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Sample records for exchange-only optimized effective

  1. Driven Nonlinear Dynamics of Two Coupled Exchange-Only Qubits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijeet Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the creation of a fast exchange-only qubit [Medford et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 050501 (2013], we develop a theory describing the nonlinear dynamics of two such qubits that are capacitively coupled, when one of them is driven resonantly at a frequency equal to its level splitting. We include conditions of strong driving, where the Rabi frequency is a significant fraction of the level splitting, and we consider situations where the splitting for the second qubit may be the same as or different than the first. We demonstrate that coupling between qubits can be detected by reading the response of the second qubit, even when the coupling between them is only of about 1% of their level splittings, and we calculate entanglement between qubits. Patterns of nonlinear dynamics of coupled qubits and their entanglement are strongly dependent on the geometry of the system, and the specific mechanism of interqubit coupling deeply influences dynamics of both qubits. In particular, we describe the development of irregular dynamics in a two-qubit system, explore approaches for inhibiting it, and demonstrate the existence of an optimal range of coupling strength maintaining stability during the operational time.

  2. Optimal control of effective Hamiltonians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdeny Vilalta, Albert; Mintert, Florian [Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, Albert-Ludwigs University of Freiburg, Freiburg 79104 (Germany); Mueller, Cord A. [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2013-07-01

    Periodically driven Hamiltonians can be approximately described by a time-independent effective Hamiltonian if the driving is sufficiently fast. There exist, however, many different drivings that result in the same effective Hamiltonian. Using optimal control techniques, we investigate which driving yields the best approximation to the dynamics induced by a desired effective Hamiltonian. The viability of our approach is proven for the simplest example of a driven three-level Lambda system, and shall ultimately help to improve the precision of quantum simulations.

  3. Time-Local Equation for the Exact Optimized Effective Potential in Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sheng-Lun; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel; Chu, Shih-I.

    2017-06-01

    A long-standing challenge in the time-dependent density functional theory is to efficiently solve the exact time-dependent optimized effective potential (TDOEP) integral equation derived from orbital-dependent functionals, especially for the study of nonadiabatic dynamics in time-dependent external fields. In this Letter, we formulate a completely equivalent time-local TDOEP equation that admits a unique real-time solution in terms of time-dependent Kohn-Sham and effective memory orbitals. The time-local formulation is numerically implemented, with the incorporation of exponential memory loss to address the unaccounted for correlation component in the exact-exchange-only functional, to enable the study of the many-electron dynamics of a one-dimensional hydrogen chain. It is shown that the long time behavior of the electric dipole converges correctly and the zero-force theorem is fulfilled in the current implementation.

  4. Optimal Gaussian Filter for Effective Noise Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Kopparapu, Sunil; Satish, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show that the knowledge of noise statistics contaminating a signal can be effectively used to choose an optimal Gaussian filter to eliminate noise. Very specifically, we show that the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) contaminating a signal can be filtered best by using a Gaussian filter of specific characteristics. The design of the Gaussian filter bears relationship with the noise statistics and also some basic information about the signal. We first derive a relationship...

  5. The effect of using a robust optimality criterion in model based adaptive optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, Eric A; Hooker, Andrew C

    2017-08-01

    Optimizing designs using robust (global) optimality criteria has been shown to be a more flexible approach compared to using local optimality criteria. Additionally, model based adaptive optimal design (MBAOD) may be less sensitive to misspecification in the prior information available at the design stage. In this work, we investigate the influence of using a local (lnD) or a robust (ELD) optimality criterion for a MBAOD of a simulated dose optimization study, for rich and sparse sampling schedules. A stopping criterion for accurate effect prediction is constructed to determine the endpoint of the MBAOD by minimizing the expected uncertainty in the effect response of the typical individual. 50 iterations of the MBAODs were run using the MBAOD R-package, with the concentration from a one-compartment first-order absorption pharmacokinetic model driving the population effect response in a sigmoidal EMAX pharmacodynamics model. The initial cohort consisted of eight individuals in two groups and each additional cohort added two individuals receiving a dose optimized as a discrete covariate. The MBAOD designs using lnD and ELD optimality with misspecified initial model parameters were compared by evaluating the efficiency relative to an lnD-optimal design based on the true parameter values. For the explored example model, the MBAOD using ELD-optimal designs converged quicker to the theoretically optimal lnD-optimal design based on the true parameters for both sampling schedules. Thus, using a robust optimality criterion in MBAODs could reduce the number of adaptations required and improve the practicality of adaptive trials using optimal design.

  6. A Concept for Optimizing Behavioural Effectiveness & Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Jan Carlo; Rumantir, Grace; Li, Raymond

    Both humans and machines exhibit strengths and weaknesses that can be enhanced by merging the two entities. This research aims to provide a broader understanding of how closer interactions between these two entities can facilitate more optimal goal-directed performance through the use of artificial extensions of the human body. Such extensions may assist us in adapting to and manipulating our environments in a more effective way than any system known today. To demonstrate this concept, we have developed a simulation where a semi interactive virtual spider can be navigated through an environment consisting of several obstacles and a virtual predator capable of killing the spider. The virtual spider can be navigated through the use of three different control systems that can be used to assist in optimising overall goal directed performance. The first two control systems use, an onscreen button interface and a touch sensor, respectively to facilitate human navigation of the spider. The third control system is an autonomous navigation system through the use of machine intelligence embedded in the spider. This system enables the spider to navigate and react to changes in its local environment. The results of this study indicate that machines should be allowed to override human control in order to maximise the benefits of collaboration between man and machine. This research further indicates that the development of strong machine intelligence, sensor systems that engage all human senses, extra sensory input systems, physical remote manipulators, multiple intelligent extensions of the human body, as well as a tighter symbiosis between man and machine, can support an upgrade of the human form.

  7. Optimal Economic Landscapes with Habitat Fragmentation Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, David J.; Wu, JunJie

    2005-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is widely considered a primary threat to biodiversity. This paper develops a theoretical model of land use to analyze the optimal conservation of landscapes when land quality is spatially heterogeneous and wildlife habitat is fragmented and socially valuable. When agriculture is the primary cause of fragmentation, we show that reforestation efforts should be targeted to the most fragmented landscapes with an aggregate share of forest equal to a threshold, defined by the ...

  8. Finite-size effect on optimal efficiency of heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Hiroyasu; Hayashi, Masahito

    2017-07-01

    The optimal efficiency of quantum (or classical) heat engines whose heat baths are n -particle systems is given by the strong large deviation. We give the optimal work extraction process as a concrete energy-preserving unitary time evolution among the heat baths and the work storage. We show that our optimal work extraction turns the disordered energy of the heat baths to the ordered energy of the work storage, by evaluating the ratio of the entropy difference to the energy difference in the heat baths and the work storage, respectively. By comparing the statistical mechanical optimal efficiency with the macroscopic thermodynamic bound, we evaluate the accuracy of the macroscopic thermodynamics with finite-size heat baths from the statistical mechanical viewpoint. We also evaluate the quantum coherence effect on the optimal efficiency of the cycle processes without restricting their cycle time by comparing the classical and quantum optimal efficiencies.

  9. Effects of optimism on motivation in rats

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    Rafal eRygula

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In humans, optimism is a cognitive construct related to motivation; optimists exert effort, whereas pessimists disengage from effort. In this study, using a recently developed ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI paradigm we took the unique opportunity to investigate whether ‘optimism’ as a trait is correlated with motivation in rodents. In a series of ACI tests (cognitive bias screening, CBS, we identified rats displaying ‘pessimistic’ and ‘optimistic’ traits. Subsequently, we investigated the trait differences in the motivation of these rats to gain reward and to avoid punishment using a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement paradigm. Although ‘optimistic’ and ‘pessimistic’ animals did not differ in their motivation to avoid punishment, the ‘optimistic’ rats were significantly more motivated to gain reward than their ‘pessimistic’ conspecifics. For the first time, we showed an association between cognitive judgment bias and motivation in an animal model. Because both investigated processes are closely related to mental health and wellbeing, our results may be valuable for preclinical modeling of many psychiatric disorders.

  10. Artificial immune system for effective properties optimization of magnetoelectric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteralski, Arkadiusz; Dziatkiewicz, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    The optimization problem of the effective properties for magnetoelectric composites is considered. The effective properties are determined by the semi-analytical Mori-Tanaka approach. The generalized Eshelby tensor components are calculated numerically by using the Gauss quadrature method for the integral representation of the inclusion problem. The linear magnetoelectric constitutive equation is used. The effect of orientation of the electromagnetic materials components is taken into account. The optimization problem of the design is formulated and the artificial immune system is applied to solve it.

  11. Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Focuses on mathematical structure, and on real-world applications. This book includes developments in several optimization-related topics such as decision theory, linear programming, turnpike theory, duality theory, convex analysis, and queuing theory.

  12. Optimal Scaling of Interaction Effects in Generalized Linear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rosmalen, Joost; Koning, Alex J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Multiplicative interaction models, such as Goodman's (1981) RC(M) association models, can be a useful tool for analyzing the content of interaction effects. However, most models for interaction effects are suitable only for data sets with two or three predictor variables. Here, we discuss an optimal scaling model for analyzing the content of…

  13. Two Effective Heuristics for Beam Angle Optimization in Radiation Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Yarmand, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    In radiation therapy, mathematical methods have been used for optimizing treatment planning for delivery of sufficient dose to the cancerous cells while keeping the dose to critical surrounding structures minimal. This optimization problem can be modeled using mixed integer programming (MIP) whose solution gives the optimal beam orientation as well as optimal beam intensity. The challenge, however, is the computation time for this large scale MIP. We propose and investigate two novel heuristic approaches to reduce the computation time considerably while attaining high-quality solutions. We introduce a family of heuristic cuts based on the concept of 'adjacent beams' and a beam elimination scheme based on the contribution of each beam to deliver the dose to the tumor in the ideal plan in which all potential beams can be used simultaneously. We show the effectiveness of these heuristics for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) on a clinical liver case.

  14. The Accuracy and Effectiveness of Search Method for Optimizing A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work discusses the accuracy and effectiveness of search method for optimizing a multivariable unimodal function using various updates. Keywords: Quasi-Newton's updates, Davidon- Fletcher powell updates, Powell Symmetric, Broyden's updates, Broyeden –Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno's updates ...

  15. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

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    Marta eMichalska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells.

  16. Amplification of the parametric dynamical Casimir effect via optimal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeb, Fabian; Angaroni, Fabrizio; Zoller, Jonathan; Calarco, Tommaso; Strini, Giuliano; Montangero, Simone; Benenti, Giuliano

    2017-09-01

    We introduce different strategies to enhance photon generation in a cavity within the Rabi model in the ultrastrong coupling regime. We show that a bang-bang strategy allows one to enhance the effect up to 1 order of magnitude with respect to simply driving the system in resonance for a fixed time. Moreover, up to about another order of magnitude can be gained by exploiting quantum optimal control strategies. Finally, we show that such optimized protocols are robust with respect to systematic errors and noise, paving the way to future experimental implementations of such strategies.

  17. Viscous Aerodynamic Shape Optimization with Installed Propulsion Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Seidel, Jonathan A.; Rallabhandi, Sriram K.

    2017-01-01

    Aerodynamic shape optimization is demonstrated to tailor the under-track pressure signature of a conceptual low-boom supersonic aircraft. Primarily, the optimization reduces nearfield pressure waveforms induced by propulsion integration effects. For computational efficiency, gradient-based optimization is used and coupled to the discrete adjoint formulation of the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equations. The engine outer nacelle, nozzle, and vertical tail fairing are axi-symmetrically parameterized, while the horizontal tail is shaped using a wing-based parameterization. Overall, 48 design variables are coupled to the geometry and used to deform the outer mold line. During the design process, an inequality drag constraint is enforced to avoid major compromise in aerodynamic performance. Linear elastic mesh morphing is used to deform volume grids between design iterations. The optimization is performed at Mach 1.6 cruise, assuming standard day altitude conditions at 51,707-ft. To reduce uncertainty, a coupled thermodynamic engine cycle model is employed that captures installed inlet performance effects on engine operation.

  18. Optimal counterterrorism and the recruitment effect of large terrorist attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to study optimal counterterrorism and its consequences when large terrorist attacks lead to a temporary increase in terrorist recruitment. First, we show that an increase in counterterrorism...... makes it more likely that terrorist cells plan small rather than large attacks and therefore may increase the probability of a successful attack. Analyzing optimal counterterrorism we see that the recruitment effect makes authorities increase the level of counterterrorism after large attacks. Therefore......, in periods following large attacks a new attack is more likely to be small compared to other periods. Finally, we analyze the long-run consequences of the recruitment effect. We show that it leads to more counterterrorism, more small attacks, and a higher sum of terrorism damage and counterterrorism costs...

  19. INVASIVE WEED OPTIMIZATION FOR ECONOMIC DISPATCH WITH VALVE POINT EFFECTS

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    RAMA PRABHA D.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel optimization methodology aimed at solving economic dispatch (ED problem considering valve point effects using invasive weed optimization (IWO algorithm. IWO was recently proposed as a simple but powerful metaheuristic algorithm for real parameter optimization. IWO draws inspiration from the ecological process of weeds colonization and distribution and is capable of solving general multi-dimensional, linear and nonlinear optimization problems with appreciable efficiency. The proposed method has been applied to three test systems comprising 3, 13 and 40 units. These test systems are also solved using the catfish particle swarm optimisation (Catfish PSO algorithm - an improved version of PSO - for the comparison and validation of the solutions. The obtained best values have been compared with different methods in literature and the results of them have been discussed. The result obtained proves that the IWO algorithm is efficient and can be used practically for solving economic dispatch problem. A comparative analysis with other settled nature-inspired solution algorithms demonstrates the superior performance of the proposed methodology in terms of both solution accuracy and convergence performances.

  20. EFFECT OF OPTIMISM ON LIFE SATISFACTION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

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    BURCU KÜMBÜL GÜLER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study, in the field of psychology’s current trend positive psychology, explores the effect of optimism in university students on their life satisfaction and academic achievement. To a sample of 443 Turkish university students, a questionnaire was delivered including the scales of optimism, life satisfaction, academic achievement, monthly household income, montly personal expenditure level, satisfaction with the department, unemployment concern, career expectation for the future, place of living, religious belief and some other demographical information. As a result, optimism and life satisfaction were found to be significantly positively correlated, however there was no correlation between optimism and academic achievement. According to OLS Regression analysis; females, those who are more satisfied with their lives, who have not girl/boy friend, whose parents live together, whose religious belief is higher, whose departments are higher in the preference rank and whose monthly expenditure level is lower have higher GPAs than their counterparts. In the other OLS regression analysis where the dependent variable is life satisfactio; females, optimists, whose religious belief is higher, who have lived mostly in urban, who have not unemployment concern, who have good career expectations and whose monthly expenditure is higher are more satisfied with their lives than their counterparts.

  1. Topology optimization of embedded piezoelectric actuators considering control spillover effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Juliano F.; De Leon, Daniel M.; Perondi, Eduardo A.

    2017-02-01

    This article addresses the problem of active structural vibration control by means of embedded piezoelectric actuators. The topology optimization method using the solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP) approach is employed in this work to find the optimum design of actuators taken into account the control spillover effects. A coupled finite element model of the structure is derived assuming a two-phase material and this structural model is written into the state-space representation. The proposed optimization formulation aims to determine the distribution of piezoelectric material which maximizes the controllability for a given vibration mode. The undesirable effects of the feedback control on the residual modes are limited by including a spillover constraint term containing the residual controllability Gramian eigenvalues. The optimization of the shape and placement of the conventionally embedded piezoelectric actuators are performed using a Sequential Linear Programming (SLP) algorithm. Numerical examples are presented considering the control of the bending vibration modes for a cantilever and a fixed beam. A Linear-Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is synthesized for each case of controlled structure in order to compare the influence of the additional constraint.

  2. Toward achieving optimal response: understanding and managing antidepressant side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karen; Posternak, Michael; Jonathan, E. Alpert

    2008-01-01

    The safety and tolerability of antidepressants have improved considerably over the past two decades, Nevertheless, antidepressant side effects are still common and problematic. The majority of patients treated with contemporary agents experience one or more bothersome side effects. These side effects often create barriers to achieving depressive remission, as well as to preventing relapse and recurrence. Clinicians tend to underestimate the prevalence of side effects, and as many as one quarter of patients discontinue their antidepressants because of difficult-to-tolerate side effects; others may continue on antidepressant therapy but experience diminished quality of life related to troublesome side effects. This article reviews the prevalence of side effects, the impact of side effects on treatment adherence, and methodological issues including the challenge of distinguishing side effects from residual depressive symptoms, discontinuation effects, and general medical problems. In addition, we address the most common side effects such as sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbance, apathy, and fatigue, and offer strategies for management that may help patients achieve optimal response to pharmacotherapy. PMID:19170398

  3. Optimizing bulk milk dioxin monitoring based on costs and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascano-Alcoser, V H; Velthuis, A G J; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Hoogenboom, L A P; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2013-07-01

    Dioxins are environmental pollutants, potentially present in milk products, which have negative consequences for human health and for the firms and farms involved in the dairy chain. Dioxin monitoring in feed and food has been implemented to detect their presence and estimate their levels in food chains. However, the costs and effectiveness of such programs have not been evaluated. In this study, the costs and effectiveness of bulk milk dioxin monitoring in milk trucks were estimated to optimize the sampling and pooling monitoring strategies aimed at detecting at least 1 contaminated dairy farm out of 20,000 at a target dioxin concentration level. Incidents of different proportions, in terms of the number of contaminated farms, and concentrations were simulated. A combined testing strategy, consisting of screening and confirmatory methods, was assumed as well as testing of pooled samples. Two optimization models were built using linear programming. The first model aimed to minimize monitoring costs subject to a minimum required effectiveness of finding an incident, whereas the second model aimed to maximize the effectiveness for a given monitoring budget. Our results show that a high level of effectiveness is possible, but at high costs. Given specific assumptions, monitoring with 95% effectiveness to detect an incident of 1 contaminated farm at a dioxin concentration of 2 pg of toxic equivalents/g of fat [European Commission's (EC) action level] costs €2.6 million per month. At the same level of effectiveness, a 73% cost reduction is possible when aiming to detect an incident where 2 farms are contaminated at a dioxin concentration of 3 pg of toxic equivalents/g of fat (EC maximum level). With a fixed budget of €40,000 per month, the probability of detecting an incident with a single contaminated farm at a dioxin concentration equal to the EC action level is 4.4%. This probability almost doubled (8.0%) when aiming to detect the same incident but with a dioxin

  4. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Optimal Malaria Control Strategies in Kenya

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    Gabriel Otieno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among the children under five and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is preventable and controllable provided current recommended interventions are properly implemented. Better utilization of malaria intervention strategies will ensure the gain for the value for money and producing health improvements in the most cost effective way. The purpose of the value for money drive is to develop a better understanding (and better articulation of costs and results so that more informed, evidence-based choices could be made. Cost effectiveness analysis is carried out to inform decision makers on how to determine where to allocate resources for malaria interventions. This study carries out cost effective analysis of one or all possible combinations of the optimal malaria control strategies (Insecticide Treated Bednets—ITNs, Treatment, Indoor Residual Spray—IRS and Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Pregnant Women—IPTp for the four different transmission settings in order to assess the extent to which the intervention strategies are beneficial and cost effective. For the four different transmission settings in Kenya the optimal solution for the 15 strategies and their associated effectiveness are computed. Cost-effective analysis using Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER was done after ranking the strategies in order of the increasing effectiveness (total infections averted. The findings shows that for the endemic regions the combination of ITNs, IRS, and IPTp was the most cost-effective of all the combined strategies developed in this study for malaria disease control and prevention; for the epidemic prone areas is the combination of the treatment and IRS; for seasonal areas is the use of ITNs plus treatment; and for the low risk areas is the use of treatment only. Malaria transmission in Kenya can be minimized through tailor-made intervention strategies for malaria control

  5. An Effective Hybrid Butterfly Optimization Algorithm with Artificial Bee Colony for Numerical Optimization

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    Sankalap Arora

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new hybrid optimization algorithm which combines the standard Butterfly Optimization Algorithm (BOA with Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm used the advantages of both the algorithms in order to balance the trade-off between exploration and exploitation. Experiments have been conducted on the proposed algorithm using ten benchmark problems having a broad range of dimensions and diverse complexities. The simulation results demonstrate that the convergence speed and accuracy of the proposed algorithm in finding optimal solutions is significantly better than BOA and ABC.

  6. Topological Effects and Performance Optimization in Transportation Continuous Network Design

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    Jianjun Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the limitation of budget, in the planning of road works, increased efforts should be made on links that are more critical to the whole traffic system. Therefore, it would be helpful to model and evaluate the vulnerability and reliability of the transportation network when the network design is processing. This paper proposes a bilevel transportation network design model, in which the upper level is to minimize the performance of the network under the given budgets, while the lower level is a typical user equilibrium assignment problem. A new solution approach based on particle swarm optimization (PSO method is presented. The topological effects on the performance of transportation networks are studied with the consideration of three typical networks, regular lattice, random graph, and small-world network. Numerical examples and simulations are presented to demonstrate the proposed model.

  7. Real parameter optimization by an effective differential evolution algorithm

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    Ali Wagdy Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an Effective Differential Evolution (EDE algorithm for solving real parameter optimization problems over continuous domain. The proposed algorithm proposes a new mutation rule based on the best and the worst individuals among the entire population of a particular generation. The mutation rule is combined with the basic mutation strategy through a linear decreasing probability rule. The proposed mutation rule is shown to promote local search capability of the basic DE and to make it faster. Furthermore, a random mutation scheme and a modified Breeder Genetic Algorithm (BGA mutation scheme are merged to avoid stagnation and/or premature convergence. Additionally, the scaling factor and crossover of DE are introduced as uniform random numbers to enrich the search behavior and to enhance the diversity of the population. The effectiveness and benefits of the proposed modifications used in EDE has been experimentally investigated. Numerical experiments on a set of bound-constrained problems have shown that the new approach is efficient, effective and robust. The comparison results between the EDE and several classical differential evolution methods and state-of-the-art parameter adaptive differential evolution variants indicate that the proposed EDE algorithm is competitive with , and in some cases superior to, other algorithms in terms of final solution quality, efficiency, convergence rate, and robustness.

  8. Recreation Embedded State Tuning for Optimal Readiness and Effectiveness (RESTORE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2005-01-01

    Physiological self-regulation training is a behavioral medicine intervention that has demonstrated capability to improve psychophysiological coping responses to stressful experiences and to foster optimal behavioral and cognitive performance. Once developed, these psychophysiological skills require regular practice for maintenance. A concomitant benefit of these physiologically monitored practice sessions is the opportunity to track crew psychophysiological responses to the challenges of the practice task in order to detect shifts in adaptability that may foretell performance degradation. Long-duration missions will include crew recreation periods that will afford physiological self-regulation training opportunities. However, to promote adherence to the regimen, the practice experience that occupies their recreation time must be perceived by the crew as engaging and entertaining throughout repeated reinforcement sessions on long-duration missions. NASA biocybernetic technologies and publications have developed a closed-loop concept that involves adjusting or modulating (cybernetic, for governing) a person's task environment based upon a comparison of that person's physiological responses (bio-) with a training or performance criterion. This approach affords the opportunity to deliver physiological self-regulation training in an entertaining and motivating fashion and can also be employed to create a conditioned association between effective performance state and task execution behaviors, while enabling tracking of individuals psychophysiological status over time in the context of an interactive task challenge. This paper describes the aerospace spin-off technologies in this training application area as well as the current spin-back application of the technologies to long-duration missions - the Recreation Embedded State Tuning for Optimal Readiness and Effectiveness (RESTORE) concept. The RESTORE technology is designed to provide a physiological self

  9. Decomposition Techniques and Effective Algorithms in Reliability-Based Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1995-01-01

    The common problem of an extensive number of limit state function calculations in the various formulations and applications of reliability-based optimization is treated. It is suggested to use a formulation based on decomposition techniques so the nested two-level optimization problem can be solv...

  10. Optimal Topology Design of Discrete Structures Resisting Degradation Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, W.; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    1999-01-01

    In this technical note we treat the problem of finding the optimal topology of a truss, so that stiffness after degradation is maximized. It is shown that for the problem setting at hand, the optimal topology has uniform relative degradation in all bars and the topology is unchanged from the topo...

  11. Effective Teaching of Economics: A Constrained Optimization Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, Patrik T.; Calonge, David Santandreu

    2017-01-01

    One of the fundamental tenets of economics is that decisions are often the result of optimization problems subject to resource constraints. Consumers optimize utility, subject to constraints imposed by prices and income. As economics faculty, instructors attempt to maximize student learning while being constrained by their own and students'…

  12. The Effects of Attribution Retraining on Optimism and Pessimism of Elementary School Students in Ahwaz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Kh Ramezani; M Shehni yaelagh; G Maktabi; N Behrozi

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Optimism, due to its impact on mental and physical health, is of utmost importance. Finding practical and scientific methods to increase optimism and alleviate pessimism are essential. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effect of attribution retraining on optimism, and pessimism of female six-grade elementary students in Ahwaz primary schools, Iran. The attribution retraining was considered as independent variable and optimism and pessimism were considered ...

  13. Integrated and Consistent Active Control Formulation and Piezotransducer Position Optimization of Plate Structures considering Spillover Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Biglar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses new formulation for active vibration control of plates by optimal locations of attached piezotransducers. Free vibrations are solved by Rayleigh-Ritz and transient by assumed modes methods. Optimal orientations of patches are determined by spatial controllability/observability, as well as residual modes to reduce spillover. These criteria are used to achieve optimal fitness function defined for genetic algorithm to find optimal locations. To control vibrations, negative velocity feedback control is designed. Results indicate that, by locating piezopatches at optimal positions, depreciation rate increases and amplitudes of vibrations reduce effectively. The effect of number of piezodevices is analyzed.

  14. Effects of tax depreciation on optimal firm investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielhouwer, J.L.; Kort, P.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies how the difference between technical depreciation and tax depreciation affects the firm's optimal investment strategy. The objective is maximization of shareholder value. When tax depreciation differs from technical depreciation, an additional investment not only generates value

  15. Study on the Effect of the Separating Unit Optimization on the Economy of Stable Isotope Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Kun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An economic criterion called as yearly net profit of single separating unit (YNPSSU was presented to evaluate the influence of structure optimization on the economy. Using YNPSSU as a criterion, economic analysis was carried out for the structure optimization of separating unit in the case of separating SiF4 to obtain the 28Si and 29Si isotope. YNPSSU was calculated and compared with that before optimization. The results showed that YNPSSU was increased by 12.3% by the structure optimization. Therefore, the structure optimization could increase the economy of the stable isotope separation effectively.

  16. Context effects in the measurement of optimism in probability judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, W.; van der Pligt, J.

    1996-01-01

    Examined the role of contextual information such as comparison standard on self-other probability judgments regarding the occurrence of negative life events, which tend to be characterized by optimism. In Study 1, 80 undergraduates (mean age 19.5 yrs) completed a questionnaire on preventive

  17. Family Functioning and Maladaptive Schemas: The Moderating Effects of Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    Authoritarian parenting is often shown to be associated with negative outcomes for children, including the development of maladaptive schemas. However, this is not the case for all children who experience Authoritarian parenting. Optimism is examined as a moderator in the relationship between Authoritarian parenting and maladaptive schemas that…

  18. Effects of Workflow Optimization in Endovascularly Treated Stroke Patients - A Pre-Post Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schregel, Katharina; Behme, Daniel; Tsogkas, Ioannis; Knauth, Michael; Maier, Ilko; Karch, André; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Hinz, José; Liman, Jan; Psychogios, Marios-Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke has become standard of care for patients with large artery occlusion. Early restoration of blood flow is crucial for a good clinical outcome. We introduced an interdisciplinary standard operating procedure (SOP) between neuroradiologists, neurologists and anesthesiologists in order to streamline patient management. This study analyzes the effect of optimized workflow on periprocedural timings and its potential influence on clinical outcome. Data were extracted from a prospectively maintained university hospital stroke database. The standard operating procedure was established in February 2014. Of the 368 acute stroke patients undergoing endovascular treatment between 2008 and 2015, 278 patients were treated prior to and 90 after process optimization. Outcome measures were periprocedural time intervals and residual functional impairment. After implementation of the SOP, time from symptom onset to reperfusion was significantly reduced (median 264 min prior and 211 min after SOP-introduction (IQR 228-32 min and 161-278 min, respectively); Pworkflow optimization as measured with the modified Rankin Scale (common odds ratio (OR) 0.56; 95% CI 0.32-0.98; P = 0.038). Optimization of workflow and interdisciplinary teamwork significantly improved the outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke due to a significant reduction of in-hospital examination, transportation, imaging and treatment times.

  19. Ant groups optimally amplify the effect of transiently informed individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelblum, Aviram; Pinkoviezky, Itai; Fonio, Ehud; Ghosh, Abhijit; Gov, Nir; Feinerman, Ofer

    2015-07-01

    To cooperatively transport a large load, it is important that carriers conform in their efforts and align their forces. A downside of behavioural conformism is that it may decrease the group's responsiveness to external information. Combining experiment and theory, we show how ants optimize collective transport. On the single-ant scale, optimization stems from decision rules that balance individuality and compliance. Macroscopically, these rules poise the system at the transition between random walk and ballistic motion where the collective response to the steering of a single informed ant is maximized. We relate this peak in response to the divergence of susceptibility at a phase transition. Our theoretical models predict that the ant-load system can be transitioned through the critical point of this mesoscopic system by varying its size; we present experiments supporting these predictions. Our findings show that efficient group-level processes can arise from transient amplification of individual-based knowledge.

  20. Optimized electrocaloric effect by field reversal: Analytical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yang-Bin; Novak, Nikola; Albe, Karsten; Xu, Bai-Xiang

    2016-11-01

    Applying a negative field on a positively poled ferroelectric sample can enhance the electrocaloric cooling and is a promising method to optimize the electrocaloric cycle. Experimental measurements show that the maximal cooling is not obtained, when the electric field is removed, but reversed to a value corresponding to the shoulder of the P-E loop. This phenomenon cannot be explained if a constant total entropy is assumed under adiabatic conditions. Thus, a direct analysis of entropy changes based on work loss is proposed in this work, which takes the entropy contribution of the irreversible process into account. The optimal reversed field determined by this approach agrees with the experimental observations. This study signifies the importance of considering irreversible process in the electrocaloric cycles.

  1. Academic Optimism and Organizational Climate: An Elementary School Effectiveness Test of Two Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Jonathan Bart

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of two climate constructs in academic optimism and organizational climate as each relates to school effectiveness. Academic optimism is an academic environment comprised of three dimensions: academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust (Hoy, Tarter, & Hoy, 2006). The Organizational Climate…

  2. Optimal Coordinated Control of Power Extraction in LES of a Wind Farm with Entrance Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P. Goit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of optimal coordinated control techniques in large eddy simulations of wind farm boundary layer interaction with the aim of increasing the total energy extraction in wind farms. The individual wind turbines are considered as flow actuators, and their energy extraction is dynamically regulated in time, so as to optimally influence the flow field. We extend earlier work on wind farm optimal control in the fully-developed regime (Goit and Meyers 2015, J. Fluid Mech. 768, 5–50 to a ‘finite’ wind farm case, in which entrance effects play an important role. For the optimal control, a receding horizon framework is employed in which turbine thrust coefficients are optimized in time and per turbine. Optimization is performed with a conjugate gradient method, where gradients of the cost functional are obtained using adjoint large eddy simulations. Overall, the energy extraction is increased 7% by the optimal control. This increase in energy extraction is related to faster wake recovery throughout the farm. For the first row of turbines, the optimal control increases turbulence levels and Reynolds stresses in the wake, leading to better wake mixing and an inflow velocity for the second row that is significantly higher than in the uncontrolled case. For downstream rows, the optimal control mainly enhances the sideways mean transport of momentum. This is different from earlier observations by Goit and Meyers (2015 in the fully-developed regime, where mainly vertical transport was enhanced.

  3. Topology-optimized multiple-disk resonators obtained using level set expression incorporating surface effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Garuda; Ueta, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Mamoru; Nakamura, Masayuki

    2015-05-04

    Topology-optimized designs of multiple-disk resonators are presented using level-set expression that incorporates surface effects. Effects from total internal reflection at the surfaces of the dielectric disks are precisely simulated by modeling clearly defined dielectric boundaries during topology optimization. The electric field intensity in optimal resonators increases to more than four and a half times the initial intensity in a resonant state, whereas in some cases the Q factor increases by three and a half times that for the initial state. Wavelength-scale link structures between neighboring disks improve the performance of the multiple-disk resonators.

  4. Optimal dynamic pricing for deteriorating items with reference-price effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Musen; Tang, Wansheng; Zhang, Jianxiong

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a dynamic pricing problem for deteriorating items with the consumers' reference-price effect is studied. An optimal control model is established to maximise the total profit, where the demand not only depends on the current price, but also is sensitive to the historical price. The continuous-time dynamic optimal pricing strategy with reference-price effect is obtained through solving the optimal control model on the basis of Pontryagin's maximum principle. In addition, numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis are carried out. Finally, some managerial suggestions that firm may adopt to formulate its pricing policy are proposed.

  5. [Formula Optimization in Renshen Jianxin Capsule Based on Uniform Design and Anti-myocardial Ischemia Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chua-hua; Li, Yun-lun; Jiang, Hai-qiang; Nie, Lei; Ju, Jiang-qing; Li, Shuai; Ding, Xue-yi; Zhang, Shi-jun

    2015-09-01

    To realize quadratic formula optimization of Renshen Jianxin Capsule (RJC) by screening Chinese herbs with major anti-myocardial ischemia effect in RJC and optimize their optimal dosages. By following "uniform design-pharmacodynamic experiment-mathematical modeling-formula optimization", authors employed U10(10(8)) uniform design in the experiment. Eight Chinese herbs contained in RJC were taken as observatory factors. Electrocardiograph (ECG) changes of myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol were taken as pharmacodynamic indices. The mathematical model between herbal factors and pharmacodynamic indices was established using stepwise regression analysis to screen Chinese herbs with major anti-myocardial ischemia effect. Their optimal dosages were optimized using the grid algorithm. The regression equation was y =1. 7889 -0. 3247 Ginseng xSalvia Miltiorrhiza -0. 0663 Astragalus membranaceus xOriental Waterplantain tuber. Forecasting factors included were Ginseng, Salvia Miltiorrhiza, Astragalus membranaceus, and Oriental Waterplantain tuber. The optimal formula dosage calculated by the grid algorithm was Ginseng 1. 62 g, Astragalus membranaceus 4. 62 g, Salvia Miltiorrhiza 2. 43 g, and Oriental Waterplantain tuber 1. 66 g. Uniform design combined with stepwise regression analysis and grid algorithm were able to realize quadratic formula optimization of RJC.

  6. The optimal impact phenomenon: beyond the third person effect

    OpenAIRE

    Hoorens, Vera; Ruiter, Suzanne

    1996-01-01

    According to the third person hypothesis, people believe that the media have a greater effect on other people's attitudes and behaviours than on their own attitudes and behaviours. A self-enhancement explanation for the third person effect was tested, stating that people perceive their own responses to the media not as weaker but as more appropriate than other people's responses.

  7. Strategic opportunities for effective optimal prescribing and medication management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketris, Ingrid S; Langille Ingram, Ethel M; Lummis, Heather L

    2009-01-01

    Canadians receive over 422 million prescriptions and spend over $26 billion annually on drugs. Yet, we do not systematically capture information on whether the right drugs reach the right people with the intended benefits, while avoiding unintended harm. It is important to identify and understand the effectiveness of approaches used to improve prescribing and medication use. To discuss the medication-use system, identify factors affecting prescribing, and assess effectiveness of interventions. A literature review was conducted using electronic databases, federal agencies', provincial health departments', health service delivery organizations' and Canadian health research organizations' websites, the Internet, and some hand searching. Interventions identified were categorized according to the Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group (EPOC) classification, with effectiveness based on the literature. Factors affecting prescribing relate to the patient and society, medication, prescriber, practice environment and organization, available information and other external factors. Interventions reported as generally effective are multi-faceted interventions, academic detailing, and reminders. Interventions reported as sometimes effective are audit and feedback or physician profiling, local opinion leaders, drug utilization review, and local consensus guidelines. Passive dissemination of educational materials is deemed generally ineffective. No single approach is appropriate for every prescribing problem, health professional prescriber practice or health care setting. Interventions to improve prescribing in community and institutional settings have variable effect sizes. Effectiveness is related to content, delivery mechanisms, intensity, intervention's context, and implementation environment. Even an intervention with a small effect size (research and evaluation is needed to determine how or why the interventions work and identify barriers to effective

  8. Distributed flow optimization and cascading effects in weighted complex networks

    OpenAIRE

    Asztalos, Andrea; Sreenivasan, Sameet; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.; Korniss, G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a specific edge weighting scheme $\\sim (k_i k_j)^{\\beta}$ on distributed flow efficiency and robustness to cascading failures in scale-free networks. In particular, we analyze a simple, yet fundamental distributed flow model: current flow in random resistor networks. By the tuning of control parameter $\\beta$ and by considering two general cases of relative node processing capabilities as well as the effect of bandwidth, we show the dependence of transport efficie...

  9. Effects of optimism on recovery and mental health after a tornado outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Eric G; Echols, Erin Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Dispositional optimism, a stable expectation that good things will happen, has been shown to improve health outcomes in a wide range of contexts, but very little research has explored the impact of optimism on post-disaster health and well-being. Data for this study come from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public health systems and mental health community recovery (PHSMHCR) Survey. Participants included 3216 individuals living in counties affected by the April 2011 tornado outbreak in Mississippi and Alabama. This study assesses the effect of dispositional optimism on post-disaster recovery and mental health. Dispositional optimism was found to have a positive effect on personal recovery and mental health after the disaster. Furthermore, it moderated the relationship between level of home damage and personal recovery as well as the relationship between home damage and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with stronger effects for those with increased levels of home damage. The utility of screening for optimism is discussed, along with the potential for interventions to increase optimism as a means of mitigating adverse mental health effects and improving the recovery of individuals affected by disasters and other traumatic events.

  10. Human error considerations and annunciator effects in determining optimal test intervals for periodically inspected standby systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, T.P.; Martz, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    This paper incorporates the effects of four types of human error in a model for determining the optimal time between periodic inspections which maximizes the steady state availability for standby safety systems. Such safety systems are characteristic of nuclear power plant operations. The system is modeled by means of an infinite state-space Markov chain. Purpose of the paper is to demonstrate techniques for computing steady-state availability A and the optimal periodic inspection interval tau* for the system. The model can be used to investigate the effects of human error probabilities on optimal availability, study the benefits of annunciating the standby-system, and to determine optimal inspection intervals. Several examples which are representative of nuclear power plant applications are presented.

  11. Optimizing Personalized Management and Cost-Effectiveness in Vascular Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, W.

    2014-01-01

    The general aim of the studies described in this thesis is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and to select the preferred treatment for different clinical patient groups for several vascular surgical diseases by means of decision analysis. This thesis consists of 2 parts. In PART 1, several new

  12. Effect of optimized structure and electronic properties of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results show that these compounds get adsorbed on the mild steel surface following Temkin adsorption isotherm, and act as mixed-type inhibitors. The inhibition efficiencies are found to follow the order, BAEBI > BSAEBI > BAMBI > BSAMBI. This observation is explained in terms of chain length, relative effects of amido ...

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF A DOUBLE EFFECT LIBR-H20 ABSORPTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    along with the effectiveness expressions of the heat exchangers provide mass flow rates and enthalpies at each state point. Concentratiom at Various Poiltl!I in tile Cycle ... leaving the Condenser at state point 15 is assumed to be saturated liquid at the .... ranges over which the machine is expected to operate. Accordingly ...

  14. Long-term Advertising Effects and Optimal Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Using pure single-source data, this paper provides evidence for the existence and magnitude of long-term advertising effects across FMCG product categories. Furthermore, we focus on the difficulties that arise for wellestablished brands when new products are introduced into the market and product innovations take place. Our research shows that such occurrences drastically alter the relationship between share of voice and share of market in any given FMCG market, hence making...

  15. Long-term Advertising Effects and Optimal Budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Using pure single-source data, this paper provides evidence for theexistence and magnitude of long-term advertising effects across FMCG productcategories. Furthermore, we focus on the difficulties that arise for wellestablishedbrands when new products are introduced into the market andproduct...... innovations take place. Our research shows that such occurrencesdrastically alter the relationship between share of voice and share of market inany given FMCG market, hence making it pivotal for marketers to focus on suchrelationships in order to maintain market position....

  16. Effect of noise and occupancy on optimal reverberation times for speech intelligibility in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Murray; Nosal, Eva-Marie

    2002-02-01

    The question of what is the optimal reverberation time for speech intelligibility in an occupied classroom has been studied recently in two different ways, with contradictory results. Experiments have been performed under various conditions of speech-signal to background-noise level difference and reverberation time, finding an optimal reverberation time of zero. Theoretical predictions of appropriate speech-intelligibility metrics, based on diffuse-field theory, found nonzero optimal reverberation times. These two contradictory results are explained by the different ways in which the two methods account for background noise, both of which are unrealistic. To obtain more realistic and accurate predictions, noise sources inside the classroom are considered. A more realistic treatment of noise is incorporated into diffuse-field theory by considering both speech and noise sources and the effects of reverberation on their steady-state levels. The model shows that the optimal reverberation time is zero when the speech source is closer to the listener than the noise source, and nonzero when the noise source is closer than the speech source. Diffuse-field theory is used to determine optimal reverberation times in unoccupied classrooms given optimal values for the occupied classroom. Resulting times can be as high as several seconds in large classrooms; in some cases, optimal values are unachievable, because the occupants contribute too much absorption.

  17. Optimization of total body irradiation: the match between (maximal) leukemic cell kill and (minimal) late effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harteveld, M.L. van

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of total body irradiation: the match between (maximal) leukemic cell kill and (minimal) late effects: In this thesis, cataract formation and renal dysfunction as late effects of high-dose total body irradiation (TBI) as part of the conditioning before hematological stem cell

  18. Fast engineering optimization: A novel highly effective control parameterization approach for industrial dynamic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Li, Guodong; Liu, Xinggao

    2015-09-01

    Control vector parameterization (CVP) is an important approach of the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. However, its major defect, the low optimization efficiency caused by calculating the relevant differential equations in the generated nonlinear programming (NLP) problem repeatedly, limits its wide application in the engineering optimization for the industrial dynamic processes. A novel highly effective control parameterization approach, fast-CVP, is first proposed to improve the optimization efficiency for industrial dynamic processes, where the costate gradient formulae is employed and a fast approximate scheme is presented to solve the differential equations in dynamic process simulation. Three well-known engineering optimization benchmark problems of the industrial dynamic processes are demonstrated as illustration. The research results show that the proposed fast approach achieves a fine performance that at least 90% of the computation time can be saved in contrast to the traditional CVP method, which reveals the effectiveness of the proposed fast engineering optimization approach for the industrial dynamic processes. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimizing the Effectiveness of CME Program: NAMS Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available purposeful learning require strong basis of principles of adult learning along with a sound knowledge and requisite skills in both psychology as well as technology of medical education. Assessing effectiveness of a CME program is as important as the organization of learning activities and delivery of academic program as these may provide further directions for enhancing the efficacy of the CME delivery system.Objective: (i The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of well planned and conducted CME program in terms of enhancing knowledge and competence of the participants. (ii To explore if the gain in knowledge and competence, if any, can be attributed to the interactive design of the educational process.Methods: The study was conducted during NAMS-AIIMS Regional Symposium on Sleep Medicine at AIIMS, Jodhpur as part of NAMSCON 2013. After explaining the objectives of the study to the participants and assurance of confidentiality, a validated and pre-tested questionnaire consisting of 30 multiple choice, single response questions, was administered to 103 participants. Following intervention consisting of didactic lectures by experts in different aspects of sleep medicine, interactive sessions and problem triggered sessions consisting of clinical data, participants were re-administered post test questions which were, however, different from pre-test but had similar difficulty level.Result: The response rate of participants was 89%. Pre-intervention scores were 11.76 ± 4.4, with only 26 % of participants achieving an arbitrary pass score of 50 %. Comparison of paired score of participants who attempted both pre and post tests (n=59 showed improvement from 12.1 ±4.6 to 18.3 ± 3.8 which was significant (p <0.05. 84.7 % of participants secured above pre decided 50% score. The mean increase in the score was 6.2 with 95% CIs 4.8; 7.5 (P <0.001. Higher gain in knowledge and competencies is attributed to intense interactive

  20. Wind Turbine Power Curve Design for Optimal Power Generation in Wind Farms Considering Wake Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi

    2017-01-01

    In modern wind farms, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is widely implemented. Using the MPPT method, each individual wind turbine is controlled by its pitch angle and tip speed ratio to generate the maximum active power. In a wind farm, the upstream wind turbine may cause power loss to its...... downstream wind turbines due to the wake effect. According to the wake model, downstream power loss is also determined by the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of the upstream wind turbine. By optimizing the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of each wind turbine, the total active power of the wind farm can...... be increased. In this paper, the optimal pitch angle and tip speed ratio are selected for each wind turbine by the exhausted search. Considering the estimation error of the wake model, a solution to implement the optimized pitch angle and tip speed ratio is proposed, which is to generate the optimal control...

  1. Automatic analog IC sizing and optimization constrained with PVT corners and layout effects

    CERN Document Server

    Lourenço, Nuno; Horta, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to a variety of tools for automatic analog integrated circuit (IC) sizing and optimization. The authors provide a historical perspective on the early methods proposed to tackle automatic analog circuit sizing, with emphasis on the methodologies to size and optimize the circuit, and on the methodologies to estimate the circuit’s performance. The discussion also includes robust circuit design and optimization and the most recent advances in layout-aware analog sizing approaches. The authors describe a methodology for an automatic flow for analog IC design, including details of the inputs and interfaces, multi-objective optimization techniques, and the enhancements made in the base implementation by using machine leaning techniques. The Gradient model is discussed in detail, along with the methods to include layout effects in the circuit sizing. The concepts and algorithms of all the modules are thoroughly described, enabling readers to reproduce the methodologies, improve the qual...

  2. An effective model for ergonomic optimization applied to a new automotive assembly line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duraccio, Vincenzo [University Niccolò Cusano, Rome Via Don Gnocchi,00166, Roma Italy (Italy); Elia, Valerio [Dept. of Innovation Engineering - University of Salento Via Monteroni, 73100, Lecce (Italy); Forcina, Antonio [University Parthenope, Dep. of Engineering Centro Direzionale - Isola C4 80143 - Naples - Italy (Italy)

    2016-06-08

    An efficient ergonomic optimization can lead to a significant improvement in production performance and a considerable reduction of costs. In the present paper new model for ergonomic optimization is proposed. The new approach is based on the criteria defined by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and, adapted to Italian legislation. The proposed model provides an ergonomic optimization, by analyzing ergonomic relations between manual work in correct conditions. The model includes a schematic and systematic analysis method of the operations, and identifies all possible ergonomic aspects to be evaluated. The proposed approach has been applied to an automotive assembly line, where the operation repeatability makes the optimization fundamental. The proposed application clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the new approach.

  3. An effective model for ergonomic optimization applied to a new automotive assembly line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraccio, Vincenzo; Elia, Valerio; Forcina, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    An efficient ergonomic optimization can lead to a significant improvement in production performance and a considerable reduction of costs. In the present paper new model for ergonomic optimization is proposed. The new approach is based on the criteria defined by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and, adapted to Italian legislation. The proposed model provides an ergonomic optimization, by analyzing ergonomic relations between manual work in correct conditions. The model includes a schematic and systematic analysis method of the operations, and identifies all possible ergonomic aspects to be evaluated. The proposed approach has been applied to an automotive assembly line, where the operation repeatability makes the optimization fundamental. The proposed application clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the new approach.

  4. Clarifying Cutting and Sewing Processes with Due Windows Using an Effective Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hwa Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutting and sewing process is a traditional flow shop scheduling problem in the real world. This two-stage flexible flow shop is often commonly associated with manufacturing in the fashion and textiles industry. Many investigations have demonstrated that the ant colony optimization (ACO algorithm is effective and efficient for solving scheduling problems. This work applies a novel effective ant colony optimization (EACO algorithm to solve two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problems and thereby minimize earliness, tardiness, and makespan. Computational results reveal that for both small and large problems, EACO is more effective and robust than both the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm and the ACO algorithm. Importantly, this work demonstrates that EACO can solve complex scheduling problems in an acceptable period of time.

  5. The Effects of Attribution Retraining on Optimism and Pessimism of Elementary School Students in Ahwaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh Ramezani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Optimism, due to its impact on mental and physical health, is of utmost importance. Finding practical and scientific methods to increase optimism and alleviate pessimism are essential. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effect of attribution retraining on optimism, and pessimism of female six-grade elementary students in Ahwaz primary schools, Iran. The attribution retraining was considered as independent variable and optimism and pessimism were considered as dependent variables. Methods: In the present experimental study, 54 sixth-grade primary school students were randomly selected and then divided to two groups of experiment and control groups. The present study was a field experimental research, including pretest-posttest and control group. The research instrument was the Children's Attribution Styles Questionnaire (CASQ and was presented by Seligman, translated by ShehniYailagh and Ramezani, and adapted to Iranian students’ Culture. . Before starting the retraining, two groups were tested in pre-tests of optimism, pessimism and then, the experiment group was taught attribution retraining, and the control group nothing. At the end of the training course, two groups were tested in post-tests of optimism and pessimism. Results: Results showed that attribution retraining (as independent variables, had a great effect on the dependent variables. The results showed that attribution retraining had increased the meaningful (p= 0/001 amount of optimism and it had decreased pessimism (p = 0/001 significantly. Conclusion: Attribution retraining with increased optimism and pessimism can prevent and reduce the mental and physical health.

  6. Effects of AV-delay optimization on hemodynamic parameters in patients with VDD pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Nürnberg, Michael; Volker, Romana; Pachinger, Linda; Jarai, Rudolf; Freynhofer, Matthias K; Wojta, Johann; Huber, Kurt; Weiss, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) delay optimization improves hemodynamics and clinical parameters in patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy and dual-chamber-pacemakers (PM). However, data on optimizing AV delay in patients treated with VDD-PMs are scarce. We, therefore, investigated the acute and chronic effects of AV delay optimization on hemodynamics in patients treated with VDD-PMs due to AV-conduction disturbances. In this prospective, single-center interventional trial, we included 64 patients (38 men, 26 women, median age: 77 (70-82) years) with implanted VDD-PM. AV-delay optimization was performed using a formula based on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG). Hemodynamic parameters (stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP)) were measured at baseline and follow-up after 3 months using impedance cardiography. Using an ECG formula for AV-delay optimization, the AV interval was decreased from 180 (180-180) to 75 (75-100) ms. At baseline, AV-delay optimization led to a significant increase of both SV (71.3 ± 15.8 vs. 55.3 ± 12.7 ml, p < 0.001, for optimized AV delay vs. nominal AV interval, respectively) and CO (5.1 ± 1.4 vs. 3.9 ± 1.0 l/min, p < 0.001), while HR and BP remained unchanged. At follow-up, the improvement in CO remained stable (4.9 ± 1.3 l/min, p = 0.09), while SV slightly, but significantly, decreased (to 65.1 ± 17.6, p < 0.01). AV-delay optimization in patients treated with VDD-PMs exhibits immediate beneficial effects on hemodynamic parameters that are sustained for 3 months.

  7. Turbofan engine diagnostics neuron network size optimization method which takes into account overlaerning effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.С. Якушенко

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available  The article is devoted to the problem of gas turbine engine (GTE technical state class automatic recognition with operation parameters by neuron networks. The one of main problems for creation the neuron networks is determination of their optimal structures size (amount of layers in network and count of neurons in each layer.The method of neuron network size optimization intended for classification of GTE technical state is considered in the article. Optimization is cared out with taking into account of overlearning effect possibility when a learning network loses property of generalization and begins strictly describing educational data set. To determinate a moment when overlearning effect is appeared in learning neuron network the method  of three data sets is used. The method is based on the comparison of recognition quality parameters changes which were calculated during recognition of educational and control data sets. As the moment when network overlearning effect is appeared the moment when control data set recognition quality begins deteriorating but educational data set recognition quality continues still improving is used. To determinate this moment learning process periodically is terminated and simulation of network with education and control data sets is fulfilled. The optimization of two-, three- and four-layer networks is conducted and some results of optimization are shown. Also the extended educational set is created and shown. The set describes 16 GTE technical state classes and each class is represented with 200 points (200 possible technical state class realizations instead of 20 points using in the former articles. It was done to increase representativeness of data set.In the article the algorithm of optimization is considered and some results which were obtained with it are shown. The results of experiments were analyzed to determinate most optimal neuron network structure. This structure provides most high-quality GTE

  8. Optimal Control to Increase Energy Production of Wind Farm Considering Wake Effect and Lifetime Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi

    2017-01-01

    In a wind farm, the upstream wind turbine may cause power loss to the downstream wind turbines due to the wake effect. Meanwhile, the energy production is determined by the power generation and the lifetime of the wind turbine. In this paper, an optimal active power control method is proposed......, the pitch angle curve and active power curve are optimized with the aim of Maximum Power Generation (MPG) of the wind farm. Afterwards, considering the lifetime of wind turbines, a comparison is offered between the MPPT method and the MPG method for energy production using a simplified two-turbine wind farm...... as an example. Due to the small range of the effective wake area, it is found that the energy production is almost the same. Finally, the pitch angle curve and active power curve are optimized according to the Maximum Energy Production (MEP) of a wind farm. Upon considering and contrasting the MPPT method...

  9. Effect of land tenure and stakeholders attitudes on optimization of conservation practices in agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemonti, A. D.; Babbar-Sebens, M.; Luzar, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    Modeled watershed management plans have become valuable tools for evaluating the effectiveness and impacts of conservation practices on hydrologic processes in watersheds. In multi-objective optimization approaches, several studies have focused on maximizing physical, ecological, or economic benefits of practices in a specific location, without considering the relationship between social systems and social attitudes on the overall optimality of the practice at that location. For example, objectives that have been commonly used in spatial optimization of practices are economic costs, sediment loads, nutrient loads and pesticide loads. Though the benefits derived from these objectives are generally oriented towards community preferences, they do not represent attitudes of landowners who might operate their land differently than their neighbors (e.g. farm their own land or rent the land to someone else) and might have different social/personal drivers that motivate them to adopt the practices. In addition, a distribution of such landowners could exist in the watershed, leading to spatially varying preferences to practices. In this study we evaluated the effect of three different land tenure types on the spatial-optimization of conservation practices. To perform the optimization, we used a uniform distribution of land tenure type and a spatially varying distribution of land tenure type. Our results show that for a typical Midwestern agricultural watershed, the most optimal solutions (i.e. highest benefits for minimum economic costs) found were for a uniform distribution of landowners who operate their own land. When a different land-tenure was used for the watershed, the optimized alternatives did not change significantly for nitrates reduction benefits and sediment reduction benefits, but were attained at economic costs much higher than the costs of the landowner who farms her/his own land. For example, landowners who rent to cash-renters would have to spend ~120

  10. ABOUT OPTIMIZING OF INVESTMENT VOLUMES TO IMPROVE THE BASIC INDICATORS OF THE ENTERPRISE EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Gasanov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Profit and profitability of any, including transport enterprises are the main economic indicators of the enterprise effectiveness. These indicators reflect the results and successful performance of the enterprise. On the other hand the enterprise effectiveness in the long term, assurance of rapid development and competitiveness is largely determined by the level of investment activity and the range of investment activity. The purpose of this study is the feasibility of the method to determine optimal investments volume for improving these or others (selectable by the management principal economic indicators of the enterprise effectiveness. Methodology. The basis of the proposed methodology for determining the optimal investments volume is the theory of optimal control, in particular, the procedure of dynamic programming since a managed development process of the enterprise is a multiple stage. This procedure, using a phased plan, allows not only simplifying the solution of optimization problems, but also solving those, which are impossible to apply the methods of mathematical analysis. Findings. The expediency of performing the calculations to determine the optimal investments volume to ensure high rates of enterprise development was proved, it is a key to the effectiveness of the enterprise in the long term and it improves its competitiveness. Originality. It is shown that using methods of the optimum control theory one can calculate the minimum volume of capital investments for the improvement of economic indicators, which determine the enterprise effectiveness. The proposed method of calculation does not depend on the specific content of economic indicators. The effectiveness of this calculation method is demonstrated on a model example. Practical value. The proposed method of calculating the minimum volume of capital investments to improve the economic effectiveness of enterprises is quite simple, but at the same time enables, on

  11. An Effective, Robust And Parallel Implementation Of An Interior Point Algorithm For Limit State Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dollerup, Niels; Jepsen, Michael S.; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The artide describes a robust and effective implementation of the interior point optimization algorithm. The adopted method includes a precalculation step, which reduces the number of variables by fulfilling the equilibrium equations a priori. This work presents an improved implementation of the ...

  12. The Effect of Slot-Code Optimization in Warehouse Order Picking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fumi

    2013-07-01

    most appropriate material handling resource configuration. Building on previous work on the effect of slot-code optimization on travel times in single/dual command cycles, the authors broaden the scope to include the most general picking case, thus widening the range of applicability and realising former suggestions for future research.

  13. Perceived Academic Control: Mediating the Effects of Optimism and Social Support on College Students' Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthig, Joelle C.; Haynes, Tara L.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2009-01-01

    The first year of college presents numerous challenges experienced as overwhelming by some freshmen who may become overly stressed and depressed. This longitudinal study examined perceived academic control (PAC) as a mediator of optimism and social support's buffering effects on freshman students' psychological health. Multiple regressions…

  14. Planar Hall effect sensor bridge geometries optimized for magnetic bead detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Henriksen, Anders Dahl

    2014-01-01

    Novel designs of planar Hall effect bridge sensors optimized for magnetic bead detection are presented and characterized. By constructing the sensor geometries appropriately, the sensors can be tailored to be sensitive to an external magnetic field, the magnetic field due to beads being magnetized...

  15. The role of orbital products in the optimized effective potential method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollmar, Christian; Filatov, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The orbital products of occupied and virtual orbitals are employed as an expansion basis for the charge density generating the local potential in the optimized effective potential method thus avoiding the use of auxiliary basis sets. The high computational cost arising from the quadratic increase of

  16. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the

  17. Optimal Adaptive Droop Control for Effective Load Sharing in AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Shafiee, Qobad; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    scheme. However, sharing powers among the sources based on the units’ rated capacities is not an optimal solution in terms of economy and efficiency. In this paper, a new adaptive droop-based control strategy is proposed for AC MGs to optimally share MG load between corresponding units. The mentioned......During the past few years, microgrids (MGs) have been becoming more attractive as effective means to integrate different distributed energy resources (DERs). To coordinate active and reactive power sharing among DERs, conventional droop control method is widely used as a decentralized control...

  18. Wake-Effect Minimising Optimal Control of Wind Farms, with Load Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchersen, Anders Bech; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Sivabalan, Senthuran

    2014-01-01

    the wake effects in the farm, while maintaining optimal power output. A feature which enables the MPC to spare certain turbines, while maintaining the power output is also implemented. The MPC controller is able to minimize the wake effect in the wind farm, when the power demand is not using the full......A power generating wind turbine causes a speed reduction and an added turbulence to the wind. Wind turbines in wind farms are often caught in these wakes and are found to have a higher structural load than non affected wind turbines. This article investigates the possibility of designing a control...... strategy which optimizes the power production, while minimizing the effect of the wakes in the wind farm. A generic wind farm model which is able to calculate the wind turbines influence on each other is developed. Models for the reduction in wind speed as well as turbulence in the wake effects...

  19. Optimal Design of Viscoelastic Dampers in Frame Structures considering Soil-Structure Interaction Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The seismic response control of multistory frame structures using optimally placed viscoelastic dampers (VEDs within consideration of soil-structure interaction (SSI effect is investigated in this paper. The system is assumed to be elastic and responses of the system are obtained in frequency domain for stationary random seismic excitations. The optimal designs of VEDs in structures are achieved through genetic algorithm (GA by minimizing the maximum response quantities of the system for a determined total amount of viscoelastic material. Two typical elastic multistory frame structures with different soil types and foundation embedment ratios are considered to demonstrate the optimization process. It is shown that the VEDs have the best control of the structural response for fixed base condition and the control efficiency decreases as the soil becomes softer. The optimal placement types of VEDs for different soil types differ from each other. With the decrease of soil stiffness, the optimal locations of VEDs have a tendency to shift to top floors.

  20. Collective neurodynamic optimization for economic emission dispatch problem considering valve point effect in microgrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiancai; He, Xing; Huang, Tingwen; Li, Chuandong; Zhang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    The economic emission dispatch (EED) problem aims to control generation cost and reduce the impact of waste gas on the environment. It has multiple constraints and nonconvex objectives. To solve it, the collective neurodynamic optimization (CNO) method, which combines heuristic approach and projection neural network (PNN), is attempted to optimize scheduling of an electrical microgrid with ten thermal generators and minimize the plus of generation and emission cost. As the objective function has non-derivative points considering valve point effect (VPE), differential inclusion approach is employed in the PNN model introduced to deal with them. Under certain conditions, the local optimality and convergence of the dynamic model for the optimization problem is analyzed. The capability of the algorithm is verified in a complicated situation, where transmission loss and prohibited operating zones are considered. In addition, the dynamic variation of load power at demand side is considered and the optimal scheduling of generators within 24 h is described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of upper body parameters on biped walking efficiency studied by dynamic optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang An

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Walking efficiency is one of the considerations for designing biped robots. This article uses the dynamic optimization method to study the effects of upper body parameters, including upper body length and mass, on walking efficiency. Two minimal actuations, hip joint torque and push-off impulse, are used in the walking model, and minimal constraints are set in a free search using the dynamic optimization. Results show that there is an optimal solution of upper body length for the efficient walking within a range of walking speed and step length. For short step length, walking with a lighter upper body mass is found to be more efficient and vice versa. It is also found that for higher speed locomotion, the increase of the upper body length and mass can make the walking gait optimal rather than other kind of gaits. In addition, the typical strategy of an optimal walking gait is that just actuating the swing leg at the beginning of the step.

  2. Effects of gas types and models on optimized gas fuelling station reservoir's pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzaneh-Gord

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are similar algorithms and infrastructure for storing gas fuels at CNG (Compressed Natural Gas and CHG (Compressed Hydrogen Gas fuelling stations. In these stations, the fuels are usually stored in the cascade storage system to utilize the stations more efficiently. The cascade storage system generally divides into three reservoirs, commonly termed low, medium and high-pressure reservoirs. The pressures within these reservoirs have huge effects on performance of the stations. In the current study, based on the laws of thermodynamics, conservation of mass and real/ideal gas assumptions, a theoretical analysis has been constructed to study the effects of gas types and models on performance of the stations. It is intended to determine the optimized reservoir pressures for these stations. The results reveal that the optimized pressure differs between the gas types. For ideal and real gas models in both stations (CNG and CHG, the optimized non-dimensional low pressure-reservoir pressure is found to be 0.22. The optimized non-dimensional medium-pressure reservoir pressure is the same for the stations, and equal to 0.58.

  3. Effective factors on optimizing banks’ balance sheet using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoja Rezaei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Every bank seeks methods to optimize its assets and liabilities, thus the main subject is managing assets-liabilities in the balance sheet and the main question is by which factor banks will be enabled to have an optimized combination of assets and liabilities in a common level of risk to get the most return. This case study is dedicated to Refah bank and is an applicable study. The data has collected from the headquarter by a questionnaire and finally effective factors weight on optimizing bank balance sheet determined by using Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process. Results showed that revenue has more effect on optimizing for %39.5 and also loan to deposit ratio for %.74, regarding revenue as a symbol of efficiency in banks, it seems to be the most important factor and goal in banking industry. Furthermore banks need to have some liquidity to respond customers demand to cover one of the most important risks of banking. This factor importance determined to be %18 in Refah Bank by using model and experts view.

  4. The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Explosive Performance and Optimal Individual Postactivation Potentiation Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chi Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Creatine plays an important role in muscle energy metabolism. Postactivation potentiation (PAP is a phenomenon that can acutely increase muscle power, but it is an individualized process that is influenced by muscle fatigue. This study examined the effects of creatine supplementation on explosive performance and the optimal individual PAP time during a set of complex training bouts. Thirty explosive athletes performed tests of back squat for one repetition maximum (1RM strength and complex training bouts for determining the individual optimal timing of PAP, height and peak power of a counter movement jump before and after the supplementation. Subjects were assigned to a creatine or placebo group and then consumed 20 g of creatine or carboxymethyl cellulose per day for six days. After the supplementation, the 1RM strength in the creatine group significantly increased (p < 0.05. The optimal individual PAP time in the creatine group was also significant earlier than the pre-supplementation and post-supplementation of the placebo group (p < 0.05. There was no significant difference in jump performance between the groups. This study demonstrates that creatine supplementation improves maximal muscle strength and the optimal individual PAP time of complex training but has no effect on explosive performance.

  5. Effect of data assimilation parameters on the optimized surface CO2 flux in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjung; Kim, Hyun Mee; Kim, Jinwoong; Cho, Chun-Ho

    2017-09-01

    In this study, CarbonTracker, an inverse modeling system based on the ensemble Kalman filter, was used to evaluate the effects of data assimilation parameters (assimilation window length and ensemble size) on the estimation of surface CO2 fluxes in Asia. Several experiments with different parameters were conducted, and the results were verified using CO2 concentration observations. The assimilation window lengths tested were 3, 5, 7, and 10 weeks, and the ensemble sizes were 100, 150, and 300. Therefore, a total of 12 experiments using combinations of these parameters were conducted. The experimental period was from January 2006 to December 2009. Differences between the optimized surface CO2 fluxes of the experiments were largest in the Eurasian Boreal (EB) area, followed by Eurasian Temperate (ET) and Tropical Asia (TA), and were larger in boreal summer than in boreal winter. The effect of ensemble size on the optimized biosphere flux is larger than the effect of the assimilation window length in Asia, but the importance of them varies in specific regions in Asia. The optimized biosphere flux was more sensitive to the assimilation window length in EB, whereas it was sensitive to the ensemble size as well as the assimilation window length in ET. The larger the ensemble size and the shorter the assimilation window length, the larger the uncertainty (i.e., spread of ensemble) of optimized surface CO2 fluxes. The 10-week assimilation window and 300 ensemble size were the optimal configuration for CarbonTracker in the Asian region based on several verifications using CO2 concentration measurements.

  6. Effective management of patients with acute ischemic stroke based on lean production on thrombolytic flow optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhuoyuan; Ren, Lijie; Wang, Ting; Hu, Huoyou; Li, Weiping; Wang, Yaping; Liu, Dehong; Lie, Yi

    2016-12-01

    The efficacy of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) decreases when the administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is delayed. Derived from Toyota Production System, lean production aims to create top-quality products with high-efficiency procedures, a concept that easily applies to emergency medicine. In this study, we aimed to determine whether applying lean principles to flow optimization could hasten the initiation of thrombolysis. A multidisciplinary team (Stroke Team) was organized to implement an ongoing, continuous loop of lean production that contained the following steps: decomposition, recognition, intervention, reengineering and assessment. The door-to-needle time (DNT) and the percentage of patients with DNT ≤ 60 min before and after the adoption of lean principles were used to evaluate the efficiency of our flow optimization. Thirteen patients with AIS in the pre-lean period and 43 patients with AIS in the lean period (23 in lean period I and 20 patients in lean period II) were consecutively enrolled in our study. After flow optimization, we reduced DNT from 90 to 47 min (p < 0.001¤). In addition, the percentage of patients treated ≤60 min after hospital arrival increased from 38.46 to 75.0 % (p = 0.015¤). Adjusted analysis of covariance confirmed a significant influence of optimization on delay of tPA administration (p < 0.001). The patients were more likely to have a good prognosis (mRS ≤ 2 at 90 days) after the flow optimization (30.77-75.00 %, p = 0.012¤). Our study may offer an effective approach for optimizing the thrombolytic flow in the management of AIS.

  7. Energy savings by optimization of drying processes through use of models and effective control; Energibesparelser ved optimering af toerreprocesser gennem anvendelse af modeller og effektiv regulering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didriksen, H.; Sandvig Nielsen, J.; Weel Hansen, M.

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the project is to present a procedure to optimize existing drying processes. The optimization deals with energy consumption, capacity utilization and product quality. Other factors can also be included in the optimization, e.g. minimization of volume of discharged air. The optimization of existing drying processes will use calculation tool based on a mathematical simulation model for the process to calculate the most optimum operation situation on the basis of given conditions. In the project mathematical models have been developed precisely with this aim. The calculation tools have been developed with a user interface so that the tools can be used by technical staff in industrial companies and by consultants. The project also illustrates control of drying processes. Based on the developed models, the effect of using different types of control strategies by means of model simulations is illustrated. Three types of drying processes are treated: drum dryers, disc dryers and drying chambers. The work with the development of the simulation models has been very central in the project, as these have to be the basis for the optimization of the processes. The work is based on a large amount of information from academical literature and knowledge and experience about modelling thermal processes at dk-TEKNIK. The models constitute the core in the simulation programmes. The models describe the most important physical effects in connection with mass and energy transfer and transport under the drying for the three treated drying technologies. (EHS)

  8. Optimal control and cost effectiveness analysis for Newcastle disease eco-epidemiological model in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Alfred; Makinde, Oluwole Daniel; Kumar, Santosh; Chibwana, Fred F

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a deterministic compartmental eco- epidemiological model with optimal control of Newcastle disease (ND) in Tanzania is proposed and analysed. Necessary conditions of optimal control problem were rigorously analysed using Pontryagin's maximum principle and the numerical values of model parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood estimator. Three control strategies were incorporated such as chicken vaccination (preventive), human education campaign and treatment of infected human (curative) and its' impact were graphically observed. The incremental cost effectiveness analysis technique used to determine the most cost effectiveness strategy and we observe that combination of chicken vaccination and human education campaign strategy is the best strategy to implement in limited resources. Therefore, ND can be controlled if the farmers will apply chicken vaccination properly and well in time.

  9. Optimal coating thickness for enhancement of optical effects in optical multilayer-based metrologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Chu Manh; Iida, Takuya; Dat, Le Tri; Huy, Ho Thanh; Vy, Nguyen Duy

    2017-11-01

    We theoretically determine an optimal configuration for a planar optical multilayer that is used to enhance the radiation pressure (RP) and the thermal heating in fiber-based metrology systems such as fiber-top cantilevers. The RP exerting on the metallic layer of the cantilever and the thermal heating due to optical absorption are enhanced. This enhancement can be employed to control the deflection and the vibration amplitude of the cantilever. The thicknesses of the cantilever and the coating layer for maximal RP are shown to be 50-60 nm and 20-40 nm, respectively, when a laser with an optical wavelength λ > 500 nm is used. The RP amplification due to the cavity effect is most effective at λ ≃ 1200 nm and reaches a maximum value of 30. The heat absorption of the corresponding films is discussed. These results would be useful for optimizing the configurations of optical multilayer-based devices.

  10. Predictive simulations and optimization of nanowire field-effect PSA sensors including screening

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgartner, Stefan

    2013-05-03

    We apply our self-consistent PDE model for the electrical response of field-effect sensors to the 3D simulation of nanowire PSA (prostate-specific antigen) sensors. The charge concentration in the biofunctionalized boundary layer at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface is calculated using the propka algorithm, and the screening of the biomolecules by the free ions in the liquid is modeled by a sensitivity factor. This comprehensive approach yields excellent agreement with experimental current-voltage characteristics without any fitting parameters. Having verified the numerical model in this manner, we study the sensitivity of nanowire PSA sensors by changing device parameters, making it possible to optimize the devices and revealing the attributes of the optimal field-effect sensor. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Spare Part Logistics and Optimization for Wind Turbines : Methods for Cost-Effective Supply and Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Lindqvist, Mattias; Lundin, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    The wind power industry is maturing and the amount of electricity produced by wind turbines in the world is rapidly increasing every year. Service and maintenance of wind turbines has proven to be difficult and expensive, especially offshore. A well coordinated support organisation and optimized maintenance strategies are required to effectively reduce the costs associated with WT support, where cost-efficient supply and storage of spare parts are important. The aim of this thesis is to model...

  12. An effective docking strategy for virtual screening based on multi-objective optimization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honglin; Zhang, Hailei; Zheng, Mingyue; Luo, Jie; Kang, Ling; Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xicheng; Jiang, Hualiang

    2009-02-11

    Development of a fast and accurate scoring function in virtual screening remains a hot issue in current computer-aided drug research. Different scoring functions focus on diverse aspects of ligand binding, and no single scoring can satisfy the peculiarities of each target system. Therefore, the idea of a consensus score strategy was put forward. Integrating several scoring functions, consensus score re-assesses the docked conformations using a primary scoring function. However, it is not really robust and efficient from the perspective of optimization. Furthermore, to date, the majority of available methods are still based on single objective optimization design. In this paper, two multi-objective optimization methods, called MOSFOM, were developed for virtual screening, which simultaneously consider both the energy score and the contact score. Results suggest that MOSFOM can effectively enhance enrichment and performance compared with a single score. For three different kinds of binding sites, MOSFOM displays an excellent ability to differentiate active compounds through energy and shape complementarity. EFMOGA performed particularly well in the top 2% of database for all three cases, whereas MOEA_Nrg and MOEA_Cnt performed better than the corresponding individual scoring functions if the appropriate type of binding site was selected. The multi-objective optimization method was successfully applied in virtual screening with two different scoring functions that can yield reasonable binding poses and can furthermore, be ranked with the potentially compromised conformations of each compound, abandoning those conformations that can not satisfy overall objective functions.

  13. An effective docking strategy for virtual screening based on multi-objective optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ling

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of a fast and accurate scoring function in virtual screening remains a hot issue in current computer-aided drug research. Different scoring functions focus on diverse aspects of ligand binding, and no single scoring can satisfy the peculiarities of each target system. Therefore, the idea of a consensus score strategy was put forward. Integrating several scoring functions, consensus score re-assesses the docked conformations using a primary scoring function. However, it is not really robust and efficient from the perspective of optimization. Furthermore, to date, the majority of available methods are still based on single objective optimization design. Results In this paper, two multi-objective optimization methods, called MOSFOM, were developed for virtual screening, which simultaneously consider both the energy score and the contact score. Results suggest that MOSFOM can effectively enhance enrichment and performance compared with a single score. For three different kinds of binding sites, MOSFOM displays an excellent ability to differentiate active compounds through energy and shape complementarity. EFMOGA performed particularly well in the top 2% of database for all three cases, whereas MOEA_Nrg and MOEA_Cnt performed better than the corresponding individual scoring functions if the appropriate type of binding site was selected. Conclusion The multi-objective optimization method was successfully applied in virtual screening with two different scoring functions that can yield reasonable binding poses and can furthermore, be ranked with the potentially compromised conformations of each compound, abandoning those conformations that can not satisfy overall objective functions.

  14. Optimization of Drinking Water Distribution Systems in Relation to the Effects of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Maiolo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Proper water resources management involves the analysis and resolution of various optimization problems according to climate change effects on the availability and distribution of the resources themselves. Specifically, these conditions require the identification of new resource allocation optimization solutions capable of taking into account the water resource losses due to climate change scenarios. As is well known, Southern Italy is a region that is potentially very sensitive to climate change. In this paper, a 1717 km2 area, corresponding to the province of Crotone, was analyzed as a study case. This area is characterized by a sufficient availability of resources as a whole as compared to the needs of the users, but has an unbalanced distribution of water through its various systems. After identifying water resource allocations in detail for this area, an optimization solution accounting for the expected reduced availability of water resources in the context of climate change was created and was compared with the optimization solution for current water availability.

  15. Optimal combinations of control strategies and cost-effective analysis for visceral leishmaniasis disease transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Biswas

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a deadly neglected tropical disease that poses a serious problem in various countries all over the world. Implementation of various intervention strategies fail in controlling the spread of this disease due to issues of parasite drug resistance and resistance of sandfly vectors to insecticide sprays. Due to this, policy makers need to develop novel strategies or resort to a combination of multiple intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. To address this issue, we propose an extensive SIR-type model for anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis transmission with seasonal fluctuations modeled in the form of periodic sandfly biting rate. Fitting the model for real data reported in South Sudan, we estimate the model parameters and compare the model predictions with known VL cases. Using optimal control theory, we study the effects of popular control strategies namely, drug-based treatment of symptomatic and PKDL-infected individuals, insecticide treated bednets and spray of insecticides on the dynamics of infected human and vector populations. We propose that the strategies remain ineffective in curbing the disease individually, as opposed to the use of optimal combinations of the mentioned strategies. Testing the model for different optimal combinations while considering periodic seasonal fluctuations, we find that the optimal combination of treatment of individuals and insecticide sprays perform well in controlling the disease for the time period of intervention introduced. Performing a cost-effective analysis we identify that the same strategy also proves to be efficacious and cost-effective. Finally, we suggest that our model would be helpful for policy makers to predict the best intervention strategies for specific time periods and their appropriate implementation for elimination of visceral leishmaniasis.

  16. Analyzing the Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects using optimal projective measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Muhammad Junaid; Chaudhry, Adam Zaman

    2017-09-18

    Measurements in quantum mechanics can not only effectively freeze the quantum system (the quantum Zeno effect) but also accelerate the time evolution of the system (the quantum anti-Zeno effect). In studies of these effects, a quantum state is prepared repeatedly by projecting the quantum state onto the initial state. In this paper, we repeatedly prepare the initial quantum state in a different manner. Instead of only performing projective measurements, we allow unitary operations to be performed, on a very short time-scale, after each measurement. We can then repeatedly prepare the initial state by performing some projective measurement and then, after each measurement, we perform a suitable unitary operation to end up with the same initial state as before. Our objective is to find the projective measurements that minimize the effective decay rate of the quantum state. We find such optimal measurements and the corresponding decay rates for a variety of system-environment models such as the pure dephasing model and the spin-boson model. We find that there can be considerable differences between this optimized effective decay rate and the usual decay rate obtained by repeatedly projecting onto the initial state. In particular, the Zeno and anti-Zeno regimes can be considerably modified.

  17. Examining the effect of EVS spending on HCAHPS scores: a value optimization matrix for expense management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Deirdre; Stalley, Samantha; Williams, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Using the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Value-Based Purchasing program has now linked patient care experience rating to hospital revenue reimbursement, thereby establishing a key relationship between revenue cycle management and the patient experience. However, little data exist on the effect of hospital resource spending on patient HCAHPS ratings. This article examines environmental services (EVS) expenses and HCAHPS ratings on hospital cleanliness and overall patient experience ratings to determine how these variables are related. No linear relationship between EVS expense spending and HCAHPS ratings was found, but post hoc analysis identified a matrix that differentiated on hospital cleanliness ratings and overall EVS spending. A value score was calculated for each quadrant of the matrix, and it was determined that organizational value derives from management of expense spending rather than pursuit of high HCAHPS scores. A value optimization matrix is introduced, and its four quadrants are described. With increased emphasis on subjective patient experience measures attached to financial consequences, leaders in the healthcare industry must understand the link between expense management and HCAHPS performance. This study has shown that effective operations are derived from the efficient use of resources and are supported by strong leadership, strategic management, and a culture of patient-centered achievement. The capacity of healthcare organizations to identify their unique costs-to-outcomes balance through the value optimization matrix will help provide them with a means to ensure that optimal value is extracted from all expense spending.

  18. The effect of genomic information on optimal contribution selection in livestock breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Samuel A; Kinghorn, Brian P; Hickey, John M; van der Werf, Julius H J

    2013-10-30

    Long-term benefits in animal breeding programs require that increases in genetic merit be balanced with the need to maintain diversity (lost due to inbreeding). This can be achieved by using optimal contribution selection. The availability of high-density DNA marker information enables the incorporation of genomic data into optimal contribution selection but this raises the question about how this information affects the balance between genetic merit and diversity. The effect of using genomic information in optimal contribution selection was examined based on simulated and real data on dairy bulls. We compared the genetic merit of selected animals at various levels of co-ancestry restrictions when using estimated breeding values based on parent average, genomic or progeny test information. Furthermore, we estimated the proportion of variation in estimated breeding values that is due to within-family differences. Optimal selection on genomic estimated breeding values increased genetic gain. Genetic merit was further increased using genomic rather than pedigree-based measures of co-ancestry under an inbreeding restriction policy. Using genomic instead of pedigree relationships to restrict inbreeding had a significant effect only when the population consisted of many large full-sib families; with a half-sib family structure, no difference was observed. In real data from dairy bulls, optimal contribution selection based on genomic estimated breeding values allowed for additional improvements in genetic merit at low to moderate inbreeding levels. Genomic estimated breeding values were more accurate and showed more within-family variation than parent average breeding values; for genomic estimated breeding values, 30 to 40% of the variation was due to within-family differences. Finally, there was no difference between constraining inbreeding via pedigree or genomic relationships in the real data. The use of genomic estimated breeding values increased genetic gain in

  19. The effect of pre-operative optimization on post-operative outcome in Crohn's disease resections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa; Iesalnieks, Igors; Horesh, Nir

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The timing of surgical intervention in Crohn's disease (CD) may depend on pre-operative optimization (PO) which includes different interventions to decrease the risk for unfavourable post-operative outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of multi-model PO...... on the post-operative outcome in CD. METHOD: This is a multicentre retrospective cohort study. The primary outcome was 30-day post-operative complications. Secondary outcomes were intra-abdominal septic complications, surgical site infection (SSI), re-operation, length of post-operative stay in a hospital.......021) compared to the non-optimized. Multivariate analyses showed that treatment with anti-TNF alpha agents OR 2.058 CI [1.043-4.4.064] and low haemoglobin OR 0.741 CI [0.572-0.0.961] increased the risk of overall post-operative complications. Co-morbidity increased the risk of SSI OR 2.567 CI [1...

  20. Effect of torrefaction conditions on greenhouse crop residue: Optimization of conditions to upgrade solid characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iáñez-Rodríguez, Irene; Martín-Lara, María Ángeles; Blázquez, Gabriel; Pérez, Antonio; Calero, Mónica

    2017-11-01

    This work investigated the possibility of using a greenhouse crop waste as a fuel, since it is an abundant residue in the Mediterranean area of Spain. The residue is mainly composed by biomass with a little quantity of plastic. The physical and chemical characteristics of the biomass were determined by elemental analysis, proximate analysis, FT-IR, FE-SEM and thermogravimetry. Additionally, a torrefaction process was carried out as a pre-treatment to improve the energy properties of the biomass material. The optimal conditions (time and temperature) of torrefaction were found to be 263°C and 15min using the gain and loss method. Further studies were carried out with the sample prepared with the nearest conditions to the optimal in order to determine the effect of the plastic fraction in the characteristics and torrefaction process of the waste studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effects of Feature Optimization on High-Dimensional Essay Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Jun Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current machine learning (ML based automated essay scoring (AES systems have employed various and vast numbers of features, which have been proven to be useful, in improving the performance of the AES. However, the high-dimensional feature space is not properly represented, due to the large volume of features extracted from the limited training data. As a result, this problem gives rise to poor performance and increased training time for the system. In this paper, we experiment and analyze the effects of feature optimization, including normalization, discretization, and feature selection techniques for different ML algorithms, while taking into consideration the size of the feature space and the performance of the AES. Accordingly, we show that the appropriate feature optimization techniques can reduce the dimensions of features, thus, contributing to the efficient training and performance improvement of AES.

  2. Effective optimization using sample persistence: A case study on quantum annealers and various Monte Carlo optimization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hamed; Rosenberg, Gili; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2017-10-01

    We present and apply a general-purpose, multistart algorithm for improving the performance of low-energy samplers used for solving optimization problems. The algorithm iteratively fixes the value of a large portion of the variables to values that have a high probability of being optimal. The resulting problems are smaller and less connected, and samplers tend to give better low-energy samples for these problems. The algorithm is trivially parallelizable since each start in the multistart algorithm is independent, and could be applied to any heuristic solver that can be run multiple times to give a sample. We present results for several classes of hard problems solved using simulated annealing, path-integral quantum Monte Carlo, parallel tempering with isoenergetic cluster moves, and a quantum annealer, and show that the success metrics and the scaling are improved substantially. When combined with this algorithm, the quantum annealer's scaling was substantially improved for native Chimera graph problems. In addition, with this algorithm the scaling of the time to solution of the quantum annealer is comparable to the Hamze-de Freitas-Selby algorithm on the weak-strong cluster problems introduced by Boixo et al. Parallel tempering with isoenergetic cluster moves was able to consistently solve three-dimensional spin glass problems with 8000 variables when combined with our method, whereas without our method it could not solve any.

  3. Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Effects of Optimism, Intrinsic Motivation, and Family Relations on Vocational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-Jeong; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effects of optimism, intrinsic motivation, and family relations on vocational identity in college students in the United States and South Korea. The results yielded support for the hypothesized multivariate model. Across both cultures, optimism was an important contributing factor to vocational identity, and intrinsic…

  4. Probabilistic Approach to Optimizing Active and Reactive Power Flow in Wind Farms Considering Wake Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Cheol Kang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel probabilistic optimization algorithm for simultaneous active and reactive power dispatch in power systems with significant wind power integration. Two types of load and wind-speed uncertainties have been assumed that follow normal and Weibull distributions, respectively. A PV bus model for wind turbines and the wake effect for correlated wind speed are used to achieve accurate AC power flow analysis. The power dispatch algorithm for a wind-power integrated system is modeled as a probabilistic optimal power flow (P-OPF problem, which is operated through fixed power factor control to supply reactive power. The proposed P-OPF framework also considers emission information, which clearly reflects the impact of the energy source on the environment. The P-OPF was tested on a modified IEEE 118-bus system with two wind farms. The results show that the proposed technique provides better system operation performance evaluation, which is helpful in making decisions about power system optimal dispatch under conditions of uncertainty.

  5. Assessing the effects of adaptation measures on optimal water resources allocation under varied water availability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dedi; Guo, Shenglian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Pan; Xiong, Lihua; Wang, Le; Hong, Xingjun; Xu, Yao; Wang, Zhaoli

    2018-01-01

    Human activities and climate change have altered the spatial and temporal distribution of water availability which is a principal prerequisite for allocation of different water resources. In order to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on water availability and optimal allocation of water resources, hydrological models and optimal water resource allocation models should be integrated. Given that increasing human water demand and varying water availability conditions necessitate adaptation measures, we propose a framework to assess the effects of these measures on optimal allocation of water resources. The proposed model and framework were applied to a case study of the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin in China. Two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP4.5) were employed to project future climate, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was used to simulate the variability of flows under historical (1956-2011) and future (2012-2099) conditions. The water availability determined by simulating flow with the VIC hydrological model was used to establish the optimal water resources allocation model. The allocation results were derived under an extremely dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 95%), a very dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 90%), a dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 75%), and a normal year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 50%) during historical and future periods. The results show that the total available water resources in the study area and the inflow of the Danjiangkou Reservoir will increase in the future. However, the uneven distribution of water availability will cause water shortage problems, especially in the boundary areas. The effects of adaptation measures, including water saving, and dynamic control of flood limiting water levels (FLWLs) for reservoir operation, were

  6. Statistical optimization of effective parameters on saturation magnetization of nanomagnetite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramimoghadam, Donya [Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), IPS Building, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Bagheri, Samira, E-mail: samira_bagheri@edu.um.my [Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), IPS Building, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yousefi, Amin Termeh [ChECA IKohza, Department of Environmental & Green Technology (EGT), Malaysia Japan International Institute of Technology (MJIIT), University Technology Malaysia - UTM, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee [Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), IPS Building, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-11-01

    In this study, nanomagnetite particles have been successfully prepared via the coprecipitation method. The effect of the key explanatory variables on the saturation magnetization of synthetic nanomagnetite particles was investigated using the response surface methodology (RSM). The correlation of the involved parameters with the growth process was examined by employing the central composite design method through designating set up experiments that will determine the interaction of the variables. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) was used to confirm the statistical analysis. Furthermore, the regression analysis monitors the priority of the variables' influence on the saturation magnetization of nanomagnetite particles by developing the statistical model of the saturation magnetization. According to the investigated model, the highest interaction of variable belongs to the pH and temperature with the optimized condition of 9–11, and 75–85 °C, respectively. The response obtained by VSM suggests that the saturation magnetization of nanomagnetite particles can be controlled by restricting the effective parameters. - Highlights: • Nanomagnetite particles have been prepared via the coprecipitation method. • Effects of key variables on M{sub s} of synthetic nanomagnetite investigated by RSM. • The VSM was used to confirm the statistical analysis. • Optimized condition belongs to pH of 9–11, and temperature of 75–85 °C.

  7. A Building Energy Efficiency Optimization Method by Evaluating the Effective Thermal Zones Occupancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cotana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Building energy efficiency is strongly linked to the operations and control systems, together with the integrated performance of passive and active systems. In new high quality buildings in particular, where these two latter aspects have been already implemented at the design stage, users’ perspective, obtained through post-occupancy assessment, has to be considered to reduce whole energy requirement during service life. This research presents an innovative and low-cost methodology to reduce buildings’ energy requirements through post-occupancy assessment and optimization of energy operations using effective users’ attitudes and requirements as feedback. As a meaningful example, the proposed method is applied to a multipurpose building located in New York City, NY, USA, where real occupancy conditions are assessed. The effectiveness of the method is tested through dynamic simulations using a numerical model of the case study, calibrated through real monitoring data collected on the building. Results show that, for the chosen case study, the method provides optimized building energy operations which allow a reduction of primary energy requirements for HVAC, lighting, room-electricity, and auxiliary supply by about 21%. This paper shows that the proposed strategy represents an effective way to reduce buildings’ energy waste, in particular in those complex and high-efficiency buildings that are not performing as well as expected during the concept-design-commissioning stage, in particular due to the lack of feedback after the building handover.

  8. Iterative optimized effective potential and exact exchange calculations at finite temperature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Ann Elisabet; Modine, Normand Arthur; Muller, Richard Partain; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Lippert, Ross A. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Sears, Mark P.; Wright, Alan Francis

    2006-04-01

    We report the implementation of an iterative scheme for calculating the Optimized Effective Potential (OEP). Given an energy functional that depends explicitly on the Kohn-Sham wave functions, and therefore, implicitly on the local effective potential appearing in the Kohn-Sham equations, a gradient-based minimization is used to find the potential that minimizes the energy. Previous work has shown how to find the gradient of such an energy with respect to the effective potential in the zero-temperature limit. We discuss a density-matrix-based derivation of the gradient that generalizes the previous results to the finite temperature regime, and we describe important optimizations used in our implementation. We have applied our OEP approach to the Hartree-Fock energy expression to perform Exact Exchange (EXX) calculations. We report our EXX results for common semiconductors and ordered phases of hydrogen at zero and finite electronic temperatures. We also discuss issues involved in the implementation of forces within the OEP/EXX approach.

  9. Individual Optimal Frequency in Whole-Body Vibration: Effect of Protocol, Joint Angle, and Fatiguing Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, Flaminia; Felici, Francesco; Piccinini, Alberto; Haxhi, Jonida; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2016-12-01

    Carlucci, F, Felici, F, Piccinini, A, Haxhi, J, and Sacchetti, M. Individual optimal frequency in whole-body vibration: effect of protocol, joint angle, and fatiguing exercise. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3503-3511, 2016-Recent studies have shown the importance of individualizing the vibration intervention to produce greater effects on the neuromuscular system in less time. The purpose of this study was to assess the individual optimal vibration frequency (OVF) corresponding to the highest muscle activation (RMSmax) during vibration at different frequencies, comparing different protocols. Twenty-nine university students underwent 3 continuous (C) and 2 random (R) different vibrating protocols, maintaining a squat position on a vibration platform. The C protocol lasted 50 seconds and involved the succession of ascending frequencies from 20 to 55 Hz, every 5 seconds. The same protocol was performed twice, having the knee angle at 120° (C) and 90° (C90), to assess the effect of joint angle and after a fatiguing squatting exercise (CF) to evaluate the influence of fatigue on OVF assessment. In the random protocols, vibration time was 20 seconds with a 2-minute (R2) and a 4-minute (R4) pauses between tested frequencies. Muscle activation and OVF values did not differ significantly in the C, R2, and R4 protocols. RMSmax was higher in C90 (p fatiguing exercise had no effect on OVF. In conclusion, the shorter C protocol produced similar myoelectrical activity in the R2 and the R4 protocols, and therefore, it could be equally valid in identifying the OVF with considerable time efficiency. Knee joint angle and fatiguing exercise had an effect on surface electromyography response during vibration but did not affect OVF identification significantly.

  10. Optimal Cost-Effective Maintenance Policy for a Helicopter Gearbox Early Fault Detection under Varying Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing fault detection methods rarely consider the cost-optimal maintenance policy. A novel multivariate Bayesian control approach is proposed, which enables the implementation of early fault detection for a helicopter gearbox with cost minimization maintenance policy under varying load. A continuous time hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM is employed to describe the stochastic relationship between the unobservable states and observable observations of the gear system. Explicit expressions for the remaining useful life prediction are derived using HSMM. Considering the maintenance cost in fault detection, the multivariate Bayesian control scheme based on HSMM is developed; the objective is to minimize the long-run expected average cost per unit time. An effective computational algorithm in the semi-Markov decision process (SMDP framework is designed to obtain the optimal control limit. A comparison with the multivariate Bayesian control chart based on hidden Markov model (HMM and the traditional age-based replacement policy is given, which illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Parameter Optimization Analysis of Prolonged Analgesia Effect of tDCS on Neuropathic Pain Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Zhong Wen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is widely used to treat human nerve disorders and neuropathic pain by modulating the excitability of cortex. The effectiveness of tDCS is influenced by its stimulation parameters, but there have been no systematic studies to help guide the selection of different parameters.Objective: This study aims to assess the effects of tDCS of primary motor cortex (M1 on chronic neuropathic pain in rats and to test for the optimal parameter combinations for analgesia.Methods: Using the chronic neuropathic pain models of chronic constriction injury (CCI, we measured pain thresholds before and after anodal-tDCS (A-tDCS using different parameter conditions, including stimulation intensity, stimulation time, intervention time and electrode located (ipsilateral or contralateral M1 of the ligated paw on male/female CCI models.Results: Following the application of A-tDCS over M1, we observed that the antinociceptive effects were depended on different parameters. First, we found that repetitive A-tDCS had a longer analgesic effect than single stimulus, and both ipsilateral-tDCS (ip-tDCS and contralateral-tDCS (con-tDCS produce a long-lasting analgesic effect on neuropathic pain. Second, the antinociceptive effects were intensity-dependent and time-dependent, high intensities worked better than low intensities and long stimulus durations worked better than short stimulus durations. Third, timing of the intervention after injury affected the stimulation outcome, early use of tDCS was an effective method to prevent the development of pain, and more frequent intervention induced more analgesia in CCI rats, finally, similar antinociceptive effects of con- and ip-tDCS were observed in both sexes of CCI rats.Conclusion: Optimized protocols of tDCS for treating antinociceptive effects were developed. These findings should be taken into consideration when using tDCS to produce analgesic effects in clinical

  12. A new lattice model accounting for multiple optimal current differences' anticipation effect in two-lane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqin; Fang, Kangling; Peng, Guanghan

    2017-11-01

    This paper extends a two-lane lattice hydrodynamic traffic flow model to take into account the driver's anticipation effect in sensing the multiple optimal current differences. Based on the proposed model, we derive analytically the effect of driver's anticipation of multiple optimal current differences on the instability of traffic dynamics. The phase diagrams have been plotted and discussed that the stability region enhances with anticipation effect in sensing multiple optimal current differences. Through simulation, it is found that the oscillation of density wave around critical density decreases with an increase in lattice number and anticipation time for transient and steady state. The simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis, which show that considering the driver's anticipation of multiple optimal current differences in two-lane lattice model stabilizes the traffic flow and suppresses the traffic jam efficiently.

  13. Statistical optimization of effective parameters on saturation magnetization of nanomagnetite particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramimoghadam, Donya; Bagheri, Samira; Yousefi, Amin Termeh; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee

    2015-11-01

    In this study, nanomagnetite particles have been successfully prepared via the coprecipitation method. The effect of the key explanatory variables on the saturation magnetization of synthetic nanomagnetite particles was investigated using the response surface methodology (RSM). The correlation of the involved parameters with the growth process was examined by employing the central composite design method through designating set up experiments that will determine the interaction of the variables. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) was used to confirm the statistical analysis. Furthermore, the regression analysis monitors the priority of the variables' influence on the saturation magnetization of nanomagnetite particles by developing the statistical model of the saturation magnetization. According to the investigated model, the highest interaction of variable belongs to the pH and temperature with the optimized condition of 9-11, and 75-85 °C, respectively. The response obtained by VSM suggests that the saturation magnetization of nanomagnetite particles can be controlled by restricting the effective parameters.

  14. Economic analysis of Royalactin production under uncertainty: Evaluating the effect of parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Acosta, Mario A; Aguilar-Yañez, Jose M; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J

    2015-01-01

    Royalactin is a protein with several different potential uses in humans. Research, in insects and in mammalian cells, has shown that it can accelerate cell division and prevent apoptosis. The method of action is through the use of the epidermal growth factor receptor, which is present in humans. Potential use in humans could be to lower cholesterolemic levels in blood, and to elicit similar effects to those seen in bees, e.g., increased lifespan. Mass production of Royalactin has not been accomplished, though a recent article presented a Pichia pastoris fermentation and recovery by aqueous two-phase systems at laboratory scale as a possible basis for production. Economic modelling is a useful tool with which compare possible outcomes for the production of such a molecule and in particular, to locate areas where additional research is needed and optimization may be required. This study uses the BioSolve software to perform an economic analysis on the scale-up of the putative process for Royalactin. The key parameters affecting the cost of production were located via a sensitivity analysis and then evaluated by Monte Carlo analysis. Results show that if titer is not optimized the strategy to maintain a low cost of goods is process oriented. After optimization of this parameter the strategy changes to a product-oriented and the target output becomes the critical parameter determining the cost of goods. This study serves to provide a framework for the evaluation of strategies for future production of Royalactin, by analyzing the factors that influence its cost of manufacture. © 2015 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Optimized formulation of multivesicular liposomes loaded with oleanolic acid enhanced anticancer effect in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yunlong Wang,1,* Yuling Luo,1,* Chunhong Li,1 Xiaoqin Zhang,1 Chao Pi,1 Lu Yu,2 Shurong Wang,1 Zhirong Zhong1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, 2Department of Chemistry, The Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Invasion and metastasis are the main causes leading to the death of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Multivesicular liposomes loaded with oleanolic acid (OA-MVLs have been well demonstrated to suppress survival, growth and angiogenesis of HCC cells. Emerging evidence demonstrates that OA was able to suppress the invasion of HCC cells by down-regulating myocyte enhancer factor-2. We hypothesized that the optimized OA-MVLs could inhibit the migration and invasion of HCC cells. In this study, we utilized central composite design and response surface methodology to assess the influence of some parameters on particle size and encapsulation efficiency and obtain the optimized formulation of OA-MVLs. Subsequently, the human HCC cell lines SMMC-7721 and HepG2 were treated with different doses of OA-MVLs and OA, respectively. Cellular survival, adhesion, migration and invasion in vitro were evaluated. We found that the optimized OA-MVLs significantly decreased the ability of HCC cells to adhere, migrate and invade in vitro. Furthermore, OA-MVLs significantly inhibited the survival of HCC cells at 160 µmol/L but showed no obvious inhibition effect on the cell vitality of normal liver cells. Our findings indicate that OA-MVLs did inhibit the cell survival, adhesion, invasion and metastasis of HCC cells in vitro. Although the involved mechanisms are still unclear, our findings can contribute to a better development of a preventive and therapeutic strategy for human HCC. Keywords: oleanolic acid, multivesicular liposomes, central composite design, adhesion, invasion, migration

  16. Long-lasting effects of affective disorders and childhood trauma on dispositional optimism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhof, Rosalie; Rius-Ottenheim, Nathaly; Spinhoven, Philip; van der Mast, Roos C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.; Giltay, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dispositional optimism, a personality trait characterized by generalized positive expectations towards the future, is thought to remain rather stable over time. It is however largely unknown to what extent affective disorders and its risk factors affect dispositional optimism. Methods:

  17. Cost-effectiveness of optimal use of acute myocardial infarction treatments and impact on coronary heart disease mortality in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Moran, Andrew E; Liu, Jing; Coxson, Pamela G; Heidenreich, Paul A; Gu, Dongfeng; He, Jiang; Goldman, Lee; Zhao, Dong

    2014-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of the optimal use of hospital-based acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treatments and their potential impact on coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in China is not well known. The effectiveness and costs of optimal use of hospital-based AMI treatments were estimated by the CHD Policy Model-China, a Markov-style computer simulation model. Changes in simulated AMI, CHD mortality, quality-adjusted life years, and total healthcare costs were the outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was used to assess projected cost-effectiveness. Optimal use of 4 oral drugs (aspirin, β-blockers, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) in all eligible patients with AMI or unfractionated heparin in non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction was a highly cost-effective strategy (incremental cost-effectiveness ratios approximately US $3100 or less). Optimal use of reperfusion therapies in eligible patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction was moderately cost effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ≤$10,700). Optimal use of clopidogrel for all eligible patients with AMI or primary percutaneous coronary intervention among high-risk patients with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction in tertiary hospitals alone was less cost effective. Use of all the selected hospital-based AMI treatment strategies together would be cost-effective and reduce the total CHD mortality rate in China by ≈9.6%. Optimal use of most standard hospital-based AMI treatment strategies, especially combined strategies, would be cost effective in China. However, because so many AMI deaths occur outside of the hospital in China, the overall impact on preventing CHD deaths was projected to be modest.

  18. Evaluation of Effective Factors on Travel Time in Optimization of Bus Stops Placement Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargegol, Iraj; Ghorbanzadeh, Mahyar; Ghasedi, Meisam; Rastbod, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    In congested cities, locating and proper designing of bus stops according to the unequal distribution of passengers is crucial issue economically and functionally, since this subject plays an important role in the use of bus system by passengers. Location of bus stops is a complicated subject; by reducing distances between stops, walking time decreases, but the total travel time may increase. In this paper, a specified corridor in the city of Rasht in north of Iran is studied. Firstly, a new formula is presented to calculate the travel time, by which the number of stops and consequently, the travel time can be optimized. An intended corridor with specified number of stops and distances between them is addressed, the related formulas to travel time are created, and its travel time is calculated. Then the corridor is modelled using a meta-heuristic method in order that the placement and the optimal distances of bus stops for that are determined. It was found that alighting and boarding time along with bus capacity are the most effective factors affecting travel time. Consequently, it is better to have more concentration on indicated factors for improving the efficiency of bus system.

  19. Effect of calibration data length on performance and optimal parameters of hydrological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Zhe LI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of calibration data length on the performance and optimal parameter values of hydrological model in ungauged or data limited catchments (actually, data are non-continuous and fragmental in some catchments, we choose to use non-continuous calibration periods to have more independent streamflow data for SIMHYD model calibration. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE and percentage water balance error (WBE are used as performance measures. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO method is used to calibrate the rainfall-runoff models. Different length of data range from 1 year to 10 years randomly sampled used for study on impact of calibration data length. 55 relatively unimpaired catchments all over Australia with daily precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET, and streamflow data are tested to obtain more general conclusions. The results show that, longer calibration data does not necessarily result in better model performance. In general, 8 years data are sufficient to obtain steady estimates of model performance and parameters for SIMHYD model. It is also show that most humid catchments require fewer calibration data to get good performance and stable parameter values. The model performs better in humid and semi-humid catchments than arid catchments. Our results may have useful and interesting implications in the efficiency of limited observation data used for hydrological model calibration in different climatic catchments.

  20. A simulation-optimization model for Stone column-supported embankment stability considering rainfall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, Kousik, E-mail: kousik@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Dhar, Anirban, E-mail: anirban@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Purohit, Sandip, E-mail: sandip.purohit91@gmail.com [Former B.Tech Student, Department of Civil Engineering, NIT Rourkela, Rourkela (India)

    2016-02-01

    Landslide due to rainfall has been and continues to be one of the most important concerns of geotechnical engineering. The paper presents the variation of factor of safety of stone column-supported embankment constructed over soft soil due to change in water level for an incessant period of rainfall. A combined simulation-optimization based methodology has been proposed to predict the critical surface of failure of the embankment and to optimize the corresponding factor of safety under rainfall conditions using an evolutionary genetic algorithm NSGA-II (Non-Dominated Sorted Genetic Algorithm-II). It has been observed that the position of water table can be reliably estimated with varying periods of infiltration using developed numerical method. The parametric study is presented to study the optimum factor of safety of the embankment and its corresponding critical failure surface under the steady-state infiltration condition. Results show that in case of floating stone columns, period of infiltration has no effect on factor of safety. Even critical failure surfaces for a particular floating column length remain same irrespective of rainfall duration.

  1. Classification of toxicity effects of biotransformed hepatic drugs using whale optimized support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, Alaa; Moemen, Yasmine S; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2017-04-01

    Measuring toxicity is an important step in drug development. Nevertheless, the current experimental methods used to estimate the drug toxicity are expensive and time-consuming, indicating that they are not suitable for large-scale evaluation of drug toxicity in the early stage of drug development. Hence, there is a high demand to develop computational models that can predict the drug toxicity risks. In this study, we used a dataset that consists of 553 drugs that biotransformed in liver. The toxic effects were calculated for the current data, namely, mutagenic, tumorigenic, irritant and reproductive effect. Each drug is represented by 31 chemical descriptors (features). The proposed model consists of three phases. In the first phase, the most discriminative subset of features is selected using rough set-based methods to reduce the classification time while improving the classification performance. In the second phase, different sampling methods such as Random Under-Sampling, Random Over-Sampling and Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE), BorderLine SMOTE and Safe Level SMOTE are used to solve the problem of imbalanced dataset. In the third phase, the Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier is used to classify an unknown drug into toxic or non-toxic. SVM parameters such as the penalty parameter and kernel parameter have a great impact on the classification accuracy of the model. In this paper, Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) has been proposed to optimize the parameters of SVM, so that the classification error can be reduced. The experimental results proved that the proposed model achieved high sensitivity to all toxic effects. Overall, the high sensitivity of the WOA+SVM model indicates that it could be used for the prediction of drug toxicity in the early stage of drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Coefficient of Performance Optimization of Single-Effect Lithium-Bromide Absorption Cycle Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    value of the investigated permissible range, and that the COP optimization is likely to be a convex problem. Further, we exploit this observation to propose a simple offline set-point optimization algorithm, which can be used as an automated assistance for the plant operator to optimize steady...

  3. Topology optimization: An effective method for designing front metallization patterns of solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, D.K.; Langelaar, M.; Barink, M.; Keulen, F. van

    2014-01-01

    Optimal front electrode design is one of the approaches to improve the performance of solar cells. This work introduces the application of topology optimization (TO) to design complex front metallization patterns for solar cells. TO optimizes the distribution of electrode material on the front

  4. Effects of introducing heterologous pathways on microbial metabolism with respect to metabolic optimality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Kim, Byoungjin; Seung, Do Young

    2014-01-01

    Although optimality of microbial metabolism under genetic and environmental perturbations is well studied, the effects of introducing heterologous reactions on the overall metabolism are not well understood. This point is important in the field of metabolic engineering because heterologous...... reactions are more frequently introduced into various microbial hosts. The genome-scale metabolic simulations of Escherichia coli strains engineered to produce 1,4-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, and amorphadiene suggest that microbial metabolism shows much different responses to the introduced heterologous...... as engineering targets in systems metabolic engineering strategies. To our knowledge, this study is the first attempt to quantitatively characterize microbial metabolisms with different heterologous reactions. The suggested potential reasons behind each strain’s different metabolic responses to the introduced...

  5. Optimization for rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its effect on phytopathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaraj, C.; Ramachandran, R.; Mohan, K.; Kalaichelvan, P. T.

    In this present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by green chemistry approach using Acalypha indica leaf extract as reducing agents. The reaction medium employed in the synthesis process was optimized to attain better yield, controlled size and stability. Further, the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were conformed through UV-vis spectrum, XRD and HR-TEM analyses. Different concentration of silver nanoparticles were tested to know the inhibitory effect of fungal plant pathogens namely Alternaria alternata, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Curvularia lunata. Interestingly, 15 mg concentration of silver nanoparticles showed excellent inhibitory activity against all the tested pathogens. Thus, the obtained results clearly suggest that silver nanoparticles may have important applications in controlling various plant diseases caused by fungi.

  6. Hybrid RHF/MP2 geometry optimizations with the effective fragment molecular orbital method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Anders S; Steinmann, Casper; Fedorov, Dmitri G; Jensen, Jan H

    2014-01-01

    The frozen domain effective fragment molecular orbital method is extended to allow for the treatment of a single fragment at the MP2 level of theory. The approach is applied to the conversion of chorismate to prephenate by Chorismate Mutase, where the substrate is treated at the MP2 level of theory while the rest of the system is treated at the RHF level. MP2 geometry optimization is found to lower the barrier by up to 3.5 kcal/mol compared to RHF optimzations and ONIOM energy refinement and leads to a smoother convergence with respect to the basis set for the reaction profile. For double zeta basis sets the increase in CPU time relative to RHF is roughly a factor of two.

  7. Hybrid RHF/MP2 geometry optimizations with the effective fragment molecular orbital method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders S Christensen

    Full Text Available The frozen domain effective fragment molecular orbital method is extended to allow for the treatment of a single fragment at the MP2 level of theory. The approach is applied to the conversion of chorismate to prephenate by Chorismate Mutase, where the substrate is treated at the MP2 level of theory while the rest of the system is treated at the RHF level. MP2 geometry optimization is found to lower the barrier by up to 3.5 kcal/mol compared to RHF optimzations and ONIOM energy refinement and leads to a smoother convergence with respect to the basis set for the reaction profile. For double zeta basis sets the increase in CPU time relative to RHF is roughly a factor of two.

  8. Optimization of cylindrical textile organic field effect transistors using TCAD simulation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louris, E.; Stefanakis, D.; Priniotakis, G.; Van Langenhove, L.; Tassis, D.

    2017-10-01

    We used a commercial TCAD tool in order to simulate a cylindrical Textile Organic Field Effect Transistor (TOFET) and study the impact of different critical region sizes in its electrical characteristics. The simulation was based on models and parameters similar to those of previous simulations in Organic Thin Film Transistors. We have seen that it is potentially feasible to build transistors which can operate in low voltages by using typical materials. Even if some of the selected typical materials have to be replaced by others more suitable for practical use in the textile industry, the simulation is a good starting point for estimating the device typical operation and parameters. By optimizing critical region sizes of the device we conclude that the device should have an active layer thickness below 100 nm, channel length around 10μm and gate oxide thickness as small as possible (300 nm or less), in order to have optimum transistor performance.

  9. Lycopene in Beverage Emulsions: Optimizing Formulation Design and Processing Effects for Enhanced Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Meroni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene is a desired ingredient in food formulations, yet its beneficial effects on human health remain largely underexploited due to its poor chemical stability and bioavailability. Oil-in-water emulsions may offer multiple advantages for the incorporation and delivery of this carotenoid species. Engineering and processing aspects for the development of emulsion-based delivery systems are of paramount importance for maintaining the structural integrity of lycopene. The selection of emulsifiers, pH, temperature, oil phase, particle size, homogenization conditions and presence of other antioxidants are major determinants for enhancing lycopene stability and delivery from a food emulsion. Process and formulation optimization of the delivery system is product-specific and should be tailored accordingly. Further research is required to better understand the underlying mechanisms of lycopene absorption by the human digestive system.

  10. Structural brain network: What is the effect of LiFE optimization of whole brain tractography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouliang eQi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain networks constructed based on diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI have provided a systems perspective to explore the organization of the human brain. Some redundant and nonexistent fibers, however, are inevitably generated in whole brain tractography. We propose to add one critical step while constructing the networks to remove these fibers using the linear fascicle evaluation (LiFE method, and study the differences between the networks with and without LiFE optimization. For a cohort of 9 healthy adults and for 9 out of the 35 subjects from Human Connectome Project, the T1-weighted images and dMRI data are analyzed. Each brain is parcellated into 90 regions-of-interest, whilst a probabilistic tractography algorithm is applied to generate the original connectome. The elimination of redundant and nonexistent fibers from the original connectome by LiFE creates the optimized connectome, and the random selection of the same number of fibers as the optimized connectome creates the non-optimized connectome. The combination of parcellations and these connectomes leads to the optimized and non-optimized networks, respectively. The optimized networks are constructed with six weighting schemes, and the correlations of different weighting methods are analyzed. The fiber length distributions of the non-optimized and optimized connectomes are compared. The optimized and non-optimized networks are compared with regard to edges, nodes and networks, within a sparsity range of 0.75-0.95. It has been found that relatively more short fibers exist in the optimized connectome. About 24.0% edges of the optimized network are significantly different from those in the non-optimized network at a sparsity of 0.75. About 13.2% of edges are classified as false positives or the possible missing edges. The strength and betweenness centrality of some nodes are significantly different for the non-optimized and optimized networks, but not the node efficiency. The

  11. Effects of Self-esteem, Optimism, and Perceived Control on Depressive Symptoms in Stroke Survivor-Spouse Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Misook L; Bakas, Tamilyn; Plue, Laura D; Williams, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in stroke survivors and their family caregivers. Given the interdependent relationship between the members of dyads in poststroke management, improving depressive symptoms in dyads may depend on their partner's characteristics. Self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control, all known to be associated with depressive symptoms in an individual, may also contribute to their partner's depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study is to examine actor and partner effects of self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control on depression in stroke survivors and their spousal caregivers. A total of 112 ischemic stroke survivors (78% white, 34% women; mean age, 62.5 ± 12.3 years) and their spouses (mean age, 60.6 ± 12.9 years) completed surveys in which depressive symptoms, self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Revised Life Orientation Test, and the Sense of Control Scale. Multilevel modeling, actor-partner interdependence model regression was used to determine influences on depressive symptoms within the dyad. Individuals with lower self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control had higher levels of depressive symptoms. Stroke survivors whose spouses had lower levels of self-esteem (B = -0.338, P optimism (B = -0.361, P optimism on patient's depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that further research is needed to determine if dyadic interventions may help to improve self-esteem, optimism, and depressive symptoms in both patients and their caregivers.

  12. [Effect of gene optimization on the expression and purification of HDV small antigen produced by genetic engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun-Ying; Meng, Qing-Ling; Guo, Min-Zhuo; Yi, Yao; Su, Qiu-Dong; Lu, Xue-Xin; Qiu, Feng; Bi, Sheng-Li

    2012-10-01

    To study the effect of gene optimization on the expression and purification of HDV small antigen produced by genetic engineering. Based on the colon preference of E. coli, the HDV small antigen original gene from GenBank was optimized. Both the original gene and the optimized gene expressed in prokaryotic cells, SDS-PAGE was made to analyze the protein expression yield and to decide which protein expression style was more proportion than the other. Furthermore, two antigens were purified by chromatography in order to compare the purity by SDS-PAGE and Image Lab software. SDS-PAGE indicated that the molecular weight of target proteins from two groups were the same as we expected. Gene optimization resulted in the higher yield and it could make the product more soluble. After chromatography, the purity of target protein from optimized gene was up to 96.3%, obviously purer than that from original gene. Gene optimization could increase the protein expression yield and solubility of genetic engineering HDV small antigen. In addition, the product from the optimized gene group was easier to be purified for diagnosis usage.

  13. EFFECTS OF RELIGIOUS VERSUS STANDARD COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THERAPY ON OPTIMISM IN PERSONS WITH MAJOR DEPRESSION AND CHRONIC MEDICAL ILLNESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Harold G; Pearce, Michelle J; Nelson, Bruce; Daher, Noha

    2015-11-01

    We compared the effectiveness of religiously integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (RCBT) versus standard CBT (SCBT) on increasing optimism in persons with major depressive disorder (MDD) and chronic medical illness. Participants aged 18-85 were randomized to either RCBT (n = 65) or SCBT (n = 67) to receive ten 50-min sessions remotely (94% by telephone) over 12 weeks. Optimism was assessed at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks by the Life Orientation Test-Revised. Religiosity was assessed at baseline using a 29-item scale composed of religious importance, individual religious practices, intrinsic religiosity, and daily spiritual experiences. Mixed effects growth curve models were used to compare the effects of treatment group on trajectory of change in optimism. In the intention-to-treat analysis, both RCBT and SCBT increased optimism over time, although there was no significant difference between treatment groups (B = -0.75, SE = 0.57, t = -1.33, P = .185). Analyses in the highly religious and in the per protocol analysis indicated similar results. Higher baseline religiosity predicted an increase in optimism over time (B = 0.07, SE = 0.02, t = 4.12, P decline in depressive symptoms over time (B = -0.61, SE = 0.10, t = -6.30, P < .0001), both independent of treatment group. RCBT and SCBT are equally effective in increasing optimism in persons with MDD and chronic medical illness. While baseline religiosity does not moderate this effect, religiosity predicts increases in optimism over time independent of treatment group. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. An effect of physical activity-based recreation programs on children's optimism, humor styles, and school life adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Jae-Eun; Lee, Gwang-Uk

    2015-06-01

    This study puts its purpose in identifying the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the optimism of children, humor styles, and school life adjustment. To achieve the study purpose, this study selected 190 subjects as samples were extracted targeting senior students of elementary schools who participated in the physical activity-based recreation in the metropolitan areas as of 2014. As research methods, questionnaire papers were used and reliability analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted by utilizing SPSS 18.0 after inputting analysis data into the computer. The study results, obtained in this study are as follows: First, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on optimism, participation frequency and participation intensity would have an effect on optimism, while participation period would have a significant effect on being positive among the sub-factors of optimism. Second, participation in physical activity-based recreation programs might have a significant effect on humor styles. Third, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the school life adjustment, it was demonstrated that participation period and participation intensity would have a significant effect on school life adjustment, while participation frequency would have a significant effect on regulation-observance and school life satisfaction.

  15. User input in iterative design for prevention product development: leveraging interdisciplinary methods to optimize effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Kate M; Rosen, Rochelle K; Vargas, Sara E; Guillen, Melissa; Steger, Arielle L; Getz, Melissa L; Smith, Kelley A; Ramirez, Jaime J; Kojic, Erna M

    2017-10-01

    The development of HIV-preventive topical vaginal microbicides has been challenged by a lack of sufficient adherence in later stage clinical trials to confidently evaluate effectiveness. This dilemma has highlighted the need to integrate translational research earlier in the drug development process, essentially applying behavioral science to facilitate the advances of basic science with respect to the uptake and use of biomedical prevention technologies. In the last several years, there has been an increasing recognition that the user experience, specifically the sensory experience, as well as the role of meaning-making elicited by those sensations, may play a more substantive role than previously thought. Importantly, the role of the user-their sensory perceptions, their judgements of those experiences, and their willingness to use a product-is critical in product uptake and consistent use post-marketing, ultimately realizing gains in global public health. Specifically, a successful prevention product requires an efficacious drug, an efficient drug delivery system, and an effective user. We present an integrated iterative drug development and user experience evaluation method to illustrate how user-centered formulation design can be iterated from the early stages of preclinical development to leverage the user experience. Integrating the user and their product experiences into the formulation design process may help optimize both the efficiency of drug delivery and the effectiveness of the user.

  16. Finite element modeling of acousto-optic effect and optimization of the figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Robert; Bhalla, Amar S.; Guo, Ruyan

    2012-10-01

    A study of the acousto-optic (AO) effect in a family of oxide crystals (including e.g., TiO2, ZnO, LiNbO3, and ferroelectric perovskites) as well as semiconductors has been conducted by finite element analysis method. In addition, the acousto-optic figure of merit (FOM) as a function of material's refractive index, density, effective AO coefficient and the velocity of the acoustic wave in the material, is also investigated. By examining the directional dependent velocity, acousto-optic coefficients, and refractive index, the acousto-optic FOM can be calculated and plotted in all directions revealing the optimal crystal orientation to maximize coupling between the optical and acoustic waves. A finite element model was developed to corroborate the predicted interaction. The model examines the diffraction that occurs by the optical wave as it travels through an acousto-optic medium. The combined information gained from Mathematica and COMSOL Multiphysics-based modeling is shown to be an effective means of predicating acousto-optic device functionality.

  17. Effects of rumination and optimism on the relationship between psychological distress and non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Alicia K; Hasking, Penelope; Martin, Graham

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, increasing concern regarding non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents has prompted investigation of factors that may prevent this behavior. This study examined the relationship between psychological distress and NSSI in a community sample of adolescents, and the moderating effect of both optimism and rumination on this association. Two thousand five hundred seventy-two participants (12-18 years) completed self-report questionnaires assessing psychological distress, cognitive, and emotional characteristics, and NSSI history. Ten percent of the sample reported a history of NSSI, and as hypothesized, optimism moderated the relationship between psychological distress and NSSI; the association was only evident when optimism was low. Rumination was not found to moderate the relationship between psychological distress and NSSI. These findings highlight the utility of considering optimism in NSSI prevention and early intervention programs.

  18. Optimal allocation and effectiveness of the heat exchangers for a power plant with two like-Carnot cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-González, G.; León-Galicia, A.

    2017-01-01

    A stationary power plant with two Carnot-like cycles is optimized. Each cycle has the following irreversibilities: finite rate heat transfer between the working fluid and the external heat sources, internal dissipation of the working fluid, and heat leak between reservoirs; is extended to two or more of this combined model. Using the Bellman’ Principle, we find the optimal recurrence relations for the allocation of the heat exchangers for this power plant. The optimal allocation or effectiveness of the heat exganchers of power plant is determined by two design rules: internal thermal conductance fixed; or areas fixed. The optimal obtained are invariant to the power and efficiency and to the heat transfer law.

  19. The effects of optimism and gratitude on adherence, functioning and mental health following an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Rachel A; Celano, Christopher M; Beale, Eleanor E; Beach, Scott R; Suarez, Laura; Belcher, Arianna M; Januzzi, James L; Huffman, Jeff C

    This study examined the effects of optimism and gratitude on self-reported health behavior adherence, physical functioning and emotional well-being after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Among 156 patients, we examined associations between optimism and gratitude measured 2 weeks post-ACS and 6-month outcomes: adherence to medical recommendations, mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physical functioning, depressive symptoms and anxiety. Multivariable linear regression models were used, controlling for increasing levels of adjustment. Optimism [β=.11, standard error (S.E.)=.05, P=.038] and gratitude (β=.10, S.E.=.05, P=.027) at 2 weeks were associated with subsequent self-reported adherence to medical recommendations (diet, exercise, medication adherence, stress reduction) at 6 months in fully adjusted models. Two-week optimism and gratitude were associated with improvements in mental HRQoL (optimism: β=.44, S.E.=.13, P=.001; gratitude: β=.33, S.E.=.12, P=.005) and reductions in symptoms of depression (optimism: β=-.11, S.E.=.05, P=.039; gratitude: β=-.10, S.E.=.05, P=.028) and anxiety (optimism: β=-.15, S.E.=.05, P=.004; gratitude: β=-.10, S.E.=.05, P=.034) at 6 months. Optimism and gratitude at 2 weeks post-ACS were associated with higher self-reported adherence and improved emotional well-being 6 months later, independent of negative emotional states. Optimism and gratitude may help recovery from an ACS. Interventions promoting these positive constructs could help improve adherence and well-being. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantification the Effect of Ageing on Characteristics of the Photoplethysmogram Using an Optimized Windkessel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doostdar H.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: With increasing age, some changes appeared in specifications of vessels which including dimensions and elasticity in theirs. The changes in parameters such as resistance, inertance and compliance vessels appear and eventually changes in the environmental pulse releases are in circulation. These changes clearly appear in specification of photoplethysmogram particularly in the size and position signals second peak is observed. Aim and scope: The aim of study was to Circulatory system modeling using windkessel electrical model for evalution blood flow and Its matching with the photoplethysmogram’s signal for investigate the reasons for changes of Characteristics of the Photoplethysmogram. The first purpose of this paper is to examine the age-related parameters in the Photoplethysmogram’s signal and finally the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease using the model and photoplethysmogram’s signal. Methods: In this study we followed some of these effects to the circulatory system by using the windkessel electrical model. The algorithm in this project appeared by optimization with the matrix coefficients of state space windkessel electrical model. Optimize of the coefficients matching with the output of the model and the photoplethysmogram’s signal. Photoplethysmogram’s signals from 50 healthy subjects with the age range of 20 to 50 years, shows that outputs the model and photoplethysmogram’s signal in terms of error rate and cross-correlation algorithm in a fully automate, was consistent. Wavelength of the Photoplethysmogram’s signals were 950 nm and The sampling rate was set at 50 Hz. Results: Simulation results show that aging reduces the signal amplitude and delay of the second peak occurs. These changes were seen as reduce the rate of compliance and increase the rate of resistance and inertance windkessel electrical model of circulation. Conclusion: The high accuracy of the results led to being able to identify the age

  1. Effects of ESP forecast bias-correction on deterministic optimization method biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, R.; Côté, P.; Latraverse, M.

    2016-12-01

    Rio Tinto is a multinational metal and natural resources producer with energy-intensive aluminium smelters in Quebec, Canada. Rio Tinto also owns and operates power houses on the Péribonka and Saguenay Rivers in Quebec. The system, which is run by Rio Tinto's Quebec Power Operations Division, consists of 6 generating stations and 3 major reservoirs. One of the significant issues that had to be resolved for effective operation of this system was to determine the volume of weekly water releases for all generating stations. Several challenges had to be dealt with before a suitable solution could be found. In the past two years, we developed a rolling horizon test bed that mimics the day to day system operation. With this test bed, we compared four different algorithms (three stochastic and one deterministic) and found that using an anticipative deterministic approach to calculate the release decisions for the first period is an inadequate strategy. The results also showed that methods based on scenarios prove superior to methods based on probability distributions. The test bed was also used to assess the quality of the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) forecast. It was found that under-dispersion in ESPs impacted the quality of the results and that the optimization methods did not all react in the same way. We show that the bias introduced by the use of a deterministic optimization method can hinder the efforts placed in bias-correcting ESP forecasts. We also show that biasing the ESP members (or alternatively by selecting a decision scenario other than the median one) it was possible to negate the deterministic bias and consistently improve the overall power generation.

  2. Matrix effect and optimization of LC-MSn determination of trachylobane-360 in mice blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, João Carlos Lima Rodrigues; Gomes, Isis Fernandes; Dos Santos, Socrates Golzio; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo; Sobral, Marianna Vieira

    2014-11-01

    Xylopia langsdorffiana A. St.-Hil. & Tul. (Annonaceae) is popularly known as "pimenteira-da-terra". Various constituents have been isolated from this species, including diterpenes, such as 8(17), 12E, 14-labdatrien-18-oic acid, ent-atisan-7α, 16α-diol (xylodiol), ent-7α-hydroxytrachyloban-18-oic acid (trachylobane-318) and ent-7α-acetoxytrachyloban-18-oic acid, a crystalline solid with a molecular weight of 360 and molecular formula of C22H32O4 (trachylobane-360). When administered intraperitoneally to mice, trachylobane-360 (T-360) significantly inhibits growth of the solid tumor sarcoma 180 transplanted in mice, without causing alterations in biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters that are frequently associated with the clinical use of antineoplastic. Furthermore, this diterpene blocks voltage-dependent calcium channels (Cav), showing spasmolytic activity. The present study shows that variables such as extraction solvent (methanol, acetonitrile and chloroform), centrifugation force (1000, 7000 and 14,000×g), and centrifugation time (5, 15 and 25min), are important in the liquid-liquid extraction of T-360 from male Swiss mice blood in HPLC-MSn studies. The study confirms matrix influence on recovery and detection of T-360. The recovery for T-360 was 37.02% using chloroform as better extractor solvent, while centrifuged at 14,000×g for 15min demonstrated the importance of the parameters chosen for the extraction/recovery process of analyte. The effect of mice blood matrix for T-360 was -51.23%. This method was optimized by repeating the extraction procedure and acidification of samples. These conditions were essential in increasing recovery (49.47%) by decreasing the matrix effect (-37.60%). The efficiency of the process, after optimization with two extractions and acidification, increased by 14.19% when compared to the initial method, from 18.05% to 32.24%. According to Marchi et al. (2010), the matrix effect does not necessarily need to

  3. Optimizing effectivity of tranexamic acid in bilateral knee arthroplasty - A prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniar, Rajesh N; Singhi, Tushar; Patil, Aniket; Kumar, Gaurav; Maniar, Parul; Singh, Jaivardhan

    2017-01-01

    Tranexamic acid (TEA) is used in reducing surgical blood loss. Literature shows no optimal regimen recommended for Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA). We evaluated three TEA regimens differing in dosage, timing and mode of administration in bilateral TKA to identify the most effective regimen to reduce blood loss. We prospectively studied three TEA regimens (25 patients each) as follows: (1) two intraoperative, intravenous doses (IOIO), (2) two intraoperative local applications (LALA), and (3) one preoperative plus two intraoperative, intravenous doses (POIOIO). Two independent parameters of drain loss and total blood loss, calculated by the hemoglobin balance method were statistically evaluated. Mean drain loss was least (412.9ml) in the POIOIO group, greatest (607.2ml) in the IOIO group and LALA group in between (579.4ml), with a statistically significant difference among them (p=0.0022). On paired evaluation, the drain loss in the POIOIO group was significantly less as compared to the other two groups, whereas the difference between IOIO and LALA was not significant. Mean total blood loss was least in the POIOIO group (1207ml) and greatest in LALA group (1270ml). The difference among the groups was not statistically significant (p=0.80). There was no incidence of any thromboembolic phenomenon. On correlation with our study on Most Effective Regimen in Unilateral TKA, both results were found to substantiate each other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization of Phenolic Compounds Extraction from Flax Shives and Their Effect on Human Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Czemplik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the most effective technique for extraction of phenolics present in flax shives and to assess their effect on human fibroblasts. Flax shives are by-products of fibre separation, but they were found to be a rich source of phenolic compounds and thus might have application potential. It was found that the optimal procedure for extraction of phenolics was hydrolysis enhanced by the ultrasound with NaOH for 24 h at 65°C and subsequent extraction with ethyl acetate. The influence of the flax shives extract on fibroblast growth and viability was assessed using the MTT and SRB tests. Moreover, the influence of flax shives extract on the extracellular matrix remodelling process was verified. The 20% increase of the viability was observed upon flax shives extract treatment and the decrease of mRNA collagen genes, an increase of matrix metalloproteinase gene expression, and reduction in levels of interleukin 6, interleukin 10, and suppressor of cytokinin signaling 1 mRNA were observed. Alterations in MCP-1 mRNA levels were dependent on flax shives extract concentration. Thus, we suggested the possible application of flax shives extract in the wound healing process.

  5. An optimized transit peptide for effective targeting of diverse foreign proteins into chloroplasts in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo-Ran; Zhu, Cheng-Hua; Yao, Zhen; Cui, Li-Li; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yang, Cheng-Wei; He, Zheng-Hui; Peng, Xin-Xiang

    2017-04-11

    Various chloroplast transit peptides (CTP) have been used to successfully target some foreign proteins into chloroplasts, but for other proteins these same CTPs have reduced localization efficiencies or fail completely. The underlying cause of the failures remains an open question, and more effective CTPs are needed. In this study, we initially observed that two E.coli enzymes, EcTSR and EcGCL, failed to be targeted into rice chloroplasts by the commonly-used rice rbcS transit peptide (rCTP) and were subsequently degraded. Further analyses revealed that the N-terminal unfolded region of cargo proteins is critical for their localization capability, and that a length of about 20 amino acids is required to attain the maximum localization efficiency. We considered that the unfolded region may alleviate the steric hindrance produced by the cargo protein, by functioning as a spacer to which cytosolic translocators can bind. Based on this inference, an optimized CTP, named RC2, was constructed. Analyses showed that RC2 can more effectively target diverse proteins, including EcTSR and EcGCL, into rice chloroplasts. Collectively, our results provide further insight into the mechanism of CTP-mediated chloroplastic localization, and more importantly, RC2 can be widely applied in future chloroplastic metabolic engineering, particularly for crop plants.

  6. Optimization and Optimal Control

    CERN Document Server

    Chinchuluun, Altannar; Enkhbat, Rentsen; Tseveendorj, Ider

    2010-01-01

    During the last four decades there has been a remarkable development in optimization and optimal control. Due to its wide variety of applications, many scientists and researchers have paid attention to fields of optimization and optimal control. A huge number of new theoretical, algorithmic, and computational results have been observed in the last few years. This book gives the latest advances, and due to the rapid development of these fields, there are no other recent publications on the same topics. Key features: Provides a collection of selected contributions giving a state-of-the-art accou

  7. Effects of Parental Stress, Optimism, and Health-Promoting Behaviors on the Quality of Life of Primiparous and Multiparous Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Jennifer; Harms, Craig; Harman, Bronwyn

    Parental stress, optimism, and health-promoting behaviors (HPBs) are important predictors of the quality of life (QoL) of mothers. However, it is unclear how strongly these predictors affect the QoL of mothers. It is also unclear if the impact of these predictors on QoL differs between primiparous and multiparous mothers. In this study, we defined primiparous as "bearing young for the first time" and multiparous as "having experienced one or more previous childbirths." The first objective of this study was to examine the relative effect of parental stress, optimism, and HPBs on the QoL of mothers. The second objective was to investigate if the effect of these predictors differed between primiparous and multiparous mothers. One hundred ninety-four Australian mothers (n = 87, 44.8% primiparous mothers) participated in an online survey that included the Parental Stress Scale, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, the Revised Life Orientation Test, and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. All predictors (parental stress, optimism, and HPBs) significantly affected the QoL of mothers; higher levels of optimism, greater use of HPBs, and lower parental stress were associated with higher levels of QoL for all mothers. Parity did not affect the relationships. This study sheds light on the nature and unique effect of parental stress, optimism, and HPBs on the QoL of mothers.

  8. Long-lasting effects of affective disorders and childhood trauma on dispositional optimism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhof, R.; Rius-Ottenheim, N.; Spinhoven, P.; van der Mast, R.C.; Penninx, B.W.; Zitman, F. G.; Giltay, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dispositional optimism, a personality trait characterized by generalized positive expectations towards the future, is thought to remain rather stable over time. It is however largely unknown to what extent affective disorders and its risk factors affect dispositional optimism. Methods We

  9. Long-lasting effects of affective disorders and childhood trauma on dispositional optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhof, Rosalie; Rius-Ottenheim, Nathaly; Spinhoven, Philip; van der Mast, Roos C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Zitman, Frans G; Giltay, Erik J

    2015-04-01

    Dispositional optimism, a personality trait characterized by generalized positive expectations towards the future, is thought to remain rather stable over time. It is however largely unknown to what extent affective disorders and its risk factors affect dispositional optimism. We examined the association between (lifetime) affective disorders and childhood trauma with dispositional optimism in a sample of 2104 subjects (aged 18-65 years) from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Dispositional optimism was measured with the Life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R). Diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders were based on the Composite Interview diagnostic Instrument (CIDI).Childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Interview (CTI) and life-events with the List of Threatening Events Questionnaire (LTQ). The 2104 participants were on average 46.0 (SD 13.1) years old and 65.8% were female. Multivariate analyses showed that dispositional optimism was inversely associated with current affective disorders (depression: B=-1.089 and anxiety: B=-1.066, both poptimism, whilst positive life-events were associated with higher levels of optimism (B=0.235, p>0.001). The cross-sectional design hampers inferences about causality. Lower levels of dispositional optimism are associated with stage of affective disorders, even after remission, and a history of childhood emotional maltreatment. Identification of the risk factors contributes to understand fluctuations in dispositional optimism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Market Price Uncertainties on the Design of Optimal Biorefinery Systems—A Systematic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheali, Peam; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a computer-aided decision support tool for identifying optimal biorefinery concepts for production of biofuels at an early design stage. To this end, a framework that uses a superstructure-based process synthesis approach integrated with uncertainty analysis...... uncertainties on the optimal solutions and calculate the associated risk to enable informed and risk-aware decisions....

  11. Integral Dose-Based Inverse Optimization May Reduce Side Effects in Radiotherapy of Prostate Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Ivaylo B

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to apply a novel inverse optimization approach, based on utilization of quantitative imaging information in the optimization function, to prostate carcinoma. This new inverse optimization algorithm relies upon quantitative information derived from computed tomography (CT) imaging studies. The Hounsfield numbers of the CT voxels are converted to physical density, which in turn is used to calculate voxel mass and the corresponding integral dose, by summation over the product of dose and mass in each dose voxel. This integral dose is used for plan optimization through its global minimization. The optimization results are compared to the optimization results derived from most commonly used dose-volume-based inverse optimization, where objective functions are formed as summation over all dose voxels of the squared differences between voxel doses and user specified doses. The data from 25 prostate plans were optimized with dose-volume histogram (DVH) and integral dose (energy) minimization objective functions. The results obtained with the energy- and DVH-based optimization schemes were studied through commonly used dosimetric indices (DIs). Statistical equivalence tests were further performed to establish population-based significance results. Both DVH- and energy-based plans for each case were normalized so that 95% of the planning target volume receives the prescription dose. The average differences for the rectum and bladder DIs ranged from 1.6 to 25%, where the energy-based quantities were lower. For both femoral heads, the energy-based optimization-derived doses were lower on average by 32%. The statistical tests demonstrated that the significant differences in the tallied dose indices range from 2.7% to more than 50% for rectum, bladder, and femoral heads. For majority of the clinically relevant dosimetric quantities, energy-based inverse optimization performs better than the standard of care DVH-based optimization in prostate carcinoma

  12. Effect of Selection of Design Parameters on the Optimization of a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine via Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpman, Emre

    2014-06-01

    The effect of selecting the twist angle and chord length distributions on the wind turbine blade design was investigated by performing aerodynamic optimization of a two-bladed stall regulated horizontal axis wind turbine. Twist angle and chord length distributions were defined using Bezier curve using 3, 5, 7 and 9 control points uniformly distributed along the span. Optimizations performed using a micro-genetic algorithm with populations composed of 5, 10, 15, 20 individuals showed that, the number of control points clearly affected the outcome of the process; however the effects were different for different population sizes. The results also showed the superiority of micro-genetic algorithm over a standard genetic algorithm, for the selected population sizes. Optimizations were also performed using a macroevolutionary algorithm and the resulting best blade design was compared with that yielded by micro-genetic algorithm.

  13. Domainwise Web Page Optimization Based On Clustered Query Sessions Using Hybrid Of Trust And ACO For Effective Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Suruchi Chawla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper hybrid of Ant Colony OptimizationACO and trust has been used for domainwise web page optimization in clustered query sessions for effective Information retrieval. The trust of the web page identifies its degree of relevance in satisfying specific information need of the user. The trusted web pages when optimized using pheromone updates in ACO will identify the trusted colonies of web pages which will be relevant to users information need in a given domain. Hence in this paper the hybrid of Trust and ACO has been used on clustered query sessions for identifying more and more relevant number of documents in a given domain in order to better satisfy the information need of the user. Experiment was conducted on the data set of web query sessions to test the effectiveness of the proposed approach in selected three domains Academics Entertainment and Sports and the results confirm the improvement in the precision of search results.

  14. Propofol Dose-Finding to Reach Optimal Effect for (Semi-)Elective Intubation in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Anne; Thewissen, Liesbeth; Caicedo, Alexander; Naulaers, Gunnar; Allegaert, Karel

    2016-12-01

    To define the effective dose for 50% of patients (ED50) of propofol for successful intubation and to determine the rate of successful extubation in those patients with planned intubation, surfactant administration, and immediate extubation (INSURE procedure). In addition, pharmacodynamic effects were assessed. Neonates (n = 50) treated with propofol for (semi-)elective endotracheal intubation were stratified in 8 strata by postmenstrual and postnatal age. The first patient in each stratum received an intravenous bolus of 1 mg/kg propofol. Dosing for the next patient was determined using the up-and-down method. A propofol ED50 dose was calculated in each stratum with an effective sample size of at least 6, via the Dixon-Masey method, with simultaneous assessment of clinical scores and continuous vital sign monitoring. Propofol ED50 values for preterm neonates <10 days of age varied between 0.713 and 1.350 mg/kg. Clinical recovery was not attained at the end of the 21-minute scoring period. Mean arterial blood pressure showed a median decrease between 28.5% and 39.1% from baseline with a brief decrease in peripheral and regional cerebral oxygen saturation. Variability in mean arterial blood pressure area under the curve could not be explained by weight or age. Low propofol doses were sufficient to sedate neonates for intubation. Clinical recovery was accompanied by permissive hypotension (no clinical shock and no treatment). The propofol ED50 doses can be administered at induction, with subsequent up-titration if needed, while monitoring blood pressure. They can be used for further dosing optimalization and validation studies. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01621373; EudraCT: 2012-002648-26. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Statistical efficiency and optimal design for stepped cluster studies under linear mixed effects models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girling, Alan J; Hemming, Karla

    2016-06-15

    In stepped cluster designs the intervention is introduced into some (or all) clusters at different times and persists until the end of the study. Instances include traditional parallel cluster designs and the more recent stepped-wedge designs. We consider the precision offered by such designs under mixed-effects models with fixed time and random subject and cluster effects (including interactions with time), and explore the optimal choice of uptake times. The results apply both to cross-sectional studies where new subjects are observed at each time-point, and longitudinal studies with repeat observations on the same subjects. The efficiency of the design is expressed in terms of a 'cluster-mean correlation' which carries information about the dependency-structure of the data, and two design coefficients which reflect the pattern of uptake-times. In cross-sectional studies the cluster-mean correlation combines information about the cluster-size and the intra-cluster correlation coefficient. A formula is given for the 'design effect' in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. An algorithm for optimising the choice of uptake times is described and specific results obtained for the best balanced stepped designs. In large studies we show that the best design is a hybrid mixture of parallel and stepped-wedge components, with the proportion of stepped wedge clusters equal to the cluster-mean correlation. The impact of prior uncertainty in the cluster-mean correlation is considered by simulation. Some specific hybrid designs are proposed for consideration when the cluster-mean correlation cannot be reliably estimated, using a minimax principle to ensure acceptable performance across the whole range of unknown values. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Combined Effect of Synthetic and Natural Polymers in Preparation of Cetirizine Hydrochloride Oral Disintegrating Tablets: Optimization by Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Patro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to employ experimental design to formulate and optimize cetirizine hydrochloride oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs by direct compression technique, using the mutual effect of synthetic croscarmellose sodium (CCS and natural Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage (HRM as disintegrants in the formulation. Central composite design (CCD was applied to optimize the influence of three levels each of CCS (X1 and HRM (X2 concentrations (independent variables for investigated responses: disintegration time (DT (Y1, % friability (F (Y2, and % cumulative drug release (DR (Y3 (dependent variables. This face-centered second-order model’s reliability was verified by the probability and adequate precision values from the analysis of variance, while the significant factor effects influencing the studied responses were identified using multiple linear regression analysis. Perturbation and response surface plots were interpreted to evaluate the responses’ sensitivity towards the variables. During optimization, the concentrations of the processed factors were evaluated, and the resulting values were in good agreement with predicted estimates endorsing the validity. Spectral study by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and thermograms from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC demonstrated the drug-excipients compatibility of the optimized formulation. The optimized formulation has concentrations of 9.05 mg and 16.04 mg of CCS and HRM each, respectively, and the model predicted DT of 13.271 sec, F of 0.498, and DR of 99.768%.

  17. Combined Effect of Synthetic and Natural Polymers in Preparation of Cetirizine Hydrochloride Oral Disintegrating Tablets: Optimization by Central Composite Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Chandra Sekhar; Sahu, Prafulla Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to employ experimental design to formulate and optimize cetirizine hydrochloride oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs) by direct compression technique, using the mutual effect of synthetic croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and natural Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage (HRM) as disintegrants in the formulation. Central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the influence of three levels each of CCS ( X 1 ) and HRM ( X 2 ) concentrations (independent variables) for investigated responses: disintegration time (DT) ( Y 1 ), % friability ( F ) ( Y 2 ), and % cumulative drug release (DR) ( Y 3 ) (dependent variables). This face-centered second-order model's reliability was verified by the probability and adequate precision values from the analysis of variance, while the significant factor effects influencing the studied responses were identified using multiple linear regression analysis. Perturbation and response surface plots were interpreted to evaluate the responses' sensitivity towards the variables. During optimization, the concentrations of the processed factors were evaluated, and the resulting values were in good agreement with predicted estimates endorsing the validity. Spectral study by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermograms from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated the drug-excipients compatibility of the optimized formulation. The optimized formulation has concentrations of 9.05 mg and 16.04 mg of CCS and HRM each, respectively, and the model predicted DT of 13.271 sec, F of 0.498, and DR of 99.768%.

  18. Effects of sex control and twinning on economic optimization of culling cows in Japanese Black cow-calf production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, K; Hirooka, H

    2012-01-15

    The effects of sex control and twinning techniques on determination of optimal culling parity of cows in beef cow-calf production systems were deterministically analyzed using a herd model simulation. The model simulated the annualized net revenue as an economic indicator during the whole life cycle of a cow. Biological factors (survivability, growth, reproduction, and feed requirements) and economic factors (returns from sales of live calves and cows' carcasses and production costs) were included in the model. Some biological and economic parameters relating to these factors were altered from a base condition in order to adapt the production systems with sex control and twinning techniques. Based on the model, early culling was optimal for all production systems when biological efficiency was used as an indicator of production; however, later culling was optimal for single production, but slightly earlier culling was optimal for twin production, when annualized net revenue was evaluated. The introduction of sex control did not greatly affect the determination of the optimal culling parity of cows. When production included the sex control, female sexing increased biological efficiency, whereas male sexing increased annualized net revenue. In the present beef cow-calf production circumstances in Japan, introduction of sex control did not have economically appreciable effects, but twinning was economically beneficial. For production involving sex control, improvement in the conception rate per mating and/or reduction of technical cost were required for this technology to be profitable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Refrigerant Performance Evaluation Including Effects of Transport Properties and Optimized Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignoli, Riccardo; Brown, J Steven; Skye, H; Domanski, Piotr A

    2017-08-01

    Preliminary refrigerant screenings typically rely on using cycle simulation models involving thermodynamic properties alone. This approach has two shortcomings. First, it neglects transport properties, whose influence on system performance is particularly strong through their impact on the performance of the heat exchangers. Second, the refrigerant temperatures in the evaporator and condenser are specified as input, while real-life equipment operates at imposed heat sink and heat source temperatures; the temperatures in the evaporator and condensers are established based on overall heat transfer resistances of these heat exchangers and the balance of the system. The paper discusses a simulation methodology and model that addresses the above shortcomings. This model simulates the thermodynamic cycle operating at specified heat sink and heat source temperature profiles, and includes the ability to account for the effects of thermophysical properties and refrigerant mass flux on refrigerant heat transfer and pressure drop in the air-to-refrigerant evaporator and condenser. Additionally, the model can optimize the refrigerant mass flux in the heat exchangers to maximize the Coefficient of Performance. The new model is validated with experimental data and its predictions are contrasted to those of a model based on thermodynamic properties alone.

  20. Optimal correction in spectacles: intervention effects on eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort among postal workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphälä, H; Nylén, P; Eklund, J

    2014-01-01

    The static posture of postal workers when sorting mail can lead to musculoskeletal discomfort. Research has shown a connection between eyestrain and upper-body musculoskeletal discomfort in general, including postal workers. A previous study of postal workers found that most of those with eye strain were in need of a new correction in their existing spectacles. Evaluate intervention effects on eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort with new spectacles for postal workers. Postal workers subjectively reported eyestrain, musculoskeletal discomfort and their opinions of the visual environment via questionnaires pre- and post-intervention. After an eye examination the postal workers were divided into two groups: those who needed new spectacles and those who did not. Those who needed new spectacles showed a higher prevalence of eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort pre-intervention. Post-intervention, the postal workers rated their vision better and the average eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort decreased for both groups. These workers also experienced a decrease in discomfort on the left (static) side of the neck while sorting mail. An intervention providing the optimal correction reduces eyestrain and decreases musculoskeletal discomfort, especially from the neck.

  1. Solar collector exergetic optimization for a multi effect humidification desalination prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R González-Acuña

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Venezuela is a country with a great deal of water resources. In spite of this, about 1.6 million inhabitants are dispersed in remote regions where water distribution is problematic due to the lack of this resource. A flat plate solar collector was built as a component of a single-stage Multi-Effect Humidification (MEH desalination plant prototype, and its characterization was done on a testing rig designed and constructed according to the ANSI/ASHRAE 93-2003 standards. In order to optimize the operation of this equipment, the exergetic change of the working fluid across the solar collector was maximized. This objective was accomplished through a numerical simulation of the solar collector performance using a predictive algorithm and available yearlong meteorological data. It was found that a mass flow rate equal to 0.006 kg/s (0.36 LPM should be maintain to ensure the maximum exergetic gain of the working fluid for an inlet temperature of 54°C.

  2. Optimization of bacterial plasmid transformation using nanomaterials based on the Yoshida effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Haidong; Fu, Li; Seno, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    With the help of sepiolite, a unique method for transforming DNA into bacteria, based on the Yoshida effect, has been developed recently. However, we confronted many problems when this newest method was tried. Only a few transformants could be obtained even when 100 ng of plasmid pET15b was used, and a successful result seemed difficult to repeat. To address this problem, we optimized the operating method and could achieve about 15,000 transformants using the same amount of plasmid, which could match the efficiency gained using the calcium chloride transformation method. Meanwhile, the results could also be reproduced well. In the same way, carbon nanotubes were used to attain more than 15,000 transformants in the same situation. Therefore, the transformation method could be extended to other nanomaterials. Meanwhile, compared with the mechanism previously reported, we verified quite a different principle for the mechanism responsible for such a transformation. In sum, this unique transformation can be developed to become the third widely-used transformation method in laboratories in addition to the chemical method and electroporation.

  3. Optimized Scorpion Polypeptide LMX: A Pest Control Protein Effective against Rice Leaf Folder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianpei, Xiuzi; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Lepidopteran insect pests are the main class of pests causing significant damage to crop plant yields. Insecticidal scorpion peptides exhibit toxicity specific for insects. Here, we report that a peptide LMX, optimized from the insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin LqhIT2, showed high levels of activity against rice leaf folder in vitro and in planta. Oral ingestion of LMX protein led to a significant decrease in feeding on rice leaves, repression of larval growth and development, delay in molting, and increase in larval lethality. Compared with LqhIT2 protein, the stability and insecticidal efficacy of LMX was better. Meanwhile, biochemical analysis showed that LMX protein ingestion dramatically decreased ecdysone content in rice leaf folder larvae, and down-regulated enzymatic activities of the detoxification system (α-naphthyl acetate esterase and glutathione S-transferase), the digestive system (tryptase and chymotrypsin), and the antioxidant system (catalase). These changes were tightly correlated with the dosage of LMX protein. Transgene analysis showed that the rate of leaf damage, and the number of damaged tillers and leaves in the transgenic line were greatly reduced relative to wild type plants and empty vector plants. Based on these observations, we propose that the insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin peptide LMX is an attractive and effective alternative molecule for the protection of rice from rice leaf folder. PMID:24964088

  4. An Attentional Goldilocks Effect: An Optimal Amount of Social Interactivity Promotes Word Learning from Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussenbaum, Kate; Amso, Dima

    2016-01-01

    Television can be a powerful education tool; however, content-makers must understand the factors that engage attention and promote learning from screen media. Prior research suggests that social engagement is critical for learning and that interactivity may enhance the educational quality of children's media. The present study examined the effects of increasing the social interactivity of television on children's visual attention and word learning. Three- to 5-year-old (MAge = 4;5 years, SD = 9 months) children completed a task in which they viewed videos of an actress teaching them the Swahili label for an on-screen image. Each child viewed these video clips in four conditions that parametrically manipulated social engagement and interactivity. We then tested whether each child had successfully learned the Swahili labels. Though 5-year-old children were able to learn words in all conditions, we found that there was an optimal level of social engagement that best supported learning for all participants, defined by engaging the child but not distracting from word labeling. Our eye-tracking data indicated that children in this condition spent more time looking at the target image and less time looking at the actress's face as compared to the most interactive condition. These findings suggest that social interactivity is critical to engaging attention and promoting learning from screen media up until a certain point, after which social stimuli may draw attention away from target images and impair children's word learning.

  5. Effective Modification of a Nonprescription Medicines Course to Optimize Learning of Millennial Generation Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella H Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe examples of effective teaching strategies utilized within a required nonprescription therapeutics course, in order to accommodate learning characteristics of Millennials. Case Study: Instructors identified unique characteristics of Millennial generation students through literature review and focused educational workshops. These characteristics include the desire for active learning where didactic lectures make a connection to life, the incorporation of technology, and assignments that focus on team work. Course modifications were then made based on these characteristics including redesign of large group course lectures with incorporation of patient cases, inclusion of a variety of online components including the opportunity to provide course feedback, and active learning small group projects within workshop sections. Evaluation:Student evaluation of the course and instructors significantly improved after introducing changes to the course compared to previous years. Each component of the student evaluation resulted in a statistically significant change in mean score. Verbal and written evaluations indicated a very positive learning experience for students. Grade mean (3.3 vs. 3.8, p Conclusions: By identifying characteristics of Millennial generation student learners, traditional teaching methods can be modified in order to enhance retention of material and optimize their learning process. Course changes improved the learning experience for students and instructors. Instructors' willingness to evaluate generational differences and adapt teaching enhances the learning experiences in the classroom for both students and instructors.   Type: Case Study

  6. Optimization of Financial Flow Management Based on Estimates of Regional Multiplicative Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Aleksandrovich Tatarkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with questions of increasing the management efficiency of the regional financial resources. As the main hypothesis, the idea of the optimization of the management of the regional financial flows based on the multiplicative economic effect is proved. This measure will allow to evaluate more efficiently the impact of the regional socio-economic policy. The article presents a multifactor model of the management of the regional financial flows on the regional level — the matrix of financial flows, based on the principles of the general economic equilibrium theory, the balance method of «input-output» and the methodology of national accounts. The paper introduces a methodology for the integration of the regional consolidated budget balance in a matrix of financial flows. Matrix multipliers of the consolidated budget balance are calculated for some regions of the Russian Federation allowing to model the economic multiplicative effects resulting from impact of different types of exogenous factors on the economic development of the regions, such as to predict the impact of fiscal redistribution on the GRP and income, to assess the impact of foreign investment on economic growth, to explore the effectiveness of the federal tax policy at the regional level. The article shows that the multiplier effect depends on several factors, including the foreign trade relations of the region, its dependence on imports, the share of value added in gross output, as well as the household savings. Various levels of government can use the author’s approach during development of strategies for socio-economic development, in assessing the extent and direction of the influence of exogenous factors on the economy of the territory, as well as in analyzing the investment initiatives from the private sector applying for state financial support for projects. In the conclusion, the ways of improving the management of financial flows on the basis of

  7. Simulation of the effect of introducing micro-generation, energy buffers and accompanied optimization algorithms on the energy efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2008-01-01

    The growing awareness of the greenhouse gas effect and rising energy prices lead to more and more initiatives to improve energy ef��?ciency. These initiatives range from micro-generation, local energy storage and more ef��?cient appliances to controllers with optimization objectives. However, the

  8. Configuration optimization of series flow double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration systems by cost minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussati, Sergio F.; Cignitti, Stefano; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    2018-01-01

    An optimal process configuration for double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration systems with series flow – where the solution is first passed through the high-temperature generator – is obtained by minimization of the total annual cost for a required cooling capacity. To this en...

  9. The effects of drought on Ngatatjara plant use: An evaluation of optimal foraging theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate D.

    1986-03-01

    The different responses of plants to drought conditions are examined in the Western Desert of Australia to demonstrate the necessity of considering plant food availability prior to optimal foraging applications involving human hunter-gatherers. The correspondence of Ngatatjara dietary breadth changes to optimal foraging predictions is explained as an adaptive response to the unpredictable Western Desert reinfall. By minimizing the time allocated to food procurement, energy-efficient foraging reduces the risk involved in the exploitation of scattered, ephemeral water sources. Futher applications of optimal foraging models to hunter-gatherers is one line of promising investigation to address behavioral variability among human foragers.

  10. Directly patching high-level exchange-correlation potential based on fully determined optimized effective potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Chi, Yu-Chieh

    2017-12-28

    The key element in Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory is the exchange-correlation (XC) potential. We recently proposed the exchange-correlation potential patching (XCPP) method with the aim of directly constructing high-level XC potential in a large system by patching the locally computed, high-level XC potentials throughout the system. In this work, we investigate the patching of the exact exchange (EXX) and the random phase approximation (RPA) correlation potentials. A major challenge of XCPP is that a cluster's XC potential, obtained by solving the optimized effective potential equation, is only determined up to an unknown constant. Without fully determining the clusters' XC potentials, the patched system's XC potential is "uneven" in the real space and may cause non-physical results. Here, we developed a simple method to determine this unknown constant. The performance of XCPP-RPA is investigated on three one-dimensional systems: H20, H10Li8, and the stretching of the H19-H bond. We investigated two definitions of EXX: (i) the definition based on the adiabatic connection and fluctuation dissipation theorem (ACFDT) and (ii) the Hartree-Fock (HF) definition. With ACFDT-type EXX, effective error cancellations were observed between the patched EXX and the patched RPA correlation potentials. Such error cancellations were absent for the HF-type EXX, which was attributed to the fact that for systems with fractional occupation numbers, the integral of the HF-type EXX hole is not -1. The KS spectra and band gaps from XCPP agree reasonably well with the benchmarks as we make the clusters large.

  11. The Combination of Three Natural Compounds Effectively Prevented Lung Carcinogenesis by Optimal Wound Healing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxin Liu

    Full Text Available The tumor stroma has been described as "normal wound healing gone awry". We explored whether the restoration of a wound healing-like microenvironment may facilitate tumor healing. Firstly, we screened three natural compounds (shikonin, notoginsenoside R1 and aconitine from wound healing agents and evaluated the efficacies of wound healing microenvironment for limiting single agent-elicited carcinogenesis and two-stage carcinogenesis. The results showed that three compounds used alone could promote wound healing but had unfavorable efficacy to exert wound healing, and that the combination of three compounds made up treatment disadvantage of a single compound in wound healing and led to optimal wound healing. Although individual treatment with these agents may prevent cancer, they were not effective for the treatment of established tumors. However, combination treatment with these three compounds almost completely prevented urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis and reduced tumor burden. Different from previous studies, we found that urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis was associated with lung injury independent of pulmonary inflammation. LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation did not increase lung carcinogenesis, whereas decreased pulmonary inflammation by macrophage depletion promoted lung carcinogenesis. In addition, urethane damaged wound healing in skin excision wound model, reversed lung carcinogenic efficacy by the combination of three compounds was consistent with skin wound healing. Further, the combination of these three agents reduced the number of lung cancer stem cells (CSCs by inducing cell differentiation, restoration of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC and blockade of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Our results suggest that restoration of a wound healing microenvironment represents an effective strategy for cancer prevention.

  12. Effective Alternating Direction Optimization Methods for Sparsity-Constrained Blind Image Deblurring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naixue Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-image blind deblurring for imaging sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT is a challenging ill-conditioned inverse problem, which requires regularization techniques to stabilize the image restoration process. The purpose is to recover the underlying blur kernel and latent sharp image from only one blurred image. Under many degraded imaging conditions, the blur kernel could be considered not only spatially sparse, but also piecewise smooth with the support of a continuous curve. By taking advantage of the hybrid sparse properties of the blur kernel, a hybrid regularization method is proposed in this paper to robustly and accurately estimate the blur kernel. The effectiveness of the proposed blur kernel estimation method is enhanced by incorporating both the L 1 -norm of kernel intensity and the squared L 2 -norm of the intensity derivative. Once the accurate estimation of the blur kernel is obtained, the original blind deblurring can be simplified to the direct deconvolution of blurred images. To guarantee robust non-blind deconvolution, a variational image restoration model is presented based on the L 1 -norm data-fidelity term and the total generalized variation (TGV regularizer of second-order. All non-smooth optimization problems related to blur kernel estimation and non-blind deconvolution are effectively handled by using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM-based numerical methods. Comprehensive experiments on both synthetic and realistic datasets have been implemented to compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods. The experimental comparisons have illustrated the satisfactory imaging performance of the proposed method in terms of quantitative and qualitative evaluations.

  13. Effective Alternating Direction Optimization Methods for Sparsity-Constrained Blind Image Deblurring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Naixue; Liu, Ryan Wen; Liang, Maohan; Wu, Di; Liu, Zhao; Wu, Huisi

    2017-01-18

    Single-image blind deblurring for imaging sensors in the Internet of Things (IoT) is a challenging ill-conditioned inverse problem, which requires regularization techniques to stabilize the image restoration process. The purpose is to recover the underlying blur kernel and latent sharp image from only one blurred image. Under many degraded imaging conditions, the blur kernel could be considered not only spatially sparse, but also piecewise smooth with the support of a continuous curve. By taking advantage of the hybrid sparse properties of the blur kernel, a hybrid regularization method is proposed in this paper to robustly and accurately estimate the blur kernel. The effectiveness of the proposed blur kernel estimation method is enhanced by incorporating both the L 1 -norm of kernel intensity and the squared L 2 -norm of the intensity derivative. Once the accurate estimation of the blur kernel is obtained, the original blind deblurring can be simplified to the direct deconvolution of blurred images. To guarantee robust non-blind deconvolution, a variational image restoration model is presented based on the L 1 -norm data-fidelity term and the total generalized variation (TGV) regularizer of second-order. All non-smooth optimization problems related to blur kernel estimation and non-blind deconvolution are effectively handled by using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM)-based numerical methods. Comprehensive experiments on both synthetic and realistic datasets have been implemented to compare the proposed method with several state-of-the-art methods. The experimental comparisons have illustrated the satisfactory imaging performance of the proposed method in terms of quantitative and qualitative evaluations.

  14. Directly patching high-level exchange-correlation potential based on fully determined optimized effective potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Chi, Yu-Chieh

    2017-12-01

    The key element in Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory is the exchange-correlation (XC) potential. We recently proposed the exchange-correlation potential patching (XCPP) method with the aim of directly constructing high-level XC potential in a large system by patching the locally computed, high-level XC potentials throughout the system. In this work, we investigate the patching of the exact exchange (EXX) and the random phase approximation (RPA) correlation potentials. A major challenge of XCPP is that a cluster's XC potential, obtained by solving the optimized effective potential equation, is only determined up to an unknown constant. Without fully determining the clusters' XC potentials, the patched system's XC potential is "uneven" in the real space and may cause non-physical results. Here, we developed a simple method to determine this unknown constant. The performance of XCPP-RPA is investigated on three one-dimensional systems: H20, H10Li8, and the stretching of the H19-H bond. We investigated two definitions of EXX: (i) the definition based on the adiabatic connection and fluctuation dissipation theorem (ACFDT) and (ii) the Hartree-Fock (HF) definition. With ACFDT-type EXX, effective error cancellations were observed between the patched EXX and the patched RPA correlation potentials. Such error cancellations were absent for the HF-type EXX, which was attributed to the fact that for systems with fractional occupation numbers, the integral of the HF-type EXX hole is not -1. The KS spectra and band gaps from XCPP agree reasonably well with the benchmarks as we make the clusters large.

  15. Effectiveness of CPAP treatment in daytime function in sleep apnea syndrome: a randomized controlled study with an optimized placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, J M; Ferrer, M; Hernandez, L; Farré, R; Vilagut, G; Navajas, D; Badia, J R; Carrasco, E; De Pablo, J; Ballester, E

    2001-08-15

    Application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as the standard treatment for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is a moot point. Studies on the effectiveness of this treatment have been challenged because of the lack of a suitable placebo. The recent description of a true placebo (sham CPAP) prompted us to conduct a randomized trial of CPAP or placebo to assess the effectiveness of CPAP in improving SAHS-related symptoms and daytime function in patients with moderate to severe SAHS. Forty-eight patients, stratified in four groups according to severity, were randomly allocated into two treatment groups (optimal and sham CPAP) for a 6-wk period. Of these, 45 completed follow-up (91% males; age: 54 +/- 10 yr; body mass index [BMI]: 32 +/- 6 kg/m(2); apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]: 54 +/- 19 events/h; and Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS]: 16 +/- 5). The ESS, a questionnaire on SAHS-related symptoms, Functional Outcomes Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) were completed at inclusion and after treatment. After 10 d of washout, the placebo group was treated with optimal CPAP and reassessed before and after optimal CPAP. The group receiving optimal CPAP when compared with the group with sham CPAP showed considerably greater improvement in the relief of sleepiness (-9.5 versus -2.3, p hours for the optimal and the sham CPAP (4.3 versus 4.5, (p = NS). The patients initially treated with placebo CPAP improved significantly more when optimal CPAP was applied for ESS (-2.3 versus -6.7, p sleep apnea syndrome (SAS)-related symptoms (-4.5 versus -11.2, p = 0.02). Our study provides strong evidence of the effectiveness of CPAP treatment in improving symptoms and perceived health status in moderate to severe SAHS.

  16. An effective and optimal quality control approach for green energy manufacturing using design of experiments framework and evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Juan Alejandro

    evaluates possible solutions based on cost, cycle time, reworkability and rework benefit. Finally it provides several possible solutions because this is a multi-objective optimization problem. The solutions are presented as chromosomes that clearly state the amount and location of the rework stations. The user analyzes these solutions in order to select one by deciding which of the four factors considered is most important depending on the product being manufactured or the company's objective. The major contribution of this study is to provide the user with a methodology used to identify an effective and optimal QC strategy that incorporates the number and location of rework substations in order to minimize direct product cost, and cycle time, and maximize reworkability, and rework benefit.

  17. Structural Optimization Design of Large Wind Turbine Blade considering Aeroelastic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a structural optimization design of the realistic large scale wind turbine blade. The mathematical simulations have been compared with experimental data found in the literature. All complicated loads were applied on the blade when it was working, which impacts directly on mixed vibration of the wind rotor, tower, and other components, and this vibration can dramatically affect the service life and performance of wind turbine. The optimized mathematical model of the blade was established in the interaction between aerodynamic and structural conditions. The modal results show that the first six modes are flapwise dominant. Meanwhile, the mechanism relationship was investigated between the blade tip deformation and the load distribution. Finally, resonance cannot occur in the optimized blade, as compared to the natural frequency of the blade. It verified that the optimized model is more appropriate to describe the structure. Additionally, it provided a reference for the structural design of a large wind turbine blade.

  18. Optimal perturbations of non-parallel wakes and their stabilizing effect on the global instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Guercio, Gerardo; Cossu, Carlo; Pujals, Gregory

    2014-02-01

    We compute the spatial optimal energy amplification of steady inflow perturbations in a non-parallel wake and analyse their stabilizing action on the global mode instability. The optimal inflow perturbations, which are assumed spanwise periodic and varicose, consist in streamwise vortices that induce the downstream spatial transient growth of streamwise streaks. The maximum energy amplification of the streaks increases with the spanwise wavelength of the perturbations, in accordance with previous results obtained for the temporal energy growth supported by parallel wakes. A family of increasingly streaky wakes is obtained by forcing optimal inflow perturbations of increasing amplitude and then solving the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations. We show that the linear global instability of the wake can be completely suppressed by forcing optimal perturbations of sufficiently large amplitude. The attenuation and suppression of self-sustained oscillations in the wake by optimal 3D perturbations is confirmed by fully nonlinear numerical simulations. We also show that the amplitude of optimal spanwise periodic (3D) perturbations of the basic flow required to stabilize the global instability is much smaller than the one required by spanwise uniform (2D) perturbations despite the fact that the first order sensitivity of the global eigenvalue to basic flow modifications is zero for 3D spanwise periodic modifications and non-zero for 2D modifications. We therefore conclude that first-order sensitivity analyses can be misleading if used far from the instability threshold, where higher order terms are the most relevant.

  19. Analysis of effectiveness, safety and optimization of tocilizumab in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Vázquez, Natalia; Manrique-Arija, Sara; Rojas-Giménez, Marta; Ureña-Garnica, Inmaculada; Jiménez-Núñez, Francisco G; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tocilizumab (TCZ) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical practice, establishing the optimized regimen and switching from intravenous (IV) to subcutaneous (SC) therapy. Retrospective observational study. We included 53 RA patients treated with TCZ. The main outcome was TCZ effectiveness at week 24. Secondary outcome variables included effectiveness at week 52, therapeutic maintenance, physical function and safety. The effectiveness of optimization and the switch from IV to SC was evaluated at 3 and 6 months. The efficacy was measured with the Disease Activity Score. Paired t-tests or Wilcoxon were used to evaluate effectiveness and survival time using Kaplan-Meier. The proportion of patients who achieved remission or low disease activity at weeks 24 and 52 was 75.5% and 87.3%, respectively. The mean retention time (95% confidence interval [95% CI] was 81.7 months [76.6-86.7]). Twenty-one of 53 patients (39.6%) optimized the TCZ dose and 35 patients switched from IV TCZ to SC, with no changes in effectiveness. The adverse event rate was 13.6 events/100 patient-years. Tocilizumab appears to be effective and safe in RA in clinical practice. The optimized regimen appears to be effective in most patients in remission, even when they change from IV to SC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  20. Aspects regarding the effect of ANTIOXIDANT OPTIMIZER chronic administration on laboratory pregnant mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia-Mihaela UNGUREAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, modern people is assaulted all over around by a lot of physical and chemical factors, which may constitute a starting point for many diseases such as cancer, inflammation or aging. In this case, plants are used either to prevent disease or, as an alternative to traditional medication. This study consists in the investigation of some aspects of fetal development and immunity on laboratory mice, by administration of a chronic treatment with Antioxidant t\\optimizer, a product produced by JarrowFormulas®. The animals were weighed to be monitored in different moments, after chronic consumption of administered product; fresh blood smears were made with peripheral blood and after staining were examined for evidence of the percentages of figurative leukocyte elements. After mating the females were sacrificed on day 15 of gestation; the embryos were macroscopic examined, weighed and measured. The same parameters were followed for a lot of pups too. From data obtained, it was found that the product does not support an increase in weight for treated females compared to the control group. After exanination of blood smears you can observe a significant increase in the percentage of eosinophils and basophils for treated females and you can observe also a significant decrease in the percentage of lymphocytes. Both embryos and newborns fetuses from the treated group and had a corporal weight, a cranio-caudal size and placenta weight lower than control group. The results do not pleat for a immunostimulatory effect of administered product and show in this case that it's administration during pregestational and gestational period would be contraindicated, also the mention from the prospect. We believe that further investigations are necessary.

  1. Teaching anaesthetic nurses optimal force for effective cricoid pressure: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This literature review explores the role of force and education in cricoid pressure, an essential aspect of practice for any nurse within a critical care environment. Cricoid pressure is utilized in everyday practice during rapid sequence induction (RSI) of anaesthesia. The purpose of cricoid pressure is to occlude the oesophagus in order to reduce the risk of acid aspiration during emergency induction of anaesthesia. The importance of best practice cannot be overstated because of high rates of mortality following acid aspiration. Literature searches were conducted using the key words cricoid pressure, Sellick manoeuvre, rapid sequence induction and acid aspiration syndrome. Articles were obtained from online searches, with literature published in the last 10 years being used; some seminal literature and textbooks were incorporated for definition purposes. The literature displayed a disparity in practice and differing opinions on the optimal force to occlude the oesophagus. The role of education in correct application of cricoid pressure was explored, with unanimous conclusions that education plays a role in ensuring best practice. Forces of 20-30 N are adequate to occlude the oesophagus and minimize the risk of acid aspiration. However, it is difficult for practitioners to accurately estimate this force in everyday practice. Various methods of assessing force were discussed, with the use of a 50-mL syringe suggested as a cost-effective and simple method to utilize in practice. The literature review demonstrated that the subject of cricoid pressure is relevant in critical care practice in order to ensure patient safety during RSI. Thus, all critical care nurses have a duty to gain a working knowledge on the subject if patient safety is to be maintained. This paper provides a source of information on cricoid pressure and realistic methods of maintaining best practice.

  2. Designing cost-effective seawater reverse osmosis system under optimal energy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilau, Asmerom M.; Small, Mitchell J. [Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Today, three billion people around the world have no access to clean drinking water and about 1.76 billion people live in areas already facing a high degree of water stress. This paper analyzes the cost-effectiveness of a stand alone small-scale renewable energy-powered seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) system for developing countries. In this paper, we have introduced a new methodology; an energy optimization model which simulates hourly power production from renewable energy sources. Applying the model using the wind and solar radiation conditions for Eritrea, East Africa, we have computed hourly water production for a two-stage SWRO system with a capacity of 35 m{sup 3}/day. According to our results, specific energy consumption is about 2.33 kW h/m{sup 3}, which is a lower value than that achieved in most of the previous designs. The use of a booster pump, energy recovery turbine and an appropriate membrane, allows the specific energy consumption to be decreased by about 70% compared to less efficient design without these features. The energy recovery turbine results in a reduction in the water cost of about 41%. Our results show that a wind-powered system is the least cost and a PV-powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 and 1.00/m{sup 3}, respectively. By international standards, for example, in China, these values are considered economically feasible. Detailed simulations of the RO system design, energy options, and power, water, and life-cycle costs are presented. (author)

  3. An optimal cost effectiveness study on Zimbabwe cholera seasonal data from 2008-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tridip Sardar

    Full Text Available Incidence of cholera outbreak is a serious issue in underdeveloped and developing countries. In Zimbabwe, after the massive outbreak in 2008-09, cholera cases and deaths are reported every year from some provinces. Substantial number of reported cholera cases in some provinces during and after the epidemic in 2008-09 indicates a plausible presence of seasonality in cholera incidence in those regions. We formulate a compartmental mathematical model with periodic slow-fast transmission rate to study such recurrent occurrences and fitted the model to cumulative cholera cases and deaths for different provinces of Zimbabwe from the beginning of cholera outbreak in 2008-09 to June 2011. Daily and weekly reported cholera incidence data were collected from Zimbabwe epidemiological bulletin, Zimbabwe Daily cholera updates and Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Zimbabwe (OCHA, Zimbabwe. For each province, the basic reproduction number ([Formula: see text] in periodic environment is estimated. To the best of our knowledge, this is probably a pioneering attempt to estimate [Formula: see text] in periodic environment using real-life data set of cholera epidemic for Zimbabwe. Our estimates of [Formula: see text] agree with the previous estimate for some provinces but differ significantly for Bulawayo, Mashonaland West, Manicaland, Matabeleland South and Matabeleland North. Seasonal trend in cholera incidence is observed in Harare, Mashonaland West, Mashonaland East, Manicaland and Matabeleland South. Our result suggests that, slow transmission is a dominating factor for cholera transmission in most of these provinces. Our model projects [Formula: see text] cholera cases and [Formula: see text] cholera deaths during the end of the epidemic in 2008-09 to January 1, 2012. We also determine an optimal cost-effective control strategy among the four government undertaken interventions namely promoting hand-hygiene & clean water distribution

  4. Fin Ray Effect Inspired Soft Robotic Gripper: From the RoboSoft Grand Challenge Toward Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney Crooks

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A soft robotic gripper for a Tele-operable In-Home Robotic Assistant (TIHRA for the mobility impaired is presented. This gripper is inspired by the Fin Ray textsuperscript textregistered Effect, which is derived from the physiology of fish fins. The gripper fingers are soft and triangular with hard crossbeams that buckle and deform in to conform around objects. The fingers of the TIHRA were altered from the original Fin Ray textsuperscript textregistered design in order to create a preferred bending direction, resulting in less force required to obtain a good grip on an object. The entire gripper can be 3D printed as part of a soft robotic hand made from hard and soft materials, and the motor-tendon actuation system attaches in a limited number of steps. Testing of the gripper included modeling the fingers and comparing grip strength them to the original Fin Ray textsuperscript textregistered} to verify their optimization. Models show that the TIHRA fingers deform 15 % more than traditional fingers when subjected to the same force. The TIHRA gripper was capable of holding 560 g, approximately 40 % more than the gripper equipped with traditional fingers. This difference was statistically significant (p $ ll$ 0.001. The TIHRA hand was also tested at the 2016 RoboSoft Grand Challenge in Livorno, Italy. The gripper successfully completed some tasks, highlighting its conformability, deformability, and morphology, but performed poorly in others, demonstrating the need to increase the gripper strength to prevent out of plane twisting and bending and to increase the force that the gripper can exert. The gripper was attached to a Baxter robot to demonstrate its ability to interface with existing technology, and other versions of the gripper were designed and manufactured to show the scalability and versatility of the design.

  5. An Optimal Cost Effectiveness Study on Zimbabwe Cholera Seasonal Data from 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Tridip; Mukhopadhyay, Soumalya; Bhowmick, Amiya Ranjan; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of cholera outbreak is a serious issue in underdeveloped and developing countries. In Zimbabwe, after the massive outbreak in 2008–09, cholera cases and deaths are reported every year from some provinces. Substantial number of reported cholera cases in some provinces during and after the epidemic in 2008–09 indicates a plausible presence of seasonality in cholera incidence in those regions. We formulate a compartmental mathematical model with periodic slow-fast transmission rate to study such recurrent occurrences and fitted the model to cumulative cholera cases and deaths for different provinces of Zimbabwe from the beginning of cholera outbreak in 2008–09 to June 2011. Daily and weekly reported cholera incidence data were collected from Zimbabwe epidemiological bulletin, Zimbabwe Daily cholera updates and Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Zimbabwe (OCHA, Zimbabwe). For each province, the basic reproduction number () in periodic environment is estimated. To the best of our knowledge, this is probably a pioneering attempt to estimate in periodic environment using real-life data set of cholera epidemic for Zimbabwe. Our estimates of agree with the previous estimate for some provinces but differ significantly for Bulawayo, Mashonaland West, Manicaland, Matabeleland South and Matabeleland North. Seasonal trend in cholera incidence is observed in Harare, Mashonaland West, Mashonaland East, Manicaland and Matabeleland South. Our result suggests that, slow transmission is a dominating factor for cholera transmission in most of these provinces. Our model projects cholera cases and cholera deaths during the end of the epidemic in 2008–09 to January 1, 2012. We also determine an optimal cost-effective control strategy among the four government undertaken interventions namely promoting hand-hygiene & clean water distribution, vaccination, treatment and sanitation for each province. PMID:24312540

  6. Effective Modification of a Nonprescription Medicines Course to Optimize Learning of Millennial Generation Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin A. Casper, Pharm.D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe examples of effective teaching strategies utilized within a required nonprescription therapeutics course, in order to accommodate learning characteristics of Millennials.Case Study: Instructors identified unique characteristics of Millennial generation students through literature review and focused educational workshops. These characteristics include the desire for active learning where didactic lectures make a connection to life, the incorporation of technology, and assignments that focus on team work. Course modifications were then made based on these characteristics including redesign of large group course lectures with incorporation of patient cases, inclusion of a variety of online components including the opportunity to provide course feedback, and active learning small group projects within workshop sections.Evaluation: Student evaluation of the course and instructors significantly improved after introducing changes to the course compared to previous years. Each component of the student evaluation resulted in a statistically significant change in mean score. Verbal and written evaluations indicated a very positive learning experience for students. Grade mean (3.3 vs. 3.8, p<0.001 and range (0.00-4.00 GPA in 2007 vs. 2.00-4.00 GPA in 2008, p <0.001 also improved compared to previous years.Conclusions: By identifying characteristics of Millennial generation student learners, traditional teaching methods can be modified in order to enhance retention of material and optimize their learning process. Course changes improved the learning experience for students and instructors. Instructors’ willingness to evaluate generational differences and adapt teaching enhances the learning experiences in the classroom for both students and instructors.

  7. The effect of Fisher information matrix approximation methods in population optimal design calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, Eric A; Nyberg, Joakim; Hooker, Andrew C

    2016-12-01

    With the increasing popularity of optimal design in drug development it is important to understand how the approximations and implementations of the Fisher information matrix (FIM) affect the resulting optimal designs. The aim of this work was to investigate the impact on design performance when using two common approximations to the population model and the full or block-diagonal FIM implementations for optimization of sampling points. Sampling schedules for two example experiments based on population models were optimized using the FO and FOCE approximations and the full and block-diagonal FIM implementations. The number of support points was compared between the designs for each example experiment. The performance of these designs based on simulation/estimations was investigated by computing bias of the parameters as well as through the use of an empirical D-criterion confidence interval. Simulations were performed when the design was computed with the true parameter values as well as with misspecified parameter values. The FOCE approximation and the Full FIM implementation yielded designs with more support points and less clustering of sample points than designs optimized with the FO approximation and the block-diagonal implementation. The D-criterion confidence intervals showed no performance differences between the full and block diagonal FIM optimal designs when assuming true parameter values. However, the FO approximated block-reduced FIM designs had higher bias than the other designs. When assuming parameter misspecification in the design evaluation, the FO Full FIM optimal design was superior to the FO block-diagonal FIM design in both of the examples.

  8. Optimism as a predictor of the effects of laboratory-induced stress on fears and hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimhi, Shaul; Eshel, Yohanan; Shahar, Eldad

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to explore optimism as a predictor of personal and collective fear, as well as hope, following laboratory-induced stress. Students (N = 107; 74 female, 33 male) were assigned randomly to either the experimental (stress--political violence video clip) or the control group (no-stress--nature video clip). Questionnaires of fear and hope were administered immediately after the experiment (Time 1) and 3 weeks later (Time 2). Structural equation modeling indicated the following: (a) Optimism significantly predicted both fear and hope in the stress group at Time 1, but not in the no-stress group. (b) Optimism predicted hope but not fear at Time 2 in the stress group. (c) Hope at Time 1 significantly predicted hope at Time 2, in both the stress and the no-stress groups. (d) Gender did not predict significantly fear at Time 1 in the stress group, despite a significant difference between genders. This study supports previous studies indicating that optimism plays an important role in people's coping with stress. However, based on our research the data raise the question of whether optimism, by itself, or environmental stress, by itself, may accurately predict stress response.

  9. The Effect of Aerodynamic Evaluators on the Multi-Objective Optimization of Flatback Airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.; Slew, K. Lee; Matida, E.

    2016-09-01

    With the long lengths of today's wind turbine rotor blades, there is a need to reduce the mass, thereby requiring stiffer airfoils, while maintaining the aerodynamic efficiency of the airfoils, particularly in the inboard region of the blade where structural demands are highest. Using a genetic algorithm, the multi-objective aero-structural optimization of 30% thick flatback airfoils was systematically performed for a variety of aerodynamic evaluators such as lift-to-drag ratio (Cl/Cd), torque (Ct), and torque-to-thrust ratio (Ct/Cn) to determine their influence on airfoil shape and performance. The airfoil optimized for Ct possessed a 4.8% thick trailing-edge, and a rather blunt leading-edge region which creates high levels of lift and correspondingly, drag. It's ability to maintain similar levels of lift and drag under forced transition conditions proved it's insensitivity to roughness. The airfoil optimized for Cl/Cd displayed relatively poor insensitivity to roughness due to the rather aft-located free transition points. The Ct/Cn optimized airfoil was found to have a very similar shape to that of the Cl/Cd airfoil, with a slightly more blunt leading-edge which aided in providing higher levels of lift and moderate insensitivity to roughness. The influence of the chosen aerodynamic evaluator under the specified conditions and constraints in the optimization of wind turbine airfoils is shown to have a direct impact on the airfoil shape and performance.

  10. Effectiveness of Training Self-encauragement on the Resiliency and Optimism the Mothers of Children with Mental Retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Afkhami Aqda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: a retarded child is considered as a perishing pressure on the parents, hence, teaching these mothers is very important. One of the useful tasks to do for this, is teaching self-encouragement. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of self-encouragement on resilience and optimism of mothers with mental retardation. Methods: The method was semi-experimental, pretest-posttest with a control group. The sample group included 24 mothers from Yazd city in 1393-94 with mentally retarded children volunteering (non-randomly for the study and finally divided into control and experimental groups (fifteen people each. The resilience and optimism of the participants were assessed using CD-RISK Connor-Davidson’s resilience questionnaire and life orientation test LOT, respectively LOT and the experiment group was instructed the self-encouragement program for 1 sessions. Results: Covariance analysis MANCOVA, ANCOVA in SPSS (ver. 22 of the data showed that the educational sessions had significant effect on resilience and optimism of the experimental group (p<0/05. Conclusion: Accordingly, it can be concluded that teaching self-encouragement can lead to more resilience and optimism.

  11. Bioresorbable scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: optimal design, fabrication, mechanical testing and scale-size effects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Pedro G; Hollister, Scott J; Flanagan, Colleen L; Fernandes, Paulo R

    2015-03-01

    Bone scaffolds for tissue regeneration require an optimal trade-off between biological and mechanical criteria. Optimal designs may be obtained using topology optimization (homogenization approach) and prototypes produced using additive manufacturing techniques. However, the process from design to manufacture remains a research challenge and will be a requirement of FDA design controls to engineering scaffolds. This work investigates how the design to manufacture chain affects the reproducibility of complex optimized design characteristics in the manufactured product. The design and prototypes are analyzed taking into account the computational assumptions and the final mechanical properties determined through mechanical tests. The scaffold is an assembly of unit-cells, and thus scale size effects on the mechanical response considering finite periodicity are investigated and compared with the predictions from the homogenization method which assumes in the limit infinitely repeated unit cells. Results show that a limited number of unit-cells (3-5 repeated on a side) introduce some scale-effects but the discrepancies are below 10%. Higher discrepancies are found when comparing the experimental data to numerical simulations due to differences between the manufactured and designed scaffold feature shapes and sizes as well as micro-porosities introduced by the manufacturing process. However good regression correlations (R(2) > 0.85) were found between numerical and experimental values, with slopes close to 1 for 2 out of 3 designs. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Effective Hybrid Firefly Algorithm with Harmony Search for Global Numerical Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid metaheuristic approach by hybridizing harmony search (HS and firefly algorithm (FA, namely, HS/FA, is proposed to solve function optimization. In HS/FA, the exploration of HS and the exploitation of FA are fully exerted, so HS/FA has a faster convergence speed than HS and FA. Also, top fireflies scheme is introduced to reduce running time, and HS is utilized to mutate between fireflies when updating fireflies. The HS/FA method is verified by various benchmarks. From the experiments, the implementation of HS/FA is better than the standard FA and other eight optimization methods.

  13. An Optimization Problem for Predicting the Maximal Effect of Degradation of Mechanical Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, W.; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Taylor, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    -product, this gives insight in terms of a mechanical interpretation of the optimization problem. We derive an equivalent convex problem formulation and a convex dual problem, and for dyadic matrices A(i) a quadratic programming problem formulation is developed. A nontrivial numerical example is included, based......This paper deals with a nonlinear nonconvex optimization problem that models prediction of degradation in discrete or discretized mechanical structures. The mathematical difficulty lies in equality constraints of the form Σ(i=1)(m) 1/yi A(i) x=b, where A(i) are symmetric and positive semidefinite...

  14. Autonomous Optimization of a Solidification Pattern and Its Effect on Porosity and Segregation in Steel Castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotas, Petr; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2011-01-01

    The present paper considers optimization of a solidification pattern of a gravity sand-cast steel part. That is, the choice of proper riser and chill designs has been investigated using genetic algorithms while simultaneously considering their impact on centerline porosity and macrosegregation...... distribution. This was accomplished by coupling a casting simulation software package with an optimization module. The casting process of the original casting design was simulated using a transient 3D thermal model incorporated in a commercial simulation software package to determine potential flaws...

  15. Comparison of the average surviving fraction model with the integral biologically effective dose model for an optimal irradiation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Ryo; Komiya, Yuriko; Sutherland, Kenneth L; Shirato, Hiroki; Date, Hiroyuki; Mizuta, Masahiro

    2018-01-04

    In this paper, we compare two radiation effect models: the average surviving fraction (ASF) model and the integral biologically effective dose (IBED) model for deriving the optimal irradiation scheme and show the superiority of ASF. Minimizing the effect on an organ at risk (OAR) is important in radiotherapy. The biologically effective dose (BED) model is widely used to estimate the effect on the tumor or on the OAR, for a fixed value of dose. However, this is not always appropriate because the dose is not a single value but is distributed. The IBED and ASF models are proposed under the assumption that the irradiation is distributed. Although the IBED and ASF models are essentially equivalent for deriving the optimal irradiation scheme in the case of uniform distribution, they are not equivalent in the case of non-uniform distribution. We evaluate the differences between them for two types of cancers: high α/β ratio cancer (e.g. lung) and low α/β ratio cancer (e.g. prostate), and for various distributions i.e. various dose-volume histograms. When we adopt the IBED model, the optimal number of fractions for low α/β ratio cancers is reasonable, but for high α/β ratio cancers or for some DVHs it is extremely large. However, for the ASF model, the results keep within the range used in clinical practice for both low and high α/β ratio cancers and for most DVHs. These results indicate that the ASF model is more robust for constructing the optimal irradiation regimen than the IBED model. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  16. Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Hu

    2015-01-01

    the nonsmooth convex optimization problem. First, by using Moreau-Yosida regularization, we convert the original objective function to a continuously differentiable function; then we use approximate function and gradient values of the Moreau-Yosida regularization to substitute the corresponding exact values in the algorithm. The global convergence is proved under suitable assumptions. Numerical experiments are presented to show the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  17. Nitrifying bio-cord reactor: performance optimization and effects of substratum and air scouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xin; Ahmed, Warsama; Delatolla, Robert

    2017-11-20

    Ammonia removal kinetics and solids' production performance of the bio-cord technology are studied in this research. Three nitrifying reactors housing different bio-cord substratum were operated at five different ammonia loading rates. All of the bio-cord substrata demonstrated stable and high ammonia-nitrogen removal efficiencies of 96.8 ± 0.9%, 97.0 ± 0.6% and 92.0 ± 0.4% at loading rates of 0.8, 1.6 and 1.8 g [Formula: see text]-N/m2 d, respectively. At these same loading rates, the bio-cord reactors housing the three substrata also showed low solids' production rates of 0.19 ± 0.03, 0.23 ± 0.02, 0.25 ± 0.03 g total suspended solids/d. A reduction of system stability, identified via fluctuating ammonia removal rates, was however observed for all substrata at loading rates of 2.1 and 2.4 g [Formula: see text]-N/m2 d. Further, the solids' production rates at these higher loading conditions were also observed to fluctuate for all substrata, likely indicating intermediate sloughing events. The effects of enhancing the air scouring of the bio-cord on the ammonia removal rate was shown to be dependent upon the substratum, while enhanced air scouring of the bio-cord was shown to stabilize the production of solids for all substrata. This study represents the first performance and optimization study of the bio-cord technology for low-carbon nitrification and shows that air scouring of the substratum reduces sloughing events at elevated loading and that the bio-cord technology achieves stable kinetics above conventional rates of 1 g [Formula: see text]-N/m2 d to values of 1.8 g [Formula: see text]-N/m2 d.

  18. An effective, robust and parallel implementation of an interior point algorithm for limit state optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dollerup, Niels; Jepsen, Michael S.; Frier, Christian

    2014-01-01

    in the determination of the search direction in each iteration step, and the formualtion also allows for parallel computation. The implementation has been used in load optimization of reinforced concrete slabs but is fully general. Different examples are treated to benchmark the algorithm with previous work...

  19. Methods of modeling and optimization of work effects for chosen mineral processing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Niedoba

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The methods being used in the mineral processing modeling are reviewed in this paper. Particularly, the heuristic approach was presented. The new, modern techniques of modeling and optimization were proposed, including the least median squares method and genetic algorithms. The rules of the latter were described in details.

  20. Semi-definite relaxations for optimal control problems with oscillation and concentration effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Claeys, M.; Henrion, D.; Kružík, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2017), s. 95-117 ISSN 1292-8119 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : optimal control * impulsive control * semidefinite programming Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.540, year: 2016 http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/kruzik-0470207.pdf

  1. Effect of blade loading and rotor speed on the optimal aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Christopher; Hussain, Fazle; Barhorst, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Optimization of wind turbine torque as a function of angle of attack - over the entire speed range from start-up to cut-off - is studied by considering the full trigonometric relations projecting lift and drag to thrust and torque. Since driving force and thrust are geometrically constrained, one cannot be changed without affecting the other. Increasing lift to enhance torque simultaneously increases thrust, which subsequently reduces the inflow angle with respect to the rotor plane via an increased reduction in inflow velocity. Reducing the inflow angle redirects the lift force away from the driving force generating the torque, which may reduce overall torque. Similarly, changes in the tip-speed ratio (TSR) affect the inflow angle and thus the optimal torque. Using the airfoil data from the NREL 5 MW reference turbine, the optimal angle of attack over the operational TSR range (4 to 15) was computed using a BEM model to incorporate the dynamic coupling, namely the interdependency of blade loading and inflow angle. The optimal angle of attack is close to minimum drag during start-up phase (high TSR) and continuously increases toward maximum lift at high wind speeds (low TSR).

  2. Effects of codon optimization on the mRNA levels of heterologous genes in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mizuki; Tokuoka, Masafumi; Gomi, Katsuya

    2014-05-01

    Filamentous fungi, particularly Aspergillus species, have recently attracted attention as host organisms for recombinant protein production. Because the secretory yields of heterologous proteins are generally low compared with those of homologous proteins or proteins from closely related fungal species, several strategies to produce substantial amounts of recombinant proteins have been conducted. Codon optimization is a powerful tool for improving the production levels of heterologous proteins. Although codon optimization is generally believed to improve the translation efficiency of heterologous genes without affecting their mRNA levels, several studies have indicated that codon optimization causes an increase in the steady-state mRNA levels of heterologous genes in filamentous fungi. However, the mechanism that determines the low mRNA levels when native heterologous genes are expressed was poorly understood. We recently showed that the transcripts of heterologous genes are polyadenylated prematurely within the coding region and that the heterologous gene transcripts can be stabilized significantly by codon optimization, which is probably attributable to the prevention of premature polyadenylation in Aspergillus oryzae. In this review, we describe the detailed mechanism of premature polyadenylation and the rapid degradation of mRNA transcripts derived from heterologous genes in filamentous fungi.

  3. Optimal control of wind-farm boundary layers: effect of turbine response time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munters, Wim; Meyers, Johan

    2016-11-01

    Complex turbine wake interactions play an important role in overall energy extraction in large wind farms. Current control strategies optimize individual turbine power, and lead to significant energy losses in wind farms compared to lone-standing turbines. In recent work, an optimal control framework for dynamic induction control of wind farms and their interaction with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) was introduced, with the aim of mitigating such losses. The framework applies a receding horizon methodology, in which the ABL state is modeled through large-eddy simulations. Previously, the framework was applied to both fully-developed and spatially developing wind farms, for which respective energy gains of 16% and 7% were obtained, albeit at the cost of additional turbine loading variability. Here, we quantify the trade-off between increased power extraction and smoothed turbine dynamics by varying the turbine response time in the control framework. We consider simulation cases restricted to underinduction compared to Betz-optimal induction, as well as cases that also allow overinduction. In addition, efforts on replicating optimized power gains with practical controllers are presented. The authors are supported by the ERC (ActiveWindFarms, Grant No.: 306471).

  4. Episodic and Individual Effects of Elementary Students' Optimal Experience: An HLM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chao-Yang; Chen, Sherry Y.; Lin, Sunny S. J.

    2017-01-01

    The authors defined optimal experience as a functional state of a relatively high level of concentration, time distortion, satisfaction, and enjoyment (Csikszentmihalyi, 1992) and collected data through the Day Reconstruction Method. In three random days, 147 fifth-grade students answered questionnaires for each school event in the previous day…

  5. Optimization of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) acquisition parameters for human observers: effect of reconstruction algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rongping; Badano, Aldo; Myers, Kyle J.

    2017-04-01

    We showed in our earlier work that the choice of reconstruction methods does not affect the optimization of DBT acquisition parameters (angular span and number of views) using simulated breast phantom images in detecting lesions with a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). In this work we investigate whether the model-observer based conclusion is valid when using humans to interpret images. We used previously generated DBT breast phantom images and recruited human readers to find the optimal geometry settings associated with two reconstruction algorithms, filtered back projection (FBP) and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART). The human reader results show that image quality trends as a function of the acquisition parameters are consistent between FBP and SART reconstructions. The consistent trends confirm that the optimization of DBT system geometry is insensitive to the choice of reconstruction algorithm. The results also show that humans perform better in SART reconstructed images than in FBP reconstructed images. In addition, we applied CHOs with three commonly used channel models, Laguerre-Gauss (LG) channels, square (SQR) channels and sparse difference-of-Gaussian (sDOG) channels. We found that LG channels predict human performance trends better than SQR and sDOG channel models for the task of detecting lesions in tomosynthesis backgrounds. Overall, this work confirms that the choice of reconstruction algorithm is not critical for optimizing DBT system acquisition parameters.

  6. The anti-hepatitis drug use effect and inventory management optimization from the perspective of hospital drug supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanyu

    2017-09-01

    By analyzing the current hospital anti hepatitis drug use, dosage, indications and drug resistance, this article studied the drug inventory management and cost optimization. The author used drug utilization evaluation method, analyzed the amount and kind distribution of anti hepatitis drugs and made dynamic monitoring of inventory. At the same time, the author puts forward an effective scheme of drug classification management, uses the ABC classification method to classify the drugs according to the average daily dose of drugs, and implements the automatic replenishment plan. The design of pharmaceutical services supply chain includes drug procurement platform, warehouse management system and connect to the hospital system through data exchange. Through the statistical analysis of drug inventory, we put forward the countermeasures of drug logistics optimization. The results showed that drug replenishment plan can effectively improve drugs inventory efficiency.

  7. On the implementation and effectiveness of morphological close-open and open-close filters for topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schevenels, Mattias; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    This note reconsiders the morphological close-open and open-close filters for topology optimization introduced in an earlier paper (Sigmund Struct Multidiscip Optim 33(4–5):401–424 (2007)). Close-open and open-close filters are defined as the sequential application of four dilation or erosion...... filters. In the original paper, these filters were proposed in order to provide length scale control in both the solid and the void phase. However, it was concluded that the filters were not useful in practice due to the computational cost of the sensitivity analysis. In this note, it is shown...... that the computational cost is much lower if the sensitivity analysis for each erosion or dilation step is performed sequentially. Unfortunately, it is also found that the close-open and open-close filters do not have the expected effect in terms of length scale control: each close or open operation ruins the effect...

  8. An optimized peptide vaccine strategy capable of inducing multivalent CD8+ T cell responses with potent antitumor effects

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hyun-Il; Jung, Soo-Hyun; Sohn, Hyun-Jung; Celis, Esteban; Kim, Tai-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic cancer vaccines are an attractive alternative to conventional therapies for treating malignant tumors, and successful tumor eradication depends primarily on obtaining high numbers of long-lasting tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells. Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines constitute a promising approach for treating cancer, but in most instances low immune responses and suboptimal therapeutic effects are achieved indicating that further optimization is required. We describe here a novel vaccin...

  9. A Cost-Effective Approach to Optimizing Microstructure and Magnetic Properties in Ce17Fe78B6 Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Tan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing fabrication parameters for rapid solidification of Re-Fe-B (Re = Rare earth alloys can lead to nanocrystalline products with hard magnetic properties without any heat-treatment. In this work, we enhanced the magnetic properties of Ce17Fe78B6 ribbons by engineering both the microstructure and volume fraction of the Ce2Fe14B phase through optimization of the chamber pressure and the wheel speed necessary for quenching the liquid. We explored the relationship between these two parameters (chamber pressure and wheel speed, and proposed an approach to identifying the experimental conditions most likely to yield homogenous microstructure and reproducible magnetic properties. Optimized experimental conditions resulted in a microstructure with homogeneously dispersed Ce2Fe14B and CeFe2 nanocrystals. The best magnetic properties were obtained at a chamber pressure of 0.05 MPa and a wheel speed of 15 m·s−1. Without the conventional heat-treatment that is usually required, key magnetic properties were maximized by optimization processing parameters in rapid solidification of magnetic materials in a cost-effective manner.

  10. Normalization of doxorubicin release from graphene oxide: New approach for optimization of effective parameters on drug loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohadeseh; Yadegari, Amir; Yazdanpanah, Ghasem; Omidi, Meisam; Jabbehdari, Sayena; Haghiralsadat, Fatemeh; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2017-05-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been recently introduced as a suitable anticancer drug carrier, which could be loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) as a general chemotherapy agent. Herein, the attempts were made to optimize the effective parameters on both loading and release of DOX on GO. GO and GO-DOX were characterized using transition electron microscopy , zeta potential, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, loading and releasing behaviors of DOX on GO were studied in terms of different temperature and pH values. The primary optimized values of pH and temperature for best-loaded amount of DOX were 8.9 and 309 K, respectively. Moreover, we found that the smallest amount of released DOX, in pH of cancer microenvironment (5.4), occurs when DOX had been previously loaded in pH 7.8 and 310 K. Although the highest amount of loaded DOX was in basic pH, the results of efficient release of DOX from the GO-DOX complex and also cellular toxicity assay revealed that the best pH for loading of DOX on GO was 7.8. Therefore, in addition to optimization of parameters for efficient loading of DOX on GO, this study suggested that normalization of a released drug compared with the amount of a loaded drug could be a new approach for optimization of drug loading on nanocarriers. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Solving economic dispatch problem with valve-point effects using swarm-based mean–variance mapping optimization (MVMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.H. Khoa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mean–variance mapping optimization (MVMO is a new population-based metaheuristic technique which is successfully applied for different power system optimization problems. The special feature of MVMO is the mapping function applied for the mutation based on the mean and variance of n-best population. Recently, the modified version of MVMO has been developed to become more powerful, named as swarm-based mean–variance mapping optimization (MVMOS. This paper proposes MVMOS as a new approach for solving the economic dispatch (ED problem considering valve-point effects. To validate the performance of the proposed method, the MVMOS is tested on three systems including 3, 13, and 40 thermal generating units with valve-point effects and the obtained results from MVMOS are compared to those from other existing methods in the literature. Test results have indicated that the proposed MVMOS is more robust and produces better solution quality than many other methods. Therefore, the MVMOS is efficient for solving the ED with valve-point effects.

  12. Facile and Effective Synthesis of Praseodymium Tungstate Nanoparticles through an Optimized Procedure and Investigation of Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmortazavi Seied Mahdi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the importance of nanoparticles in today’s world, and in the light of the fact that their preparation can be a rather difficult task, we focused on the applicability of a simplistic direct precipitation approach for the preparation of praseodymium tungstate nanoparticles. To maximize the effectiveness of the method, a Taguchi robust design approach was applied to optimize the reaction in terms of the operating conditions influencing its outcome and the results were monitored by characterization of the Pr2(WO43 nanoparticles. Among the four parameters studied we found the dimensions of the produced nanoparticles to be determined by the concentrations of Pr3+ and WO43− solutions and the reaction temperature, while the flow rate of adding the cation solutions to the anion solution was found to leave very negligible effects on the product characteristics. To confirm the effect of the optimizations on the outcomes of the reaction, SEM, TEM, EDX, XRD, FT-IR and UV-Vis structural and morphological characterizations of the products were performed, the results of which were in agreement with those statistically predicted in the optimization procedure. Furthermore, as-synthesized praseodymium tungstate nanoparticles under ultraviolet light exhibited an efficient photocatalyst property in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

  13. Investigation, sensitivity analysis, and multi-objective optimization of effective parameters on temperature and force in robotic drilling cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Vahid; Ghoreishi, Majid; Zolfaghari, Mojtaba

    2017-11-01

    The bone drilling process is very prominent in orthopedic surgeries and in the repair of bone fractures. It is also very common in dentistry and bone sampling operations. Due to the complexity of bone and the sensitivity of the process, bone drilling is one of the most important and sensitive processes in biomedical engineering. Orthopedic surgeries can be improved using robotic systems and mechatronic tools. The most crucial problem during drilling is an unwanted increase in process temperature (higher than 47 °C), which causes thermal osteonecrosis or cell death and local burning of the bone tissue. Moreover, imposing higher forces to the bone may lead to breaking or cracking and consequently cause serious damage. In this study, a mathematical second-order linear regression model as a function of tool drilling speed, feed rate, tool diameter, and their effective interactions is introduced to predict temperature and force during the bone drilling process. This model can determine the maximum speed of surgery that remains within an acceptable temperature range. Moreover, for the first time, using designed experiments, the bone drilling process was modeled, and the drilling speed, feed rate, and tool diameter were optimized. Then, using response surface methodology and applying a multi-objective optimization, drilling force was minimized to sustain an acceptable temperature range without damaging the bone or the surrounding tissue. In addition, for the first time, Sobol statistical sensitivity analysis is used to ascertain the effect of process input parameters on process temperature and force. The results show that among all effective input parameters, tool rotational speed, feed rate, and tool diameter have the highest influence on process temperature and force, respectively. The behavior of each output parameters with variation in each input parameter is further investigated. Finally, a multi-objective optimization has been performed considering all the

  14. The effect of key parameters on the design of an optimized caes power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadi M. Khalaji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the significant variations in electricity generation and its demand, the power plant owners are encountered with challenges of economic operation. Among all, Compressed air energy storage (CAES technology has proposed itself as a reliable and efficient solution to match the two sides. This paper deals with a modeled compressed air energy storage power plant which has been optimized thermodynamically through an efficient genetic algorithm code. The results of this optimized model, considered as the base case, show that the power plant is technically and financially justifiable. In order to obtain a more tangible realization, it is necessary to verify the results against the variation of key parameters. In this study, the sensitivity analysis is performed based on main parameters including plant loading and ambient condition and the resultant trends of each case are presented. This approach will help the designers to analyze the quality of their designs in different situations.

  15. Effectively utilizing device maintenance data to optimize a medical device maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, D; Leung, J; Easty, T

    2001-01-01

    Methods developed by the clinical engineering community and the principles outlined by ISO regulations for the application of risk management to medical devices were integrated to provide a basis for the unique optimization system implemented into the University Health Network medical device maintenance program. Device maintenance history data stored in the database is used to conduct a risk analysis and to compute predefined benchmarks to highlight groups of equipment for which the current maintenance regime is not optimal. Using a software data research tool we are able to investigate device history data and support alterations in maintenance intervals, user training, maintenance procedures, and/or device purchasing. These alterations are justified, documented, and monitored for risk in a continuous management cycle. The predicted benefits are an overall improvement in the reliability of the devices maintained, coupled with a drop in repetitive device checks that result in no measurable benefits.

  16. A HYBRID OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR EFFECTIVE DOCUMENT CLUSTERING IN QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Karpagam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, the information is growing enormously and it is difficult and tedious task to retrieve the necessary information from that pool. The main area for retrieving relevant answers is called intelligent information retrieval. To achieve this, question and answering system is used. This question and answering plays a major role in user query processing, information retrieval and extracting related information from the information pool. Recently, number of optimization algorithms is introduced to obtain the accurate and better results. Genetic Algorithm and Cuckoo Search are nature inspired meta-heuristic optimization algorithms. In this paper, combination of Genetic Algorithm with Cuckoo Search is applied to the question and answering system. The proposed algorithm is tested with the Amazon review, Trip Advisor and 20newsgroup datasets. The results are compared with Genetic Algorithm and Cuckoo Search algorithms.

  17. Optimal swimming speed in head currents and effects on distance movement of winter-migrating fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, J.; Nilsson, P.A.; Ammitzbøl, J.

    2008-01-01

    ecologically and economically important. We here use passive and active telemetry to study how winter migrating roach regulate swimming speed and distance travelled per day in response to variations in head current velocity. Furthermore, we provide theoretical predictions on optimal swimming speeds in head....... Such variation can, for instance, arise from changes in wind or current velocity for migrating birds and fish, respectively. Whereas behavioural responses of birds to such changing environmental conditions have been relatively well described, this is not the case for fish, although fish migrations are both...... currents and relate these to our empirical results. We show that fish migrate farther on days with low current velocity, but travel at a greater ground speed on days with high current velocity. The latter result agrees with our predictions on optimal swimming speed in head currents, but disagrees...

  18. Effects of optimized root water uptake parameterization schemes on water and heat flux simulation in a maize agroecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fu; Ming, Huiqing; Mi, Na; Xie, Yanbing; Zhang, Yushu; Li, Rongping

    2017-04-01

    As root water uptake (RWU) is an important link in the water and heat exchange between plants and ambient air, improving its parameterization is key to enhancing the performance of land surface model simulations. Although different types of RWU functions have been adopted in land surface models, there is no evidence as to which scheme most applicable to maize farmland ecosystems. Based on the 2007-09 data collected at the farmland ecosystem field station in Jinzhou, the RWU function in the Common Land Model (CoLM) was optimized with scheme options in light of factors determining whether roots absorb water from a certain soil layer ( W x ) and whether the baseline cumulative root efficiency required for maximum plant transpiration ( W c ) is reached. The sensibility of the parameters of the optimization scheme was investigated, and then the effects of the optimized RWU function on water and heat flux simulation were evaluated. The results indicate that the model simulation was not sensitive to W x but was significantly impacted by W c . With the original model, soil humidity was somewhat underestimated for precipitation-free days; soil temperature was simulated with obvious interannual and seasonal differences and remarkable underestimations for the maize late-growth stage; and sensible and latent heat fluxes were overestimated and underestimated, respectively, for years with relatively less precipitation, and both were simulated with high accuracy for years with relatively more precipitation. The optimized RWU process resulted in a significant improvement of CoLM's performance in simulating soil humidity, temperature, sensible heat, and latent heat, for dry years. In conclusion, the optimized RWU scheme available for the CoLM model is applicable to the simulation of water and heat flux for maize farmland ecosystems in arid areas.

  19. Swarm size and iteration number effects to the performance of PSO algorithm in RFID tag coverage optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathabrao, M.; Nawawi, Azli; Sidek, Noor Azizah

    2017-04-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system has multiple benefits which can improve the operational efficiency of the organization. The advantages are the ability to record data systematically and quickly, reducing human errors and system errors, update the database automatically and efficiently. It is often more readers (reader) is needed for the installation purposes in RFID system. Thus, it makes the system more complex. As a result, RFID network planning process is needed to ensure the RFID system works perfectly. The planning process is also considered as an optimization process and power adjustment because the coordinates of each RFID reader to be determined. Therefore, algorithms inspired by the environment (Algorithm Inspired by Nature) is often used. In the study, PSO algorithm is used because it has few number of parameters, the simulation time is fast, easy to use and also very practical. However, PSO parameters must be adjusted correctly, for robust and efficient usage of PSO. Failure to do so may result in disruption of performance and results of PSO optimization of the system will be less good. To ensure the efficiency of PSO, this study will examine the effects of two parameters on the performance of PSO Algorithm in RFID tag coverage optimization. The parameters to be studied are the swarm size and iteration number. In addition to that, the study will also recommend the most optimal adjustment for both parameters that is, 200 for the no. iterations and 800 for the no. of swarms. Finally, the results of this study will enable PSO to operate more efficiently in order to optimize RFID network planning system.

  20. The Effect of Temperature on the Optimization of Photovoltaic Cells Using Silvaco ATLAS Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    TEMPERATURE ON THE OPTIMIZATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS USING SILVACO ATLAS MODELING by Brian P. Sullivan September 2010 Thesis Advisor: Sherif...Photovoltaic Cells Using Silvaco ATLAS Modeling 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Brian P. Sullivan 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...called Silvaco ATLAS . Work from a previous Naval Postgraduate School thesis provided the initial InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell design

  1. An Efficient Variable Screening Method for Effective Surrogate Models for Reliability-Based Design Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    surrogate models because it can provide accurate response and sensitivity of the problem, unless the optimization algorithm has a limitation on the...or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or the Department of the Army ( DoA ). The opinions of the...authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or the DoA , and shall not be used for advertising or

  2. TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION OF OPTICAL BAND GAP EFFECTS IN SLAB STRUCTURES MODULATED BY PERIODIC RAYLEIGHWAVES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This paper is concerned with topology optimization of a coupled optical and mechanical wave propagation problem in photonic crystals. It is motivated by the potential gain in functionality of optical devices where mechanical Rayleigh waves (travelling in the surface of the material) play a leadin...... role. The practical applications cover novel optical modulators, switches and frequency shifters. The work uses COMSOL Multiphysics which is a modern and finite element based modelling language....

  3. Optimization of the flood protection effect of a hydropower multi-reservoir system

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Frédéric; Boillat, Jean-Louis; Schleiss, Anton

    2012-01-01

    The use of existing hydroelectricity multi-reservoir systems for flood protection may be an efficient approach in many catchment areas. The assessment of the protection potential offered by the hydropower plants during floods requires a comprehensive analysis of the catchment area, including the simulation of flood scenarios. A methodology for the optimization of turbine and bottom outlet operations of multi-reservoir systems during floods is presented. Based on a theoretical catchment config...

  4. Stress in the Health Sector and Effect of Optimism on the Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yigıt, Songul

    2015-01-01

    Job is an indispensable part of life. All employees face stress. The health sector has many properties that may lead to stress stemmingfrom its characteristic structure. Due to the fact that the slightest mistake may lead to loss of human life, satisfaction or dissatisfactionof employees has an importance not only in terms of individuals but also in terms of the society.Optimism is a viewpoint. An optimistic person can cope with any difficulties of life and survive dangerous situations with t...

  5. Effective Source-to-Source Outlining to Support Whole Program Empirical Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R; Panas, T

    2009-07-17

    Although automated empirical performance optimization and tuning is well-studied for kernels and domain-specific libraries, a current research grand challenge is how to extend these methodologies and tools to significantly larger sequential and parallel applications. In this context, we present the ROSE source-to-source outliner, which addresses the problem of extracting tunable kernels out of whole programs, thereby helping to convert the challenging whole-program tuning problem into a set of more manageable kernel tuning tasks. Our outliner aims to handle large scale C/C++, Fortran and OpenMP applications. A set of program analysis and transformation techniques are utilized to enhance the portability, scalability, and interoperability of source-to-source outlining. More importantly, the generated kernels preserve performance characteristics of tuning targets and can be easily handled by other tools. Preliminary evaluations have shown that the ROSE outliner serves as a key component within an end-to-end empirical optimization system and enables a wide range of sequential and parallel optimization opportunities.

  6. Global optimal vaccination in the SIR model: properties of the value function and application to cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguzet, Laetitia; Turinici, Gabriel

    2015-05-01

    This work focuses on optimal vaccination policies for an Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model; the impact of the disease is minimized with respect to the vaccination strategy. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem and we show that the value function is the unique viscosity solution of an Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation. This allows to find the best vaccination policy. At odds with existing literature, it is seen that the value function is not always smooth (sometimes only Lipschitz) and the optimal vaccination policies are not unique. Moreover we rigorously analyze the situation when vaccination can be modeled as instantaneous (with respect to the time evolution of the epidemic) and identify the global optimum solutions. Numerical applications illustrate the theoretical results. In addition the pertussis vaccination in adults is considered from two perspectives: first the maximization of DALY averted in presence of vaccine side-effects; then the impact of the herd immunity on the cost-effectiveness analysis is discussed on a concrete example. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pilot-scale treatment of atrazine production wastewater by UV/O3/ultrasound: Factor effects and system optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Liang; Chen, Bing; Wen, Diya; Zheng, Jisi; Zhang, Baiyu

    2017-12-01

    This study shed light on removing atrazine from pesticide production wastewater using a pilot-scale UV/O 3 /ultrasound flow-through system. A significant quadratic polynomial prediction model with an adjusted R 2 of 0.90 was obtained from central composite design with response surface methodology. The optimal atrazine removal rate (97.68%) was obtained at the conditions of 75 W UV power, 10.75 g h -1 O 3 flow rate and 142.5 W ultrasound power. A Monte Carlo simulation aided artificial neural networks model was further developed to quantify the importance of O 3 flow rate (40%), UV power (30%) and ultrasound power (30%). Their individual and interaction effects were also discussed in terms of reaction kinetics. UV and ultrasound could both enhance the decomposition of O 3 and promote hydroxyl radical (OH·) formation. Nonetheless, the dose of O 3 was the dominant factor and must be optimized because excess O 3 can react with OH·, thereby reducing the rate of atrazine degradation. The presence of other organic compounds in the background matrix appreciably inhibited the degradation of atrazine, while the effects of Cl - , CO 3 2- and HCO 3 - were comparatively negligible. It was concluded that the optimization of system performance using response surface methodology and neural networks would be beneficial for scaling up the treatment by UV/O 3 /ultrasound at industrial level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Layout effects and optimization of runoff storage and filtration facilities based on SWMM simulation in a demonstration area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The layout effects and optimization of runoff storage and filtration facilities are crucial to the efficiency and management of the cost of runoff control, but related research is still lacking. In this study, scenarios with different layouts were simulated using the storm water management model (SWMM, to investigate the layout effects on control efficiency with different precipitations. In a rainfall event with 50 mm of precipitation in two hours, 1820 scenarios with different layouts of four facilities constructed in 16 sub-catchments were simulated, the reduction rates of internal flow presented a standard deviation of 10.9%, and the difference between the maximum and minimum reduction rates reached 59.7%. Based on weighting analysis, an integrated ranking index was obtained and used to determine the optimal layout scenarios considering different rainfall events. In the optimal scenario (storage and filtration facilities constructed in sub-catchments 14, 12, 7, and 2, the reduction rates of the total outflow reached 31.4%, 26.4%, and 14.7%, respectively, with 30, 50, and 80 mm of precipitation. The reduction rate of the internal outflow reached 95% with 50 mm of precipitation and approximately 56% with 80 mm of precipitation.

  9. Cirrus Heterogeneity Effects on Cloud Optical Properties Retrieved with an Optimal Estimation Method from MODIS VIS to TIR Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchez, T.; Platnick, S.; Meyer, K.; Sourdeval, O.; Cornet, C.; Zhang, Z.; Szczap, F.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents preliminary results on the effect of cirrus heterogeneities on top-of-atmosphere (TOA) simulated radiances or reflectances for MODIS channels centered at 0.86, 2.21, 8.56, 11.01 and 12.03 micrometers , and on cloud optical properties retrieved with a research-level optimal estimation method (OEM). Synthetic cirrus cloud fields are generated using a 3D cloud generator (3DCLOUD) and radiances/reflectances are simulated using a 3D radiative transfer code (3DMCPOL). We find significant differences between the heterogeneity effects on either visible and near-infrared (VNIR) or thermal infrared (TIR) radiances. However, when both wavelength ranges are combined, heterogeneity effects are dominated by the VNIR horizontal radiative transport effect. As a result, small optical thicknesses are overestimated and large ones are underestimated. Retrieved effective diameter are found to be slightly affected, contrarily to retrievals using TIR channels only.

  10. Cirrus heterogeneity effects on cloud optical properties retrieved with an optimal estimation method from MODIS VIS to TIR channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchez, T.; Platnick, S.; Sourdeval, O.; Meyer, K.; Cornet, C.; Zhang, Z.; Szczap, F.

    2017-02-01

    This study presents preliminary results on the effect of cirrus heterogeneities on top-of-atmosphere (TOA) simulated radiances or reflectances for MODIS channels centered at 0.86, 2.21, 8.56, 11.01 and 12.03 µm, and on cloud optical properties retrieved with a research-level optimal estimation method (OEM). Synthetic cirrus cloud fields are generated using a 3D cloud generator (3DCLOUD) and radiances/reflectances are simulated using a 3D radiative transfer code (3DMCPOL). We find significant differences between the heterogeneity effects on either visible and near-infrared (VNIR) or thermal infrared (TIR) radiances. However, when both wavelength ranges are combined, heterogeneity effects are dominated by the VNIR horizontal radiative transport effect. As a result, small optical thicknesses are overestimated and large ones are underestimated. Retrieved effective diameter are found to be slightly affected, contrarily to retrievals using TIR channels only.

  11. Full-zone spectral envelope function formalism for the optimization of line and point tunnel field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreck, Devin, E-mail: devin.verreck@imec.be; Groeseneken, Guido [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Verhulst, Anne S.; Mocuta, Anda; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van de Put, Maarten; Magnus, Wim [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics, Universiteit Antwerpen, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Sorée, Bart [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics, Universiteit Antwerpen, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-10-07

    Efficient quantum mechanical simulation of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) is indispensable to allow for an optimal configuration identification. We therefore present a full-zone 15-band quantum mechanical solver based on the envelope function formalism and employing a spectral method to reduce computational complexity and handle spurious solutions. We demonstrate the versatility of the solver by simulating a 40 nm wide In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As lineTFET and comparing it to p-n-i-n configurations with various pocket and body thicknesses. We find that the lineTFET performance is not degraded compared to semi-classical simulations. Furthermore, we show that a suitably optimized p-n-i-n TFET can obtain similar performance to the lineTFET.

  12. An Effective Vacuum Assisted Extraction Method for the Optimization of Labdane Diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Qi Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective vacuum assisted extraction (VAE technique was proposed for the first time and applied to extract bioactive components from Andrographis paniculata. The process was carefully optimized by response surface methodology (RSM. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the best results were obtained using a boiling temperature of 65 °C, 50% ethanol concentration, 16 min of extraction time, one extraction cycles and a 12:1 liquid-solid ratio. Compared with conventional ultrasonic assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction, the VAE technique gave shorter extraction times and remarkable higher extraction efficiency, which indicated that a certain degree of vacuum gave the solvent a better penetration of the solvent into the pores and between the matrix particles, and enhanced the process of mass transfer. The present results demonstrated that VAE is an efficient, simple and fast method for extracting bioactive components from A. paniculata, which shows great potential for becoming an alternative technique for industrial scale-up applications.

  13. Preparation, Optimization, and Screening of the Effect of Processing Variables on Agar Nanospheres Loaded with Bupropion HCl by a D-Optimal Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Varshosaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant drug. Fluctuating in its serum levels following oral administration of immediate release dosage forms leads to occasional seizure. The aim of the present work was designing of sustained release bupropion HCl nanospheres suited for pulmonary delivery. Agar nanospheres were prepared by transferring the w/o emulsion to solid in oil (s/o suspension. Calcium chloride was used as cross-linking agent and hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD was used as permeability enhancer. A response surface D-optimal design was used for optimization of nanospheres. Independent factors included in the design were calcium chloride percent, speed of homogenization, agar percent, and HPβCD percent. Optimum condition was predicted to be achieved when the calcium chloride was set at 7.19%, homogenization speed at 8500 rpm, agar content at 2%, and HPβCD at 0.12%. The optimized nanoparticles showed particle size of 587 nm, zeta potential of −30.9 mV, drug loading efficiency of 38.6%, and release efficiency of 51% until 5 h. The nanospheres showed high degree of bioadhesiveness. D-optimal response surface method is a satisfactory design to optimize the fabrication of bupropion HCl loaded agar nanospheres and these nanospheres can be successively exploited to deliver bupropion in a controlled manner for a sufficiently extended period.

  14. Preparation, Optimization, and Screening of the Effect of Processing Variables on Agar Nanospheres Loaded with Bupropion HCl by a D-Optimal Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Zaki, Mohammad Reza; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Banoozadeh, Jaafar

    2015-01-01

    Bupropion is an atypical antidepressant drug. Fluctuating in its serum levels following oral administration of immediate release dosage forms leads to occasional seizure. The aim of the present work was designing of sustained release bupropion HCl nanospheres suited for pulmonary delivery. Agar nanospheres were prepared by transferring the w/o emulsion to solid in oil (s/o) suspension. Calcium chloride was used as cross-linking agent and hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) was used as permeability enhancer. A response surface D-optimal design was used for optimization of nanospheres. Independent factors included in the design were calcium chloride percent, speed of homogenization, agar percent, and HPβCD percent. Optimum condition was predicted to be achieved when the calcium chloride was set at 7.19%, homogenization speed at 8500 rpm, agar content at 2%, and HPβCD at 0.12%. The optimized nanoparticles showed particle size of 587 nm, zeta potential of −30.9 mV, drug loading efficiency of 38.6%, and release efficiency of 51% until 5 h. The nanospheres showed high degree of bioadhesiveness. D-optimal response surface method is a satisfactory design to optimize the fabrication of bupropion HCl loaded agar nanospheres and these nanospheres can be successively exploited to deliver bupropion in a controlled manner for a sufficiently extended period. PMID:26090423

  15. Effectiveness of Training Sessions on a Measure of Optimism and Pessimism Concepts among the Kindergarten Children in the District of Al-Shobak in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohtadi, Reham Mohammad; ALdarab'h, Intisar Turki; Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine the effects of training sessions on children's levels of optimism versus pessimism among the kindergarten children in the district of Shobak in Jordan. The sample of the study consisted 21 children whom their ages were between 5 to 6 years old. A training program was applied. The level of optimism and pessimism…

  16. Effect of the swirling of an ideal gas flow on the shape of the supersonic part of an optimal axisymmetric nozzle profile with a bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonin, G. I.; Butov, V. G.

    1989-06-01

    The effect of inlet flow swirling on the shape of an optimal supersonic nozzle section with a bend is investigated using an ideal (nonviscous and non-heat-conducting) gas model. The corresponding variational problem is solved by a direct method whereby the problem is reduced to a nonlinear programming problem. Two types of optimal nozzle profiles are constructed as an example.

  17. Optimization of solid state fermentation of sugar cane by Aspergillus niger considering particles size effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, J.; Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Delgado, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba)); Espinosa, M.E. (Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas, La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    The protein enrichment of sugar cane by solid state fermentation employing Aspergillus niger was optimized in a packed bed column using a two Factor Central Composit Design {alpha} = 2, considering as independent factors the particle diameter corresponding to different times of grinding for a sample and the air flow rate. It was significative for the air flow rate (optimum 4.34 VKgM) and the particle diameter (optimum 0.136 cm). The average particle size distribution, shape factor, specific surface, volume-surface mean diameter, number of particles, real and apparent density and holloweness for the different times of grinding were determined, in order to characterize the samples. (orig.).

  18. An Effective Experimental Optimization Method for Wireless Power Transfer System Design Using Frequency Domain Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyeong Jeong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an experimental optimization method for a wireless power transfer (WPT system. The power transfer characteristics of a WPT system with arbitrary loads and various types of coupling and compensation networks can be extracted by frequency domain measurements. The various performance parameters of the WPT system, such as input real/imaginary/apparent power, power factor, efficiency, output power and voltage gain, can be accurately extracted in a frequency domain by a single passive measurement. Subsequently, the design parameters can be efficiently tuned by separating the overall design steps into two parts. The extracted performance parameters of the WPT system were validated with time-domain experiments.

  19. Effective optimization of medical exposure: co-operation between radiation users and authorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkkinen, R.; Jarvinen, H. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    For the optimization of medical exposure in special radiological practices like in paediatric radiology, orthopaedics and cardiology, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (S.T.U.K.) in Finland has used a six step model to achieve the aims of the Medical Exposure Directive (97/43/EURATOM). The basis is to introduce the regulation and to meet the needs of the users for education and training. The aim is to educate some specialists to distribute information and good practices among their own professional groups. S.T.U.K. makes continuous verification on site visits and improves the process. (authors)

  20. A Parametric Optimization Approach to Mitigating the Urban Heat Island Effect: A Case Study in Ancona, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cocci Grifoni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify a parameterization method that considers existing connections and relationships between traditional indicators of environmental sustainability as a step in combating climate change via urban strategies. A typical Mediterranean city (Ancona, Italy is investigated with a multi-objective optimization platform called modeFrontier, which uses Pareto optimality. This concept formalizes the trade-off between a given set of mutually contradicting objectives, such as high thermal comfort and low energy consumption, to identify a set of Pareto solutions. A solution is Pareto optimal when it is not possible to improve one objective without deteriorating at least one of the others. The optimization process employs given constraints (for example, meteorological scenarios with high temperature and low winds or morphological building parameters, custom procedural algorithms (recursive algorithms to generate the set of all non-dominated objective parameters, and genetic algorithms (inspired by the natural selection process to examine a wide urban space and identify interesting relationships among relevant variables for typical summer scenarios. Multi-objective optimizers involve many evaluations of two objectives (i.e., energy consumption and thermal comfort in this study while considering many analytical constraints. This approach entails a considerably more exhaustive search of environmental variables that can help the urban planning process to mitigate the urban heat island (UHI effect. Three quantitative metrics related to urban morphology and local climate conditions, as well as a thermal comfort indicator (the predicted mean vote, are defined and applied to Ancona to examine the potential for new sustainability in urban design. The results show that two parameters examined—compacity and a building-scale energy indicator—can offer insight when designing comfortable cities, while a citywide energy indicator shows

  1. Optimal swimming speed in head currents and effects on distance movement of winter-migrating fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Brodersen

    Full Text Available Migration is a commonly described phenomenon in nature that is often caused by spatial and temporal differences in habitat quality. However, as migration requires energy, the timing of migration may depend not only on differences in habitat quality, but also on temporal variation in migration costs. Such variation can, for instance, arise from changes in wind or current velocity for migrating birds and fish, respectively. Whereas behavioural responses of birds to such changing environmental conditions have been relatively well described, this is not the case for fish, although fish migrations are both ecologically and economically important. We here use passive and active telemetry to study how winter migrating roach regulate swimming speed and distance travelled per day in response to variations in head current velocity. Furthermore, we provide theoretical predictions on optimal swimming speeds in head currents and relate these to our empirical results. We show that fish migrate farther on days with low current velocity, but travel at a greater ground speed on days with high current velocity. The latter result agrees with our predictions on optimal swimming speed in head currents, but disagrees with previously reported predictions suggesting that fish ground speed should not change with head current velocity. We suggest that this difference is due to different assumptions on fish swimming energetics. We conclude that fish are able to adjust both swimming speed and timing of swimming activity during migration to changes in head current velocity in order to minimize energy use.

  2. Optimization of ventilation and its effect on the microclimate of a colombian multispan greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Andrés Villagrán

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, greenhouse design optimization has not been a relevant topic and, as a consequence, the ventilation systems of current structures are not optimal, generating inadequate microclimates for the development of horticultural species. At the production level, management of the greenhouse climate is deficient, and this factor is not taken into account as a function of characteristics dependent on greenhouse design that cannot be modified during its lifespan. The aim of the present work was to study the efficiency of modifications applied to the ventilation system of a commercial greenhouse available on the Colombian market. This was accomplished by using numerical simulations through the application of the computational fluid dynamics method. Based on the commercial greenhouse design, two modified models were designed by applying structural modifications and changing the orientation of the fixed open ridges. Simulations with the three greenhouse models were carried out in order to maximize the air renovation rates and improve air movement within the entire greenhouse, striving for the highest degree of climate homogenization. The best greenhouse design was the one with the highest air renovation index, high enough to ensure adequate control of temperature and humidity extremes through natural ventilation. Additionally, this design generated the most homogenous microclimate within the cultivation zone

  3. Novel methods to optimize the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation: a systematic review of transcranial direct current stimulation patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavera, Alejandra; Vasquez, Alejandra; Fregni, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that has been extensively studied. While there have been initial positive results in some clinical trials, there is still variability in tDCS results. The aim of this article is to review and discuss patents assessing novel methods to optimize the use of tDCS. A systematic review was performed using Google patents database with tDCS as the main technique, with patents filling date between 2010 and 2015. Twenty-two patents met our inclusion criteria. These patents attempt to address current tDCS limitations. Only a few of them have been investigated in clinical trials (i.e., high-definition tDCS), and indeed most of them have not been tested before in human trials. Further clinical testing is required to assess which patents are more likely to optimize the effects of tDCS. We discuss the potential optimization of tDCS based on these patents and the current experience with standard tDCS.

  4. Convex reformulation of biologically-based multi-criteria intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization including fractionation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Aswin L.; den Hertog, Dick; Siem, Alex Y. D.; Kaanders, Johannes H. A. M.; Huizenga, Henk

    2008-11-01

    Finding fluence maps for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be formulated as a multi-criteria optimization problem for which Pareto optimal treatment plans exist. To account for the dose-per-fraction effect of fractionated IMRT, it is desirable to exploit radiobiological treatment plan evaluation criteria based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) cell survival model as a means to balance the radiation benefits and risks in terms of biologic response. Unfortunately, the LQ-model-based radiobiological criteria are nonconvex functions, which make the optimization problem hard to solve. We apply the framework proposed by Romeijn et al (2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 1991-2013) to find transformations of LQ-model-based radiobiological functions and establish conditions under which transformed functions result in equivalent convex criteria that do not change the set of Pareto optimal treatment plans. The functions analysed are: the LQ-Poisson-based model for tumour control probability (TCP) with and without inter-patient heterogeneity in radiation sensitivity, the LQ-Poisson-based relative seriality s-model for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) under the LQ-Poisson model and the fractionation-corrected Probit-based model for NTCP according to Lyman, Kutcher and Burman. These functions differ from those analysed before in that they cannot be decomposed into elementary EUD or generalized-EUD functions. In addition, we show that applying increasing and concave transformations to the convexified functions is beneficial for the piecewise approximation of the Pareto efficient frontier.

  5. Convex reformulation of biologically-based multi-criteria intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization including fractionation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Aswin L; den Hertog, Dick; Siem, Alex Y D; Kaanders, Johannes H A M; Huizenga, Henk

    2008-11-21

    Finding fluence maps for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be formulated as a multi-criteria optimization problem for which Pareto optimal treatment plans exist. To account for the dose-per-fraction effect of fractionated IMRT, it is desirable to exploit radiobiological treatment plan evaluation criteria based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) cell survival model as a means to balance the radiation benefits and risks in terms of biologic response. Unfortunately, the LQ-model-based radiobiological criteria are nonconvex functions, which make the optimization problem hard to solve. We apply the framework proposed by Romeijn et al (2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 1991-2013) to find transformations of LQ-model-based radiobiological functions and establish conditions under which transformed functions result in equivalent convex criteria that do not change the set of Pareto optimal treatment plans. The functions analysed are: the LQ-Poisson-based model for tumour control probability (TCP) with and without inter-patient heterogeneity in radiation sensitivity, the LQ-Poisson-based relative seriality s-model for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) under the LQ-Poisson model and the fractionation-corrected Probit-based model for NTCP according to Lyman, Kutcher and Burman. These functions differ from those analysed before in that they cannot be decomposed into elementary EUD or generalized-EUD functions. In addition, we show that applying increasing and concave transformations to the convexified functions is beneficial for the piecewise approximation of the Pareto efficient frontier.

  6. Novel analytical model for optimizing the pull-in voltage in a flexured MEMS switch incorporating beam perforation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, K.; Laskar, N. M.; Gogoi, H. J.; Borah, A. K.; Baishnab, K. L.; Baishya, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a new method for the design, modelling and optimization of a uniform serpentine meander based MEMS shunt capacitive switch with perforation on upper beam. The new approach is proposed to improve the Pull-in Voltage performance in a MEMS switch. First a new analytical model of the Pull-in Voltage is proposed using the modified Mejis-Fokkema capacitance model taking care of the nonlinear electrostatic force, the fringing field effect due to beam thickness and etched holes on the beam simultaneously followed by the validation of same with the simulated results of benchmark full 3D FEM solver CoventorWare in a wide range of structural parameter variations. It shows a good agreement with the simulated results. Secondly, an optimization method is presented to determine the optimum configuration of switch for achieving minimum Pull-in voltage considering the proposed analytical mode as objective function. Some high performance Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms have been utilized to obtain the optimum dimensions with less computational cost and complexity. Upon comparing the applied algorithms between each other, the Dragonfly Algorithm is found to be most suitable in terms of minimum Pull-in voltage and higher convergence speed. Optimized values are validated against the simulated results of CoventorWare which shows a very satisfactory results with a small deviation of 0.223 V. In addition to these, the paper proposes, for the first time, a novel algorithmic approach for uniform arrangement of square holes in a given beam area of RF MEMS switch for perforation. The algorithm dynamically accommodates all the square holes within a given beam area such that the maximum space is utilized. This automated arrangement of perforation holes will further improve the computational complexity and design accuracy of the complex design of perforated MEMS switch.

  7. Optimal design of green and grey stormwater infrastructure for small urban catchment based on life-cycle cost-effectiveness analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Chui, T. F. M.

    2016-12-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) is identified as sustainable and environmentally friendly alternatives to the conventional grey stormwater infrastructure. Commonly used GI (e.g. green roof, bioretention, porous pavement) can provide multifunctional benefits, e.g. mitigation of urban heat island effects, improvements in air quality. Therefore, to optimize the design of GI and grey drainage infrastructure, it is essential to account for their benefits together with the costs. In this study, a comprehensive simulation-optimization modelling framework that considers the economic and hydro-environmental aspects of GI and grey infrastructure for small urban catchment applications is developed. Several modelling tools (i.e., EPA SWMM model, the WERF BMP and LID Whole Life Cycle Cost Modelling Tools) and optimization solvers are coupled together to assess the life-cycle cost-effectiveness of GI and grey infrastructure, and to further develop optimal stormwater drainage solutions. A typical residential lot in New York City is examined as a case study. The life-cycle cost-effectiveness of various GI and grey infrastructure are first examined at different investment levels. The results together with the catchment parameters are then provided to the optimization solvers, to derive the optimal investment and contributing area of each type of the stormwater controls. The relationship between the investment and optimized environmental benefit is found to be nonlinear. The optimized drainage solutions demonstrate that grey infrastructure is preferred at low total investments while more GI should be adopted at high investments. The sensitivity of the optimized solutions to the prices the stormwater controls is evaluated and is found to be highly associated with their utilizations in the base optimization case. The overall simulation-optimization framework can be easily applied to other sites world-wide, and to be further developed into powerful decision support systems.

  8. Effect of optimal daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, root growth and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in solar-greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (Pgreenhouse.

  9. Appointment reminder systems are effective but not optimal: results of a systematic review and evidence synthesis employing realist principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean SM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sionnadh Mairi McLean,1 Andrew Booth,2 Melanie Gee,3 Sarah Salway,2 Mark Cobb,4 Sadiq Bhanbhro,3 Susan A Nancarrow5 1Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK; 2School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 3Centre for Health and Social Care Research, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK; 4Therapeutics & Palliative Care, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Sheffield, UK; 5School of Health and Human Science, Southern Cross University, East Lismore, NSW, Australia Abstract: Missed appointments are an avoidable cost and resource inefficiency which impact upon the health of the patient and treatment outcomes. Health care services are increasingly utilizing reminder systems to manage these negative effects. This study explores the effectiveness of reminder systems for promoting attendance, cancellations, and rescheduling of appointments across all health care settings and for particular patient groups and the contextual factors which indicate that reminders are being employed sub-optimally. We used three inter-related reviews of quantitative and qualitative evidence. Firstly, using pre-existing models and theories, we developed a conceptual framework to inform our understanding of the contexts and mechanisms which influence reminder effectiveness. Secondly, we performed a review following Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidelines to investigate the effectiveness of different methods of reminding patients to attend health service appointments. Finally, to supplement the effectiveness information, we completed a review informed by realist principles to identify factors likely to influence non-attendance behaviors and the effectiveness of reminders. We found consistent evidence that all types of reminder systems are effective at improving appointment attendance across a range of health care settings and patient populations. Reminder systems may also increase cancellation and

  10. Optimized electron beam writing strategy for fabricating computer-generated holograms based on an effective medium approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Wiebke; Kämpfe, Thomas; Rockstroh, Werner; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2011-04-25

    Recent research revealed that using the effective medium approach to generate arbitrary multi-phase level computer-generated holograms is a promising alternative to the conventional multi-height level approach. Although this method reduces the fabrication effort using one-step binary lithography, the subwavelength patterning process remains a huge challenge, particularly for large-scale applications. To reduce the writing time on variable shaped electron beam writing systems, an optimized strategy based on an appropriate reshaping of the binary subwavelength structures is illustrated. This strategy was applied to fabricate a three-phase level CGH in the visible range, showing promising experimental results.

  11. Studying the effect of physically-adsorbed coating polymers on the cytotoxic activity of optimized bisdemethoxycurcumin loaded-PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanny, Mina; Hathout, Rania M; Geneidi, Ahmed S; Mansour, Samar

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of different physically-adsorbed coating polymers on the cytotoxic activity of optimized bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) loaded-PLGA nanoparticles. BDMC-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles were prepared adopting the nanoprecipitation technique according to a full factorial study design. The effects of three independent variables each at two levels, namely: the polymer type, polymer concentration, and poly vinyl alcohol concentration were studied. The particles were optimized regarding particle size and entrapment efficiency where sizes coating using various coating moieties, namely: PEG 4000, Tween 80 and Pluronic F68, to impart a hydrophilic stealth character to the surface. The surface hydrophobicity was assessed using the Rose Bengal dye test where the hydrophilicity character followed the following order: Tween 80 > PEG 4000 > Pluronic F68. The particles coating rendered the particles suitable for cancer-targeting regarding particle size measurements, morphology, release kinetics, and stability studies. Moreover, cytotoxicity testing was performed using HepG-2 cells. Coated NPs showed the highest inhibition of malignant cells viability compared to the uncoated NPs and free BDMC where the IC 50 of Pluronic-F68 coated NPs was 0.54 ± 0.01 µg/mL. The augmented effect against malignant cells poses these particles as a successful cancer remedy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1433-1445, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Synergistic effects and optimization of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the growth and nutrient uptake of a freshwater Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alketife, Ahmed M; Judd, Simon; Znad, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    The synergistic effects and optimization of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris (CCAP 211/11B, CS-42) and nutrient removal have been investigated under different concentrations of N (0-56 mg/L) and P (0-19 mg/L). The study showed that N/P ratio has a crucial effect on the biomass growth and nutrient removal. When N/P=10, a complete P and N removal was achieved at the end of cultivation with specific growth rate (SGR) of 1 d-1 and biomass concentration of 1.58 g/L. It was also observed that when the N content <2.5 mg/L, the SGR significantly reduced from 1.04 to 0.23 d-1 and the maximum biomass produced was decreased more than three-fold to 0.5 g/L. The Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface method were used to study the effects of the initial concentrations (P, N and C) on P and N removal efficiencies. The optimized P, N and C concentrations supporting 100% removal of both P and N at an SGR of 0.95 were 7, 55 and 10 mg/L respectively, with desirability value of 0.94. The results and analysis obtained could be very useful when applying the microalgae for efficient wastewater treatment and nutrient removal.

  13. Effects of sodium sulfate on the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii: implications for the optimization of algal culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique; Abalde, Julio

    2016-02-01

    The study of the microalgal growth kinetics is an indispensable tool in all fields of phycology. Knowing the optimal nutrient concentration is an important issue that will help to develop efficient growth systems for these microorganisms. Although nitrogen and phosphorus are well studied for this purpose, sulfur seems to be less investigated. Sulfate is a primary sulfur source used by microalgae; moreover, the concentration of this compound is increasing in freshwater systems due to pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different sodium sulfate concentrations in the culture medium on growth and growth kinetics of the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Production of biomass, chl content, kinetic equations, and a mathematical model that describe the microalgal growth in relation with the concentration of sodium sulfate were obtained. The lowest concentration of sodium sulfate allowing optimal growth was 0.1 mM. Concentrations higher than 3 mM generated a toxic effect. This work demonstrates that this toxic effect was not directly due to the excess of sulfate ion but by the elevation of the ionic strength. An inhibition model was successfully used to simulate the relationship between specific growth rate and sodium sulfate in this microalga. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  14. Effects of fiber inclusion on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets reared under optimal or poor hygienic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocoso, J D; Menoyo, D; Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Cámara, L; Mateos, G G

    2015-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of inclusion of additional fiber in the Phase I diet on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in piglets reared under "optimal" or "poor" hygienic conditions. In both experiments, the design was completely randomized with a control diet that contained 2.2% crude fiber and 8 additional isonutritive diets that included 2.5 or 5.0% of sugar beet pulp (SBP), straw, oat hulls (OH), or wheat middlings (WHM). Preplanned polynomial contrasts were used to study the effects of 1) fiber inclusion (control diet vs. average of the 8 fiber-containing diets), 2) source of fiber, 3) level of fiber, and 4) interaction between source and level of fiber. In Exp. 1 (clean barn), fiber inclusion increased ( digestibility (ATTD) of all nutrients except that of CP, which was not affected. Piglet performance was not affected by source or level of dietary fiber. The ATTD of all nutrients decreased ( digestibility of GE and DM decreased ( piglet performance but tended to increase PWD ( = 0.07). Also, fiber inclusion reduced ( digestibility than pigs reared under poor hygienic conditions. An excess of dietary fiber was more detrimental for all these traits in piglets reared under optimal hygienic conditions. The effects of the source and level of fiber on piglet performance was limited in the 2 experiments.

  15. Optimization of custom cementless stem using finite element analysis and elastic modulus distribution for reducing stress-shielding effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravana Kumar, Gurunathan; George, Subin Philip

    2017-02-01

    This work proposes a methodology involving stiffness optimization for subject-specific cementless hip implant design based on finite element analysis for reducing stress-shielding effect. To assess the change in the stress-strain state of the femur and the resulting stress-shielding effect due to insertion of the implant, a finite element analysis of the resected femur with implant assembly is carried out for a clinically relevant loading condition. Selecting the von Mises stress as the criterion for discriminating regions for elastic modulus difference, a stiffness minimization method was employed by varying the elastic modulus distribution in custom implant stem. The stiffness minimization problem is formulated as material distribution problem without explicitly penalizing partial volume elements. This formulation enables designs that could be fabricated using additive manufacturing to make porous implant with varying levels of porosity. Stress-shielding effect, measured as difference between the von Mises stress in the intact and implanted femur, decreased as the elastic modulus distribution is optimized.

  16. Effect of maximum lift to drag ratio on optimal aeroassisted plane change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen, J. R.; Vinh, N. X.; Mease, K. D.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of the maximum lift-to-drag ratio on the turning performance of an Orbital Transfer Vehicle is analyzed. Chapman's variables are used to formulate the equations of motion which are valid for both atmospheric flight and flight in a vacuum in a Newtonian gravitational field. Of the six adjoint variables involved in the variational formulation, four exact integrals and two approximate relations are obtained. This leads to an approximate but explicit control law for the lift and bank control. The control law is tested numerically for a whole range of entry speeds, from parabolic entry to near-circular entry with several values of maximum lift-to-drag ratio. The extensive numerical results, which are very accurate as compared to the exact optimal values, show that the maximum plane change for any speed ratio V(entry)/V(final) is simply proportional to the maximum lift-to-drag ratio, and depends solely on this parameter.

  17. EFFECTIVELY SEARCHING SPECIMEN AND OBSERVATION DATA WITH TOQE, THE THESAURUS OPTIMIZED QUERY EXPANDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Güntsch

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Today’s specimen and observation data portals lack a flexible mechanism, able to link up thesaurus-enabled data sources such as taxonomic checklist databases and expand user queries to related terms, significantly enhancing result sets. The TOQE system (Thesaurus Optimized Query Expander is a REST-like XML web-service implemented in Python and designed for this purpose. Acting as an interface between portals and thesauri, TOQE allows the implementation of specialized portal systems with a set of thesauri supporting its specific focus. It is both easy to use for portal programmers and easy to configure for thesaurus database holders who want to expose their system as a service for query expansions. Currently, TOQE is used in four specimen and observation data portals. The documentation is available from http://search.biocase.org/toqe/.

  18. Development and optimization of dextromethorphan hydrobromide oral disintegrating tablets: effect of formulation and process variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Haitham Fady; Ibrahim, Mohamed Abbas; Sakr, Adel

    2013-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), which disintegrate rapidly (croscarmellose sodium (X(2)) concentrations. Disintegration time, hardness and T(50) values for all the formulations varied from 12.5 to 152.6 s, 3.58 to 4.92 kp and 0.8 to 2.8 min, respectively. The results indicated that the selected variables have a strong influence on disintegration time, hardness and T(50) of the ODTs. The manufactured ODTs formula composed of 30% microcrystalline cellulose in combination with 3% croscarmellose sodium was chosen as optimized formula, as it showed the lowest disintegration time (12.5 ± 1.22 s), low T(50) (0.8 min.) and hard tablets (4.92 ± 0.28 kp) amongst other tested ODTs formulations. Hardness of DM ODTs was not affected by changing the type of superdisintegrant and lubricant. The disintegration time was significantly (p croscarmellose sodium.

  19. Long-term energy capture and the effects of optimizing wind turbine operating strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. H.; Formica, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of increasing energy capture without affecting the turbine design were investigated. The emphasis was on optimizing the wind turbine operating strategy. The operating strategy embodies the startup and shutdown algorithm as well as the algorithm for determining when to yaw (rotate) the axis of the turbine more directly into the wind. Using data collected at a number of sites, the time-dependent simulation of a MOD-2 wind turbine using various, site-dependent operating strategies provided evidence that site-specific fine tuning can produce significant increases in long-term energy capture as well as reduce the number of start-stop cycles and yawing maneuvers, which may result in reduced fatigue and subsequent maintenance.

  20. Optimizing Neutron Thermal Scattering Effects in very High Temperature Reactors. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawari, Ayman [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Ougouag, Abderrafi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-07-08

    This project aims to develop a holistic understanding of the phenomenon of neutron thermalization in the VHTR. Neutron thermalization is dependent on the type and structure of the moderating material. The fact that the moderator (and reflector) in the VHTR is a solid material will introduce new and interesting considerations that do not apply in other (e.g. light water) reactors. The moderator structure is expected to undergo radiation induced changes as the irradiation (or burnup) history progresses. In this case, the induced changes in structure will have a direct impact on many properties including the neutronic behavior. This can be easily anticipated if one recognizes the dependence of neutron thermalization on the scattering law of the moderator. For the pebble bed reactor, it is anticipated that the moderating behavior can be tailored, e.g. using moderators that consist of composite materials, which could allow improved optimization of the moderator-to-fuel ratio.

  1. An effective coded excitation scheme based on a predistorted FM signal and an optimized digital filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanasis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a coded excitation imaging system based on a predistorted FM excitation and a digital compression filter designed for medical ultrasonic applications, in order to preserve both axial resolution and contrast. In radars, optimal Chebyshev windows efficiently weight a nearly......-spta) well below the safety limits. In vivo images of the liver from two healthy volunteers show apparent increased depth of penetration of about 4 cm at 4 MHz, for codes of length 25 mu s. Images taken from a non-attenuating wire phantom show that the -20 dB axial resolution for the coded scheme is as good...... as with pulse excitation (about 1.5 lambda), depending on the filter design criteria. The axial sidelobes are below -40 dB, which is the noise level of the measuring imaging system. The proposed excitation/compression scheme shows good overall performance and stability to the frequency shift due to attenuation...

  2. Using the placebo effect: how expectations and learned immune function can optimize dermatological treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    The role of placebo and nocebo effects-that is positive or negative treatment effects that are entirely a consequence of the patient's expectations and beliefs about a treatment outcome in terms of efficacy, safety, usability or side effects-has been shown for almost all types of diseases and

  3. Mathematical Formulation and Analysis of the Optimal Launch Timing for Mobile Applications with Perceived Value and Network Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Successive release is a common strategy adopted by mobile app providers, and determining the launch timing of new app versions presents an important challenge to these providers. Network effect and consumers’ perceived value are significant factors that influence the decisions of providers. By focusing on a monopoly market, we develop an optimization model that incorporates the two factors to determine the optimal launch timing of new versions of mobile apps. The model is solved by Lagrangian method, and the closed-form results indicate that the monopoly provider launches new app versions as soon as possible if the consumers’ perceived value is not sufficiently high. Otherwise, the new version is launched after (or before the sales of its former version reach maturity if the network effect is (or not sufficiently high. Moreover, the monopoly app vendor delays the launch of a new version when the consumers enjoy a large network externality; however, the same vendor accelerates the release of upgrades if the consumers have a high perceived value of the app. This paper presents a novel mathematical formulation to analyze the launching policy of digital products.

  4. Effect of fermentation parameters on bio-alcohols production from glycerol using immobilized Clostridium pasteurianum: an optimization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Swati; Goyal, Arun; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of effect of fermentation parameters for conversion of glycerol (in both pure and crude form) into three value-added products, namely, ethanol, butanol, and 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO), by immobilized Clostridium pasteurianum and thereby addresses the statistical optimization of this process. The analysis of effect of different process parameters such as agitation rate, fermentation temperature, medium pH, and initial glycerol concentration indicated that medium pH was the most critical factor for total alcohols production in case of pure glycerol as fermentation substrate. On the other hand, initial glycerol concentration was the most significant factor for fermentation with crude glycerol. An interesting observation was that the optimized set of fermentation parameters was found to be independent of the type of glycerol (either pure or crude) used. At optimum conditions of agitation rate (200 rpm), initial glycerol concentration (25 g/L), fermentation temperature (30°C), and medium pH (7.0), the total alcohols production was almost equal in anaerobic shake flasks and 2-L bioreactor. This essentially means that at optimum process parameters, the scale of operation does not affect the output of the process. The immobilized cells could be reused for multiple cycles for both pure and crude glycerol fermentation.

  5. Effect of microemulsions on transdermal delivery of citalopram: optimization studies using mixture design and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Te; Tsai, Ming-Jun; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Fu, Yaw-Sya; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Tsai, Yi-Hung; Wu, Pao-Chu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of microemulsions as a drug vehicle for transdermal delivery of citalopram. A computerized statistical technique of response surface methodology with mixture design was used to investigate and optimize the influence of the formulation compositions including a mixture of Brij 30/Brij 35 surfactants (at a ratio of 4:1, 20%-30%), isopropyl alcohol (20%-30%), and distilled water (40%-50%) on the properties of the drug-loaded microemulsions, including permeation rate (flux) and lag time. When microemulsions were used as a vehicle, the drug permeation rate increased significantly and the lag time shortened significantly when compared with the aqueous control of 40% isopropyl alcohol solution containing 3% citalopram, demonstrating that microemulsions are a promising vehicle for transdermal application. With regard to the pharmacokinetic parameters of citalopram, the flux required for the transdermal delivery system was about 1280 μg per hour. The microemulsions loaded with citalopram 3% and 10% showed respective flux rates of 179.6 μg/cm(2) and 513.8 μg/cm(2) per hour, indicating that the study formulation could provide effective therapeutic concentrations over a practical application area. The animal study showed that the optimized formulation (F15) containing 3% citalopram with an application area of 3.46 cm(2) is able to reach a minimum effective therapeutic concentration with no erythematous reaction.

  6. Effects of optimism on gambling in the rat slot machine task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafa, Dominik; Kregiel, Jakub; Popik, Piotr; Rygula, Rafal

    2016-03-01

    Although gambling disorder is a serious social problem in modern societies, information about the behavioral traits that could determine vulnerability to this psychopathology is still scarce. In this study, we used a recently developed ambiguous-cue interpretation ​(ACI)​ paradigm to investigate whether 'optimism' and 'pessimism' as behavioral traits may determine the gambling-like behavior of rodents. In a series of ACI tests (cognitive bias screening), we identified rats that displayed 'pessimistic' and 'optimistic' traits. Subsequently, using the rat slot machine task (rSMT), we investigated if the 'optimistic'/'pessimistic' traits could determine the crucial feature of gambling-like behavior that has been investigated in rats and humans: the ​interpretation of 'near-miss' outcomes as a positive (i.e., win) situation. We found that 'optimists' did not interpret 'near-miss', 'near loss', or 'clear win' as win trials more often than ​their 'pessimistic' ​conspecifics; however, the 'optimists' were statistically more likely to reach for a reward in the hopeless 'clear loss' situation. This agrees with human studies and provides a platform for modeling interactions between behavioral traits and gambling in animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development & Optimization of Materials and Processes for a Cost Effective Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production System. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Eric W

    2011-01-17

    The overall project objective was to apply high throughput experimentation and combinatorial methods together with novel syntheses to discover and optimize efficient, practical, and economically sustainable materials for photoelectrochemical production of bulk hydrogen from water. Automated electrochemical synthesis and photoelectrochemical screening systems were designed and constructed and used to study a variety of new photoelectrocatalytic materials. We evaluated photocatalytic performance in the dark and under illumination with or without applied bias in a high-throughput manner and did detailed evaluation on many materials. Significant attention was given to -Fe2O3 based semiconductor materials and thin films with different dopants were synthesized by co-electrodeposition techniques. Approximately 30 dopants including Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Ti, Pt, etc. were investigated. Hematite thin films doped with Al, Ti, Pt, Cr, and Mo exhibited significant improvements in efficiency for photoelectrochemical water splitting compared with undoped hematite. In several cases we collaborated with theorists who used density functional theory to help explain performance trends and suggest new materials. The best materials were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visual spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoelectrocatalytic performance of the thin films was evaluated and their incident photon

  8. Optimization of a double effect LiBr-H 2 O absorption system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations at all state points in the cycle are also obtained from the programme at the respective state point pressure and temperature values. In the analysis, steady-state conditions and no pressure losses are assumed. The effect of the effectiveness of the heat exchangers on the COP of the system are also analysed ...

  9. Enhanced processing in arrays of optimally tuned nonlinear biomimetic sensors: A coupling-mediated Ringelmann effect and its dynamical mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Alexander P.; Bulsara, Adi R.; Stocks, Nigel G.

    2017-03-01

    Inspired by recent results on self-tunability in the outer hair cells of the mammalian cochlea, we describe an array of magnetic sensors where each individual sensor can self-tune to an optimal operating regime. The self-tuning gives the array its "biomimetic" features. We show that the overall performance of the array can, as expected, be improved by increasing the number of sensors but, however, coupling between sensors reduces the overall performance even though the individual sensors in the system could see an improvement. We quantify the similarity of this phenomenon to the Ringelmann effect that was formulated 103 years ago to account for productivity losses in human and animal groups. We propose a global feedback scheme that can be used to greatly mitigate the performance degradation that would, normally, stem from the Ringelmann effect.

  10. Molecular systematics of terraranas (Anura: Brachycephaloidea) with an assessment of the effects of alignment and optimality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padial, José M; Grant, Taran; Frost, Darrel R

    2014-06-26

    Brachycephaloidea is a monophyletic group of frogs with more than 1000 species distributed throughout the New World tropics, subtropics, and Andean regions. Recently, the group has been the target of multiple molecular phylogenetic analyses, resulting in extensive changes in its taxonomy. Here, we test previous hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships for the group by combining available molecular evidence (sequences of 22 genes representing 431 ingroup and 25 outgroup terminals) and performing a tree-alignment analysis under the parsimony optimality criterion using the program POY. To elucidate the effects of alignment and optimality criterion on phylogenetic inferences, we also used the program MAFFT to obtain a similarity-alignment for analysis under both parsimony and maximum likelihood using the programs TNT and GARLI, respectively. Although all three analytical approaches agreed on numerous points, there was also extensive disagreement. Tree-alignment under parsimony supported the monophyly of the ingroup and the sister group relationship of the monophyletic marsupial frogs (Hemiphractidae), while maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the MAFFT similarity-alignment did not. All three methods differed with respect to the position of Ceuthomantis smaragdinus (Ceuthomantidae), with tree-alignment using parsimony recovering this species as the sister of Pristimantis + Yunganastes. All analyses rejected the monophyly of Strabomantidae and Strabomantinae as originally defined, and the tree-alignment analysis under parsimony further rejected the recently redefined Craugastoridae and Pristimantinae. Despite the greater emphasis in the systematics literature placed on the choice of optimality criterion for evaluating trees than on the choice of method for aligning DNA sequences, we found that the topological differences attributable to the alignment method were as great as those caused by the optimality criterion. Further, the optimal tree-alignment indicates

  11. Optimization and effects of different culture conditions on growth of Halomicronema hongdechloris – a filamentous cyanobacterium containing chlorophyll f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong eLi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A chlorophyll f containing cyanobacterium, Halomicronema hongdechloris (H. hongdechloris was isolated from a stromatolite cyanobacterial community. However, the extremely slower growth rate of H. hongdechloris culture became a critical factor, hindering the research on this newly isolated cyanobacterium and the investigation of chlorophyll f-photosynthesis. Therefore, optimizing H. hongdechloris culture conditions has become an essential requirement for future research. This work investigated the effects of various culture conditions, essential nutrients and light environments to determine the optimal growth conditions for H. hongdechloris and the biosynthetic rate of chlorophyll f. Based on the total chlorophyll concentration, an optimal growth rate of 0.22 ± 0.02 day-1 (doubling time: 3.1 ± 0.3 days was observed when cells were grown under continuous illumination with far-red light with an intensity of 20 µE at 32°C in modified K+ES seawater (pH 8.0 with additional supplements of 11.75 mM NaNO3 and 0.15 mM K2HPO4. High performance liquid chromatography on H. hongdechloris pigments confirmed that chlorophyll a is the major chlorophyll and chlorophyll f constitutes approximately 10% of the total chlorophyll from cells grown under far-red light. Fluorescence confocal image analysis demonstrated changes of photosynthetic membranes and the distribution of photopigments in response to different light conditions. The total photosynthetic oxygen evolution yield per cell showed no changes under different light conditions, which confirms the involvement of chlorophyll f in oxygenic photosynthesis. The implications of the presence of chlorophyll f in H. hongdechloris and its relationship to light environment are discussed.

  12. The Effects of Reducing Preparation Time on the Execution of Intentionally Curved Trajectories: Optimization and Geometrical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovrat Kohen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When subjects are intentionally preparing a curved trajectory, they are engaged in a time-consuming trajectory planning process that is separate from target selection. To investigate the construction of such a plan, we examined the effect of artificially shortening preparation time on the performance of intentionally curved trajectories using the Timed Response task that enforces initiation of movements prematurely. Fifteen subjects performed obstacle avoidance movements toward one of four targets that were presented 25 or 350 ms before the “go” signal, imposing short and long preparation time conditions with mean values of 170 ms and 493 ms, respectively. While trajectories with short preparation times showed target specificity at their onset, they were significantly more variable and showed larger angular deviations from the lines connecting their initial position and the target, compared to the trajectories with long preparation times. Importantly, the trajectories of the short preparation time movements still reached their end-point targets accurately, with comparable movement durations. We hypothesize that success in the short preparation time condition is a result of an online control mechanism that allows further refinement of the plan during its execution and study this control mechanism with a novel trajectory analysis approach using minimum jerk optimization and geometrical modeling approaches. Results show a later agreement of the short preparation time trajectories with the optimal minimum jerk trajectory, accompanied by a later initiation of a parabolic segment. Both observations are consistent with the existence of an online trajectory planning process.Our results suggest that when preparation time is not sufficiently long, subjects execute a more variable and less optimally prepared initial trajectory and exploit online control mechanisms to refine their actions on the fly.

  13. The Effects of Reducing Preparation Time on the Execution of Intentionally Curved Trajectories: Optimization and Geometrical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Dovrat; Karklinsky, Matan; Meirovitch, Yaron; Flash, Tamar; Shmuelof, Lior

    2017-01-01

    When subjects are intentionally preparing a curved trajectory, they are engaged in a time-consuming trajectory planning process that is separate from target selection. To investigate the construction of such a plan, we examined the effect of artificially shortening preparation time on the performance of intentionally curved trajectories using the Timed Response task that enforces initiation of movements prematurely. Fifteen subjects performed obstacle avoidance movements toward one of four targets that were presented 25 or 350 ms before the “go” signal, imposing short and long preparation time conditions with mean values of 170 ms and 493 ms, respectively. While trajectories with short preparation times showed target specificity at their onset, they were significantly more variable and showed larger angular deviations from the lines connecting their initial position and the target, compared to the trajectories with long preparation times. Importantly, the trajectories of the short preparation time movements still reached their end-point targets accurately, with comparable movement durations. We hypothesize that success in the short preparation time condition is a result of an online control mechanism that allows further refinement of the plan during its execution and study this control mechanism with a novel trajectory analysis approach using minimum jerk optimization and geometrical modeling approaches. Results show a later agreement of the short preparation time trajectories with the optimal minimum jerk trajectory, accompanied by a later initiation of a parabolic segment. Both observations are consistent with the existence of an online trajectory planning process.Our results suggest that when preparation time is not sufficiently long, subjects execute a more variable and less optimally prepared initial trajectory and exploit online control mechanisms to refine their actions on the fly. PMID:28706478

  14. Effects of climate uncertainties on welfare optimal investment streams into mitigation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, H.; Kriegler, E.; Lessmann, K.; Lorenz, A.

    2009-04-01

    We discuss a stylised portfolio of climate change mitigation options and ask the following question: what is the intertemporally optimal mix of these options under the boundary condition of a climate guardrail and uncertainty about the temperature response to rising carbon dioxide concentrations? We impose a guardrail that requires the increase of global mean temperature T to be limited to 2K with at least a minimum probability P (e.g., P=0.75). The uncertainty about the temperature response is captured by a PDF for climate sensitivity and ocean heat uptake. For economic optimisation, we use an ensemble-version of the growth model MIND [1]. As a key results we show that robust climate protection paths will require aggressive mitigation measures [2]. In this context it is also possible to ask for the economic potential of reducing uncertainty in climate sensitivity [3] and ocean heat uptake [4] that is generically by orders of magnitude larger than the costs induced by the related research programmes. References [1] O. Edenhofer., N. Bauer, E. Kriegler: The Impact of Technological Change on Climate Protection and Welfare: Insights from the Model MIND. Ecological Economics, 54 (2-3): 277-292 (2005). [2] H. Held, E. Kriegler, K. Lessmann, O. Edenhofer, Efficient Climate Policies under Technology and Climate Uncertainty, Energy Economics, in press. [3] T. Schneider von Deimling, H. Held, A. Ganopolski, S. Rahmstorf, Climate sensitivity estimated from ensemble simulations of glacial climates, Climate Dynamics 27, 149-163, DOI 10.1007/s00382-006-0126-8 (2006). [4] A. Lorenz, Diploma Thesis, U Potsdam (2007).

  15. Seeking optimal management for radioactive iodine therapy-induced adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Charalambous

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive iodine therapy (RAIT is one of the important treatment modalities in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC. RAIT with iodine-131 has long been used in the management of DTC for the ablation of residual thyroid or treatment of its metastases. Despite being reasonably safe, radioiodine therapy is not always without side effects. Even relatively low administered activities of RAIT used for remnant ablation have been associated with the more clinically significant side effects of sialadenitis, xerostomia, salivary gland pain and swelling, dry eyes, excessive tearing, or alterations in taste in as many as 25% of patients. Given that there is a lack of comprehensive management of these RAIT-induced adverse effects, this paper explores the use of other nonpharmacological measures and their effectiveness as interventions to minimize salivary gland damage.

  16. Optimized Peptide Vaccines Eliciting Extensive CD8 T Cell Responses with Therapeutic Anti-Tumor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Il; Celis, Esteban

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge for developing effective therapeutic vaccines against cancer is overcoming immunological tolerance to tumor-associated antigens that are expressed on both malignant cells and normal tissues. Herein, we describe a novel vaccination approach, TriVax that utilizes synthetic peptides representing CD8 T cell epitopes, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists that function as a potent immunological adjuvants and costimulatory anti-CD40 antibodies to generate large numbers of high avidity antigen-reactive T cells capable of recognizing and killing tumor cells. Our results show that TriVax induced huge numbers of long-lasting antigen specific CD8 T cells that displayed significant anti-tumor effects in vivo. The administration of a TriVax formulation containing a CD8 T cell epitope derived from a melanosomal antigen (Trp2180-188) elicited antigen-specific CD8 T cells that induced systemic autoimmunity (vitiligo). More important, TriVax immunization was effective in eliciting potent protective anti-tumor immunity as well as remarkable therapeutic effects against established B16 melanoma. This therapeutic effect was mediated by CD8 T cells via perforin-mediated lysis and required the participation of type I-IFN but not IFNγ. These results suggest that similar strategies would be applicable for the design of effective vaccination for conducting clinical studies in cancer patients. PMID:19903852

  17. Optimized peptide vaccines eliciting extensive CD8 T-cell responses with therapeutic antitumor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Il; Celis, Esteban

    2009-12-01

    A major challenge for developing effective therapeutic vaccines against cancer is overcoming immunologic tolerance to tumor-associated antigens that are expressed on both malignant cells and normal tissues. Herein, we describe a novel vaccination approach, TriVax, that uses synthetic peptides representing CD8 T-cell epitopes, Toll-like receptor agonists that function as potent immunologic adjuvants and costimulatory anti-CD40 antibodies to generate large numbers of high-avidity antigen-reactive T cells capable of recognizing and killing tumor cells. Our results show that TriVax induced huge numbers of long-lasting antigen-specific CD8 T cells that displayed significant antitumor effects in vivo. The administration of a TriVax formulation containing a CD8 T-cell epitope derived from a melanosomal antigen (Trp2(180-188)) elicited antigen-specific CD8 T cells that induced systemic autoimmunity (vitiligo). More important, TriVax immunization was effective in eliciting potent protective antitumor immunity as well as remarkable therapeutic effects against established B16 melanoma. This therapeutic effect was mediated by CD8 T cells via perforin-mediated lysis and required the participation of type-I IFN but not IFNgamma. These results suggest that similar strategies would be applicable for the design of effective vaccination for conducting clinical studies in cancer patients.

  18. Optimization of Computed Tomography Urography Protocol, 1997 to 2008: Effects on Radiation Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlman, P.; Segelsjoe, M.; Magnusson, A. (Dept. of Radiology, Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)); Jangland, L. (Dept. of Medical Physics, Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-05-15

    Background: Since computed tomography (CT) urography began to replace excretory urography as the primary imaging technique in uroradiology, the collective radiation dose to the patients has increased. Purpose: To examine the changes in the CT urography protocol for investigating suspected urinary tract malignancy between the years 1997 and 2008, and how these changes have influenced the mean effective dose. Material and Methods: The study was based on 102 patients (mean age 66.1+-14.8 years, range 31-89 years; 30 female, 72 male) divided into five groups (groups A-E) corresponding to the time points at which changes were made to the CT urography protocol. The mean effective doses were estimated using the ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator. Results: The number of scan phases at CT urography was reduced from four to three in 1999, resulting in a reduction of the mean effective dose from 29.9/22.5 (female [F]/male [M]) mSv (group A) to 26.1/18.9 (F/M) mSv (group B). In 2001, mAs settings were adapted to patient size, and the mean effective dose was reduced to 16.8/12.0 (F/M) mSv (group C). In 2005, scans were performed with a multidetector-row CT equipped with automatic tube current modulation in the x- and y-axis (CARE Dose). The effective mAs was also lowered in the unenhanced and excretory phase, yet the mean effective dose increased to 18.2/13.1 (F/M) mSv (group D), since the effective mAs had to be increased in the corticomedullary phase to maintain image quality. In 2008, as tube current modulation in the x-, y-, and z-axis was introduced (CARE Dose4D), the mean effective dose was reduced to 11.7/8.8 (F/M) mSv (group E). Conclusion: This study shows that the individual mean effective dose to patients undergoing CT urography has decreased by 60%, from 29.9/22.5 (F/M) mSv in 1997 to 11.7/8.8 (F/M) mSv in 2008.

  19. Optimization of computed tomography urography protocol, 1997 to 2008: effects on radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlman, P; Jangland, L; Segelsjö, M; Magnusson, A

    2009-05-01

    Since computed tomography (CT) urography began to replace excretory urography as the primary imaging technique in uroradiology, the collective radiation dose to the patients has increased. To examine the changes in the CT urography protocol for investigating suspected urinary tract malignancy between the years 1997 and 2008, and how these changes have influenced the mean effective dose. The study was based on 102 patients (mean age 66.1+/-14.8 years, range 31-89 years; 30 female, 72 male) divided into five groups (groups A-E) corresponding to the time points at which changes were made to the CT urography protocol. The mean effective doses were estimated using the ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator. The number of scan phases at CT urography was reduced from four to three in 1999, resulting in a reduction of the mean effective dose from 29.9/22.5 (female [F]/male [M]) mSv (group A) to 26.1/18.9 (F/M) mSv (group B). In 2001, mAs settings were adapted to patient size, and the mean effective dose was reduced to 16.8/12.0 (F/M) mSv (group C). In 2005, scans were performed with a multidetector-row CT equipped with automatic tube current modulation in the x- and y-axis (CARE Dose). The effective mAs was also lowered in the unenhanced and excretory phase, yet the mean effective dose increased to 18.2/13.1 (F/M) mSv (group D), since the effective mAs had to be increased in the corticomedullary phase to maintain image quality. In 2008, as tube current modulation in the x-, y-, and z-axis was introduced (CARE Dose4D), the mean effective dose was reduced to 11.7/8.8 (F/M) mSv (group E). This study shows that the individual mean effective dose to patients undergoing CT urography has decreased by 60%, from 29.9/22.5 (F/M) mSv in 1997 to 11.7/8.8 (F/M) mSv in 2008.

  20. Optimization of the operating conditions of gas-turbine power stations considering the effect of equipment deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Kozhevnikov, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years in most power systems all over the world, a trend towards the growing nonuniformity of energy consumption and generation schedules has been observed. The increase in the portion of renewable energy sources is one of the important challenges for many countries. The ill-predictable character of such energy sources necessitates a search for practical solutions. Presently, the most efficient method for compensating for nonuniform generation of the electric power by the renewable energy sources—predominantly by the wind and solar energy—is generation of power at conventional fossil-fuel-fired power stations. In Russia, this problem is caused by the increasing portion in the generating capacity structure of the nuclear power stations, which are most efficient when operating under basic conditions. Introduction of hydropower and pumped storage hydroelectric power plants and other energy-storage technologies does not cover the demand for load-following power capacities. Owing to a simple design, low construction costs, and a sufficiently high economic efficiency, gas turbine plants (GTPs) prove to be the most suitable for covering the nonuniform electric-demand schedules. However, when the gas turbines are operated under varying duty conditions, the lifetime of the primary thermostressed components is considerably reduced and, consequently, the repair costs increase. A method is proposed for determination of the total operating costs considering the deterioration of the gas turbine equipment under varying duty and start-stop conditions. A methodology for optimization of the loading modes for the gas turbine equipment is developed. The consideration of the lifetime component allows varying the optimal operating conditions and, in some cases, rejecting short-time stops of the gas turbine plants. The calculations performed in a wide range of varying fuel prices and capital investments per gas turbine equipment unit show that the economic effectiveness can

  1. Design Optimization of Long-Span Cold-Formed Steel Portal Frames Accounting for Effect of Knee Brace Joint Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Duoc Phan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of cold-formed steel channel sections for portal frames becomes more popular for industrial and residential purposes. Experimental tests showed that such structures with long-span up to 20 m can be achieved when knee brace joints are included. In this paper, the influence of knee brace configuration on the optimum design of long-span cold-formed steel portal frames is investigated. The cold-formed steel portal frames are designed using Eurocode 3 under ultimate limit states. A novel method in handling design constraints integrated with genetic algorithm is proposed for searching the optimum design of cold-formed steel portal frames. The result showed that the proposed routine for design optimization effectively searched the near global optimum solution with the computational time is approximate 50% faster than methods being popularly used in literature. The optimum configuration for knee brace joint can reduce the section size of rafter and so the lighter frame could be obtained especially for long-span portal frame. The minimum weight of main frame obtained from optimization process is approximate 19.72% lighter than a Benchmark Frame used in the full-scale experimental test.

  2. Artificial neural network modeling of a deflector in a grooved channel as well as optimization of its effective parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Azita; Shams, Mehrzad; Abdollahi, Anita

    2018-01-01

    One of methods available to increase the rate of heat transfer in channels with parallel plates is making grooves in them. But, the fundamental problem of this method is the formation of stagnation zone in the grooves and as a result formation a zone with low energy transfer. In this paper, the effect of placing curved deflectors (geometries with elliptical forms) in channel on thermal and hydraulic characteristic of the fluid flow- with the aim of directing of the flow into the grooves and as a result increasing the rate of heat transfer in this zone- are investigated and heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are calculated for different values of Reynolds number and geometrical parameters of the deflector (its small and large radiuses). The results show that the presence of the deflector in the channel significantly increases the heat transfer rate compare to the channel without deflector. Of course, it should be noted that this work also increases the pressure drop. So, finally in order to determine configurations of the deflector causing minimum pressure drop, maximum Nusselt number or a balance between them, optimization algorithm consisting of artificial neural network and multi-objective genetic algorithm was utilized to calculate the optimal values of these parameters.

  3. Effect of different organic matters on flocculation of Chlorella sorokiniana and optimization of flocculation conditions in swine manure wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Sanfeng

    2015-09-01

    In this study, flocculation of Chlorella sorokiniana cultivated in swine manure wastewater, BG-11 medium and BG-11 medium supplemented with different organic matters (glucose, urea and tryptone) was investigated. The results demonstrated that the minimum amount of Al(3+) required for complete flocculation in wastewater would increase substantially, and flocculation efficiency became highly sensitive to pH. Tryptone could cause similar extent of inhibition on flocculation as in wastewater. Meanwhile, glucose could increase concentrations of Algogenic Organic Matter (AOM), inhibiting flocculation strongly at higher pH, including flocculation induced by Al(3+) and autoflocculation. However, urea had little effect on flocculation of C. sorokiniana. Moreover, the major factors: dilution times, pH and flocculants dosage, which had significant impact on flocculation efficiency of C. sorokiniana in piggery wastewater, were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal flocculation efficiency (100%) was achieved at pH 8.5, 7-folds of dilution and 52.14 mg L(-1) of Al(3+). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-convex optimization for self-calibration of direction-dependent effects in radio interferometric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetti, Audrey; Birdi, Jasleen; Dabbech, Arwa; Wiaux, Yves

    2017-10-01

    Radio interferometric imaging aims to estimate an unknown sky intensity image from degraded observations, acquired through an antenna array. In the theoretical case of a perfectly calibrated array, it has been shown that solving the corresponding imaging problem by iterative algorithms based on convex optimization and compressive sensing theory can be competitive with classical algorithms such as clean. However, in practice, antenna-based gains are unknown and have to be calibrated. Future radio telescopes, such as the Square Kilometre Array, aim at improving imaging resolution and sensitivity by orders of magnitude. At this precision level, the direction-dependency of the gains must be accounted for, and radio interferometric imaging can be understood as a blind deconvolution problem. In this context, the underlying minimization problem is non-convex, and adapted techniques have to be designed. In this work, leveraging recent developments in non-convex optimization, we propose the first joint calibration and imaging method in radio interferometry, with proven convergence guarantees. Our approach, based on a block-coordinate forward-backward algorithm, jointly accounts for visibilities and suitable priors on both the image and the direction-dependent effects (DDEs). As demonstrated in recent works, sparsity remains the prior of choice for the image, while DDEs are modelled as smooth functions of the sky, I.e. spatially band-limited. Finally, we show through simulations the efficiency of our method, for the reconstruction of both images of point sources and complex extended sources. matlab code is available on GitHub.

  5. Optimization of Split-Bolus CT Urography: Effect of Differences in Allocation of Contrast Medium and Prolongation of Imaging Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dahye; Cho, Eun-Suk; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Yong Pyo; Lee, Hyeon-Kyeong; Yu, Jeong-Sik; Chung, Jae-Joon

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the optimal allocation ratio of contrast medium (CM) in split-bolus CT urography (CTU) and to investigate the effect of increased imaging delays for synchronous nephrographic-excretory phase imaging. One hundred ninety-two patients were randomly assigned to one of three protocols with different allocation ratios of CM: group A, 30% of CM at first bolus and 70% of CM at second bolus; group B, 70% and 30%; or group C, 50% and 50%. Saline (250 mL) was administered after the first CM bolus. Patients were subdivided by different imaging delay times (8, 10, 12, and 14 minutes). The attenuation values of the renal cortex and medulla were measured, and the opacification and maximal caliber of each segment of the ureter were evaluated. Renal cortical enhancement was significantly higher in group A (mean ± SD, 145.9 ± 17.5 HU) than group B (120.6 ± 106.3 HU). No significant difference in renal parenchymal enhancement was found with increased imaging delay times. The opacification and maximal caliber of each ureter segment showed no significant difference with different allocation ratios of CM or increased imaging delay times. A split-bolus CTU protocol with a larger CM volume administered at the second injection and an 8-minute imaging delay was the optimal protocol with regard to opacification of the ureter, renal parenchymal enhancement, and shorter examination time.

  6. Design and optimization of high-performance slot-microring Si-photodetector based on internal photoemission effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinifar, Mitra; Ahmadi, Vahid; Ebnali-Heidari, Majid

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the design and optimization of a microring resonator enhanced-internal photoemission effect-photodetectors (MRRE-IPE-PDs) suitable for optical communication. Two PD configurations are considered: the first consists of an MRR that is partially surrounded by a nanolayer of silicide with a single Schottky barrier on p-Si MRR; and the second consists of a silicide film buried in the width midpoints of a Si-based MRR where photoemission occurs over the two Schottky barriers. Several silicides are considered for the stripe (PtSi, Pd2Si, TaSi2 and CoSi2). The important features of the device, such as quantum efficiency (QE), responsivity, CW sensitivity and dark current are discussed and the trade-off between 3 dB bandwidth and QE are analyzed for nanoscaled absorption layer. In this regard, some design curves are presented for the optimized MRRE-IPE-PDs. Additionally, this paper reveals substantial improvement via comparisons with QE and responsivity measurements reported in the literature. Bandwidth-efficiency product of 61-71 GHz, responsivities of 0.8-0.9 and QE of 64-71% and the minimum receiver sensitivity of -65 to -66 dBm are also predicted for single and double Schottky barriers, respectively.

  7. Optimizing cryopreservation of human spermatogonial stem cells: comparing the effectiveness of testicular tissue and single cell suspension cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yango, Pamela; Altman, Eran; Smith, James F; Klatsky, Peter C; Tran, Nam D

    2014-11-01

    To determine whether optimal human spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) cryopreservation is best achieved with testicular tissue or single cell suspension cryopreservation. This study compares the effectiveness between these two approaches by using testicular SSEA-4+ cells, a known population containing SSCs. In vitro human testicular tissues. Academic research unit. Adult testicular tissues (n=4) collected from subjects with normal spermatogenesis and normal fetal testicular tissues (n=3). Testicular tissue versus single cell suspension cryopreservation. Cell viability, total cell recovery per milligram of tissue, as well as viable and SSEA-4+ cell recovery. Single cell suspension cryopreservation yielded higher recovery of SSEA-4+ cells enriched in adult SSCs, whereas fetal SSEA-4+ cell recovery was similar between testicular tissue and single cell suspension cryopreservation. Adult and fetal human SSEA-4+ populations exhibited differential sensitivity to cryopreservation based on whether they were cryopreserved in situ as testicular tissues or as single cells. Thus, optimal preservation of human SSCs depends on the patient's age, type of samples cryopreserved, and end points of therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Artificial neural network modeling of a deflector in a grooved channel as well as optimization of its effective parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Azita; Shams, Mehrzad; Abdollahi, Anita

    2017-07-01

    One of methods available to increase the rate of heat transfer in channels with parallel plates is making grooves in them. But, the fundamental problem of this method is the formation of stagnation zone in the grooves and as a result formation a zone with low energy transfer. In this paper, the effect of placing curved deflectors (geometries with elliptical forms) in channel on thermal and hydraulic characteristic of the fluid flow- with the aim of directing of the flow into the grooves and as a result increasing the rate of heat transfer in this zone- are investigated and heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are calculated for different values of Reynolds number and geometrical parameters of the deflector (its small and large radiuses). The results show that the presence of the deflector in the channel significantly increases the heat transfer rate compare to the channel without deflector. Of course, it should be noted that this work also increases the pressure drop. So, finally in order to determine configurations of the deflector causing minimum pressure drop, maximum Nusselt number or a balance between them, optimization algorithm consisting of artificial neural network and multi-objective genetic algorithm was utilized to calculate the optimal values of these parameters.

  9. Optimization of the End Effect of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LV, Chenhuan; ZHAO, Jun; WU, Chao; GUO, Tiantai; CHEN, Hongjiang

    2017-05-01

    In fault diagnosis of rotating machinery, Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is often used to extract the fault characteristic signal and analyze decomposition results in time-frequency domain. However, end effect occurs in HHT, which leads to a series of problems such as modal aliasing and false IMF (Intrinsic Mode Function). To counter such problems in HHT, a new method is put forward to process signal by combining the generalized regression neural network (GRNN) with the boundary local characteristic-scale continuation (BLCC). Firstly, the improved EMD (Empirical Mode Decomposition) method is used to inhibit the end effect problem that appeared in conventional EMD. Secondly, the generated IMF components are used in HHT. Simulation and measurement experiment for the cases of time domain, frequency domain and related parameters of Hilbert-Huang spectrum show that the method described here can restrain the end effect compared with the results obtained through mirror continuation, as the absolute percentage of the maximum mean of the beginning end point offset and the terminal point offset are reduced from 30.113% and 27.603% to 0.510% and 6.039% respectively, thus reducing the modal aliasing, and eliminating the false IMF components of HHT. The proposed method can effectively inhibit end effect, reduce modal aliasing and false IMF components, and show the real structure of signal components accurately.

  10. Optimization of Invasion-Specific Effects of Betulin Derivatives on Prostate Cancer Cells through Lead Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Härmä

    Full Text Available The anti-invasive and anti-proliferative effects of betulins and abietane derivatives was systematically tested using an organotypic model system of advanced, castration-resistant prostate cancers. A preliminary screen of the initial set of 93 compounds was performed in two-dimensional (2D growth conditions using non-transformed prostate epithelial cells (EP156T, an androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP, and the castration-resistant, highly invasive cell line PC-3. The 25 most promising compounds were all betulin derivatives. These were selected for a focused secondary screen in three-dimensional (3D growth conditions, with the goal to identify the most effective and specific anti-invasive compounds. Additional sensitivity and cytotoxicity tests were then performed using an extended cell line panel. The effects of these compounds on cell cycle progression, mitosis, proliferation and unspecific cytotoxicity, versus their ability to specifically interfere with cell motility and tumor cell invasion was addressed. To identify potential mechanisms of action and likely compound targets, multiplex profiling of compound effects on a panel of 43 human protein kinases was performed. These target de-convolution studies, combined with the phenotypic analyses of multicellular organoids in 3D models, revealed specific inhibition of AKT signaling linked to effects on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton as the most likely driver of altered cell morphology and motility.

  11. Optimal Cultivation Time for Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Milk and Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Rumen Degradability Using Nylon Bag Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Polyorach, S.; Poungchompu, O.; M. Wanapat; Kang, S.; A. Cherdthong

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine an optimal cultivation time for populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) co-cultured in fermented milk and effects of soybean meal fermented milk (SBMFM) supplementation on rumen degradability in beef cattle using nylon bag technique. The study on an optimal cultivation time for yeast and LAB growth in fermented milk was determined at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-cultivation. After fermenting for 4 days, an optimal cultivation ti...

  12. Exchange-biased planar Hall effect sensor optimized for biosensor applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Freitas, S.C.; Freitas, P.P.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents experimental investigations of exchange-biased Permalloy planar Hall effect sensor crosses with a fixed active area of w x w = 40 x 40 mu m(2) and Permalloy thicknesses of t = 20, 30, and 50 nm. It is shown that a single domain model describes the system well...

  13. Xylem transport models optimize effectiveness of systemic insecticide applications for controlling hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcy R. Ford; Barbara C. Reynolds; James Vose

    2010-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae Annand) is causing widespread decline and mortality of eastern hemlock trees (Tsuga Canadensis (L.) Carr.). Stem injection of insecticide is widely used as a control measure, but its effectiveness depends on individual tree hydraulic characteristics. Recent work has shown that eastern...

  14. Analyzing transient closed chamber effects on canopy gas exchange for optimizing flux calculation timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langensiepen, M.; Kupisch, M.; Wijk, van M.T.; Ewert, F.

    2012-01-01

    Transient type canopy chambers are still the only currently available practical solution for rapid screening of gas-exchange in agricultural fields. The technique has been criticized for its effect on canopy microclimate during measurement which affects the transport regime and regulation of plant

  15. Modeling and optimizing the performance of plasmonic solar cells using effective medium theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piralaee, M. [Research Institute of Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 51665-163 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Photonics Group, Aras International Campus, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asgari, A., E-mail: asgari@tabrizu.ac.ir [Research Institute of Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 51665-163 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Siahpoush, V. [Research Institute of Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 51665-163 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-05

    In this paper, the effects of random Ag nanoparticle used within the active layer of Si based thin film solar cell are investigated. To avoid the complexity of taking into account all random nanoparticles, an effective dielectric function for random Ag nanoparticles and Si nanocomposites is used that is the Maxwell–Garnet theory along with Percus–Yevick correction term. Considering the energy reservation law and using the effective dielectric function, the absorbance of the active layer, therefore, the solar cell's maximum short current density is obtained. Also, the maximum external quantum efficiency of the solar cell is obtained using the optimum values for the radius and filling fraction of Ag nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A random plasmonic thin film solar cells is studied theoretically. • Silver nanoparticles are randomly distributed through the active layer of solar cell. • The Maxwell–Garnett effective medium theory is used to describe the optical properties. • We have found an optimum situation in which maximum short circuit current density is obtained. • The maximum EQE are found for Ag particles of 7.5 nm radius and filling fraction of 0.05.

  16. The Effect of Climate Change on Optimal Wetlands and Waterfowl Management in Western Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitey, P.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Warmer temperatures and a decrease in precipitation in the 21st century could severely deplete wetlands in the prairie pothole region of western Canada. In this study, we employ linear regression analysis to determine the casual effect of climate change on wetlands in this region, with temperature,

  17. Parameter Optimization on the Uniflow Scavenging System of an OP2S-GDI Engine Based on Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Kang Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an opposed-piston two-stroke (OP2S gasoline direct injection (GDI engine is introduced and its working principles and scavenging process were analyzed. An optimization function was established to optimize the scavenging system parameters, include intake port height, exhaust port height, intake port circumference ratio, the exhaust port circumference ratio and opposed-piston motion phase difference. The effect of the port height on the effective compression ratio and effective expansion ratio were considered, and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP was employed as the optimization objective instead of scavenging efficiency. Orthogonal experiments were employed to reduce the calculation work. The effect of the scavenging parameters on delivery ratio, trapping ratio, scavenging efficiency and indicated thermal efficiency were calculated, and the best parameters were also obtained by the optimization function. The results show that IMEP can be used as the optimization objective in the uniflow scavenging system; intake port height is the main factor to the delivery ratio, while exhaust port height is the main to engine trapping ratio, scavenging efficiency and indicated thermal efficiency; exhaust port height is the most important factor to effect the gas exchange process of OP2S-GDI engine.

  18. Predicting optimal back-shock times in ultrafiltration hollow fiber modules II: Effect of inlet flow and concentration dependent viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Frank; Pinelo, Manuel; Brøns, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamics of back-shocking during hollow fibre ultrafiltration of dextran T500. In this paper we present a mathematical model based on first Principles, i.e., solving the Navier-Stokes equation along with the continuity equation...... fibre membranes, J. Membr. Sci. 470 (2014) 275-293 [33]).Furthermore, the simulations have been performed with two different inlet velocities, i.e., crossflow velocities and are clone with and without a concentration dependent viscosity. This enables us, for the first time, to investigate the effect...... in this paper.Furthermore, it is found that the optimal back-shock time increases when the viscosity is allowed to depend on the concentration It is found that this can be explained by a decrease in the velocity tangential to the membrane due to the increase in viscosity where the concentration is high...

  19. Optimization FSO Performance Under Strong Turbulence Effect By Enhanced New Carrier Data Transmission Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummul K.R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus on mitigating the atmospheric turbulence effect in free space optical communication using a dual diffuser modulation (DDM technique. The most deteriorate the FSOC is scintillation where it affected the wave front cause to fluctuating signal and ultimately receiver can turn into saturate or loss signal. DD approach enhances the detecting bit ‘1’ and bit ‘0’ and improves the power received to combat with turbulence effect. The performance focus on Signal-to-Noise (SNR and Bit Error Rate (BER by using the Kolmogorov’s scintillation theory. The numerical result shows that the DD approach improves the range where estimated approximately 40% improvement under weak turbulence and 80% under strong turbulence.

  20. Optimized Peptide Vaccines Eliciting Extensive CD8 T Cell Responses with Therapeutic Anti-Tumor Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hyun-Il; Celis, Esteban

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge for developing effective therapeutic vaccines against cancer is overcoming immunological tolerance to tumor-associated antigens that are expressed on both malignant cells and normal tissues. Herein, we describe a novel vaccination approach, TriVax that utilizes synthetic peptides representing CD8 T cell epitopes, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists that function as a potent immunological adjuvants and costimulatory anti-CD40 antibodies to generate large numbers of high avidity...

  1. Hybrid RHF/MP2 geometry optimizations with the effective fragment molecular orbital method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Steen; Svendsen, Casper Steinmann; Fedorov, Dmitri G

    2014-01-01

    The frozen domain effective fragment molecular orbital method is extended to allow for the treatment of a single fragment at the MP2 level of theory. The approach is applied to the conversion of chorismate to prephenate by Chorismate Mutase, where the substrate is treated at the MP2 level of theo...... basis sets the increase in CPU time relative to RHF is roughly a factor of two....

  2. Pregnancy Research on Osteopathic Manipulation Optimizing Treatment Effects: The PROMOTE Study A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    HENSEL, Kendi L.; BUCHANAN, Steve; BROWN, Sarah K.; RODRIGUEZ, Mayra; CRUSER, des Anges

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) to reduce low back pain and improve functioning during the third trimester in pregnancy and improve selected outcomes of labor and delivery. Study Design PROMOTE was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 400 women in their third trimester. Women were randomized to usual care only (UCO), usual care plus OMT (OMT), or usual care plus placebo ultrasound treatment (PUT). The study included seven treatments over nine weeks. The OMT protocol included specific techniques administered by board-certified OMT specialists. Outcomes were assessed using self-report measures for pain and back-related functioning, and medical records for delivery outcomes. Results There were 136 women in the OMT group, 131 in PUT, and 133 in UCO. Characteristics at baseline were similar across groups. Findings indicate significant treatment effects for pain and back related functioning (P<.001 for both), with outcomes for the OMT group similar to that of the PUT, but both groups were significantly improved compared to UCO. For secondary outcome of meconium- stained amniotic fluid there were no differences between the groups. Conclusion OMT was effective for mitigating pain and functional deterioration compared to the UCO group; however OMT did not differ significantly from PUT. This may be attributed to PUT being a more active treatment than intended. There was no higher likelihood of conversion to high risk status based on treatment group. Therefore, OMT is a safe, effective adjunctive modality to improve pain and functioning during their third trimester. PMID:25068560

  3. Optimization of effective atom centered potentials for london dispersion forces in density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lilienfeld, O Anatole; Tavernelli, Ivano; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Sebastiani, Daniel

    2004-10-08

    We add an effective atom-centered nonlocal term to the exchange-correlation potential in order to cure the lack of London dispersion forces in standard density functional theory. Calibration of this long-range correction is performed using density functional perturbation theory and an arbitrary reference. Without any prior assignment of types and structures of molecular fragments, our corrected generalized gradient approximation density functional theory calculations yield correct equilibrium geometries and dissociation energies of argon-argon, benzene-benzene, graphite-graphite, and argon-benzene complexes.

  4. Optimizing Noncovalent Interactions Between Lignin and Synthetic Polymers to Develop Effective Compatibilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Nathan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Harper, David [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Center for Renewable Carbon; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Experiments are designed and completed to identify an effective polymeric compatibilizer for lignin polystyrene blends. Copolymers of styrene and vinylphenol are chosen as the structure of the compatibilizer as the VPh unit can readily form intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the lignin molecule. Electron microscopy, thermal analysis, and neutron refl ectivity results demonstrate that among these compatibilizers, a copolymer of styrene and VPh with 20% 30% VPh most readily forms intermolecular interactions with the lignin molecule and results in the most well-dispersed blends with lignin. This behavior is explained by invoking the competition of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding and functional group accessibility in forming intermolecular interactions.

  5. Optimizing magneto-optical effects in the ferromagnetic semiconductor GaMnAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riahi, H., E-mail: hassenriahi1987@gmail.com [Laboratoire Matériaux Molécules et Applications, IPEST, Université de Carthage, La Marsa (Tunisia); Thevenard, L. [CNRS, UMR7588, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR7588, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Maaref, M.A. [Laboratoire Matériaux Molécules et Applications, IPEST, Université de Carthage, La Marsa (Tunisia); Gallas, B. [CNRS, UMR7588, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR7588, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Lemaître, A. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures – CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Gourdon, C [CNRS, UMR7588, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR7588, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

    2015-12-01

    A trilayer of the ferromagnetic semiconductor GaMnAs, a SiO{sub 2} buffer layer and a piezoelectric ZnO layer, is investigated in view of its use in device implementation to study surface acoustic wave-assisted magnetization switching. The magneto-optical properties: Kerr rotation and ellipticity and magnetic contrast in Kerr microscopy images are investigated as a function of temperature. While the ZnO layer prevents any good quality imaging of magnetic domains, we show that with the SiO{sub 2} layer only the polar Kerr rotation and the magnetic contrast are increased by a factor of 2. This result is in good quantitative agreement with calculations using an optical interference model and could be further improved. The detrimental effects of the dielectric layers capping on the Curie temperature and coercive field of the GaMnAs layer can be kept to a reasonable level. - Highlights: • GaMnAs/SiO{sub 2}/ZnO studied for surface acoustic wave assisted magnetization switching. • The Kerr rotation and magneticcontrast increase by a factor 2 with SiO{sub 2} on GaMnAs. • Good quantitative agreement with an optical interference model. • Little detrimental effect of SiO{sub 2} and ZnO on the ferromagnetic properties of GaMnAs.

  6. Coil-current effect in Kibble balances: analysis, measurement, and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Bielsa, F.; Stock, M.; Kiss, A.; Fang, H.

    2018-02-01

    The Kibble balance is expected to become an important instrument in the near future for realizing the unit of mass, the kilogram, in the revised international system of units (SI). The Kibble balance assumes an equality of two magnetic profiles measured in the weighing and velocity phases. A recent study conducted in the Kibble balance group at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) showed that the coil current could significantly affect the magnetic profile, which should be carefully taken into account in the Kibble balance experiment. This paper gives a deeper understanding and investigation of the effect, and discusses the magnetic profile change due to the coil current, for both the classical two-mode and the one-mode Kibble balances. The coil current effect has been theoretically and experimentally investigated based on a typical magnet design with an air gap. One important conclusion found in the one-mode Kibble balance is that the magnetic profile change measured in the velocity phase is twice the change in the weighing phase. A compensation suggestion, to minimize the profile change due to the coil current in a BIPM-type magnet, is presented.

  7. An optimized method to assess ototoxic effects in the lateral line of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Daniel; Zindler, Florian; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    In order to clarify the suitability of the lateral line of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as a model for the screening of ototoxic (neurotoxic) effects, existing neuromast assays were adapted, improved and validated with a series of chemicals known or unknown for their ototoxic potential (caffeine copper sulfate, dichlorvos, 2.4-dinitrotoluene, neomycin, 4-nonylphenol, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid). Present methods were improved by (1) the introduction of a 4-step scoring system, (2) the selection of neuromasts from both the anterior and posterior lateral line systems, (3) a combined DASPEI/DAPI staining applied after both a continuous and pulse exposure scenario, and (4) an additional screening for nuclear fragmentation. Acute toxicities of the model substances were determined by means of the fish embryo test as specified in OECD TG 236, and EC 10 concentrations were used as the highest test concentration in the neuromast assay. The enhanced neuromast assay identified known ototoxic substances such as neomycin and copper sulfate as ototoxic at sensitivities similar to those of established methods, with pulse exposure leading to stronger effects than continuous exposure. Except for caffeine, all substances tested (dichlorvos, 2.4-dinitrotoluene, 4-nonylphenol, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid) produced significant toxic effects in neuromasts at EC 10 concentrations. Depending on the test substances and their location along the lateral line, specific neuromasts differed in sensitivity. Generally, neuromasts proved more sensitive in the pulse exposure scenario. Whereas for neomycin and copper sulfate neuromasts located along the anterior lateral line were more sensitive, posterior lateral line neuromasts proved more sensitive for the other test substances. Nuclear fragmentation could not only be associated with all test substances, but, albeit at lower frequencies, also with negative controls, and could, therefore, not be assigned specifically to chemical damage. The

  8. Vasodilatory Effects of Combined Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs in Optimized Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Yean Chun; Tan, Chu Shan; Ch'ng, Yung Sing; Ahmad, Mariam; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Yam, Mun Fei

    2017-03-01

    Recently, a new syndromic disease combination theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for hypertensive treatment has been introduced. In the wake of this new concept, a new science-based TCM formula that counteracts various syndromes is needed. The objective of this study was to develop such a formula. Five of the most clinically prescribed TCM herbs that work on different syndromes, namely Gastrodia elata, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Pueraria thomsonii, Panax notoginseng, and Alisma orientale, were selected for this study. The fingerprints of these five herbs were analyzed by tri-step Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Three different solvents, 95% ethanol, 50% ethanol, and distilled water, were used for the maceration of the herbs and their vasodilatory effects were studied using in vitro precontracted aortic ring model. Among these, the 50% ethanolic extracts of G. elata (GE50) and A. orientale (AO50), and 95% ethanolic extracts of U. rhynchophylla (UR95), P. thomsonii (PT95), and P. notoginseng (PN95) were found to be the most effective for eliciting vasodilation. Thus, these five extracts were used for orthogonal stimulus-response compatibility group studies by using L 25 (5 5 ) formula. The best combination ratio for GE50, UR95, PT95, PN95, and AO50, which was assigned as Formula 1 (F1), was found at EC 0 , EC 25 , EC 20 , EC 20 , and EC 10 , respectively. The vasodilatory effect of the extracts prepared from different extraction methods using F1 ratio was also studied. From the results, the EC 50 and R max of total 50% ethanolic extract of five herbs using F1 ratio (F1-2) were 0.028 ± 0.005 mg/mL and 101.71% ± 3.64%, with better values than F1 (0.104 ± 0.014 mg/mL and 97.80% ± 3.12%, respectively). In conclusion, the optimum ratio and appropriate extraction method (F1-2) for the new TCM formula were revealed.

  9. Effect of Optimization of Glycaemic Control on Mannan-Binding Lectin in Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dørflinger, Gry Høst; Holt, Charlotte Brink; Thiel, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) concentration in plasma is increased in subjects with type 1 diabetes and associated with increased mortality and risk of diabetic nephropathy. Recent findings show that pancreas transplantation reduces MBL concentration. Whether the increased MBL...... dose, HbA1c, or fructosamine. Conclusions: MBL concentration decreased following the initiation of insulin pump therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes and did not correlate with changes in glycaemic control....... concentration is reversed by improved glycaemic control remains unknown. We investigated the effects of improved glycaemic control on MBL concentration in patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods: We measured MBL, fructosamine, and HbA1cat baseline and after 6 weeks in 52 type 1 diabetic patients following...

  10. Optimal design of an electret microphone metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor preamplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Donk, A G; Bergveld, P

    1992-04-01

    A theoretical noise analysis of the combination of a capacitive microphone and a preamplifier containing a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) and a high-value resistive bias element is given. It is found that the output signal-to-noise ratio for a source follower and for a common-source circuit is almost the same. It is also shown that the output noise can be reduced by making the microphone capacitance as well as the bias resistor as large as possible, and furthermore by keeping the parasitic gate capacitances as low as possible and finally by using an optimum value for the gate area of the MOSFET. The main noise source is the thermal noise of the gate leakage resistance of the MOSFET. It is also shown that short-channel MOSFETs produce more thermal channel noise than longer channel devices.

  11. Channel geometric scales effect on performance and optimization for serpentine proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youcef, Kerkoub; Ahmed, Benzaoui; Ziari, Yasmina; Fadila, Haddad

    2017-02-01

    A three dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is proposed in this paper to investigate the effect of flow field design and dimensions of bipolar plates on performance of serpentine proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). A complete fuel cell of 25 cm2 with 25 channels have been used. The aim of the work is to investigate the effect of flow channels and ribs scales on overall performance of PEM fuel cell. Therefore, geometric aspect ratio parameter defined as (width of flow channel/width of rib) is used. Influences of the ribs and openings current collector scales have been studied and analyzed in order to find the optimum ratio between them to enhance the production of courant density of PEM fuel cell. Six kind of serpentine designs have been used in this paper included different aspect ratio varying from 0.25 to 2.33 while the active surface area and number of channels are keeping constant. Aspect ratio 0.25 corresponding of (0.4 mm channel width/ 1.6mm ribs width), and Aspect ratio2.33 corresponding of (0.6 mm channel width/ 1.4mm ribs width. The results show that the best flow field designs (giving the maximum density of current) are which there dimensions of channels width is minimal and ribs width is maximal (Γ≈0.25). Also decreasing width of channels enhance the pressure drop inside the PEM fuel cell, this causes an increase of gazes velocity and enhance convection process, therefore more power generation.

  12. Estimate Of Reference Effective Dose And Renal Dose During Abdominal CT Scan For Dose Optimization Procedures In Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issahaku Shirazu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study is to estimate renal and effective dose during abdominal MDCT scan using image data for dose optimization for purposes of radiation protection in Ghana. In addition dose influencing parameters including CTDIVOL DLP and MSAD were recorded and compared with ICRPICRU AAPM EU and IAEA dose optimization recommendations. All the measurements were done during abdominal MDCT examination. The measured parameters were part of image data on the MeVisLab DICOM application software platform. The total photon fluence mAs per area and the photon energy fluence kVp per area on the abdominal and renal surface was also determined. Renal and effective dose were estimated using ICRP publication 103 recommendations. The results of the measured parameters based on the average renal surface area of 29.52cm2 and 30.67cm2 for the right and left kidney respectively shows that The mean dose parameters were 6.33mGy 7.78mGy 936.25mGy cm 5.76mGy 10.99mSv and 14.09mSv for CTDIV CTDIW DLP MSAD RD and E respectively. The average values were lower than the general recommended average critical values but this seems misleading based on the fact that 37 of the individual dose and exposure parameters exceeded the recommended critical values. A tradeoff between patient radiation dose and image quality in abdominal CT has been established. Where at a mean SNR of 6.6 decibels an adequate images were produce to answer all the clinical questions with an average effective dose of 14.09mSv and renal dose of 10.99mSv. Radiation dose during x-ray CT imaging is an important patient safety concern. Reducing radiation dose result in a reduction of the risk to patient however reducing dose also reduces the signal strength and thereby reduces the signal to noise ratio in the resulting CT image hence the image quality is affected. It is recommended that the established reference values be use as clinical advisory mechanism to protect patience and clinicians. It is also recommended that

  13. Website Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Remember when an optimized website was one that merely didn't take all day to appear? Times have changed. Today, website optimization can spell the difference between enterprise success and failure, and it takes a lot more know-how to achieve success. This book is a comprehensive guide to the tips, techniques, secrets, standards, and methods of website optimization. From increasing site traffic to maximizing leads, from revving up responsiveness to increasing navigability, from prospect retention to closing more sales, the world of 21st century website optimization is explored, exemplified a

  14. 3D Microstructure Effects in Ni-YSZ Anodes: Prediction of Effective Transport Properties and Optimization of Redox Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M. Pecho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of microstructure on the effective ionic and electrical conductivities of Ni-YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia anodes. Fine, medium, and coarse microstructures are exposed to redox cycling at 950 °C. FIB (focused ion beam-tomography and image analysis are used to quantify the effective (connected volume fraction (Φeff, constriction factor (β, and tortuosity (τ. The effective conductivity (σeff is described as the product of intrinsic conductivity (σ0 and the so-called microstructure-factor (M: σeff = σ0*M. Two different methods are used to evaluate the M-factor: (1 by prediction using a recently established relationship, Mpred = εβ0.36/τ5.17, and (2 by numerical simulation that provides conductivity, from which the simulated M-factor can be deduced (Msim. Both methods give complementary and consistent information about the effective transport properties and the redox degradation mechanism. The initial microstructure has a strong influence on effective conductivities and their degradation. Finer anodes have higher initial conductivities but undergo more intensive Ni coarsening. Coarser anodes have a more stable Ni phase but exhibit lower YSZ stability due to lower sintering activity. Consequently, in order to improve redox stability, it is proposed to use mixtures of fine and coarse powders in different proportions for functional anode and current collector layers.

  15. Optimization of air injection parameters toward optimum fuel saving effect for ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon

    2016-11-01

    Air lubrication method is the most promising commercial strategy for the frictional drag reduction of ocean going vessels. Air bubbles are injected through the array of holes or the slots installed onto the flat bottom surface of vessel and a sufficient supply of air is required to ensure the formation of stable air layer by the by the coalescence of the bubbles. The air layer drag reduction becomes economically meaningful when the power gain through the drag reduction exceeds the pumping power consumption. In this study, a model ship of 50k medium range tanker is employed to investigate air lubrication method. The experiments were conducted in the 100m long towing tank facility at the Pusan National University. To create the effective air lubrication with lower air flow rate, various configurations including the layout of injection holes, employment of side fences and static trim have been tested. In the preliminary series of model tests, the maximum 18.13%(at 15kts) of reduction of model resistance was achieved. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) through GCRC-SOP (Grant No. 2011-0030013).

  16. Optimization of coupled plasmonic effects for viable phosphorescence of metal-free purely organic phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Jung, Jaehun; Chung, Kyungwha; Lim, Ju Won; You, Youngmin; Kim, Jinsang; Kim, Dong Ha

    2017-10-01

    Metal-free purely organic phosphorescent molecules are attractive alternatives to organometallic and inorganic counterparts because of their low cost and readily tunable optical properties through a wide chemical design window. However, their weak phosphorescent intensity due to inefficient spin-orbit coupling and, consequently, prevailing non-radiative decay processes limit their practical applicability. Here, we systematically studied phosphorescence emission enhancement of a purely organic phosphor system via plasmon resonance energy transfer. By precisely tuning the distance between purely organic phosphor crystals and plasmonic nanostructures using layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte multilayers as a dielectric spacer, maximum 2.8 and 2.5 times enhancement in photoluminescence intensity was observed when the phosphor crystals were coupled with ˜55 nm AuNPs and ˜7 nm AgNPs, respectively, at the distance of 9.6 nm. When the distance is within the range of 3 nm, a dramatic decrease in phosphorescence intensity was observed, while at a larger distance, the plasmonic effect diminished rapidly. The distance-dependent plasmon-induced phosphorescence enhancement mechanism was further investigated by time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. Our results reveal the correlation between the amplification efficiency and plasmonic band, spatial factor, and spectral characteristics of the purely organic phosphor, which may provide an insightful picture to extend the utility of organic phosphors by using surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement scheme.

  17. Optimization of human mesenchymal stem cell manufacturing: the effects of animal/xeno-free media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomopoulos, Angelos; van Deen, Welmoed K; Manansala, Aida-Rae; Lacey, Precious N; Tomakili, Tamera A; Ziman, Alyssa; Hommes, Daniel W

    2015-11-13

    Due to their immunosuppressive properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been evaluated for the treatment of immunological diseases. However, the animal-derived growth supplements utilized for MSC manufacturing may lead to clinical complications. Characterization of alternative media formulations is imperative for MSC therapeutic application. Human BMMSC and AdMSC were expanded in media supplemented with either human platelet lysates (HPL), serum-free media/xeno-free FDA-approved culture medium (SFM/XF), or fetal bovine serum (FBS) and the effects on their properties were investigated. The immunophenotype of resting and IFN-γ primed BMMSC and AdMSC remained unaltered in all media. Both HPL and SFM/XF increased the proliferation of BMMSC and AdMSC. Expansion of BMMSC and AdMSC in HPL increased their differentiation, compared to SFM/XF and FBS. Resting BMMSC and AdMSC, expanded in FBS or SFM/XF, demonstrated potent immunosuppressive properties in both non-primed and IFN-γ primed conditions, whereas HPL-expanded MSC exhibited diminished immunosuppressive properties. Finally, IFN-γ primed BMMSC and AdMSC expanded in SFM/XF and HPL expressed attenuated levels of IDO-1 compared to FBS. Herein, we provide strong evidence supporting the use of the FDA-approved SFM/XF medium, in contrast to the HPL medium, for the expansion of MSC towards therapeutic applications.

  18. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Basu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS in adults [n=60; age: 49±10 years; BMI: 36±5 kg/m2 (mean ± SD] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS, low dose control beverage (LD-C, high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS, and high dose control beverage (HD-C for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc, whole blood glutathione (GSH, and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were examined at screening (0 week and after 12 weeks’ intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.; glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p<0.05. Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43% versus control group (p<0.01. No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids.

  19. Optimizing the durability of the coarse fraction of porous asphalt RAP for effective recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Irina; Wilson, Douglas J.; Black, Philippa; Holleran, Glynn; Walubita, Lubinda F.

    2017-09-01

    Porous asphalt (PA) durability depends not only on the binder used to manufacture the mix, but also on the aggregates chosen, particularly the coarse fraction component. Aggregates for PA should be of the highest quality and highly durable to withstand the effects of weather and traffic. To recycle PA into a new PA mix, without compromising the long-term performance, the durability of the recovered aggregates from PA-derived reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) should be assessed alongside the aged binder properties. In this study, the Micro-Deval (MD) Abrasion test, combined with water absorption, was found to be a good predictor of asphalt mix performance for PA. Minerology of the aggregates is an important factor when setting limits for MD loss. New Zealand (NZ) aggregates are significantly younger in geological terms, and chemically and physically less stable compared to the aggregates used in many other countries. This is especially true for greywacke, the most used aggregate in NZ for road construction. If the MD limits reported in some literature are applied to NZ PA-derived RAP aggregates, poor performing material can be erroneously incorporated in asphalt mixes. Findings from this study contributes in understanding how PA-derived RAP can be recycled into new value PA mixes.

  20. Effect of Optimization of Glycaemic Control on Mannan-Binding Lectin in Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Høst Dørflinger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL concentration in plasma is increased in subjects with type 1 diabetes and associated with increased mortality and risk of diabetic nephropathy. Recent findings show that pancreas transplantation reduces MBL concentration. Whether the increased MBL concentration is reversed by improved glycaemic control remains unknown. We investigated the effects of improved glycaemic control on MBL concentration in patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods. We measured MBL, fructosamine, and HbA1cat baseline and after 6 weeks in 52 type 1 diabetic patients following the change from conventional insulin therapy to insulin pump therapy. Results. After initiation of insulin pump therapy, the total daily insulin dose was significantly reduced (from 51 ± 18 IE/day to 39 ± 13 IE/day, P<0.0001. There was a significant decrease in HbA1c from 8.6% to 7.7% (from 70 mmol/mol to 61 mmol/mol, P<0.0001 and in fructosamine levels (from 356 μmol/L to 311 μmol/L, P<0.0001. MBL levels decreased by 10% from 2165 μg/L (IQR 919–3389 μg/L at baseline to 1928 μ/L (IQR 811–2758 μg/L at follow-up (P=0.005, but MBL change was not significantly correlated with changes in insulin dose, HbA1c, or fructosamine. Conclusions. MBL concentration decreased following the initiation of insulin pump therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes and did not correlate with changes in glycaemic control.

  1. Effect of Tip-Speed Constraints on the Optimized Design of a Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, K.; Resor, B.; Platt, A.; Guo, Y.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Parsons, T.; Petch, D.; Veers, P.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of tip-velocity constraints on system levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The results indicate that a change in maximum tip speed from 80 to 100~m/s could produce a 32% decrease in gearbox weight (a 33% reduction in cost) which would result in an overall reduction of 1%-9% in system LCOE depending on the design approach. Three 100~m/s design cases were considered including a low tip-speed ratio/high-solidity rotor design, a high tip-speed ratio/ low-solidity rotor design, and finally a flexible blade design in which a high tip-speed ratio was used along with removing the tip deflection constraint on the rotor design. In all three cases, the significant reduction in gearbox weight caused by the higher tip-speed and lower overall gear ratio was counterbalanced by increased weights for the rotor and/or other drivetrain components and the tower. As a result, the increased costs of either the rotor or drivetrain components offset the overall reduction in turbine costs from down-sizing the gearbox. Other system costs were not significantly affected, whereas energy production was slightly reduced in the 100~m/s case low tip-speed ratio case and increased in the high tip-speed ratio case. This resulted in system cost of energy reductions moving from the 80~m/s design to the 100~m/s designs of 1.2% for the low tip-speed ratio, 4.6% for the high tip-speed ratio, and 9.5% for the final flexible case (the latter result is optimistic because the impact of deflection of the flexible blade on power production was not modeled). Overall, the results demonstrate that there is a trade-off in system design between the maximum tip velocity and the overall wind plant cost of energy, and there are many trade-offs within the overall system in designing a turbine for a high maximum tip velocity.

  2. Effects of aging in Masters swimmers: 40-year review and suggestions for optimal health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Rubin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Robert T Rubin1,2, Richard H Rahe31Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2UCLA Bruin Masters Swim Club, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Portland VA Hospital Community-Based Outpatient Center, Salem, OR, USAAbstract: The Masters Swimming Program is over 40 years old and has achieved international status, with thousands of participants competing in five-year age categories between 18 and 99. Early studies of Masters swimmers by age groups found an increase in times for most events of about 1% per year, and later studies showed a significant correlation with the age-associated decline in maximal oxygen uptake. As larger sample sizes have become available, the age-related decline in performance among national champion Masters swimmers, both men and women, and for both short and longer swims, has been shown to be linear at about 0.6% per year up to age 70. Beyond age 70, the age-related decline accelerates exponentially for both men and women, with considerably more variability than in younger age groups. Several factors may be related to the accelerated performance decline beyond the of age 70, including accelerated physiological aging, chronic physical disabilities, acute illnesses requiring relatively lengthy recovery, effects of multiple medications, and social issues such as transportation problems, all of which can lead to increasing difficulty in maintaining a regular workout schedule. Masters Swimming is a “user-friendly” aerobic sport, imposing little excess strain, and thus is particularly suitable for the elderly. Masters coaches are gaining increasing experience with the over-70 age groups, tailoring workouts to accommodate their need for longer warm-up periods, longer rest periods between swimming sets, less overall distance, less emphasis on “breath control”, and more time between workouts. With these accommodations, the motivation of elderly

  3. An orbital angular momentum radio communication system optimized by intensity controlled masks effectively: Theoretical design and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xinlu [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Huang, Shanguo, E-mail: shghuang@bupt.edu.cn; Wei, Yongfeng; Zhai, Wensheng; Xu, Wenjing; Yin, Shan; Gu, Wanyi [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhou, Jing [Applied Optics Beijing Area Major Laboratory, Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-12-15

    A system of generating and receiving orbital angular momentum (OAM) radio beams, which are collectively formed by two circular array antennas (CAAs) and effectively optimized by two intensity controlled masks, is proposed and experimentally investigated. The scheme is effective in blocking of the unwanted OAM modes and enhancing the power of received radio signals, which results in the capacity gain of system and extended transmission distance of the OAM radio beams. The operation principle of the intensity controlled masks, which can be regarded as both collimator and filter, is feasible and simple to realize. Numerical simulations of intensity and phase distributions at each key cross-sectional plane of the radio beams demonstrate the collimated results. The experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis and the receive distance of the OAM radio beam at radio frequency (RF) 20 GHz is extended up to 200 times of the wavelength of the RF signals, the measured distance is 5 times of the original measured distance. The presented proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates the feasibility of the system.

  4. Selection and optimization of Bacillus atrophaeus inoculum medium and its effect on spore yield and thermal resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Sandra Regina B R; Dlugokenski, Regina Elizabete F; Guizelini, Belquis P; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Medeiros, Adriane B P; Pandey, Ashok; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2008-12-01

    Bacillus atrophaeus's spores are used as biological indicators to monitor sterilization processes and as a Bacillus anthracis surrogate in the development and validation of biosafety methods. The regular use of biological indicators to evaluate the efficiency of sterilization processes is a legal requirement for health services. However, its high cost hinders its widespread use. Aiming at developing a cost-effective inoculum medium, soybean molasses and nutrient-supplemented vinasse were evaluated for their effectiveness in solid-state fermentation (SSF). In biomass production, the results demonstrated that all tested compositions favor growth by providing the nutritional demands of the microorganism. Optimum casein peptone and soybean molasses concentration (1.0%, 2.5%, or 4.0%) was determined by a 2((2-0)) factorial experimental design. The results have showed a positive influence of peptone on biomass production. In order to define peptone final concentration (4.0% or 6.0%), a 2(2) factorial experimental design was used. An optimized medium containing 4.0% soybean molasses and 4.0% casein peptone was similar in performance to a synthetic control medium (tryptone soy broth) in dry-heat thermal-resistant spore production by SSF. An experiment performed under optimum SSF conditions resulted in 1.9 x 10(10) CFU g(-1) dry matter with D (160 degrees C) = 5.2 +/- 0.2 min.

  5. Orbital-dependent second-order scaled-opposite-spin correlation functionals in the optimized effective potential method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowski, Ireneusz, E-mail: ig@fizyka.umk.pl; Śmiga, Szymon; Buksztel, Adam [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Fabiano, Eduardo [National Nanotechnology Laboratory, Istituto Nanoscienze–CNR, Via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Teale, Andrew M. [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Sala, Fabio Della [National Nanotechnology Laboratory, Istituto Nanoscienze–CNR, Via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies @UNILE, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Via Barsanti, 73010 Arnesano (LE) (Italy)

    2014-07-14

    The performance of correlated optimized effective potential (OEP) functionals based on the spin-resolved second-order correlation energy is analysed. The relative importance of singly- and doubly- excited contributions as well as the effect of scaling the same- and opposite- spin components is investigated in detail comparing OEP results with Kohn–Sham (KS) quantities determined via an inversion procedure using accurate ab initio electronic densities. Special attention is dedicated in particular to the recently proposed scaled-opposite–spin OEP functional [I. Grabowski, E. Fabiano, and F. Della Sala, Phys. Rev. B 87, 075103 (2013)] which is the most advantageous from a computational point of view. We find that for high accuracy, a careful, system dependent, selection of the scaling coefficient is required. We analyse several size-extensive approaches for this selection. Finally, we find that a composite approach, named OEP2-SOSh, based on a post-SCF rescaling of the correlation energy can yield high accuracy for many properties, being comparable with the most accurate OEP procedures previously reported in the literature but at substantially reduced computational effort.

  6. Optimality Conditions in Vector Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Manuel Arana; Lizana, Antonio Rufián

    2011-01-01

    Vector optimization is continuously needed in several science fields, particularly in economy, business, engineering, physics and mathematics. The evolution of these fields depends, in part, on the improvements in vector optimization in mathematical programming. The aim of this Ebook is to present the latest developments in vector optimization. The contributions have been written by some of the most eminent researchers in this field of mathematical programming. The Ebook is considered essential for researchers and students in this field.

  7. Structural optimization

    CERN Document Server

    MacBain, Keith M

    2009-01-01

    Intends to supplement the engineer's box of analysis and design tools making optimization as commonplace as the finite element method in the engineering workplace. This title introduces structural optimization and the methods of nonlinear programming such as Lagrange multipliers, Kuhn-Tucker conditions, and calculus of variations.

  8. Optimal Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the educational applications of experimental psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's theory of peak experience, or optimal flow. Optimal flow refers to the receptive state people achieve when they are engaged in interesting and challenging activity. Includes an insightful critique of multimedia instruction from this perspective. (MJP)

  9. Pomegranate seed oil nanoemulsions with selective antiglioma activity: optimization and evaluation of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative effects on mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota Ferreira, Luana; Gehrcke, Mailine; Ferrari Cervi, Verônica; Eliete Rodrigues Bitencourt, Paula; Ferreira da Silveira, Elita; Hofstatter Azambuja, Juliana; Prates Ramos, Andiara; Nascimento, Kátia; Beatriz Moretto, Maria; Braganhol, Elizandra; Rorato Sagrillo, Michele; Cruz, Letícia

    2016-12-01

    Glioma is a malignant brain tumor with rapid proliferation, infiltrative growth, poor prognosis and it is chemoresistent. Pomegranate seed oil (PSO) has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. This study showed the optimization of PSO nanoemulsions (NEs) as an alternative for glioma treatment. The study aimed to evaluate PSO NEs cytotoxicity on human blood cells and antiglioma effects against C6 cells. NEs were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method, using PSO at 1.5 and 3.0%, and were evaluated regarding their physical stability and antioxidant activity. Toxicity evaluations in human blood cells were performed in terms of cell viability, genotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, catalase activity and hemolysis at 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL PSO, after a 72-h incubation period. In vitro antitumor effect was determined against glioma cells after 24 and 48 h, and astrocytes were used as a non-transformed cell model. Formulations presented droplet size below 250 nm, low polydispersity index, negative zeta potential and pH in the acid range. NEs and PSO had scavenging capacity around 30% and promoted a proliferative effect in mononuclear cells, increasing about 50% cell viability. No genotoxic and oxidative damage was observed in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and catalase activity evaluations for NEs. Hemolysis study showed a hemolytic effect at high concentrations. Moreover, formulations reduced only tumor cell viability to 47%, approximately. Formulations are adequate and safe for intravenous administration. Besides, in vitro antitumor activity indicates that NEs are promising for glioma treatment.

  10. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Brain Volumes Changes of Postmenopausal Women Revealed by Optimally-Discriminative Voxel-Based Morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhao Zhang

    Full Text Available The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WHIMS-MRI provides an opportunity to evaluate how menopausal hormone therapy (HT affects the structure of older women's brains. Our earlier work based on region of interest (ROI analysis demonstrated potential structural changes underlying adverse effects of HT on cognition. However, the ROI-based analysis is limited in statistical power and precision, and cannot provide fine-grained mapping of whole-brain changes.We aimed to identify local structural differences between HT and placebo groups from WHIMS-MRI in a whole-brain refined level, by using a novel method, named Optimally-Discriminative Voxel-Based Analysis (ODVBA. ODVBA is a recently proposed imaging pattern analysis approach for group comparisons utilizing a spatially adaptive analysis scheme to accurately locate areas of group differences, thereby providing superior sensitivity and specificity to detect the structural brain changes over conventional methods.Women assigned to HT treatments had significant Gray Matter (GM losses compared to the placebo groups in the anterior cingulate and the adjacent medial frontal gyrus, and the orbitofrontal cortex, which persisted after multiple comparison corrections. There were no regions where HT was significantly associated with larger volumes compared to placebo, although a trend of marginal significance was found in the posterior cingulate cortical area. The CEE-Alone and CEE+MPA groups, although compared with different placebo controls, demonstrated similar effects according to the spatial patterns of structural changes.HT had adverse effects on GM volumes and risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. These findings advanced our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of HT effects.

  11. An Improved Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Method for Economic Dispatch Problems with Multiple Fuel Options and Valve-Points Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yun Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO is an efficient and powerful population-based optimization technique, which is inspired by the conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO and quantum mechanics theories. In this paper, an improved QPSO named SQPSO is proposed, which combines QPSO with a selective probability operator to solve the economic dispatch (ED problems with valve-point effects and multiple fuel options. To show the performance of the proposed SQPSO, it is tested on five standard benchmark functions and two ED benchmark problems, including a 40-unit ED problem with valve-point effects and a 10-unit ED problem with multiple fuel options. The results are compared with differential evolution (DE, particle swarm optimization (PSO and basic QPSO, as well as a number of other methods reported in the literature in terms of solution quality, convergence speed and robustness. The simulation results confirm that the proposed SQPSO is effective and reliable for both function optimization and ED problems.

  12. The effect of optimal space allowance on growth performance and physiological responses of pigs at different stages of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K H; Kim, K S; Kim, J E; Kim, D W; Seol, K H; Lee, S H; Chae, B J; Kim, Y H

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the optimal space allowance for maximizing the growth performance of pigs at each of the following five growth stages (based on BW ranges): stage 1, 11 to 25 kg BW; stage 2, 25 to 45 kg BW; stage 3, 45 to 65 kg BW; stage 4, 65 to 85 kg BW; and stage 5, 85 to 110 kg BW. A total of 1590 crossbred (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) pigs were assigned to one of four treatments at each growth stage, with three replicates each. Pen areas at each growth stage were 6, 11, 16, 19.5 and 20 m2 for stages 1 to 5, respectively. Space allowances for the four treatments at each growth stage were modified by varying the number of pigs per pen (22, 25, 28 and 31 pigs in T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively). Blood samples were collected on the final day of each growth stage. The average daily gain (ADG) decreased significantly with decreased space allowances at all growth stages, except at stage 2. Average daily feed intake (ADFI) was not significantly affected by space allowances at stages 1 to 4; however, at stage 5, there was a linear effect of space allowance on ADFI. Thus, the feed conversion ratio showed results similar to those for ADG. Serum cortisol concentrations, indicating the level of stress response, increased as space allowances decreased. The highest serum cortisol concentrations were observed in T3 at stages 2 to 5. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α levels were significantly higher in association with a small space allowance than with at large space allowance at stages 2, 4 and 5. Serum interleukin-1β levels also increased in a significant linear manner at every growth stage in pigs reared at a low space allowance, except at stage 4 (P=0.068). This study found that limited space allowance decreases the growth performance of pigs and induces stress and inflammatory responses. We confirmed that no significant effect of space allowance on growth performance and serum cortisol concentrations are observed between T1 and T2 across all growth

  13. Effects of optimism, social support, fighting spirit, cancer worry and internal health locus of control on positive affect in cancer survivors: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Kayleigh; Winstanley, Sue

    2012-12-01

    The psychological impact of a cancer diagnosis can extend through treatment, well into cancer survivorship and can be influenced by a range of psychosocial resources. At different stages in this trajectory, optimism is known to affect well-being directly. This study focusing upon the potential to flourish after cancer, investigates the relationship between optimism and positive affect during cancer survivorship together with four possible mediators: social support, fighting spirit, internal health locus of control and cancer worry, all of which have been shown to be important predictors of well-being in cancer patients. Participants (n = 102) from online cancer forums completed standardized questionnaires, and path analysis confirmed that optimism had a direct effect on positive affect in cancer survivors. Social support and fighting spirit were also shown to be significant mediators of this relationship, accounting collectively for 50% of the variance in positive affect. Whilst cancer worry and internal health locus of control could be predicted from levels of optimism, they did not mediate the optimism-positive affect relationship. Efforts to promote optimism and thus encourage fighting spirit at diagnosis through treatment may be worthwhile interventions, as would ensuring appropriate social support through the trajectory. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Effects of Optimizing the Scan-Path on Scanning Keyboards with QWERTY-Layout for English Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandnes, Frode Eika; Medola, Fausto Orsi

    2017-01-01

    Scanning keyboards can be essential tools for individuals with reduced motor function. However, most research addresses layout optimization. Learning new layouts is time-consuming. This study explores the familiar QWERTY layout with alternative scanning paths intended for English text. The results show that carefully designed scan-paths can help QWERTY nearly match optimized layouts in performance.

  15. Effects of Optimism and Gratitude on Physical Activity, Biomarkers, and Readmissions After an Acute Coronary Syndrome: The Gratitude Research in Acute Coronary Events Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Jeff C; Beale, Eleanor E; Celano, Christopher M; Beach, Scott R; Belcher, Arianna M; Moore, Shannon V; Suarez, Laura; Motiwala, Shweta R; Gandhi, Parul U; Gaggin, Hanna K; Januzzi, James L

    2016-01-01

    Positive psychological constructs, such as optimism, are associated with beneficial health outcomes. However, no study has separately examined the effects of multiple positive psychological constructs on behavioral, biological, and clinical outcomes after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Accordingly, we aimed to investigate associations of baseline optimism and gratitude with subsequent physical activity, prognostic biomarkers, and cardiac rehospitalizations in post-ACS patients. Participants were enrolled during admission for ACS and underwent assessments at baseline (2 weeks post-ACS) and follow-up (6 months later). Associations between baseline positive psychological constructs and subsequent physical activity/biomarkers were analyzed using multivariable linear regression. Associations between baseline positive constructs and 6-month rehospitalizations were assessed via multivariable Cox regression. Overall, 164 participants enrolled and completed the baseline 2-week assessments. Baseline optimism was significantly associated with greater physical activity at 6 months (n=153; β=102.5; 95% confidence interval, 13.6-191.5; P=0.024), controlling for baseline activity and sociodemographic, medical, and negative psychological covariates. Baseline optimism was also associated with lower rates of cardiac readmissions at 6 months (n=164), controlling for age, sex, and medical comorbidity (hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, [0.86-0.98]; P=0.006). There were no significant relationships between optimism and biomarkers. Gratitude was minimally associated with post-ACS outcomes. Post-ACS optimism, but not gratitude, was prospectively and independently associated with superior physical activity and fewer cardiac readmissions. Whether interventions that target optimism can successfully increase optimism or improve cardiovascular outcomes in post-ACS patients is not yet known, but can be tested in future studies. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique

  16. The Effects of Optimism and Gratitude on Physical Activity, Biomarkers, and Readmissions Following an Acute Coronary Syndrome: The Gratitude Research in Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Jeff C.; Beale, Eleanor E.; Celano, Christopher M.; Beach, Scott R.; Belcher, Arianna M.; Moore, Shannon V.; Suarez, Laura; Motiwala, Shweta R.; Gandhi, Parul U.; Gaggin, Hanna; Januzzi, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Positive psychological constructs, such as optimism, are associated with beneficial health outcomes. However, no study has separately examined the effects of multiple positive psychological constructs on behavioral, biological, and clinical outcomes after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Accordingly, we aimed to investigate associations of baseline optimism and gratitude with subsequent physical activity, prognostic biomarkers, and cardiac rehospitalizations in post-ACS patients. Methods and Results Participants were enrolled during admission for ACS and underwent assessments at baseline (2 weeks post-ACS) and follow-up (6 months later). Associations between baseline positive psychological constructs and subsequent physical activity/biomarkers were analyzed using multivariable linear regression. Associations between baseline positive constructs and 6-month rehospitalizations were assessed via multivariable Cox regression. Overall, 164 participants enrolled and completed the baseline 2-week assessments. Baseline optimism was significantly associated with greater physical activity at 6 months (n=153; β=102.5; 95% confidence interval [13.6-191.5]; p=.024), controlling for baseline activity and sociodemographic, medical, and negative psychological covariates. Baseline optimism was also associated with lower rates of cardiac readmissions at 6 months (N=164), controlling for age, gender, and medical comorbidity (hazard ratio=.92; 95% confidence interval [.86-.98]; p=.006). There were no significant relationships between optimism and biomarkers. Gratitude was minimally associated with post-ACS outcomes. Conclusions Post-ACS optimism, but not gratitude, was prospectively and independently associated with superior physical activity and fewer cardiac readmissions. Whether interventions that target optimism can successfully increase optimism or improve cardiovascular outcomes in post-ACS patients is not yet known, but can be tested in future studies. Clinical

  17. Mediational effect of meaning in life on the relationship between optimism and well-being in community elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Haewon; Shin, Jong Wook; Kim, Chan-won; Hyun, Myoung-ho; Park, Jin-woo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the mediational role of meaning in life on the relationship between optimism and subjective well-being in older adults. Two hundred and fifty community-dwelling subjects completed several instruments assessing the above constructs. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that optimism was positively associated with both meaning in life and subjective well-being. Furthermore, the relationship between optimism and wellbeing was partially mediated by meaning in life. Although numerous studies have found that optimism is a significant predictor of well-being, the current results indicate that it might not be a key predictor in elders. Our findings suggest that a focus on meaning in life may be a productive avenue to enhance subjective well-being in later life although stable internal resources such as optimism and pessimism impact their subjective well-being. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-temperature thermal pre-treatment of municipal wastewater sludge: Process optimization and effects on solubilization and anaerobic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Laleh; Yuan, Zhongshun; Santoro, Domenico; Sarathy, Siva; Ho, Dang; Batstone, Damien; Xu, Chunbao Charles; Ray, Madhumita B

    2017-04-15

    The present study examines the relationship between the degree of solubilization and biodegradability of wastewater sludge in anaerobic digestion as a result of low-temperature thermal pre-treatment. The main effect of thermal pre-treatment is the disintegration of cell membranes and thus solubilization of organic compounds. There is an established correlation between chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization and temperature of thermal pre-treatment, but results of thermal pre-treatment in terms of biodegradability are not well understood. Aiming to determine the impact of low temperature treatments on biogas production, the thermal pre-treatment process was first optimized based on an experimental design study on waste activated sludge in batch mode. The optimum temperature, reaction time and pH of the process were determined to be 80 °C, 5 h and pH 10, respectively. All three factors had a strong individual effect (p effect for temp. pH 2 (p = 0.002). Thermal pre-treatments, carried out on seven different municipal wastewater sludges at the above optimum operating conditions, produced increased COD solubilization of 18.3 ± 7.5% and VSS reduction of 27.7 ± 12.3% compared to the untreated sludges. The solubilization of proteins was significantly higher than carbohydrates. Methane produced in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests, indicated initial higher rates (p = 0.0013) for the thermally treated samples (k hyd up to 5 times higher), although the ultimate methane yields were not significantly affected by the treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute beneficial hemodynamic effects of a novel 3D-echocardiographic optimization protocol in cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Sonne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Post-implantation therapies to optimize cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT focus on adjustments of the atrio-ventricular (AV delay and ventricular-to-ventricular (VV interval. However, there is little consensus on how to achieve best resynchronization with these parameters. The aim of this study was to examine a novel combination of doppler echocardiography (DE and three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE for individualized optimization of device based AV delays and VV intervals compared to empiric programming. METHODS: 25 recipients of CRT (male: 56%, mean age: 67 years were included in this study. Ejection fraction (EF, the primary outcome parameter, and left ventricular (LV dimensions were evaluated by 3DE before CRT (baseline, after AV delay optimization while pacing the ventricles simultaneously (empiric VV interval programming and after individualized VV interval optimization. For AV delay optimization aortic velocity time integral (AoVTI was examined in eight different AV delays, and the AV delay with the highest AoVTI was programmed. For individualized VV interval optimization 3DE full-volume datasets of the left ventricle were obtained and analyzed to derive a systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI, calculated from the dispersion of time to minimal regional volume for all 16 LV segments. Consecutively, SDI was evaluated in six different VV intervals (including LV or right ventricular preactivation, and the VV interval with the lowest SDI was programmed (individualized optimization. RESULTS: EF increased from baseline 23±7% to 30±8 (p<0.001 after AV delay optimization and to 32±8% (p<0.05 after individualized optimization with an associated decrease of end-systolic volume from a baseline of 138±60 ml to 115±42 ml (p<0.001. Moreover, individualized optimization significantly reduced SDI from a baseline of 14.3±5.5% to 6.1±2.6% (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with empiric programming of biventricular pacemakers

  20. Overall bolt stress optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    The state of stress in bolts and nuts with International Organization for Standardization metric thread design is examined and optimized. The assumed failure mode is fatigue, so the applied preload and the load amplitude together with the stress concentrations define the connection strength....... Maximum stress in the bolt is found at the fillet under the head, at the thread start, or at the thread root. To minimize the stress concentration, shape optimization is applied. Nut shape optimization also has a positive effect on the maximum stress. The optimization results show that designing a nut......, which results in a more evenly distribution of load along the engaged thread, has a limited influence on the maximum stress due to the stress concentration at the first thread root. To further reduce the maximum stress, the transition from bolt shank to the thread must be optimized. Stress reduction...

  1. Effect of C/N Ratio and Media Optimization through Response Surface Methodology on Simultaneous Productions of Intra- and Extracellular Inulinase and Invertase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Dinarvand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is to identify the extraction of intracellular inulinase (exo- and endoinulinase and invertase as well as optimization medium composition for maximum productions of intra- and extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611. From two different methods for extraction of intracellular enzymes, ultrasonic method was found more effective. Response surface methodology (RSM with a five-variable and three-level central composite design (CCD was employed to optimize the medium composition. The effect of five main reaction parameters including sucrose, yeast extract, NaNO3, Zn+2, and Triton X-100 on the production of enzymes was analyzed. A modified quadratic model was fitted to the data with a coefficient of determination (R2 more than 0.90 for all responses. The intra-extracellular inulinase and invertase productions increased in the range from 16 to 8.4 times in the optimized medium (10% (w/v sucrose, 2.5% (w/v yeast extract, 2% (w/v NaNO3, 1.5 mM (v/v Zn+2, and 1% (v/v Triton X-100 by RSM and from around 1.2 to 1.3 times greater than in the medium optimized by one-factor-at-a-time, respectively. The results of bioprocesses optimization can be useful in the scale-up fermentation and food industry.

  2. Optimization for the production of water-soluble polysaccharide from Pleurotus citrinopileatus in submerged culture and its antitumor effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinn-Chyi; Hu, Shu-Hui; Liang, Zeng-Chin; Yeh, Chi-Jung

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have been done on the physiological effects of water-soluble polysaccharides (WSPS) and their antitumor and immuno-enhancing properties. Many edible mushrooms, in particular those rich in WSPS, not only taste good but also contain ingredients beneficial to the physiology of the human body. In this study, response surface methodology was used to determine the optimal conditions for the production of WSPS, including the C/N ratio, initial pH, and incubation temperature. The highest yield of WSPS was obtained by incubation with a C/N ratio of 40, initial pH 5.5, and an incubation temperature of 25 degrees C. WSPS were extracted by alcohol precipitation from the fermented broth of edible Pleurotus citrinopileatus. These extracts, referred to as SPPC in this paper, had a molecular mass of more than 10(5) Da and were largely made up of glucose and mannose. SPPC was fed to mice which had artificial pulmonary metastatic tumors. Changes in the percentage of the numbers of tumor cells and immune cells were determined by flow cytometry. Daily feeding of SPPC at a dosage of 50 mg/kg to tumor-bearing mice for 12 days resulted in a significant increase in the number of T cells, CD4+ cells, CD8+ cells, and macrophages, compared with mice that were not fed any SPPC. The proliferation rate of the pulmonary sarcoma lesions slowed down.

  3. Bee Inspired Novel Optimization Algorithm and Mathematical Model for Effective and Efficient Route Planning in Railway System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kah Huo Leong

    Full Text Available Railway and metro transport systems (RS are becoming one of the popular choices of transportation among people, especially those who live in urban cities. Urbanization and increasing population due to rapid development of economy in many cities are leading to a bigger demand for urban rail transit. Despite being a popular variant of Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP, it appears that the universal formula or techniques to solve the problem are yet to be found. This paper aims to develop an optimization algorithm for optimum route selection to multiple destinations in RS before returning to the starting point. Bee foraging behaviour is examined to generate a reliable algorithm in railway TSP. The algorithm is then verified by comparing the results with the exact solutions in 10 test cases, and a numerical case study is designed to demonstrate the application with large size sample. It is tested to be efficient and effective in railway route planning as the tour can be completed within a certain period of time by using minimal resources. The findings further support the reliability of the algorithm and capability to solve the problems with different complexity. This algorithm can be used as a method to assist business practitioners making better decision in route planning.

  4. Evaluation of Interpolation Effects on Upsampling and Accuracy of Cost Functions-Based Optimized Automatic Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Pasha Mahmoudzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpolation has become a default operation in image processing and medical imaging and is one of the important factors in the success of an intensity-based registration method. Interpolation is needed if the fractional unit of motion is not matched and located on the high resolution (HR grid. The purpose of this work is to present a systematic evaluation of eight standard interpolation techniques (trilinear, nearest neighbor, cubic Lagrangian, quintic Lagrangian, hepatic Lagrangian, windowed Sinc, B-spline 3rd order, and B-spline 4th order and to compare the effect of cost functions (least squares (LS, normalized mutual information (NMI, normalized cross correlation (NCC, and correlation ratio (CR for optimized automatic image registration (OAIR on 3D spoiled gradient recalled (SPGR magnetic resonance images (MRI of the brain acquired using a 3T GE MR scanner. Subsampling was performed in the axial, sagittal, and coronal directions to emulate three low resolution datasets. Afterwards, the low resolution datasets were upsampled using different interpolation methods, and they were then compared to the high resolution data. The mean squared error, peak signal to noise, joint entropy, and cost functions were computed for quantitative assessment of the method. Magnetic resonance image scans and joint histogram were used for qualitative assessment of the method.

  5. Optimization of Polymer-ECM Composite Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering: Effect of Cells and Culture Conditions on Polymeric Nanofiber Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of composite tissue scaffolds containing an extracellular matrix (ECM and synthetic polymer fibers is a new approach to create bioactive scaffolds that can enhance cell function. Currently, studies investigating the effects of ECM-deposition and decellularization on polymer degradation are still lacking, as are data on optimizing the stability of the ECM-containing composite scaffolds during prolonged cell culture. In this study, we develop fibrous scaffolds using three polymer compositions, representing slow (E0000, medium (E0500, and fast (E1000 degrading materials, to investigate the stability, degradation, and mechanics of the scaffolds during ECM deposition and decellularization, and during the complete cellularization-decell-recell cycle. We report data on percent molecular weight (% Mw retention of polymeric fiber mats, changes in scaffold stiffness, ECM deposition, and the presence of fibronectin after decellularization. We concluded that the fast degrading E1000 (Mw retention ≤ 50% after 28 days was not sufficiently stable to allow scaffold handling after 28 days in culture, while the slow degradation of E0000 (Mw retention ≥ 80% in 28 days did not allow deposited ECM to replace the polymer support. The scaffolds made from medium degrading E0500 (Mw retention about 60% at 28 days allowed the gradual replacement of the polymer network with cell-derived ECM while maintaining the polymer network support. Thus, polymers with an intermediate rate of degradation, maintaining good scaffold handling properties after 28 days in culture, seem best suited for creating ECM-polymer composite scaffolds.

  6. SU-F-BRD-01: A Novel 4D Robust Optimization Mitigates Interplay Effect in Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W; Shen, J; Stoker, J; Bues, M [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Schild, S; Wong, W [Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Chang, J; Liao, Z; Wen, Z; Sahoo, N [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Herman, M [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Mohan, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the impact of interplay effect on 3D and 4D robustly optimized intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans to treat lung cancer. Methods: Two IMPT plans were created for 11 non-small-cell-lung-cancer cases with 6–14 mm spots. 3D robust optimization generated plans on average CTs with the internal gross tumor volume density overridden to deliver 66 CGyE in 33 fractions to the internal target volume (ITV). 4D robust optimization generated plans on 4D CTs with the delivery of prescribed dose to the clinical target volume (CTV). In 4D optimization, the CTV of individual 4D CT phases received non-uniform doses to achieve a uniform cumulative dose. Dose evaluation software was developed to model time-dependent spot delivery to incorporate interplay effect with randomized starting phases of each field per fraction. Patient anatomy voxels were mapped from phase to phase via deformable image registration to score doses. Indices from dose-volume histograms were used to compare target coverage, dose homogeneity, and normal-tissue sparing. DVH indices were compared using Wilcoxon test. Results: Given the presence of interplay effect, 4D robust optimization produced IMPT plans with better target coverage and homogeneity, but slightly worse normal tissue sparing compared to 3D robust optimization (unit: Gy) [D95% ITV: 63.5 vs 62.0 (p=0.014), D5% - D95% ITV: 6.2 vs 7.3 (p=0.37), D1% spinal cord: 29.0 vs 29.5 (p=0.52), Dmean total lung: 14.8 vs 14.5 (p=0.12), D33% esophagus: 33.6 vs 33.1 (p=0.28)]. The improvement of target coverage (D95%,4D – D95%,3D) was related to the ratio RMA3/(TVx10−4), with RMA and TV being respiratory motion amplitude (RMA) and tumor volume (TV), respectively. Peak benefit was observed at ratios between 2 and 10. This corresponds to 125 – 625 cm3 TV with 0.5-cm RMA. Conclusion: 4D optimization produced more interplay-effect-resistant plans compared to 3D optimization. It is most effective when respiratory motion is modest

  7. Limited Impact of Setup and Range Uncertainties, Breathing Motion, and Interplay Effects in Robustly Optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inoue, Tatsuya; Widder, Joachim; van Dijk, Lisanne V; Takegawa, Hideki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Takashina, Masaaki; Usui, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Chie; Sugimoto, Satoru; Saito, Anneyuko I; Sasai, Keisuke; Van't Veld, Aart A; Langendijk, Johannes A; Korevaar, Erik W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of setup and range uncertainties, breathing motion, and interplay effects using scanning pencil beams in robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Three-field IMPT plans

  8. The 3R study strategy. Optimizing the effectiveness of the ‘Read-Recite-Review’ study strategy in learning from text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijners, Pauline; Kester, Liesbeth; Wetzels, Sandra; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Reijners, P. B. G., Kester, L., Wetzels, S. A. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, 14 October). The 3R study strategy. Optimizing the effectiveness of the ‘Read-Recite-Review’ study strategy in learning from text. Presentation at ICO Introductory Course, Utrecht.

  9. The 3R Study Strategy - Optimizing the effectiveness of the ‘Read-Recite-Review’ study strategy in learning from text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijners, Pauline; Kester, Liesbeth; Wetzels, Sandra; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Reijners, P. B. G., Kester, L., Wetzels, S. A. J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 16 February). The 3R Study Strategy - Optimizing the effectiveness of the ‘Read-Recite-Review’ study strategy in learning from text. Presentation at plenary meeting Learning & Cogntion, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  10. Effects of feeding frequency on apparent energy and nutrient digestibility/availability of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, reared at optimal and suboptimal temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effects of feeding frequency (daily versus every other day [EOD]) on nutrient digestibility/availability of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, reared at optimal (30 C) and suboptimal (24 C) temperatures. A 28% protein practical diet was used as the test diet, and chromic o...

  11. An optimized peptide vaccine strategy capable of inducing multivalent CD8+ T cell responses with potent antitumor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Il; Jung, Soo-Hyun; Sohn, Hyun-Jung; Celis, Esteban; Kim, Tai-Gyu

    2015-11-01

    Therapeutic cancer vaccines are an attractive alternative to conventional therapies for treating malignant tumors, and successful tumor eradication depends primarily on obtaining high numbers of long-lasting tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells. Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines constitute a promising approach for treating cancer, but in most instances low immune responses and suboptimal therapeutic effects are achieved indicating that further optimization is required. We describe here a novel vaccination strategy with peptide-loaded DCs followed by a mixture of synthetic peptides, polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly-IC) and anti-CD40 antibodies (TriVax) for improving the immunogenicity and therapeutic efficacy of DC-based vaccines in a melanoma mouse model. TriVax immunization 7-12 d after priming with antigen-loaded DCs generated large numbers of long-lasting multiple antigen-specific CD8+ T cells capable of recognizing tumor cells. These responses were far superior to those generated by homologous immunizations with either TriVax or DCs. CD8+ T cells but not CD4+ T cells or NK cells mediated the therapeutic efficacy of this heterologous prime-boost strategy. Moreover, combinations of this vaccination regimen with programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade or IL2 anti-IL2 antibody complexes led to complete disease eradication and survival enhancement in melanoma-bearing mice. The overall results suggest that similar strategies would be applicable for the design of effective therapeutic vaccination for treating viral diseases and various cancers, which may circumvent current limitations of cell-based cancer vaccines.

  12. Validation and Optimization of an Ex Vivo Assay of Intestinal Mucosal Biopsies in Crohn's Disease: Reflects Inflammation and Drug Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadstrup, Kasper; Galsgaard, Elisabeth Douglas; Gerwien, Jens; Vester-Andersen, Marianne Kajbæk; Pedersen, Julie Steen; Rasmussen, Julie; Neermark, Søren; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Jensen, Teis; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic illness demanding better therapeutics. The marketed biologics only benefit some patients or elicit diminishing effect over time. To complement the known methods in drug development and to obtain patient specific drug responses, we optimized and validated a known human explant method to test drug candidates and pathophysiological conditions in CD intestinal biopsies. Mucosal biopsies from 27 CD patients and 6 healthy individuals were collected to validate an explant assay test where the polarized tissue was cultured on a novel metal mesh disk, slightly immersed in medium imitating an air-liquid interphase. After culture in high oxygen for 24 hours with or without biological treatment in the medium, biopsy integrity and penetration of antibodies was measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Nine cytokines were quantified in the conditioned medium as a read-out for degree of inflammation in individual biopsies and used to evaluate treatment efficacy. The biopsies were well-preserved, showing few structural changes. IHC revealed tissue penetration of antibodies demonstrating ability to test therapeutic antibodies. The cytokine release to the medium showed that the assay can distinguish between inflammation states and then validate the known effect of two treatment biologics confirmed by a detection panel of five specific cytokines. Our data also suggest that the assay would be able to indicate which patients are responders to anti-TNF-α therapeutics, and which are non-responders. This study demonstrates this version of an ex vivo culture as a valid and robust assay to assess inflammation in mucosal biopsies and test of the efficacy of novel drug candidates and current treatments on individual patients-potentially for a personalized medicine approach.

  13. An optimized peptide vaccine strategy capable of inducing multivalent CD8+ T cell responses with potent antitumor effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Il; Jung, Soo-Hyun; Sohn, Hyun-Jung; Celis, Esteban; Kim, Tai-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic cancer vaccines are an attractive alternative to conventional therapies for treating malignant tumors, and successful tumor eradication depends primarily on obtaining high numbers of long-lasting tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells. Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines constitute a promising approach for treating cancer, but in most instances low immune responses and suboptimal therapeutic effects are achieved indicating that further optimization is required. We describe here a novel vaccination strategy with peptide-loaded DCs followed by a mixture of synthetic peptides, polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly-IC) and anti-CD40 antibodies (TriVax) for improving the immunogenicity and therapeutic efficacy of DC-based vaccines in a melanoma mouse model. TriVax immunization 7–12 d after priming with antigen-loaded DCs generated large numbers of long-lasting multiple antigen-specific CD8+ T cells capable of recognizing tumor cells. These responses were far superior to those generated by homologous immunizations with either TriVax or DCs. CD8+ T cells but not CD4+ T cells or NK cells mediated the therapeutic efficacy of this heterologous prime-boost strategy. Moreover, combinations of this vaccination regimen with programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade or IL2 anti-IL2 antibody complexes led to complete disease eradication and survival enhancement in melanoma-bearing mice. The overall results suggest that similar strategies would be applicable for the design of effective therapeutic vaccination for treating viral diseases and various cancers, which may circumvent current limitations of cell-based cancer vaccines. PMID:26451316

  14. Ultrasonic assisted formation and stability of mustard oil in water nanoemulsion: Effect of process parameters and their optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jitendra; Saharan, Virendra Kumar

    2017-03-01

    The present work reports the ultrasound assisted preparation of mustard oil in water nanoemulsion stabilized by Span 80 and Tween 80 at different operating conditions. Effects of various operating parameters such as HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance) value, surfactant volume fraction (φS), oil volume fraction (φO) and power amplitude were investigated and optimized on the basis of droplet size and stability of nanoemulsions. It was observed that minimum droplet size of about 87.38nm was obtained within 30min of ultrasonication at an optimum HLB value of 10, φS of 0.08 (8%, v/v), φO of 0.1 (10%, v/v) and ultrasonic power amplitude of 40%. The stability of the nanoemulsion was measured through visual observation and it was found that the unstable emulsions got separated within 24h whereas, stable emulsions never showed any separation until 90days. In addition to that, the kinetic stability of the prepared nanoemulsions was also assessed under centrifuge and thermal stress conditions. The emulsion stability was found to be unaffected by these forces as the droplet size remained unchanged. The ultrasound prepared emulsion was found to be long term stable even after 3months of storage at ambient conditions without any visual evidence of creaming and phase separation and also remained kinetically stable. FTIR analysis of the emulsions at different sonication conditions was carried out to examine the possible impact of ultrasonically induced chemical effects on oil structure during emulsification and it was found that the oil molecular structure was unaffected by ultrasonication process. The present work illustrates the formation and stability of mustard oil in water nanoemulsion using ultrasound cavitation which may be useful in food and cosmetic based applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Portfolio Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Frajtova-Michalikova, Katarina; Spuchľakova, Erika; Misankova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this paper Portfolio Optimization techniques were used to determine the most favorable investment portfolio. In particular, stock indices of three companies, namely Microsoft Corporation, Christian Dior Fashion House and Shevron Corporation were evaluated. Using this data the amounts invested in each asset when a portfolio is chosen on the efficient frontier were calculated. In addition, the Portfolio with minimum variance, tangency portfolio and optimal Markowitz portfolio are presented.

  16. Social optimization in the presence of cognitive local optima: effects of social network topology and interaction mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James

    2009-07-01

    The combined tendency for positive self-presentation and mimicry or social learning results in the capability of a population of simulated individuals to optimize their cognitive structures. A population of parallel constraint satisfaction networks was created, with globally and locally optimal activation patterns. Individuals started with random activations and interacted to find optimal vectors. Two social network topologies were tested, as well as two modes of interaction; results indicated that the ability to optimize activation vectors depends on the social network configuration and whether individuals are influenced by their best neighbor or are attracted to a neighborhood centroid. Simulated individuals are able to find suitable patterns of belief or attitude with very little internal information processing, using social interaction. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Effect of amiodarone and sotalol on ventricular defibrillation threshold: the optimal pharmacological therapy in cardioverter defibrillator patients (OPTIC) trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hohnloser, Stefan H; Dorian, Paul; Roberts, Robin; Gent, Michael; Israel, Carsten W; Fain, Eric; Champagne, Jean; Connolly, Stuart J

    2006-01-01

    .... The Optimal Pharmacological Therapy in Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients (OPTIC) trial was a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of amiodarone plus beta-blocker and sotalol versus beta-blocker alone for reduction of ICD shocks...

  18. Introduction of an effective method for the optimization of CT protocols using iterative reconstruction algorithms: comparison with patient data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kordolaimi, Sofia D; Saradeas, Ioannis; Ploussi, Agapi; Pantos, Ioannis; Argentos, Stylianos; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce an efficient method for the optimization of iterative reconstruction CT protocols based on phantom image analysis and the comparison of obtained results with actual patient data...

  19. Intelligent ensemble T-S fuzzy neural networks with RCDPSO_DM optimization for effective handling of complex clinical pathway variances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Gang; Jiang, Zhibin; Diao, Xiaodi; Yao, Yang

    2013-07-01

    Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy neural networks (FNNs) can be used to handle complex, fuzzy, uncertain clinical pathway (CP) variances. However, there are many drawbacks, such as slow training rate, propensity to become trapped in a local minimum and poor ability to perform a global search. In order to improve overall performance of variance handling by T-S FNNs, a new CP variance handling method is proposed in this study. It is based on random cooperative decomposing particle swarm optimization with double mutation mechanism (RCDPSO_DM) for T-S FNNs. Moreover, the proposed integrated learning algorithm, combining the RCDPSO_DM algorithm with a Kalman filtering algorithm, is applied to optimize antecedent and consequent parameters of constructed T-S FNNs. Then, a multi-swarm cooperative immigrating particle swarm algorithm ensemble method is used for intelligent ensemble T-S FNNs with RCDPSO_DM optimization to further improve stability and accuracy of CP variance handling. Finally, two case studies on liver and kidney poisoning variances in osteosarcoma preoperative chemotherapy are used to validate the proposed method. The result demonstrates that intelligent ensemble T-S FNNs based on the RCDPSO_DM achieves superior performances, in terms of stability, efficiency, precision and generalizability, over PSO ensemble of all T-S FNNs with RCDPSO_DM optimization, single T-S FNNs with RCDPSO_DM optimization, standard T-S FNNs, standard Mamdani FNNs and T-S FNNs based on other algorithms (cooperative particle swarm optimization and particle swarm optimization) for CP variance handling. Therefore, it makes CP variance handling more effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Global optimal vaccination in the SIR model: properties of the value function and application to cost-effectiveness analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Laguzet, Laetitia; Turinici, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This work focuses on optimal vaccination policies for an Susceptible - Infected - Recovered (SIR) model; the impact of the disease is minimized with respect to the vaccination strategy. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem and we show that the value function is the unique viscosity solution of an Hamilton - Jacobi - Bellman (HJB) equation. This allows to find the best vaccination policy. At odds with existing literature, it is seen that the value fun...

  1. Topology optimized microbioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäpper, Daniel; Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Lantz, Anna Eliasson; Okkels, Fridolin; Bruus, Henrik; Gernaey, Krist V

    2011-04-01

    This article presents the fusion of two hitherto unrelated fields--microbioreactors and topology optimization. The basis for this study is a rectangular microbioreactor with homogeneously distributed immobilized brewers yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that produce a recombinant protein. Topology optimization is then used to change the spatial distribution of cells in the reactor in order to optimize for maximal product flow out of the reactor. This distribution accounts for potentially negative effects of, for example, by-product inhibition. We show that the theoretical improvement in productivity is at least fivefold compared with the homogeneous reactor. The improvements obtained by applying topology optimization are largest where either nutrition is scarce or inhibition effects are pronounced. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Optimal Individual Post-Activation Potentiation Time of the Upper Body in Canoeists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chi Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Creatine supplementation reduces the impact of muscle fatigue on post-activation potentiation (PAP of the lower body, but its effects on the upper body remain unknown. This study examined the effects of creatine supplementation on muscle strength, explosive power, and optimal individual PAP time of the upper body during a set of complex training bouts in canoeists. Seventeen male high school canoeists performed a bench row for one repetition at maximum strength and conducted complex training bouts to determine the optimal individual timing of PAP and distance of overhead medicine ball throw before and after the supplementation. Subjects were assigned to a creatine or placebo group, and later consumed 20 g of creatine or carboxymethyl cellulose per day for six days. After supplementation, the maximal strength in the creatine group significantly increased (p < 0.05. The optimal individual PAP time in the creatine group was significantly earlier than the pre-supplementation times (p < 0.05. There was no significant change in explosive power for either group. Our findings support the notion that creatine supplementation increases maximal strength and shortens the optimal individual PAP time of the upper body in high school athletes, but has no effect on explosive power. Moreover, it was found that the recovery time between a bench row and an overhead medicine ball throw in a complex training bout is an individual phenomenon.

  3. Topology optimized microbioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäpper, Daniel; Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the fusion of two hitherto unrelated fields—microbioreactors and topology optimization. The basis for this study is a rectangular microbioreactor with homogeneously distributed immobilized brewers yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that produce a recombinant protein...... in productivity is at least fivefold compared with the homogeneous reactor. The improvements obtained by applying topology optimization are largest where either nutrition is scarce or inhibition effects are pronounced....

  4. Solving Optimization Problems via Vortex Optimization Algorithm and Cognitive Development Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Demir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the fields which require finding the most appropriate value, optimization became a vital approach to employ effective solutions. With the use of optimization techniques, many different fields in the modern life have found solutions to their real-world based problems. In this context, classical optimization techniques have had an important popularity. But after a while, more advanced optimization problems required the use of more effective techniques. At this point, Computer Science took an important role on providing software related techniques to improve the associated literature. Today, intelligent optimization techniques based on Artificial Intelligence are widely used for optimization problems. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparative study on the employment of classical optimization solutions and Artificial Intelligence solutions for enabling readers to have idea about the potential of intelligent optimization techniques. At this point, two recently developed intelligent optimization algorithms, Vortex Optimization Algorithm (VOA and Cognitive Development Optimization Algorithm (CoDOA, have been used to solve some multidisciplinary optimization problems provided in the source book Thomas' Calculus 11th Edition and the obtained results have compared with classical optimization solutions. 

  5. Optimizing the photocatalytic properties and the synergistic effects of graphene and nano titanium dioxide immobilized on cotton fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Loghman, E-mail: l.karimi@srbiau.ac.ir [Department of Textile Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdanshenas, Mohammad Esmail [Department of Textile Engineering, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajavi, Ramin [Department of Textile Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Abosaeed [Department of Textile Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirjalili, Mohammad [Department of Textile Engineering, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Producing superior photo-active cotton fabric using graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite. • Optimizing processing conditions using response surface methodology. • Obtaining significant photo-activity properties on cotton fabric by this method under sun irradiation. • Possessing excellent antimicrobial activity with low cytotoxicity on human fibroblasts. - Abstract: A new facile route based on cotton fabric coated with graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite is reported to produce photo-active cellulose textiles. A thin layer of graphene oxide has been produced on cotton fabrics by a dip-dry process. The graphene oxide-coated cotton fabrics were then immersed in titanium trichloride aqueous solution to yield a fabric coated with graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite. The photo-activity efficiency of the coated fabrics was tested by degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution under UV and sunlight irradiations. To obtain the optimum condition, the response surface methodology (RSM) through the central composite design was applied and the role of both graphene oxide and titanium trichloride concentrations on photo-activity efficiency was investigated. The physicochemical properties of the prepared samples has been characterized by a series of techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of the application of graphene/titanium dioxide nanocomposite on the physical properties of the cotton fabric, such as tensile strength, bending rigidity and crease recovery angle has been analyzed. Other characteristics of treated fabrics such as antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxicity were also investigated. Cotton fabric coated with optimum concentrations of graphene oxide and titanium trichloride obtained significant photo-activity efficiency under UV and sunlight irradiations. Moreover, the graphene

  6. Multi-objective optimization in spatial planning: Improving the effectiveness of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakostas, Spiros

    2015-05-01

    The multi-objective nature of most spatial planning initiatives and the numerous constraints that are introduced in the planning process by decision makers, stakeholders, etc., synthesize a complex spatial planning context in which the concept of solid and meaningful optimization is a unique challenge. This article investigates new approaches to enhance the effectiveness of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) via the adoption of a well-known metaheuristic: the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II). In particular, the contribution of a sophisticated crossover operator coupled with an enhanced initialization heuristic is evaluated against a series of metrics measuring the effectiveness of MOEAs. Encouraging results emerge for both the convergence rate of the evolutionary optimization process and the occupation of valuable regions of the objective space by non-dominated solutions, facilitating the work of spatial planners and decision makers. Based on the promising behaviour of both heuristics, topics for further research are proposed to improve their effectiveness.

  7. Artificial Intelligence Based Selection of Optimal Cutting Tool and Process Parameters for Effective Turning and Milling Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, Kunaparaju; John Rozario Jegaraj, J.; Ramesh Kumar, Katta; Venkateshwara Rao, Ghanta

    2016-06-01

    With the increased trend in automation of modern manufacturing industry, the human intervention in routine, repetitive and data specific activities of manufacturing is greatly reduced. In this paper, an attempt has been made to reduce the human intervention in selection of optimal cutting tool and process parameters for metal cutting applications, using Artificial Intelligence techniques. Generally, the selection of appropriate cutting tool and parameters in metal cutting is carried out by experienced technician/cutting tool expert based on his knowledge base or extensive search from huge cutting tool database. The present proposed approach replaces the existing practice of physical search for tools from the databooks/tool catalogues with intelligent knowledge-based selection system. This system employs artificial intelligence based techniques such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm for decision making and optimization. This intelligence based optimal tool selection strategy is developed using Mathworks Matlab Version 7.11.0 and implemented. The cutting tool database was obtained from the tool catalogues of different tool manufacturers. This paper discusses in detail, the methodology and strategies employed for selection of appropriate cutting tool and optimization of process parameters based on multi-objective optimization criteria considering material removal rate, tool life and tool cost.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of extended-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder sub-optimally treated with immediate release methylphenidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjen van der Schans

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at school often leads to reduced compliance, sub-optimal treatment, and therefore economic loss. Replacement of IR-MPH with a single-dose extended release (ER-MPH formulation may improve drug response and economic efficiency.To evaluate the cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective of a switch from IR-MPH to ER-MPH in patients who are sub-optimally treated.A daily Markov-cycle model covering a time-span of 10 years was developed including four different health states: (1 optimal response, (2 sub-optimal response, (3 discontinued treatment, and (4 natural remission. ER-MPH options included methylphenidate osmotic release oral system (MPH-OROS and Equasym XL/Medikinet CR. Both direct costs and indirect costs were included in the analysis, and effects were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. Univariate, multivariate as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted and the main outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Switching sub-optimally treated patients from IR-MPH to MPH-OROS or Equasym XL/Medikinet CR led to per-patient cost-savings of €4200 and €5400, respectively, over a 10-year treatment span. Sensitivity analysis with plausible variations of input parameters resulted in cost-savings in the vast majority of estimations.This study lends economic support to switching patients with ADHD with suboptimal response to short-acting IR-MPH to long-acting ER-MPH regimens.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of extended-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder sub-optimally treated with immediate release methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Kotsopoulos, Nikos; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hak, Eelko; Postma, Maarten J

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH) is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at school often leads to reduced compliance, sub-optimal treatment, and therefore economic loss. Replacement of IR-MPH with a single-dose extended release (ER-MPH) formulation may improve drug response and economic efficiency. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective of a switch from IR-MPH to ER-MPH in patients who are sub-optimally treated. A daily Markov-cycle model covering a time-span of 10 years was developed including four different health states: (1) optimal response, (2) sub-optimal response, (3) discontinued treatment, and (4) natural remission. ER-MPH options included methylphenidate osmotic release oral system (MPH-OROS) and Equasym XL/Medikinet CR. Both direct costs and indirect costs were included in the analysis, and effects were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Univariate, multivariate as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted and the main outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Switching sub-optimally treated patients from IR-MPH to MPH-OROS or Equasym XL/Medikinet CR led to per-patient cost-savings of €4200 and €5400, respectively, over a 10-year treatment span. Sensitivity analysis with plausible variations of input parameters resulted in cost-savings in the vast majority of estimations. This study lends economic support to switching patients with ADHD with suboptimal response to short-acting IR-MPH to long-acting ER-MPH regimens.

  10. Optimizing clozapine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Damkier, P; Lublin, H

    2011-01-01

    Clozapine treatment remains the gold standard for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but treatment with clozapine is associated with several side-effects that complicate the use of the drug. This clinical overview aims to provide psychiatrists with knowledge about how to optimize clozapine...... treatment. Relevant strategies for reducing side-effects and increasing the likelihood of response are discussed....

  11. H2 production in membraneless bioelectrochemical cells with optimized architecture: The effect of cathode surface area and electrode distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Isaac; Bakonyi, Péter; Buitrón, Germán

    2017-03-01

    In this work we report on the hydrogen production capacity of single-chamber microbial electrohydrogenesis cell (MEC) with optimized design characteristics, in particular cathode surface area and anode-cathode spacing using acetate as substrate. The results showed that the maximal H2 production rates and best energetic performances could be obtained using the smallest, 71 cm2 stainless steel cathode and 4 cm electrode distances, employing a 60 cm2 bioanode. Cyclic voltammetric analysis was employed to investigate the dominant electron transfer mechanism of the architecturally optimized system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Taking as a starting point a design case for a compliant mechanism (a force inverter), the fundamental elements of topology optimization are described. The basis for the developments is a FEM format for this design problem and emphasis is given to the parameterization of design as a raster image...

  13. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  14. Optimal Cultivation Time for Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Milk and Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Rumen Degradability Using Nylon Bag Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Polyorach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine an optimal cultivation time for populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB co-cultured in fermented milk and effects of soybean meal fermented milk (SBMFM supplementation on rumen degradability in beef cattle using nylon bag technique. The study on an optimal cultivation time for yeast and LAB growth in fermented milk was determined at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-cultivation. After fermenting for 4 days, an optimal cultivation time of yeast and LAB in fermented milk was selected and used for making the SBMFM product to study nylon bag technique. Two ruminal fistulated beef cattle (410±10 kg were used to study on the effect of SBMFM supplementation (0%, 3%, and 5% of total concentrate substrate on rumen degradability using in situ method at incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h according to a Completely randomized design. The results revealed that the highest yeast and LAB population culture in fermented milk was found at 72 h-post cultivation. From in situ study, the soluble fractions at time zero (a, potential degradability (a+b and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM linearly (p<0.01 increased with the increasing supplemental levels and the highest was in the 5% SBMFM supplemented group. However, there was no effect of SBMFM supplement on insoluble degradability fractions (b and rate of degradation (c. In conclusion, the optimal fermented time for fermented milk with yeast and LAB was at 72 h-post cultivation and supplementation of SBMFM at 5% of total concentrate substrate could improve rumen degradability of beef cattle. However, further research on effect of SBMFM on rumen ecology and production performance in meat and milk should be conducted using in vivo both digestion and feeding trials.

  15. Optimization of effectiveness of competition activity of sportsmen on the basis of increase of level of their psychological stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntian V.S.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article is chosen particularities to psychological preparedness athletes in single combat, is determined their role in optimization scholastic-burn-in process and competition to activity. Psychology test athlete is realized on Spilberger questionnaire is revealed level larval and situational state of anxiety. The motivated influence to psychological stability on increasing level athletics competitive result, and applied activity fighter.

  16. The Effect of Teachers' Shared Leadership Perception on Academic Optimism and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: A Turkish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin Kösterelioglu, Meltem

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigates the capability of high school teachers' shared leadership perception to predict the academic optimism and organizational citizenship levels. Research methods: The population of the current descriptive study, which was conducted via screening model, consists of 321 high school teachers working for Amasya…

  17. Optimal Cultivation Time for Yeast and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermented Milk and Effects of Fermented Soybean Meal on Rumen Degradability Using Nylon Bag Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, S; Poungchompu, O; Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Cherdthong, A

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine an optimal cultivation time for populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) co-cultured in fermented milk and effects of soybean meal fermented milk (SBMFM) supplementation on rumen degradability in beef cattle using nylon bag technique. The study on an optimal cultivation time for yeast and LAB growth in fermented milk was determined at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-cultivation. After fermenting for 4 days, an optimal cultivation time of yeast and LAB in fermented milk was selected and used for making the SBMFM product to study nylon bag technique. Two ruminal fistulated beef cattle (410±10 kg) were used to study on the effect of SBMFM supplementation (0%, 3%, and 5% of total concentrate substrate) on rumen degradability using in situ method at incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h according to a Completely randomized design. The results revealed that the highest yeast and LAB population culture in fermented milk was found at 72 h-post cultivation. From in situ study, the soluble fractions at time zero (a), potential degradability (a+b) and effective degradability of dry matter (EDDM) linearly (peffect of SBMFM supplement on insoluble degradability fractions (b) and rate of degradation (c). In conclusion, the optimal fermented time for fermented milk with yeast and LAB was at 72 h-post cultivation and supplementation of SBMFM at 5% of total concentrate substrate could improve rumen degradability of beef cattle. However, further research on effect of SBMFM on rumen ecology and production performance in meat and milk should be conducted using in vivo both digestion and feeding trials.

  18. Optimizing Timing and Dosage: Does Parent Type Moderate the Effects of Variations of a Parent-Based Intervention to Reduce College Student Drinking?

    OpenAIRE

    Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Scaglione, Nichole; Cleveland, Michael J.; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Turrisi, Rob; Abar, Caitlin C.

    2014-01-01

    Research on parent-based interventions (PBIs) to reduce college student drinking has explored the optimal timing of delivery and dosage. The present study extended this work by examining the effectiveness of three different PBI conditions on student drinking outcomes as a function of parenting types and students' pre-college drinking patterns. Four hypotheses were evaluated (early intervention, increased dosage, invariant, and treatment matching risk). A random sample of 1900 college students...

  19. OPTIMIZING OVERALL FUNCTION OF THE UPPER LIMB IS EFFECTIVE TREATMENT FOR SHOULDER PAIN IN INDIVIDUALS WITH STROKE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed E Khallaf, PhD PT

    2014-01-01

    Background: Shoulder pain is frequent after stroke and interferes with the rehabilitative process and functional outcomes. Treatments used for post-stroke shoulder pain are limited and largely ineffective. Objectives: This randomized controlled study was conducted to study the effect of optimizing overall function of upper limb on the basis of pathomechanics and motor relearning as a treatment of hemiparetic shoulder pain. Subjects and methods: Thirty patients with first ever stro...

  20. ATHENA optimized coating design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of coating design for the ATHENA mission si described and the possibility of increasing the telescope effective area in the range between 0.1 and 10 keV is investigated. An independent computation of the on-axis effective area based on the mirror design of ATHENA is performed...... in order to review the current coating baseline. The performance of several material combinations, considering a simple bi-layer, simple multilayer and linear graded multilayer coatings are tested and simulation of the mirror performance considering both the optimized coating design and the coating...

  1. A comparative study on the effect of unsaturation degree of camelina and canola oils on the optimization of bio-diesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification is the most common method of producing biodiesel from vegetable oils. A comparative study on the optimization of reaction variables for refined canola oil, unrefined canola oil, and unrefined camelina oil using a four-factor (temperature, time, molar ratio of methanol to oil, and catalyst loading face-centered central composite design (FCCCD was carried out. The optimum settings of these four factors that jointly maximize product, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and biodiesel yields for each of refined canola, unrefined canola and unrefined camelina were determined. Results showed that the optimized conditions were associated with the fatty acid profile and physical properties of the parent oils. The optimum temperature of vegetable oil with low polyunsaturation degree was higher than that of oils with high polyunsaturation degree. High free fatty acid content in parent oils led to low optimized catalyst concentration, and the decreased reaction rate could be compensated by increased reaction temperature due to significant interaction effect between reaction temperature and catalyst loading in the transesterification process. The highest biodiesel yields from the optimum setting for refined canola oil, unrefined canola oil, and unrefined camelina oil were 97.7%, 95.2%, and 95.6%, respectively. This study provided guidelines on how to optimize different reaction variables taking economic viability and feedstock availability into consideration when producing biodiesel at plant scale.

  2. Optimization of platelet-rich plasma and its effects on the recovery of erectile function after bilateral cavernous nerve injury in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-No; Wu, Chien-Chih; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Chen, Kuo-Chiang; Ho, Hsiu-O; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2016-10-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) containing autologous growth factors is applied in regenerative medicine, but the lack of an optimized PRP preparation protocol causes unstable therapeutic effects. The aim of this study was to optimize the PRP preparation method and compare the effects of PRP from different preparation methods in restoration of erectile function in a rat model. The in vivo experiments used Sprague-Dawley male rats (n = 24), which were randomly divided into four groups of equal numbers: group I underwent sham operation, while the remaining three groups underwent bilateral CN crush. Crush injury groups were treated at the time of injury with an application of general PRP, optimized PRP [with the largest amount of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB] or normal saline-only injection in the corpus cavernosum, respectively. Four weeks later, erectile function was assessed by CN electrosimulation, and penile tissue was collected for histology. Results demonstrated that in the PRP group prepared with the ACD-A anticoagulant, chitosan and incubated at -20°C for 15 days had the largest amount of PDGF-AB and showed a synergistic effect on release (p corpus cavernosum facilitated recovery of erectile function. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Aschepkov, Leonid T; Kim, Taekyun; Agarwal, Ravi P

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures from a one-year course at the Far Eastern Federal University (Vladivostok, Russia) as well as on workshops on optimal control offered to students at various mathematical departments at the university level. The main themes of the theory of linear and nonlinear systems are considered, including the basic problem of establishing the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimal processes. In the first part of the course, the theory of linear control systems is constructed on the basis of the separation theorem and the concept of a reachability set. The authors prove the closure of a reachability set in the class of piecewise continuous controls, and the problems of controllability, observability, identification, performance and terminal control are also considered. The second part of the course is devoted to nonlinear control systems. Using the method of variations and the Lagrange multipliers rule of nonlinear problems, the authors prove the Pontryagin maximum principle for prob...

  4. Numerical Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    optimization (as opposed to the so-called "pivotal" methods, such as the simplex method for linear pro- gramming), with special consideration for the...to be of the same order of one step of Karmarkar’s algorithm. While one step of the classical simplex algorithm [13] for linear pro- gramming is much...memoria d; Carlo Cartaneo, maestro ed amkco RIASSUNTO - Si considera un nuovo metodo per la risoluzione numeraca eta di sistern. di eqiuazioni non lineari

  5. Optimal Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Joao F; Livdan, Dmitry

    2002-01-01

    In this Paper we show that the main empirical findings about firm diversification and performance are actually consistent with the optimal behavior of a firm that maximizes shareholder value. In our model, diversification allows a firm to explore better productive opportunities while taking advantage of economies of scale. The dynamic structure of our model allows us to examine several aspects of the relationship between firm diversification and performance in a very general setting.

  6. Using Optimal Control to Disambiguate the Effect of Depression on Sensorimotor, Motivational and Goal-Setting Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Harlé, Katia; Movellan, Javier; Paulus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating the ability from the motivation to act is of central importance to psychiatric disorders in general and depression in particular. However, it has been difficult to develop quantitative approaches to relate depression to poor motor performance in goal-directed tasks. Here, we use an inverse optimal control approach to provide a computational framework that can be used to infer and factorize performance deficits into three components: sensorimotor speed, goal setting and motivation. Using a novel computer-simulated driving experiment, we found that (1) severity of depression is associated with both altered sensorimotor speed and motivational function; (2) moderately to severely depressed individuals show an increased distance from the stop sign indicating aversive learning affecting goal setting functions. Taken together, the inverse optimal control framework can disambiguate on an individual basis the sensorimotor from the motivational dysfunctions in depression, which may help to develop more precisely targeted interventions.

  7. Optimizing landslide susceptibility zonation: Effects of DEM spatial resolution and slope unit delineation on logistic regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögel, R.; Marchesini, I.; Alvioli, M.; Reichenbach, P.; Rossi, M.; Malet, J.-P.

    2018-01-01

    We perform landslide susceptibility zonation with slope units using three digital elevation models (DEMs) of varying spatial resolution of the Ubaye Valley (South French Alps). In so doing, we applied a recently developed algorithm automating slope unit delineation, given a number of parameters, in order to optimize simultaneously the partitioning of the terrain and the performance of a logistic regression susceptibility model. The method allowed us to obtain optimal slope units for each available DEM spatial resolution. For each resolution, we studied the susceptibility model performance by analyzing in detail the relevance of the conditioning variables. The analysis is based on landslide morphology data, considering either the whole landslide or only the source area outline as inputs. The procedure allowed us to select the most useful information, in terms of DEM spatial resolution, thematic variables and landslide inventory, in order to obtain the most reliable slope unit-based landslide susceptibility assessment.

  8. Structural Optimization in automotive design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. A.; Botkin, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Although mathematical structural optimization has been an active research area for twenty years, there has been relatively little penetration into the design process. Experience indicates that often this is due to the traditional layout-analysis design process. In many cases, optimization efforts have been outgrowths of analysis groups which are themselves appendages to the traditional design process. As a result, optimization is often introduced into the design process too late to have a significant effect because many potential design variables have already been fixed. A series of examples are given to indicate how structural optimization has been effectively integrated into the design process.

  9. A stomatal optimization theory to describe the effects of atmospheric CO2 on leaf photosynthesis and transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katul, Gabriel; Manzoni, Stefano; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram

    2010-03-01

    Global climate models predict decreases in leaf stomatal conductance and transpiration due to increases in atmospheric CO2. The consequences of these reductions are increases in soil moisture availability and continental scale run-off at decadal time-scales. Thus, a theory explaining the differential sensitivity of stomata to changing atmospheric CO2 and other environmental conditions must be identified. Here, these responses are investigated using optimality theory applied to stomatal conductance. An analytical model for stomatal conductance is proposed based on: (a) Fickian mass transfer of CO2 and H2O through stomata; (b) a biochemical photosynthesis model that relates intercellular CO2 to net photosynthesis; and (c) a stomatal model based on optimization for maximizing carbon gains when water losses represent a cost. Comparisons between the optimization-based model and empirical relationships widely used in climate models were made using an extensive gas exchange dataset collected in a maturing pine (Pinus taeda) forest under ambient and enriched atmospheric CO2. Key Results and Conclusion In this interpretation, it is proposed that an individual leaf optimally and autonomously regulates stomatal opening on short-term (approx. 10-min time-scale) rather than on daily or longer time-scales. The derived equations are analytical with explicit expressions for conductance, photosynthesis and intercellular CO2, thereby making the approach useful for climate models. Using a gas exchange dataset collected in a pine forest, it is shown that (a) the cost of unit water loss lambda (a measure of marginal water-use efficiency) increases with atmospheric CO2; (b) the new formulation correctly predicts the condition under which CO2-enriched atmosphere will cause increasing assimilation and decreasing stomatal conductance.

  10. Effects of word width and word length on optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru eTeramoto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether word width and length affect the optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words, using reading speed as a measure. In Experiment 1, three Japanese words, each consisting of 4 Hiragana characters, sequentially scrolled on a display screen from right to left. Participants, all Japanese native speakers, were instructed to read the words aloud as accurately as possible, irrespective of their order within the sequence. To quantitatively measure their reading performance, we used rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, where the scrolling rate was increased until the participants began to make mistakes. Thus, the highest scrolling rate at which the participants’ performance exceeded 88.9% correct rate was calculated for each character size (0.3, 0.6, 1.0, and 3.0° and scroll window size (5 or 10 character spaces. Results showed that the reading performance was highest in the range of 0.6° to 1.0°, irrespective of the scroll window size. Experiment 2 investigated whether the optimal character size observed in Experiment 1 was applicable for any word width and word length (i.e., the number of characters in a word. Results showed that reading speeds were slower for longer than shorter words and the word width of 3.6° was optimal among the word lengths tested (3, 4, and 6 character words. Considering that character size varied depending on word width and word length in the present study, this means that the optimal character size can be changed by word width and word length.

  11. Optimal endothelialisation of a new compliant poly(carbonate-urea)urethane vascular graft with effect of physiological shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salacinski, H J; Tai, N R; Punshon, G; Giudiceandrea, A; Hamilton, G; Seifalian, A M

    2000-10-01

    to define the optimal seeding conditions of a new stress free poly(carbonate-urea)urethane (CPU) graft with compliance similar to that of human artery with honeycomb structure engineered during the manufacturing process to enhance adhesion and growth of endothelial cells. (111)Indium-oxine radiolabeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were seeded onto CPU grafts at (a) concentrations from 2-24x10(5)cells/cm(2)and (b) incubated for 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h. Following incubation, graft segments were subjected to three washing/gamma counting procedures and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell viability was measured using a modified Alamar blue(TM)assay. To test physiological retention a pulsatile flow phantom was used to subject optimally seeded (16x10(5), 4 h) CPU grafts to arterial shear stress for 6 h with real time acquisition of scintigraphic images of seeded grafts using a nuclear medicine gamma camera system. the seeding efficiency of 54+/-13% post three washes was achieved using 16x10(5)cells/cm(2). Similarly in SEM micrographs a seeding density of 16x10(5)cells/cm(2)resulted in a confluent monolayer. Seeded CPU segments incubated for 4 h exhibited significantly higher resistance to wash-off than segments incubated for 30 min (p <0.05). Exposure of seeded grafts to pulsatile shear stress resulted in some cell loss with 67+/-3% of cells adherent following 6 h of perfusion with ongoing metabolic activity. Thus, optimal conditions were 16x10(5)cells/cm(2)at 4 h. the optimal seeding conditions have been defined for "tissue-engineered" vascular graft which allow complete endothelialisation and high cell-to-substrate strength that resists hydrodynamic stress. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  12. Limited Impact of Setup and Range Uncertainties, Breathing Motion, and Interplay Effects in Robustly Optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tatsuya; Widder, Joachim; van Dijk, Lisanne V; Takegawa, Hideki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Takashina, Masaaki; Usui, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Chie; Sugimoto, Satoru; Saito, Anneyuko I; Sasai, Keisuke; Van't Veld, Aart A; Langendijk, Johannes A; Korevaar, Erik W

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the impact of setup and range uncertainties, breathing motion, and interplay effects using scanning pencil beams in robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Three-field IMPT plans were created using a minimax robust optimization technique for 10 NSCLC patients. The plans accounted for 5- or 7-mm setup errors with ±3% range uncertainties. The robustness of the IMPT nominal plans was evaluated considering (1) isotropic 5-mm setup errors with ±3% range uncertainties; (2) breathing motion; (3) interplay effects; and (4) a combination of items 1 and 2. The plans were calculated using 4-dimensional and average intensity projection computed tomography images. The target coverage (TC, volume receiving 95% of prescribed dose) and homogeneity index (D2 - D98, where D2 and D98 are the least doses received by 2% and 98% of the volume) for the internal clinical target volume, and dose indexes for lung, esophagus, heart and spinal cord were compared with that of clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy plans. The TC and homogeneity index for all plans were within clinical limits when considering the breathing motion and interplay effects independently. The setup and range uncertainties had a larger effect when considering their combined effect. The TC decreased to 98% for robust 7-mm evaluations for all patients. The organ at risk dose parameters did not significantly vary between the respective robust 5-mm and robust 7-mm evaluations for the 4 error types. Compared with the volumetric modulated arc therapy plans, the IMPT plans showed better target homogeneity and mean lung and heart dose parameters reduced by about 40% and 60%, respectively. In robustly optimized IMPT for stage III NSCLC, the setup and range uncertainties, breathing motion, and interplay effects have limited impact on target coverage, dose homogeneity, and organ-at-risk dose parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  13. Finite population analysis of the effect of horizontal gene transfer on the origin of an universal and optimal genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neha; Vishwa Bandhu, Ashutosh; Sengupta, Supratim

    2016-06-01

    The origin of a universal and optimal genetic code remains a compelling mystery in molecular biology and marks an essential step in the origin of DNA and protein based life. We examine a collective evolution model of genetic code origin that allows for unconstrained horizontal transfer of genetic elements within a finite population of sequences each of which is associated with a genetic code selected from a pool of primordial codes. We find that when horizontal transfer of genetic elements is incorporated in this more realistic model of code-sequence coevolution in a finite population, it can increase the likelihood of emergence of a more optimal code eventually leading to its universality through fixation in the population. The establishment of such an optimal code depends on the probability of HGT events. Only when the probability of HGT events is above a critical threshold, we find that the ten amino acid code having a structure that is most consistent with the standard genetic code (SGC) often gets fixed in the population with the highest probability. We examine how the threshold is determined by factors like the population size, length of the sequences and selection coefficient. Our simulation results reveal the conditions under which sharing of coding innovations through horizontal transfer of genetic elements may have facilitated the emergence of a universal code having a structure similar to that of the SGC.

  14. Identifying and prioritizing indicators and effective solutions to optimization the use of wood in construction classical furniture by using AHP (Case study of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghofrani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to identify and prioritize the indicators and provide effective solutions to optimize the use of wood in construction classical furniture using the analytic hierarchy process (case study in Qom. For this purpose, studies and results of other researchers and interviews with experts, the factors affecting the optimization of wood consumption were divided into 4 main categories and 23 sub-indicators. The importance of the sub after getting feedback furniture producers were determined by AHP. The results show that the original surface design and human resources are of great importance. In addition, among 23 sub-effective optimization of the use of wood in construction classical furniture, ergonomics, style, skill training and inlaid in classical furniture industry in order to weight the value of 0/247, 0/181, 0/124 and 0/087 are of paramount importance and the method of use of force specialist solutions were a priority.

  15. Combining the effects of pulping severity and alkali concentration to optimize the lignocellulose-based AlkaPolP biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundt, Martin; Engel, Norman; Schnitzlein, Klaus; Schnitzlein, Michael G

    2014-08-01

    Within the framework of the development of a novel lignocellulose biorefinery concept alkaline polyol pulping (AlkaPolP) of Pinus sylvestris was performed at different alkali concentrations. The obtained experimental data were used to develop simple mathematical models that allow the prediction of product yields and properties in dependence on a single parameter combining the effects of time, temperature and catalyst concentration. For this purpose the usual approach expressing the pulping severity R0 had to be complemented by the alkali concentration resulting in a modified severity factor R₀('). The found regression models in the form of functions f(R₀(')) can be used as a tool for the identification of those pulping conditions giving the desired product characteristics. Because the yields of the biorefinery products reach their maxima at different pulping conditions the optimization of the whole process turned out to be a multi-objective optimization problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Discrete optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, R Gary

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the fundamental issues and algorithmic strategies emerging as the core of the discipline of discrete optimization in a comprehensive and rigorous fashion. Following an introductory chapter on computational complexity, the basic algorithmic results for the two major models of polynomial algorithms are introduced--models using matroids and linear programming. Further chapters treat the major non-polynomial algorithms: branch-and-bound and cutting planes. The text concludes with a chapter on heuristic algorithms.Several appendixes are included which review the fundamental ideas o

  17. Unconstrained Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, P. E.; Jonasson, K.; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1999-01-01

    an introduction to algorithms for unconstrained optimization. We present Conjugate Gradient, Damped Newton and Quasi Newton methods together with the relevant theoretical background. The reader is assumed to be familiar with algorithms for solving linear and nonlinear system of equations, at a level corresponding...... to an introductory course in numerical analysis. The algorithms presented in the note appear in any good program library, and implementations can be found via GAMS (Guide to Available Mathematical Software) at the Internet address http://gams.nist.gov The examples in the note were computed in Matlab. The programs...

  18. Combination Therapy «Metformin + Glimepiride» in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Molecular Mechanisms for Optimization of the Rehabilitation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Poltorak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the molecular mechanisms of therapeutic action of the combination of oral antidiabetic drugs «metformin + glimepiride», aimed at the correction of both defects, which determine the development of metabolic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus, namely, relative insulin deficiency and insulin resistance. The combination of metformin with glimepiride is optimal in terms of therapeutic effects on both molecules, which metabolic hypoactivity determines the metabolic state of insulin resistance, respectively, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. In addition, metformin has unique ability to eliminate the phenomenon of «hyperglycemic memory» by increasing the expression and activity of sirtuin-1. On the other hand, the third generation sulfonylurea glimepiride provides a «gentle» stimulation of the β-cells, which maintains the physiological ratio proinsulin/insulin and slows down the development of the phenomenon of β-cell desensitization to physiological and pharmacological stimuli. Glimepiride retains protective phenomenon of ischemic preconditioning and extends the range of therapeutic effect on the pathophysiological components of insulin resistance due to insulin-mimetic and insulin-sensitizing effect, as well as potentiates the beneficial effects of metformin (particularly, via adiponectin. Above mentioned determinated the achievement of optimized therapeutic efficacy of pharmaceutical combination against the background of decreased side effects (reduced dose of glimepiride, metformin.

  19. Effect of an optimized treatment with insulin on platelet reactivity after discharge in patients with an acute coronary syndrome and hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, David; García-Rubira, Juan C; Bernardo, Esther; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Martín, Patricia; Calle, Alfonso; Núñez-Gil, Iván; Macaya, Carlos; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Intensive glucose control with insulin in patients with an acute coronary syndrome reduces platelet reactivity during hospitalization, compared to conventional control. However, the effect of strict, long-term glucose control on platelet reactivity in these patients remains uncertain. This is a prospective, randomized trial evaluating the effects of optimized glucose control (target glucose, 80-120mg/dL) with insulin, compared with conventional control (target glucose, <180 mg/dL), on platelet reactivity after hospital discharge in patients with an acute coronary syndrome and hyperglycemia. The primary endpoint was assessment of platelet aggregation after stimulation with adenosine diphosphate 20 μM at 12-month follow-up. One hundred four patients were randomized to optimized management (n=53) or conventional management (n=51). There were no differences between groups in baseline characteristics or platelet function. After 12 months of follow-up, blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the optimized treatment group (104 vs 119 mg/dL; P<.001). However, platelet aggregation following adenosine diphosphate 20 μM stimulation showed no differences between the groups (54.2% [14.3%] vs 55.1% [18.3%] respectively; P=.81). There were no significant differences for other platelet function tests. Long-term optimized glucose control with insulin in patients with an acute coronary syndrome did not result in a reduction in platelet reactivity compared to conventional control. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Aircraft Trajectory Optimization Using Parametric Optimization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Romero, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, a study of the optimization of aircraft trajectories using parametric optimization theory is presented. To that end, an approach based on the use of predefined trajectory patterns and parametric optimization is proposed. The trajectory pat

  1. Development, optimization and evaluation of curcumin loaded biodegradable crosslinked gelatin film for the effective treatment of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sheetal; Bansal, Monika; Khan, Gayasuddin; Yadav, Sarita K; Singh, Ashish K; Prakash, Pradyot; Mishra, Brahmeshwar

    2018-02-22

    Aim of the present study was to prepare curcumin (CUR) loaded biodegradable crosslinked gelatin (GE) film to alleviate the existing shortcomings in the treatment of periodontitis. Gelatin film was optimized to provide anticipated mucoadhesive strength, mechanical properties, folding endurance, and prolonged drug release over treatment duration, for successful application in the periodontitis. The film was developed by using solvent casting technique and "Design of Experiments" approach was employed for evaluating the influence of independent variables on dependent response variables. Solid-state characterization of the film was performed by FTIR, XRD, and SEM. Further, prepared formulations were evaluated for drug content uniformity, surface pH, folding endurance, swelling index, mechanical strength, mucoadhesive strength, in vitro biodegradation, and in vitro drug release behavior. Solid state characterization of the formulation showed that CUR is physico-chemically compatible with other excipients and CUR was entrapped in an amorphous form inside the smooth and uniform film. The optimized film showed degree of crosslinking 51.04 ± 2.4, swelling index 138.10 ± 1.25, and folding endurance 270 ± 3 with surface pH around 7.0. Crosslinker concentrations positively affected swelling index and biodegradation of film due to altered matrix density of the polymer. Results of in vitro drug release demonstrated the capability of the developed film for efficiently delivering CUR in a sustained manner up to 7 days. The developed optimized film could be considered as a promising delivery strategy to administer medicament locally into the periodontal pockets for the safe and efficient management of periodontitis.

  2. Introduction of an effective method for the optimization of CT protocols using iterative reconstruction algorithms: comparison with patient data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordolaimi, Sofia D; Saradeas, Ioannis; Ploussi, Agapi; Pantos, Ioannis; Argentos, Stylianos; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios P

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce an efficient method for the optimization of iterative reconstruction CT protocols based on phantom image analysis and the comparison of obtained results with actual patient data. We considered chest, abdomen, and pelvis CT examinations before the installation of an iterative reconstruction algorithm (iDose4) to define the exposure parameters used in clinical routine with filtered back projection (FBP). The body area of a CT phantom was subsequently scanned with various tube voltages and tube currents-exposure time products, and acquired data were reconstructed with FBP and different levels of iDose4. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for FBP with the original exposure parameters was calculated to define the minimum acceptable CNR value for each tube voltage. Then, an optimum tube current-exposure time products for each tube voltage and level of iterative reconstruction was estimated. We also compared findings derived by the phantom with real patient data by assessing dosimetric and image quality indexes from a patient cohort scanned with exposure parameters gradually adjusted during 1 year of adoption of iDose4. By use of the proposed phantom method, dose reduction up to 75% was achievable, whereas for an intermediate level of iteration (level 4), the dose reduction ranged between 50% and 60%, depending on the tube voltage. For comparison, with the gradual adjustment of exposure settings, the corresponding dose reduction for the same level of iteration was about 35%. The proposed method provides rapid and efficient optimization of CT protocols and could be used as the first step in the optimization process.

  3. Effectiveness of peer-counseling for promoting optimal complementary feeding practices among infants belonging to urban slums of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabharwal Vandana, Passi Santosh Jain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Promotion of appropriate complementary feeding practices is important in reducing malnutrition in infants and young children. Yet, India has dismal rates of optimal complementary feeding practices which are not rising. Aim: This study aimed to find the impact of the educational intervention directed through peer counselors to promote optimal complementary feeding practices. Methods and materials: This is an Interventional study, which has been conducted in an urban slum of Delhi using multi-stage random sampling. From the study area two sectors were randomly selected. From one sector, 54 pregnant women were selected who were not given any counselling forming the non-intervention group. From the other sector, 159 pregnant women were selected to form the intervention group (Igr which were further divided into 3 sub-groups; one sub-group was imparted counselling by a nutrition professional (Igr A; n=53 and the other two (Igr B1;n=53 and Igr B2;n=53 by the peer counselors who where the local health workers trained for promoting optimal infant feeding practices. The infants were followed up till their first birthday and in order to study the impact of counseling, the complementary feeding practices of the intervention and the non-intervention groups have been compared Results: In the intervention groups, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was significantly higher as compared to the non-intervention group (67.5 % vs. 4.2 %. In the intervention groups, 2.6 per cent infants received semi-solid/ solid foods before the age of 6 months, 75.1 percent between 6 – 7 months and the rest by the age of 9 months. However, in the Non-Igr, the respective figures were 48.9, 19.4 and 25.4 per cent; and at the age of one year, 6.4 per cent infants were still being given predominantly mother’s milk. 99.3 per cent infants in the Igrs as compared to 82.3 per cent in the Non-Igr (P<0.05 continued to receive breast milk till the age of

  4. The effects of particle swarm optimization algorithm on volume ignition gain of Proton-Lithium (7) pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livari, As. Ali; Malekynia, B.; Livari, Ak. A.; Khoda-Bakhsh, R.

    2017-11-01

    When it was found out that the ignition of nuclear fusion hinges upon input energy laser, the efforts in order to make giant lasers began, and energy gains of DT fuel were obtained. But due to the neutrons generation and emitted radioactivity from DT reaction, gains of fuels like Proton-Lithium (7) were also adverted. Therefore, making larger and powerful lasers was followed. Here, using new versions of particle swarm optimization algorithm, it will be shown that available maximum gain of Proton-Lithium (7) is reached only at energies about 1014 J, and not only the highest input energy is not helpful but the efficiency is also decreased.

  5. Effects of 'Context-Optimization' on the acquisition of grammatical case in children with specific language impairment: an experimental evaluation in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motsch, Hans-Joachim; Riehemann, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Disorders in the acquisition of morphological agreement phenomena, e.g. case marking, are characteristic of German children with specific language impairment (SLI). Although the success of individual therapy has already been documented, there are general doubts about the success of grammar facilitation in the classroom. To investigate whether children with SLI, who were trained with the new program 'Context-Optimization' during classes, achieved significant improvements in the acquisition of case and whether this therapeutic approach was more effective than the traditional methods used in a control group. Forty-five classes of 19 special language schools participated in the study. Within 12 weeks the experimental group, consisting of 63 children, received 12 hours of therapy during their lessons. The therapeutic measures were implemented directly by their class teachers, who are additionally qualified as school speech and language pathologists. The case marking skills of the 63 children constituting the control group were also trained during classes or within individual or group therapy, although their teachers used other methods than Context-Optimization. The experimental group participants increased their case-marking skills significantly, even after a short-term intervention, and these effects remained stable. It is evident that their improvements were independent of any risk factors such as deficits in the perception and processing of language, problems in gender agreement and bilingualism. Context-Optimization therapy in the classroom is effective for both accusative and dative, the prominent therapy goal, while traditional methods are only effective for accusative. A critical analysis of the data reveals two important implications for future interventions: (1) the reduction of language material to ensure proper use of gender during therapy sequences; and (2) the adaptation of therapeutic steps to the learning tempo of the pupils.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF GRID RESOURCE SCHEDULING USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selvakrishnan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Job allocation process is one of the big issues in grid environment and it is one of the research areas in Grid Computing. Hence a new area of research is developed to design optimal methods. It focuses on new heuristic techniques that provide an optimal or near optimal solution for large grids. By learning grid resource scheduling and PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, this proposed scheduler allocates an application to a host from a pool of available hosts and applications by selecting the best match. PSO-based algorithm is more effective in grid resources scheduling with the favor of reducing the executing time and completing time.

  7. Optimal PMU Placement By Improved Particle Swarm Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Liu, Leo; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an improved method of binary particle swarm optimization (IBPSO) technique for optimal phasor measurement unit (PMU) placement in a power network for complete system observability. Various effective improvements have been proposed to enhance the efficiency and convergence rate...... of conventional particle swarm optimization method. The proposed method of IBPSO ensures optimal PMU placement with and without consideration of zero injection measurements. The proposed method has been applied to standard test systems like 17 bus, IEEE 24-bus, IEEE 30-bus, New England 39-bus, IEEE 57-bus system...

  8. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick...... (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...... that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization....

  9. Optimal preferred MSG concentration in potatoes, spinach and beef and their effect on intake in institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essed, N H; Oerlemans, P; Hoek, M; Van Staveren, W A; Kok, F J; De Graaf, C

    2009-11-01

    Elderly people may benefit from sensory stimulation to increase food intake since anorexia of ageing is prevalent among them. An optimal MSG concentration may increase the palatability of foods but this depends on the food and chemosensory status of the taster. Currently, the results on taste enhancing to increase intake are inconsistent. To find an optimal preferred MSG concentration in mashed potatoes, spinach and ground beef and to determine whether this concentration increases consumption of these foods among institutionalized elderly people. Single blind within subject cross-over study performed at the laboratory and in the residents' own apartments. 33 elderly and 29 young people in the sensory study and 53 elderly people in the intake study. Pleasantness of the foods was rated of the foods each with 0, 0.5, 0.8, 1.3 and 2.0 g of MSG/100g. Intake was measured by weighing back leftovers of 2 meals with MSG (0.5% in mashed potatoes, 2% in spinach and ground meat) and without MSG. 0.5% MSG (p 0.68). MSG (0.5% and 2%) does not guarantee a higher intake among elderly. The chemosensory heterogeneity of the elderly population requires more individual flavor enhancement to improve the dietary intake and sensory experience.

  10. Optimal design of solid oxide fuel cell, ammonia-water single effect absorption cycle and Rankine steam cycle hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Dehghani, Hossein; Ali Moosavian, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    A combined system containing solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine power plant, Rankine steam cycle and ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system is introduced and analyzed. In this process, power, heat and cooling are produced. Energy and exergy analyses along with the economic factors are used to distinguish optimum operating point of the system. The developed electrochemical model of the fuel cell is validated with experimental results. Thermodynamic package and main parameters of the absorption refrigeration system are validated. The power output of the system is 500 kW. An optimization problem is defined in order to finding the optimal operating point. Decision variables are current density, temperature of the exhaust gases from the boiler, steam turbine pressure (high and medium), generator temperature and consumed cooling water. Results indicate that electrical efficiency of the combined system is 62.4% (LHV). Produced refrigeration (at -10 °C) and heat recovery are 101 kW and 22.1 kW respectively. Investment cost for the combined system (without absorption cycle) is about 2917 kW-1.

  11. Optimization and effect of dairy industrial waste as media components in the production of hyaluronic acid by Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Naresh; Balakrishnan, Rengesh; Sivaprakasam, Senthilkumar

    2016-08-17

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) production using a dairy industrial waste is a more cost-efficient strategy than using an expensive synthetic medium. In this study, we investigated the production of HA using Streptococcus thermophilus under shake flask conditions using dairy industrial waste as nutritional supplements, namely whey permeate (WP) and whey protein hydrolysate (WPH). Preliminary screening using Plackett-Burman design exhibited WP, WPH, initial pH, and inoculum size as significant factors influencing HA titer. Response surface methodology design of four factors was formulated at three levels for enhanced production of HA. Shake flask HA fermentation by S. thermophilus was performed under global optimized process conditions and the optimal HA titer (342.93 mg L(-1)) corroborates with Box-Behnken design prediction. The molecular weight of HA was elucidated as 9.22-9.46 kDa. The ultralow-molecular weight HA reported in this study has a potential role in drug and gene delivery applications.

  12. [Effect of the optimized traditional acupuncture prescription for accouchement on cervical ripening in late-stage pregnant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Li-Wen; Yuan, Hong-Wen; Chen, Ying-Ru; Shu, Fu-Zheng; Ma, Liang-Xiao; Zhu, Jiang

    2012-12-01

    To observe the mechanism of the optimized traditional acupuncture prescription for accouchement on cervical ripening based on the molecular biology by observing related indices of cervical ripening in late-stage pregnant rats. Twenty initial pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into an electroacupuncture (EA) group (n = 10) and a model group (n = 10), and other 10 non-pregnancy female rats with same lot were selected as a blank control group. EA group was treated with the optimized traditional acupuncture prescription for accouchement on the 20th day of pregnant, which performed EA at bilateral "Hegu" (LI 4) for 20 min and then at bilateral "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) for 5 min with 2 Hz/50 Hz sparse-dense wave, while the other groups without acupuncture intervention. The contents of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) in cervix tissue were detected by ELISA method. Compared with the blank control group, the contents of MMP-9 and IL-8 in the model group were increased significantly (both P ripening, and the mechanism of EA in promoting cervical ripening is explained from the perspective of molecular biology.

  13. Optimization of Metronidazole Emulgel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to develop and optimize the emulgel system for MTZ (Metronidazole, a poorly water soluble drug. The pseudoternary phase diagrams were developed for various microemulsion formulations composed of Capmul 908 P, Acconon MC8-2, and propylene glycol. The emulgel was optimized using a three-factor, two-level factorial design, the independent variables selected were Capmul 908 P, and surfactant mixture (Acconon MC8-2 and gelling agent, and the dependent variables (responses were a cumulative amount of drug permeated across the dialysis membrane in 24 h ( and spreadability (. Mathematical equations and response surface plots were used to relate the dependent and independent variables. The regression equations were generated for responses and . The statistical validity of the polynomials was established, and optimized formulation factors were selected. Validation of the optimization study with 3 confirmatory runs indicated a high degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology. Emulgel system of MTZ was developed and optimized using 23 factorial design and could provide an effective treatment against topical infections.

  14. Effect of Graphene-EC on Ag NW-Based Transparent Film Heaters: Optimizing the Stability and Heat Dispersion of Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minghui; Wang, Minqiang; Li, Le; Qiu, Hengwei; Yang, Zhi

    2018-01-10

    To optimize the performance of silver nanowire (Ag NW) film heaters and explore the effect of graphene on a film, we introduced poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and graphene modified with ethyl cellulose (graphene-EC) into the film. The high-quality and well-dispersed graphene-EC was synthesized from graphene obtained by electrochemical exfoliation as a precursor. The transparent film heaters were fabricated via spin-coating. With the assistance of graphene-EC, the stability of film heaters was greatly improved, and the conductivity was optimized by adjusting the Ag NW concentration. The film heaters exhibited a fast and accurate response to voltage, accompanied by excellent environmental endurance, and there was no significant performance degradation after being operated for a long period of time. These results indicate that graphene-EC plays a crucial role in optimizing film stability and heat dispersion in the film. The Ag NW/PEDOT:PSS-doped graphene-EC film heaters show a great potential in low-cost indium-tin-oxide-free flexible transparent electrodes, heating systems, and transparent film heaters.

  15. Enhancement of simultaneous gold and copper recovery from discarded mobile phone PCBs using Bacillus megaterium: RSM based optimization of effective factors and evaluation of their interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, M; Mousavi, S M; Rasoulnia, P

    2016-11-01

    Bioleaching of Au from mobile phone printed circuit boards (MPPCBs) was studied, using Bacillus megaterium which is a cyanogenic bacterium. To maximize Au extraction, initial pH, pulp density, and glycine concentration were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). Bioleaching of Cu, an important inhibitor on Au recovery, was also examined. To maximize Au recovery, the optimal condition suggested by the models was initial pH of 10, pulp density of 8.13g/l, and glycine concentration of 10g/l. Under the optimal condition, approximately 72% of Cu and 65g Au/ton MPPCBs, which is 7 times greater than the recovery from gold mines, was extracted. Cu elimination from the MPPCBs having a rich content of Au did not cause a significant effect on Au recovery. It was found that when the ratio of Cu to Au is high, Cu elimination can considerably improve Au recovery. B. megaterium could extract the total Au from PCBs containing 130g Au/ton MPPCBs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal produktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öje Danell

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimal Production in Reindeer Husbandry.There are three ways to optimize the reindeer herd: 1 Adjusting the reindeer number to pasture resources. 2 Keeping as many productive animals in the herd as possible through slaughter. 3 Increasing the herd quality through selection.Renhjorden bör optimeras så att den fungerar som en "skördeapparat" for bete och lämnar största möjliga bidrag till försörjningen för dem som lever av renskötsel. Det finns minst tre sätt att optimera renhjorden, nämligen (1 anpassning av djurantalet till betesresurserna så att djurens kondition och därmed produktiviteten kan bibehållas på hög nivå, (2 utforma renhjordens struktur med hjalp av slaktuttaget så att den innehåller så stor andel produktiva djur som möjligt, och (3 förbättra djurmaterialets produktionsmässiga kvalitet genom urval baserat på registrerad produktion. Betesanpassningen är den mest grundläggande åtgärden och ger den snabbaste effekten. Även hjordstrukturering är en åtgärd som ger relativt snabb effekt och som dessutom kan beslutas och utforas av den enskilde djuraägaren utan att störa den kollektiva renskötseln. Urval är en åtgärd som ger effekt först på längre sikt och därför kräver en konsekvent insats under en längre tid.

  17. Effect of codon optimization and subcellular targeting on Toxoplasma gondii antigen SAG1 expression in tobacco leaves to use in subcutaneous and oral immunization in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguía-Becher, Melina; Martín, Valentina; Kraemer, Mauricio; Corigliano, Mariana; Yacono, María L; Goldman, Alejandra; Clemente, Marina

    2010-07-15

    Codon optimization and subcellular targeting were studied with the aim to increase the expression levels of the SAG178-322 antigen of Toxoplasma gondii in tobacco leaves. The expression of the tobacco-optimized and native versions of the SAG1 gene was explored by transient expression from the Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary expression vector, which allows targeting the recombinant protein to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the apoplast. Finally, mice were subcutaneously and orally immunized with leaf extracts-SAG1 and the strategy of prime boost with rSAG1 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to optimize the oral immunization with leaf extracts-SAG1. Leaves agroinfiltrated with an unmodified SAG1 gene accumulated 5- to 10-fold more than leaves agroinfiltrated with a codon-optimized SAG1 gene. ER localization allowed the accumulation of higher levels of native SAG1. However, no significant differences were observed between the mRNA accumulations of the different versions of SAG1. Subcutaneous immunization with leaf extracts-SAG1 (SAG1) protected mice against an oral challenge with a non-lethal cyst dose, and this effect could be associated with the secretion of significant levels of IFN-gamma. The protection was increased when mice were ID boosted with rSAG1 (SAG1+boost). This group elicited a significant Th1 humoral and cellular immune response characterized by high levels of IFN-gamma. In an oral immunization assay, the SAG1+boost group showed a significantly lower brain cyst burden compared to the rest of the groups. Transient agroinfiltration was useful for the expression of all of the recombinant proteins tested. Our results support the usefulness of endoplasmic reticulum signal peptides in enhancing the production of recombinant proteins meant for use as vaccines. The results showed that this plant-produced protein has potential for use as vaccine and provides a potential means for protecting humans and animals against toxoplasmosis.

  18. Determining the Lowest Optimally Effective Methotrexate Dose for Individual RA Patients Using Their Dose Response Relation in a Tight Control Treatment Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya C Nair

    Full Text Available To determine the optimal methotrexate dose in individual patients and to explore whether this optimal dose and the level of disease activity at that dose could be predicted.Data from CAMERA II trial comparing MTX and MTX with 10 mg of prednisone both in a tight control treatment strategy in early RA was used. For each patient a curve for disease activity over time was fitted and the MTX dose after which further step-up did not result in relevant improvement in disease activity anymore was determined the 'lowest optimally effective MTX dose (LOED'. The association of demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline with this LOED and with the level of disease activity reached at LOED was studied.In 204 (100 MTX and 104 MTX with prednisone out of 236 patients LOED could be defined. 10 mg/wk was the most prevalent LOED in patients treated with MTX and prednisone and 10 mg/wk, 20 mg/wk and 30 mg/wk in the MTX strategy. Although the specific LOED could not reliably be predicted, higher baseline disease activity, height and lower weight were associated with higher LOEDs (i.e at least 15 mg/wk. A score was presented to decide on a starting dose of 10 mg/wk or (at least 15 mg/wk. The level of disease activity at LOED could not be reliably predicted.A starting dose of 10 mg/wk might be a good choice for most patients and is frequently already the optimal dose. However, a subgroup of patient can be determined who would require higher MTX doses.

  19. Design and development of a new micro-beam treatment planning system: effectiveness of algorithms of optimization and dose calculations and potential of micro-beam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Hidenobu; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Yusa, Noritaka; Miyajima, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akihisa; Yamashita, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    A new treatment planning system (TPS) was designed and developed for a new treatment system, which consisted of a micro-beam-enabled linac with robotics and a real-time tracking system. We also evaluated the effectiveness of the implemented algorithms of optimization and dose calculations in the TPS for the new treatment system. In the TPS, the optimization procedure consisted of the pseudo Beam's-Eye-View method for finding the optimized beam directions and the steepest-descent method for determination of beam intensities. We used the superposition-/convolution-based (SC-based) algorithm and Monte Carlo-based (MC-based) algorithm to calculate dose distributions using CT image data sets. In the SC-based algorithm, dose density scaling was applied for the calculation of inhomogeneous corrections. The MC-based algorithm was implemented with Geant4 toolkit and a phase-based approach using a network-parallel computing. From the evaluation of the TPS, the system can optimize the direction and intensity of individual beams. The accuracy of the dose calculated by the SC-based algorithm was less than 1% on average with the calculation time of 15 s for one beam. However, the MC-based algorithm needed 72 min for one beam using the phase-based approach, even though the MC-based algorithm with the parallel computing could decrease multiple beam calculations and had 18.4 times faster calculation speed using the parallel computing. The SC-based algorithm could be practically acceptable for the dose calculation in terms of the accuracy and computation time. Additionally, we have found a dosimetric advantage of proton Bragg peak-like dose distribution in micro-beam treatment.

  20. A novel hybrid Particle Swarm Optimizer with multi verse optimizer for global numerical optimization and Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Jangir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent trend of research is to hybridize two and more algorithms to obtain superior solution in the field of optimization problems. In this context, a new technique hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO-Multi verse Optimizer (MVO is exercised on some unconstraint benchmark test functions and the most common problem of the modern power system named Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch (ORPD is optimized using the novel hybrid meta-heuristic optimization algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization-Multi Verse Optimizer (HPSO-MVO method. Hybrid PSO-MVO is combination of PSO used for exploitation phase and MVO for exploration phase in uncertain environment. Position and Speed of particle is modernised according to location of universes in each iteration. The hybrid PSO-MVO method has a fast convergence rate due to use of roulette wheel selection method. For the ORPD solution, standard IEEE-30 bus test system is used. The hybrid PSO-MVO method is implemented to solve the proposed problem. The problems considered in the ORPD are fuel cost reduction, Voltage profile improvement, Voltage stability enhancement, Active power loss minimization and Reactive power loss minimization. The results obtained with hybrid PSO-MVO method is compared with other techniques such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Multi Verse Optimizer (MVO. Analysis of competitive results obtained from HPSO-MVO validates its effectiveness compare to standard PSO and MVO algorithm.

  1. Modeling and optimization of acid dye manufacturing wastewater treatment with Fenton's reagent: comparison with electrocoagulation treatment results and effects on activated sludge inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Gursoy, B Hande; Akyol, Abdurahman; Kobya, Mehmet; Bayramoglu, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, Fenton's oxidation of a chromium complex disazo dye (Acid Blue 193) synthesis wastewater was evaluated, modeled and optimized by employing Central Composite Design. Within this context, the individual and interactive effects of critical process parameters such as Fe(2 + ), H(2)O(2) concentrations, initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) and reaction time was assessed. The process response (output) variables were chosen as percent color, COD and total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies. Optimum working conditions in terms of color and organic carbon removals were established to be Fe(2 + )=3 mM; H(2)O(2)=25 mM; reaction time = 10 min at pH 3 and an initial COD content of 245 mg/L. Under these conditions, 96% color, 82% COD and 51% TOC removals were obtained. The established polynomial regression models describing color, COD and TOC removals satisfactorily fitted the experimental data and could be used to predict Fenton's treatment results at statistically significant rates. Optimized treatment results were compared with those obtained via electrocoagulation treatment under optimized conditions (applied current = 50 A/m(2); reaction time = 15 min; initial pH = 7 for an initial COD content of 245 mg/L). The relative inhibition of heterotrophic oxygen uptake rate was measured to examine the inhibitory effect of azo dye synthesis effluent before and after Fenton's oxidation and electrocoagulation with respect to synthetic domestic wastewater. Untreated azo dye production wastewater exhibited a slightly inhibitory effect that was appreciably reduced but not entirely removed after Fenton's oxidation, whereas no inhibition of mixed bioculture was observed for azo dye synthesis effluent subjected to electrocoagulation treatment.

  2. Optimization or weighted libraries to effective sections through use of sensitivity coefficients; Optimizacion de librerias tabuladas de secciones eficaces mediante el empleo de coeficientes de sensibilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cervera, S.; Herrero, J. J.; Garcia-Herranz, N.

    2012-07-01

    Weighted libraries are the most widespread form of compiling pre-generated cross sections. During the calculation of core diffusion code cross sections obtained by interpolation of the values in the grid points. As interpolation errors depend on the distance between those points, it requires considerable refinement of the mesh to achieve adequate accuracy, leading to high storage requirements. To avoid this problem, we have developed an optimization procedure Weighted library for selecting the minimum number of grid points for each independent state variable, maintaining a factual error in the multiplication constant k-effective.

  3. Optimization of a peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) method for the detection of bacteria and disclosure of a formamide effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rita S; Guimarães, Nuno; Madureira, Pedro; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2014-10-10

    Despite the fact that fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a well-established technique to identify microorganisms, there is a lack of understanding concerning the interaction of the different factors affecting the obtained fluorescence. In here, we used flow cytometry to study the influence of three essential factors in hybridization - temperature, time and formamide concentration - in an effort to optimize the performance of a Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) probe targeting bacteria (EUB338). The PNA-FISH optimization was performed with bacteria representing different families employing response surface methodology. Surprisingly, the optimum concentration of formamide varied according to the bacterium tested. While hybridization on the bacteria possessing the thickest peptidoglycan was more successful at nearly 50% (v/v) formamide, hybridization on all other microorganisms appeared to improve with much lower formamide concentrations. Gram staining and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to confirm that the overall effect of formamide concentration on the fluorescence intensity is a balance between a harmful effect on the bacterial cell envelope, affecting cellular integrity, and the beneficial denaturant effect in the hybridization process. We also conclude that microorganisms belonging to different families will require different hybridization parameters for the same FISH probe, meaning that an optimum universal PNA-FISH procedure is non-existent for these situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An optimization study of PtSn/C catalysts applied to direct ethanol fuel cell: Effect of the preparation method on the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, T. S.; Palma, L. M.; Leonello, P. H.; Morais, C.; Kokoh, K. B.; De Andrade, A. R.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work was to perform a systematic study of the parameters that can influence the composition, morphology, and catalytic activity of PtSn/C nanoparticles and compare two different methods of nanocatalyst preparation, namely microwave-assisted heating (MW) and thermal decomposition of polymeric precursors (DPP). An investigation of the effects of the reducing and stabilizing agents on the catalytic activity and morphology of Pt75Sn25/C catalysts prepared by microwave-assisted heating was undertaken for optimization purposes. The effect of short-chain alcohols such as ethanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol as reducing agents was evaluated, and the use of sodium acetate and citric acid as stabilizing agents for the MW procedure was examined. Catalysts obtained from propylene glycol displayed higher catalytic activity compared with catalysts prepared in ethylene glycol. Introduction of sodium acetate enhanced the catalytic activity, but this beneficial effect was observed until a critical acetate concentration was reached. Optimization of the MW synthesis allowed for the preparation of highly dispersed catalysts with average sizes lying between 2.0 and 5.0 nm. Comparison of the best catalyst prepared by MW with a catalyst of similar composition prepared by the polymeric precursors method showed that the catalytic activity of the material can be improved when a proper condition for catalyst preparation is achieved.

  5. Multi-length scale tomography for the determination and optimization of the effective microstructural properties in novel hierarchical solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuekun; Taiwo, Oluwadamilola O.; Bertei, Antonio; Li, Tao; Li, Kang; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2017-11-01

    Effective microstructural properties are critical in determining the electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), particularly when operating at high current densities. A novel tubular SOFC anode with a hierarchical microstructure, composed of self-organized micro-channels and sponge-like regions, has been fabricated by a phase inversion technique to mitigate concentration losses. However, since pore sizes span over two orders of magnitude, the determination of the effective transport parameters using image-based techniques remains challenging. Pioneering steps are made in this study to characterize and optimize the microstructure by coupling multi-length scale 3D tomography and modeling. The results conclusively show that embedding finger-like micro-channels into the tubular anode can improve the mass transport by 250% and the permeability by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Our parametric study shows that increasing the porosity in the spongy layer beyond 10% enhances the effective transport parameters of the spongy layer at an exponential rate, but linearly for the full anode. For the first time, local and global mass transport properties are correlated to the microstructure, which is of wide interest for rationalizing the design optimization of SOFC electrodes and more generally for hierarchical materials in batteries and membranes.

  6. Defining optimal laser-fiber sweeping angle for effective tissue vaporization using 180 W 532 nm lithium triborate laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Woo Jin; Choi, Benjamin B; Kang, Hyun Wook; Rajabhandharaks, Danop; Rutman, Matthew; Osterberg, E Charles

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study is to identify the most efficient sweeping angle (SA) during photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP). Experiments were conducted with GreenLight XPS™ laser at 120 and 180 W. Ten blocks of porcine kidney were used for each SA (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 degrees). Vaporization efficiency was assessed by the amount of tissue removed per time. The coagulation zone (CZ) thickness was also measured. Maximal vaporization rate (VR) was achieved at SA 15 and 30 degrees. Irrespective of power, VR increased and CZ decreased linearly with decreasing SA from 120 to 30 degrees. The CZ was the thinnest at SA 30 degrees. Optimal vaporization occurred at a SA of 15 degrees and 30 degrees with the lowest CZ at 30 degrees. Contrary to a previous recommendation for a wider SA (60 degrees or greater), a narrower SA (30 degrees) achieved the maximal tissue vaporization efficiency.

  7. [SIAM conference on optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-10

    Abstracts are presented of 63 papers on the following topics: large-scale optimization, interior-point methods, algorithms for optimization, problems in control, network optimization methods, and parallel algorithms for optimization problems.

  8. Optimizing staff radiation protection in radiology by minimizing the effective dose; Optimierung des Strahlenschutzes fuer das Personal in der Radiologie auf Grundlage der effektiven Dosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boetticher, H. von; Luska, G. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Klinikum Links der Weser (Germany); Lachmund, J. [Dept. NGL, ATLAS Elektronik GmbH (Germany); Hoffmann, W. [Inst. fuer Community Medicine, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Univ. Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: In the present study the optimization of radiation protection devices is achieved by minimizing the effective dose of the staff members since the stochastic radiation effects correlate to the effective dose. Materials and methods: Radiation exposure dosimetry was performed with TLD measurements using one Alderson Phantom in the patient position and a second phantom in the typical position of the personnel. Various types of protective clothing as well as fixed shields were considered in the calculations. Results: It was shown that the doses of the unshielded organs (thyroid, parts of the active bone marrow) contribute significantly to the effective dose of the staff. Therefore, there is no linear relationship between the shielding factors for protective garments and the effective dose. An additional thyroid protection collar reduces the effective dose by a factor 1.7-3.0. X-ray protective clothing with a 0.35 mm lead equivalent and an additional thyroid protection collar provides better protection against radiation than an apron with a 0.5 mm lead equivalent but no collar. Conclusion: The use of thyroid protection collars is an effective preventive measure against exceeding occupational organ dose limits, and a thyroid shield also considerably reduces the effective dose. Therefore, thyroid protection collars should be a required component of anti-X protection. (orig.)

  9. Treatment of an actual slaughterhouse wastewater by integration of biological and advanced oxidation processes: Modeling, optimization, and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2016-11-01

    Biological and advanced oxidation processes are combined to treat an actual slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) by a sequence of an anaerobic baffled reactor, an aerobic activated sludge reactor, and a UV/H2O2 photoreactor with recycle in continuous mode at laboratory scale. In the first part of this study, quadratic modeling along with response surface methodology are used for the statistical analysis and optimization of the combined process. The effects of the influent total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, the flow rate, the pH, the inlet H2O2 concentration, and their interaction on the overall treatment efficiency, CH4 yield, and H2O2 residual in the effluent of the photoreactor are investigated. The models are validated at different operating conditions using experimental data. Maximum TOC and total nitrogen (TN) removals of 91.29 and 86.05%, respectively, maximum CH4 yield of 55.72%, and minimum H2O2 residual of 1.45% in the photoreactor effluent were found at optimal operating conditions. In the second part of this study, continuous distribution kinetics is applied to establish a mathematical model for the degradation of SWW as a function of time. The agreement between model predictions and experimental values indicates that the proposed model could describe the performance of the combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes for the treatment of SWW. In the final part of the study, the optimized combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes with recycle were evaluated using a cost-effectiveness analysis to minimize the retention time, the electrical energy consumption, and the overall incurred treatment costs required for the efficient treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Limited Impact of Setup and Range Uncertainties, Breathing Motion, and Interplay Effects in Robustly Optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Tatsuya [Department of Radiology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Widder, Joachim; Dijk, Lisanne V. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Takegawa, Hideki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kansai Medical University Hirakata Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko; Takashina, Masaaki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Usui, Keisuke; Kurokawa, Chie; Sugimoto, Satoru [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Anneyuko I. [Department of Radiology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sasai, Keisuke [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Veld, Aart A. van' t; Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Korevaar, Erik W., E-mail: e.w.korevaar@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of setup and range uncertainties, breathing motion, and interplay effects using scanning pencil beams in robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Three-field IMPT plans were created using a minimax robust optimization technique for 10 NSCLC patients. The plans accounted for 5- or 7-mm setup errors with ±3% range uncertainties. The robustness of the IMPT nominal plans was evaluated considering (1) isotropic 5-mm setup errors with ±3% range uncertainties; (2) breathing motion; (3) interplay effects; and (4) a combination of items 1 and 2. The plans were calculated using 4-dimensional and average intensity projection computed tomography images. The target coverage (TC, volume receiving 95% of prescribed dose) and homogeneity index (D{sub 2} − D{sub 98}, where D{sub 2} and D{sub 98} are the least doses received by 2% and 98% of the volume) for the internal clinical target volume, and dose indexes for lung, esophagus, heart and spinal cord were compared with that of clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy plans. Results: The TC and homogeneity index for all plans were within clinical limits when considering the breathing motion and interplay effects independently. The setup and range uncertainties had a larger effect when considering their combined effect. The TC decreased to <98% (clinical threshold) in 3 of 10 patients for robust 5-mm evaluations. However, the TC remained >98% for robust 7-mm evaluations for all patients. The organ at risk dose parameters did not significantly vary between the respective robust 5-mm and robust 7-mm evaluations for the 4 error types. Compared with the volumetric modulated arc therapy plans, the IMPT plans showed better target homogeneity and mean lung and heart dose parameters reduced by about 40% and 60%, respectively. Conclusions: In robustly optimized IMPT for stage III NSCLC, the setup and range

  11. Optimism and education buffer the effects of syndemic conditions on HIV status among African American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B; Stevens, Robin; Rutledge, Scott Edward; Icard, Larry D

    2014-11-01

    The present study sought to replicate effects of the number of syndemic psychosocial health conditions on sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among a sample of high-risk African American men who have sex with men (MSM) and to identify resilience factors that may buffer these effects. We used baseline data from an HIV risk-reduction trial to examine whether a higher number of syndemic conditions was associated with higher rates of self-reported sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Using logistic regression models, we tested for interactions between number of syndemic conditions and several potential resilience factors to identify buffering effects. Replicating previous studies, we found significant associations between numbers of syndemic conditions and higher rates of sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Surprisingly, we also replicated a previous finding (Stall et al., Am J Public Health, 93(6):939-942, 2003) that the effects of syndemic burden on HIV status fell off at the highest levels of syndemic conditions. Among a variety of potential resilience factors, two-optimism and education-buffered the syndemic effect on HIV prevalence. This is, to our knowledge, the first paper to identify resilience factors buffering against syndemic effects among MSM. It also constitutes a significant contribution to the literature regarding prevention among black MSM. These results point to the need to identify HIV-positive black MSM and provide effective treatment for them and to develop interventions addressing both syndemic and resilience factors.

  12. Numerical Investigation of the Time-Dependent and the Proppant Dominated Stress Shadow Effects in a Transverse Multiple Fracture System and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical study is conducted to investigate the stress shadow effects (stress reorientation and change during hydraulic fracturing in a transverse multiple fracture system. A numerical model is used for the numerical study. It is a 3D model and can simulate the fracture operation from injection begin to full closure (fracture contact. Therefore, there is no need to assume the fracture geometry for the investigation of the stress shadow effects (unlike previous studies. In the numerical study, the first and second operations in a fictive transverse multiple fracture system are simulated, meanwhile the stress shadow effects and their influences on the propagation and proppant placement of the second fracture are investigated. According to the results, the following conclusions are discerned: (1 most proppants are located in the lower part of the reservoir, even below the perforation; (2 the stress shadow effects are time-dependent and proppant dominated; (3 the stress shadow effects affect the fracture propagation and the proppant placement of the second fracture, and also the fracture conductivity of the first fracture; (4 the time-dependent stress shadow effects can be divided into four phases, fracture enlargement, closure without proppant contact, closure with proppant contact and full closure; and (5 the superposition effect of the stress shadow in a transverse multiple fracture system exists. According to the conclusions, some optimizations are recommended.

  13. Cost-effective optimization of real-time PCR-based detection of Campylobacter and Salmonella with inhibitor tolerant DNA polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachmann, M S R; Josefsen, M H; Hoorfar, J; Nielsen, M T; Löfström, C

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to cost-effectively improve detection of foodborne pathogens in PCR inhibitory samples through the use of alternative DNA polymerases. Commercially available polymerases (n = 16) and PCR master mixes (n = 4) were screened on DNA purified from bacterial cells in two validated real-time PCR assays for Campylobacter and Salmonella. The five best performing (based on: limit of detection (LOD), maximum fluorescence, shape of amplification curves and amplification efficiency) were subsequently applied to meat and faecal samples. The VeriQuest qPCR master mix performed best for both meat and faecal samples (LODs of 10(2) and 10(4) CFU ml(-1) in the purest and crudest DNA extractions respectively) compared with Tth (LOD = 10(2)-10(3) and 10(5)-10(6) CFU ml(-1)). AmpliTaqGold and HotMasterTaq both performed well (LOD = 10(2)-10(4) CFU ml(-1)) with meat samples and poorly (LOD = 10(3)-10(6) CFU ml(-1)/not detected) with faecal samples. Applying the VeriQuest qPCR master mix in the two tested real-time PCR assays could allow for simpler sample preparation and thus a reduction in cost. This work exemplifies a cost-effective strategy for optimizing real-time PCR-based assays. However, a DNA polymerase suitable for one assay and sample type is not necessarily optimal for other assays or sample types. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Optimizing timing and dosage: does parent type moderate the effects of variations of a parent-based intervention to reduce college student drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Scaglione, Nichole; Cleveland, Michael J; Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Abar, Caitlin C

    2014-02-01

    Research on parent-based interventions (PBIs) to reduce college student drinking has explored the optimal timing of delivery and dosage. The present study extended this work by examining the effectiveness of three different PBI conditions on student drinking outcomes as a function of parenting types and students' pre-college drinking patterns. Four hypotheses were evaluated (early intervention, increased dosage, invariant, and treatment matching risk). A random sample of 1,900 college students and their parents was randomized to four conditions: (1) pre-college matriculation, (2) pre-college matriculation plus booster, (3) post-college matriculation, or (4) control, and was assessed at baseline (summer prior to college) and 5-month follow-up. Baseline parent type was assessed using latent profile analysis (positive, pro-alcohol, positive, anti-alcohol, negative mother, and negative father). Student drinking patterns were classified at baseline and follow-up and included: non-drinker, weekend light drinker, weekend heavy episodic drinker, and heavy drinker. Consistent with the treatment matching risk hypothesis, results indicated parent type moderated the effects of intervention condition such that receiving the intervention prior to college was associated with lower likelihood of being in a higher-risk drinking pattern at follow-up for students with positive, anti-alcohol, or negative father parent types. The findings are discussed with respect to optimal delivery and dosage of parent-based interventions for college student drinking.

  15. Optimal location selection for the installation of urban green roofs considering honeybee habitats along with socio-economic and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Jae Ha; Lee, Bo Kyeong; Lee, Won Kyung; Sohn, So Young

    2017-03-15

    This study proposes a new framework for the selection of optimal locations for green roofs to achieve a sustainable urban ecosystem. The proposed framework selects building sites that can maximize the benefits of green roofs, based not only on the socio-economic and environmental benefits to urban residents, but also on the provision of urban foraging sites for honeybees. The framework comprises three steps. First, building candidates for green roofs are selected considering the building type. Second, the selected building candidates are ranked in terms of their expected socio-economic and environmental effects. The benefits of green roofs are improved energy efficiency and air quality, reduction of urban flood risk and infrastructure improvement costs, reuse of storm water, and creation of space for education and leisure. Furthermore, the estimated cost of installing green roofs is also considered. We employ spatial data to determine the expected effects of green roofs on each building unit, because the benefits and costs may vary depending on the location of the building. This is due to the heterogeneous spatial conditions. In the third step, the final building sites are proposed by solving the maximal covering location problem (MCLP) to determine the optimal locations for green roofs as urban honeybee foraging sites. As an illustrative example, we apply the proposed framework in Seoul, Korea. This new framework is expected to contribute to sustainable urban ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Response of Pediculus humanus humanus (Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) to water or 70% ethanol immersion and determination of optimal times for measuring toxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougabure Cueto, Gastón; Inés Picollo, María

    2010-05-01

    Human pediculosis is caused by Pediculus humanus humanus (Linnaeus 1758) and Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer 1767). We studied the response of body lice to immersion in water and ethanol 70% and determined the optimal times for measuring knockdown and mortality. After immersion in water, all lice remained alive from 5 min to 22 h for both times of exposure. A low proportion of lice were affected after 2 min of immersion in ethanol in the 10-min exposure test, but recovered completely after 5 min. Different proportions of lice were affected between 2 and 7 h after immersion in ethanol, depending on the immersion time. However, a high proportion of lice recovered after 22 h. The results suggest that the optimal times for measuring early knockdown effects of insecticides are the 5-min to 7-h interval for water and 5-min to 1-h interval for ethanol. On the other hand, the best time for measuring mortality is 22 h after immersion. These results should improve the interpretations of the effects of pediculicides in immersion bioassays.

  17. Optimal superluminal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, Bruno; Ségard, Bernard; Wielonsky, Franck

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrate that significant effects in the "superluminal propagation" of light pulses cannot be observed without involving systems whose gain explodes outside the pulse spectrum. We explicitly determine the minimum norm of the gain to attain given superluminal effects and the transfer function of the corresponding optimal system. The gain norms, which would be required with the most efficient systems considered up to now (dispersive media, photonic barriers) to attain the same effects, are shown to exceed the minimum by several orders of magnitude. We finally estimate the largest superluminal advances which could be attained in a realistic experiment.

  18. Optimal expansion of a drinking water infrastructure system with respect to carbon footprint, cost-effectiveness and water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Qi, Cheng; Yang, Y Jeffrey

    2012-11-15

    Urban water infrastructure expansion requires careful long-term planning to reduce the risk from climate change during periods of both economic boom and recession. As part of the adaptation management strategies, capacity expansion in concert with other management alternatives responding to the population dynamics, ecological conservation, and water management policies should be systematically examined to balance the water supply and demand temporally and spatially with different scales. To mitigate the climate change impact, this practical implementation often requires a multiobjective decision analysis that introduces economic efficiencies and carbon-footprint matrices simultaneously. The optimal expansion strategies for a typical water infrastructure system in South Florida demonstrate the essence of the new philosophy. Within our case study, the multiobjective modeling framework uniquely features an integrated evaluation of transboundary surface and groundwater resources and quantitatively assesses the interdependencies among drinking water supply, wastewater reuse, and irrigation water permit transfer as the management options expand throughout varying dimensions. With the aid of a multistage planning methodology over the partitioned time horizon, such a systems analysis has resulted in a full-scale screening and sequencing of multiple competing objectives across a suite of management strategies. These strategies that prioritize 20 options provide a possible expansion schedule over the next 20 years that improve water infrastructure resilience and at low life-cycle costs. The proposed method is transformative to other applications of similar water infrastructure systems elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. From Natural Variation to Optimal Policy? The Lucas Critique Meets Peer Effects. NBER Working Paper No. 16865

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, Scott E.; Sacerdote, Bruce I.; West, James E.

    2011-01-01

    We take cohorts of entering freshmen at the United States Air Force Academy and assign half to peer groups with the goal of maximizing the academic performance of the lowest ability students. Our assignment algorithm uses peer effects estimates from the observational data. We find a negative and significant treatment effect for the students we…

  20. AN EFFECTIVE HYBRID SUPPORT VECTOR REGRESSION WITH CHAOS-EMBEDDED BIOGEOGRAPHY-BASED OPTIMIZATION STRATEGY FOR PREDICTION OF EARTHQUAKE-TRIGGERED SLOPE DEFORMATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Heidari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake can pose earth-shattering health hazards to the natural slops and land infrastructures. One of the chief consequences of the earthquakes can be land sliding, which is instigated by durable shaking. In this research, an efficient procedure is proposed to assist the prediction of earthquake-originated slope displacements (EIDS. New hybrid SVM-CBBO strategy is implemented to predict the EIDS. For this purpose, first, chaos paradigm is combined with initialization of BBO to enhance the diversification and intensification capacity of the conventional BBO optimizer. Then, chaotic BBO is developed as the searching scheme to investigate the best values of SVR parameters. In this paper, it will be confirmed that how the new computing approach is effective in prediction of EIDS. The outcomes affirm that the SVR-BBO strategy with chaos can be employed effectively as a predicting tool for evaluating the EIDS.

  1. Optimal design of beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samala, Shivakumar

    Beams are basic structural components that are capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. Unlike Euler-Bernoulli beams, Timoshenko beams undergo both shear deformation and rotational effects, making it suitable for analyzing the behavior of thick or short beams, composite beams and beams that are subjected to high frequency excitation when their wave length becomes shorter. This thesis work focuses on optimal design of straight and tapered Timoshenko beams under static and dynamic constraints for rectangular and circular cross sections. In this work Timoshenko beam static and dynamic equations were studied. The finite element method was used for static and dynamic analysis of the beam. In finite element method to overcome the numerical problem in shear locking, cubic interpolation of displacement and an interdependent quadratic approximation of rotation has been considered. In order to optimize the weight of the beam with static and dynamic constraints three sets of optimizations were done. The design variables are length, cross sectional width and height, with objective function as mass, static deflection constraints were used. The second optimization set was using dynamic constraints and the last set was using both static and dynamic constraints.

  2. Selection of the Optimal Herbal Compositions of Red Clover and Pomegranate According to Their Protective Effect against Climacteric Symptoms in Ovariectomized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to ascertain the optimal range of red clover dry extracts (RC and dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP to induce anti-climacteric effects. Thus, the dose ranges showing protective effect of mixed formulae consisting of RC and PCP were examined in ovariectomized mice. At 28 days after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX, mixed herbal compositions (RC:PCP = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 were administered orally, at 120 mg/kg once daily for 84 days. We evaluated that RC and PCP mixture attenuate OVX-caused obesity, hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and osteoporosis. Compared to OVX-induced control mice, body weight and abdominal fat weight in OVX-induced mice were significantly decreased, concomitantly with increase of uterus weight by RC:PCP mixture. Additionally, significant increases in serum estradiol levels were observed in all RC:PCP-treated mice. RC:PCP mixture also showed protective effect against OVX-induced hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis. Total body and femur mean bone mineral density (BMD, osteocalcin, bALP contents were effectively increased by RC:PCP mixture. Taken together, RC:PCP mixture (2:1, 1:1, and 4:1 has remarkable protective effects against the changes induced by OVX. In particular, RC:PCP mixture (2:1 shows the strongest effect and may be considered as a potential protective agent against climacteric symptoms.

  3. Synergetic effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter and determination of optimal wavelength to choose light source for optical computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiya Raj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The ultimate aim of this study is to observe the effect of Green tea as a co-antioxidant in PAGAT gel dosimeter and evaluate the appropriate light source for scanning the PAGAT and NIPAM polymer gel.Methods: Both PAGAT (Poly Acrylamide Gelatin Tetrakis hydroxyl phosphonium chloride and NIPAM (N-Isopropyl acrylamide gel were prepared in normoxic condition. The green tea extract (GTE was prepared and tested only on PAGAT. Co-60 teletherapy machine has been used for irradiation purpose, and the gel samples were scanned using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Water equivalency of the gel has been tested in terms of their electron density, effective atomic number and Ratio of oxygen and hydrogen (O/H. We have used NIST XCOM database to test the water equivalency.Results: In this study we found that the GTE added to the gel do not respond to the given doses. By adding sugar we can enhance the sensitivity of the gel. Further investigations are required to use Green tea as a co antioxidant concentration of THPC (Tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride. The optimal wavelength with different region for scanning the PAGAT is 450 to 480 nm (Blue region, for NIPAM it is 540 nm and 570 nm (Green and yellow region. The PAGAT and NIPAM showed better sensitivity at 510 nm. Both gels have their effective atomic number closer to water (NIPAM-7.2, PAGAT-7.379.Conclusion: As per our results, we concluded that GTE alone is not an effective co-antioxidant for polymer gels. When the GTE is combined with sugar and THPC, it protects the gel from pre-polymerization. This study strongly suggests that the blue light is an optimal source for scanning the PAGAT and green to yellow light for NIPAM gel. Though both gels were considered as water equivalent, the PAGAT is equivalent to water and the temporal stability of this gel is higher than NIPAM.

  4. Plasmid transfection in bovine cells: Optimization using a realtime monitoring of green fluorescent protein and effect on gene reporter assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Johan S; Bionaz, Massimo

    2017-08-30

    Gene reporter technology (GRT) has opened several new avenues for monitoring biological events including the activation of transcription factors, which are central to the study of nutrigenomics. However, this technology relies heavily on the insertion of foreign plasmid DNA into the nuclei of cells (i.e., transfection), which can be very challenging and highly variable among cell types. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal conditions to generate reliable GRT assay data on bovine immortalized cell lines, Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) and bovine mammary epithelial alveolar (MACT) cells. Results are reported for two experiments. In Experiment 1, using 96 well-plate and a robotic inverted fluorescent microscope, we compared transfection efficiency among commercially available transfection reagents (TR) Lipofectamine® 3000 (Lipo3), Lipofectamine® LTX (LipoLTX), and TransIT-X2® (TransX2), three doses of TR (i.e., 0.15, 0.3, and 0.4μL/well), and three doses of Green Fluorescent Protein plasmid DNA (i.e., 10, 25, and 50ng/well). Transfection efficiency and mortality rate were analyzed using CellProfiler software. Transfection efficiency increased until the end of the experiment (20h post-transfection) at which point MACT had greater transfection than MDBK cells (16.3% vs. 2.2%). It is unclear the reason for the low transfection in MDBK cells. Maximal transfection efficiency was obtained with 0.3μL/well of LipoLTX plus 25ng/well of plasmid DNA (ca. 29.5±1.9%) and 0.15μL/well of LipoLTX plus 25ng/well of plasmid DNA (ca. 4.0±0.4%) for MACT and MDBK cells, respectively. The higher amount of TR and DNA was generally associated with higher cell mortality. Using high, medium, and low transfection efficiency conditions determined in Experiment 1, we performed a GRT assay for peroxisome proliferator-activated response element (PPRE) luciferase in MACT and MDBK cells treated with 10nM or 100nM of synthetic Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor

  5. I-SWOT as instrument to individually optimize therapy of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms: Effective, norm-compliant and meeting the needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachweh, A; von Kodolitsch, Y; Kölbel, T; Larena-Avellaneda, A; Wipper, S; Bernhardt, A M; Girdauskas, E; Detter, C; Reichenspurner, H; Blankart, C R; Debus, E S

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines summarize medical evidence, they identify the most efficient therapy under study conditions and recommend this therapy for use. The physician now has the challenge to translate a therapy that is efficient under laboratory conditions to a patient who is an individual person. To accomplish this task the physician has to make sure that (I) the ideal typical therapy is applicable and effective in this individual patient taking the special features into consideration, that (II) therapy is compliant with the norm including guidelines, laws and ethical requirements (conformity) and that (III) the therapy meets the patient's needs. How can physicians together with the patients translate the medical evidence into an individually optimized therapy? At the German Aortic Center in Hamburg we use I‑SWOT as an instrument to identify such individually optimized therapy. With I‑SWOT, we present an instrument with which we have developed an (I) efficient, (II) conform and (III) needs-oriented therapeutic strategy for individual patients. I-SWOT cross-tabulates strengths (S) and weaknesses (W) related to therapy with opportunities (O) and threats (T) related to individual patients. This I‑SWOT matrix identifies four fundamental types of strategy, which comprise "SO" maximizing strengths and opportunities, "WT" minimizing weaknesses and threats, "WO" minimizing weaknesses and maximizing opportunities and "ST" maximizing strengths and minimizing threats. We discuss the case of a patient with asymptomatic thoracoabdominal aneurysm to show how I‑SWOT is used to identify an individually optimized therapy strategy.

  6. Optimizing the salt-induced activation of enzymes in organic solvents: Effects of lyophilization time and water content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ru, M.T.; Reimer, J.A.; Clark, D.S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Dordick, J.S. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-04-20

    The addition of simple inorganic salts to aqueous enzyme solutions prior to lyophilization results in a dramatic activation of the dried powder in organic media relative to enzyme with no added salt. Activation of both the serine protease subtilisin Carlsberg and lipase from Mucor javanicus resulting from lyophilization in the presence of KCl was highly sensitive to the lyophilization time and water content of the sample. Specifically, for a preparation containing 98% (w/w) KCl, 1% (w/w) phosphate buffer, and 1% (w/w) enzyme, varying the lyophilization time showed a direct correlation between water content and activity up to an optimum, beyond which the activity decreased with increasing lyophilization time. The catalytic efficiency in hexane varied as much as 13-fold for subtilisin Carlsberg and 11-fold for lipase depending on the lyophilization time. This dependence was apparently a consequence of including the salt, as a similar result was not observed for the enzyme freeze-dried without KCl. In the case of subtilisin Carlsberg, the salt-induced optimum value of k{sub cat}/K{sub m} for transesterification in hexane was over 20,000-fold higher than that for salt-free enzyme, a substantial improvement over the previously reported enhancement of 3750-fold. As was found previously for pure enzyme, the salt-activated enzyme exhibited greatest activity when lyophilized from a solution of pH equal to the pH for optimal activity in water. The active-site content of the lyophilized enzyme samples also depended upon lyophilization time and inclusion of salt, with opposite trends in this dependence observed for the solvents hexane and tetrahydrofuran. Finally, substrate selectivity experiments suggested that mechanism(s) other than selective partitioning of substrate into the enzyme-salt matrix are responsible for salt-induced activation of enzymes in organic solvents.

  7. Optimized permeation and antifouling of PVDF hybrid ultrafiltration membranes: synergistic effect of dispersion and migration for fluorinated graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Li, Nan; Xu, Zhiwei; Li, Jing; Lv, Hanming; Qian, Xiaoming; Jiao, Xiaoning

    2017-03-01

    Nanoparticles may have suffered from low modification efficiency in hybrid membranes due to embedding and aggregating in polymer matrix. In order to analyze the modification mechanisms of nanoparticle migration and dispersion on the properties of hybrid membranes, we designed different F/ O ratios ( R F/ O ) of fluorinated graphene oxide (FGO, diameter = 1.5 17.5 μm) by carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) plasma treatment GO for 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min and successfully prepared novel PVDF hybrid membranes containing FGO via the phase inversion method. After a prolonged plasma treatment, the R F/ O of FGO was enhanced sharply, indicating an increasing compatibility of FGO with the matrix, especially FGO-20 (GO treated for 20 min). FGO contents in the top layer, sublayer, and the whole of membranes were probed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometer, and indirect computation, respectively. In the top layer of membranes, FGO contents declined from 13.14 wt% (PVDF/GO) to 4.00 wt% (PVDF/FGO-10) and 1.96 wt% (PVDF/FGO-20) due to the reduced migration ability of FGO. It is worth mentioning that PVDF/FGO-10 membranes exhibited an excellent water flux and flux recovery rate (up to 406.90 L m-2 h-1 and 88.9%), which were improved by 67.3% and 14.6% and 52.5% and 24.0% compared with those of PVDF/GO and PVDF/FGO-20 membranes, respectively, although the dispersion and migration ability of FGO-10 was maintained at a moderate level. It indicated that the migration and dispersion of FGO in membranes could result in dynamic equilibrium, which played a key role in making the best use of nanomaterials to optimize membrane performance.

  8. Effective Optimization of Antibody Affinity by Phage Display Integrated with High-Throughput DNA Synthesis and Sequencing Technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Hu

    Full Text Available Phage display technology has been widely used for antibody affinity maturation for decades. The limited library sequence diversity together with excessive redundancy and labour-consuming procedure for candidate identification are two major obstacles to widespread adoption of this technology. We hereby describe a novel library generation and screening approach to address the problems. The approach started with the targeted diversification of multiple complementarity determining regions (CDRs of a humanized anti-ErbB2 antibody, HuA21, with a small perturbation mutagenesis strategy. A combination of three degenerate codons, NWG, NWC, and NSG, were chosen for amino acid saturation mutagenesis without introducing cysteine and stop residues. In total, 7,749 degenerate oligonucleotides were synthesized on two microchips and released to construct five single-chain antibody fragment (scFv gene libraries with 4 x 10(6 DNA sequences. Deep sequencing of the unselected and selected phage libraries using the Illumina platform allowed for an in-depth evaluation of the enrichment landscapes in CDR sequences and amino acid substitutions. Potent candidates were identified according to their high frequencies using NGS analysis, by-passing the need for the primary screening of target-binding clones. Furthermore, a subsequent library by recombination of the 10 most abundant variants from four CDRs was constructed and screened, and a mutant with 158-fold increased affinity (Kd = 25.5 pM was obtained. These results suggest the potential application of the developed methodology for optimizing the binding properties of other antibodies and biomolecules.

  9. Optimizing Mouse Surgery with Online Rectal Temperature Monitoring and Preoperative Heat Supply. Effects on Post-Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A Marschner

    Full Text Available Body temperature affects outcomes of tissue injury. We hypothesized that online body core temperature recording and selective interventions help to standardize peri-interventional temperature control and the reliability of outcomes in experimental renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI. We recorded core temperature in up to seven mice in parallel using a Thermes USB recorder and ret-3-iso rectal probes with three different protocols. Setup A: Heating pad during ischemia time; Setup B: Heating pad from incision to wound closure; Setup C: A ventilated heating chamber before surgery and during ischemia time with surgeries performed on a heating pad. Temperature profile recording displayed significant declines upon installing anesthesia. The profile of the baseline experimental setup A revealed that <1% of the temperature readings were within the target range of 36.5 to 38.5°C. Setup B and C increased the target range readings to 34.6 ± 28.0% and 99.3 ± 1.5%, respectively. Setup C significantly increased S3 tubular necrosis, neutrophil influx, and mRNA expression of kidney injury markers. In addition, using setup C different ischemia times generated a linear correlation with acute tubular necrosis parameters at a low variability, which further correlated with the degree of kidney atrophy 5 weeks after surgery. Changing temperature control setup A to C was equivalent to 10 minutes more ischemia time. We conclude that body temperature drops quickly in mice upon initiating anesthesia. Immediate heat supply, e.g. in a ventilated heating chamber, and online core temperature monitoring can help to standardize and optimize experimental outcomes.

  10. Optimizing Household Chlorination Marketing Strategies: A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effect of Price and Promotion on Adoption in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Michael; Camille, Eveline; Velcine, Christophe; Guillaume, Rose-Kerline; Lantagne, Daniele

    2017-07-01

    Household water treatment can reduce diarrheal morbidity and mortality in developing countries, but adoption remains low and supply is often unreliable. To test effects of marketing strategies on consumers and suppliers, we randomized 1,798 households in rural Haiti and collected data on purchases of a household chlorination product for 4 months. Households received randomly selected prices ($0.11-$0.56 per chlorine bottle), and half received monthly visits from sales agents. Each $0.22 drop in price increased purchases by 0.10 bottles per household per month (P effective use of resources than household visits, though all marketing strategies tested offer cost-effective ways to achieve incremental health impact. Decisions about pricing and promotion for health products in developing countries affect health impact, cost recovery, and cost-effectiveness, and tradeoffs between these goals should be made explicit in program design.

  11. Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt; Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    material models extending the elastic behaviour into plasticity/ rupture and/or including timedependent effects. This has great importance especially in hazardous load cases such as crash testing cars. However in many other products the major emphasize is put on the service capabilities of the structure...

  12. Effect of codon optimization and subcellular targeting on Toxoplasma gondii antigen SAG1 expression in tobacco leaves to use in subcutaneous and oral immunization in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacono María L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Codon optimization and subcellular targeting were studied with the aim to increase the expression levels of the SAG178-322 antigen of Toxoplasma gondii in tobacco leaves. The expression of the tobacco-optimized and native versions of the SAG1 gene was explored by transient expression from the Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary expression vector, which allows targeting the recombinant protein to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and the apoplast. Finally, mice were subcutaneously and orally immunized with leaf extracts-SAG1 and the strategy of prime boost with rSAG1 expressed in Escherichia coli was used to optimize the oral immunization with leaf extracts-SAG1. Results Leaves agroinfiltrated with an unmodified SAG1 gene accumulated 5- to 10-fold more than leaves agroinfiltrated with a codon-optimized SAG1 gene. ER localization allowed the accumulation of higher levels of native SAG1. However, no significant differences were observed between the mRNA accumulations of the different versions of SAG1. Subcutaneous immunization with leaf extracts-SAG1 (SAG1 protected mice against an oral challenge with a non-lethal cyst dose, and this effect could be associated with the secretion of significant levels of IFN-γ. The protection was increased when mice were ID boosted with rSAG1 (SAG1+boost. This group elicited a significant Th1 humoral and cellular immune response characterized by high levels of IFN-γ. In an oral immunization assay, the SAG1+boost group showed a significantly lower brain cyst burden compared to the rest of the groups. Conclusion Transient agroinfiltration was useful for the expression of all of the recombinant proteins tested. Our results support the usefulness of endoplasmic reticulum signal peptides in enhancing the production of recombinant proteins meant for use as vaccines. The results showed that this plant-produced protein has potential for use as vaccine and provides a potential means for protecting humans and

  13. Effect of ultrasound on olive oil extraction and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of extra virgin olive oil by response surface methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Aydar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of different extraction parameters including ultrasound time, temperature and malaxation time on olive oil quality were investigated. The extraction variables ultrasound initial temperature (20–50 °C, ultrasound time (2–10 min and malaxation time (30–50 min were studied to obtain ideal conditions of ultrasonic treatment on the olive paste for obtaining of a greater yield in the extraction of oil, while maintaining a maximum level of commercial quality. To evaluate the level of commercial quality, absorbance in the UV region, peroxide (PV and free acidity values (AV, the total chlorophyll, carotenoid, phenol contents, total antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of EVOOs extracted from Edremit cultivar were determined. The optimum conditions were found to be 50 °C, 2 min and 43.23 min for ultrasound initial temperature, sonication time and malaxation time, respectively. This optimal condition gave an extraction yield of 8.25 % and the acidity value of 0.24 mg oleic acid/100 g olive oil. The experimental values obtained under optimal conditions were in agreement with the theoretical values.

  14. A double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of Doppler optimized intraoperative fluid management on outcome following radical cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Praveen; McEleavy, Irene; Gaughan, Matthew; Snowden, Christopher; Nesbitt, Ian; Durkan, Garrett; Johnson, Mark; Cosgrove, Joseph; Thorpe, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Cardiovascular optimization via esophageal Doppler can minimize gastrointestinal hypoperfusion, reducing the risk of multiple organ dysfunction and postoperative complications during major surgery. We assessed the effect of esophageal Doppler guided cardiovascular optimization in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial at a United Kingdom teaching hospital between 2006 and 2009. A total of 66 patients were randomized to a control arm (34) and an intervention arm (32). The control group received standard intraoperative fluids. The intervention group received (additional) Doppler guided fluid. Primary outcomes were markers of gastrointestinal morbidity such as ileus, flatus and bowel opening. Secondary outcomes were postoperative nausea and vomiting, wound infection and operative intravenous fluid volumes (total and hourly). There were significant reductions in the control and intervention arms in the incidence of ileus (18 vs 7, p Doppler significantly improved postoperative markers of gastrointestinal function. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Optimal Sample Data Usage Strategy to Minimize Overfitting and Underfitting Effects in Regression Tree Models Based on Remotely-Sensed Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxin Gu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Regression tree models have been widely used for remote sensing-based ecosystem mapping. Improper use of the sample data (model training and testing data may cause overfitting and underfitting effects in the model. The goal of this study is to develop an optimal sampling data usage strategy for any dataset and identify an appropriate number of rules in the regression tree model that will improve its accuracy and robustness. Landsat 8 data and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-scaled Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI were used to develop regression tree models. A Python procedure was designed to generate random replications of model parameter options across a range of model development data sizes and rule number constraints. The mean absolute difference (MAD between the predicted and actual NDVI (scaled NDVI, value from 0–200 and its variability across the different randomized replications were calculated to assess the accuracy and stability of the models. In our case study, a six-rule regression tree model developed from 80% of the sample data had the lowest MAD (MADtraining = 2.5 and MADtesting = 2.4, which was suggested as the optimal model. This study demonstrates how the training data and rule number selections impact model accuracy and provides important guidance for future remote-sensing-based ecosystem modeling.

  16. An optimal sample data usage strategy to minimize overfitting and underfitting effects in regression tree models based on remotely-sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Boyte, Stephen; Picotte, Joshua J.; Howard, Danny; Smith, Kelcy; Nelson, Kurtis

    2016-01-01

    Regression tree models have been widely used for remote sensing-based ecosystem mapping. Improper use of the sample data (model training and testing data) may cause overfitting and underfitting effects in the model. The goal of this study is to develop an optimal sampling data usage strategy for any dataset and identify an appropriate number of rules in the regression tree model that will improve its accuracy and robustness. Landsat 8 data and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-scaled Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were used to develop regression tree models. A Python procedure was designed to generate random replications of model parameter options across a range of model development data sizes and rule number constraints. The mean absolute difference (MAD) between the predicted and actual NDVI (scaled NDVI, value from 0–200) and its variability across the different randomized replications were calculated to assess the accuracy and stability of the models. In our case study, a six-rule regression tree model developed from 80% of the sample data had the lowest MAD (MADtraining = 2.5 and MADtesting = 2.4), which was suggested as the optimal model. This study demonstrates how the training data and rule number selections impact model accuracy and provides important guidance for future remote-sensing-based ecosystem modeling.

  17. Optimal quantum thermometry by dephasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Xu, Chunling; Wang, An Min

    2017-06-01

    Decoherence often happens in the quantum world. We try to utilize quantum dephasing to build an optimal thermometry. By calculating the Cramér-Rao bound, we prove that the Ramsey measurement is the optimal way to measure the temperature for uncorrelated probe particles. Using the optimal measurement, the metrological equivalence of product and maximally entangled state of initial quantum probes always holds. Contrary to frequency estimation, the optimal temperature estimation can be obtained in the case ν 1. For the general Zeno regime (ν =2), uncorrelated product states are the optimal choice in typical Ramsey spectroscopy setup. In order to improve the resolution of temperature, one should reduce the characteristic time of dephasing factor γ (t)∝ t^2, and the power ν new way to measure non-Markovian effect.

  18. Topology Optimization of Thermal Heat Sinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klaas Haertel, Jan Hendrik; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2015-01-01

    in COMSOL Multiphysics. The optimization objective is to minimize the heat sink’s temperature for a prescribed pressure drop and fixed heat generation. To conduct the optimization, COMSOL’s Optimization Module with GCMMA as the optimization method is used. The implementation of this topology optimization...... approach in COMSOL Multiphysics is described in this paper and results for optimized two-dimensional heat sinks are presented. Furthermore, parameter studies regarding the effect of the prescribed pressure drop of the system on Reynolds number and realized heat sink temperature are presented and discussed....

  19. Optimized permeation and antifouling of PVDF hybrid ultrafiltration membranes: synergistic effect of dispersion and migration for fluorinated graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mingming; Shi, Jie; Chen, Cheng; Li, Nan; Xu, Zhiwei, E-mail: xuzhiwei@tjpu.edu.cn; Li, Jing; Lv, Hanming; Qian, Xiaoming, E-mail: qianxiaoming@tjpu.edu.cn; Jiao, Xiaoning [Tianjin Polytechnic University, State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes, School of Textiles (China)

    2017-03-15

    Nanoparticles may have suffered from low modification efficiency in hybrid membranes due to embedding and aggregating in polymer matrix. In order to analyze the modification mechanisms of nanoparticle migration and dispersion on the properties of hybrid membranes, we designed different F/O ratios (R{sub F/O}) of fluorinated graphene oxide (FGO, diameter = 1.5 ~ 17.5 μm) by carbon tetrafluoride (CF{sub 4}) plasma treatment GO for 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min and successfully prepared novel PVDF hybrid membranes containing FGO via the phase inversion method. After a prolonged plasma treatment, the R{sub F/O} of FGO was enhanced sharply, indicating an increasing compatibility of FGO with the matrix, especially FGO-20 (GO treated for 20 min). FGO contents in the top layer, sublayer, and the whole of membranes were probed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometer, and indirect computation, respectively. In the top layer of membranes, FGO contents declined from 13.14 wt% (PVDF/GO) to 4.00 wt% (PVDF/FGO-10) and 1.96 wt% (PVDF/FGO-20) due to the reduced migration ability of FGO. It is worth mentioning that PVDF/FGO-10 membranes exhibited an excellent water flux and flux recovery rate (up to 406.90 L m{sup −2} h{sup −1} and 88.9%), which were improved by 67.3% and 14.6% and 52.5% and 24.0% compared with those of PVDF/GO and PVDF/FGO-20 membranes, respectively, although the dispersion and migration ability of FGO-10 was maintained at a moderate level. It indicated that the migration and dispersion of FGO in membranes could result in dynamic equilibrium, which played a key role in making the best use of nanomaterials to optimize membrane performance.

  20. Effect of finish line variants on marginal accuracy and fracture strength of ceramic optimized polymer/fiber-reinforced composite crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, LeeRa; Choi, JongMi; Yi, Yang Jin; Park, Chan Jin

    2004-06-01

    Ceramic optimized polymer (Ceromer)/fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) crowns have been promoted as alternatives to conventional crowns. However, little is known regarding the ideal tooth preparation for this type of crown. This in vitro study evaluated the marginal adaptation and fracture strength of ceromer/FRC crowns with respect to the various types of finish lines. Four metal dies with different finish lines (0.9-mm chamfer, 1.2-mm chamfer, 1.2-mm rounded shoulder, and 1.2-mm shoulder) were prepared. Forty (10 for each finish line) Targis/Vectris crowns were fabricated on duplicated base metal alloy dies. The restorations were stereoscopically evaluated at 56 points along the entire circumferential margin for measuring the margin adaptation before and after cementation with a resin luting agent. The specimens were then compressively loaded to failure using a universal testing machine. The marginal adaptation (microm) was analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and post-hoc Dunnett test (alpha=.05). The fracture load (N) was analyzed with a 1-way analysis of the variance and the Scheffe adjustment (alpha=.05). The fractured surfaces of the crowns were examined with a scanning electron microscope to determine the mode of fracture. The marginal adaptation of crowns with a shoulder finish line was significantly better than crowns with a chamfer finish line before and after cementation (P<.001). The increased marginal gap after cementation was the lowest in the 1.2-mm rounded shoulder group. The fracture strength of the crowns with the 0.9-mm chamfer and crowns with 1.2-mm chamfer was significantly greater than those of the crowns with the 1.2-mm shoulder or rounded shoulder (P=.011, P=.049, respectively). The mean fracture load of all crowns, regardless of the finish line design, was 1646 N. The fractured surface of the crown revealed adhesive failure and 3 types of cohesive failure (fracture of the Targis and Vectris, Targis fracture with a crack in the Vectris layer

  1. Optimal all-optical switching of a microcavity resonance in the telecom range using the electronic Kerr effect

    CERN Document Server

    Yüce, Emre; Claudon, Julien; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Vos, Willem L

    2015-01-01

    We have switched GaAs/AlAs and AlGaAs/AlAs planar microcavities operating in the "original" telecom band by exploiting the instantaneous electronic Kerr effect. We demonstrate that resonance frequency reversibly shifts within a picosecond and the magnitude of the shift is affected by the backbone of the $\\lambda-$layer. We investigate experimentally and theoretically the role of the quality factor in terms of its effect on resonance frequency shift. Our model shows that the magnitude of the resonance frequency shift depends on the pump pulse duration and is maximized when the cavity cavity storage time is matched. Our experiments and our calculations indicate that the resonance frequency shift induced via the electronic Kerr effect can be maximized by judicious tuning of the pump frequency, pump power and pump pulse duration relative to the storage time of the cavity.

  2. Optimizing a Rodent Model of Parkinson's Disease for Exploring the Effects and Mechanisms of Deep Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Nowak

    2011-01-01

    instrumented rats carrying a backpack stimulator and implanted platinum/iridium electrodes. This model is suitable for (1 elucidating the electrochemical processes at the electrode/tissue interface, (2 analyzing the molecular, cellular and behavioral stimulation effects, (3 testing new target regions for DBS, (4 screening for potential neuroprotective DBS effects, and (5 improving the efficacy and safety of the method. An outlook is given on further developments of experimental DBS, including the use of transgenic animals and the testing of closed-loop systems for the direct on-demand application of electric stimulation.

  3. Optimization of airborne endotoxin exposure assessment: Effects of filter type, transport conditions, extraction solutions, and storage of samples and extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, S.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Thorne, P.S.; Wouters, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Endotoxin exposure occurs in homes and occupational environments and is known to cause adverse health effects. In order to compare results from different studies and establish standards, airborne endotoxin exposures should be assessed using standardized methods. Although the European Committee for

  4. Optimizing shoot culture media for Rubus germplasm: the effects of NH4+, NO3-, and total nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrogen components of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium were significant factors for improved growth in our earlier study that modeled the effects of mineral nutrition on growth and development of micropropagated red raspberry(Rubus idaeus L.). In this study, a mixture component design was applie...

  5. Pseudo-Gaussian and rank-based optimal tests for random individual effects in large n small T panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennala, N.; Hallin, M.; Paindaveine, D.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of detecting unobserved heterogeneity, that is, the problem of testing the absence of random individual effects in an n × T panel. We establish a local asymptotic normality property–with respect to intercept, regression coefficient, the scale parameter σ of the error, and the

  6. Optimizing Medical Kits for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, A. B,; Foy, Millennia; Myers, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulation outcomes describing the impact of medical events on the mission may be used to optimize the allocation of resources in medical kits. Efficient allocation of medical resources, subject to certain mass and volume constraints, is crucial to ensuring the best outcomes of in-flight medical events. We implement a new approach to this medical kit optimization problem. METHODS We frame medical kit optimization as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing a dynamic programming technique. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 different mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the probability of evacuation and maximizing the Crew Health Index (CHI) for each mission subject to mass and volume constraints. Simulation outcomes using these kits were also compared to outcomes using kits optimized..RESULTS The optimized medical kits generated by the algorithm described here resulted in predicted mission outcomes more closely approached the unlimited-resource scenario for Crew Health Index (CHI) than the implementation in under all optimization priorities. Furthermore, the approach described here improves upon in reducing evacuation when the optimization priority is minimizing the probability of evacuation. CONCLUSIONS This algorithm provides an efficient, effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions using the Integrated Medical Model.

  7. Optimization by record dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barettin, Daniele; Sibani, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Large dynamical changes in thermalizing glassy systems are triggered by trajectories crossing record sized barriers, a behavior revealing the presence of a hierarchical structure in configuration space. The observation is here turned into a novel local search optimization algorithm dubbed record ......, the effectiveness of RDO strongly indicates the presence of the above mentioned hierarchically organized configuration space, with metastable regions indexed by the cost (or energy) of the transition states connecting them....... to expediently generate record high (and low) values of the cost function. Below, RDO is introduced and then tested by searching for the ground state of the Edwards–Anderson spin-glass model, in two and three spatial dimensions. A popularand highly efficient optimization algorithm, parallel tempering (PT...

  8. Optimism in Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Timothé; Pietquin, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Active learning is the problem of interactively constructing the training set used in classification in order to reduce its size. It would ideally successively add the instance-label pair that decreases the classification error most. However, the effect of the addition of a pair is not known in advance. It can still be estimated with the pairs already in the training set. The online minimization of the classification error involves a tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. This is a common problem in machine learning for which multiarmed bandit, using the approach of Optimism in the Face of Uncertainty, has proven very efficient these last years. This paper introduces three algorithms for the active learning problem in classification using Optimism in the Face of Uncertainty. Experiments lead on built-in problems and real world datasets demonstrate that they compare positively to state-of-the-art methods.

  9. A Path Analysis of the Effects of Principal Professional Orientation towards Leadership, Professional Teacher Behavior, and School Academic Optimism on School Reading Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne M. Mitchell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of the principal’s professional orientation towards leadership/enabling school structure (ESS on two mediating variables, school academic optimism (SAO and professional teacher behavior (PTB, on the outcome variable school reading achievement (RA. Data were drawn from a sample of 54 schools (including 45 elementary schools and nine middle schools; the school was the unit of analysis. Data analysis supported a path to RA in which a structural variable, ESS was the immediate antecedent of SAO and PTB. Two control variables, school level and SES, were included in the model. SES had a significant effect on SAO but not on PTB. School level had a negative effect on both PTB and SAO suggesting that both variables were higher in elementary school and declined in middle school. SES paired with SAO in predicting RA. As expected, SAO had a greater effect on RA than SES. The significance of the findings lies in the confirmation of SAO as an important influence on RA and in demonstrating the importance of ESS in establishing a context in which AO and PTB can flourish.

  10. Optimal Load Shedding in Deregulated System and Consideration of Effective Factors by Using a Predictor-Corrector Interior-Point Method (IPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Afshari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, intifially an introduction is presented about Electric Power market in deregulated system and load shedding by interior-point method in these systems. Then, predictor-corrector of IPM is considered and by consideration of the IEEE 6 busbar network, distribution of load by using software (PSAT will be considered. Then, with introduction of bilateral contracts in organized renewal system, the proposed method is applied to make optimal load shedding in the IEEE 30 busbar network. In this direction, the effective factors on changes of load- shedding model are analyzed completely. Some of factors are price changes, congestion lines (result from emitting of one or more lines and maximum load-shedding limit in each bus bar.

  11. Optimizing the coupled effects of Hall-Petch and precipitation strengthening in a Al0.3CoCrFeNi high entropy alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwalani, B.; Soni, Vishal; Lee, Michael; Mantri, SA; Ren, Yang; Banerjee, R.

    2017-05-05

    A successful demonstration of applying integrated strengthening using Hall-Petch strengthening (grains size effect) and precipitation strengthening is shown in the fcc based high entropy alloy (HEA) Al0.3CoCrFeNi, leading to quantitative determinations of the Hall-Petch coefficients for both hardness and tensile yield strength, aswell as the enhancements in the yield strength fromtwo distinct types of ordered precipitates, L12 and B2. An excellent combination of yield strength (~490MPa), ultimate tensile strength (~850MPa), and ductility (~45% elongation) was achieved by optimizing and coupling both strengtheningmechanisms, resulting from a refined grain size as well as both L12 and B2 ordered precipitates. This opens up new avenues for the future development of HEAs, with the appropriate balance of properties required for engineering applications.

  12. Planar Hall effect bridge sensors with NiFe/Cu/IrMn stack optimized for self-field magnetic bead detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2016-01-01

    The stack composition in trilayer Planar Hall effect bridge sensors is investigated experimentally to identify the optimal stack for magnetic bead detection using the sensor self-field. The sensors were fabricated using exchange-biased stacks Ni80Fe20(tFM)/Cu(tCu)/Mn80Ir20(10 nm) with tFM = 10, 20....... The exchange bias field was found to decay exponentially with tCu and inversely with tFM. The reduced exchange field for larger values of tFM and tCu resulted in higher sensitivities to both magnetic fields and magnetic beads. We argue that the maximum magnetic bead signal is limited by Joule heating...

  13. The effect of citrus pulp type on pectinase production in solid-state fermentation: Process evaluation and optimization by Taguchi design of experimental (DOE methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Anvari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase is an important enzyme that finds application in many food processing industries and solid state fermentation (SSF is an attractive technology for enzyme production. In this work, design of experimental (DOE methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA was applied to evaluate the influence of five factors (different levels of citrus pulp, initial pH of the medium, C/N ratio, type of solid substrate and citrus pulp on the pectinase production by Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation. The results showed that citrus pulp concentration, type of solid substrate and citrus pulp were found to be the most effective factor for promoting enzyme production and the supplementation of the medium with citrus pulp caused a 23% increase in the pectinase production when compared with the basal medium. The study shows that the Taguchi's method is suitable to optimize the experiments for the production of pectinase (R2 = 0.946.

  14. Optimal Design of Magnetohydrodynamic Mixed Convection Flow in a Vertical Channel with Slip Boundary Conditions and Thermal Radiation Effects by Using an Entropy Generation Minimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Yaghoub Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the effect of thermal radiation on a fully developed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD convective flow of a Newtonian, incompressible and electrically conducting fluid in a vertical microchannel bounded by two infinite vertical parallel plates with constant temperature walls through a lateral magnetic field of uniform strength is presented. The Rosseland model for the conduction radiation heat transfer in an absorbing medium and two plates with slip-flow and no-slip conditions are assumed. In addition, the induced magnetic field is neglected due to the assumption of a small magnetic Reynolds number. The non-dimensional governing equations are solved numerically using Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method with a shooting technique. The channel is optimized based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics by changing various parameters such as the thermal radiation parameter, the temperature parameter, Hartmann number, Grashof to Reynolds ratio, velocity slip length, and temperature jump.

  15. Neurofeedback Treatment and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Effectiveness of Neurofeedback on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the Optimal Choice of Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Karen; Andersen, Søren Bo; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    Neurofeedback is an alternative, noninvasive approach used in the treatment of a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many different neurofeedback protocols and methods exist. Likewise, PTSD is a heterogeneous disorder. To review the evidence on effectiveness and preferred protocol when using neurofeedback treatment on PTSD, a systematic search of PubMed, PsychInfo, Embase, and Cochrane databases was undertaken. Five studies were included in this review. Neurofeedback had a statistically significant effect in three studies. Neurobiological changes were reported in three studies. Interpretation of results is, however, limited by differences between the studies and several issues regarding design. The optimistic results presented here qualify neurofeedback as probably efficacious for PTSD treatment.

  16. Cost-effective optimization of real-time PCR based detection of Campylobacter and Salmonella with inhibitor tolerant DNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fachmann, Mette Sofie Rousing; Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    bacterial cells in two validated real-time PCR assays for Campylobacter and Salmonella. The five best performing (based on: limit of detection (LOD), maximum fluorescence, shape of amplification curves, and amplification efficiency) were subsequently applied to meat and fecal samples. The VeriQuest qPCR......AIMS: The aim of this study was to cost-effectively improve detection of foodborne pathogens in PCR inhibitory samples through the use of alternative DNA polymerases. METHODS AND RESULTS: Commercially available polymerases (n=16) and PCR master mixes (n=4) were screened on DNA purified from...... (LOD=103 -106 CFU ml-1 /not detected) with fecal samples. CONCLUSIONS: Applying the VeriQuest qPCR master mix in the two tested real-time PCR assays could allow for simpler sample preparation and thus a reduction in cost. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: This work exemplifies a cost-effective strategy...

  17. Structure Damage Simulations Accounting for Inertial Effects and Impact and Optimization of Grid-Stiffened Non-Circular Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chuh; Jaunky, Navin

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to develop modelling and analysis strategy for the penetration of aluminium plates impacted by titanium impactors. Finite element analysis is used to study the penetration of aluminium plates impacted by titanium impactors in order to study the effect of such uncontained engine debris impacts on aircraft-like skin panels. LS-DYNA3D) is used in the simulations to model the impactor, test fixture frame and target barrier plate. The effects of mesh refinement, contact modeling, and impactor initial velocity and orientation were studied. The research project also includes development of a design tool for optimum design of grid-stiffened non-circular shells or panels subjected to buckling.

  18. Ensuring an optimal environment for peer education in South African schools: Goals, systems, standards and policy options for effective learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene; Deutsch, Charles; Moolman, Benita; Arogundade, Emma; Isaacs, Dane; Michel, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Peer education has long been seen as a key health promotion strategy and an important tool in preventing HIV infection. In South African schools, it is currently one of the strategies employed to do so. Based on both a recent research study of peer education across 35 schools and drawing on multiple previous studies in South Africa, this paper examines the key elements of peer education that contribute to its effectiveness and asks how this aligns with current educational and health policies. From this research, it summarises and proposes shared goals and aims, minimum standards of implementation and reflects on the necessary infrastructure required for peer education to be effective. In light of these findings, it offers policy recommendations regarding who should be doing peer education and the status peer education should have in a school's formal programme.

  19. The effectiveness of optimised clinical medication reviews for geriatric patients: Opti-Med a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Willeboordse, F.; Schellevis, F. G.; Chau, S.H.; Hugtenburg, J.G.; Elders, P.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Inappropriate drug use is a frequent problem in older patients and associated with adverse clinical outcomes and an important determinant of geriatric problems. Clinical medication reviews (CMR) may reduce inappropriate drug use. Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of CMR on quality of life (QoL) and geriatric problems in comparison with usual care in older patients with geriatric problems in the general practice. Methods. We performed a cluster ra...

  20. An Integrated Approach for Drilling Optimization Using Advanced Drilling Optimizer

    OpenAIRE

    David Hankins; Saeed Salehi; Fatemeh Karbalaei Saleh

    2015-01-01

    The ability to optimize drilling procedures and economics involves simulation to understand the effects operational parameters and equipment design have on the ROP. An analysis applying drilling performance modeling to optimize drilling operations has been conducted to address this issue. This study shows how optimum operational parameters and equipment can be predicted by simulating drilling operations of preexisting wells in a Northwest Louisiana field. Reference well data was gathered and ...

  1. Optimizing foster family placement for infants and toddlers: A randomized controlled trial on the effect of the foster family intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Andel, Hans; Post, Wendy; Jansen, Lucres; Van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Knorth, Erik; Grietens, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between foster children and their foster carers comes with many risks and may be very stressful both for parents and children. We developed an intervention (foster family intervention [FFI]) to tackle these risks. The intervention focuses on foster children below the age of 5 years. The objective was to investigate the effects of FFI on the interactions between foster parents and foster children. A randomized control trial was carried out with a sample of 123 preschool aged children (mean age 18.8 months; 51% boys) and their foster carers. A pretest was carried out 6 to 8 weeks after placement and a posttest one half year later. Interactions were videotaped and coded using the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS). Foster carers were asked to fill in the Dutch version of the Parenting Stress Index. Morning and evening samples of children's salivary cortisol were taken. In the posttest, significantly positive effects were found on the following EAS subscales: Sensitivity, Structuring, Nonintrusiveness, and Responsiveness. We found no significant differences on stress levels of foster carers and children (Nijmeegse Ouderlijke Stress Index domains and salivary cortisol). This study shows that the FFI has a significant positive effect on parenting skills as measured with EAS and on Responsiveness of the foster child. Findings are discussed in terms of impact and significance relating to methodology and design of the study and to clinical relevance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Optimal cerebrospinal fluid magnesium ion concentration for vasodilatory effect and duration after intracisternal injection of magnesium sulfate solution in a canine subarachnoid hemorrhage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Takuji; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Hara, Yasukazu; Aiko, Yasuhisa; Koike, Nobuhiro; Sakamoto, Shinsuke; Nakao, Yasuaki; Esaki, Takanori

    2011-04-01

    The optimal CSF Mg(++) concentration for vasodilation of spastic cerebral arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and its duration are unknown. The temporal profile of the vasodilatory effect and optimal CSF Mg(++) concentration after the intracisternal injection of MgSO(4) solution were investigated in an SAH model in canines. Cerebral vasospasm was induced by experimental SAH using a 2-hemorrhage model in 26 female beagles. On Day 7, 0.5 ml/kg of 15, 10, 5, or 0 mmol/L MgSO(4) in Ringer solution was injected into the cerebellomedullary cistern. Angiography was performed on Day 1 (before SAH) and before and 1, 3, and 6 hours after the intracisternal injection on Day 7 to measure arterial diameters of the basilar artery (BA), superior cerebellar artery (SCA), and vertebral artery (VA). Cerebrospinal fluid Mg(++) was also measured at the same time. Arterial diameters of the BA, SCA, and VA were significantly decreased by vasospasm on Day 7. Arterial diameter ratios (ratio of arterial diameter after MgSO(4) injection to diameter before injection on Day 7) of the BA and SCA at 1 and 3 hours after and the VA at 1 hour after intracisternal injection of the MgSO(4) solution were positively correlated with the CSF Mg(++) concentration. All arterial diameter ratios, except 1 point of the SCA, exceeded 1 if the CSF Mg(++) concentration was > 3 mEq/L at 1 hour after injection. Animals with CSF Mg(++) concentrations > 3 mEq/L at 1 hour after injection (11 dogs) showed significantly increased arterial diameters of the BA at 1 and 3 hours after and of the SCA and VA at 1, 3, and 6 hours after injection, as compared with the diameters before injection. The CSF Mg(++) concentration significantly increased at 1 hour (3.73 ± 0.69 mEq/L, p 3 mEq/L. The vasodilatory effect continues for 3-6 hours after injection. These results suggest that the continuous infusion or intermittent intracisternal injection of MgSO(4) is needed to maintain the optimal CSF Mg(++) concentration and

  3. Etiologic effects and optimal intakes of foods and nutrients for risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses from the Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoDE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Micha

    Full Text Available Dietary habits are major contributors to coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. However, comprehensive evaluation of etiologic effects of dietary factors on cardiometabolic outcomes, their quantitative effects, and corresponding optimal intakes are not well-established.To systematically review the evidence for effects of dietary factors on cardiometabolic diseases, including comprehensively assess evidence for causality; estimate magnitudes of etiologic effects; evaluate heterogeneity and potential for bias in these etiologic effects; and determine optimal population intake levels.We utilized Bradford-Hill criteria to assess probable or convincing evidence for causal effects of multiple diet-cardiometabolic disease relationships. Etiologic effects were quantified from published or de novo meta-analyses of prospective studies or randomized clinical trials, incorporating standardized units, dose-response estimates, and heterogeneity by age and other characteristics. Potential for bias was assessed in validity analyses. Optimal intakes were determined by levels associated with lowest disease risk.We identified 10 foods and 7 nutrients with evidence for causal cardiometabolic effects, including protective effects of fruits, vegetables, beans/legumes, nuts/seeds, whole grains, fish, yogurt, fiber, seafood omega-3s, polyunsaturated fats, and potassium; and harms of unprocessed red meats, processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, glycemic load, trans-fats, and sodium. Proportional etiologic effects declined with age, but did not generally vary by sex. Established optimal population intakes were generally consistent with observed national intakes and major dietary guidelines. In validity analyses, the identified effects of individual dietary components were similar to quantified effects of dietary patterns on cardiovascular risk factors and hard endpoints.These novel findings provide a comprehensive summary of causal evidence, quantitative

  4. Etiologic effects and optimal intakes of foods and nutrients for risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses from the Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalvo, Jose L.; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Rao, Mayuree; Fahimi, Saman; Powles, John; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-01-01

    Background Dietary habits are major contributors to coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. However, comprehensive evaluation of etiologic effects of dietary factors on cardiometabolic outcomes, their quantitative effects, and corresponding optimal intakes are not well-established. Objective To systematically review the evidence for effects of dietary factors on cardiometabolic diseases, including comprehensively assess evidence for causality; estimate magnitudes of etiologic effects; evaluate heterogeneity and potential for bias in these etiologic effects; and determine optimal population intake levels. Methods We utilized Bradford-Hill criteria to assess probable or convincing evidence for causal effects of multiple diet-cardiometabolic disease relationships. Etiologic effects were quantified from published or de novo meta-analyses of prospective studies or randomized clinical trials, incorporating standardized units, dose-response estimates, and heterogeneity by age and other characteristics. Potential for bias was assessed in validity analyses. Optimal intakes were determined by levels associated with lowest disease risk. Results We identified 10 foods and 7 nutrients with evidence for causal cardiometabolic effects, including protective effects of fruits, vegetables, beans/legumes, nuts/seeds, whole grains, fish, yogurt, fiber, seafood omega-3s, polyunsaturated fats, and potassium; and harms of unprocessed red meats, processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, glycemic load, trans-fats, and sodium. Proportional etiologic effects declined with age, but did not generally vary by sex. Established optimal population intakes were generally consistent with observed national intakes and major dietary guidelines. In validity analyses, the identified effects of individual dietary components were similar to quantified effects of dietary patterns on cardiovascular risk factors and hard endpoints. Conclusions These novel findings provide a comprehensive summary of

  5. The REVAMP trial to evaluate HIV resistance testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study in clinical trial design in resource limited settings to optimize effectiveness and cost effectiveness estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedner, Mark J; Bwana, Mwebesa B; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S; Paul, Michelle; Pillay, Selvan; McCluskey, Suzanne; Aturinda, Isaac; Ard, Kevin; Muyindike, Winnie; Moodley, Pravikrishnen; Brijkumar, Jaysingh; Rautenberg, Tamlyn; George, Gavin; Johnson, Brent; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Sunpath, Henry; Marconi, Vincent C

    2017-07-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, rates of sustained HIV virologic suppression remain below international goals. HIV resistance testing, while common in resource-rich settings, has not gained traction due to concerns about cost and sustainability. We designed a randomized clinical trial to determine the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of routine HIV resistance testing in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe challenges common to intervention studies in resource-limited settings, and strategies used to address them, including: (1) optimizing generalizability and cost-effectiveness estimates to promote transition from study results to policy; (2) minimizing bias due to patient attrition; and (3) addressing ethical issues related to enrollment of pregnant women. The study randomizes people in Uganda and South Africa with virologic failure on first-line therapy to standard of care virologic monitoring or immediate resistance testing. To strengthen external validity, study procedures are conducted within publicly supported laboratory and clinical facilities using local staff. To optimize cost estimates, we collect primary data on quality of life and medical resource utilization. To minimize losses from observation, we collect locally relevant contact information, including Whatsapp account details, for field-based tracking of missing participants. Finally, pregnant women are followed with an adapted protocol which includes an increased visit frequency to minimize risk to them and their fetuses. REVAMP is a pragammatic randomized clinical trial designed to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV resistance testing versus standard of care in sub-Saharan Africa. We anticipate the results will directly inform HIV policy in sub-Saharan Africa to optimize care for HIV-infected patients.

  6. Optimization modeling with spreadsheets

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Kenneth R

    2015-01-01

    An accessible introduction to optimization analysis using spreadsheets Updated and revised, Optimization Modeling with Spreadsheets, Third Edition emphasizes model building skills in optimization analysis. By emphasizing both spreadsheet modeling and optimization tools in the freely available Microsoft® Office Excel® Solver, the book illustrates how to find solutions to real-world optimization problems without needing additional specialized software. The Third Edition includes many practical applications of optimization models as well as a systematic framework that il

  7. Constraint Optimization Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    approach is to produce an assignment that does not optimize for all objective functions but is instead Pareto optimal ( Pareto 1906). Definition 2-20... Pareto optimal (also called Pareto efficient): An assignment is Pareto optimal relative to a set of objective functions O if it is impossible to change...to another objective function . The Pareto frontier is the set of assignments that are Pareto optimal. By seeking a solution that is Pareto optimal

  8. Topology optimization for coated structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Andreassen, Erik; Sigmund, Ole

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents new results within the design of three-dimensional (3D) coated structures using topology optimization.The work is an extension of a recently published two-dimensional (2D) method for including coatedstructures into the minimum compliance topology optimization problem. The high...... level of control over key parameters demonstrated for the 2D model can likewise be achieved in 3D. The effectiveness of the approach isdemonstrated with numerical examples, which for the 3D problems have been solved using a parallel topology optimization implementation based on the PETSc toolkit....

  9. Determining and Optimizing Effective Factors in Laser Irradiation on Skin Tensional Strength using a Hybrid DOE and DEA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bashiri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We investigated the characteristic of a suitable irradiation on skin's tensional strength using design of experiments (DOE. The experiments in this research are designed in two phases and data envelopment analysis (DEA is used for performance measurement of each phase. Material and Methods: Samples were provided from pleura as surface tissue made of collagen and elastin fibers. In each experiment, the sample was stretched before and after irradiation. Variation of the sample length was measured. Then force-length data were plotted and the slope of the fitted line was calculated. Variation in these slopes was used as a criterion to determine tissue strength variation after laser irradiation. Furthermore, the output oriented DEA model by variable return to scale was used to examine performance of the designed experiments for each phase. Results: Results of the first phase experiments showed that the main effect of time duration was significant; but this was not the case for beam radius. Regarding polarization, only its interaction effect with time duration was significant. Results of the second phase indicated that laser irradiation with parallel polarization for 10 seconds caused a greater increase in tensional strength. Resultant efficiencies of applying DEA showed that the first phase experiments were more efficient. Discussion and Conclusions: This research has combined DEA and DOE to investigate the effects of laser on skin elasticity. Comparing the results of the two phases indicates that it is more efficient to use the experimental design of phase 1 in our experiment. So for similar future studies, we suggest using more levels for experiments of phase 1 instead of doing the experimental design in two phases.

  10. Simulation of IPV effect in In-doped c-Si with optimized indium concentration and layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Hari Sankar; Yadav, Abhimanyu Kumar; Ray, Abhijit

    2011-11-01

    Impurity photovoltaic effect(IPV) is one of the attempts to improve efficiency of solar cells and is the idea of exploiting three step generation via impurity states within the band gap to utilize sub-band gap photons. The three transitions are of electrons from valence band (VB) to conduction band (CB), valence band to impurity level and impurity level to conduction band. In the present simulation, we have used the p+nn+ structure in order to achieve higher photogenerated current and efficiency without loosing the open circuit voltage. Compared to other group-III elements in silicon solar cell, Indium is the most suitable material to achieve higher benefit in IPV. In this simulation, the model of IPV is considered to achieve the maximum benefit from the impurity state in a solar cell. To simulate we have used the one dimensional simulation program, SCAPS-1D. Again light trapping is an important part of IPV solar cell that has been considered in this simulation. Using IPV we have numerically demonstrated, an increase in efficiency, by 2.79% over that without-IPV effect and a 3.23% increase over the efficiency, 30.9% as reported by Schmeits and Mani [1].

  11. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion. ©2014 The Authors Journal compliation © Insititute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science.

  12. The effectiveness of optimised clinical medication reviews for geriatric patients: Opti-Med a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeboordse, Floor; Schellevis, François G; Chau, Sek Hung; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G; Elders, Petra J M

    2017-08-01

    Inappropriate drug use is a frequent problem in older patients and associated with adverse clinical outcomes and an important determinant of geriatric problems. Clinical medication reviews (CMR) may reduce inappropriate drug use. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of CMR on quality of life (QoL) and geriatric problems in comparison with usual care in older patients with geriatric problems in the general practice. We performed a cluster randomised controlled trial in 22 Dutch general practices. Patients of ≥65 years were eligible if they newly presented with pre-specified geriatric symptoms in general practice and the chronic use of ≥1 prescribed drug. The intervention consisted of CMRs which were prepared by an independent expert team and discussed with the patient by the general practitioner. Primary outcomes: QoL and the presence of self-reported geriatric problems after a follow-up period of 6 months. 518 patients were included. No significant differences between the intervention and control group and over time were found for QoL, geriatric problems, satisfaction with medication and self-reported medication adherence. After 6 months the percentage of solved Drug Related Problems (DRPs) was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control group [B 22.6 (95%CI 14.1-31.1), P geriatric problems. The higher percentage of solved DRPs in the intervention group did not result in effects on the patient's health. CMRs on a large scale seem not meaningful and should be reconsidered.

  13. Synergistic Effect of Hydrotrope and Surfactant on Solubility and Dissolution of Atorvastatin Calcium: Screening Factorial Design Followed by Ratio Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V. F.; Sarai, J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of hydrotrope and surfactant on poor solubility of atorvastatin calcium. Excipients screening followed by factorial design was performed to study effect of excipients and manufacturing methods on solubility of drug. Three independent factors (carrier, surfactant and manufacturing method) were evaluated at two levels using solubility as a dependant variable. Solid-state characterisation was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Optimised complex were incorporated into orally disintegrating micro tablets and in vitro dissolution test was performed. Nicotinamide, Plasdone and sodium dodecyl sulphate were emerged as promising excipients from excipient screening. General regression analysis revealed only the type of carrier has significantly enhanced (Psolubility of drug while other factors were found to be nonsignificant. Ratio optimisation trial revealed that drug to nicotinamide ratio is more critical in enhancing the solubility of drug (40 fold increases in solubility compared to pure drug) in comparison to drug-surfactant ratio; however the presence of surfactant deemed essential. Significantly higher rate and extent of dissolution was observed from solid dispersion complex and tablets compared to dissolution of pure drug (Psolubility and dissolution of atorvastatin calcium and this can be explored further. PMID:25593381

  14. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  15. Optimization of antimicrobial combined effect of organic acids and temperature on foodborne Salmonella and Escherichia coli in cattle feed by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Vázquez, Jose Antonio; Fuciños, Pablo; Méndez, Jesús; Pastrana, Lorenzo

    2013-12-01

    Despite the importance of feedstuffs and feed ingredients in the food chain, few studies have analyzed the effectiveness of usual methods for the microbial decontamination of feeds. This work aimed to study the combined effect of temperature and organic acids (formic or lactic) on the inactivation of 10 isolates of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli obtained from vegetable feed ingredients, including cereals and other processed materials, in cattle feed. A central composite design was used with acid concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.2% (vol/wt) and temperatures from 50°C to 70°C. Second-order models were obtained to predict the survival inhibitions. The results reported in the present study indicate that temperature affects the survivability more significantly than acid concentration, whose effect was isolate dependent. However, after 2 min of treatment, optimal microbial inhibitions were generally achieved at temperatures above 65°C, using 0.1% formic acid or 0.2% lactic acid for Salmonella isolates and around 0.1% lactic acid or 0.2% formic acid for E. coli isolates, respectively. This work provides a set of guidelines helpful to reduce microbial contamination of feeds and highlights the importance of feed-ingredient monitoring to reduce pathogen contamination risk during feed processing.

  16. What is optimal timing for trauma team alerts? A retrospective observational study of alert timing effects on the initial management of trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillebo, Borge; Seim, Andreas; Vinjevoll, Ole-Petter; Uleberg, Oddvar

    2012-01-01

    Trauma teams improve the initial management of trauma patients. Optimal timing of trauma alerts could improve team preparedness and performance while also limiting adverse ripple effects throughout the hospital. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how timing of trauma team activation and notification affects initial in-hospital management of trauma patients. Data from a single hospital trauma care quality registry were matched with data from a trauma team alert log. The time from patient arrival to chest X-ray, and the emergency department length of stay were compared with the timing of trauma team activations and whether or not trauma team members received a preactivation notification. In 2009, the trauma team was activated 352 times; 269 times met the inclusion criteria. There were statistically significant differences in time to chest X-ray for differently timed trauma team activations (P = 0.003). Median time to chest X-ray for teams activated 15-20 minutes prearrival was 5 minutes, and 8 minutes for teams activated <5 minutes before patient arrival. Timing had no effect on length of stay in the emergency department (P = 0.694). We found no effect of preactivation notification on time to chest X-ray (P = 0.474) or length of stay (P = 0.684). Proactive trauma team activation improved the initial management of trauma patients. Trauma teams should be activated prior to patient arrival.

  17. Managing side effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy to optimize adherence in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: the role of the midlevel practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelison, Megan; Jabbour, Elias J; Welch, Mary Alma

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, the development of imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has brought about unprecedented change in the way newly diagnosed, chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients are treated. Two next-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, nilotinib and dasatinib, were initially indicated for imatinib-resistant or imatinib-intolerant chronic myeloid leukemia patients and recently received approval from the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of newly diagnosed, chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients. In comparison with the previous standards of care, benefits with these three tyrosine kinase inhibitors have included more rapid response rates, increased survival, and fewer side effects. The improved long-term outcomes have altered the approach to management of chronic myeloid leukemia from a progressive fatal disease with a poor prognosis to a chronic condition similar to diabetes or hypertension. Prolonged survival increases the need for patient education, support, monitoring, and assistance with adverse event management. Even low-grade side effects can adversely affect patients' quality of life and, therefore, require prompt attention to prevent long-term complications or suboptimal outcomes. New evidence has indicated that patient adherence to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy is essential to successful treatment. Midlevel practitioners can help to optimize outcomes by educating patients regarding the importance of adherence, performing regular monitoring, helping patients to understand their test results, and aggressively managing treatment-related side effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The buffering effect of selection, optimization, and compensation strategy use on the relationship between problem solving demands and occupational well-being: a daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Antje; Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated within-person relationships between daily problem solving demands, selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) strategy use, job satisfaction, and fatigue at work. Based on conservation of resources theory, it was hypothesized that high SOC strategy use boosts the positive relationship between problem solving demands and job satisfaction, and buffers the positive relationship between problem solving demands and fatigue. Using a daily diary study design, data were collected from 64 administrative employees who completed a general questionnaire and two daily online questionnaires over four work days. Multilevel analyses showed that problem solving demands were positively related to fatigue, but unrelated to job satisfaction. SOC strategy use was positively related to job satisfaction, but unrelated to fatigue. A buffering effect of high SOC strategy use on the demands-fatigue relationship was found, but no booster effect on the demands-satisfaction relationship. The results suggest that high SOC strategy use is a resource that protects employees from the negative effects of high problem solving demands. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. An effective hybrid approach of gene selection and classification for microarray data based on clustering and particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Yang, Shanxiu; Guan, Jian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid approach based on clustering and Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) is proposed to perform gene selection and classification for microarray data. In the new method, firstly, genes are partitioned into a predetermined number of clusters by K-means method. Since the genes in each cluster have much redundancy, Max-Relevance Min-Redundancy (mRMR) strategy is used to reduce redundancy of the clustered genes. Then, PSO is used to perform further gene selection from the remaining clustered genes. Because of its better generalisation performance with much faster convergence rate than other learning algorithms for neural networks, Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is chosen to evaluate candidate gene subsets selected by PSO and perform samples classification in this study. The proposed method selects less redundant genes as well as increases prediction accuracy and its efficiency and effectiveness are verified by extensive comparisons with other classical methods on three open microarray data.

  20. Numerical study on optimal Stirling engine regenerator matrix designs taking into account the effects of matrix temperature oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Carlsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2006-01-01

    the per- formance of the engine, for mapping the effects of regenerator matrix temperature oscillations, and for optimising the regenerator design. The regenerator matrix temperatures were found to oscillate in two modes. The first mode was oscillation of a nearly linear axial matrix temperature profile......A new regenerator matrix design that improves the efficiency of a Stirling engine has been developed in a numerical study of the existing SM5 Stirling engine. A new, detailed, one-dimensional Stirling engine model that delivers results in good agreement with experimental data was used for mapping...... while the second mode bended the ends of the axial matrix temperature profile when gas flowed into the regenerator with a temperature significantly different from the matrix temperature. The first mode of oscillation improved the efficiency of the engine but the second mode reduced both the work output...