NO3]2, 30wt%LiNO3 which is 97.1°C while the heat capacity is 6.33 J/g°C. For the experiment using various composition of calcium nitrate, the lowest melting point is from 14wt% NaNO3 + 48wt% KNO3 + 13wt% LiNO3 + 25wt% Ca[NO3]2 which is 111.7°C and the heat capacity is 2.06 J/g °C. From the result, the addition of lithium nitrate in the quaternary molten salts give more effect to the reduction of melting point value but higher heat capacity.

  13. Isotopic ratios and effective power determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy vs mass spectroscopy for molten salt extraction residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, V.L.; Cremers, T.L.; Sedlacek, W.A.; Long, S.M.; Scarborough, A.M.; Hurd, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Impure plutonium metal is routinely processed by molten salt extraction (MSE) to reduce the amount of americium in the metal product. Throughput at various facilities where similar processes are performed has made it essential to evaluate uncertainties and possible discrepancies in the analyses of these difficult MSE materials. In an effort to evaluate the plutonium isotopic ratios and americium concentrations obtained from gamma-ray spectral data analyzed by the computer code GRPAUT, measurements were made on ten MSE salts as received and after pulverization and blending. These results were then compared to the specific powers obtained from isotopic ratios determined by mass spectrometry on these same ten samples. Americium values ranged from a few thousand parts-per-million of total plutonium to greater than 50,000 ppM. Our results indicate a small discrepancy between specific powers as determined by GRPAUT on as received'' vs pulverized and blended MSE salts. The specific powers obtained via GRPAUT on the pulverized salts agree somewhat better with specific powers obtained from the mass spectroscopy data. This work may indicate that a small discrepancy exists in the specific powers by using GRPAUT on heterogeneous, high americium samples. 5 refs., 6 tabs.

  14. Effect of nanoparticles on heat capacity of nanofluids based on molten salts as PCM for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieruzzi, Manila; Cerritelli, Gian F.; Miliozzi, Adio; Kenny, José M.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, different nanofluids with phase change behavior were developed by mixing a molten salt base fluid (selected as phase change material) with nanoparticles using the direct-synthesis method. The thermal properties of the nanofluids obtained were investigated. These nanofluids can be used in concentrating solar plants with a reduction of storage material if an improvement in the specific heat is achieved. The base salt mixture was a NaNO3-KNO3 (60:40 ratio) binary salt. The nanoparticles used were silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3), titania (TiO2), and a mix of silica-alumina (SiO2-Al2O3). Three weight fractions were evaluated: 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt.%. Each nanofluid was prepared in water solution, sonicated, and evaporated. Measurements on thermophysical properties were performed by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and the dispersion of the nanoparticles was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained show that the addition of 1.0 wt.% of nanoparticles to the base salt increases the specific heat of 15% to 57% in the solid phase and of 1% to 22% in the liquid phase. In particular, this research shows that the addition of silica-alumina nanoparticles has a significant potential for enhancing the thermal storage characteristics of the NaNO3-KNO3 binary salt. These results deviated from the predictions of the theoretical model used. SEM suggests a greater interaction between these nanoparticles and the salt.

  15. Dynamic pilot plant facility for applications in CSP: Evaluation of corrosion resistance of A516 in a nitrate molten salt mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Francisco Javier; Encinas-Sánchez, Víctor; García-Martín, Gustavo; Lasanta, María Isabel; de Miguel, María Teresa

    2017-06-01

    This paper evaluates the corrosion of A516 carbon steel in the binary Solar Salt (60 wt.% NaNO3/40 wt.% KNO3) by immersion tests with continuous salt flow at 500 °C. To this end, a novel patented experimental facility enabling dynamic degradation tests of materials in contact with molten mediums was developed and used. Experimental results showed greater corrosion rates and thicker oxide layers in samples subjected to tests with continuous salt flow than the static ones. The dynamic test facility simulates real conditions (flux, thermocycling, etc.) of a CSP plant. The patented experimental pilot plant is a great step forward in learning about the physicochemical properties and behavior of molten salts and also behavior of substrates in contact with them under realistic working conditions.

  16. The origin of the conductivity maximum in molten salts. II. SnCl2 and HgBr2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindakshan, Nikhil P.; Kuntz, Colin M.; Gemmell, Kyle E.; Johnson, Keith E.; East, Allan L. L.

    2016-09-01

    The phenomenon of electrical conductivity maxima of molten salts versus temperature during orthobaric (closed-vessel) conditions is further examined via ab initio simulations. Previously, in a study of molten BiCl3, a new theory was offered in which the conductivity falloff at high temperatures is due not to traditional ion association, but to a rise in the activation energy for atomic ions hopping from counterion to counterion. Here this theory is further tested on two more inorganic melts which exhibit conductivity maxima: another high-conducting melt (SnCl2, σmax = 2.81 Ω-1 cm-1) and a low-conducting one (HgBr2, σmax = 4.06 × 10-4 Ω-1 cm-1). First, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were performed and again appear successful in reproducing the maxima for both these liquids. Second, analysis of the simulated liquid structure (radial distributions, species concentrations) was performed. In the HgBr2 case, a very molecular liquid like water, a clear Grotthuss chain of bromide transfers was observed in simulation when seeding the system with a HgBr+ cation and HgBr3- anion. The first conclusion is that the hopping mechanism offered for molten BiCl3 is simply the Grotthuss mechanism for conduction, applicable not just to H+ ions, but also to halide ions in post-transition-metal halide melts. Second, it is conjectured that the conductivity maximum is due to rising activation energy in network-covalent (halide-bridging) melts (BiCl3, SnCl2, PbCl2), but possibly a falling Arrhenius prefactor (collision frequency) for molecular melts (HgBr2).

  17. A Study on Electrochemical Reduction of Rare Earth Oxides in Molten LiCl-Li{sub 2}O Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Woo; Jeong, Sang Mun; Lee, See Hoon [Chungbook National University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Jung Min [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the electrochemical reduction of RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} (RE = Nd or Ce) has been conducted via co-reduction NiO to increase the reduction degree of the rare earth oxides in molten molten LiCl containing 1wt% Li{sub 2}O. The electrochemical reduction behavior of the mixed RE{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NiO oxide has been investigated and the reduction path of RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been proposed. An electorchemical spent fuel processing technology, pyroprocessing, has been developed for recycling of spent fuel to be applied to a sodium-cooled fast reactor. The spent fuel is reduced in the oxide reduction process. It is well known that the rare earth oxides are hardly reduced due to their electrochemical and thermodynamic stability. The rare earth oxides unreduced in the reduction process can cause problems via reaction with UCl{sub 3} in the electrorefiner. To tackle those problems, the electrochemical reduction of rare earth oxide has been conducted via co-reduction of NiO in LiCl molten salt containing 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O. The reduction of the oxide mixture starts from the reduction of NiO to Ni, followed by that of RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the produced Ni to form intermetallic RENi{sub 5}. The mixed oxide pellets were successfully reduced to the RENi5 alloy by constant electrolysis at 3.0 V at 650 .deg. C. The crucial aspect to these results is that the thermodynamically stable rare-earth oxide, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} was successfully converted to the metal in the presence of NiO.

  18. Low temperature molten salt synthesis of Y(sub2)Sn(sub2)O(sub7) anode material for lithium ion batteries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nithyadharseni, P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, yttrium tin oxide (Y(sub2)Sn(sub2)O(sub7)) compound is prepared at low temperature (400 _C) with cubic pyrochlore structure via molten salt method using KOH as a flux for their electrochemical applications. The final product...

  19. Thermal Storage Properties of Molten Nitrate Salt-Based Nanofluids with Graphene Nanoplatelets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xie, Qiangzhi; Zhu, Qunzhi; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    .... For both solar salt and resultant nanofluids, differential scanning calorimetry was employed to measure the thermal storage properties, including characteristic temperatures of phase change, startup...

  20. Chemical Stability of Conductive Ceramic Anodes in LiCl–Li2O Molten Salt for Electrolytic Reduction in Pyroprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Wook Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conductive ceramics are being developed to replace current Pt anodes in the electrolytic reduction of spent oxide fuels in pyroprocessing. While several conductive ceramics have shown promising electrochemical properties in small-scale experiments, their long-term stabilities have not yet been investigated. In this study, the chemical stability of conductive La0.33Sr0.67MnO3 in LiCl–Li2O molten salt at 650°C was investigated to examine its feasibility as an anode material. Dissolution of Sr at the anode surface led to structural collapse, thereby indicating that the lifetime of the La0.33Sr0.67MnO3 anode is limited. The dissolution rate of Sr is likely to be influenced by the local environment around Sr in the perovskite framework.

  1. Optimization of a Molten Salt Electrolytic Bath Geometry for Rare Earth Metal Recovery using a Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Hiroo; Akatsuka, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Haruaki

    2013-02-01

    For a recycling procedure for rare earths from spent hydrogen absorbing alloys by rare earths electrodeposition in a molten salt, the electrolytic bath and the cathode accessories have been optimized by evaluating the appropriate secondary current distribution using finite element method (FEM) computer simulation. The desirable cathode dish as an accessory was designed to prevent drops of less adherent electrodeposits, which improved the current density distribution compared with an a priori determined one. In the bath optimization, a reciprocal proportionality of the difference between the maximum and minimum current densities vs. the ratio of volume to surface area (or electrolyte volume) was found. It was found by FEM that if a resistive floating mass is assumed on the electrolyte surface, the observed necking in the electrodeposit near the electrolyte surface can be analyzed.

  2. Analysis of a helical coil once-through molten salt steam generator: Experimental results and heat transfer evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubert, B.; Rojas, E.; Rivas, E.; Gaggioli, W.; Rinaldi, L.; Fluri, T.

    2016-05-01

    A molten salt helical coil steam generator is an alternative to kettle- or drum-type evaporators which are currently used in commercial-scale solar thermal power plants. A 300 kW prototype was tested during the OPTS project at ENEA. The experimental results presented in this paper have been used to validate a detailed heat transfer analysis of the whole system. The heat transfer analysis deals with the study of both the overall heat transfer coefficient and the shell-side heat transfer coefficient. Due to the specific features of this type of system, no correlations were available in the literature. A new numerical model to predict the performance of large-scale systems is also presented.

  3. Assessment of Candidate Molten Salt Coolants for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.

    2006-03-24

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a novel reactor design that utilizes the graphite-matrix high-temperature fuel of helium-cooled reactors, but provides cooling with a high-temperature fluoride salt. For applications at temperatures greater than 900 C the AHTR is also referred to as a Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very High-Temperature Reactor (LS-VHTR). This report provides an assessment of candidate salts proposed as the primary coolant for the AHTR based upon a review of physical properties, nuclear properties, and chemical factors. The physical properties most relevant for coolant service were reviewed. Key chemical factors that influence material compatibility were also analyzed for the purpose of screening salt candidates. Some simple screening factors related to the nuclear properties of salts were also developed. The moderating ratio and neutron-absorption cross-section were compiled for each salt. The short-lived activation products, long-lived transmutation activity, and reactivity coefficients associated with various salt candidates were estimated using a computational model. Table A presents a summary of the properties of the candidate coolant salts. Certain factors in this table, such as melting point, vapor pressure, and nuclear properties, can be viewed as stand-alone parameters for screening candidates. Heat-transfer properties are considered as a group in Sect. 3 in order to evaluate the combined effects of various factors. In the course of this review, it became apparent that the state of the properties database was strong in some areas and weak in others. A qualitative map of the state of the database and predictive capabilities is given in Table B. It is apparent that the property of thermal conductivity has the greatest uncertainty and is the most difficult to measure. The database, with respect to heat capacity, can be improved with modern instruments and modest effort. In general, ''lighter'' (low-Z) salts tend to

  4. Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroch, C.J. [Wastren, Inc., Westminster, CO (United States); Grant, P.J. [Wastren, Inc., Hummelstown, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. There is considerable interest in developing processes that remove or destroy the nitrate wastes. Electrodialysis-Ion Exchange (EDIX) is a possible process that should be more cost effective in treating aqueous waste steams. This report describes the EDIX process.

  5. Effect of CaO addition on preparation of ferrotitanium from ilmenite by electrochemical reduction in CaCl{sub 2}−NaCl molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Li [Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); State Key Lab of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming 650093 (China); Hua, Yixin, E-mail: yxhua@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); State Key Lab of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming 650093 (China); Xu, Cunying; Li, Jian; Li, Yan; Zhang, Qibo; Zhou, Zhongren; Zhang, Yadong [Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); State Key Lab of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming 650093 (China); Ru, Juanjian [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Ferro-titanium (FeTi) alloy was prepared successfully from synthesized ilmenite through electrochemical reduction method in equal-molar CaCl{sub 2}−NaCl molten salt at 973 K and a cell voltage of 3.2 V under inert atmosphere, where molybdenum rod and graphite were used as cathode and anode respectively. It is indicated that the CaO content in the molten salt has an appreciable effect on the phase transformation of reactants occurring in the electrolytic process. The optimized CaO content in the molten salt is 1 mol% and this suitable content of CaO can significantly improve the reduction rate of ilmenite. The micromorphology of the ferrotitanium product is porous with the amount of 1 mol%CaO addition. It is observed that the particles of ferrotitanium had a uniform size in the initial period of time. Along with the electrolysis time extension, however, the particles connected with each other to generate strips and then form a honeycomb structure. These findings provide a basis for scientifically discussion on the optimization of CaO addition amount during the electrochemical reduction of ilmenite and other oxides in molten salts. - Highlights: • Ferro-titanium was prepared from synthesized ilmenite in CaCl{sub 2}−NaCl molten salt. • CaO content has appreciable effect on the phase transformation of ilmenite reactant. • The optimized CaO content is 1 mol% which can significantly improve reaction rate. • The products are connected with each other to form strips as electrolysis time.

  6. Decomposition of diverse solid inorganic matrices with molten ammonium bifluoride salt for constituent elemental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, Matthew J.; Kellogg, Cyndi M.; Parker, Cyrena M.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Corbey, Jordan F.; Grate, Jay W.

    2017-09-01

    Ammonium bifluoride (ABF, NH4F·HF) is a well-known reagent for converting metal oxides to fluorides and for its applications in breaking down minerals and ores in order to extract useful components. It has been more recently applied to the decomposition of inorganic matrices prior to elemental analysis. Herein, a sample decomposition method that employs molten ABF sample treatment in the initial step is systematically evaluated across a range of inorganic sample types: glass, quartz, zircon, soil, and pitchblende ore. Method performance is evaluated across the two variables: duration of molten ABF treatment and ABF reagent mass to sample mass ratio. The degree of solubilization of these sample classes are compared to the fluoride stoichiometry that is theoretically necessary to enact complete fluorination of the sample types. Finally, the sample decomposition method is performed on several soil and pitchblende ore standard reference materials, after which elemental constituent analysis is performed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Elemental recoveries are compared to the certified values; results indicate good to excellent recoveries across a range of alkaline earth, rare earth, transition metal, and actinide elements.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of binder-free Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} coatings on nickel-based alloys for molten fluoride salt corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brupbacher, Michael C.; Zhang, Dajie [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Buchta, William M. [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Graybeal, Mark L. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Rhim, Yo-Rhin [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Nagle, Dennis C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Spicer, James B., E-mail: spicer@jhu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Under various conditions, chromium carbides appear to be relatively stable in the presence of molten fluoride salts and this suggests that their use in corrosion resistant coatings for fluoride salt environments could be beneficial. One method for producing these coatings is the carburization of sprayed Cr coatings using methane-containing gaseous precursors. This process has been investigated for the synthesis of binder-free chromium carbide coatings on nickel-based alloy substrates for molten fluoride salt corrosion resistance. The effects of the carburization process on coating microstructure have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both plasma-sprayed and cold-sprayed Cr coatings have been successfully converted to Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}, with the mechanism of conversion being strongly influenced by the initial porosity in the as-deposited coatings.

  8. Improvement of the Neutronic Performance of the PACER Fusion Concept Using Thorium Molten Salt with Reactor Grade Plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acır, Adem

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the improvement of neutronic performance of a dual purpose modified PACER concept has been investigated. Flibe as the main constituent are fixed as 92% coolant. ThF4 is mixed with increased mole-fractions of RG-PuF4 starting by 0 mol % up to 1 mol %. TBR variations for all the investigated salts with respect to the RG-PuF4 contents are computed. Tritium self-sufficiency is provided with the ThF4 when the adding RG-PuF4 content is higher than 0.75%. The energy multiplication of the blanket is increased as 70% with adding RG-PuF4 contents to ThF4. High quality fissile isotope 233U are produced with increasing RG-PuF4. DPA and helium production increases with increased RG-PuF4 content in molten salt. Radiation damage with dpa <1.7 and He <3.3 ppm after a plant operation period of 30 years will be well below the damage limit values.

  9. A general overview of generation IV molten salt reactor (MSR) and the use of thorium as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Carlos H.; Stefani, Giovanni L.; Santos, Thiago A., E-mail: carlos.yamaguchi@usp.br, E-mail: giovanni.stefani@ipen.br, E-mail: thiago.santos@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas

    2017-07-01

    The molten salt reactors (MSRs) make use of fluoride salt as primary cooler, at low pressure. Although considered a generation IV reactor, your concept isn't new, since in the 1960 years the Oak Ridge National Laboratory created a little prototype of 8MWt. Over the 20{sup th} century, other countries, like UK, Japan, Russia, China and France also did research in the area, especially with the use of thorium as fuel. This goes with the fact that Brazil possess the biggest reserve of thorium in the world. In the center of nuclear engineering at IPEN is being created a study group connected to thorium reactors, which purpose is to investigate reactors using thorium to produce {sup 233}U and tailing burn, thus making the MSR using thorium as fuel, an object of study. This present work searches to do a general summary about the researches of MSR's, having as focus the utilization of thorium with the goal being to show it's efficiency and utilization is doable. (author)

  10. Intermediate temperature embrittlement of one new Ni-26W-6Cr based superalloy for molten salt reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Li [Thorium Molten Salts Reactor Center, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Ye, Xiangxi [University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Cui, Chuanyong [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Huang, Hefei; Leng, Bin [Thorium Molten Salts Reactor Center, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, Zhijun, E-mail: lizhijun@sinap.ac.cn [Thorium Molten Salts Reactor Center, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhou, Xingtai [Thorium Molten Salts Reactor Center, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-06-21

    Ni-26W-6Cr based superalloy is considered a potential structure material for the molten salt reactors due to its high strength and good compatibility with the fluoride salt. In the present work, the temperature dependence of the tensile behavior of the alloy was studied by tensile tests in the temperature range of 25–850 °C. This alloy exhibited a good ductility at RT and 450 °C, a ductility minimum from 650 to 750 °C and an intermediate ductility at 850 °C. TEM and EBSD characterization was performed on specimens tested at three typical temperature points (RT, 650 °C and 850 °C) to determine the deformation and fracture mechanisms accounting for the intermediate temperature embrittlement. At RT, the grain boundaries can accommodate enough dislocations to provide compatibility of the sliding between adjacent grains, then M{sub 6}C carbides act as crack origins and cause the fracture. In case of 650 °C, the grain boundaries cannot withstand the local stress even if only a small number of dislocation pile-ups exist. The premature cracks at grain boundaries impede the development of plastic deformation from single slips to multiple ones and cause the low ductility. If tested at 850 °C, the fracture process is retarded by the dynamic recovery and local dynamic recrystallization at crack tips.

  11. Effect of Metallic Li on the Behavior of Metals in Molten Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidambaram, Dev [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Phillips, William [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Merwin, Augustus [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Singh, Vickram [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Unger, Aaron [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Moon, Jeremy [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2017-12-29

    The deleterious effect of Li0 on the reactor container materials has not been studied. Exposure to liquid Li0 results in material degradation primarily through lithium intercalation, leaching of specific alloying elements, and decarburization. The objective of this research is to understand how the presence of Li0 in molten LiCl-Li2O affects the degradation of two classes of alloys by correlating their accelerated and long term electrochemical behavior to the surface chemistry of the alloys and the chemistry of the electrolyte. This study has completed all the proposed tasks. The project led to the design and development of unique experimental setups and protocols. Several groundbreaking findings resulted from this study. The project had several products in terms of student education, thesis and dissertation, publications and presentations.

  12. Low temperature synthesis of CaZrO3 nanoceramics from CaCl2–NaCl molten eutectic salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Fazli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available CaZrO3 nanoceramics were successfully synthesized at 700 C using the molten salt method, and the effects of processing parameters, such as temperature, holding time, and amount of salt on the crystallization of CaZrO3 were investigated. CaCl2, Na2CO3, and nano-ZrO2 were used as starting materials. On heating, CaCl2–NaCl molten eutectic salt provided a liquid medium for the reaction of CaCO3 and ZrO2 to form CaZrO3. The results demonstrated that CaZrO3 started to form at about 600C and that, after the temperature was increased to 1,000C, the amounts of CaZrO3 in the resultant powders increased with a concomitant decrease in CaCO3and ZrO2 contents. After washing with hot distilled water, the samples heated for 3 h at 700C were single-phase CaZrO3 with 90–95 nm particle size. Furthermore, the synthesized CaZrO3 particles retained the size and morphology of the ZrO2 powders which indicated that a template mechanism dominated the formation of CaZrO3 by molten-salt method.

  13. Engineering development studies for molten-salt breeder reactor processing No. 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, J.R. Jr. (comp.)

    1976-06-01

    Processing methods are being developed for use in a close-coupled facility for removing fission products, corrosion products, and fissile materials from the MSBR fuel. This report discusses the autoresistance heating for the continuous fluorinator, the metal transfer experiment, experiments for the salt-metal contactor, and fuel reconstitution. 10 fig. (DLC)

  14. Diagnosis of sources of current inefficiency in industrial molten salt electrolysis cells by Raman spectroscopy: A topical report on chlorides: Topical report, June 1982-June 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadoway, D. R.

    1987-06-01

    Molten salt electrolysis, a very energy-intensive process, is used in the extraction of light metals. Aluminum production by the Hall process and magnesium production in the Dow and I.G. Farbenindustrie cells constitute the major commercial applications of metal electrowinning from molten-salt media at present. The energy input into the electrolysis cell is in the form of direct current, and the energy efficiencies in the magnesium or aluminum processes are only in the 30 to 40% range. Major energy reductions are achieved by reducing the cell voltage or by increasing the current efficiency. Goal of the research is to identify the sources of the current losses occurring in molten salt electrolysis. This research worked on the systems of I.G. Farben magnesium chloride and Alcoa smelting aluminum chloride processes. Raman spectra were measured and analyzed for each component or their mixtures of the electrolyte for magnesium and aluminum reduction in chloride melts. Raman measurements were also conducted on the melts of industrial composition for aluminum and magnesium electrolysis. In laboratory-scale cells which imitated industrial practice, Raman spectra were measured in situ during electrolysis in attempts to identify the streamers, coloration of electrolyte, and any subvalent species. They were known to occur only during electrolysis, and they have been reported to be possible current losses. Cyclic voltammetry was conducted to obtain information about the generation of subvalent species which were not detected by Raman measurement. These were thought to be kinetic entities present only during electrolysis. Results of Raman spectroscopy and electrochemistry of magnesium and aluminum reduction from molten chloride bath are presented. The results would be useful to establish the basis for the study of electrolysis of aluminum from molten fluoride media. 119 refs., 66 figs.

  15. High temperature corrosion performance of FeAl intermetallic alloys in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, M.; Espinosa-Medina, M.A.; Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Martinez, L.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G

    2003-05-25

    The corrosion performance of FeAl base intermetallic alloys fabricated by spray-atomization and deposition during their immersion in molten sodium metavanadate (NaVO{sub 3}), 80% (wt.%) sodium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) +20% sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and pure Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in the temperature range of 600-1000 deg. C during 200 h was investigated. The experiments were realized by the weight loss method in the intermetallic alloys of composition FeAl40(at.%), FeAl40+0.1B and FeAl40+0.1B+10Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In all cases, the FeAl40+0.1B+10Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloy showed the best corrosion resistance in the temperatures interval studied here. This behavior was discussed in terms of the formation of a protective Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer and its dissolution by vanadate phases and internal sulfidation in the case of experiments carried out in pure Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The morphology of the external layers and the corrosion products formed during the tests revealed that the corrosion rate of this type alloy depends on the corrosion compounds that are formed and the development of protective alumina scales.

  16. In situ NMR spectroscopy: inulin biomass conversion in ZnCl₂ molten salt hydrate medium-SnCl₄ addition controls product distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingxiong; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Qiao, Yan; Deng, Tiansheng; Shi, Jing; Hou, Xianglin

    2015-01-22

    The dehydration of inulin biomass to the platform chemicals, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and levulinic acid (LA), in ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate medium was investigated. The influence of the Lewis acid catalyst, SnCl4, on the product distribution was examined. An in situ(1)H NMR technique was employed to follow the reaction at the molecular level. The experimental results revealed that only 5-HMF was obtained from degradation of inulin biomass in ZnCl2 molten salt hydrate medium, while the LA was gradually becoming the main product when the reaction temperature was increased in the presence of the Lewis acid catalyst SnCl4. In situ NMR spectroscopy could monitor the reaction and give valuable insight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On the Convenience of Using Simulation Models to Optimize the Control Strategy of Molten-Salt Heat Storage Systems in Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J. Prieto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal oil has been used as heat transfer fluid in many solar thermal power plants, which also use molten salts as thermal energy storage system. Since the engineering of these plants is relatively new, control of the thermal energy storage system is currently achieved in manual or semiautomatic ways, controlling its variables with proportional-integral-derivative (PID regulators. Once the plant is running, it is very difficult to obtain permission to try new control strategies. Hence, most plants keep running on these simple, sometimes inefficient control algorithms. This paper explores the results obtained with different control strategies implemented on a complete model of energy storage systems based on molten salt. The results provided by the model allow the optimum control strategy to be selected. Comparison of the results obtained by simulation of these control strategies and actual results obtained from a real plant, confirm the accuracy of the selection made.

  18. Molten salts in nuclear reactors; Les sels fondus dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, J.; Saint-James [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author) [French] Bibliographie regroupant l'etude physico-chimique des sels fondus, en particulier des halogenures alcalins et alcalino-terreux. On etudie de nombreux systemes binaires, ternaires et quaternaires de ces halogenures avec des halogenures d'uranium, et de thorium. On etudie egalement les proprietes physiques des halogenures ou des melanges d'halogenures (densite, viscosite, tension de vapeur, etc...). On donne egalement des references quant a la corrosion des materiaux par ces sels, et le traitement de ceux-ci en vue de recuperation, apres irradiation dans un reacteur nucleaire. (auteur)

  19. Study of trans-uranian incineration in molten salt reactor; Etude de l'incineration des transuraniens en reacteur a sel fondu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valade, M

    2000-10-27

    With the emergence of new options for nuclear power, molten salt reactors are envisaged for waste management. The aim of this thesis is to show how molten salt reactors can help to solve the transuranics issue. Their high versatility regarding to isotopic vector allows to accommodate large fractions of minor actinides as compared to solid fuel system. In this thesis, a neutronics study of molten salt reactors, MSR, has been conducted. For this purpose, two reference systems were considered, TIER1 and AMSTER. In the case of TIER1, an optimisation was made to reach an equilibrium. The analysis of both systems showed the main characteristics of MSR: their link to chemistry and on line reprocessing. In this work, several methods to drive the system to a state of equilibrium have been implemented and compared. During this process the isotopic composition and neutron spectrum, thus the nuclear reaction cross sections, vary tremendously. It is essential to take these evolutions into account in order to accurately estimate the equilibrium state. This has been accomplished inside the multi-recycling procedure we set with ERANOS. A dedicated calculation schema has been realized to simulate superthermal systems with this computation code. These results were checked through a benchmark against other computer codes. Then, with multi-recycling method, several molten salt systems have been compared in order to define the optimal reactor for transuranics incineration. Nevertheless, a final choice can not only be done using only neutronics characteristics since chemistry and thermal-hydraulics constraints are really important for MSR. Moreover, a complete safety study would be required. (author)

  20. Solubility of uranium oxide in molten salt electrolysis bath of LiF–BaF{sub 2} with LaF{sub 3} additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alangi, Nagaraj, E-mail: nagaraj@barc.gov.in [Laser & Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Mukherjee, Jaya [Laser & Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Gantayet, L.M. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India)

    2016-03-15

    The solubility of UO{sub 2} in the molten mixtures of equimolar LiF–BaF{sub 2}(1:1) with LaF{sub 3} as additive was studied in the range of 1423 K–1523 K. The molten fluoride salt mixture LiF–BaF{sub 2} LaF{sub 3} was equilibrated with a sintered uranium oxide pellet at 1423 K, 1473 K, 1523 K and the salt samples were collected after equilibration. Studies were conducted in the range of 10%–50% by weight additions of LaF{sub 3} in the equimolar LiF–BaF{sub 2}(1:1) base fluoride salt bath. Solubility of UO{sub 2} increased with rise in LaF{sub 3} concentration in the molten fluoride in the temperature range of 1423 K–1523 K. At a given concentration of LaF{sub 3}, the UO{sub 2} solubility increased monotonously with temperature. With mixed solvent, when UF{sub 4} was added as a replacement of part of LaF{sub 3} in LiF–BaF{sub 2}(1:1)-10 wt% LaF{sub 3} and LiF–BaF{sub 2}(1:1)-30 wt% LaF{sub 3}, there was an enhancement of solubility of UO{sub 2}.

  1. On the use of a molten salt fast reactor to apply an idealized transmutation scenario for the nuclear phase out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Bruno; Rohde, Ulrich; Glivici-Cotruţă, Varvara; Litskevich, Dzianis; Scholl, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In the view of transmutation of transuranium (TRU) elements, molten salt fast reactors (MSFRs) offer certain advantages compared to solid fuelled reactor types like sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). In the first part these advantages are discussed in comparison with the SFR technology, and the research challenges are analyzed. In the second part cycle studies for the MSFR are given for different configurations--a core with U-238 fertile, a fertile free core, and a core with Th-232 as fertile material. For all cases, the transmutation potential is determined and efficient transmutation performance for the case with thorium as a fertile material as well as for the fertile free case is demonstrated and the individual advantages are discussed. The time evolution of different important isotopes is analyzed. In the third part a strategy for the optimization of the transmutation efficiency is developed. The final aim is dictated by the phase out decision of the German government, which requests to put the focus on the determination of the maximal transmutation efficiency and on an as much as possible reduced leftover of transuranium elements at the end of the reactor life. This minimal leftover is achieved by a two step procedure of a first transmuter operation phase followed by a second deep burning phase. There the U-233, which is bred in the blanket of the core consisting of thorium containing salt, is used as feed. It is demonstrated, that transmutation rates up to more than 90% can be achieved for all transuranium isotopes, while the production of undesired high elements like californium is very limited. Additionally, the adaptations needed for the simulation of a MSFR, and the used tool HELIOS 1.10 is described.

  2. On the use of a molten salt fast reactor to apply an idealized transmutation scenario for the nuclear phase out.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Merk

    Full Text Available In the view of transmutation of transuranium (TRU elements, molten salt fast reactors (MSFRs offer certain advantages compared to solid fuelled reactor types like sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs. In the first part these advantages are discussed in comparison with the SFR technology, and the research challenges are analyzed. In the second part cycle studies for the MSFR are given for different configurations--a core with U-238 fertile, a fertile free core, and a core with Th-232 as fertile material. For all cases, the transmutation potential is determined and efficient transmutation performance for the case with thorium as a fertile material as well as for the fertile free case is demonstrated and the individual advantages are discussed. The time evolution of different important isotopes is analyzed. In the third part a strategy for the optimization of the transmutation efficiency is developed. The final aim is dictated by the phase out decision of the German government, which requests to put the focus on the determination of the maximal transmutation efficiency and on an as much as possible reduced leftover of transuranium elements at the end of the reactor life. This minimal leftover is achieved by a two step procedure of a first transmuter operation phase followed by a second deep burning phase. There the U-233, which is bred in the blanket of the core consisting of thorium containing salt, is used as feed. It is demonstrated, that transmutation rates up to more than 90% can be achieved for all transuranium isotopes, while the production of undesired high elements like californium is very limited. Additionally, the adaptations needed for the simulation of a MSFR, and the used tool HELIOS 1.10 is described.

  3. On the Use of a Molten Salt Fast Reactor to Apply an Idealized Transmutation Scenario for the Nuclear Phase Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Bruno; Rohde, Ulrich; Glivici-Cotruţă, Varvara; Litskevich, Dzianis; Scholl, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In the view of transmutation of transuranium (TRU) elements, molten salt fast reactors (MSFRs) offer certain advantages compared to solid fuelled reactor types like sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). In the first part these advantages are discussed in comparison with the SFR technology, and the research challenges are analyzed. In the second part cycle studies for the MSFR are given for different configurations – a core with U-238 fertile, a fertile free core, and a core with Th-232 as fertile material. For all cases, the transmutation potential is determined and efficient transmutation performance for the case with thorium as a fertile material as well as for the fertile free case is demonstrated and the individual advantages are discussed. The time evolution of different important isotopes is analyzed. In the third part a strategy for the optimization of the transmutation efficiency is developed. The final aim is dictated by the phase out decision of the German government, which requests to put the focus on the determination of the maximal transmutation efficiency and on an as much as possible reduced leftover of transuranium elements at the end of the reactor life. This minimal leftover is achieved by a two step procedure of a first transmuter operation phase followed by a second deep burning phase. There the U-233, which is bred in the blanket of the core consisting of thorium containing salt, is used as feed. It is demonstrated, that transmutation rates up to more than 90% can be achieved for all transuranium isotopes, while the production of undesired high elements like californium is very limited. Additionally, the adaptations needed for the simulation of a MSFR, and the used tool HELIOS 1.10 is described. PMID:24690768

  4. Electrochemical transient techniques for determination of uranium and rare-earth metal separation coefficients in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, S.A. [Institute of Chemistry, Kola Science Centre, RAS, Apatity, Murmansk Region 184200, Russia (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: kuznet@chemy.kolasc.net.ru; Hayashi, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Minato, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Gaune-Escard, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, IUSTI-CNRS UMR 6595, University of Provence, F-13453 Marseille, Cedex 13 (France)

    2006-02-25

    The main step in the pyrometallurgical recycling process of spent nuclear fuel is a molten salt electrorefining. The knowledge of separation coefficients of actinides (U, Np, Pu and Am) and rare-earth metals (Y, La, Ce, Nd and Gd) is very important for this step. Usually the separation coefficients are evaluated from the formal standard potentials of metals in melts containing their own ions, i.e. values obtained by potentiometric method. Electrochemical experiments were carried out at 723-823 K in order to estimate separation coefficients in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt containing uranium and lanthanum trichlorides. The electrochemical behaviour of UCl{sub 3} in LiCl-KCl melt was studied by different electrochemical methods. The diffusion coefficients of U(III) were determined by linear sweep voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and chronoamperometry. The standard rate constants of charge transfer for electroreduction of uranium, U(III) + 3e{sup -} {sup {yields}} U, were calculated by the impedance spectroscopy method. The values of constants testify that electroreduction of U(III) to U is mainly controlled by the rate of charge transfer. La(III) discharge on uranium electrode was also investigated. It was shown that for the calculation of uranium and lanthanum separation coefficients it is necessary to determine the voltammetric peak potentials of U(III) and La(III), their concentration in the melt and the kinetic parameters relating to U(III) discharge such as transfer and diffusion coefficients, and standard rate constants of charge transfer.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of heliostat aiming strategies and receiver size on annual thermal production of a molten salt external receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servert, Jorge; González, Ana; Gil, Javier; López, Diego; Funes, Jose Felix; Jurado, Alfonso

    2017-06-01

    Even though receiver size and aiming strategy are to be jointly analyzed to optimize the thermal energy that can be extracted from a solar tower receiver, customarily, they have been studied as separated problems. The main reason is the high-level of detail required to define aiming strategies, which are often simplified in annual simulation models. Aiming strategies are usually focused on obtaining a homogeneous heat flux on the central receiver, with the goal to minimize the maximum heat flux value that may lead to damaging it. Some recent studies have addressed the effect of different aiming strategies on different receiver types, but they have only focused on the optical efficiency. The receiver size is also an additional parameter that has to be considered: larger receiver sizes provide a larger aiming surface and a reduction on spillage losses, but require higher investment while penalizing the thermal performance of the receiver due to the greater external convection losses. The present paper presents a sensitivity analysis of both factors for a predefined solar field at a fixed location, using a central receiver and molten salts as HTF. The analysis includes the design point values and annual energy outputs comparing the effect on the optical performance (measured using a spillage factor) and thermal energy production.

  6. LiCl-LiI molten salt electrolyte with bismuth-lead positive electrode for liquid metal battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junsoo; Shin, Donghyeok; Jung, Youngjae; Hwang, Soo Min; Song, Taeseup; Kim, Youngsik; Paik, Ungyu

    2018-02-01

    Liquid metal batteries (LMBs) are attractive energy storage device for large-scale energy storage system (ESS) due to the simple cell configuration and their high rate capability. The high operation temperature caused by high melting temperature of both the molten salt electrolyte and metal electrodes can induce the critical issues related to the maintenance cost and degradation of electrochemical properties resulting from the thermal corrosion of materials. Here, we report a new chemistry of LiCl-LiI electrolyte and Bi-Pb positive electrode to lower the operation temperature of Li-based LMBs and achieve the long-term stability. The cell (Li|LiCl-LiI|Bi-Pb) is operated at 410 °C by employing the LiCl-LiI (LiCl:LiI = 36:64 mol %) electrolyte and Bi-Pb alloy (Bi:Pb = 55.5:44.5 mol %) positive electrode. The cell shows excellent capacity retention (86.5%) and high Coulombic efficiencies over 99.3% at a high current density of 52 mA cm-2 during 1000th cycles.

  7. An Investigation of Oxide Coating Synthesized on an Aluminum Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in Molten Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sobolev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO is a surface treatment process for obtaining oxide coatings with a high performance on valve metals. PEO is mostly performed in an aqueous solution electrolyte that limits the size of treated parts due to the fact that the system is heated. Therefore, the coating of large surfaces cannot be synthesized in an aqueous electrolyte. In the current work, an alternative approach of PEO treatment, whereby an aluminum 1050 alloy in nitrate molten salt at a temperature of 280 °C is applied, was investigated. The microstructure, phase and chemical compositions, and micro-hardness were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and micro-hardness tests. The obtained results show that formed coating contains from two sub-layers: one is the outer sub-layer of the α-Al2O3 phase and the second is its inner sub-layer. It was found that the formed coating was free of any contaminants originating from the electrolyte and had no cracks or pores, which are usually present in coatings formed by PEO treatment in an aqueous solution electrolyte.

  8. Health and safety plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment remediation project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Uziel, M.S.

    1995-12-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of the policy requires that operations at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to safety and health (S and H) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all MSRE operations. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated at the MSRE that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and the best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air.

  9. Mock-up facilities for the development of an advanced spent fuel management process using molten salt technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young-Joon Shin; Ik-Soo Kim; Seung-Chul Oh; Soo-Haeng Cho; Yo-Taik Song; Hyun-Soo Park [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon, South (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has investigated a new approach to spent fuel storage technology that would reduce the total storage volume and the amount of decay heat. The technology utilizes the reduction of oxide fuel to a metal to reduce the volume and preferentially removing the fission products to reduce the decay heat. The uranium oxide is reduced to uranium metal by Li metal in a molten LiCl salt bath. During the reduction process, fission products are dissolved into the LiCl bath and some of the highly radioactive elements, such as Sr and Cs, are preferentially removed from the bath. The reduced uranium metal is cast into an ingot, put into a storage capsule, and stored using conventional storage methods. The fission products are treated as high level radioactive wastes. Each process of the technology has been studied and analyzed for technical feasibility, and has come to the point for designing and constructing of the mock-up for a demonstration of the technology. This paper presents the detailed design of the mock-up of the system and operational characteristics, along with all the details of the equipment for the system. KAERI plans to use the mock-up for the demonstration using an in-active spent fuel specimen. (authors)

  10. Development of a leaching process of manganese concentrate in molten salts

    OpenAIRE

    Maria José de Sousa Ferreira da Silva; Maria José Marques; Cláudio Patrício Ribeiro Jr

    1997-01-01

    The NaCl- KCl system as fused-salt solvent for leaching has shown to have some advantages over traditional solvents. In this work the solubility of copper, nickel and cobalt oxide in this system, as impurities in manganese concentrate, was studied. The euthetic mixture of NaCl - KCl at 700ºC was used at several fusion times and the dissolved metals were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results have shown that in these conditions only copper was solubilized.

  11. Molten salt as a heat transfer fluid for heating a subsurface formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-11-16

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in an opening in the subsurface formation. An insulated conductor is located in the conduit. A material is in the conduit between a portion of the insulated conductor and a portion of the conduit. The material may be a salt. The material is a fluid at operating temperature of the heating system. Heat transfers from the insulated conductor to the fluid, from the fluid to the conduit, and from the conduit to the subsurface formation.

  12. Methanol Steam Reforming Promoted by Molten Salt-Modified Platinum on Alumina Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusche, Matthias; Agel, Friederike; Ní Bhriain, Nollaig; Kaftan, Andre; Laurin, Mathias; Libuda, Jörg; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We herein describe a straight forward procedure to increase the performance of platinum-on-alumina catalysts in methanol steam reforming by applying an alkali hydroxide coating according to the “solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer” (SCILL) approach. We demonstrate by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies that potassium doping plays an important role in the catalyst activation. Moreover, the hygroscopic nature and the basicity of the salt modification contribute to the considerable enhancement in catalytic performance. During reaction, a partly liquid film of alkali hydroxides/carbonates forms on the catalyst/alumina surface, thus significantly enhancing the availability of water at the catalytically active sites. Too high catalyst pore fillings with salt introduce a considerable mass transfer barrier into the system as indicated by kinetic studies. Thus, the optimum interplay between beneficial catalyst modification and detrimental mass transfer effects had to be identified and was found on the applied platinum-on-alumina catalyst at KOH loadings around 7.5 mass %. PMID:25124120

  13. Methanol steam reforming promoted by molten salt-modified platinum on alumina catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusche, Matthias; Agel, Friederike; Ní Bhriain, Nollaig; Kaftan, Andre; Laurin, Mathias; Libuda, Jörg; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2014-09-01

    We herein describe a straight forward procedure to increase the performance of platinum-on-alumina catalysts in methanol steam reforming by applying an alkali hydroxide coating according to the "solid catalyst with ionic liquid layer" (SCILL) approach. We demonstrate by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies that potassium doping plays an important role in the catalyst activation. Moreover, the hygroscopic nature and the basicity of the salt modification contribute to the considerable enhancement in catalytic performance. During reaction, a partly liquid film of alkali hydroxides/carbonates forms on the catalyst/alumina surface, thus significantly enhancing the availability of water at the catalytically active sites. Too high catalyst pore fillings with salt introduce a considerable mass transfer barrier into the system as indicated by kinetic studies. Thus, the optimum interplay between beneficial catalyst modification and detrimental mass transfer effects had to be identified and was found on the applied platinum-on-alumina catalyst at KOH loadings around 7.5 mass%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Cation and anion dependence of stable geometries and stabilization energies of alkali metal cation complexes with FSA(-), FTA(-), and TFSA(-) anions: relationship with physicochemical properties of molten salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Kubota, Keigo; Matsumoto, Hajime

    2013-12-19

    Stable geometries and stabilization energies (Eform) of the alkali metal complexes with bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide, (fluorosulfonyl)(trifluoromethylslufonyl)amide and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (FSA(-), FTA(-) and TFSA(-)) were studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The FSA(-) complexes prefer the bidentate structures in which two oxygen atoms of two SO2 groups have contact with the metal cation. The FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with Li(+) and Na(+) prefer the bidentate structures, while the FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with Cs(+) prefer tridentate structures in which the metal cation has contact with two oxygen atoms of an SO2 group and one oxygen atom of another SO2 group. The two structures are nearly isoenergetic in the FTA(-) and TFSA(-) complexes with K(+) and Rb(+). The magnitude of Eform depends on the alkali metal cation significantly. The Eform calculated for the most stable TFSA(-) complexes with Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+) cations at the MP2/6-311G** level are -137.2, -110.5, -101.1, -89.6, and -84.1 kcal/mol, respectively. The viscosity and ionic conductivity of the alkali TFSA molten salts have strong correlation with the magnitude of the attraction. The viscosity increases and the ionic conductivity decreases with the increase of the attraction. The melting points of the alkali TFSA and alkali BETA molten salts also have correlation with the magnitude of the Eform, which strongly suggests that the magnitude of the attraction play important roles in determining the melting points of these molten salts. The anion dependence of the Eform calculated for the complexes is small (less than 2.9 kcal/mol). This shows that the magnitude of the attraction is not the cause of the low melting points of alkali FTA molten salts compared with those of corresponding alkali TFSA molten salts. The electrostatic interactions are the major source of the attraction in the complexes. The electrostatic energies for the most stable TFSA

  15. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  16. High Temperature Corrosion of Inconel 600 in NaCl-KCl Molten Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Salinas-Solano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the corrosion resistance of a high content nickel alloy, Inconel 600, was investigated in mixed NaCl-KCl salts at 700, 800, and 900°C for 100 hours in static air. Investigation was carried out using electrochemical techniques such as polarization curves, rest potential measurements, linear polarization resistance, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Corroded specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Electrochemical measurements showed an increased degradation rate of Inconel 600 with increasing test temperature. SEM and EDS analysis show that the damage experienced by Inconel 600 is greater than that determined by electrochemical measurements. This damage was identified as internal corrosion due to the reaction of Cl2 with the alloying elements (Cr and Fe; however, at 900°C the internal damage was minor and it was associated with the nickel content in the alloy.

  17. Molten salt-mediated formation of g-C3N4-MoS2 for visible-light-driven photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ni; Zhou, Jing; Sheng, Ziqiong; Xiao, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Construction of two-dimensional/two-dimensional (2D/2D) hybrid with well-defined composition and microstructure is a general protocol to achieve high-performance catalysts. We herein report preparation of g-C3N4-MoS2 hybrid by pyrolysis of affordable melamine and (NH4)2MoS4 in molten LiCl-NaCl-KCl at 550 °C. Molten salts are confirmed as ideal reaction media for formation of homogeneous hybrid. Characterizations suggest a strong interaction between g-C3N4 and MoS2 in the hybrid, which results in an enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic hydrogen generation of the hybrid with an optimal g-C3N4/MoS2 ratio. The present study highlights the merits of molten salt methods on preparation of 2D photocatalysts and provides a rational design of 2D/2D hybrid catalysts for advanced environmental and energy applications.

  18. Development of Pyro-separation Technology Based on Molten Salt Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Joon Bo; Kim, E. H.; Yoo, J. H. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The focus of this study was to develop recovery technologies in the pyroprocessing. The unit processes of the project can be classified into two groups; electro-refining process to recover uranium and long-lived nuclides, and cathode processing to produce a metal ingot both from a salt-contained metal and from Cd-contained metal. This project has been carried out for the third phase period of the long-term nuclear R and D program, and focused on the development of key technologies of the pyroprocessing such as electrorefining, draw down and cathode processing. Mock-up system of 1 kg-U/batch was built for performance tests which were conducted to ensure the adequacy of the research and development of the pyroprocessing technology. The experiments were carried out through bench-scale inactive tests except for uranium. In particular, the sticking problem was inevitable in the US's Mark-V and PEER electrorefiner. As a result of this study, a graphite cathode was developed, which exhibited self-scraping behavior and did not need scraping step. The design of an electrorefiner could be simplified, and the throughput was enhanced due to an increased cathode area. A long-term R and D plan was established to develop pyroprocessing technology. In the near term, the results of the current project will be utilized in the next phase of the R and D plan ('07 - '10), and long-term wise, is expected to contribute to recovering fuel materials for transmutation in a Gen-IV reactor.

  19. Density of molten salt Mixtures of eutectic LiCl-KCl containing UCl{sub 3}, CeCl{sub 3}, or LaCl{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.; Simpson, M. F. [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Densities of molten salt mixtures of eutectic LiCl-KCl with UCl{sub 3}, CeCl{sub 3}, or LaCl{sub 3} at various concentrations (up to 13 wt%) were measured using a liquid surface displacement probe. Linear relationships between the mixture density and the concentration of the added salt were observed. For LaCl{sub 3} and CeCl{sub 3}, the measured densities were signifcantly higher than those previously reported from Archimedes’ method. In the case of LiCl-KCl-UCl{sub 3}, the data ft the ideal mixture density model very well. For the other salts, the measured densities exceeded the ideal model prediction by about 2%.

  20. Temperature effect on fluorescence and UV-vis absorption spectroscopic properties of Dy(III) in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Young [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jong-Il, E-mail: jiyun@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The spectroscopic properties of Dy(III) in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at high temperature were investigated by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. For the first time, a visible fluorescence of Dy(III) in high-temperature LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was measured due to the electronic transitions from {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} to {sup 6}H{sub J/2} (J=7, Horizontal-Ellipsis ,15). The effect of temperature on hypersensitivity for the electronic transitions from the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} excited state ({approx}25700 cm{sup -1}) of Dy(III) was confirmed by altering temperature in chloride eutectic salt in accord with optical absorption measurements. The molar absorptivity of {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} Leftwards-Arrow {sup 6}H{sub 15/2} was enhanced with increasing temperature. The fluorescence intensity of Dy(III) followed a simple mono-exponential decay curve, suggesting the formation of a single chemical species in high-temperature LiCl-KCl molten salt. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopic characteristics of Dy(III) in the high-temperature LiCl-KCl salt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-situ chemical analysis of Dy(III) by fluorescence and absorbance measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature effect on hypersensitivity for electronic transitions from {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} excited state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single chemical species of Dy(III) exists in high-temperature LiCl-KCl salt.

  1. Results of molten salt panel and component experiments for solar central receivers: Cold fill, freeze/thaw, thermal cycling and shock, and instrumentation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, J.E.; Ralph, M.E.; Chavez, J.M.; Dunkin, S.R.; Rush, E.E.; Ghanbari, C.M.; Matthews, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted with a molten salt loop at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM to resolve issues associated with the operation of the 10MW{sub e} Solar Two Central Receiver Power Plant located near Barstow, CA. The salt loop contained two receiver panels, components such as flanges and a check valve, vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters, and an impedance pressure transducer. Tests were conducted on procedures for filling and thawing a panel, and assessing components and instrumentation in a molten salt environment. Four categories of experiments were conducted: (1) cold filling procedures, (2) freeze/thaw procedures, (3) component tests, and (4) instrumentation tests. Cold-panel and -piping fill experiments are described, in which the panels and piping were preheated to temperatures below the salt freezing point prior to initiating flow, to determine the feasibility of cold filling the receiver and piping. The transient thermal response was measured, and heat transfer coefficients and transient stresses were calculated from the data. Freeze/thaw experiments were conducted with the panels, in which the salt was intentionally allowed to freeze in the receiver tubes, then thawed with heliostat beams. Slow thermal cycling tests were conducted to measure both how well various designs of flanges (e.g., tapered flanges or clamp type flanges) hold a seal under thermal conditions typical of nightly shut down, and the practicality of using these flanges on high maintenance components. In addition, the flanges were thermally shocked to simulate cold starting the system. Instrumentation such as vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters were tested alongside each other, and compared with flow measurements from calibration tanks in the flow loop.

  2. Heterogeneity of equilibrium molten globule state of cytochrome c induced by weak salt denaturants under physiological condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidur Rahaman

    Full Text Available While many proteins are recognized to undergo folding via intermediate(s, the heterogeneity of equilibrium folding intermediate(s along the folding pathway is less understood. In our present study, FTIR spectroscopy, far- and near-UV circular dichroism (CD, ANS and tryptophan fluorescence, near IR absorbance spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS were used to study the structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the native (N, denatured (D and intermediate state (X of goat cytochorme c (cyt-c induced by weak salt denaturants (LiBr, LiCl and LiClO4 at pH 6.0 and 25°C. The LiBr-induced denaturation of cyt-c measured by Soret absorption (Δε400 and CD ([θ]409, is a three-step process, N ↔ X ↔ D. It is observed that the X state obtained along the denaturation pathway of cyt-c possesses common structural and thermodynamic characteristics of the molten globule (MG state. The MG state of cyt-c induced by LiBr is compared for its structural and thermodynamic parameters with those found in other solvent conditions such as LiCl, LiClO4 and acidic pH. Our observations suggest: (1 that the LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c retains the native Met80-Fe(III axial bond and Trp59-propionate interactions; (2 that LiBr-induced MG state of cyt-c is more compact retaining the hydrophobic interactions in comparison to the MG states induced by LiCl, LiClO4 and 0.5 M NaCl at pH 2.0; and (3 that there exists heterogeneity of equilibrium intermediates along the unfolding pathway of cyt-c as highly ordered (X1, classical (X2 and disordered (X3, i.e., D ↔ X3 ↔ X2 ↔ X1 ↔ N.

  3. Molten salts activated by high-energy milling: A useful, low-temperature route for the synthesis of multiferroic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Ramírez, Anayantzin; Martínez-Luévanos, Antonia [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, V. Carranza s/n, Saltillo, Coahuila 25280 (Mexico); Fuentes, Antonio F. [CINVESTAV Unidad Saltillo, Apdo. Postal 663, Saltillo, Coahuila 25000 (Mexico); Earth and Environmental Science, University of Michigan, 3514 C.C. Little Building, 1100 N. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Ewing, Rodney C. [Earth and Environmental Science, University of Michigan, 3514 C.C. Little Building, 1100 N. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Montemayor, Sagrario M., E-mail: smmontemayor@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, V. Carranza s/n, Saltillo, Coahuila 25280 (Mexico); Earth and Environmental Science, University of Michigan, 3514 C.C. Little Building, 1100 N. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • The synthesis route purposed demonstrates the formation of BiFeO{sub 3} at only 500 °C. • The magnetic and ferroelectric properties are comparable to those of bulk BiFeO{sub 3}. • By this route, several phases in Bi{sub 1−x}La{sub x}FeO{sub 3} system are obtained at only 500 °C. • The route developed here could be useful to synthesize other perovskite-type oxides. -- Abstract: There are only a few multiferroic compounds, among which BiFeO{sub 3} is the most important. Research the synthesis of bismuth ferrite, with novel and improved magnetic and electrical properties, has been mainly based on the use of hydrothermal or sol gel methods. However, these methods require either rather extreme conditions or several steps for synthesis. We demonstrate that the use of molten salts, activated by high energy milling, results in pure nanometric BiFeO{sub 3}, LaFeO{sub 3} and intermediate phases in the Bi{sub 1−x}La{sub x}FeO{sub 3} system. The chemical reagents used are Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅5H{sub 2}O, La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅6H{sub 2}O, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}⋅9H{sub 2}O and NaOH. A brief milling process of the reagents creates an amorphous precursor and crystalline NaNO{sub 3}. The thermal treatment of the precursors, at 500 °C for two hours, produces a crystalline mixture of Bi{sub 1−x}La{sub x}FeO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3}. Simple washing eliminates the NaNO{sub 3}. The characterization of intermediates and final products, through thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy, allows the inference of possible mechanism. In addition, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and ferroelectric tests show the typical magnetic and electric polarization loops characteristic of these materials even when formed at the nano-scale.

  4. Computational Thermodynamic Modeling of Hot Corrosion of Alloys Haynes 242 and HastelloyTM N for Molten Salt Service in Advanced High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Glazoff, Michael; Charit, Indrajt; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-09-17

    An evaluation of thermodynamic aspects of hot corrosion of the superalloys Haynes 242 and HastelloyTM N in the eutectic mixtures of KF and ZrF4 is carried out for development of Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR). This work models the behavior of several superalloys, potential candidates for the AHTR, using computational thermodynamics tool (ThermoCalc), leading to the development of thermodynamic description of the molten salt eutectic mixtures, and on that basis, mechanistic prediction of hot corrosion. The results from these studies indicated that the principal mechanism of hot corrosion was associated with chromium leaching for all of the superalloys described above. However, HastelloyTM N displayed the best hot corrosion performance. This was not surprising given it was developed originally to withstand the harsh conditions of molten salt environment. However, the results obtained in this study provided confidence in the employed methods of computational thermodynamics and could be further used for future alloy design efforts. Finally, several potential solutions to mitigate hot corrosion were proposed for further exploration, including coating development and controlled scaling of intermediate compounds in the KF-ZrF4 system.

  5. Interplay between structure and transport properties of molten salt mixtures of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Venkateswara Rao; Swinteck, Nichlas; Bringuier, Stefan; Lucas, Pierre; Deymier, Pierre; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Molten mixtures of network-forming covalently bonded ZnCl2 and network-modifying ionically bonded NaCl and KCl salts are investigated as high-temperature heat transfer fluids for concentrating solar power plants. Specifically, using molecular dynamics simulations, the interplay between the extent of the network structure, composition, and the transport properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion) of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl molten salts is characterized. The Stokes-Einstein/Eyring relationship is found to break down in these network-forming liquids at high concentrations of ZnCl2 (>63 mol. %), while the Eyring relationship is seen with increasing KCl concentration. Further, the network modification due to the addition of K ions leads to formation of non-bridging terminal Cl ions, which in turn lead to a positive temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in these melts. This new understanding of transport in these ternary liquids enables the identification of appropriate concentrations of the network formers and network modifiers to design heat transfer fluids with desired transport properties for concentrating solar power plants.

  6. Design of a heterogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor with molten salts based on thorium; Diseno de un reactor nuclear subcritico heterogeneo con sales fundidas a base de torio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina C, D.; Hernandez A, P.; Letechipia de L, C.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Sajo B, L., E-mail: dmedina_c@hotmail.com [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Apdo. Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents the design of a heterogeneous subcritical nuclear reactor with molten salts based on thorium, with graphite moderator and a {sup 252}Cf source, whose dose levels at the periphery allows its use in teaching and research activities. The design was realized by the Monte Carlo method, where the geometry, dimensions and the fuel was varied in order to obtain the best design. The result was a cubic reactor of 110 cm of side, with graphite moderator and reflector. In the central part having 9 ducts of 3 cm in diameter, eight of them are 110 cm long, which were placed on the Y axis; the separation between each duct is 10 cm. The central duct has 60 cm in length and this contains the {sup 252}Cf source, also there are two irradiation channels and the other six contain a molten salt ({sup 7}LiF - BeF{sub 2} - ThF{sub 4} - UF{sub 4}) as fuel. For the design the k{sub eff} was calculated, neutron spectra and ambient dose equivalent. In the first instance the above was calculated for a virgin fuel, was called case 1; then a percentage of {sup 233}U was used and the percentage of Th was decreased and was called case 2. This with the purpose of comparing two different fuels operating within the reactor. For the two irradiation ducts three positions are used: center, back and front, in each duct in order to have different flows. (Author)

  7. A novel molten-salt electrochemical cell for investigating the reduction of uranium dioxide to uranium metal by lithium using in situ synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Leon D.; Abdulaziz, Rema; Jervis, Rhodri; Bharath, Vidal; Mason, Thomas J.; Reinhard, Christina; Connor, Leigh D.; Inman, Douglas; Brett, Daniel J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    A novel electrochemical cell has been designed and built to allow for in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction measurements to be made during reduction of UO2 to U metal in LiCl–KCl at 500°C. The electrochemical cell contains a recessed well at the bottom of the cell into which the working electrode sits, reducing the beam path for the X-rays through the molten-salt and maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio from the sample. Lithium metal was electrodeposited onto the UO2 working electrode by exposing the working electrode to more negative potentials than the Li deposition potential of the LiCl–KCl eutectic electrolyte. The Li metal acts as a reducing agent for the chemical reduction of UO2 to U, which appears to proceed to completion. All phases were fitted using Le Bail refinement. The cell is expected to be widely applicable to many studies involving molten-salt systems. PMID:28244437

  8. Corrosion-induced microstructural developments in 316 stainless steel during exposure to molten Li2BeF4(FLiBe) salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guiqiu; He, Lingfeng; Carpenter, David; Sridharan, Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The microstructural developments in the near-surface regions of AISI 316 stainless steel during exposure to molten Li2BeF4 (FLiBe) salt have been investigated with the goal of using this material for the construction of the fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR), a leading nuclear reactor concept for the next generation nuclear plants (NGNP). Tests were conducted in molten FLiBe salt (melting point: 459 °C) at 700 °C in graphite crucibles and 316 stainless steel crucibles for exposure duration of up to 3000 h. Corrosion-induced microstructural changes in the near-surface regions of the samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with EDS capabilities. Intergranular corrosion attack in the near-surface regions was observed with associated Cr depletion along the grain boundaries. High-angle grain boundaries (15-180°) were particularly prone to intergranular attack and Cr depletion. The depth of attack extended to the depths of 22 μm after 3000-h exposure for the samples tested in graphite crucible, while similar exposure in 316 stainless steel crucible led to the attack depths of only about 11 μm. Testing in graphite crucibles led to the formation of nanometer-scale Mo2C, Cr7C3 and Al4C3 particle phases in the near-surface regions of the material. The copious depletion of Cr in the near-surface regions induced a γ-martensite to α-ferrite phase (FeNix) transformation. Based on the microstructural analysis, a thermal diffusion controlled corrosion model was developed and experimentally validated for predicting long-term corrosion attack depth.

  9. Mathematical modeling of salt-gradient ion-exchange simulated moving bed chromatography for protein separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Gang

    2004-12-01

    The salt-gradient operation mode used in ion-exchange simulated moving bed chromatography (SMBC) can improve the efficiency of protein separations. A detailed model that takes into account any kind of adsorption/ion-exchange equilibrium, salt gradient, size exclusion, mass transfer resistance, and port periodic switching mechanism, was developed to simulate the complex dynamics. The model predictions were verified by the experimental data on upward and downward gradients for protein separations reported in the literature. All design and operating parameters (number, configuration, length and diameter of columns, particle size, switching period, flow rates of feed, raffinate, desorbent and extract, protein concentrations in feed, different salt concentrations in desorbent and feed) can be chosen correctly by numerical simulation. This model can facilitate the design, operation, optimization, control and scale-up of salt-gradient ion-exchange SMBC for protein separations.

  10. A simple halide-to-anion exchange method for heteroaromatic salts and ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, Ermitas; Dinarès, Immaculada; Ibáñez, Anna; Mesquida, Neus

    2012-04-02

    A broad and simple method permitted halide ions in quaternary heteroaromatic and ammonium salts to be exchanged for a variety of anions using an anion exchange resin (A(-) form) in non-aqueous media. The anion loading of the AER (OH(-) form) was examined using two different anion sources, acids or ammonium salts, and changing the polarity of the solvents. The AER (A(-) form) method in organic solvents was then applied to several quaternary heteroaromatic salts and ILs, and the anion exchange proceeded in excellent to quantitative yields, concomitantly removing halide impurities. Relying on the hydrophobicity of the targeted ion pair for the counteranion swap, organic solvents with variable polarity were used, such as CH(3)OH, CH(3)CN and the dipolar nonhydroxylic solvent mixture CH(3)CN:CH(2)Cl(2) (3:7) and the anion exchange was equally successful with both lipophilic cations and anions.

  11. A Simple Halide-to-Anion Exchange Method for Heteroaromatic Salts and Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Mesquida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A broad and simple method permitted halide ions in quaternary heteroaromatic and ammonium salts to be exchanged for a variety of anions using an anion exchange resin (A− form in non-aqueous media. The anion loading of the AER (OH− form was examined using two different anion sources, acids or ammonium salts, and changing the polarity of the solvents. The AER (A− form method in organic solvents was then applied to several quaternary heteroaromatic salts and ILs, and the anion exchange proceeded in excellent to quantitative yields, concomitantly removing halide impurities. Relying on the hydrophobicity of the targeted ion pair for the counteranion swap, organic solvents with variable polarity were used, such as CH3OH, CH3CN and the dipolar nonhydroxylic solvent mixture CH3CN:CH2Cl2 (3:7 and the anion exchange was equally successful with both lipophilic cations and anions.

  12. Heat exchanger life extension via in-situ reconditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan

    2016-06-28

    A method of in-situ reconditioning a heat exchanger includes the steps of: providing an in-service heat exchanger comprising a precipitate-strengthened alloy wherein at least one mechanical property of the heat exchanger is degraded by coarsening of the precipitate, the in-service heat exchanger containing a molten salt working heat exchange fluid; deactivating the heat exchanger from service in-situ; in a solution-annealing step, in-situ heating the heat exchanger and molten salt working heat exchange fluid contained therein to a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the coarsened precipitate; in a quenching step, flowing the molten salt working heat-exchange fluid through the heat exchanger in-situ to cool the alloy and retain a supersaturated solid solution while preventing formation of large precipitates; and in an aging step, further varying the temperature of the flowing molten salt working heat-exchange fluid to re-precipitate the dissolved precipitate.

  13. Electrolytic reduction runs of 0.6 kg scale-simulated oxide fuel in a Li2O-LiCl molten salt using metal anode shrouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Lee, Jeong; Heo, Dong Hyun; Lee, Sang Kwon; Jeon, Min Ku; Hong, Sun Seok; Kim, Sung-Wook; Kang, Hyun Woo; Jeon, Sang-Chae; Hur, Jin-Mok

    2017-06-01

    Ten electrolytic reduction or oxide reduction (OR) runs of a 0.6 kg scale-simulated oxide fuel in a Li2O-LiCl molten salt at 650 °C were conducted using metal anode shrouds. During this procedure, an anode shroud surrounds a platinum anode and discharges hot oxygen gas from the salt to outside of the OR apparatus, thereby preventing corrosion of the apparatus. In this study, a number of anode shrouds made of various metals were tested. Each metallic anode shroud consisted of a lower porous shroud for the salt phase and an upper nonporous shroud for the gas phase. A stainless steel (STS) wire mesh with five-ply layer was a material commonly used for the lower porous shroud for the OR runs. The metals tested for the upper nonporous shroud in the different OR runs are STS, nickel, and platinum- or silver-lined nickel. The lower porous shroud showed no significant damage during two consecutive OR runs, but exhibited signs of damage from three or more runs due to thermal stress. The upper nonporous shrouds made up of either platinum- or silver-lined nickel showed excellent corrosion resistance to hot oxygen gas while STS or nickel without any platinum or silver lining exhibited poor corrosion resistance.

  14. Electrodeposition of Al-Ta alloys in NaCl-KCl-AlCl3 molten salt containing TaCl5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuki; Matsushima, Hisayoshi; Ueda, Mikito

    2016-12-01

    To form Al-Ta alloys for high temperature oxidation resistance components, molten salt electrolysis was carried out in an AlCl3-NaCl-KCl melt containing TaCl5 at 423 K. The voltammogram showed two cathodic waves at 0.45 V and 0.7 V vs. Al/Al(III), which may correspond to reduction from Ta(V) to Ta(III) and from Ta(III) to tantalum metal, respectively. Electrodeposits of Al and Ta were obtained in the range from -0.05 to 0.3 V and the highest concentration of Ta in the electrodeposit was 72 at% at 0.3 V. With increasing Ta content in the alloy, the morphology of the electrodeposits became powdery and the particle size smaller.

  15. On the Burning of Plutonium Originating from Light Water Reactor Use in a Fast Molten Salt Reactor—A Neutron Physical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Merk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient burning of the plutonium produced during light water reactor (LWR operation has the potential to significantly improve the sustainability indices of LWR operations. The work offers a comparison of the efficiency of Pu burning in different reactor configurations—a molten salt fast reactor, a LWR with mixed oxide (MOX fuel, and a sodium cooled fast reactor. The calculations are performed using the HELIOS 2 code. All results are evaluated against the plutonium burning efficiency determined in the Consommation Accrue de Plutonium dans les Réacteurs à Neutrons RApides (CAPRA project. The results are discussed with special view on the increased sustainability of LWR use in the case of successful avoidance of an accumulation of Pu which otherwise would have to be forwarded to a final disposal. A strategic discussion is given about the unavoidable plutonium production, the possibility to burn the plutonium to avoid a burden for the future generations which would have to be controlled.

  16. Molten salt medium synthesis of wormlike platinum silver nanotubes without any organic surfactant or solvent for methanol and formic acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haidong; Liu, Rui; Guo, Yong; Yang, Shengchun

    2015-12-14

    In the current research, the PtxAgy (x/y = 86/14, 79/21, 52/48, 21/79, 11/89) nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized in the KNO3-LiNO3 molten salts without using any organic surfactant or solvent. The SEM results suggest that when the content of Ag is higher than 48%, the wormlike PtxAgy nanotubes (NTs) can be synthesized. The diameter of the PtxAgyNTs shows a slow decrease with the increase of Ag content. The TEM and HRTEM results indicate that the growth of hollow PtxAgy NTs undergoes an oriented attachment process and a Kirkendall effect approach. The results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement indicate that the Pt52Ag48 catalyst presents a remarkable enhancement for methanol electrooxidation, while the Pt86Ag14 catalyst prefers electrochemically oxidizing formic acid compared with that of the commercially available Pt black.

  17. An Electrochemical Study of Lanthanide Elements in LiCl-KCl Eutectic Molten Salt to Convert All The Spent Nuclear Fuel into Low and Intermediate Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Judong; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Gi; Hong, Kwang [Soonchunhyang Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    An additional unit step for the residual actinide recovery, designated as 'Pyro-Reisodex', was proposed to convert all the spent nuclear waste into low and intermediated level water by achieving high decontamination factor for TRH elements. The measurement of basic material properties of lanthanide elements in LiCl-KCl eutectic molten salt is necessary to evaluate the performance of the step. Thus, standard potential, activity coefficient, and diffusion coefficient of lanthanide elements is being tried to determine using conventional electrochemical methods. The cycle voltammetry was measured for LiCl-KCl-SmCl{sub 3} mixture and the standard potential, activity coefficient, and diffusion coefficient of this system was determined from the voltammogram data. The calculated data was well-agreed with reference. Based on this results, another techniques for other lanthanide elements will be applied for better understanding of LiCl-KCl-LnCl{sub n} system.

  18. Overview of the recovery and processing of {sup 233}U from the Oak Ridge molten salt reactor experiment (MSRE) remediation activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Icenhour, A.S.; Simmons, D.W.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.; Dai, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1965 to 1969 to test the concept of a high-temperature, homogeneous, fluid-fueled reactor. The discovery that UF{sub 6} and F{sub 2} migrated from the storage tanks into distant pipes and a charcoal bed resulted in significant activities to remove and recover the {sup 233}U and to decommission the reactor. The recovered fissile uranium will be converted into uranium oxide (U{sub 3}O{sub 8} ), which is a suitable form for long-term storage. This publication reports the research and several new developments that were needed to carry out these unique activities. (author)

  19. Solid matrix transformation and tracer addition using molten ammonium bifluoride salt as a sample preparation method for laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grate, Jay W; Gonzalez, Jhanis J; O'Hara, Matthew J; Kellogg, Cynthia M; Morrison, Samuel S; Koppenaal, David W; Chan, George C-Y; Mao, Xianglei; Zorba, Vassilia; Russo, Richard E

    2017-09-08

    Solid sampling and analysis methods, such as laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), are challenged by matrix effects and calibration difficulties. Matrix-matched standards for external calibration are seldom available and it is difficult to distribute spikes evenly into a solid matrix as internal standards. While isotopic ratios of the same element can be measured to high precision, matrix-dependent effects in the sampling and analysis process frustrate accurate quantification and elemental ratio determinations. Here we introduce a potentially general solid matrix transformation approach entailing chemical reactions in molten ammonium bifluoride (ABF) salt that enables the introduction of spikes as tracers or internal standards. Proof of principle experiments show that the decomposition of uranium ore in sealed PFA fluoropolymer vials at 230 °C yields, after cooling, new solids suitable for direct solid sampling by LA. When spikes are included in the molten salt reaction, subsequent LA-ICP-MS sampling at several spots indicate that the spikes are evenly distributed, and that U-235 tracer dramatically improves reproducibility in U-238 analysis. Precisions improved from 17% relative standard deviation for U-238 signals to 0.1% for the ratio of sample U-238 to spiked U-235, a factor of over two orders of magnitude. These results introduce the concept of solid matrix transformation (SMT) using ABF, and provide proof of principle for a new method of incorporating internal standards into a solid for LA-ICP-MS. This new approach, SMT-LA-ICP-MS, provides opportunities to improve calibration and quantification in solids based analysis. Looking forward, tracer addition to transformed solids opens up LA-based methods to analytical methodologies such as standard addition, isotope dilution, preparation of matrix-matched solid standards, external calibration, and monitoring instrument drift against external calibration standards.

  20. Hot corrosion behavior of nanostructured Gd2O3 doped YSZ thermal barrier coating in presence of Na2SO4 + V2O5 molten salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixiong Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-based superalloy DZ125 was first sprayed with a NiCrAlY bond coat and followed with a nanostructured 2 mol% Gd2O3−4.5 mol% Y2O3-ZrO2 (2GdYSZ topcoat using air plasma spraying (APS. Hot corrosion behavior of the as-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs were investigated in the presence of 50 wt% Na2SO4 + 50 wt% V2O5 as the corrosive molten salt at 900 °C for 100 h. The analysis results indicate that Gd doped YVO4 and m-ZrO2 crystals were formed as corrosion products due to the reaction of the corrosive salts with stabilizers (Y2O3, Gd2O3 of zirconia. Cross-section morphology shows that a thin layer called TGO was formed at the bond coat/topcoat interface. After hot corrosion test, the proportion of m-ZrO2 phase in nanostructured 2GdYSZ coating is lower than that of nano-YSZ coating. The result reveals that nanostructured 2GdYSZ coating exhibits a better hot corrosion resistance than nano-YSZ coating.

  1. Effect of sand and method of mixing on molten salt properties for an open direct absorption solar receiver/storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQaydi, Muna; Delclos, Thomas; AlMheiri, Saif; Calvet, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    The concept of CSPonD Demo project is based on a single and open molten salt tank as a thermal solar receiver and storage unit. Therefore, the effect of external environment such as sand and air on the thermophysical properties of nitrate salt (60 wt. % sodium nitrate, 40 wt. % potassium nitrate) has been investigated in this work. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) was used to determine the melting, solidification temperatures while the thermal stability and mass loss measurements were carried on Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Measurements under nitrogen indicate that the adding 2% (w/w) sand has negative impact by increasing the solidification temperature, mass loss percentage and decreasing the stability limit. While the melting temperature was not affected by the sand and by the preparation method. On the other hand, measurement under air showed an increase of the stability limit and decrease of the mass loss percentage. Furthermore, the measurements for the mass loss under air did not reach a stable value, which required further investigation.

  2. Structural and Redox Properties of Vanadium Complexes in Molten Salts of Interest for the Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfur Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boghosian, S.; Chrissanthopoulos, A.; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    Electronic absorption (UV/VIS) spectra have been obtained at 450 degrees C from V2O5-K2S2O7 molten mixtures in SO2 ( P-SO2 = 0 - 1.2 atm) gas atmospheres. The data are in agreement with the V-V reversible arrow V-IV equilibrium: (VO)(2)O(SO4)(4)(4-)(l) + SO2(g) - 2VO(SO4)(2)(2-)(l) + SO3(g). Sulfur...... dioxide does not coordinate to the V-V complex but starts significantly to coordinate to V-IV for P-SO2 > 0 4 atm in accordance with the equilibrium: VO(SO4)(2)(2-)(l) + SO2(g) reversible arrow VO(SO4)(2)SO22-(l). Furthermore, high temperature Raman spectroscopy has been used to establish the structural...

  3. South Atlantic interbasin exchanges of mass, heat, salt and anthropogenic carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, G.R.; McDonagh, E.L.; King, B.A.; Bryden, H.L.; Bakker, D.C.E.; Brown, P.J.; Schuster, U.; Speer, K.G.; van Heuven, S.M.A.C.

    2017-01-01

    The exchange of mass, heat, salt and anthropogenic carbon (Cant) between the South Atlantic, south of 24°S, and adjacent ocean basins is estimated from hydrographic data obtained during 2008–2009 using an inverse method. Transports of anthropogenic carbon are calculated across the western (Drake

  4. Hot corrosion behaviour of Fe-Al based intermetallic in molten NaVO{sub 3} salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Medina, M.A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P. 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: maespin@imp.mx; Carbajal-De la Torre, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, UMSNH, Santiago Tapia 403 Col. Centro, C.P. 58098 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Liu, H.B. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P. 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Martinez-Villafane, A. [CIMAV, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G. [CIMAV, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); UAEM-CIICAP, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-06-15

    The hot corrosion of sprayed Fe-40 (at.%)Al intermetallic alloy with additions of boron and alumina whiskers in molten NaVO{sub 3} at 700 deg. C has been evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS, techniques. For short exposure times, the corrosion mechanism under these conditions was observed to be controlled by an activation process, whereas for longer exposure times, the corrosion process was under diffusion control due to the growing of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxide scale, which made the diffusion of both reducing and oxidizing species through the scale to the alloy or scale surfaces more difficult. Equivalent electric model used to simulate the EIS data showed that a finite length Warburg diffusion could properly characterize the diffusion process, which confirmed the formation of a compact corrosion product scales containing rich aluminium oxide. Thus, the corrosion process was under diffusion control of aggressive ions through the formed scale. The electrochemical study was complemented by scanning electronic microscopy characterization and micro chemical analysis.

  5. Near-Net-Shape Production of Hollow Titanium Alloy Components via Electrochemical Reduction of Metal Oxide Precursors in Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Di; Xiao, Wei; Chen, George Z.

    2013-04-01

    Metal oxide precursors (ca. 90 wt pct Ti, 6 wt pct Al, and 4 wt pct V) were prepared with a hollow structure in various shapes such as a sphere, miniature golf club head, and cup using a one-step solid slip-casting process. The precursors were then electro-deoxidized in molten calcium chloride [3.2 V, 1173 K (900 °C)] against a graphite anode. After 24 hours of electrolysis, the near-net-shape Ti-6Al-4V product maintained its original shape with controlled shrinkage. Oxygen contents in the Ti-6Al-4V components were typically below 2000 ppm. The maximum compressive stress and modulus of electrolytic products obtained in this work were approximately 243 MPa and 14 GPa, respectively, matching with the requirement for medical implants. Further research directions are discussed for mechanical improvement of the products via densification during or after electrolysis. This simple, fast, and energy-efficient near-net-shape manufacturing method could allow titanium alloy components with desired geometries to be prepared directly from a mixture of metal oxides, promising an innovative technology for the low-cost production of titanium alloy components.

  6. Experimental investigation on the formation mechanism of the TiFe alloy by the molten-salt electrolytic titanium concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ferrotitanium alloy was prepared in the molten CaCl2 system, in which resolidified ilmenite and the graphite crucible were used as cathode and anode. In this study, the electrolytic voltage was fixed at 3.1V, and three different temperatures were applied: 850oC, 875oC and 900ºC. Finally, the product was examined by SEM and XRD to determine the phase transformation after the electrolysis. The results show that the ilmenite was firstly reduced to Fe, and finally the TiFe alloy was formed. The intermediate products include CaTiO3, TiO2, Ti2O3, TiO, Fe, TiFe2, and Ti. Different product and structure can be obtained by changing temperature. According to thermodynamic calculation, the principal electroreduction products are Ti and TiFe2 and then Ti and TiFe2 are formed by interdiffusion which is governed by temperature.

  7. Coolant Compatibility Studies for Fusion and Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor Concepts: Corrosion of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron-Chromium Steels and Tantalum in High Temperature Molten Fluoride Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); El-dasher, Bassem [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ferreira, James [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Caro, Magdalena Serrano de [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kimura, Akihiko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy

    2010-05-04

    Alloys such as 12YWT & 14YWT have exceptional high-temperature strength at temperatures greater than 550 C. This class of materials has also demonstrated relatively little radiation induced swelling at damage levels of at least 75 dpa in sodium-cooled fast reactors. However, corrosion of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels in high temperature molten fluoride salts may limit the life of advanced reactor systems, including some fusion and fusionfission hybrid systems that are now under consideration. This paper reports corrosion studies of ODS steel in molten fluoride salts at temperatures ranging from 600 to 900 C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to measure the temperature dependence of charge transfer kinetics in situ, while an environmental electron microscope (ESEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used for postexposure examination of test samples. ODS steel experienced corrosion in the molten fluoride salts at 550 to 900 C, even in carefully controlled glove-box environments with very low levels of oxygen and moisture. The observed rate of attack was found to accelerate dramatically at temperatures above 800 C. Tantalum and tantalum-based alloys such as Ta-1W and Ta-10W have exceptional high temperature strength, far better than ODS steels. Unlike ODS steels, tantalum has been found to exhibit some immunity to corrosive attack by molten fluoride salts at temperatures as high as 900 C, though there is some indication that grain boundary attack may have occurred. Unfortunately, tantalum alloys are known to become brittle during irradiation and exposure to hydrogen, both of which are important in fusion applications.

  8. Electrodeposition of Al-Ta alloys in NaCl-KCl-AlCl{sub 3} molten salt containing TaCl{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kazuki; Matsushima, Hisayoshi; Ueda, Mikito, E-mail: mikito@eng.hokudai.ac.jp

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Electrodeposition of Al-Ta alloys in an AlCl{sub 3}-NaCl-KCl-TaCl{sub 5} melt was carried out. • We were obtained 72 at% Ta-Al alloy at 0.3 V. • Amorphous Ta-Al was formed in high Ta concentration. - Abstract: To form Al-Ta alloys for high temperature oxidation resistance components, molten salt electrolysis was carried out in an AlCl{sub 3}-NaCl-KCl melt containing TaCl{sub 5} at 423 K. The voltammogram showed two cathodic waves at 0.45 V and 0.7 V vs. Al/Al(III), which may correspond to reduction from Ta(V) to Ta(III) and from Ta(III) to tantalum metal, respectively. Electrodeposits of Al and Ta were obtained in the range from −0.05 to 0.3 V and the highest concentration of Ta in the electrodeposit was 72 at% at 0.3 V. With increasing Ta content in the alloy, the morphology of the electrodeposits became powdery and the particle size smaller.

  9. Environmental health and safety plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Tiner, P.F.; Gosslee, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to environmental protection and safety and health (S and H) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all MSRE operations. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated at the MSRE that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and the best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air.

  10. Synthesis of Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} by molten salts method and its Mössbauer spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Morales, Shirley Saraí; León Flores, Jesús A.; Pérez Mazariego, José Luis, E-mail: mazariego@ciencias.unam.mx; Marquina Fábrega, Vivianne; Gómez González, Raúl W.

    2017-01-01

    A sample of Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} was synthesized by the molten salts method in 2 h at 750 °C with KCl-KBr as reaction media. The sample was characterized with X-ray powder diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction confirms that a sillenite type structure with a cell parameter a=10.190(4) Å was achieved, with only small traces of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In order to get a Mössbauer spectrum with a good signal to noise ratio, the synthesis was made using 95% enriched α–{sup 57}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a Mössbauer spectrum for the Bi{sub 25}FeO{sub 39} has been recorded. The nonappearance of a magnetic sextet confirms its paramagnetic behavior. The measured Mössbauer parameters (IS=0.20±0.004 mm/s and QS=0.2±0.07 mm/s) correspond to Fe{sup +3} in very symmetric surroundings, and rule out some interpretations given to the doublet observed in some Mössbauer spectra of BiFeO{sub 3}.

  11. Electrochemistry of vanadium(II and the electrodeposition of aluminum-vanadium alloys in the aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of vanadium(II was examined in the 66.7-33.3 mole percent aluminum chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt containing dissolved VCl2 at 353 K. Voltammetry experiments revealed that V(II could be electrochemically oxidized to V(III and V(IV. However at slow scan rates the V(II/V(III electrode reaction is complicated by the rapid precipitation of V(III as VCl3. The reduction of V(II occurs at potentials considerably negative of the Al(III/Al electrode reaction, and Al-V alloys cannot be electrodeposited from this melt. However electrodeposition experiments conducted in VCl2-saturated melt containing the additive, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, resulted in Al-V alloys. The vanadium content of these alloys increased with increasing cathodic current density or more negative applied potentials. X-ray analysis of Al-V alloys that were electrodeposited on a rotating copper wire substrate indicated that these alloys did not form or contain an intermetallic compound, but were non-equilibrium or metastable solid solutions. The chloride-pitting corrosion properties of these alloys were examined in aqueous NaCl by using potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Alloys containing ~10 a/o vanadium exhibited a pitting potential that was 0.3 V positive of that for pure aluminum.

  12. The molten salt reactors (MSR) pyro chemistry and fuel cycle for innovative nuclear systems; Congres sur les reacteurs a sels fondus (RSF) pyrochimie et cycles des combustibles nucleaires du futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard, Ph. [GEDEON, Groupement de Recherche CEA CNRS EDF FRAMATOME (France); Garzenne, C.; Mouney, H. [and others

    2002-07-01

    In the frame of the studies on next generation nuclear systems, and especially for the molten salt reactors and for the integrated fuel cycle (as IFR), the fuel cycle constraints must be taken into account in the preliminary studies of the system to improve the cycle and reactor optimisation. Among the purposes for next generation nuclear systems, sustainability and waste (radio-toxicity and mass) management are important goals. These goals imply reprocessing and recycling strategies. The objectives of this workshop are to present and to share the different strategies and scenarios, the needs based on these scenarios, the experimental facilities available today or in the future and their capabilities, the needs for demonstration. It aims at: identifying the needs for fuel cycle based on solid fuel or liquid fuel, and especially, the on-line reprocessing or clean up for the molten salt reactors; assessing the state-of-the-art on the pyro-chemistry applied to solid fuel and to present the research activities; assessing the state-of-the-art on liquid fuels (or others), and to present the research activities; expressing the R and D programs for pyro-chemistry, molten salt, and also to propose innovative processes; and proposing some joint activities in the frame of GEDEON and PRACTIS programs. This document brings together the transparencies of 18 contributions dealing with: scenario studies with AMSTER concept (Scenarios, MSR, breeders (Th) and burners); fuel cycle for innovative systems; current reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in molten salts (review of pyro-chemistry processes (non nuclear and nuclear)); high temperature NMR spectroscopies in molten salts; reductive extraction of An from molten fluorides (salt - liquid metal extraction); electrochemistry characterisation; characterisation with physical methods - extraction coefficient and kinetics; electrolytic extraction; dissolution-precipitation of plutonium in the eutectic LiCl-KCl (dissolution and

  13. Improving Dielectric Properties of PVDF Composites by Employing Surface Modified Strong Polarized BaTiO₃ Particles Derived by Molten Salt Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Hou, Yudong; Zheng, Mupeng; Wei, Qiaoyi; Zhu, Mankang; Yan, Hui

    2015-11-11

    BaTiO3/polyvinylidene fluoride (BT/PVDF) is the extensive reported composite material for application in modern electric devices. However, there still exists some obstacles prohibiting the further improvement of dielectric performance, such as poor interfacial compatibility and low dielectric constant. Therefore, in depth study of the size dependent polarization and surface modification of BT particle is of technological importance in developing high performance BT/PVDF composites. Here, a facile molten-salt synthetic method has been applied to prepare different grain sized BT particles through tailoring the calcination temperature. The size dependent spontaneous polarizationof BT particle was thoroughly investigated by theoretical calculation based on powder X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinement data. The results revealed that 600 nm sized BT particles possess the strong polarization, ascribing to the ferroelectric size effect. Furthermore, the surface of optimal BT particles has been modified by water-soluble polyvinylprrolidone (PVP) agent, and the coated particles exhibited fine core-shell structure and homogeneous dispersion in the PVDF matrix. The dielectric constant of the resulted composites increased significantly, especially, the prepared composite with 40 vol % BT loading exhibited the largest dielectric constant (65, 25 °C, 1 kHz) compared with the literature values of BT/PVDF at the same concentration of filler. Moreover, the energy storage density of the composites with tailored structure was largely enhanced at the low electric field, showing promising application as dielectric material in energy storage device. Our work suggested that introduction of strong polarized ferroelectric particles with optimal size and construction of core-shell structured coated fillers by PVP in the PVDF matrix are efficacious in improving dielectric performance of composites. The demonstrated approach can also be applied to the design and preparation of other polymers

  14. Ultralow Loading of Silver Nanoparticles on Mn2O3 Nanowires Derived with Molten Salts: A High-Efficiency Catalyst for the Oxidative Removal of Toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiguang; He, Shengnan; Xie, Shaohua; Yang, Huanggen; Liu, Yuxi; Guo, Guangsheng; Dai, Hongxing

    2015-09-15

    Using a mixture of NaNO3 and NaF as molten salt and MnSO4 and AgNO3 as metal precursors, 0.13 wt % Ag/Mn2O3 nanowires (0.13Ag/Mn2O3-ms) were fabricated after calcination at 420 °C for 2 h. Compared to the counterparts derived via the impregnation and poly(vinyl alcohol)-protected reduction routes as well as the bulk Mn2O3-supported silver catalyst, 0.13Ag/Mn2O3-ms exhibited a much higher catalytic activity for toluene oxidation. At a toluene/oxygen molar ratio of 1/400 and a space velocity of 40,000 mL/(g h), toluene could be completely oxidized into CO2 and H2O at 220 °C over the 0.13Ag/Mn2O3-ms catalyst. Furthermore, the toluene consumption rate per gram of noble metal over 0.13Ag/Mn2O3-ms was dozens of times as high as that over the supported Au or AuPd alloy catalysts reported in our previous works. It is concluded that the excellent catalytic activity of 0.13Ag/Mn2O3-ms was associated with its high dispersion of silver nanoparticles on the surface of Mn2O3 nanowires and good low-temperature reducibility. Due to high efficiency, good stability, low cost, and convenient preparation, 0.13Ag/Mn2O3-ms is a promising catalyst for the practical removal of volatile organic compounds.

  15. Modeling of salt and pH gradient elution in ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Hafner, Mathias; Frech, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The separation of proteins by internally and externally generated pH gradients in chromatofocusing on ion-exchange columns is a well-established analytical method with a large number of applications. In this work, a stoichiometric displacement model was used to describe the retention behavior of lysozyme on SP Sepharose FF and a monoclonal antibody on Fractogel SO3 (S) in linear salt and pH gradient elution. The pH dependence of the binding charge B in the linear gradient elution model is introduced using a protein net charge model, while the pH dependence of the equilibrium constant is based on a thermodynamic approach. The model parameter and pH dependences are calculated from linear salt gradient elutions at different pH values as well as from linear pH gradient elutions at different fixed salt concentrations. The application of the model for the well-characterized protein lysozyme resulted in almost identical model parameters based on either linear salt or pH gradient elution data. For the antibody, only the approach based on linear pH gradients is feasible because of the limited pH range useful for salt gradient elution. The application of the model for the separation of an acid variant of the antibody from the major monomeric form is discussed. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Synthesis and radioiodination of di-iodo-Evan's blue via isotopic exchange reaction in the molten state and evaluation of the kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Azony, K.M. [Research Center Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry]|[Hot Lab. Center, Cairo (Egypt). Radioactive Isotopes and Generators Dept.; Bier, D.; Coenen, H.H. [Research Center Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    Many aryl halides were synthesized from aryl amines such as iodo-trypan, iodo-methylene blue and iodo-toluidine. Methylene blue and toludine blue are phenothiazinium dyes and were used to localize parathyroid glands visually during surgery. Radioiodination of these compounds by using iodine-123 analogues for scintgraphic localization of parathyroids was reported. Radiolabelled dyes administered may also localize in tumor tissues. Evan's blue dye was used to study altered sarcolemmal permeability in dystrophic muscle fibers, and in animals to study muscular dystrophy. In this work Diiodo-Evan's blue was synthesized via Sandmeyer reaction and characterized by mass spectrum analysis. A procedure for labelling DIEB with Na{sup 131}I via isotopic exchange in molten medium was developed. The labelling conditions studied for the isotopic exchange of {sup 131}I-for-I in DIEB included the effect of temperature and solvents (melt of acetamide, benzoic and pivalic acid). Kinetic studies were performed to obtain [{sup 131}I] DIEB with more reliable reaction conditions. Quality control for the final product ([{sup 131}I] DIEB) was performed by HPLC. (orig.)

  17. Salt Marsh Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance: Improving Methods to Quantify the Role of Lateral (Tidal) Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, K. D.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal wetlands are prime candidates for greenhouse gas emission offsets as they display extraordinarily high rates of carbon (C) sequestration. However, lack of data about rates of and controls on C sequestration in tidal wetlands, as well as substantial temporal and spatial heterogeneity, complicate development of both models and a methodology for use by C registries. The goals of our field research are to improve understanding of the climatic role of coastal wetlands, quantify potential for GHG emission offsets through restoration or preservation, and quantify impacts of eutrophication and other environmental factors. Among our objectives is to construct C and greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets for salt marshes, based on measurements of GHG exchanges with the atmosphere, C storage in soils, and lateral (tidal) exchanges of gases, C, and sediment. In this presentation, emphasis is on rate and source of tidal exchanges between salt marshes and adjacent estuaries. We measured fluxes by collecting high frequency data on tidal water flows and physical and chemical conditions in wetland channels using acoustic and optical sensors, as well as laser absorption spectrometry. To provide site-specific calibrations of sensors, we collected water samples across tidal cycles and seasons. Source investigations include analysis of stable isotope and lipid compositions. We used multiple regressions to estimate dissolved organic (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations at high frequency over extended time. Carbon flux was calculated as the product of concentration and water flux, corrected for modeled flow outside of the tidal creek. Annual rates of net C flux from wetland to estuary indicate that both DOC and DIC are large terms in the salt marsh carbon budget relative to net exchange with the atmosphere and rate of storage in soil, and that DIC flux may have been underestimated in previous studies.

  18. Catalysis in Molten Ionic Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boghosian, Soghomon; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    This chapter deals with catalysis in molten salts and ionic liquids, which are introduced and reviewed briefly, while an in-depth review of the oxidation catalyst used for the manufacturing of sulfuric acid and cleaning of flue gas from electrical power plants is the main topic of the chapter...

  19. Salt tolerance and regulation of gas exchange and hormonal homeostasis by auxin-priming in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the regulatory effects of auxin-priming on gas exchange and hormonal homeostasis in spring wheat subjected to saline conditions. Seeds of MH-97 (salt-intolerant and Inqlab-91 (salt-tolerant cultivars were subjected to 11 priming treatments (three hormones x three concentrations + two controls and evaluated under saline (15 dS m-1 and nonsaline (2.84 dS m-1 conditions. The priming treatments consisted of: 5.71, 8.56, and 11.42 × 10-4 mol L-1 indoleacetic acid; 4.92, 7.38, and 9.84 × 10-4 mol L-1 indolebutyric acid; 4.89, 7.34, and 9.79 × 10-4 mol L-1 tryptophan; and a control with hydroprimed seeds. A negative control with nonprimed seeds was also evaluated. All priming agents diminished the effects of salinity on endogenous abscisic acid concentration in the salt-intolerant cultivar. Grain yield was positively correlated with net CO2 assimilation rate and endogenous indoleacetic acid concentration, and it was negatively correlated with abscisic acid and free polyamine concentrations. In general, the priming treatment with tryptophan at 4.89 × 10-4 mol L-1 was the most effective in minimizing yield losses and reductions in net CO2 assimilation rate, under salt stress conditions. Hormonal homeostasis increases net CO2 assimilation rate and confers tolerance to salinity on spring wheat.

  20. GAS EXCHANGE AND CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE OF CITRUS ROOTSTOCK VARIETIES UNDER SALT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS ERIC BARBOSA BRITO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT High salt concentration in water are common in Brazilian semirad region, being important to research alternatives for use this waters on crop, like use of tolerant genotypes to salinity. Thus, in order to evaluate the saline stress perception of citrus rootstocks varieties crop from gas exchange and fluorescence analysis, an experiment was realized in greenhouse at the Center for Science and Technology Agrifood, CCTA, of Federal University of Campina Grande, UFCG, Pombal, PB, Brazil. It was studied in a randomized block design with factorial scheme (2x4, two salinity levels (0.3 and 4.0 dSm-1 and four varieties of citrus rootstocks [1 -common Sunki mandarin (TSKC, 2 - Florida Rough lemon (LRF, 3 -Santa Cruz Rangpur lime (LCRSTC and 4-Volkamer lemon (LVK], with three replications. The citrus rootstocks varieties grown on hydroponic system and at 90 days after sowing the plants were evaluated by gas exchange and PSII fluorescence at 0, 24 and 48 hours after application of treatments to determine the times for the physiological establishment of salt stress. The first 48h under saline conditions promoted changes in gas exchange and PSII fluorescence in varieties TSKC, LRF and LCRSTC indicating the begin of physiological stress; the common ‘Sunki’ mandarin and the ‘Florida Rough’ lemon are the more sensitive genotypes to saline stress, in order hand the ‘Santa Cruz Rangpur’ lime and ‘Volkamer’ lemon are the genotypes more tolerant.

  1. Aluminum Manganese Molten Salt Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    cyanide waste products are generated during all stages of the cadmium plating lifecycle . The cadmium plating process generates spent plating bath and...X Check caustic line and PVC circulation piping for leaks X Verify pH at laboratory X Measure conductivity X Replace rinse...tank, which is then routed to the rinse tank. At the rinse tank, the chemical will be injected via appropriate fittings into to a PVC pipe loop which

  2. thermic oil and molten salt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boukelia T.E, Mecibah M.S and Laouafi A

    1 mai 2016 ... qui circule dans le champ solaire. Une fois que la géométrie et les propriétés optiques et thermiques sont définies, les performances du CCP peuvent être calculées sous des différentes configurations et conditions météorologiques. Les CCP sont généralement exploités jusqu'à des températures allant à ...

  3. Hydraulic conductivity in response to exchangeable sodium percentage and solution salt concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luiz de Aguiar Paes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductivity is determined in laboratory assays to estimate the flow of water in saturated soils. However, the results of this analysis, when using distilled or deionized water, may not correspond to field conditions in soils with high concentrations of soluble salts. This study therefore set out to determine the hydraulic conductivity in laboratory conditions using solutions of different electrical conductivities in six soils representative of the State of Pernambuco, with the exchangeable sodium percentage adjusted in the range of 5-30%. The results showed an increase in hydraulic conductivity with both decreasing exchangeable sodium percentage and increasing electrical conductivity in the solution. The response to the treatments was more pronounced in soils with higher proportion of more active clays. Determination of hydraulic conductivity in laboratory is routinely performed with deionized or distilled water. However, in salt affected soils, these determinations should be carried out using solutions of electrical conductivity different from 0 dS m-1, with values close to those determined in the saturation extracts.

  4. Molten-salt synthesis of oxyapatite La{sub 9.33}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26} powders as electrolytes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhaoxiang [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wenhua College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Buyin; Liu, Jia [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Lanthanum silicate oxy-apatites are thought of as ytrria-stabilized zirconia substitutes in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Lanthanum silicate oxy-apatite powders La{sub 9.33}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26} are successfully synthesized at lower temperature by a molten-salt method. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and precision impedance analysis used to characterize the structure, appearance, and conductivity of La{sub 9.33}Si{sub 6}O{sub 26}. The results indicate that the apatite phase has been synthesized. The synthesis method decreases the synthesis temperature by about 300 C in comparison to the conventional solid-state reaction route and obtains homogeneous and nanosize powders. Dense ceramics have been prepared at sintering temperatures around 1450 C. The used of molten-salt powders allows a decrease of the dense ceramic pellet sintering temperature of about 200 C. The ceramic pellets sintering at 1550 C for 4 h have a relative density of 92% and an electrical conductivity of 1.1 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 700 C, higher than the some reported for the solid-state synthesis method and the sol-gel method. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX reg sign ) molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  6. Various methods to improve heat transfer in exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Zitek; Vaclav, Valenta

    2015-05-01

    The University of West Bohemia in Pilsen (Department of Power System Engineering) is working on the selection of effective heat exchangers. Conventional shell and tube heat exchangers use simple segmental baffles. It can be replaced by helical baffles, which increase the heat transfer efficiency and reduce pressure losses. Their usage is demonstrated in the primary circuit of IV. generation MSR (Molten Salt Reactors). For high-temperature reactors we consider the use of compact desk heat exchangers, which are small, which allows the integral configuration of reactor. We design them from graphite composites, which allow up to 1000°C and are usable as exchangers: salt-salt or salt-acid (e.g. for the hydrogen production). In the paper there are shown thermo-physical properties of salts, material properties and principles of calculations.

  7. Temporal and spatial variation in CO2 exchange in a salt marsh dominated estuary (PIE LTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, I.; Giblin, A. E.; Morris, J. T.; Hopkinson, C.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marshes are important carbon sinks, but large uncertainties about current rates of carbon exchange with the atmosphere and the ocean remain. These need to be constrained for a better assessment of changes in long-term drivers such as sea level and climate. At the Plum Island Ecosystems LTER, we are expecting a transition from the current Spartina patens dominated high marsh to a more frequently flooded Spartina alterniflora dominated low marsh with increasing sea level. We have set up two eddy covariance sites, one in a high marsh (starting in 2013) and one in a low marsh (starting in 2015) to study net ecosystem CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration (ET). We use a broad-band NDVI to monitor phenology at both sites, which is tightly coupled to the CO2 fluxes. While the temporal dynamics do not vary much between the years, the magnitude in NDVI and CO2 fluxes does: For the high marsh site, we observe lower NDVI (and smaller overall net CO2 uptake) in years with low rainfall during the growing season, e.g. in 2014 and likely in 2016. In 2014, a low rainfall period occurred at the beginning of the growing season, during which ET was slightly higher than in other years, which likely increased soil salinity. In 2016, the period of low rainfall has extended much longer into the growing season (on-going) which seems to have an overall stronger effect (i.e. decrease) on low marsh net CO2 uptake than on the high marsh. We will discuss our findings in the context of salt marsh hydrology and carbon cycling in high and low marsh.

  8. Azilsartan Improves Salt Sensitivity by Modulating the Proximal Tubular Na+-H+ Exchanger-3 in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Hatanaka

    Full Text Available A potent angiotensin II type-1 receptor blocker, azilsartan, has been reported to reduce blood pressure more effectively than candesartan. Interestingly, azilsartan can also restore the circadian rhythm of blood pressure. We hypothesized that azilsartan could also improve salt sensitivity; thus, we examined the effect of azilsartan on sodium handling in renal tubules. Subtotal nephrectomized C57BL/6 mice received azilsartan (1.0 mg/kg/day, candesartan (0.3 mg/kg/day, or vehicle via the oral route in conjunction with a normal- (0.3% or high-salt (8.0% diet. Two weeks later, the azilsartan group showed significantly lower blood pressure during the light period than the candesartan and vehicle groups (azilsartan: 103.1 ± 1.0; candesartan: 111.7 ± 2.7; vehicle: 125.5 ± 2.5 mmHg; P < 0.05; azilsartan or candesartan vs. vehicle. The azilsartan group also showed higher urinary fractional excretion of sodium during the dark period than the candesartan and vehicle groups (azilsartan: 21.37 ± 3.69%; candesartan: 14.17 ± 1.42%; vehicle: 13.85 ± 5.30%; P < 0.05 azilsartan vs. candesartan or vehicle. A pressure-natriuresis curve demonstrated that azilsartan treatment restored salt sensitivity. Immunofluorescence and western blotting showed lower levels of Na+-H+ exchanger-3 (NHE3 protein (the major sodium transporter in renal proximal tubules in the azilsartan group, but not in the candesartan or vehicle groups. However, azilsartan did not affect NHE3 transcription levels. Interestingly, we did not observe increased expression of downstream sodium transporters, which would have compensated for the increased flow of sodium and water due to non-absorption by NHE3. We also confirmed the mechanism stated above using cultured opossum kidney proximal tubular cells. Results revealed that a proteasomal inhibitor (but not a lysosomal inhibitor blocked the azilsartan-induced decrease in NHE3 protein expression, suggesting that azilsartan increases NHE3

  9. Molten carbonate fuel cell research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunstein, J.; Bronstein, H. R.; Cantor, S.; Heatherly, D.; Vallet, C. E.

    1977-05-01

    The activities at ORNL during the period July 1976 to February 1977 on the molten carbonate fuel cell program, funded by the ERDA Division of Conservation Research and Technology, are summarized. This period marks the initiation of molten carbonate fuel cell research at ORNL, making use of the extensive background of expertise and facilities in molten salt research. The activities described include a literature survey on molten carbonates, design, acquisition and installation of apparatus for experimental studies of molten carbonates, initial experiments on materials compatibility with molten carbonates, electrolysis experiments for the determination of transference numbers, and theoretical studies of transport behavior and the coupling of mass flows in molten carbonate mixtures. Significant accomplishments were the theoretical prediction of a possibly appreciable change in the alkali ion ratio at molten carbonate fuel cell electrodes, operated at high current densities, as a result of mobility differences of the alkali ions; design, construction and assembly of an electrolysis cell, and initiation of measurements of composition profiles in mixed alkali carbonate electrolytes; initiation of differential scanning calorimetry of pure alkali carbonates for quantitative measurement of transition enthalpies, eventually leading to new, more reliable values of the enthalpies and free energies of formation of the pure and mixed carbonates.

  10. Analytical Study on Thermal and Mechanical Design of Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Su-Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Eung-Soo [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The analytical methodologies for the thermal design, mechanical design and cost estimation of printed circuit heat exchanger are presented in this study. In this study, three flow arrangements of parallel flow, countercurrent flow and crossflow are taken into account. For each flow arrangement, the analytical solution of temperature profile of heat exchanger is introduced. The size and cost of printed circuit heat exchangers for advanced small modular reactors, which employ various coolants such as sodium, molten salts, helium, and water, are also presented.

  11. LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W

    2007-11-30

    This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA

  12. UV-VIS absorption spectra of molten AgCl and AgBr and of their mixtures with group I and II halide salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greening, Giorgio G.W. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Eduard-Zintl-Institut fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie

    2015-07-01

    The UV-VIS absorption spectra of (Ag{sub 1-X}[Li-Cs, Ba]{sub X})Cl and of (Ag{sub 1-X}[Na, K, Cs]{sub X})Br at 823 K at the concentrations X=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 have been measured. The findings show that on adding the respective halides to molten silver chloride and silver bromide, shifts of the fundamental absorption edge to shorter wavelengths result. A correlation between the observed shifts and the expansion of the silver sub-lattice is found, which is valid for both silver halide systems studied in this work.

  13. Electrolysis of a molten semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huayi; Chung, Brice; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Metals cannot be extracted by electrolysis of transition-metal sulfides because as liquids they are semiconductors, which exhibit high levels of electronic conduction and metal dissolution. Herein by introduction of a distinct secondary electrolyte, we reveal a high-throughput electro-desulfurization process that directly converts semiconducting molten stibnite (Sb2S3) into pure (99.9%) liquid antimony and sulfur vapour. At the bottom of the cell liquid antimony pools beneath cathodically polarized molten stibnite. At the top of the cell sulfur issues from a carbon anode immersed in an immiscible secondary molten salt electrolyte disposed above molten stibnite, thereby blocking electronic shorting across the cell. As opposed to conventional extraction practices, direct sulfide electrolysis completely avoids generation of problematic fugitive emissions (CO2, CO and SO2), significantly reduces energy consumption, increases productivity in a single-step process (lower capital and operating costs) and is broadly applicable to a host of electronically conductive transition-metal chalcogenides. PMID:27553525

  14. Pyro-Electrochemical Reduction of a Mixture of Rare Earth Oxides and NiO in LiCl molten Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Woo; Jeong, Sang Mun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    An electrochemical reduction of a mixture of NiO and rare earth oxides has been conducted to increase the reduction degree of rare earth oxides. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement was carried out to determine the electrochemical reduction behavior of the mixed oxide in molten LiCl medium. Constant voltage electrolysis was performed with various supplied charges to understand the mechanism of electrochemical reduction of the mixed oxide as a working electrode. After completion of the electrochemical reduction, crystal structure of the reaction intermediates was characterized by using an X-ray diffraction method. The results clearly demonstrate that the rare earth oxide was converted to RE-Ni intermetallics via co-reduction with NiO.

  15. Development of electrolytic process in molten salt media for light rare-earth metals production. The metallic cerium electrodeposition; Desenvolvimento de processo de eletrolise em meio de sais fundidos para a producao de metais de terras-raras leves. A obtencao do cerio metalico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, T.A.G.

    1994-12-31

    The development of molten salt process and the respective equipment aiming rare-earth metals recovery was described. In the present case, the liquid cerium metal electrodeposition in a molten electrolytes of cerium chloride and an equimolar mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides in temperatures near 800{sup C} was studied. Due the high chemical reactivity of the rare-earth metals in the liquid state and their molten halides, an electrolytic cell was constructed with controlled atmosphere, graphite crucibles and anodes and a tungsten cathode. The electrolytic process variables and characteristics were evaluated upon the current efficiency and metallic product purity. Based on this evaluations, were suggested some alterations on the electrolytic reactor design and upon the process parameters. (author). 90 refs, 37 figs, 20 tabs.

  16. Electrical conductivity optimization of the Na3AlF6-Al2O3-Sm2O3 molten salts system for Al-Sm intermediate binary alloy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-fa; Jiao, Yun-fen; Wang, Xu; Cai, Bo-qing; Sun, Qiang-chao; Tang, Hao

    2017-09-01

    Metal Sm has been widely used in making Al-Sm magnet alloy materials. Conventional distillation technology to produce Sm has the disadvantages of low productivity, high costs, and pollution generation. The objective of this study was to develop a molten salt electrolyte system to produce Al-Sm alloy directly, with focus on the electrical conductivity and optimal operating conditions to minimize the energy consumption. The continuously varying cell constant (CVCC) technique was used to measure the conductivity for the Na3AlF6-AlF3-LiF-MgF2-Al2O3-Sm2O3 electrolysis medium in the temperature range from 905 to 1055°C. The temperature ( t) and the addition of Al2O3 ( W(Al2O3)), Sm2O3 ( W(Sm2O3)), and a combination of Al2O3 and Sm2O3 into the basic fluoride system were examined with respect to their effects on the conductivity ( κ) and activation energy. The experimental results showed that the molten electrolyte conductivity increases with increasing temperature ( t) and decreases with the addition of Al2O3 or Sm2O3 or both. We concluded that the optimal operation conditions for Al-Sm intermediate alloy production in the Na3AlF6-AlF3-LiF-MgF2-Al2O3-Sm2O3 system are W(Al2O3) + W(Sm2O3) = 3wt%, W(Al2O3): W(Sm2O3) = 7:3, and a temperature of 965 to 995°C, which results in satisfactory conductivity, low fluoride evaporation losses, and low energy consumption.

  17. Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts; Determination par spectrometrie gamma de la teneur en plutonium et en americium de produits issus de separation Pu/Am. Application aux bains de sels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godot, A. [CEA Valduc, Dept. de Traitement des Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Perot, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, Service de Modelisation des Transferts et Mesures Nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

  18. Salicylic acid confers salt tolerance in potato plants by improving water relations, gaseous exchange, antioxidant activities and osmoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faried, Hafiz Nazar; Ayyub, Chaudhary Muhammad; Amjad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Rashid; Wattoo, Fahad Masoud; Butt, Madiha; Bashir, Mohsin; Shaheen, Muhammad Rashid; Waqas, Muhammad Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Potato is an important vegetable; however, salt stress drastically affects its growth and yield. A pot experiment was therefore conducted to assess salicylic acid efficacy in improving performance of potato cultivars, grown under salt stress (50 mmol L-1 ). Salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L-1 was sprayed on to potato plants after 1 week of salinity application. Salt stress effects were ameliorated by salicylic acid effectively in both the studied cultivars. N-Y LARA proved more responsive to salicylic acid application than 720-110 NARC, which confirmed genetic variation between cultivars. Salicylic acid scavenged reactive oxygen species by improving antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases) and regulating osmotic adjustment (proline, phenolic contents), which led to enhanced water relation and gaseous exchange attributes, and thereby increased potassium availability and reduced sodium content in potato leaves. Moreover, potato tuber yield showed a positive correlation with potassium content, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities. Salt tolerance efficacy of salicylic acid is authenticated in improving potato crop performance under salt stress. Salicylic acid effect was more pronounced in N-Y LARA, reflecting greater tolerance than 720-110 NARC, which was confirmed as a susceptible cultivar. Hence salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L-1 and cultivation of N-Y LARA may be recommended in saline soil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. The use of electro-deoxidation in molten salts to reduce the energy consumption of solar grade silicon and increase the output of PV solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Coxon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar photovoltaics, based upon silicon, are the most popular form of solar cell with efficiencies around 20%. These efficiencies can be further increased by employing light trapping schemes to minimise optical losses through scattering and reflection which enhances the amount of light absorbed and number of photo-carriers generated. Typical approaches employ antireflection coatings (ARCs or texturise the surface of the silicon disks, so that the structure consists of an array of needles which can absorb most of the light. Usually, these structures are created by leaching the silicon with hydrofluoric-based acids or by reactive ion etching (RIE methods. This paper reviews some of the methods for improving the energy efficiency of silicon production, and describes the use of electro-deoxidation of SiO2 layers, on silicon, in molten calcium chloride to form nano-porous black silicon (b-Si structures. By coating b-Si surface with TiO2, a common ARC, extremely black surfaces with negligible reflectance of about 0.1%, are produced, which can have applications for low-cost high efficiency solar cells.

  20. Design and fabrication of a direct contact latent thermal energy storage heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Brown, R. F.

    1984-06-01

    Originally intended for solar-thermal applications, the present direct contact, latent thermal energy storage heat exchanger has a 10 kW-h storage capacity and a 10 kW heat transfer rate. The inorganic eutectic NaNO3-KNO3 salt is used as the latent energy storage medium, and the liquid metal Pb-Bi eutectic is used as an intermediate heat exchange fluid. The heat exchange mechanism injects molten salt droplets at the bottom of a counterflowing liquid metal column.

  1. The evaluation of the pyrochemistry for the treatment of Gen IV nuclear fuels - Inert matrix chlorination studies in the gas phase or molten chloride salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/VRH/DRCP/SCPS/LPP, Bat 399, CEA Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze cedex (France)]. E-mail: stephane.bourg@cea.fr; Peron, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/VRH/DRCP/SCPS/LPP, Bat 399, CEA Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze cedex (France); Lacquement, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DEN/VRH/DRCP/SCPS/LPP, Bat 399, CEA Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze cedex (France)

    2007-01-15

    The structure of the fuels for the future Gen IV nuclear reactors will be totally different from those of PWR, especially for the GFR concept including a closed cycle. In these reactors, fissile materials (carbides or nitrides of actinides) should be surrounded by an inert matrix. In order to build a reprocessing process scheme, the behavior of the potential inert matrices (silicon carbide, titanium nitride, and zirconium carbide and nitride) was studied by hydro- and pyrometallurgy. This paper deals with the chlorination results at high temperature by pyrometallurgy. For the first time, the reactivity of the matrix towards chlorine gas was assessed in the gas phase. TiN, ZrN and ZrC are very reactive from 400 deg. C whereas it is necessary to be over 900 deg. C for SiC to be as fast. In molten chloride melts, the bubbling of chlorine gas is less efficient than in gas phase but it is possible to attack the matrices. Electrochemical methods were also used to dissolve the refractory materials, leading to promising results with TiN, ZrN and ZrC. The massive SiC samples used were not conductive enough to be studied and in this case specific SiC-coated carbon electrodes were used. The key point of these studies was to find a method to separate the matrix compounds from the fissile material in order to link the head to the core of the process (electrochemical separation or liquid-liquid reductive extraction in the case of a pyrochemical reprocessing)

  2. Mechanism of Reaction in NaAlCl4 Molten Salt Batteries with Nickel Felt Cathodes and Aluminum Anodes. Part II: Experimental Results and Comparison with Model Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, B.C.; Berg, Rolf W.; Hjuler, Hans Aage

    1993-01-01

    and cyclability can be obtained with systems containing dissolved chalcogen compared with the chalcogen-free system. Exchange of chalcogen between cathode and electrolyte during cycling was confirmed by performing gravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy of the electrolytes. Cathode reactions were studied...

  3. The chemistry of molten salt mixtures: application to the reductive extraction of lanthanides and actinides by a liquid metal; Chimie des melanges de sels fondus. Application a l'extraction reductrice d'actinides et de lanthanides par un metal liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finne, J

    2005-10-15

    The design of a process of An/Ln separation by liquid - liquid extraction can be used for on-line purification of the molten salt in a molten salt nuclear reactor (Generation IV) as well as reprocessing various spent fuels. In order to establish the chemical properties of An and Ln in molten salt mediums, E - pO{sub 2} - diagrams were established for the relevant chemical elements. With the purpose of checking the possibilities of separating the An from Ln, the real activity coefficients in liquid metals were measured. An experimental protocol was developed and validated on the Gd/Ga system. It was then transferred to radioactive environment to measure the activity coefficient of Pu in Ga. The results made it possible to estimate the effectiveness of the Pu extraction and its separation from Gd and Ce. The selectivity was shown to decrease with the temperature and Al and Ga showed a good selectivity between Pu and the Ce in fluoride medium. (author)

  4. Ion-exchange properties of cell walls of Spinacia oleracea L. roots under different environmental salt conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meychik, N R; Nikolaeva, Yu I; Yermakov, I P

    2006-07-01

    Ion-exchange properties of the polymeric matrix of cell walls isolated from roots of 55-day-old Spinacia oleracea L. (Matador cv.) plants grown in nutrient solution in the presence of 0.5, 150, and 250 mM NaCl and from roots of Suaeda altissima L. Pall plants of the same age grown in the presence of 0.5 and 250 mM NaCl were studied. The ion-exchange capacity of the spinach cell walls was determined at pH values from 2 to 12 and different ionic strength of the solution (10 and 250 mM NaCl). In the structure of the root cell walls, four types of ionogenic groups were found: amine, two types of carboxyl (the first being galacturonic acid residue), and phenolic groups. The content of each type of group and their ionization constants were evaluated. The ion-exchange properties of spinach and the halophyte Suaeda altissima L. Pall were compared, and the qualitative composition of the ion-exchange groups in the cell walls of roots of these plants appeared to be the same and not depend on conditions of the root nutrition. The content of carboxyl groups of polygalacturonic acid changed in the cell walls of the glycophyte and halophyte depending on the salt concentration in the medium. These changes in the composition of functional groups of the cell wall polymers seemed to be a response of these plants to salt and were more pronounced in the halophyte. A sharp increase in the NaCl concentration in the medium caused a decrease in pH in the extracellular water space as a result of exchange reactions between sodium ions entering from the external solution and protons of carboxyl groups of the cell walls. The findings are discussed from the standpoint of involvement of root cell walls of different plant species in response to salinity.

  5. The effect of foliar feeding of potassium salts and urea in spinach on gas exchange, leaf yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a pot experiment conducted in a phytotron, the effectiveness of foliar feeding of different potassium salts, with and without the addition of 0.5% CO(NH22, in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. was investigated. Potassium was applied 3 times in the form of 1% solutions KCl, KNO3, K2SO4 and C6H5K3O7•H2O, compared to water as the control treatment. The obtained results show that foliar feeding of potassium salts in spinach is an efficient method of supplementing the level of K+ in plants during vegetation. Plants fed with KNO3 had the highest content of potassium in leaves, and those fertilized with K2SO4, C6H5K3O7 × H2O and KCl had an only slightly lower potassium content. The application of potassium salts resulted in more intensive gas exchange in leaves (stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration and, as a consequence of that, increased leaf yield. Potassium nitrate and citrate influenced most effectively the abovementioned processes. The treatment of spinach with potassium salts resulted in an increased content of protein, chlorophyll, carotenoids, nitrates and iron as well as a decreased content of vitamin C and calcium in leaves.

  6. Aluminothermic Reduction-Molten Salt Electrolysis Using Inert Anode for Oxygen and Al-Base Alloy Extraction from Lunar Soil Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kaiyu; Shi, Zhongning; Xu, Junli; Hu, Xianwei; Gao, Bingliang; Wang, Zhaowen

    2017-10-01

    Aluminothermic reduction-electrolysis using an inert anode process is proposed to extract oxygen and metals from Minnesota Lunar Simulant-1 (MLS-1). Effective aluminothermic reduction between dissolved MLS-1 and dissolved metal aluminum was achieved in cryolite salt media. The product phases obtained by aluminothermic reduction at 980°C for 4 h were Al, Si, and Al5FeSi, while the chemical components were 79.71 mass% aluminum, 12.03 mass% silicon, 5.91 mass% iron, and 2.35 mass% titanium. The cryolite salt containing Al2O3 was subsequently electrolyzed with Fe0.58-Ni0.42 inert anode at 960°C for 4 h. Oxygen was evolved at the anode with an anodic current efficiency of 78.28%. The results demonstrate that this two-step process is remarkably feasible for the extraterrestrial extraction of oxygen and metals. This process will help expand the existing in situ resource utilization methods.

  7. Chemical form of released tritium from molten Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} salt under neutron irradiation at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Chemical forms of released tritium from FLIBE (the 2:1 mixture of LiF and BeF{sub 2}) by in-pile tritium release experiment were HT and TF and their proportion depended on the chemical composition of purge gas and the dehumidification time of specimen at high temperatures. The chemical form of tritium was determined by the thermodynamic equilibrium of the isotopic exchange reaction (T{sup +} + H{sub 2} {yields} H{sup +} + HT). (author)

  8. Oxygen sparging of residue salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Griego, W.J.; Owens, S.D.; Thorn, C.W.; Vigil, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    Oxygen sparge is a process for treating salt residues at Los Alamos National Laboratory by sparging oxygen through molten salts. Oxygen reacts with the plutonium trichloride in these salts to form plutonium dioxide. There is further reaction of the plutonium dioxide with plutonium metal and the molten salt to form plutonium oxychloride. Both of the oxide plutonium species are insoluble in the salt and collect atthe bottom of the crucible. This results in a decrease of a factor of 2--3 in the amount of salt that must be treated, and the amount of waste generated by aqueous treatment methods.

  9. OBTAINING OF THE MG2+ FORM OF THE ZEOLITE 4A WITH ION EXCHANGE OF MAGNESIUM SALTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagica Cekova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are sodium alumino silicates which in in their composition contain zeolite water. They have a three-dimensional structure. Spatial structure defined by a strictly defined geometry of pores and cavities. For ionic еchange is used magnesium salt (MgCl2*6H2O whose aqueous solutions were with the following concentrations (MgCl2*6H2O = 2,5; 3.5; 4,5 mol / dm3 , and other parameters of the ion exchange: time t = 20, 30, 40 and temperature of 298 and 330 K. Ionian capacity is calculated as mmgMgO / 1g zeolite.

  10. Process Heat Exchanger Options for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Eung Soo Kim; Michael McKellar; Nolan Anderson

    2011-06-01

    The work reported herein is a significant intermediate step in reaching the final goal of commercial-scale deployment and usage of molten salt as the heat transport medium for process heat applications. The primary purpose of this study is to aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for power production and process heat application, which would support large-scale deployment.

  11. Electron spin resonance study of electron localization and dynamics in metal-molten salt solutions: comparison of M-MX and Ln-LnX sub 3 melts (M alkali metal, Ln = rare earth metal, X = halogen)

    CERN Document Server

    Terakado, O; Freyland, W

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra in liquid K-KCl and M-(NaCl/KCl) sub e sub u sub t mixtures at different concentrations in salt-rich melts approaching the metal-nonmetal transition region. In both systems F-centre-like characteristics are found. Strongly exchange narrowed signals clearly indicate that fast electron exchange occurs on the picosecond timescale. In contrast, the ESR spectra of a (NdCl sub 2)(NdCl sub 3)-(LiCl/KCl) sub e sub u sub t melt are characterized by a large line width of the order of 10 sup 2 mT which decreases with increasing temperature. In this case, the g-factor and correlation time are consistent with the model of intervalence charge transfer, which is supported by recent conductivity and optical measurements. The different transport mechanisms will be discussed.

  12. Liquid surface skimmer apparatus for molten lithium and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Samuel C.; Pollard, Roy E.; Thompson, William F.; Stark, Marshall W.; Currin, Jr., Robert T.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus for separating two fluids having different specific gravities. The invention also relates to a method for using the separating apparatus of the present invention. This invention particularly relates to the skimming of molten lithium metal from the surface of a fused salt electrolyte in the electrolytic production of lithium metal from a mixed fused salt.

  13. Laboratory simulation of heat exchange for liquids with Pr > 1: Heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, I. A.; Zakharova, O. D.; Krasnoshchekova, T. E.; Sviridov, V. G.; Sukomel, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Liquid metals are promising heat transfer agents in new-generation nuclear power plants, such as fast-neutron reactors and hybrid tokamaks—fusion neutron sources (FNSs). We have been investigating hydrodynamics and heat exchange of liquid metals for many years, trying to reproduce the conditions close to those in fast reactors and fusion neutron sources. In the latter case, the liquid metal flow takes place in a strong magnetic field and strong thermal loads resulting in development of thermogravitational convection in the flow. In this case, quite dangerous regimes of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) heat exchange not known earlier may occur that, in combination with other long-known regimes, for example, the growth of hydraulic drag in a strong magnetic field, make the possibility of creating a reliable FNS cooling system with a liquid metal heat carrier problematic. There exists a reasonable alternative to liquid metals in FNS, molten salts, namely, the melt of lithium and beryllium fluorides (Flibe) and the melt of fluorides of alkali metals (Flinak). Molten salts, however, are poorly studied media, and their application requires detailed scientific substantiation. We analyze the modern state of the art of studies in this field. Our contribution is to answer the following question: whether above-mentioned extremely dangerous regimes of MHD heat exchange detected in liquid metals can exist in molten salts. Experiments and numerical simulation were performed in order to answer this question. The experimental test facility represents a water circuit, since water (or water with additions for increasing its electrical conduction) is a convenient medium for laboratory simulation of salt heat exchange in FNS conditions. Local heat transfer coefficients along the heated tube, three-dimensional (along the length and in the cross section, including the viscous sublayer) fields of averaged temperature and temperature pulsations are studied. The probe method for measurements in

  14. Recovery of salts from ion-exchange regeneration streams by a coupled nanofiltration-membrane distillation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiříček, Tomáš; De Schepper, Wim; Lederer, Tomáš; Cauwenberg, Peter; Genné, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Ion-exchange tap water demineralization for process water preparation results in a saline regeneration wastewater (20-100 mS cm(-1)) that is increasingly problematic in view of discharge. A coupled nanofiltration-membrane distillation (NF-MD) process is evaluated for the recovery of water and sodium chloride from this wastewater. NF-MD treatment of mixed regeneration wastewater is compared to NF-MD treatment of separate anion- and cation-regenerate fractions. NF on mixed regeneration wastewater results in a higher flux (30 L m(-2) h(-1) at 7 bar) compared to NF on the separate fractions (6-9 L m(-2) h(-1) at 30 bar). NF permeate recovery is strongly limited by scaling (50% for separate and 60% for mixed, respectively). Physical signs of scaling were found during MD treatment of the NF permeates but did not result in flux decline for mixed regeneration wastewater. Final salt composition is expected to qualify as a road de-icing salt. NF-MD is an economically viable alternative compared to external disposal of wastewater for larger-scale installations (1.4 versus 2.5 euro m(-3) produced demineralized water for a 10 m3 regenerate per day plant). The cost benefits of water re-use and salt recuperation are small when compared to total treatment costs for mixed regenerate wastewater.

  15. Electromigration in molten salts and application to isotopic separation of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements; Electromigration en sels fondus et application a la separation des isotopes des elements alcalins et alcalino-terreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menes, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The separation of the isotopes of the alkaline-earth elements has been studied using counter-current electromigration in molten bromides. The conditions under which the cathode operates as a bromine electrode for the highest possible currents have been examined. For the separation of calcium, it has been necessary to use a stable CaBr{sub 2} - (CaBr{sub 2} + KBr) 'chain'. In the case of barium and strontium, it was possible to employ the pure bromides. Enrichment factors of the order of 10 for {sup 48}Ca and of the order of 1.5 for the rare isotopes of barium and strontium have been obtained. In the case of magnesium the method is slightly more difficult to apply because of material loss due to the relatively high vapour pressure of the salt requiring the use of electrolyte chains, MgBr{sub 2} - CeBr{sub 3}. A study has been made that has led to a larger-scale application of the method. These are essentially the inhibition of reversible operation of the cathode by traces of water, limiting the intensity which can be tolerated; evacuation of the heat produced by the Joule effect, in the absence of which the separation efficiency is reduced by thermal gradients; corrosion of the materials by molten salts at high temperature. Several cells capable of treating a few kilograms of substance have been put into operation; none of these has lasted long enough to produce a satisfactory enrichment. The method is thus limited actually to yields of the order of a few grams. (author) [French] On a etudie la separation des isotopes des elements alcalino-terreux par electromigration a contre-courant en bromures fondus. On a etudie les conditions dans lesquelles la cathode fonctionne en electrode a brome pour des intensites les plus elevees possibles. Pour la separation du calcium, il a ete necessaire d'utiliser une chaine stable CaBr{sub 2} - (CaBr{sub 2} + KBr). Pour le baryum et le strontium, on a pu operer sur les bromures purs. On a obtenu des facteurs d

  16. Electrokinetic salt removal from porous building materials using ion exchange membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamran, K.; Van Soestbergen, M.; Pel, L.

    The removal of salt from porous building materials under the influence of an applied voltage gradient normally results in high pH gradients due to the formation of protons and hydroxyl ions at the electrodes. The formed acidic and alkaline regions not only lead to disintegration of the porous

  17. High temperature active heat exchanger research for latent heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.; Haslett, R.

    1982-02-01

    An active heat exchange method in a latent heat (salt) thermal energy storage system that prevents a low conductivity solid salt layer from forming on heat transfer surfaces was developed. An evaluation of suitable media with melting points in the temperature range of interest (250 to 400 C) limited the candidates to molten salts from the chloride, hydroxide and nitrate families, based on high storage capacity, good corrosion characteristics and availability in large quantities at reasonable cost. The specific salt recommended for laboratory tests was a choride eutectic (20.5KCL o 24.5NaCL o 55.MgCl2% by wt.), with a nominal melting point of 385 C. Various active heat exchange concepts were given a technical and economic comparison to a passive tube shell design for a reference application (300 MW sub t for 6 hours). Test hardware was then built for the most promising concept: a direct contact heat exchanger in which molten salt droplets are injected into a cooler counter flowing stream of liquid metal carrier fluid (lead/Bismuth).

  18. Encapsulation of high temperature molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxley, James D.; Mathur, Anoop Kumar

    2017-05-16

    The present disclosure relates to a method of encapsulating microcapsules containing relatively high temperature phase change materials and the microcapsules so produced. The microcapsules are coated with an inorganic binder, film former and an inorganic filler. The microcapsules may include a sacrificial layer that is disposed between the particle and the coating. The microcapsules may also include an inner coating layer, sacrificial layer and outer coating layer. The microcapsules are particularly useful for thermal energy storage in connection with, e.g., heat collected from concentrating solar collectors.

  19. Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, J.L.; Baroch, C.J.; Litz, J.

    1996-07-19

    The program described in this report studies the suitability of electrodialysis-ion exchange (EDIX) to treat aqueous streams containing heavy metals and radioactive cations in a solution containing sodium and nitrates. The goal of the program was to produce a cation stream containing sodium, heavy metals, and radioactive cations; an anion stream of nitric acid free of heavy metals and radioactive cations; and a product stream that meets discharge criteria. The experimental results, described in detail, indicated that EDIX was not a suitable process for treating wastes containing metals that formed insoluble hydroxides in a basic solution; the metals precipitate in the catholyte and feed compartments, and in the cathode membrane. The test program was therefore terminated prior to completion of all planned activities. 2 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) molten carbonate fuel cell. Volumes 1--6, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  1. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.vigier@ec.europa.eu [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laplace, Annabelle [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Renard, Catherine [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Miguirditchian, Manuel [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Abraham, Francis [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10{sup −4.0}, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl{sub 3} precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO{sub 2} powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation. - Highlights: • Precipitation of Uranium (III) is quantitative in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%). • The salt is oxoacid with a water dissociation constant of 10{sup −4.0} at 705 °C. • Volatility of uranium chloride is strongly reduced in reductive conditions. • Coprecipitation of U(III) and Nd(III) leads to a consecutive precipitation of the two elements.

  2. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alario, J.; Kosson, R.; Haslett, R.

    1980-01-01

    The selection and evaluation phase of a program to develop active heat exchange concepts for latent heat thermal energy storage systems applicable to the utility industry is described. An evaluation of suitable storage media with melting points in the temperature range of interest (250 to 400/sup 0/C) limited the candidates to molten salts from the chloride, hydroxide and nitrate families, based on high storage capacity, good corrosion characteristics and availability in large quantities at reasonable cost. The specific salt recommended for laboratory tests was a chloride eutectic (20.5KCl-24.5NaCl-55.0MgCl/sub 2/% by wt), with a nominal melting point of 385/sup 0/C. Various active heat exchange concepts were identified from among three generic categories: scrapers, agitators/vibrators and slurries. The more practical ones were given a more detailed technical evaluation and an economic comparison with a passive tube-shell design for a reference application (300 MW/sub t/ storage for 6 hours). Two concepts were selected for hardware development: a direct contact heat exchanger in which molten salt droplets are injected into a cooler counterflowing stream of liquid metal carrier fluid, and a rotating drum scraper in which molten salt is sprayed onto the circumference of a rotating drum, which contains the fluid heat sink in an internal annulus near the surface. A fixed scraper blade removes the solidified salt from the surface which has been nickel plated to decrease adhesion forces. In addition to improving performance by providing a nearly constant heat transfer rate during discharge, these active heat exchanger concepts were estimated to cost at least 25% less than the passive tube-shell design.

  3. Mixed-bed ion exchange chromatography employing a salt-free pH gradient for improved sensitivity and compatibility in MudPIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommen, Geert P M; Meiring, Hugo D; Heck, Albert J R; de Jong, Ad P J M

    2013-07-16

    In proteomics, comprehensive analysis of peptides mixtures necessitates multiple dimensions of separation prior to mass spectrometry analysis to reduce sample complexity and increase the dynamic range of analysis. The main goal of this work was to improve the performance of (online) multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) in terms of sensitivity, compatibility and recovery. The method employs weak anion and strong cation mixed-bed ion exchange chromatography (ACE) in the first separation dimension and reversed phase chromatography (RP) in the second separation dimension (Motoyama et.al. Anal. Chem 2007, 79, 3623-34.). We demonstrated that the chromatographic behavior of peptides in ACE chromatography depends on both the WAX/SCX mixing ratio as the ionic strength of the mobile phase system. This property allowed us to replace the conventional salt gradient by a (discontinuous) salt-free, pH gradient. First dimensional separation of peptides was accomplished with mixtures of aqueous formic acid and dimethylsulfoxide with increasing concentrations. The overall performance of this mobile phase system was found comparable to ammonium acetate buffers in application to ACE chromatography, but clearly outperformed strong cation exchange for use in first dimensional peptide separation. The dramatically improved compatibility between (salt-free) ion exchange chromatography and reversed phase chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed us to downscale the dimensions of the RP analytical column down to 25 μm i.d. for an additional 2- to 3-fold improvement in performance compared to current technology. The achieved levels of sensitivity, orthogonality, and compatibility demonstrates the potential of salt-free ACE MudPIT for the ultrasensitive, multidimensional analysis of very modest amounts of sample material.

  4. The effect of foliar nutrition of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. with magnesium salts and urea on gas exchange, leaf yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a pot experiment conducted in a phytotron, the effectiveness of foliar nutrition of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. with different magnesium salts with and without the addition of 0.5% CO(NH22 was studied. Magnesium was applied 3 times in the form of solutions of MgSO4 x 7H2O, Mg(NO32 x 6H2O, MgCl2 x 6H2O, C4H6O4Mg x 4H2O, compared to water as the control treatment. The obtained results showed that foliar feeding of spinach with inorganic magnesium salts was an efficient method for supplementing the Mg level in plants during the growing period. But the application of a metalo-organic complex in the form of magnesium acetate (C4H6O4Mg x 4H2O at a concentration of 1.7%, in spite of a similar effect on leaf Mg content, induced phytotoxic symptoms in the form of chlorotic and necrotic spots on the leaves. The application of the solutions of inorganic magnesium salts had a significant effect, resulting in more intensive leaf gas exchange (stomatal conductance, transpiration and photosynthesis and an increase in leaf yield. Magnesium sulphate affected the abovementioned processes in the most effective way, while magnesium acetate had a negative impact. Foliar feeding of spinach with the magnesium salts resulted in an increased leaf content of protein, chlorophyll, carotenoids, nitrates and proline, but a decrease in vitamin C content. The addition of urea to the applied magnesium salt solutions increased the plant gas exchange rates and the leaf content of protein, chlorophyll, carotenoids, nitrates and proline, but it decreased the content of vitamin C, potassium and magnesium.

  5. Liquid Salts as Media for Process Heat Transfer from VHTR's: Forced Convective Channel Flow Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, and Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd; Corradini, Michael

    2012-01-30

    The goal of this NERI project was to perform research on high temperature fluoride and chloride molten salts towards the long-term goal of using these salts for transferring process heat from high temperature nuclear reactor to operation of hydrogen production and chemical plants. Specifically, the research focuses on corrosion of materials in molten salts, which continues to be one of the most significant challenges in molten salts systems. Based on the earlier work performed at ORNL on salt properties for heat transfer applications, a eutectic fluoride salt FLiNaK (46.5% LiF-11.5%NaF-42.0%KF, mol.%) and a eutectic chloride salt (32%MgCl2-68%KCl, mole %) were selected for this study. Several high temperature candidate Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, were exposed to molten FLiNaK with the goal of understanding corrosion mechanisms and ranking these alloys for their suitability for molten fluoride salt heat exchanger and thermal storage applications. The tests were performed at 850C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion was noted to occur predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries Alloy weight-loss due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys weight-loss was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present for the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. Experiments involving molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in Incoloy-800H crucibles under an argon cover gas showed a significantly lower corrosion for this alloy than when tested in a graphite crucible. Graphite significantly accelerated alloy corrosion due to the reduction of Cr from solution by graphite and formation

  6. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.; Kosson, R.; Haslett, R.

    1980-01-01

    Various active heat exchange concepts were identified from among three generic categories: scrapers, agitators/vibrators and slurries. The more practical ones were given a more detailed technical evaluation and an economic comparison with a passive tube-shell design for a reference application (300 MW sub t storage for 6 hours). Two concepts were selected for hardware development: (1) a direct contact heat exchanger in which molten salt droplets are injected into a cooler counterflowing stream of liquid metal carrier fluid, and (2) a rotating drum scraper in which molten salt is sprayed onto the circumference of a rotating drum, which contains the fluid salt is sprayed onto the circumference of a rotating drum, which contains the fluid heat sink in an internal annulus near the surface. A fixed scraper blade removes the solidified salt from the surface which was nickel plated to decrease adhesion forces. In addition to improving performance by providing a nearly constant transfer rate during discharge, these active heat exchanger concepts were estimated to cost at least 25% less than the passive tube-shell design.

  7. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  8. Overview of the effect of salts on biphasic ionic liquid/water solvent extraction systems: anion exchange, mutual solubility, and thermomorphic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, David; Depuydt, Daphne; Binnemans, Koen

    2015-06-04

    Hydrophobic (water-immiscible) ionic liquids (ILs) are frequently used as organic phase in solvent extraction studies. These biphasic IL/water extraction systems often also contain metal salts or mineral acids, which can significantly affect the IL trough (un)wanted anion exchange and changes in the solubility of IL in the aqueous phase. In the case of thermomorphic systems, variations in the cloud point temperature are also observed. All these effects have important repercussions on the choice of IL, suitable for a certain extraction system. In this paper, a complete overview of the implications of metal salts on biphasic IL/water systems is given. Using the Hofmeister series as a starting point, a range of intuitive prediction models are introduced, supported by experimental evidence for several hydrophobic ILs, relevant to solvent extraction. Particular emphasis is placed on the IL betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Hbet][Tf2N]. The aim of this work is to provide a comprehensive interpretation of the observed effects of metal salts, so that it can be used to predict the effect on any given biphasic IL/water system instead of relying on case-by-case reports. These prediction tools for the impact of metal salts can be useful to optimize IL synthesis procedures, extraction systems and thermomorphic properties. Some new insights are also provided for the rational design of ILs with UCST or LCST behavior based on the choice of IL anion.

  9. Lead cooled heterogeneous accelerator driven molten-fluoride blanket for incineration of long-lived radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopatkin, A.V.; Matyushechkin, V.M.; Tretyakov, I.T. [Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Blagovolin, P.P.; Kazaritsky, V.D. [State Scientific Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics; Kostenkov, V.I.; Chuvilin, D.Yu. [I.V. Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    This paper presents a tentative design description and evaluation of the basic parameters of a lead cooled heterogeneous accelerator driven molten fluoride blanket. The proton beam of a 1 GeV accelerator strikes the blanket from below and generates spallation neutrons in the flow of lead, which serves as a target. These neutrons leave the target zone and get into a heterogeneous blanket with separated volumes of molten salts and lead. Fissile materials are dissolved in the salt. On getting into the molten salt volume the neutrons cause fission (transmutation) of the actinides, the produced heat being removed by circulation of molten lead. Two versions of the blanket design are examined. The first version: molten salt circulates in the fuel channels, while lead cools the channels flowing through the interchannel space (the salt channel design). The second version: it is lead that circulates in the channels, while molten salt takes up the interchannel space (the lead channel design). A preliminary blanket design study showed that both blanket designs possess a potential for improving performance. At present time the blanket design, mentioned above as the salt channel design, seems to be more promising. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Electrical conductivity of molten ZnCl{sub 2} at temperature as high as 1421 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [RAS Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg. (Russian Federation) Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2015-07-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten ZnCl{sub 2} was measured in a wide temperature range (ΔT=863 K) to a temperature as high as 1421 K that is 417 degrees above the boiling point of the salt. At the temperature maximum of the own vapor pressure of the salt reached several megapascals.

  11. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  12. Comparison between an anionic exchanger of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt and a commercial exchanger in the extraction of available phosphorus in soils; Comparacao entre um trocador anionico de sal de amonio quaternario de quitosana e um trocador comercial na extracao de fosforo disponivel em solos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves Junior, Affonso Celso; Nacke, Herbert, E-mail: herbertnacke@hotmail.co [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Marechal Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias; Favere, Valfredo Tadeu de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (DQ/UFSC), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Gomes, Gilmar Divino [Faculdade de Tecnologia Internacional, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The present work aimed modify chemically the chitosan (QTS) surface to obtain a reticulate chitosan quaternary ammonium salt (SAQQR), and compare this anionic exchanger with an commercial ion exchanger in the extraction of available phosphorus in soils. The results showed that the two exchangers are identical, extracting similar and proportional quantities of available phosphorus in the studied soils, and the anionic exchanger of SAQQR provides a high chemical stability, not affected by the pH difference of soils. (author)

  13. The Development of an INL Capability for High Temperature Flow, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Energy Storage with Applications in Advanced Small Modular Reactors, High Temperature Heat Exchangers, Hybrid Energy Systems, and Dynamic Grid Energy Storage C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaodong [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhang, Xiaoqin [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Kim, Inhun [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); O' Brien, James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to support Idaho National Laboratory in developing a new advanced high temperature multi fluid multi loop test facility that is aimed at investigating fluid flow and heat transfer, material corrosion, heat exchanger characteristics and instrumentation performance, among others, for nuclear applications. Specifically, preliminary research has been performed at The Ohio State University in the following areas: 1. A review of fluoride molten salts’ characteristics in thermal, corrosive, and compatibility performances. A recommendation for a salt selection is provided. Material candidates for both molten salt and helium flow loop have been identified. 2. A conceptual facility design that satisfies the multi loop (two coolant loops [i.e., fluoride molten salts and helium]) multi purpose (two operation modes [i.e., forced and natural circulation]) requirements. Schematic models are presented. The thermal hydraulic performances in a preliminary printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) design have been estimated. 3. An introduction of computational methods and models for pipe heat loss analysis and cases studies. Recommendations on insulation material selection have been provided. 4. An analysis of pipe pressure rating and sizing. Preliminary recommendations on pipe size selection have been provided. 5. A review of molten fluoride salt preparation and chemistry control. An introduction to the experience from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been provided. 6. A review of some instruments and components to be used in the facility. Flowmeters and Grayloc connectors have been included. This report primarily presents the conclusions drawn from the extensive review of literatures in material selections and the facility design progress at the current stage. It provides some useful guidelines in insulation material and pipe size selection, as well as an introductory review of facility process and components.

  14. Ionic exchange treatment of water with high salt concentration; Tratamiento por intercambio ionico de aguas con altas concentraciones de sales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendueles, M.; Fernandez, A.; Fidalgo, J.M.; Diaz, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    1996-08-01

    Ion Exchange at high solution concentration has not been studied deeply, so as the principal applications of this operation try the recovery or the exchange of ions at low solution concentration. In this work theoretical fundamentals of ion exchange at high solution concentration has been developed. counter and co-ion behavior, in comparison with traditional ion exchange has been studied. Some industrial applications of this operation is shown, principally the potassium recovery from and industrial wastewater from the brines of a crystallization process, one application developed by this work group. (Author) 14 refs.

  15. Active heat exchange: System development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.; Haslett, R.

    1981-03-01

    An active heat exchange method in a latent heat (salt) thermal energy storage system that prevents a low conductivity solid salt layer from forming on heat transfer surfaces was developed. An evaluation of suitable media with melting points in the temperature range of interest (250 to 400 C) limited the candidates to molten salts from the chloride, hydroxide, and nitrate families, based on high storage capacity, good corrosion characteristics, and availability in large quantities at reasonable cost. The specific salt recommended for laboratory tests was a choride eutectic (20.5KCl, 24.5NaCl, 55.0MgCl2 percent by wt.), with a nominal melting point of 385 C.

  16. Synthesis of LiAlO{sub 2} and LiGaO{sub 2} by ion exchange reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villafuerte-Castrejon, M.E.; Mondragon, C.; Sanchez-Arjona, A.M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones en Materiales; Olguin, M.T.; Bulbulian, S. [Inst. Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bosch, P. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitan-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The complex oxides {beta} and {gamma}-NaAlO{sub 2} polymorphs and NaGaO{sub 2} were reacted by the ion exchange route with molten salts (LiCl and LiNO{sub 3}). Kinetics of the reaction were followed by the X-ray powder diffraction and by neutronic activation analysis using a TRIGA MARG III nuclear reactor. The products of the reactions were polymorphs {beta} and {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} and LiGaO{sub 2}. {beta}-LiAlO{sub 2} is the high pressure form, obtained by this method at relative low temperature and at atmospheric pressure. LiGAO{sub 2} was obtained after only one minute of reaction in the molten salt. (orig.) 4 refs.

  17. Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2010-09-28

    This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

  18. Lanthanides extraction processes in molten fluoride media. Application to nuclear spent fuel reprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Taxil, Pierre; Massot, Laurent; Nourry, Christophe; Gibilaro, Mathieu; Chamelot, Pierre; Cassayre, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes four techniques of extraction of lanthanides elements (Ln) from molten salts in the general frame of reprocessing nuclear wastes; One of them is chemical: the precipitation of Ln ions in insoluble compounds (oxides or oxifluorides); the others use electrochemical methodology in molten fluorides for extraction and measurement of the progress of the processes: first electrodeposition of pure Ln metals on an inert cathode material was proved to be incomplete and cause probl...

  19. Preparation of a Highly Fluorophilic Phosphonium Salt and its Use in a Fluorous Anion-Exchanger Membrane with High Selectivity for Perfluorinated Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Paul G.; Anfang, Alyce C.; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Fluorous solvents are the most nonpolar, nonpolarizable phases known, whereas ions are inherently polar. This makes it difficult to create salts that are soluble in a fluorous solvent. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorophilic phosphonium salt, tris{3,5-bis[(perfluorooctyl)propyl]phenyl}methylphosphonium methyl sulfate. The salt has a solubility of at least 14 mM in perfluoro(perhydrophenanthrene), perfluoro(methylcyclohexane), and perfluorohexanes. It also shows immediate potential for use as a phase-transfer catalyst in fluorous biphasic catalysis, but in this work it is used as an anion exchanger site in the first potentiometric fluorous-membrane anion-selective electrode. The membrane sensor exhibited the exceptional selectivity of 3.9 × 1010 to 1 for perfluorooctanesulfonate over chloride, and of 2.5 × 107 to 1 for perfluorooctanoate over chloride. With improvements to the sensor’s detection limit and lifetime, it has the potential to be an attractive alternative to the expensive, time-consuming methods currently employed for measurement of perfluorinated acids. PMID:22072222

  20. Structural Analysis of Molten NaNO3 by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahara Shuta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MD simulation for molten NaNO3 has been performed by using the Born-Mayer-Huggins-type potentials. The new structural features of molten NaNO3 are investigated by several analytical methods. The coordination-number and bond-angle distributions are similar to those of simple molten salts such as NaCl except for the variation caused by the different size of the anion and cation. Na+ ions are attracted toward O− ions, and get separated from N+ ions by Coulomb interactions. The distribution of the dihedral angle between NO3 − plannar ionic molecules has also been investigated.

  1. Structural Analysis of Molten NaNO3 by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Shuta; Toyama, Hiroshi; Shimakura, Hironori; Fukami, Takanori

    2017-08-01

    MD simulation for molten NaNO3 has been performed by using the Born-Mayer-Huggins-type potentials. The new structural features of molten NaNO3 are investigated by several analytical methods. The coordination-number and bond-angle distributions are similar to those of simple molten salts such as NaCl except for the variation caused by the different size of the anion and cation. Na+ ions are attracted toward O- ions, and get separated from N+ ions by Coulomb interactions. The distribution of the dihedral angle between NO3 - plannar ionic molecules has also been investigated.

  2. Active heat exchange system development for latent heat thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.; Haslett, R.

    1980-03-01

    Various active heat exchange concepts were identified from among three generic categories: scrapers, agitators/vibrators and slurries. The more practical ones were given a more detailed technical evaluation and an economic comparison with a passive tube-shell design for a reference application. Two concepts selected for hardware development are a direct contact heat exchanger in which molten salt droplets are injected into a cooler counterflowing stream of liquid metal carrier fluid, and a rotating drum scraper in which molten salt is sprayed onto the circumference of a rotating drum, which contains the fluid heat sink in an internal annulus near the surface. A fixed scraper blade removes the solidified salt from the surface which has been nickel plated to decrease adhesion forces. Suitable phase change material (PCM) storage media with melting points in the temperature range of interest (250 C to 400 C) were investigated. The specific salt recommended for laboratory tests was a chloride eutectic (20.5KCl-24/5 NaCl-55.0MgCl 2% by wt.), with a nominal melting point of 385 C.

  3. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  4. Oxygation enhances growth, gas exchange and salt tolerance of vegetable soybean and cotton in a saline vertisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Surya P; Midmore, David J

    2009-07-01

    Impacts of salinity become severe when the soil is deficient in oxygen. Oxygation (using aerated water for subsurface drip irrigation of crop) could minimize the impact of salinity on plants under oxygen-limiting soil environments. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of oxygation (12% air volume/volume of water) on vegetable soybean (moderately salt tolerant) and cotton (salt tolerant) in a salinized vertisol at 2, 8, 14, 20 dS/m EC(e). In vegetable soybean, oxygation increased above ground biomass yield and water use efficiency (WUE) by 13% and 22%, respectively, compared with the control. Higher yield with oxygation was accompanied by greater plant height and stem diameter and reduced specific leaf area and leaf Na+ and Cl- concentrations. In cotton, oxygation increased lint yield and WUE by 18% and 16%, respectively, compared with the control, and was accompanied by greater canopy light interception, plant height and stem diameter. Oxygation also led to a greater rate of photosynthesis, higher relative water content in the leaf, reduced crop water stress index and lower leaf water potential. It did not, however, affect leaf Na+ or Cl- concentration. Oxygation invariably increased, whereas salinity reduced the K+ : Na+ ratio in the leaves of both species. Oxygation improved yield and WUE performance of salt tolerant and moderately tolerant crops under saline soil environments, and this may have a significant impact for irrigated agriculture where saline soils pose constraints to crop production.

  5. Technology Development Roadmap for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor Secondary Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; M. McCllar; A. Siahpush; D. Clark; M. Patterson; J. Collins

    2012-09-01

    This Technology Development Roadmap (TDRM) presents the path forward for deploying large-scale molten salt secondary heat exchangers (MS-SHX) and recognizing the benefits of using molten salt as the heat transport medium for advanced high temperature reactors (AHTR). This TDRM will aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for: power production (the first anticipated process heat application), hydrogen production, steam methane reforming, methanol to gasoline production, or ammonia production. This TDRM (a) establishes the current state of molten salt SHX technology readiness, (b) defines a path forward that systematically and effectively tests this technology to overcome areas of uncertainty, (c) demonstrates the achievement of an appropriate level of maturity prior to construction and plant operation, and (d) identifies issues and prioritizes future work for maturing the state of SHX technology. This study discusses the results of a preliminary design analysis of the SHX and explains the evaluation and selection methodology. An important engineering challenge will be to prevent the molten salt from freezing during normal and off-normal operations because of its high melting temperature (390°C for KF ZrF4). The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the capabilities of existing heat exchanger technology. The description of potential heat exchanger configurations or designs (such as printed circuit, spiral or helical coiled, ceramic, plate and fin, and plate type) were covered in an earlier report (Sabharwall et al. 2011). Significant future work, much of which is suggested in this report, is needed before the benefits and full potential of the AHTR can be realized. The execution of this TDRM will focuses

  6. Molecular analysis of the Na+/H+ exchanger gene family and its role in salt stress in Medicago truncatula

    Science.gov (United States)

    High salinity in irrigation water is detrimental to plant growth and productivity. Plants develop various mechanisms and strategies to cope with salinity. One important mechanism is keeping the cytosolic Na+ concentration low by sequestering Na+ in vacuoles, a process facilitated by Na+/H+ exchanger...

  7. The influence of salt type on the retention of bovine serum albumin in ion-exchange chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Jibbouri, Sattar

    2007-01-01

    that the mechanism of protein retention in ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) involves interactions between the protein solute, the mobile phase constituents and the stationary phase. The effect of protein activity coefficient in the mobile phase on the protein retention volumes is verified....

  8. New Method for Super Hydrophobic Treatment of Gas Diffusion Layers for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Using Electrochemical Reduction of Diazonium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yohann R J; Benayad, Anass; Schroder, Maxime; Morin, Arnaud; Pauchet, Joël

    2015-07-15

    The purpose of this article is to report a new method for the surface functionalization of commercially available gas diffusion layers (GDLs) by the electrochemical reduction of diazonium salt containing hydrophobic functional groups. The method results in superhydrophobic GDLs, over a large area, without pore blocking. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study based on core level spectra and chemical mapping has demonstrated the successful grafting route, resulting in a homogeneous distribution of the covalently bonded hydrophobic molecules on the surface of the GDL fibers. The result was corroborated by contact angle measurement, showing similar hydrophobicity between the grafted and PTFE-modified GDLs. The electrochemically modified GDLs were tested in proton exchange membrane fuel cells under automotive, wet, and dry conditions and demonstrated improved performance over traditional GDLs.

  9. Nuclear data covariances and sensitivity analysis, validation of a methodology based on the perturbation theory; application to an innovative concept: the molten thorium salt fueled reactor; Analyses de sensibilite et d'incertitude de donnees nucleaires. Contribution a la validation d'une methodologie utilisant la theorie des perturbations; application a un concept innovant: reacteur a sels fondus thorium a spectre epithermique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidaud, A

    2005-10-15

    Neutron transport simulation of nuclear reactors is based on the knowledge of the neutron-nucleus interaction (cross-sections, fission neutron yields and spectra...) for the dozens of nuclei present in the core over a very large energy range (fractions of eV to several MeV). To obtain the goal of the sustainable development of nuclear power, future reactors must have new and more strict constraints to their design: optimization of ore materials will necessitate breeding (generation of fissile material from fertile material), and waste management will require transmutation. Innovative reactors that could achieve such objectives - generation IV or ADS (accelerator driven system) - are loaded with new fuels (thorium, heavy actinides) and function with neutron spectra for which nuclear data do not benefit from 50 years of industrial experience, and thus present particular challenges. After validation on an experimental reactor using an international benchmark, we take classical reactor physics tools along with available nuclear data uncertainties to calculate the sensitivities and uncertainties of the criticality and temperature coefficient of a thorium molten salt reactor. In addition, a study based on the important reaction rates for the calculation of cycle's equilibrium allows us to estimate the efficiency of different reprocessing strategies and the contribution of these reaction rates on the uncertainty of the breeding and then on the uncertainty of the size of the reprocessing plant. Finally, we use this work to propose an improvement of the high priority experimental request list. (author)

  10. Electrochemical concentration measurements for multianalyte mixtures in simulated electrorefiner salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Devin Spencer

    The development of electroanalytical techniques in multianalyte molten salt mixtures, such as those found in used nuclear fuel electrorefiners, would enable in situ, real-time concentration measurements. Such measurements are beneficial for process monitoring, optimization and control, as well as for international safeguards and nuclear material accountancy. Electroanalytical work in molten salts has been limited to single-analyte mixtures with a few exceptions. This work builds upon the knowledge of molten salt electrochemistry by performing electrochemical measurements on molten eutectic LiCl-KCl salt mixture containing two analytes, developing techniques for quantitatively analyzing the measured signals even with an additional signal from another analyte, correlating signals to concentration and identifying improvements in experimental and analytical methodologies. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  11. Ceramics for Molten Materials Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Evan; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews the main issues associated with molten materials transfer and handling on the lunar surface during the operation of a hig h temperature electrowinning cell used to produce oxygen, with molten iron and silicon as byproducts. A combination of existing technolog ies and purposely designed technologies show promise for lunar exploi tation. An important limitation that requires extensive investigation is the performance of refractory currently used for the purpose of m olten metal containment and transfer in the lunar environment associa ted with electrolytic cells. The principles of a laboratory scale uni t at a scale equivalent to the production of 1 metric ton of oxygen p er year are introduced. This implies a mass of molten materials to be transferred consistent with the equivalent of 1kg regolithlhr proces sed.

  12. Lithium-ferrate-based cathodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanagan, M.T.; Wolfenstine, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Bloom, I.; Kaun, T.D.; Krumpelt, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1996-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing advanced cathodes for pressurized operation of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) at approximately 650 degrees Centigrade. These cathodes are based on lithium ferrate (LiFeO[sub 2]) which is attractive because of its very low solubility in the molten (Li,K)[sub 2]CO[sub 3] electrolyte. Because of its high resistivity, LiFeO[sub 2] cannot be used as a direct substitute for NiO. Cation substitution is, therefore, necessary to decrease resistivity. The effect of cation substitution on the resistivity and deformation of LiFeO[sub 2] was determined. The substitutes were chosen because their respective oxides as well as LiFeO[sub 2] crystallize with the rock-salt structure.

  13. Molten salt flux synthesis and crystal structure of a new open-framework uranyl phosphate Cs{sub 3}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4})O{sub 2}: Spectroscopic characterization and cationic mobility studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagoubi, S., E-mail: said.yagoubi@cea.fr [LEEL SIS2M UMR 3299 CEA-CNRS-Université Paris-Sud 11, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Renard, C.; Abraham, F. [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Obbade, S. [Laboratoire d’Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Matériaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5279, CNRS-Grenoble INP-UdS-UJF, 1130 Rue de la Piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint-Martin d’Hères (France)

    2013-04-15

    The reaction of triuranyl diphosphate tetrahydrate precursor (UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4} with a CsI flux at 750 °C yields a yellow single crystals of new compound Cs{sub 3}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4})O{sub 2}. The crystal structure (monoclinic, space group C2/c, a=13.6261 (13) Å, b=8.1081(8) Å, c=12.3983(12) Å, β=114.61(12)°, V=1245.41(20) Å{sup 3} with Z=4) has been solved using direct methods and Fourier difference techniques. A full-matrix least-squares refinement on the basis of F{sup 2} yielded R1=0.028 and wR2=0.071 for 79 parameters and 1352 independent reflections with I≥2σ(I) collected on a BRUKER AXS diffractometer with MoKα radiation and a charge-coupled device detector. The crystal structure is built by two independent uranium atoms in square bipyramidal coordination, connected by two opposite corners to form infinite chains {sup 1}{sub ∞}[UO{sub 5}] and by one phosphorus atom in a tetrahedral environment PO{sub 4}. The two last entities {sup 1}{sub ∞}[UO{sub 5}] and PO{sub 4} are linked by sharing corners to form a three-dimensional structure presenting different types of channels occupied by Cs{sup +} alkaline cations. Their mobility within the tunnels were studied between 280 and 800 °C and compared with other tunneled uranyl minerals. The infrared spectrum shows a good agreement with the values inferred from the single crystal structure analysis of uranyl phosphate compound. - Graphical abstract: Arrhenius plot of the electrical conductivity of tunneled compounds Cs{sub 3}U{sub 2}PO{sub 10} and CsU{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 11.5}. Highlights: ► The reaction of (UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4} in excess of molten CsI leads to single-crystals of new tunneled compound Cs{sub 3}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4})O{sub 2}. ► Ionic conductivity measurements and crystal structure analysis indicate a strong connection of the Cs{sup +} cations to the tunnels. ► A low symmetry in Cs{sub 3}(UO{sub 2

  14. A Feasibility Study of Steelmaking by Molten Oxide Electrolysis (TRP9956)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald R. Sadoway; Gerbrand Ceder

    2009-12-31

    Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is an extreme form of molten salt electrolysis, a technology that has been used to produce tonnage metals for over 100 years - aluminum, magnesium, lithium, sodium and the rare earth metals specifically. The use of carbon-free anodes is the distinguishing factor in MOE compared to other molten salt electrolysis techniques. MOE is totally carbon-free and produces no CO or CO2 - only O2 gas at the anode. This project is directed at assessing the technical feasibility of MOE at the bench scale while determining optimum values of MOE operating parameters. An inert anode will be identified and its ability to sustain oxygen evalution will be demonstrated.

  15. ION EXCHANGE IN GLASS-CERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Halsey Beall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years ion-exchange in glasses has found a renewed interest with a lot of new development and research in industrial and academic labs and the commercialization of materials with outstanding mechanical properties. These glasses are now widely used in many electronic devices including hand-held displays and tablets. The exchange is generally conducted in a bath of molten salt below the transition temperature of the glass. The exchange at the surface of an alkali ion by a bigger one brings compressive stress at the surface. The mechanical properties are dependent on the stress level at the surface and the depth of penetration of the bigger ion. As compared to glasses, glass-ceramics have the interest to display a wide range of aspects (transparent to opaque and different mechanical properties (especially higher modulus and toughness. There has been little research on ion-exchange in glass-ceramics. In these materials the mechanisms are much more complex than in glasses because of their polyphasic nature: ion-exchange generally takes place mostly in one phase (crystalline phase or residual glass. The mechanism can be similar to what is observed in glasses with the replacement of an ion by another in the structure. But in some cases this ion-exchange leads to microstructural modifications (for example amorphisation or phase change.This article reviews these ion-exchange mechanisms using several transparent and opaque alumino-silicate glass-ceramics as examples. The effect of the ion exchange in the various glass-ceramics will be described, with particular emphasis on flexural strength.

  16. Ion Exchange in Glass-Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, George; Comte, Monique; Deneka, Matthew; Marques, Paulo; Pradeau, Philippe; Smith, Charlene

    2016-08-01

    In the past few years ion-exchange in glasses has found a renewed interest with a lot of new development and research in industrial and academic labs and the commercialization of materials with outstanding mechanical properties. These glasses are now widely used in many electronic devices including hand-held displays and tablets. The exchange is generally conducted in a bath of molten salt below the transition temperature of the glass. The exchange at the surface of an alkali ion by a bigger one brings compressive stress at the surface. The mechanical properties are dependent on the stress level at the surface and the depth of penetration of the bigger ion. As compared to glasses, glass-ceramics have the interest to display a wide range of aspects (transparent to opaque) and different mechanical properties (especially higher modulus and toughness). There has been little research on ion-exchange in glass-ceramics. In these materials the mechanisms are much more complex than in glasses because of their polyphasic nature: ion-exchange generally takes place mostly in one phase (crystalline phase or residual glass). The mechanism can be similar to what is observed in glasses with the replacement of an ion by another in the structure. But in some cases this ion-exchange leads to microstructural modifications (for example amorphisation or phase change). This article reviews these ion-exchange mechanisms using several transparent and opaque alumino-silicate glass-ceramics as examples. The effect of the ion exchange in the various glass-ceramics will be described, with particular emphasis on flexural strength.

  17. Structure of molten iron chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Hashimoto, Shinya; Moss, S.C. (Houston Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-11-01

    The structure of molten FeCl[sub 3] at 320[sup degrees]C has been measured with neutron diffraction at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. Results indicate that melting in FeCl[sub 3]is accompanied by a change in local structure from the octahedral environment of the Fe[sup 3[plus

  18. Stability of Molten Core Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layne Pincock; Wendell Hintze

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document a literature and data search for data and information pertaining to the stability of nuclear reactor molten core materials. This includes data and analysis from TMI-2 fuel and INL’s LOFT (Loss of Fluid Test) reactor project and other sources.

  19. Electrical conductivity of molten SnCl{sub 2} at temperature as high as 1314 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [Ural Branch of RAS, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2015-07-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten SnCl{sub 2} was measured in a wide temperature range (ΔT=763 K), from 551 K to temperature as high as 1314 K, that is, 391 above the boiling point of the salt. The specific electrical conductance was found to reach its maximum at 1143 K, after that it decreases with the temperature rising.

  20. Spectroelectrochemistry of EuCl 3 in Four Molten Salt Eutectics; 3 LiCl−NaCl, 3 LiCl−2 KCl, LiCl−RbCl, and 3 LiCl−2 CsCl; at 873 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroll, Cynthia A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati OH 45221-0172; Chatterjee, Sayandev [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352; Levitskaia, Tatiana [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352; Heineman, William R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati OH 45221-0172; Bryan, Samuel A. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352

    2016-05-17

    Key electrochemical properties affecting pyroprocessing of nuclear fuel were examined in four eutectic melts using using Eu3+/2+ as a representative probe. We report the electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical behavior of EuCl3 in four molten salt eutectics (3 LiCl – NaCl, 3 LiCl – 2 KCl, LiCl – RbCl and 3 LiCl – 2 CsCl) at 873 K. Cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the redox potential for Eu3+/2+ and the applied potentials for spectroelectrochemistry. Single step chronoabsorptometry and thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry were used to obtain the number of electrons transferred, redox potentials and diffusion coefficients for Eu3+ in each eutectic melt. The redox potentials determined by thin-layer spectroelectrochemistry were extremely close to those obtained using cyclic voltammetry. The redox potential for Eu3+/2+ was most positive in the 3 LiCl - NaCl melt, showed a negative shift in the 3 LiCl - 2 KCl melt, and was the most negative in the LiCl - RbCl and 3 LiCl - 2 CsCl eutectics. The diffusion coefficient for Eu3+ followed this same trend; it was the largest in the 3 LiCl - NaCl melt and the smallest in the LiCl - RbCl and 3 LiCl - 2 CsCl melts. The basic one-electron reversible electron transfer for Eu3+/2+ was not changed by melt composition.

  1. Preparation of fused chloride salts for use in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    The Plutonium Metal Technology Group at Los Alamos routinely uses pyrochemical processes to produce and purify plutonium from impure sources. The basic processes (metal production, metal purification, and residue treatment) involve controlling oxidation and reduction reactions between plutonium and its compounds in molten salts. Current production methods are described, as well as traditional approaches and recent developments in the preparation of solvent salts for electrorefining, molten salt extraction, lean metal (pyroredox) purification, and direct oxide reduction.

  2. Precipitation of lamellar gold nanocrystals in molten polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomba, M.; Carotenuto, G., E-mail: giancaro@unina.it [Institute for Polymer, Composites, and Biomaterials. National Research Council. Piazzale E. Fermi, 1 – 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    Non-aggregated lamellar gold crystals with regular shape (triangles, squares, pentagons, etc.) have been produced by thermal decomposition of gold chloride (AuCl) molecules in molten amorphous polymers (polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)). Such covalent inorganic gold salt is high soluble into non-polar polymers and it thermally decomposes at temperatures compatible with the polymer thermal stability, producing gold atoms and chlorine radicals. At the end of the gold precipitation process, the polymer matrix resulted chemically modified because of the partial cross-linking process due to the gold atom formation reaction.

  3. Monitoring the Degradation Process of Inconel 600 and its Aluminide Coatings under Molten Sulfate Film with Thermal Cycles by Electrochemical Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Take, S.; Yoshinaga, S.; Yanagita, M.; Itoi, Y. [Oyama College, Tochigi (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    With a specially designed electrochemical cell, the changes in impedance behavior for Inconel 600 and aluminide diffusion coatings under molten sulfate film with thermal cycles (from 800 ℃ to 350 ℃) were monitored with electrochemical impedance measurements. It was found that corrosion resistance for both materials increased with lower temperatures. At the same time, the state of molten salt was also monitored successfully by measuring the changes in impedance at high frequency, which generally represents the resistance of molten salt itself. After two thermal cycles, both Inconel 600 and aluminide diffusion coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance. The results from SEM observation and EDS analysis correlated well with the results obtained by electrochemical impedance measurements. It is concluded that electrochemical impedance is very useful for monitoring the corrosion resistance of materials under molten salt film conditions even with thermal cycles.

  4. Molten carbonate fuel cell matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Wolfgang M.; Smith, Stanley W.

    1985-04-16

    A molten carbonate fuel cell including a cathode electrode of electrically conducting or semiconducting lanthanum containing material and an electrolyte containing matrix of an electrically insulating lanthanum perovskite. In addition, in an embodiment where the cathode electrode is LaMnO.sub.3, the matrix may include LaAlO.sub.3 or a lithium containing material such as LiAlO.sub.2 or Li.sub.2 TiO.sub.3.

  5. Separation of Electrolytic Reduction Product from Stainless Steel Wire Mesh Cathode Basket via Salt Draining and Reuse of the Cathode Basket

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eun-Young Choi; Jeong Lee; Dong Hyun Heo; Jin-Mok Hur

    2017-01-01

    .... Platinum was employed as an anode. After the electrolysis, the residual salt of the cathode basket containing the reduction product was drained by placing it at gas phase above the molten salt using a holder...

  6. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  7. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Photosynthesis, Gas Exchanges and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Insugar Beet(Beta vulgaris L. Cultivars in the Seedling Stage under Controlled Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Assadi Nassab

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available According to continuing of drought phenomenon, global warming and dust storms resulted in salining increasing of arable lands, because it’s necessary to know some physiological mechanisms in sugar beet under salt stress,this experiment was conducted to investigation of effect of salinity on growth characteristics, respiration, gas exchange and photosynthesis in three sugar beet cultivars (BR1, Jolgeh and Rasoul in the 2010 growing season, in greenhouse of Shahid Chamran University as the factorial design based on randomized complete block with three replications.35 days sugar beet seedlings were kept for eight weeks under three salinity levels including control (zero, 100, and 200 mM sodium chloride (NaCl. Salinity Stress reduced shoot and root dry matter and leaf area significantly. With increasing of salinity, the rate of photosynthesis (carbon dioxide assimilation, stomatal conductance, and leaf transpiration rate decreased, but respiratory rate, leaf temperature and SPAD value increased. The results showed that Quantum yield of PSII(ФPSII decreased by increasing of salinity level, meanwhile Non-Photo Chemical Quenching (NPQ increased.Accordingto theresults, theconcentration of 200mMsodium chloride, had a highnegative correlation betweenrootdry matter(r=-0.95**stress susceptibility index. Meansanyreductionindry matter accumulationincreasedinstress susceptibility index.Lowerlevelsofstress susceptibility indexshowingmoretolerance of cultivar tosalinity stress. Based on stress susceptibility index (SSI, in the concentration of 200 mM sodium chloride, cultivars Rasoul, BR1 and Jolgeh are tolerant, semi-tolerant respectively and sensitive were identified. In the end, it seems that root dry weight, can be use as a criterion for salinity resistance of sugar beet cultivars.

  8. Fabrication and characterization planar waveguides of Na+-Ag+/K+ by ion exchange and prism coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Muchlas; Marzuki, Ahmad; Suryanti, Venty

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports about the fabrication of planar waveguides made of the ion-exchanged technique on a soda-lime glass. The process of the ion-exchanged occurs between Na+ ions from the soda-lime glass and Ag+/K+ ions from molten salt AgNO3+KNO3. Fabrication is conducted at 70 mol% of KNO3 and 30 mol% of an AgNO3 melt takes place for the realization of planar waveguides. The duration of ion-exchanged has been varied in the range of 25-900 minutes at the temperature of 350°C to diffusion processes. The purpose of our experiments is especially to study the effect of duration of the ion-exchange process to the main parameters used to characterized optical waveguides. The optical transmission spectra of the ion exchanged glasses were measured with a single beam UV/Visible Ocean Optics USB4000 Spectrometer. The refractive index change, the number of modes waveguides, and diffusion depth had been investigated. The m-lines spectroscopy with standard prism-coupling technique at 632,8 nm was used to measure the number of modes and depth of waveguides. Refractive index was measured with ABBE refractometer. The result shows that the glass refractive index change values of the ion-exchanged glasses are independent of both the ion exchange duration. The number of modes and the diffusion depth, however increase with increasing the duration of ion-exchange processes.

  9. Optimization of elution salt concentration in stepwise elution of protein chromatography using linear gradient elution data. Reducing residual protein A by cation-exchange chromatography in monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Takashi; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Endo, Naomi; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2006-05-05

    Our simple method for optimization of the elution salt concentration in stepwise elution was applied to the actual protein separation system, which involves several difficulties such as detection of the target. As a model separation system, reducing residual protein A by cation-exchange chromatography in human monoclonal antibody (hMab) purification was chosen. We carried out linear gradient elution experiments and obtained the data for the peak salt concentration of hMab and residual protein A, respectively. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to the measurement of the residual protein A. From these data, we calculated the distribution coefficient of the hMab and the residual protein A as a function of salt concentration. The optimal salt concentration of stepwise elution to reduce the residual protein A from the hMab was determined based on the relationship between the distribution coefficient and the salt concentration. Using the optimized condition, we successfully performed the separation, resulting in high recovery of hMab and the elimination of residual protein A.

  10. Advances in Molten Oxide Electrolysis for the Production of Oxygen and Metals from Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoway, Donald R.; Sirk, Aislinn; Sibille, Laurent; Melendez, Orlando; Lueck, Dale; Curreri, Peter; Dominquez, Jesus; Whitlow, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    As part of an In-Situ Resource Utilization infrastructure to sustain long term-human presence on the lunar surface, the production of oxygen and metals by electrolysis of lunar regolith has been the subject of major scrutiny. There is a reasonably large body of literature characterizing the candidate solvent electrolytes, including ionic liquids, molten salts, fluxed oxides, and pure molten regolith itself. In the light of this information and in consideration of available electrolytic technologies, the authors have determined that direct molten oxide electrolysis at temperatures of approx 1600 C is the most promising avenue for further development. Results from ongoing studies as well as those of previous workers will be presented. Topics include materials selection and testing, electrode stability, gas capture and analysis, and cell operation during feeding and tapping.

  11. Structure of molten iron chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hashimoto, Shinya; Moss, S.C. [Houston Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-11-01

    The structure of molten FeCl{sub 3} at 320{sup degrees}C has been measured with neutron diffraction at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. Results indicate that melting in FeCl{sub 3}is accompanied by a change in local structure from the octahedral environment of the Fe{sup 3{plus}} in the solid to an Fe{sub 2}Cl{sub 6} molecular liquid. This behavior is similar to that observed in AlCl{sub 3} and in contrast to that of YCl{sub 3} where an octahedral coordination is preserved on melting. 3 figs, 1 tab, 12 refs.

  12. The molten glass sewing machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, P.-T.; Inamura, Chikara; Lizardo, Daniel; Franchin, Giorgia; Stern, Michael; Houk, Peter; Oxman, Neri

    2017-04-01

    We present a fluid-instability-based approach for digitally fabricating geometrically complex uniformly sized structures in molten glass. Formed by mathematically defined and physically characterized instability patterns, such structures are produced via the additive manufacturing of optically transparent glass, and result from the coiling of an extruded glass thread. We propose a minimal geometrical model-and a methodology-to reliably control the morphology of patterns, so that these building blocks can be assembled into larger structures with tailored functionally and optically tunable properties. This article is part of the themed issue 'Patterning through instabilities in complex media: theory and applications'.

  13. Automated ''float'' method for determination of densities of molten salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Helge A.; Bjerrum, Niels; Foverskov, Carl Erik

    1977-01-01

    wound with platinum wire, an amplifier, a digital voltmeter, an interface, a paper tape punch, and a recorder. The advantages of the system are its ease of operation compared to other ''float'' methods, and the possibility of looking at highly colored melts and also melts having a high vapor pressure....... Review of Scientific Instruments is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  14. Multi-functional sensor system for molten salt technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redey, Laszlo [Downers Grove, IL; Gourishankar, Karthick [Downers Grove, IL; Williamson, Mark A [Naperville, IL

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates to a multi-functional sensor system that simultaneously measures cathode and anode electrode potentials, dissolved ion (i.e. oxide) concentration, and temperatures in an electrochemical cell. One embodiment of the invented system generally comprises: a reference(saturated) electrode, a reference(sensing) electrode, and a data acquisition system. Thermocouples are built into the two reference electrodes to provide important temperature information.

  15. Conceptual design of Indian molten salt breeder reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cooled options. Another option, which ... the quantity of waste. It is thus an optimum solution for meeting the energy needs of a large country like India in a sustainable manner, securing its energy freedom in the long term. Schematic of Indian ...

  16. Electrolytic synthesis of ammonia in molten salts under atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tsuyoshi; Nishikiori, Tokujiro; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2003-01-15

    Ammonia was successfully synthesized by using a new electrochemical reaction with high current efficiency at atmospheric pressure and at lower temperatures than the Haber-Bosch process. In this method, nitride ion (N3-), which is produced by the reduction from nitrogen gas at the cathode, is anodically oxidized and reacts with hydrogen to produce ammonia at the anode.

  17. Review on the current status of molten chloride reactor and its future prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seok Bin; Shin, Yukyung; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper has summarized and reviewed the current status of MCR as an online pyroprocessing reactor, and introduced the related works in UNIST. As the developments of the next generation nuclear energy systems require the fuel sustainability, passive operation safety, nuclear proliferation, and reduction of highly radioactive waste, only several types of nuclear reactor systems survive to the last. Among these, molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising concepts of next generation nuclear reactor system that deliver on these requirements. MSR have great advantages in the fuel cycle and reduction of nuclear waste, since MSR can serve the online reprocessing system for the reprocessing of spent fuel. Especially, MSR utilizing chloride-based fuel, called molten chloride reactor (MCR) has been recently highlighted in USA under the DOE’s Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN) program. Recently, the interests in the molten chloride salt have arisen. The use of chloride-based salt gives great advantages to the reactor operating in a fast spectrum. Then MCR can serve waste management functions or fuel cycle sustainability functions, which can solve the current issues in nuclear field. Thus, research plan was established in UNIST which includes the investigation of thermal-hydraulic characteristics of chloride salt and optimization of heat transport system of MCR, using both numerical method and experimental method.

  18. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols, R.C.

    1984-10-17

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  19. High Power Molten Targets for Radioactive Ion Beam Production: from Particle Physics to Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    De Melo Mendonca, T M

    2014-01-01

    Megawatt-class molten targets, combining high material densities and good heat transfer properties are being considered for neutron spallation sources, neutrino physics facilities and radioactive ion beam production. For this last category of facilities, in order to cope with the limitation of long diffusion times affecting the extraction of short-lived isotopes, a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) target loop equipped with a diffusion chamber has been proposed and tested offline during the EURISOL design study. To validate the concept, a molten LBE loop is now in the design phase and will be prototyped and tested on-line at CERN-ISOLDE. This concept was further extended to an alternative route to produce 1013 18Ne/s for the Beta Beams, where a molten salt loop would be irradiated with 7 mA, 160 MeV proton beam. Some elements of the concept have been tested by using a molten fluoride salt static unit at CERNISOLDE. The investigation of the release and production of neon isotopes allowed the measurement of the diffu...

  20. Specific electrical conductivity in molten potassium dihydrogen phosphate KH2PO4 - An electrolyte for water electrolysis at ∼300°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich; Berg, Rolf W.; Petrushina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The conductivity of pure molten KH2PO4 salt and four mixtures with more or less water (KH2PO4-H2O and KH2PO4-KPO3 systems, respectively) were measured at temperatures of 240-320°C and under their own water vapor pressures. Molten KH2PO4 has been proven to be a promising electrolyte for an elevate...

  1. Electrical conductivity of molten CdCl{sub 2} at temperatures as high as 1474 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2016-11-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten CdCl{sub 2} was measured across a wide temperature range (ΔT=628 K), from 846 K to as high as 1474 K, i.e. 241 above the normal boiling point of the salt. In previous studies, a maximum temperature of 1201 K was reached, this being 273 lower than in the present work. The activation energy of electrical conductivity was calculated.

  2. Maximum on the electrical conductivity polytherm of molten TeCl{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, Alexander B.; Potapov, Alexei M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High-Temperature Electrochemistry

    2017-09-01

    The electrical conductivity of molten TeCl{sub 4} was measured up to 761 K, i.e. 106 degrees above the normal boiling point of the salt. For the first time it was found that TeCl{sub 4} electrical conductivity polytherm has a maximum. It was recorded at 705 K (Κ{sub max}=0.245 Sm/cm), whereupon the conductivity decreases as the temperature rises. The activation energy of electrical conductivity was calculated.

  3. Thermal conductivity of molten metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta-Martinez, Maria Vita

    2000-02-01

    A new instrument for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of molten metals has been designed, built and commissioned. The apparatus is based on the transient hot-wire technique and it is intended for operation over a wide range of temperatures, from ambient up to 1200 K, with an accuracy approaching 2%. In its present form the instrument operates up to 750 K. The construction of the apparatus involved four different stages, first, the design and construction of the sensor and second, the construction of an electronic system for the measurement and storage of data. The third stage was the design and instrumentation of the high temperature furnace for the melting and temperature control of the sample, and finally, an algorithm was developed for the extraction of the thermal conductivity from the raw measurement data. The sensor consists of a cylindrical platinum-wire symmetrically sandwiched between two rectangular plane sheets of alumina. The rectangular sensor is immersed in the molten metal of interest and a voltage step is applied to the ends of the platinum wire to induce heat dissipation and a consequent temperature rise which, is in part, determined by the thermal conductivity of the molten metal. The process is described by a set of partial differential equations and appropriate boundary conditions rather than an approximate analytical solution. An electronic bridge configuration was designed and constructed to perform the measurement of the resistance change of the platinum wire in the time range 20 {mu}s to 1 s. The resistance change is converted to temperature change by a suitable calibration. From these temperature measurements as a function of time the thermal conductivity of the molten metals has been deduced using the Finite Element Method for the solution of the working equations. This work has achieved its objective of improving the accuracy of the measurement of the thermal conductivity of molten metals from {+-}20% to {+-}2%. Measurements

  4. The effect of conditioning agents on the corrosive properties of molten urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, D E; Nguyen, D T; Norton, M M; Parker, B R; Daniels, L E

    1991-01-01

    From the process case histories of the failure of several heat exchanger tube bundles, it was revealed that molten urea containing lignosulfonate as a granulation conditioning-hardening agent (Urea LS[trademark]) is corrosive to Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The results of field and laboratory immersion corrosion tests indicated that the corrosivity of molten urea is strongly dependent on the process temperature rather than the conditioner composition. At temperatures below 295F, molten Urea LS[trademark] is not aggressive to these stainless steels. However, at temperatures above 300F, the corrosion of these stainless steels is extremely severe. The corrosion rate of Types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L is as high as hundreds of mils per year. The corrosion mechanism tends to be more general than localized. The results of the laboratory corrosion test also revealed that among alloying elements, copper is detrimental to corrosion resistance of stainless steel exposed to molten Urea LS[trademark], chromium is the most beneficial, and nickel has only a minor effect. Thus, copper-free and chromium stainless steels have superior corrosion resistance to the molten Urea LS[trademark] at a wide range of temperatures up to 345F.

  5. Coal derived fuel gases for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    Product streams from state-of-the-art and future coal gasification systems are characterized to guide fuel cell program planners and researchers in establishing performance goals and developing materials for molten carbonate fuel cells that will be compatible with gasifier product gases. Results are presented on: (1) the range of gasifier raw-gas compositions available from the major classes of coal gasifiers; (2) the degree of gas clean-up achievable with state-of-the-art and future gas clean-up systems; and (3) the energy penalties associated with gas clean-up. The study encompasses fixed-bed, fluid-bed, entrained-bed, and molten salt gasifiers operating with Eastern bituminous and Western subbituminous coals. Gasifiers operating with air and oxygen blowing are evaluated, and the coal gasification product streams are characterized with respect to: (1) major gas stream constituents, e.g., CO, H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, N/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O; (2) major gas stream contaminants, e.g., H/sub 2/S, COS, particulates, tars, etc.; and (3) trace element contaminants, e.g., Na, K, V, Cl, Hg, etc.

  6. Rotating disk electrode study of borohydride oxidation in a molten eutectic electrolyte and advancements in the intermediate temperature borohydride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew; Gyenge, Előd L.

    2017-08-01

    The electrode kinetics of the NaBH4 oxidation reaction (BOR) in a molten NaOH-KOH eutectic mixture is investigated by rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry on electrochemically oxidized Ni at temperatures between 458 K and 503 K. The BH4- diffusion coefficient in the molten alkali eutectic together with the BOR activation energy, exchange current density, transfer coefficient and number of electrons exchanged, are determined. Electrochemically oxidized Ni shows excellent BOR electrocatalytic activity with a maximum of seven electrons exchanged and a transfer coefficient up to one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals the formation of NiO as the catalytically active species. The high faradaic efficiency and BOR rate on oxidized Ni anode in the molten electrolyte compared to aqueous alkaline electrolytes is advantageous for power sources. A novel molten electrolyte battery design is investigated using dissolved NaBH4 at the anode and immobilized KIO4 at the cathode. This battery produces a stable open-circuit cell potential of 1.04 V, and a peak power density of 130 mW cm-2 corresponding to a superficial current density of 160 mA cm-2 at 458 K. With further improvements and scale-up borohydride molten electrolyte batteries and fuel cells could be integrated with thermal energy storage systems.

  7. Wettability between molten slag and dolomitic refractory

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Ping; Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Yi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Wang, Qiangqiang

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the wettability between molten slag and dolomitic refractory materials used in the ladle during steel refining was investigated. The contact angle between molten slag and dolomitic substrate decreased with increasing temperature. The slag with lower basicity spread on the substrate more easily and penetrated deeper into the substrate. The penetration depth of slag into the refractory increased with the extension of holding time. The CaO in the refractory dissolved into s...

  8. Feasibility of the electrochemical way in molten fluorides for separating thorium and lanthanides and extracting lanthanides from the solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamelot, P.; Massot, L.; Hamel, C.; Nourry, C.; Taxil, P.

    2007-01-01

    An alternative way of reprocessing nuclear fuel by hydrometallurgy could be using treatment with molten salts, particularly fluoride melts. Moreover, one of the six concepts chosen for GEN IV nuclear reactors (Technology Roadmap - http://gif.inel.gov/roadmap/) is the molten salt reactor (MSR). The originality of the concept is the use of molten salts as liquid fuel and coolant. During the running of the reactor, fission products, particularly lanthanides, accumulate in the melt and have to be eliminated to optimise reactor operation. This study concerns the feasibility of the separation actinides-lanthanides-solvent by selectively electrodepositing the elements to be separated on an inert (Mo, Ta) or a reactive (Ni) cathodic substrate in molten fluoride media. The main results of this work lead to the conclusions that: The solvents to be used for efficient separation must be fluoride media containing lithium as cation. Inert substrates are suitable for actinide/lanthanide separation; nickel substrate is more suitable for the extraction of lanthanides from the solvent, owing to the depolarisation occurring in the cathodic process through alloy formation.

  9. The mystery of molten metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sobczak

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in scientific understanding of high-temperature materials processing using novel experimental methodologies have shed light on the complex role of surface and interface phenomena. New in-situ studies on molten metal/solid ceramic interactions using a unique experimental complex at the Foundry Research Institute, Krakow, have revealed a number of unusual observations in materials processing at high temperatures. We present some such unusual observations and their explanation with reference to liquid metal processing of Al, Ni, and Ti, and their alloys in contact with oxide ceramics. In particular, we focus on the following aspects: primary oxidation of Al from residual water vapor or oxygen, capillary purification to remove surface oxide, substrate protection by CVD carbon, roughening due to spinel whisker formation, inclusions in castings due to mechanical detachment, floatation due to buoyancy forces, and segregation due to directional solidification, modification of the solid surface morphology by metal vapor ahead of the liquid, and the complication due to multi-component alloys melted in crucibles made from complex oxide-based ceramics. In the case of Ti, rapid reactions with oxides result in undesirable volumetric changes that create difficulty in casting high-quality Ti parts, particularly by investment casting. Nanoscale (e.g., colloidal coatings based on Y2O3 protect crucibles and hold ladles against such attack. Practical insights and recommendations for materials processing emerging from the fundamental studies on high-temperature interfacial phenomena have been described.

  10. Assessment of the molecular composition of particulate organic matter exchanged between the Saeftinghe salt marsh (southwestern Netherlands) and the adjacent water system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klap, V.A.; Boon, J.J.; Hemminga, M.A.; Van Soelen, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this study the chemical composition of seston, transported by tidal water between an estuarine salt marsh and the adjacent water system, was assessed. The analytical techniques used are Pyrolysis in combination with Gas Chromatography and/or Mass Spectrometry. Interpretation of the Py-MS data was

  11. Development and Testing of High Surface Area Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; McKechnie, Timothy; Sadoway, Donald R.; Paramore, James; Melendez, Orlando; Curreri, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is an attractive method of processing, because no additional chemical reagents are needed. The electrochemical processing of molten oxides requires high surface area, inert anodes. Such electrodes need to be structurally robust at elevated temperatures (1400-1600?C), be resistant to thermal shock, have good electrical conductivity, be resistant to attack by molten oxide (silicate), be electrochemically stable and support high current density. Iridium with its high melting point, good oxidation resistance, superior high temperature strength and ductility is the most promising candidate for anodes in high temperature electrochemical processes. Several innovative concepts for manufacturing such anodes by electrodeposition of iridium from molten salt electrolyte (EL-Form? process) were evaluated. Iridium electrodeposition to form of complex shape components and coating was investigated. Iridium coated graphite, porous iridium structure and solid iridium anodes were fabricated. Testing of electroformed iridium anodes shows no visible degradation. The result of development, manufacturing and testing of high surface, inert iridium anodes will be presented.

  12. Physical properties of molten carbonate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, T.; Yanagida, M.; Tanimoto, K. [Osaka National Research Institute (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Recently many kinds of compositions of molten carbonate electrolyte have been applied to molten carbonate fuel cell in order to avoid the several problems such as corrosion of separator plate and NiO cathode dissolution. Many researchers recognize that the addition of alkaline earth (Ca, Sr, and Ba) carbonate to Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} eutectic electrolytes is effective to avoid these problems. On the other hand, one of the corrosion products, CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion is found to dissolve into electrolyte and accumulated during the long-term MCFC operations. This would affect the performance of MCFC. There, however, are little known data of physical properties of molten carbonate containing alkaline earth carbonates and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. We report the measured and accumulated data for these molten carbonate of electrical conductivity and surface tension to select favorable composition of molten carbonate electrolytes.

  13. Numerical Analyses of a single-phase natural convection system for Molten Flibe using MARS-FLIBE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sarah; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    These advantages make the MSR attractive and to be one of the six candidates for the Generation IV Reactor. Therefore, the researches related to the MSR are being conducted. To analyze the molten salt-cooled systems in the laboratory, this study generated the properties of molten salt using MARS-LMR. In this research, the implemented salts were Flibe (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) in a molar mixture that is 66% LiF and 34% BeF{sub 2}, respectively. Table 1 indicates the comparison of thermal properties of various coolants in nuclear power plants. Molten salt was added to the MARS-LMR code to support the analysis of Flibe-cooled systems. The molten salt includes LiF-BeF{sub 2} in a molar mixture that is 66% LiF and 34% BeF{sub 2}, respectively. MARS-LMR code for liquid metals uses the soft sphere model based on Monte Carlo calculations for particles interacting with pair potentials. Although MARS was originally intended for a safety analysis of light water reactor, Flibe properties were newly added to this code as so-called MARS-FLIBE which is applicable for Flibe-cooled systems. By using this thermodynamic property table file, the thermal hydraulic systems of Flibe can be simulated for numerical and parametric studies. In this study, the natural convection phenomena in the rectangular natural convection loop and IVR-ERVC in APR 1400 were simulated. Through the simulations in Flibe-cooled systems, the temperature distribution and mass flowrate of Flibe can be calculated and the heat transfer coefficients of Flibe in natural convection loop will be calculated by adding the related heat transfer correlations in the MARS-FLIBE code. MARS-FLIBE code will be used to predict and design of Flibe-cooled systems.

  14. Status of molten carbonate fuel cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianowski, L. G.; Osullivan, J. B.

    A molten carbonate fuel cell integrated with a coal gasification power plant is one of the most promising coal-using technologies because of its high efficiency acceptable cost, and environmental acceptability. The high temperature heat available from the fuel cell may be used in a bottoming cycle and/or industrial cogeneration applications; however, for the molten carbonate system to achieve these goals, continued developmental work is required which must take account of the operating conditions of the application. The progress made in improving cell performance and life and in producing inexpensive cell components is discussed. The status, direction, and priority of future research and engineering efforts is also discussed.

  15. Demixing and effective volatility of molten alkali carbonate melts in MCFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenscheidt, T.; Wendt, H. [Institut fuer Chemische Technologie, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Since the early investigation of A. Klemm, the demixing of the cations of molten binary salt mixtures with a common anion due to the different mobilities of two different cations had been investigated in numerous experiments and the respective results interpreted in terms of structural features of the melts. 1-1 electrolytes had been preferentially investigated. Okada also reported investigations on lithium carbonate/potassium carbonate mixtures in the temperature range from 980 to 1070 K. From this investigation it is known that the heavier potassium cation is faster than lithium in mixtures which are more concentrated in potassium than x{sub K2CO3} = 0,32 (Chemla effect) whereas below this isotachic concentration lithium is faster. This paper investigates demixing in molten carbonate fuel cells.

  16. A perspective on liquid salts for energy and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, J T S

    2016-08-15

    Liquid salts comprising molten salts and ionic liquids offer important media to address both energy and materials challenges. Here we review topics presented in this Faraday Discussion volume related to improved electrowinning of metals, optimisation of processes, new electrochemical device concepts, chemistry in ionic liquids, conversion of biomass, carbon chemistry and nuclear applications. The underlying phenomenology is then reviewed and commentary given. Some future applications are then discussed, further exemplifying the high potential rewards achievable from these chemistries.

  17. Mechanism of formation of a productive molten globule form of barstar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, Bhadresh R; Udgaonkar, Jayant B

    2002-02-12

    Structural analysis of the initial steps in protein folding is difficult because of the swiftness with which these steps occur. Hence, the link between initial polypeptide chain collapse and formation of secondary and other specific structures remains poorly understood. Here, an equilibrium model has been developed for characterizing the initial steps of folding of the small protein barstar, which lead to the formation of a productive molten globule in the folding pathway. In this model, the high-pH-unfolded form (D form) of barstar, which is shown to be as unstructured as the urea-denatured form, is transformed progressively into a molten globule B form by incremental addition of the salt Na(2)SO(4) at pH 12. At very low concentrations of Na(2)SO(4), the D form collapses into a pre-molten globule (P) form, whose volume exceeds that of the native (N) state by only 20%, and which lacks any specific structure as determined by far- and near-UV circular dichroism. At higher concentrations of Na(2)SO(4), the P form transforms into the molten globule (B) form in a highly noncooperative transition populated by an ensemble of at least two intermediates. The B form is a dry molten globule in which water is excluded from the core, and in which secondary structure develops to 65% and tertiary contacts develop to 40%, relative to that of the native protein. Kinetic refolding experiments carried out at pH 7 and at high Na(2)SO(4) concentrations, in which the rate of folding of the D form to the N state is compared to that of the B form to the N state, indicate conclusively that the B form is a productive intermediate that forms on the direct pathway of folding from the D form to the N state.

  18. Aluminide slurry coatings for protection of ferritic steel in molten nitrate corrosion for concentrated solar power technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigié, Pauline; Bizien, Nicolas; Baráibar, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Sergio; Pastor, Ana; Hernández, Marta; Agüero, Alina

    2017-06-01

    Molten nitrates can be employed as heat storage fluids in solar concentration power plants. However molten nitrates are corrosive and if operating temperatures are raised to increase efficiencies, the corrosion rates will also increase. High temperature corrosion resistant coatings based on Al have demonstrated excellent results in other sectors such as gas turbines. Aluminide slurry coated and uncoated P92 steel specimens were exposed to the so called Solar Salt (industrial grade), a binary eutectic mixture of 60 % NaNO3 - 40 % KNO3, in air for 2000 hours at 550°C and 580°C in order to analyze their behavior as candidates to be used in future solar concentration power plants employing molten nitrates as heat transfer fluids. Coated ferritic steels constitute a lower cost technology than Ni based alloy. Two different coating morphologies resulting from two heat treatment performed at 700 and 1050°C after slurry application were tested. The coated systems exhibited excellent corrosion resistance at both temperatures, whereas uncoated P92 showed significant mass loss from the beginning of the test. The coatings showed very slow reaction with the molten Solar Salt. In contrast, uncoated P92 developed a stratified, unprotected Fe, Cr oxide with low adherence which shows oscillating Cr content as a function of coating depth. NaFeO2 was also found at the oxide surface as well as within the Fe, Cr oxide.

  19. INNER SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a...Products that have been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a mesomeric inner salt . (Author)...Novel phosphonium and phosphorane compounds ere prepared by a variety of m hods from triphenylphosphine and methylene bromide. Products that have

  20. Liquid Fluoride Salt Experimentation Using a Small Natural Circulation Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Heatherly, Dennis Wayne [ORNL; Williams, David F [ORNL; Elkassabgi, Yousri M. [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Caja, Joseph [Electrochemical Systems, Inc.; Caja, Mario [ORNL; Jordan, John [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Salinas, Roberto [Texas A& M University, Kingsville

    2014-04-01

    A small molten fluoride salt experiment has been constructed and tested to develop experimental techniques for application in liquid fluoride salt systems. There were five major objectives in developing this test apparatus: Allow visual observation of the salt during testing (how can lighting be introduced, how can pictures be taken, what can be seen) Determine if IR photography can be used to examine components submerged in the salt Determine if the experimental configuration provides salt velocity sufficient for collection of corrosion data for future experimentation Determine if a laser Doppler velocimeter can be used to quantify salt velocities. Acquire natural circulation heat transfer data in fluoride salt at temperatures up to 700oC All of these objectives were successfully achieved during testing with the exception of the fourth: acquiring velocity data using the laser Doppler velocimeter. This paper describes the experiment and experimental techniques used, and presents data taken during natural circulation testing.

  1. Electrochemical Extraction of Rare Earth Metals in Molten Fluorides : Conversion of Rare Earth Oxides into Rare Earth Fluorides Using Fluoride Additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasalizadeh, A.; Malfliet, Annelies; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Sietsma, J.; Yang, Y.

    2017-01-01

    In the present research on rare earth extraction from rare earth oxides (REOs), conversion of rare earth oxides into rare earth fluorides with fluoride fluxes is investigated in order to overcome the problem of low solubility of the rare earth oxides in molten fluoride salts as well as the formation

  2. Borohydride electro-oxidation in a molten alkali hydroxide eutectic mixture and a novel borohydride-periodate battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew; Gyenge, Előd L.

    2015-05-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of BH4- in a molten NaOH-KOH eutectic mixture (0.515:0.485 mole fractions), is investigated for the first time by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Anodically oxidized Ni is electrocatalytically more active than Pt for BH4- oxidation in the molten alkali electrolyte as shown by the more than three times higher exchange current density (i.e. 15.8 mA cm-2 vs. 4.6 mA cm-2 at 185 °C). Next the proof-of-concept for a novel BH4-/IO4- molten alkali electrolyte battery is presented. Using oxidized Ni mesh anode and Pt mesh cathode a maximum power density of 63 mW cm-2 is achieved at 185 °C.

  3. Formation of CuxS Layers on Polypropylene Sulfurized by Molten Sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa ALABURDAITĖ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of formation of electrically conductive layers of copper sulfides CuxS by the sorption-diffusion method on polypropylene (PP using molten sulfur as sulfurizing agent was investigated. The amount of sorbed sulfur increased with the increase of the duration of treatment. Copper sulfide layers were formed on the surface of polypropylene after the treatment of sulfurized polymer with Cu(II/I salt solution. The amount of copper sulfide in layer increased with the increase of treatment duration in copper salt solution. XRD spectra of PP films treated for 3 min with molten sulfur and then with Cu(II/I salt solution for the different time showed that the copper sulfide phases, mostly digenite, Cu2-xS and a-chalcocite, Cu2S were formed in the layers. Electromotive force measurement results confirmed the composition of formed CuxS layers on PP. The phase composition of layers also changed after the annealing. The value of electrical resistance of copper sulfide layers on PP varied from 20 W/cm2 to 80 W/cm2 and after annealing at 80 °C - in the interval of 10 W/cm2 - 60 W/cm2.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.776

  4. Abstract: Stoichiometry, Vibrational Modes and Structures of Molten Nb2O5-K2S2O7 Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boghosian, S.; Borup, F.; Berg, Rolf W.

    1998-01-01

    High temperature Raman spectroscopy is used tostudy the vibrational modes and structures of the Nb205-K2S207(0 stoichiometry are performed...... in order to characterise the complex(es) formed. The determination of stoichiometry is done following a general procedure which is based on a simple formalism correlating measurements of relative Raman band intensities with the stoichiometry of solutes in molten salt solvents....

  5. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, Drake [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States); Kelly, Bruce [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States); Burkholder, Frank [Abengoa Solar LLC, Lakewood, CO (United States)

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler

  7. Nitrogen evolution as anodic reaction in molten LiF-CaF{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massot, L., E-mail: massot@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Chamelot, P.; Gibilaro, M.; Cassayre, L.; Taxil, P. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > We evaluate thermodynamically the anodic materials on which it is possible the produce nitrogen. > We confirm experimentally that nitrogen evolution can occur in molten fluorides. > We perform the complete electrochemical study concerning nitride ions oxidation. > We propose several anodic materials as good candidates for nitrogen evolution. - Abstract: The electrochemical behaviour of nitride ions has been studied in fluoride melts (eutectic LiF-CaF{sub 2}) by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. The purpose of this work is to propose an alternative way for anodic reaction in molten fluorides processes. Thermodynamical analysis can be used for the evaluation of the anodic material regarding to its oxidation potential and reactivity with nitrogen. Then electrochemical investigations confirm the oxidation of nitride ions into nitrogen in a one-step process exchanging 3 electrons, and let propose several materials usable for nitrogen evolving.

  8. Method and apparatus for spraying molten materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.; Nelson, G.L.; Lee, Y.M.

    1996-06-25

    A metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments. 12 figs.

  9. The viscosity measurement of molten rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybár Pavol

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the viscosity measurtement of molten rocks. The reason of such investigation was due to the solving of SC No. 95/135/059 LITHO-JET. Technology of thermic rock melting for trenching of tenous vertical works. One task in the scope of above investigation was to experimentally verify the properties of melts of various types of works. An important moment in the trenching of tenuous vertical works by rock melting is the ability of melt to penetrate into the rock cracks. From this point of view an important physical property of molten rock is its viscosity. There are various methods how to measure viscosity but for the continuous measurements just some of them are suitable. The most suitable is rotary viscosimeter because it is simple in its construction, it allows to measure the viscosity as a function of temperature, concentration of wide class of sub stances with different rheologic properties. Hence, it allows to measure structural viscosity of the chemical reaction systems. The viscosity of molten nefelitic basanite as the function of temperature is studied in this paper. Viscosity of the nefelinitic basanite taken at locality Konrádovce was measured using rotary viscosimeter HAAKE ROTOVISKO. Eperimental conditions shown, that rising of the temperature vs. viscosity is in reverse order. Measurement is realised in scale 1370-1550°C. Under 1370°C was sample very viscous and measurement was impossible. Viscosity is the function of the temperature, pressure and gas components of rock.Though the viscosity measurements was carried out at atmospheric pressure, what does not fully conform real condition during trenching, it is still possible to express the effect of pressure. Other conditions, which take effect of viscosityof molten rocks in nature conditions will be subject of future investigation.

  10. Electrowinning molten titanium from titanium dioxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in it quest for global competitiveness CSIR Manufacturing and Materials Technology 4 Rationale - Advantages • Feed: Safe, transportable, alternative supplies (sulphate and chloride routes), decoupled from TiCl4... and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitivenessorting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in it quest for global competitiveness CSIR Manufacturing and Materials Technology 1 Electrowinning Molten Titanium from Titanium Dioxide DS van...

  11. Exotic Spartina alterniflora invasion alters ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of CH4 and N2O and carbon sequestration in a coastal salt marsh in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Junji; Ding, Weixin; Liu, Deyan; Kang, Hojeong; Freeman, Chris; Xiang, Jian; Lin, Yongxin

    2015-04-01

    Coastal salt marshes are sensitive to global climate change and may play an important role in mitigating global warming. To evaluate the impacts of Spartina alterniflora invasion on global warming potential (GWP) in Chinese coastal areas, we measured CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil organic carbon sequestration rates along a transect of coastal wetlands in Jiangsu province, China, including open water; bare tidal flat; and invasive S. alterniflora, native Suaeda salsa, and Phragmites australis marshes. Annual CH4 emissions were estimated as 2.81, 4.16, 4.88, 10.79, and 16.98 kg CH4 ha(-1) for open water, bare tidal flat, and P. australis, S. salsa, and S. alterniflora marshes, respectively, indicating that S. alterniflora invasion increased CH4 emissions by 57-505%. In contrast, negative N2O fluxes were found to be significantly and negatively correlated (P marshes. Annual N2O emissions were 0.24, 0.38, and 0.56 kg N2O ha(-1) in open water, bare tidal flat and S. salsa marsh, respectively, compared with -0.51 kg N2O ha(-1) for S. alterniflora marsh and -0.25 kg N2O ha(-1) for P. australis marsh. The carbon sequestration rate of S. alterniflora marsh amounted to 3.16 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) in the top 100 cm soil profile, a value that was 2.63- to 8.78-fold higher than in native plant marshes. The estimated GWP was 1.78, -0.60, -4.09, and -1.14 Mg CO2 eq ha(-1) yr(-1) in open water, bare tidal flat, P. australis marsh and S. salsa marsh, respectively, but dropped to -11.30 Mg CO2 eq ha(-1) yr(-1) in S. alterniflora marsh. Our results indicate that although S. alterniflora invasion stimulates CH4 emissions, it can efficiently mitigate increases in atmospheric CO2 and N2O along the coast of China. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Supported Molten Metal Membranes for Hydrogen Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Ravindra [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Worcester, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ma, Yi Hua [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Worcester, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Yen, Pei-Shan [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Worcester, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Deveau, Nicholas [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Worcester, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Fishtik, Ilie [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Worcester, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Mardilovich, Ivan [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Worcester, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-09-30

    We describe here our results on the feasibility of a novel dense metal membrane for hydrogen separation: Supported Molten Metal Membrane, or SMMM. The goal in this work was to develop these new membranes based on supporting thin films of low-melting, non- precious group metals, e.g., tin (Sn), indium (In), gallium (Ga), or their alloys, to provide a flux and selectivity of hydrogen that rivals the conventional but substantially more expensive palladium (Pd) or Pd alloy membranes, which are susceptible to poisoning by the many species in the coal-derived syngas, and further possess inadequate stability and limited operating temperature range. The novelty of the technology presented numerous challenges during the course of this project, however, mainly in the selection of appropriate supports, and in the fabrication of a stable membrane. While the wetting instability of the SMMM remains an issue, we did develop an adequate understanding of the interaction between molten metal films with porous supports that we were able to find appropriate supports. Thus, our preliminary results indicate that the Ga/SiC SMMM at 550 °C has a permeance that is an order of magnitude higher than that of Pd, and exceeds the 2015 DOE target. To make practical SMM membranes, however, further improving the stability of the molten metal membrane is the next goal. For this, it is important to better understand the change in molten metal surface tension and contact angle as a function of temperature and gas-phase composition. A thermodynamic theory was, thus, developed, that is not only able to explain this change in the liquid-gas surface tension, but also the change in the solid-liquid surface tension as well as the contact angle. This fundamental understanding has allowed us to determine design characteristics to maintain stability in the face of changing gas composition. These designs are being developed. For further progress, it is also important to understand the nature of solution and

  13. A Burn Injury Due To 800 Degrees Molten Aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    TUNCEL, Umut

    2010-01-01

    Molten metal burn cases are preventable injuries. The burns are common among foundry workers. Our case was reported of a foundry worker who suffered from molten metal burn injury. The patient have received a foot injury especially on his dorsolateral foot. The burn wound was second degree and has been recovered only daily wound care in 4 weeks. We suggested that the molten metal burn injury could easily have been prevented by the use of protective footwear.

  14. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Demonstration Reactor Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrell, Jerry W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) demonstration reactor (DR) is a concept for a salt-cooled reactor with 100 megawatts of thermal output (MWt). It would use tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel within prismatic graphite blocks. FLiBe (2 LiF-BeF2) is the reference primary coolant. The FHR DR is designed to be small, simple, and affordable. Development of the FHR DR is a necessary intermediate step to enable near-term commercial FHRs. Lower risk technologies are purposely included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include TRISO particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers. Several preconceptual and conceptual design efforts that have been conducted on FHR concepts bear a significant influence on the FHR DR design. Specific designs include the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) with 3400/1500 MWt/megawatts of electric output (MWe), as well as a 125 MWt small modular AHTR (SmAHTR) from ORNL. Other important examples are the Mk1 pebble bed FHR (PB-FHR) concept from the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), and an FHR test reactor design developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The MIT FHR test reactor is based on a prismatic fuel platform and is directly relevant to the present FHR DR design effort. These FHR concepts are based on reasonable assumptions for credible commercial prototypes. The FHR DR concept also directly benefits from the operating experience of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), as well as the detailed design efforts for a large molten salt reactor concept and its breeder variant, the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor. The FHR DR technology is most representative of the 3400 MWt AHTR

  15. Evaluation of gasification and gas-cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    A choice of the gasifier/cleanup system combinations most suitable for molten carbonate fuel cell based power plant application is discussed. Included are hot gas cleanup, air blown, oxygen blown and molten salt based coal gas supply systems. An assessment of deposition for power plant size molten carbonate fuel cells is given and mechanisms affecting particle transfer in fuel cells are described. Gas cleanup to remove virtually all particles larger than one micron in diameter is expected to prevent, or at least minimize to a negligibly low level, deposition of particulate material on the anode. However, cathode particulate deposition in molten carbonate fuel cells should be evaluated in the future, since cathodes are more likely to experience deposition even though cathode channel particle concentrations can be much lower than anode channel concentrations. Cathodes are more susceptible to deposition than anodes due to a net mass flow of gases into cathode pores compared to a net mass flow of gases out from anode pores.

  16. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of BaB6 from molten melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose T.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium hexaboride (BaB6 crystals were electrochemically synthesized using molten salt technique. Barium carbonate (BaCO3 and boron trioxide (B2O3 was used as reactants. Lithium fluoride (LiF was used as the supporting electrolyte. The molten electrolyte consisted of 50 wt % BaCO3 and B2O3 with different stiochiometric ratios of Ba and B and 50 wt % lithium fluoride. DTA/TGA studies were made to determine the eutectic point of the melt and it was found to be around 821oC. The electrolytic cell had a high purity graphite crucible, which served as the electrolyte holding vessel and also as the anode for the electrolysis. An electro-polished molybdenum rod was employed as the cathode. The electrolysis was performed at 870ºC under argon atmosphere, at current densities ranging from 0.2-0.5 A/cm2. The electrodeposited crystals were examined for the phase identification using X-ray diffraction technique. The AAS and the chemical analysis were made for the determination of chemical composition of the synthesized crystals. The purity of the crystals was also assessed using ICP-MS, XRF and EDX, which reveal that the crystals were associated with trace amount of impurities like oxygen, carbon and iron. The compound is found to be more than 99 % pure. The morphology of the crystals was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. From the above studies, it is concluded that the molten salt process is a simple preparative procedure for the synthesis of sub-micron size barium hexaboride crystals.

  17. Advanced Reactors-Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) Coupling: Theoretical Modeling and Experimental Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utgikar, Vivek [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Sun, Xiaodong [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Christensen, Richard [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-29

    The overall goal of the research project was to model the behavior of the advanced reactorintermediate heat exchange system and to develop advanced control techniques for off-normal conditions. The specific objectives defined for the project were: 1. To develop the steady-state thermal hydraulic design of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX); 2. To develop mathematical models to describe the advanced nuclear reactor-IHX-chemical process/power generation coupling during normal and off-normal operations, and to simulate models using multiphysics software; 3. To develop control strategies using genetic algorithm or neural network techniques and couple these techniques with the multiphysics software; 4. To validate the models experimentally The project objectives were accomplished by defining and executing four different tasks corresponding to these specific objectives. The first task involved selection of IHX candidates and developing steady state designs for those. The second task involved modeling of the transient and offnormal operation of the reactor-IHX system. The subsequent task dealt with the development of control strategies and involved algorithm development and simulation. The last task involved experimental validation of the thermal hydraulic performances of the two prototype heat exchangers designed and fabricated for the project at steady state and transient conditions to simulate the coupling of the reactor- IHX-process plant system. The experimental work utilized the two test facilities at The Ohio State University (OSU) including one existing High-Temperature Helium Test Facility (HTHF) and the newly developed high-temperature molten salt facility.

  18. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  19. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.

    1984-06-25

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  20. Method of making molten carbonate fuel cell ceramic matrix tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricle, Donald L.; Putnam, Gary C.; Stewart, Jr., Robert C.

    1984-10-23

    A method of making a thin, flexible, pliable matrix material for a molten carbonate fuel cell is described. The method comprises admixing particles inert in the molten carbonate environment with an organic polymer binder and ceramic particle. The composition is applied to a mold surface and dried, and the formed compliant matrix material removed.

  1. Production of Oxygen from Lunar Regolith using Molten Oxide Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, Laurent; Sadoway, Donald R.; Sirk, Aislinn; Tripathy, Prabhat; Melendez, Orlando; Standish, Evan; Dominquez, Jesus A.; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.; Poizeau, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the possible use of molten oxide electrolysis to extract oxygen from the Lunar Regolith. The presentation asserts that molten regolith electrolysis has advanced to be a useful method for production of oxygen and metals in situ on the Moon. The work has demonstrated an 8 hour batch of electrolysis at 5 amps using Iridium inert anodes.

  2. Salt balance, fresh water residence time and budget for non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and salt budgets suggest that in order to balance the inflow and outflow of water at Makoba bay, there is net flux of water from the bay to the open ocean during wet season. Residual salt fluxes between the bay and the open ocean indicate advective salt export. Exchange of water between the bay with the open ocean ...

  3. Proton conducting ceramics for potentiometric hydrogen sensors for molten metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, H.; Llivina, L.; Colominas, S.; Abellà, J., E-mail: jordi.abella@iqs.edu

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis and chemical characterization of proton conductor ceramics. • Qualification of ceramics for hydrogen sensors in molten lithium–lead. • Ceramics have well-defined grains with a wide distribution of sizes. • Good agreement with predictions obtained with BaZrY, BaCeZrY and SrFeCo ceramics. -- Abstract: Tritium monitoring in lithium–lead eutectic (Pb–15.7Li) is of great importance for the performance of liquid blankets in fusion reactors. Also, tritium measurements will be required in order to proof tritium self-sufficiency in liquid metal breeding systems. On-line hydrogen (isotopes) sensors must be design and tested in order to accomplish these goals. Potentiometric hydrogen sensors for molten lithium–lead eutectic have been designed at the Electrochemical Methods Lab at Institut Quimic de Sarria (IQS) at Barcelona and are under development and qualification. The probes are based on the use of solid state electrolytes and works as proton exchange membranes (PEM). In this work the following compounds: BaZr{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3}, BaCe{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.3}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−α}, Sr(Ce{sub 0.6}-Zr{sub 0.4}){sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−α} and Sr{sub 3}Fe{sub 1.8}Co{sub 2}O{sub 7} have been synthesized in order to be tested as PEM H-probes. Potentiometric measurements of the synthesized ceramic elements at 500 °C have been performed at a fixed hydrogen concentration. The sensors constructed using the proton conductor elements BaZr{sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3}, BaCe{sub 0.6}Zr{sub 0.3}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−δ} and Sr{sub 3}Fe{sub 1.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 7−δ} exhibited stable output potential and its value was close to the theoretical value calculated with the Nernst equation (deviation around 60 mV). In contrast, the sensor constructed using the proton conductor element Sr(Ce{sub 0.6}–Zr{sub 0.4}){sub 0.9}Y{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−δ} showed a deviation higher than 100 mV between experimental an theoretical data.

  4. Hybrid friction diffusion bonding of 316L stainless steel tube-to-tube sheet joints for coil-wound heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haneklaus, Nils; Cionea, Cristian; Reuven, Rony; Frazer, David; Hosemann, Peter; Peterson, Per F. [Dept of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Hybrid friction diffusion bonding (HFDB) is a solid-state bonding process first introduced by Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht to join aluminum tube-to-tube sheet joints of Coil-wound heat exchangers (CWHE). This study describes how HFDB was successfully used to manufacture 316L test samples simulating tube-to-tube sheet joints of stainless steel CWHE for molten salt coolants as foreseen in several advanced nuclear- and thermal solar power plants. Engineering parameters of the test sample fabrication are presented and results from subsequent non-destructive vacuum decay leak testing and destructive tensile pull-out testing are discussed. The bonded areas of successfully fabricated samples as characterized by tube rupture during pull-out tensile testing, were further investigated using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy including electron backscatter diffraction.

  5. BASIC experiment on the sodium leak combustion. Examination of sodium combustion and liner material damage by sodium continuously dropped into the high-temperature NaOH molten pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiichi; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this basic experiments to clarify the cause of damage of the liner material, which recognized by the Sodium Leak and Combustion Test II. In this experiment, the liquid sodium continuously dropped into the high-temperature NaOH molten pool, to investigate sodium combustion phenomenon in the NaOH pool and damage of the liner material (carbon steel, JIS, G3106, SM400B). The drop temperature of sodium is 496degC, and the amount of dropped sodium is about 1200g. The temperature of NaOH molten pool is 660-690degC in the initial stage, and the amount of NaOH is about 2500g. The average drop (leak) rate is 1.8g/sec, and the height of above the NaOH molten pool is about 700 mm. The following results were obtained. The fallen sodium continued to burn during floating on the NaOH molten pool. In this case, the NaOH molten pool was not totally covered with the combustion products, and the molten pool always had the atmosphere interface. The combustion products were mixed and melted in the NaOH molten pool. The maximum reduction of thickness was occurred in the level vicinity of NaOH molten pool. Plate test specimens of 3 mm thickness were separated in the level vicinity during periods of combustion. And, in the NaOH container, the metal loss of largest about 2.5 mm was recognized at the level vicinity. It is considered that the remarkable metal loss in the level vicinity indicates the involvement of molten salt-type corrosion mechanism with the atmosphere interface. The above mentioned results were obtained from the basic experiment. These results gave the important information to evaluate the damage mechanism of the floor liner material. (author)

  6. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillejo, Y., E-mail: ycastril@qa.uva.es [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Fernandez, P. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Medina, J. [Dept Fisica Materia Condensada Cristalografia y Mineralogia, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Hernandez, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42076 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Barrado, E. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) {r_reversible} Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al{sub 3}Sm and Al{sub 2}Sm.

  7. Electrocrystallisation of tantalum in molten fluoride media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massot, L. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques et Materiaux, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)]. E-mail: massot@chimie.ups-tlse.fr; Chamelot, P. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques et Materiaux, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Palau, P. [Pechiney CRV-UR GP, Parc Economique Centr' Alp, BP27, 38340 Voreppe (France); Taxil, P. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques et Materiaux, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2005-09-20

    The electrochemical nucleation of tantalum in molten alkaline fluoride media is investigated using chronoamperometry in the 670-750 deg C temperature range to optimize the operating conditions for preparing tantalum coatings for anode materials. Chronoamperometric results show that the electrodeposition process involves progressive nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth of the nuclei, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the temperature and the overpotential on the nucleation site densities is considered. Once the deposit has been obtained, plotting the roughness of the tantalum coatings as a function of the current densities reveals a minimum at about 80 mA/cm{sup 2}. This minimum is considered by the authors as a consequence of the progressive nucleation.

  8. Hydrogen production from molten metal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eatwell-Hall, R.E.A.; Sharifi, V.N.; Swithenbank, J. [Energy and Environmental Engineering Research Group (EEERG), Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    As fossil fuel reserves are depleted, more innovative technologies are needed to facilitate fuel production, such as molten media gasification. This technique uses a liquid metal bath in a two-stage process: Stage 1) superheated steam is injected into the melt, with metal oxides formed, and H{sub 2} released; Stage 2) carbon is injected, the oxide is reduced, and CO and CO{sub 2} are released. The main study objective was to develop and test the first stage of this process. The results showed that hydrogen production peaked 100 s into the test, and then levelled off, with a maximum output of 13.6% hydrogen. XRD analysis of the metal samples showed that no tin oxides or magnetite were formed during the process, only a form of wustite (FeO). The syngas produced was very clean, and would need little gas cleaning for use as a feedstock in industrial processes or fuel cells. (author)

  9. Understanding fluxes as media for directed synthesis: in situ local structure of molten potassium polysulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Daniel P; Chung, Duck Young; Mitchell, J F; Bray, Travis H; Soderholm, L; Chupas, Peter J; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2012-06-06

    Rational exploratory synthesis of new materials requires routes to discover novel phases and systematic methods to tailor their structures and properties. Synthetic reactions in molten fluxes have proven to be an excellent route to new inorganic materials because they promote diffusion and can serve as an additional reactant, but little is known about the mechanisms of compound formation, crystal precipitation, or behavior of fluxes themselves at conditions relevant to synthesis. In this study we examine the properties of a salt flux system that has proven extremely fertile for growth of new materials: the potassium polysulfides spanning K(2)S(3) and K(2)S(5), which melt between 302 and 206 °C. We present in situ Raman spectroscopy of melts between K(2)S(3) and K(2)S(5) and find strong coupling between n in K(2)S(n) and the molten local structure, implying that the S(n)(2-) chains in the crystalline state are mirrored in the melt. In any reactive flux system, K(2)S(n) included, a signature of changing species in the melt implies that their evolution during a reaction can be characterized and eventually controlled for selective formation of compounds. We use in situ X-ray total scattering to obtain the pair distribution function of molten K(2)S(5) and model the length of S(n)(2-) chains in the melt using reverse Monte Carlo simulations. Combining in situ Raman and total scattering provides a path to understanding the behavior of reactive media and should be broadly applied for more informed, targeted synthesis of compounds in a wide variety of inorganic fluxes.

  10. The role of correlations in the determination of the transport properties of LaCl{sub 3} in high temperature molten eutectic LiCl-KCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samin, Adib; Wu, Evan; Zhang, Jinsuo [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2017-10-01

    It is important to develop an accurate assessment of fundamental data of lanthanides in high temperature molten salts to enable an efficient application of pyroprocessing. This requires a careful consideration of uncertainties in the reported results. In this study, cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests of LaCl{sub 3} in KCl-LiCl molten salt were conducted at low concentration levels in the molten salt at 723 K and at several scan rates. The CV signals were subsequently analyzed through the conventional CV analysis and using a BET-based model through a nonlinear least-squares fitting procedure. It was determined that the parameters of the model were strongly correlated and the support plane procedure was implemented to assign joint confidence intervals for the diffusivity of lanthanum. Accounting for the correlations led to a significant increase in the uncertainty of the reported diffusivity which led to better agreement with the literature. Accounting for the correlations may be important for higher concentration levels.

  11. High Surface Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith...

  12. Degassing of molten alloys with the assistance of ultrasonic vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingyou; Xu, Hanbing; Meek, Thomas T.

    2010-03-23

    An apparatus and method are disclosed in which ultrasonic vibration is used to assist the degassing of molten metals or metal alloys thereby reducing gas content in the molten metals or alloys. High-intensity ultrasonic vibration is applied to a radiator that creates cavitation bubbles, induces acoustic streaming in the melt, and breaks up purge gas (e.g., argon or nitrogen) which is intentionally introduced in a small amount into the melt in order to collect the cavitation bubbles and to make the cavitation bubbles survive in the melt. The molten metal or alloy in one version of the invention is an aluminum alloy. The ultrasonic vibrations create cavitation bubbles and break up the large purge gas bubbles into small bubbles and disperse the bubbles in the molten metal or alloy more uniformly, resulting in a fast and clean degassing.

  13. Large Scale Inert Anode for Molten Oxide Electrolysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Molten oxide electrolysis is a demonstrated laboratory-scale process for producing oxygen from the JSC-1a lunar simulant; however, critical subsystems necessary for...

  14. Electrochemical study of the Eu(III)/Eu(II) system in molten fluoride media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massot, L. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France)], E-mail: massot@chimie.ups-tlse.fr; Chamelot, P.; Cassayre, L.; Taxil, P. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France)

    2009-11-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of the Eu(III)/Eu(II) system was examined in the molten eutectic LiF-CaF{sub 2} on a molybdenum electrode, using cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. It was observed that EuF{sub 3} is partly reduced into EuF{sub 2} at the operating temperatures (1073-1143 K). The electrochemical study allowed to calculate both the equilibrium constant and the formal standard potential of the Eu(III)/Eu(II) system. The reaction is limited by the diffusion of the species in the solution; their diffusion coefficients were calculated at different temperatures and the values obey Arrhenius' law. The second system Eu(II)/Eu takes place out of the electrochemical window on an inert molybdenum electrode, which inhibits the extraction of Eu species from the salt on such a substrate.

  15. Molten phosphonium iodides as electrolytes in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Rosa E.; Sanchez, Eduardo M. [Laboratorio de Investigacion del Vidrio, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Pedro de Alba S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico)

    2006-09-22

    We have synthesized new room temperature ionic liquids and test them as new potential electrolytes for dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells (DNSCs) of Gratzel type based on asymmetric tetraalkylphosphonium iodides. A systematic study on the conductivity behavior of BH{sub 3}PI, iBH{sub 3}PI, OH{sub 3}PI and iBO{sub 3}PI molten salts and the effect of the addition of low concentrations of iodine with and without 3-methoxypropionitrile is presented. Solar cells using iBH{sub 3}PI-based electrolyte reached an overall light-to-electricity efficiency of 5.7% under moderate light intensity (27000lx) conditions and those results are compared to similar systems using alternative ionic liquids as electrolytes. (author)

  16. Next-Generation Electrochemical Energy Materials for Intermediate Temperature Molten Oxide Fuel Cells and Ion Transport Molten Oxide Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Valery V

    2017-02-21

    High temperature electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and oxygen separators based on ceramic materials are used for efficient energy conversion. These devices generally operate in the temperature range of 800-1000 °C. The high operating temperatures lead to accelerated degradation of the SOFC and oxygen separator materials. To solve this problem, the operating temperatures of these electrochemical devices must be lowered. However, lowering the temperature is accompanied by decreasing the ionic conductivity of fuel cell electrolyte and oxygen separator membrane. Therefore, there is a need to search for alternative electrolyte and membrane materials that have high ionic conductivity at lower temperatures. A great many opportunities exist for molten oxides as electrochemical energy materials. Because of their unique electrochemical properties, the molten oxide innovations can offer significant benefits for improving energy efficiency. In particular, the newly developed electrochemical molten oxide materials show high ionic conductivities at intermediate temperatures (600-800 °C) and could be used in molten oxide fuel cells (MOFCs) and molten oxide membranes (MOMs). The molten oxide materials containing both solid grains and liquid channels at the grain boundaries have advantages compared to the ceramic materials. For example, the molten oxide materials are ductile, which solves a problem of thermal incompatibility (difference in coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE). Besides, the outstanding oxygen selectivity of MOM materials allows us to separate ultrahigh purity oxygen from air. For their part, the MOFC electrolytes show the highest ionic conductivity at intermediate temperatures. To evaluate the potential of molten oxide materials for technological applications, the relationship between the microstructure of these materials and their transport and mechanical properties must be revealed. This Account summarizes the latest results on

  17. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  18. Pebble Bed Reactors Design Optimization Methods and their Application to the Pebble Bed Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor (PB-FHR)

    OpenAIRE

    Cisneros, Anselmo Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The Fluoride salt cooled High temperature Reactor (FHR) is a class of advanced nuclear reactors that combine the robust coated particle fuel form from high temperature gas cooled reactors, direct reactor auxillary cooling system (DRACS) passive decay removal of liquid metal fast reactors, and the transparent, high volumetric heat capacitance liquid fluoride salt working fluids - flibe (33%7Li2F-67%BeF) - from molten salt reactors. This combination of fuel and coolant enables FHRs to operate i...

  19. Remote monitoring of molten radioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, R.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Li, Kang-Wen K. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Nuclear Engineering Program; Schneider, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1991-12-31

    An on-line method is described for the near-continuous monitoring of the composition of a molten radioactive waste glass or, alternatively, for signaling a deviation from the target composition of a waste glass. The principle of this method, proposed by A. Schneider in 1986, is founded on the relation between two specific physical properties and composition in a ternary system. Most glasses currently considered as waste forms can be represented as pseudo-ternary system. The pairs of properties especially suited for this purpose are viscosity/density and viscosity/electrical conductivity. A novel viscometry method was developed which uses the remotely determined rise velocity of carefully metered gas bubbles. The monitoring method was tested successfully with simulated Savannah River waste glasses. An integrated probe was conceived for a Joule-heated melter for the on-line determination of viscosity, temperature, density, and liquid level. A computer program calculates the glass composition from the measured data, using information from a previously developed data base.

  20. Ionic Conductivity and Assembled Structures of Imidazolium Salt-Based Block Copolymers with Thermoresponsive Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Nakabayashi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid-based block copolymers composed of ionic (solubility tunable–nonionic (water-soluble and thermoresponsive segments were synthesized to explore the relationship between ionic conductivity and assembled structures. Three block copolymers, comprising poly(N-vinylimidazolium bromide (poly(NVI-Br as a hydrophilic poly(ionic liquid segment and thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (poly(NIPAM, having different compositions, were initially prepared by RAFT polymerization. The anion-exchange reaction of the poly(NVI-Br in the block copolymers with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide (LiNTf2 proceeded selectively to afford amphiphilic block copolymers composed of hydrophobic poly(NVI-NTf2 and hydrophilic poly(NIPAM. Resulting poly(NVI-NTf2-b-poly(NIPAM exhibited ionic conductivities greater than 10−3 S/cm at 90 °C and 10−4 S/cm at 25 °C, which can be tuned by the comonomer composition and addition of a molten salt. Temperature-dependent ionic conductivity and assembled structures of these block copolymers were investigated, in terms of the comonomer composition, nature of counter anion and sample preparation procedure.

  1. Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-28

    This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

  2. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years

  3. Barter exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    Although barter is often perceived as something that proceeded money, barter is still used. The focus of the paper is on barter exchanges. Barter exchanges are used both in developing countries as well as in developed countries (including the U.S.). They are used by both organizations...... and individuals. They usually allow to exchange good but some include also services. Some exchanges allow only for bi-directional barter, i.e. when only two parties are involved in the exchange. But probably most of the barter exchanges use barter money; this makes it easier to exchange goods and services...

  4. Supported Molten Metal Catalysis. A New Class of Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindra Datta; Ajeet Singh; Manuela Serban; Istvan Halasz

    2006-06-02

    We describe a new class of heterogeneous catalysts called supported molten metal catalysis (SMMC), in which molten metal catalysts are dispersed as nanodroplets on the surface of porous supports, allowing much larger active surface area than is possible in conventional contacting techniques for catalytic metals that are molten under reaction conditions, thus greatly enhancing their activity and potential utility. Specific examples of different types of reactions are provided to demonstrate the broad applicability of the technique in designing active, selective, and stable new catalysts. It is shown that dispersing the molten metal on a support in the suggested manner can enhance the rate of a reaction by three to four orders of magnitude as a result of the concomitant increase in the active surface area. New reaction examples include {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported molten Te (melting point 450 C) and Ga (MP 30 C) catalysts for bifunctional methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation. These catalysts provide activity similar to conventional Pt-based catalysts for this with better resistance to coking. In addition, results are described for a controlled pore glass supported molten In (MP 157 C) catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with ethanol in the presence of water, demonstrating activities superior to conventional catalysts for this reaction. A discussion is also provided on the characterization of the active surface area and dispersion of these novel supported catalysts. It is clear based on the results described that the development of new active and selective supported molten metal catalysts for practical applications is entirely plausible.

  5. Maxwell–Stefan diffusion and dynamical correlation in molten LiF-KF: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Richa Naja, E-mail: ltprichanaja@gmail.com; Chakraborty, Brahmananda; Ramaniah, Lavanya M. [High Pressure & Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-85 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this work our main objective is to compute Dynamical correlations, Onsager coefficients and Maxwell-Stefan (MS) diffusivities for molten salt LiF-KF mixture at various thermodynamic states through Green–Kubo formalism for the first time. The equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed using BHM potential for LiF–KF mixture. The velocity autocorrelations functions involving Li ions reflect the endurance of cage dynamics or backscattering with temperature. The magnitude of Onsager coefficients for all pairs increases with increase in temperature. Interestingly most of the Onsager coefficients has almost maximum magnitude at the eutectic composition indicating the most dynamic character of the eutectic mixture. MS diffusivity hence diffusion for all ion pairs increases in the system with increasing temperature. Smooth variation of the diffusivity values denies any network formation in the mixture. Also, the striking feature is the noticeable concentration dependence of MS diffusivity between cation-cation pair, Đ{sub Li-K} which remains negative for most of the concentration range but changes sign to become positive for higher LiF concentration. The negative MS diffusivity is acceptable as it satisfies the non-negative entropy constraint governed by 2{sup nd} law of thermodynamics. This high diffusivity also vouches the candidature of molten salt as a coolant.

  6. Engineering Database of Liquid Salt Thermophysical and Thermochemical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Matthias A. Ebner; Piyush Sabharwall; Phil Sharpe

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a review of thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of candidate molten salt coolants, which may be used as a primary coolant within a nuclear reactor or heat transport medium from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to a processing plant, for example, a hydrogen-production plant. Thermodynamic properties of four types of molten salts, including LiF-BeF2 (67 and 33 mol%, respectively; also known as FLiBe), LiF-NaF-KF (46.5, 11.5, and 52 mol%, also known as FLiNaK), and KCl-MgCl2 (67 and 33 mol%), and sodium nitrate-sodium nitrite-potassium nitrate (NaNO3–NaNO2–KNO3, (7-49-44 or 7-40-53 mol%) have been investigated. Limitations of existing correlations to predict density, viscosity, specific heat capacity, surface tension, and thermal conductivity, were identified. The impact of thermodynamic properties on the heat transfer, especially Nusselt number was also discussed. Stability of the molten salts with structural alloys and their compatibility with the structural alloys was studied. Nickel and alloys with dense Ni coatings are effectively inert to corrosion in fluorides but not so in chlorides. Of the chromium containing alloys, Hastelloy N appears to have the best corrosion resistance in fluorides, while Haynes 230 was most resistant in chloride. In general, alloys with increasing carbon and chromium content are increasingly subject to corrosion by the fluoride salts FLiBe and FLiNaK, due to attack and dissolution of the intergranular chromium carbide. Future research to obtain needed information was identified.

  7. Comparative study of SnS recrystallization in molten CdI{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}and KI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmo, Kristi; Kauk-Kuusik, Marit; Pilvet, Maris; Mikli, Valdek; Kaerber, Erki; Raadik, Taavi; Leinemann, Inga; Altosaar, Mare; Raudoja, Jaan [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2016-01-15

    In the present study, the recrystallization of polycrystalline SnS in different molten salts CdI{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2} and KI as flux materials are presented. The recrystallization and growth of polycrystalline material in molten salts produces unique SnS monograin powders usable in monograin layer solar cells. XRD and Raman analysis revealed that single phase SnS powder can be obtained in KI at 740 C and in SnCl{sub 2} at 500 C. Long time heating of SnS in molten CdI{sub 2} was accompanied by chemical interaction between SnS and CdI{sub 2} that resulted in a mixture of CdS and Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} crystals. SEM images showed that morphology of crystals can be controlled by the nature of the flux materials: needle-like Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} together with round edged crystals of CdS in CdI{sub 2}, flat crystals of SnS with smooth surfaces in SnCl{sub 2} and well-formed SnS crystals with rounded edges in KI had been formed. The temperatures of phase transitions and/or the interactions of SnS and flux materials were determined by differential thermal analysis. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Electrochemistry of uranium in molten LiF-CaF{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nourry, C., E-mail: Christophe.Nourry@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Soucek, P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Massot, L. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (LGC), Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, CNRS-UMR 5503, Universite de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Malmbeck, R. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Chamelot, P. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (LGC), Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, CNRS-UMR 5503, Universite de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Glatz, J.-P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    This article is focused on the electrochemical behaviour of U ions in molten LiF-CaF{sub 2} (79-21 wt.%) eutectic. On a W electrode, U(III) is reduced in one step to U metal and U(III) can be also oxidised to U(IV). Both systems were studied by cyclic and square wave voltammetry. Reversibility of both systems for both techniques was verified and number of exchanged electrons was determined, as well as diffusion coefficients for U(III) and U(IV). The results are in a good agreement with previous studies. On a Ni electrode, the depolarisation effect due to intermetallic compounds formation was observed. Electrorefining of U metal in a melt containing U and Gd ions was carried out using a reactive Ni electrode with promising results.

  9. Projected Salt Waste Production from a Commercial Pyroprocessing Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Simpson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel inevitably produces salt waste from electrorefining and/or oxide reduction unit operations. Various process design characteristics can affect the actual mass of such waste produced. This paper examines both oxide and metal fuel treatment, estimates the amount of salt waste generated, and assesses potential benefit of process options to mitigate the generation of salt waste. For reference purposes, a facility is considered in which 100 MT/year of fuel is processed. Salt waste estimates range from 8 to 20 MT/year from considering numerous scenarios. It appears that some benefit may be derived from advanced processes for separating fission products from molten salt waste, but the degree of improvement is limited. Waste form production is also considered but appears to be economically unfavorable. Direct disposal of salt into a salt basin type repository is found to be the most promising with respect to minimizing the impact of waste generation on the economic feasibility and sustainability of pyroprocessing.

  10. Transient thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical analysis of a counter flow offset strip fin intermediate heat exchanger using an effective porous media approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, Eugenio

    This work presents a comprehensive thermal hydraulic analysis of a compact heat exchanger using offset strip fins. The thermal hydraulics analysis in this work is followed by a finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the mechanical stresses experienced by an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) during steady-state operation and selected flow transients. In particular, the scenario analyzed involves a gas-to-liquid IHX operating between high pressure helium and liquid or molten salt. In order to estimate the stresses in compact heat exchangers a comprehensive thermal and hydraulic analysis is needed. Compact heat exchangers require very small flow channels and fins to achieve high heat transfer rates and thermal effectiveness. However, studying such small features computationally contributes little to the understanding of component level phenomena and requires prohibitive computational effort using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). To address this issue, the analysis developed here uses an effective porous media (EPM) approach; this greatly reduces the computation time and produces results with the appropriate resolution [1]. This EPM fluid dynamics and heat transfer computational code has been named the Compact Heat Exchanger Explicit Thermal and Hydraulics (CHEETAH) code. CHEETAH solves for the two-dimensional steady-state and transient temperature and flow distributions in the IHX including the complicating effects of temperature-dependent fluid thermo-physical properties. Temperature- and pressure-dependent fluid properties are evaluated by CHEETAH and the thermal effectiveness of the IHX is also calculated. Furthermore, the temperature distribution can then be imported into a finite element analysis (FEA) code for mechanical stress analysis using the EPM methods developed earlier by the University of California, Berkeley, for global and local stress analysis [2]. These simulation tools will also allow the heat exchanger design to be improved through an

  11. Comparison of salt-free aluminum dross treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uenlue, Necip [Metallurgical and Materials Science Engineering Department, Faculty of Chemistry-Metallurgy, Istanbul Technical University, 80626 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Drouet, Michel G. [PyroGenesis Inc., 1744 William Street, Suite 200 , Quebec, H3J 1R4 Montreal (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Dross is an unavoidable by-product of the aluminum production. It forms at the surface of the molten metal as the latter reacts with the furnace atmosphere. Depending on the process, it contains, on average, about 50% free aluminum metal dispersed in an oxide layer. Since the aluminum production is highly energy-intensive, dross recycling is very attractive from both the energy and the economic standpoints. The conventional recycling process using salt rotary furnaces is thermally inefficient and environmentally non-acceptable because of the production of salt slags. Several salt-free dross treatment processes have been proposed in the last few years, their operation, energy consumption and metal yield will be described in detail and compared in the present paper.

  12. The Role of Epithelial Sodium Channel ENaC and the Apical Cl-/HCO3- Exchanger Pendrin in Compensatory Salt Reabsorption in the Setting of Na-Cl Cotransporter (NCC Inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Patel-Chamberlin

    Full Text Available The absence of NCC does not cause significant salt wasting in NCC deficient mice under basal conditions. We hypothesized that ENaC and pendrin play important roles in compensatory salt absorption in the setting of NCC inactivation, and their inhibition and/or downregulation can cause significant salt wasting in NCC KO mice.WT and NCC KO mice were treated with a daily injection of either amiloride, an inhibitor of ENaC, or acetazolamide (ACTZ, a blocker of salt and bicarbonate reabsorption in the proximal tubule and an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrases in proximal tubule and intercalated cells, or a combination of acetazolamide plus amiloride for defined durations. Animals were subjected to daily balance studies. At the end of treatment, kidneys were harvested and examined. Blood samples were collected for electrolytes and acid base analysis.Amiloride injection significantly increased the urine output (UO in NCC KO mice (from 1.3 ml/day before to 2.5 ml/day after amiloride, p0.05. The increase in UO in NCC KO mice was associated with a significant increase in sodium excretion (from 0.25 mmol/24 hrs at baseline to 0.35 mmol/24 hrs after amiloride injection, p80% reduction of kidney pendrin expression in both WT and NCC KO mice. However, ACTZ treatment noticeably increased urine output and salt excretion only in NCC KO mice (with urine output increasing from a baseline of 1.1 ml/day to 2.3 ml/day and sodium excretion increasing from 0.22 mmole/day before to 0.31 mmole/day after ACTZ in NCC KO mice; both parameters were significantly higher than in WT mice. Western blot analysis demonstrated significant enhancement in ENaC expression in medulla and cortex of NCC KO and WT mice in response to ACTZ injection for 6 days, and treatment with amiloride in ACTZ-pretreated mice caused a robust increase in salt excretion in both NCC KO and WT mice. Pendrin KO mice did not display a significant increase in urine output or salt excretion after treatment with

  13. Fabrication of catalytic electrodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.

    1988-01-01

    A porous layer of catalyst material suitable for use as an electrode in a molten carbonate fuel cell includes elongated pores substantially extending across the layer thickness. The catalyst layer is prepared by depositing particulate catalyst material into polymeric flocking on a substrate surface by a procedure such as tape casting. The loaded substrate is heated in a series of steps with rising temperatures to set the tape, thermally decompose the substrate with flocking and sinter bond the catalyst particles into a porous catalytic layer with elongated pores across its thickness. Employed as an electrode, the elongated pores provide distribution of reactant gas into contact with catalyst particles wetted by molten electrolyte.

  14. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active...

  15. Bulk Vitrification Performance Enhancement: Refractory Lining Protection Against Molten Salt Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Evans, Michael B.; Smith, Benjamin T.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Matyas, Josef; Buchmiller, William C.; Gallegos, Autumn B.; Fluegel, Alexander

    2007-08-06

    Bulk vitrification (BV) is a process that heats a feed material that consists of glass-forming solids and dried low-activity waste (LAW) in a disposable refractory-lined metal box using electrical power supplied through carbon electrodes. The feed is heated to the point that the LAW decomposes and combines with the solids to generate a vitreous waste form. This study supports the BV design and operations by exploring various methods aimed at reducing the quantities of soluble Tc in the castable refractory block portion of the refractory lining, which limits the effectiveness of the final waste form.

  16. Electrochemical transient techniques for study of the electrochemistry and thermodynamics of nuclear materials in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, S.A. [Institute of Chemistry, Kola Science Centre RAS, 14 Fersman Str., 184209 Apatity, Murmansk Region (Russian Federation)], E-mail: kuznet@chemy.kolasc.net.ru; Gaune-Escard, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Mecanique Energetique, Technopole de Chateau Gombert, 5 Rue Enrico Fermi, 13453 Marseille cedex 13 (France)

    2009-05-15

    Advantages and disadvantages of electrochemical transient techniques and potentiometry for the determination of formal standard potentials were discussed. It was shown that long potentiometric measurements inevitability led to strong interaction between oxide materials and melts involving actinide or lanthanide compounds. Reactions of disproportionation were observed in melts containing lower oxidation states due to the appearance of oxide ions from oxide materials, because actinides and lanthanides have a great affinity to oxygen. Only at the final stage of each experimental set, was the reference electrode immersed in the melt for a short time for the determination by electrochemical transient techniques and the melt being no longer used after these measurements. It was shown that electrochemical transient techniques in contradiction to potentiometry can be used for the determination of formal standard potentials for irreversible process and redox process accompanied by reaction of disproportionation.

  17. Microscopic Examination of the Corroded Hagan Container Used to Store Molten Salt Extraction Residue XBPS333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narlesky, Joshua Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Kennard Virden Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-24

    A microscopic examination was performed on a Hagan container after corrosion and a white powder were found on the outside surface of the lid and filter cover while in storage in the vault. The inside surfaces of the container were covered by a wipeable brown coating. The coating was removed and portions of the container were sectioned and imaged with optical microscopy. General corrosion was found throughout the inside of the container, and pitting corrosion was observed in several locations on the lid and sidewall. This report describes the type and extent of the corrosion observed and its impact on the storage lifetime of the container.

  18. Molten Salt Catalysts for Sulfuric Acid Production and SO2 Removal From Flue Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    1996-01-01

    The report summarises the results obtained during 3 years of collaboration between ICE/HT,University of Patras,GR and Department of Chemistry,DTU,DK , supported by EU through a BRITE/EURAM project.The project has been concerned with fundamental investigations on the complex , redox and compound c...... chemistry of the V2O5 based sulfuric acid catalysts and model systems...

  19. Variation of diffusivity with the cation radii in molten salts of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    quantities relating to structure, conductivity and other properties in good agreement with experiments.22 Their investigation suggests that there exists a particular radius of the mobile cation for which the diffusivity is maximum. This anamolous behaviour in the diffusion of the ion is known as 'Levitation Effect'.23 This effect.

  20. Direct electrochemical reduction of solid uranium oxide in molten fluoride salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibilaro, Mathieu, E-mail: gibilaro@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, Universite de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Cassayre, Laurent; Lemoine, Olivier; Massot, Laurent [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, Universite de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Dugne, Olivier [CEA Marcoule-DEN/DTEC/SGCS, Laboratoire de Metallographie et d' Analyse Chimique, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze Cedex (France); Malmbeck, Rikard [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Chamelot, Pierre [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique UMR 5503, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, Universite de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2011-07-15

    The direct electrochemical reduction of UO{sub 2} solid pellets was carried out in LiF-CaF{sub 2} (+2 mass.% Li{sub 2}O) at 850 deg. C. An inert gold anode was used instead of the usual reactive sacrificial carbon anode. In this case, oxidation of oxide ions present in the melt yields O{sub 2} gas evolution on the anode. Electrochemical characterisations of UO{sub 2} pellets were performed by linear sweep voltammetry at 10 mV/s and reduction waves associated to oxide direct reduction were observed at a potential 150 mV more positive in comparison to the solvent reduction. Subsequent, galvanostatic electrolyses runs were carried out and products were characterised by SEM-EDX, EPMA/WDS, XRD and microhardness measurements. In one of the runs, uranium oxide was partially reduced and three phases were observed: nonreduced UO{sub 2} in the centre, pure metallic uranium on the external layer and an intermediate phase representing the initial stage of reduction taking place at the grain boundaries. In another run, the UO{sub 2} sample was fully reduced. Due to oxygen removal, the U matrix had a typical coral-like structure which is characteristic of the pattern observed after the electroreduction of solid oxides.

  1. A new form of MgTa2O6 obtained by the molten salt method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In addition, scanning electron micrographs (SEM) were obtained on a Cambridge Stereoscan 360 electron microscope to observe the morphology of the grains obtained. The dielectric constant was measured on sintered disks. (1100°C) coated with silver using a HP 4284L LCR meter in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 500 ...

  2. Update on Small Modular Reactors Dynamics System Modeling Tool -- Molten Salt Cooled Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Richard Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Borum, Robert C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chaleff, Ethan S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rogerson, Doug W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Batteh, John J. [Modelon Corporation (Sweden); Tiller, Michael M. [Xogeny Corporation, Canton, MI (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Dynamic System Modeling Tool project is in the third year of development. The project is designed to support collaborative modeling and study of various advanced SMR (non-light water cooled) concepts, including the use of multiple coupled reactors at a single site. The objective of the project is to provide a common simulation environment and baseline modeling resources to facilitate rapid development of dynamic advanced reactor SMR models, ensure consistency among research products within the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) technical area, and leverage cross-cutting capabilities while minimizing duplication of effort. The combined simulation environment and suite of models are identified as the Modular Dynamic SIMulation (MoDSIM) tool. The critical elements of this effort include (1) defining a standardized, common simulation environment that can be applied throughout the program, (2) developing a library of baseline component modules that can be assembled into full plant models using existing geometry and thermal-hydraulic data, (3) defining modeling conventions for interconnecting component models, and (4) establishing user interfaces and support tools to facilitate simulation development (i.e., configuration and parameterization), execution, and results display and capture.

  3. Simultaneous hydrolysis and hydrogenation of cellobiose to sorbitol in molten salt hydrate media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Soares, H.S.M.P.; Moulijn, J.A.; Makkee, M.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrolysis and hydrogenation of cellobiose (4-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucose) in ZnCl2_4H2O solvent was studied to optimize the conditions for conversion of lignocellulose (the most abundant renewable resource) into sorbitol (D-glucitol). Water at neutral pH does not allow hydrolysis of

  4. New design for CSP plant with direct-steam solar receiver and molten-salt storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganany, Alon; Hadad, Itay

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the evolution of BrightSource's Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology - from a solar steam generator (SRSG) with no Thermal Energy Storage (TES) to SRSG with TES to Extended-cycle TES. The paper discusses SRSG with TES technology, and the capabilities of this solution are compared with those of an MSR plant.

  5. Molten Fluoride Salts as Fluorine Source in the Production of Molecular Sidebands

    CERN Document Server

    Shoaib, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The medically important isotopes Yttrium and Zirconium were selected for fluorination. After this, 30 $\\mu$g of NaF as fluorine source was put in mass marker in the target unit. It was heated and plasma ion source was used to ionize the vapors. The ion source efficiency was 27\\%. It was observed that the yield for fluorine was not enough for various mass marker temperatures (0 A - 40 A) and ion source temperatures (2000 $^{o}$C - 2150$^{o}$C) to be reacted with other elements. The optimum temperatures of mass marker was observed here as 35 A. The project can be proceeded for further high temperatures and for different fluorine sources.

  6. A molten salt tower model used for site selection in South Africa using SAURAN meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Ian Vincent; Dinter, Frank

    2017-06-01

    South Africa has become a hotspot for concentrating solar power (CSP) development in recent years. With an abundance of solar resource and an existing governmental framework for renewable energy development, the country has captured the attention of CSP developers worldwide. The primary limitations for CSP plants in South Africa are electrical transmission and water availability. While taking into account such infrastructure limitations, six sites were proposed. A purpose-built simulation model for a proposed 100 MWe (gross) tower plant with 12 hours of storage was developed. Using site South African Universities Radiometric Network (SAURAN) meteorological data with a resolution of up to 1 minute, each of the sites was evaluated in terms of electrical yield using the model. The investigation found that the site situated in Springbok will generate 450.8 GWhe per annum, and is the most advantageous site for the modeled plant. The most promising alternative site is situated in near Laingsburg in the Western Province. This site offered 413.7 GWhe per annum, and it is close to available transmission and surface water.

  7. Research and development issues for molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes issues pertaining to the development of molten carbonate fuel cells. In particular, the corrosion resistance and service life of nickel oxide cathodes is described. The resistivity of lithium oxide/iron oxides and improvement with doping is addressed.

  8. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remick, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  9. 30 CFR 57.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 57.16013 Section 57.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials...

  10. 30 CFR 56.16013 - Working with molten metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Working with molten metal. 56.16013 Section 56.16013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials Storage...

  11. Nickel catalysts for internal reforming in molten carbonate fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, R.J.; Berger, R.J.; Doesburg, E.B.M.; Doesburg, E.B.M.; van Ommen, J.G.; Ross, J.R.H.; Ross, J.R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas may be used instead of hydrogen as fuel for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by steam reforming the natural gas inside the MCFC, using a nickel catalyst (internal reforming). The severe conditions inside the MCFC, however, require that the catalyst has a very high stability. In

  12. Oxygen from the lunar soil by molten silicate electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Russell O.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    Accepting that oxygen, rather than gigantic gems or gold, is likely to make the Moon's Klondike, the extraction of oxygen from the lunar soil by molten silicate electrolysis has chosen to be investigated. Process theory and proposed lunar factory are addressed.

  13. Experimental measurements of thermal conductivity of alumina nanofluid synthesized in salt melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Binjian; Banerjee, Debjyoti

    2017-11-01

    Nanoparticles were synthesized in-situ using a simple one-step synthesis protocol from a cheap additive, mixed apriori in a high temperature salt melt (solar salt, NaNO3-KNO3). The thermal conductivity of the nanofluid was measured using a standardized concentric cylinder (annulus) test apparatus under steady-state conditions. The thermal conductivity of the salt melt was enhanced by 20˜ 25% due to generation of nanoparticles in-situ from the additive. The level of enhancement was found to be insensitive to temperature but significantly exceeded the predictions from models in the literature. Materials characterization (using electron microscopy) showed the formation of percolation networks by secondary nanostructures in the molten salt nanofluid samples (that were induced by the nanoparticles generated in-situ). The enhancement in the thermos-physical properties of the salt-melt nanofluids can be attributed to the formation of these secondary nanostructures (which form a third phase).

  14. Experimental measurements of thermal conductivity of alumina nanofluid synthesized in salt melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binjian Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles were synthesized in-situ using a simple one-step synthesis protocol from a cheap additive, mixed apriori in a high temperature salt melt (solar salt, NaNO3-KNO3. The thermal conductivity of the nanofluid was measured using a standardized concentric cylinder (annulus test apparatus under steady-state conditions. The thermal conductivity of the salt melt was enhanced by 20∼ 25% due to generation of nanoparticles in-situ from the additive. The level of enhancement was found to be insensitive to temperature but significantly exceeded the predictions from models in the literature. Materials characterization (using electron microscopy showed the formation of percolation networks by secondary nanostructures in the molten salt nanofluid samples (that were induced by the nanoparticles generated in-situ. The enhancement in the thermos-physical properties of the salt-melt nanofluids can be attributed to the formation of these secondary nanostructures (which form a third phase.

  15. Development of pyrometallurgical partitioning technology for TRU in high level radioactive wastes. Vitrification process for salt wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamura, Yoshiharu; Inoue, Tadashi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.; Shimizu, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Kuniaki

    1997-12-31

    A vitrification process for chloride wastes generated in the pyrometallurgical partitioning of TRUs from high level radioactive wastes is being developed. In the process, chlorides are reduced to metals by molten salt electrolysis. The metals are oxidized by air and then vitrified. Lithium metal and chlorine gas are recycled. The behaviors of lithium, sodium and fission products during molten salt electrolysis were studied by using various compositions of salts and cathode materials. It was shown that every metal can be recovered into a liquid lead cathode, and that a liquid cadmium cathode and a solid cathode are suitable for recovering lithium and sodium metal, respectively. Based on the experimental results the process flow sheet was discussed. (author)

  16. The thermodynamic and transport properties of GdCl3 in molten eutectic LiCl-KCl derived from the analysis of cyclic voltammetry signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samin, Adib; Wu, Evan; Zhang, Jinsuo

    2017-02-01

    Pyroprocessing technology is a promising tool for recycling nuclear fuel and producing high purity gadolinium for industrial applications. An efficient implementation of pyroprocessing entails a careful characterization of the electrochemical and transport properties of lanthanides in high temperature molten salts. In this work, the cyclic voltammetry signals of Gd in molten LiCl-KCl salt were recorded for a combination of three temperatures (723 K, 773 K, and 823 K) and three concentration levels (3 wt. %, 6 wt. %, and 9 wt. %) including concentration levels higher than previously reported and relevant for a realistic application of pyroprocessing for molten salt recycle, and the concentration effects were investigated. Four scan rates (200 mV/s to 500 mV/s) were used for each condition, and the signals were examined using conventional Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) analysis equations and by utilizing a two-plate Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) model accounting for mass diffusion, kinetics, adsorption, and the evolution of electrode morphology via a nonlinear least squares procedure for fitting the model to the experimental signals. It was determined that the redox process is quasi-reversible for the scan rates being used. Furthermore, the applicability of the conventional equations for CV analysis was shown to be problematic for the