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Sample records for exchange-coupled feptb nano-composite

  1. Nano-composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  2. High performance nano-composite technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J. [KRICT, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M. [KIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chea, Y. B. [KIGAM, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D. [ATS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H. [HGREC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  3. High performance nano-composite technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Whung Whoe; Rhee, C. K.; Kim, S. J.; Park, S. D.; Kim, E. K.; Jung, S. Y.; Ryu, H. J.; Hwang, S. S.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. M.; Chea, Y. B.; Choi, C. H.; Kim, S. D.; Cho, B. G.; Lee, S. H.

    1999-06-01

    The trend of new material development are being to carried out not only high performance but also environmental attraction. Especially nano composite material which enhances the functional properties of components, extending the component life resulting to reduced the wastes and environmental contamination, has a great effect on various industrial area. The application of nano composite, depends on the polymer matrix and filler materials, has various application from semiconductor to medical field. In spite of nano composite merits, nano composite study are confined to a few special materials as a lab, scale because a few technical difficulties are still on hold. Therefore, the purpose of this study establishes the systematical planning to carried out the next generation projects on order to compete with other countries and overcome the protective policy of advanced countries with grasping over sea's development trends and our present status. (author).

  4. Polymer/Layered Silicate Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhit, M.E.E.H.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer–clay nano composites have attracted the attention of many researchers and experimental results are presented in a large number of recent papers and patents because of the outstanding mechanical properties and low gas permeabilities that are achieved in many cases. Polymer-clay nano composites are a new class of mineral-field polymer that contain relatively small amounts (<10%) of nanometer-sized clay particles. Polymer/clay nano composites have their origin in the pioneering research conducted at Toyota Central Research Laboratories and the first historical record goes back to 1987. The matrix was nylon-6 and the filler MMT. Because of its many advantages such as high mechanical properties, good gas barrier, flame retardation, etc. polymer/clay nano composites have been intensely investigated and is currently the subject of many research programs. Nano composite materials are commercially important and several types of products with different shapes and applications including food packaging films and containers, engine parts, dental materials, etc. are now available in markets. A number of synthesis routes have been developed in the recent years to prepare these materials, which include intercalation of polymers or prepolymers from solution, in-situ polymerization, melt intercalation etc. In this study, new nano composite materials were produced from the components of rubber (Nbr, SBR and EPDM) as the polymeric matrix and organically modified quaternary alkylammonium montmorillonite in different contents (3, 5, 7, and 10 phr) as the filler by using an extruder then, the rubber nano composite sheets were irradiated at a dose of 0, 50, 75, 100 and 150 KGy using Electron beam Irradiation technique as a crosslinking agent. These new materials can be characterized by using various analytical techniques including X-ray diffractometer XRD, Thermogravimetric analyzer TGA, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM),Fourier transform

  5. Asphaltenes-based polymer nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, III, Daniel E

    2013-12-17

    Inventive composite materials are provided. The composite is preferably a nano-composite, and comprises an asphaltene, or a mixture of asphaltenes, blended with a polymer. The polymer can be any polymer in need of altered properties, including those selected from the group consisting of epoxies, acrylics, urethanes, silicones, cyanoacrylates, vulcanized rubber, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, imides, esters, cyanate esters, allyl resins.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Iti

    Thermoset polymer composites are increasingly important in high-performance engineering industries due to their light-weight and high specific strength, finding cutting-edge applications such as aircraft fuselage material and automobile parts. Epoxy is the most widely employed thermoset polymer, but is brittle due to extensive cross-linking and notch sensitivity, necessitating mechanical property studies especially fracture toughness and fatigue resistance, to ameliorate the low crack resistance. Towards this end, various nano and micro fillers have been used with epoxy to form composite materials. Particularly for nano-fillers, the 1-100 nm scale dimensions lead to fascinating mechanical properties, oftentimes proving superior to the epoxy matrix. The chemical nature, topology, mechanical properties and geometry of the nano-fillers have a profound influence on nano-composite behavior and hence are studied in the context of enhancing properties and understanding reinforcement mechanisms in polymer matrix nano-composites. Using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as polymer filler, uniquely results in both increased stiffness as well as toughness, leading to extensive research on their applications. Though CNTs-polymer nano-composites offer better mechanical properties, at high stress amplitude their fatigue resistance is lost. In this work covalent functionalization of CNTs has been found to have a profound impact on mechanical properties of the CNT-epoxy nano-composite. Amine treated CNTs were found to give rise to effective fatigue resistance throughout the whole range of stress intensity factor, in addition to significantly enhancing fracture toughness, ductility, Young's modulus and average hardness of the nano-composite by factors of 57%, 60%, 30% and 45% respectively over the matrix as a result of diminished localized cross-linking. Graphene, a one-atom-thick sheet of atoms is a carbon allotrope, which has garnered significant attention of the scientific community and is

  7. Hybrid Nano composite Membranes for PEMFC Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niepceron, F.

    2008-03-01

    This work aims at validating a new concept of hybrid materials for the realization of proton exchange membranes, an essential constituent of PEM fuel cells. The originality of this nano-composite hybrid concept corresponds to a separation of the membrane's properties. We investigated the preparation of composite materials based on an inert, relatively low cost, polymer matrix (PVDF-HFP) providing the mechanical stability embedding inorganic fillers providing the necessary properties o f proton-conduction and water retention. The first step of this work consisted in the modification of fumed silica to obtain a proton-conducting filler. An ionic exchange capacity (CEI) equal to 3 meq/g was obtained by the original grafting of sodium poly(styrene-sulfonate) chains from the surface of particles. Nano-composite hybrid membranes PVDF-HFP/functionalized silica were accomplished by a film casting process. The coupling of the morphological and physicochemical analyses validated the percolation of the inorganic phase for 30 wt.% of particles. Beyond 40 % of loading, measured protonic conductivity is higher than the reference membrane Nafion 112. Finally, these membranes presented high performances, above 0.8 W/cm 2 , in single-cell fuel cell tests. A compromise is necessary according to the rate of loading between performances in fuel cell and mechanical properties of the membrane. 50 % appeared as best choice with, until 90 C, a remarkable thermal stability of the performances. (author)

  8. Magnetic Exchange Couplings from Local Spin Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajendra; Abate, Bayileyegn Akanie; Peralta, Juan

    We propose a method to calculate the magnetic exchange coupling parameters in transition metal complexes from a single spin-configuration. Our method uses constraint density functional theory and a local spin population analysis in combination to a non spin formalism to effectively extract the magnetic exchange parameter from the derivative of the electronic energy and spin pair correlation values. We show proof-of-concept calculations on the H-He-H systems and small transition metal complexes. DOE DE-SC0005027.

  9. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo, E-mail: francisco.rodriguez.m@usach.cl [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA). Universidad de Santiago de Chile. Faculty of Technology. Department of Food Science and Technology. Food Packaging Laboratory. Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  10. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  11. Magnetic properties of nano-composite particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia

    Chemical synthesis routes for hollow spherical BaFe12O 19, hollow mesoporous spherical BaFe12O19, worm-shape BaFe12O19 and FeCo particles were developed. These structured particles have great potentials for the applications including magnetic recording medium, catalyst support, and energy storage. Magnetically exchange coupled hard/soft SrFe12O19/FeCo and MnBi/FeCo composites were synthesized through a newly proposed process of magnetic self-assembly. These exchange coupled composites can be potentially used as rare-earth free permanent magnets. Hollow spherical BaFe12O19 particles (shell thickness ˜5 nm) were synthesized from eth-ylene glycol assisted spray pyrolysis. Hollow mesoporous spherical BaFe12O19 particles (shell thickness ˜100 nm) were synthesized from ethanol assisted spray pyrolysis, followed by alkaline ethylene glycol etching at 185 °C. An alpha-Fe2O3 and BaCO3 nanoparticle mixture was synthesized with reverse microemulsion, followed by annealing at 900 °C for 2 hours to get worm-shape BaFe 12O19 particles, which consisted of 3-7 stacked hexagonal plates. FeCo nanoparticles were synthesized by reducing FeCl2 and CoCl2 in diphenyl ether with n-butyllithium at 200 °C in an inert gas environment. The surfactant of oleic acid was used in the synthesis to make particles well dispersed in nonpolar solvents (such as hexane). SrFe12O19/FeCo core/shell particles were prepared through a magnetic self-assembly process. The as-synthesized soft FeCo nanoparticles were magnetically attracted by hard SrFe12O19 parti-cles, forming a SrFe12O19/FeCo core/shell structure. The magnetic self-assembly mechanism was confirmed by applying alternating-current demagnetization to the core/shell particles, which re-sulted in a separation of SrFe 12O19 and FeCo particles. MnBi/FeCo composites were synthesized, and the exchange coupling between MnBi and FeCo phases was demonstrated by smooth magnetic hysteresis loop of MnBi/FeCo composites. The thermal stability of Mn

  12. Failure of standard approximations of the exchange coupling in nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Asger

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the exchange coupling for a double dot system using a numerically exact technique based on finite-element methods and an expansion in two-dimensional Gaussians. Specifically, we evaluate the exchange coupling both for a quasi-one- and a two-dimensional system, also including an appli...

  13. Flexural Properties of Activated Carbon Filled Epoxy Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Khalil, H.P.S.A.; Alothman, O.Y.; Paridah, M.T.; Zainudin, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) filled epoxy nano composites obtained by mixing the desired amount of nano AC viz., bamboo stem, oil palm empty fruit bunch, and coconut shell from agricultural biomass with the epoxy resin. Flexural properties of activated carbons filled epoxy nano composites with 1 %, and 5 % filler loading were measured. In terms of flexural strength and modulus, a significant increment was observed with addition of 1 % vol and 5 % vol nano-activated carbon as compared to neat epoxy. The effect of activated carbon treated by two chemical agents (potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid) on the flexural properties of epoxy nano composites were also investigated. Flexural strength of activated carbon-bamboo stem, activated carbon-oil palm, and activated carbon-coconut shell reinforced epoxy nano composites showed almost same value in case of 5 % potassium hydroxide activated carbon. Flexural strength of potassium hydroxide activated carbon-based epoxy nano composites was higher than phosphoric acid activated carbon. The flexural toughness of both the potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid activated carbon reinforced composites range between 0.79 - 0.92 J. It attributed that developed activated carbon filled epoxy nano composites can be used in different applications. (author)

  14. Nano composite phase change materials microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingwen

    MicroPCMs with nano composite structures (NC-MicroPCMs) have been systematically studied. NC-MicroPCMs were fabricated by the in situ polymerization and addition of silver NPs into core-shell structures. A full factorial experiment was designed, including three factors of core/shell, molar ratio of formaldehyde/melamine and NPs addition. 12 MicroPCMs samples were prepared. The encapsulated efficiency is approximately 80% to 90%. The structural/morphological features of the NC-MicroPCMs were evaluated. The size was in a range of 3.4 mu m to 4.0 mu m. The coarse appearance is attributed to NPs and NPs are distributed on the surface, within the shell and core. The NC-MicroPCMs contain new chemical components and molecular groups, due to the formation of chemical bonds after the pretreatment of NPs. Extra X-ray diffraction peaks of silver were found indicating silver nano-particles were formed into an integral structure with the core/shell structure by means of chemical bonds and physical linkages. Extra functionalities were found, including: (1) enhancement of IR radiation properties; (2) depression of super-cooling, and (3) increase of thermal stabilities. The effects of SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy) arising from the silver nano-particles were observed. The Raman scattering intensity was magnified more than 100 times. These effects were also exhibited in macroscopic level in the fabric coatings as enhanced IR radiation properties were detected by the "Fabric Infrared Radiation Management Tester" (FRMT). "Degree of Crystallinity" (DOC) was measured and found the three factors have a strong influence on it. DOC is closely related to thermal stability and MicroPCMs with a higher DOC show better temperature resistance. The thermal regulating effects of the MicroPCMs coatings were studied. A "plateau regions" was detected around the temperature of phase change, showing the function of PCMs. Addition of silver nano-particles to the MicroPCMs has a positive

  15. Polyaniline nano-composites with large negative dielectric permittivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Hsieh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Two polyaniline (PANI/polymer nano-composites exhibiting huge negative dielectric permittivity have been synthesized for the first time. These novel chemical processes open a new approach for fabrication of the negative index materials (NIMs, since most of the NIMs prepared today are obtained by a structural approach – by putting together two structured materials that exhibit separately a negative permittivity and a negative permeability. We found the negative permittivity of these nano-composites is a function of the content of the dopant (i.e., PANI as well as of the frequency. The generation of huge negative permittivity can be rationalized by the well-dispersed PANI-DBSA nano-particles which form a pseudo-continuous conductive pathway in these nano-composites.

  16. Nano-composites for water remediation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesh, Sarah J; Scott, Thomas B

    2014-09-17

    As global populations continue to increase, the pressure on water supplies will inevitably intensify. Consequently the international need for more efficient and cost effective water remediation technologies will also rise. The introduction of nano-technology into the industry may represent a significant advancement and zero-valent iron nano-particles (INPs) have been thoroughly studied for potential remediation applications. However, the application of water dispersed INP suspensions is limited and somewhat contentious on the grounds of safety, whilst INP reaction mechanisms, transport properties and ecotoxicity are areas still under investigation. Theoretically, the development of nano-composites containing INPs to overcome these issues provides the logical next step for developing nano-materials that are better suited to wide application across the water industry. This review provides an overview of the range of static, bulk nano-composites containing INPs being developed, whilst highlighting the limitations of individual solutions, overall classes of technology, and lack of comparative testing for nano-composites. The review discusses what further developments are needed to optimize nano-composite water remediation systems to subsequently achieve commercial maturity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Synthesis of Metal Polymer Nano composites Using Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, R.S.S.

    2012-01-01

    we prepared a series of CdS/PVA and Ag/PVA nano composites via facile and novel synthetic steps. Our synthetic route is simpler; it does not need expensive oxidizing agents, surfactants, templates and complicated apparatus. The present work contains five chapters in addition to the list of figures, tables, abbreviations and references. The first two chapters are concerned with the introduction and reviews of previous studies. Chapter 3 describes the preparation methodology, experimental setup and techniques used in the CdS/PVA and Ag/PVA nano composites processing and analysis. CdS and Ag nanoparticles with different particle sizes were prepared via chemical method and gamma irradiation method. Several techniques were used to detect the structural changes of the nano composites due to interaction between CdS or Ag ions and PVA. These are: UV-Visible spectrophotometer, Transmission Electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrophotometer, and thermogravimetric analysis. Chapter 4 includes the obtained results and their discussions: Ultraviolet/Visible spectroscopy (UV/VIS) investigated that the as-prepared nano composites have improved optical properties. Such incremented optical properties were attributed to the nano scale dispersion (nm). The improvement in the optical properties is considered to be dependent on, Cd 2+ :S 2- molar ratio, Ag concentration, Pva content and irradiation dose. The calculated band gap energies for CdS/PVA nano composites are higher than that of bulk of CdS indicating the strong quantum confinement. The increases in band gap energy have been attributed to the crystalline size dependent properties. Transmission electron microscope images illustrated that the nano structured CdS/PVA films were found to be dispersed spherical nanoparticles with good structural homogeneity and polydispersity at either lower concentration of CdCl 2 and/or irradiation dose. Nano rod structure of CdS accompanied

  18. Poly (lactic acid organoclay nano composites for paper coating applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatcha Sonjui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid or PLA is a well-known biodegradable polymer derived from renewable resources such as corn strach, tapioca strach, and sugar cane. PLA is the most extensively utilized biodegradable polyester with potential to replace conventional petrochemical-based polymers. However, PLA has some drawbacks, such as brittleness and poor gas barrier properties. Nano composite polymers have experience and increasing interest due to their characteristics, especially in mechanical and thermal properties. The objectives of this research were to prepare PLA formulations using three different PLAs. The formulas giving high gloss coating film were selected to prepare nano composite film by incorporated with different amount of various types of organoclays. The physical properties of the PLA coating films were studied and it was found that the PLA 7000D with 0.1%w/w of Cloisite 30B provided decent viscosity for coating process. In addition, the nano composite coating films showed good physical properties such as high gloss, good adhesion, and good hardness. There is a possibility of using the obtained formulation as a paper coating film.

  19. Antimicrobial Properties of Chitosan-Alumina/f-MWCNT Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masheane, M.; Nthunya, L.; Malinga, S.; Masheane, M.; Nthunya, L.; Nxumalo, E.; Mhlanga, S.; Barnard, T.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial chitosan-alumina/functionalized-multi walled carbon nano tube (f-MWCNT) nano composites were prepared by a simple phase inversion method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses showed the change in the internal morphology of the composites and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed the presence of alumina and f-MWCNTs in the chitosan polymer matrix. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the appearance of new functional groups from both alumina and f-MWCNTs, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the addition of alumina and f-MWCNTs improved the thermal stability of the chitosan polymer. The presence of alumina and f-MWCNTs in the polymer matrix was found to improve the thermal stability and reduced the solubility of chitosan polymer. The prepared chitosan-alumina/f-MWCNT nano composites showed inhibition of twelve strains of bacterial strains that were tested. Thus, the nano composites show a potential for use as a biocides in water treatment for the removal of bacteria at different environmental conditions.

  20. CO oxidation on Alsbnd Au nano-composite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, C.; Majumder, C.

    2018-03-01

    Using first principles method we report the CO oxidation behaviour of Alsbnd Au nano-composites in three different size ranges: Al6Au8, Al13Au42 and a periodic slab of Alsbnd Au(1 1 1) surface. The clusters prefer enclosed structures with alternating arrangement of Al and Au atoms, maximising Auδ-sbnd Alδ+ bonds. Charge distribution analysis suggests the charge transfer from Al to Au atoms, corroborated by the red shift in the density of states spectrum. Further, CO oxidation on these nano-composite systems was investigated through both Eley - Rideal and Langmuir Hinshelwood mechanism. While, these clusters interact with O2 non-dissociatively with an elongation of the Osbnd O bond, further interaction with CO led to formation of CO2 spontaneously. On contrary, the CO2 evolution by co-adsorption of O2 and CO molecules has a transition state barrier. On the basis of the results it is inferred that nano-composite material of Alsbnd Au shows significant promise toward effective oxidative catalysis.

  1. Magnetic Exchange Couplings with Range-Separated Hybrid Density Functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Juan E; Melo, Juan I

    2010-06-08

    We investigate the effect of Hartree-Fock range-separation on the calculation of magnetic exchange couplings in a set of nine bimetallic transition-metal complexes containing 3d elements (V, Cr, Mn, and Cu). To this end, we have compared magnetic exchange couplings calculated as self-consistent energy differences using two global hybrid functionals, B3LYP (Becke 3-parameter exchange and Lee-Yang-Parr correlation) and PBEh (hybrid Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof) with the short-range separated HSE (Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof) and the long-range corrected LC-ωPBE. Our results show that, although there is no clear superiority of any of these functionals when compared with experimental data, the LC-ωPBE provides a better description of the magnetization on the metallic centers, yielding self-consistent solutions that mimic more closely a Heisenberg-like behavior.

  2. Exchange coupling in Eu monochalcogenides from first principles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jan; Ku, W.; Pickett, W. E.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 5 (2005), s. 1408-1411 ISSN 0031-9015 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010214 Grant - others:U.S.DOE SSAAP(US) DMR-0421810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductor * electronic structure * exchange coupling Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.760, year: 2005

  3. Pure spin current manipulation in antiferromagnetically exchange coupled heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Félix, L.; Butera, A.; González-Chávez, D. E.; Sommer, R. L.; Gómez, J. E.

    2018-03-01

    We present a model to describe the spin currents generated by ferromagnet/spacer/ferromagnet exchange coupled trilayer systems and heavy metal layers with strong spin-orbit coupling. By exploiting the magnitude of the exchange coupling (oscillatory RKKY-like coupling) and the spin-flop transition in the magnetization process, it has been possible to produce spin currents polarized in arbitrary directions. The spin-flop transition of the trilayer system originates pure spin currents whose polarization vector depends on the exchange field and the magnetization equilibrium angles. We also discuss a protocol to control the polarization sign of the pure spin current injected into the metallic layer by changing the initial conditions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers previously to the spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect experiments. The small differences in the ferromagnetic layers lead to a change in the magnetization vector rotation that permits the control of the sign of the induced voltage components due to the inverse spin Hall effect. Our results can lead to important advances in hybrid spintronic devices with new functionalities, particularly, the ability to control microscopic parameters such as the polarization direction and the sign of the pure spin current through the variation of macroscopic parameters, such as the external magnetic field or the thickness of the spacer in antiferromagnetic exchange coupled systems.

  4. Preparation of organophilic clays and polypropylene nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Martha Fogliato S.; Nascimento, Vinicius G. do; Lenz, Denise M.; Schenato, Flavia

    2011-01-01

    Polypropylene/montmorillonite nano composites were prepared by the melt intercalation technique. The clay was organically modified with different quaternary ammonium salts to obtain the organo clay. The modified clays with the quaternary ammonium salts were introduced in a polypropylene matrix with 3 wt. % of clay. The interlayer distance (d001) of the clay particles were obtained by X- ray diffraction and the thermal stability of the systems were investigated by thermogravimetry. The organo clay presence in the polymer matrix increased the degradation temperature in relation to the pure polymer. (author)

  5. Magnetic behavior of partially exchange-coupled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, M.I.; Bercoff, P.G.; Bertorello, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    A system of particle pairs with partial exchange coupling is studied, considering identical particles and a fixed angle between their anisotropy axes. The energy of each pair is calculated in terms of the extent of interaction, β, as a function of the applied demagnetizing field. Using the probability per unit time for the inversion of magnetization, the coercive field H c and the viscosity S of the system are calculated. An unexpected result is that fully coupled particles are more stable against temperature than the uncoupled particles

  6. Eco-nano composite films containing copper as potential antimicrobial active packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruna, Julio E.; Gonzalez, Valeska; Rodriguez, Francisco; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial efficiency of Cellulose Acetate/MMTCu and Chitosan/MMTCu nano composites against Escherichia Coli 0157:H7 n/t has been studied in the present work. The MMT modified with copper were obtained using cation interchange in solution and the nano composites films were prepared using casting solution technique, being the biodegradable polymer (Cellulose Acetate or Chitosan) the main component and the montmorillonite modified with copper, the minority component. Characterization of MMTCu and the nano composites (CA/MMTCu and Ch/MMTCu), were carried out using XRD, AA, TGA, DSC and microbiological analysis. The nano composites showed to be more stable at higher temperature, resulting from the incorporation of MMTCu into the polymer. On the other hand, the results indicated that the antibacterial effect of nano composite increased with the proportion of MMTCu added. (author)

  7. Study on Carbon Nano composite Counter electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, H.; Lin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nano composite electrodes were prepared by adding carbon nano tubes (CNTs) into carbon black as counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The morphology and structure of carbon nano composite electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of CNTs on the electrochemical performance of carbon nano composite electrodes is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Carbon nano composite electrodes with CNTs exhibit a highly interconnected network structure with high electrical conductivity and good catalytic activity. The influence of different CNTs content in carbon nano composite electrodes on the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and filling factor of DSSCs is also investigated. DSSCs with 10% CNTs content exhibit the best photovoltaic performance in our experiments.

  8. Ecoefficiency indicators for development of nano-composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Laurent, Alexis

    The EU FP7 funded project “NanCore” aims to develop foam nano composites. One WP addresses the environmental aspects using Life Cycle Assessments. A preliminary assessment, based on literature sources, aims to provide inputs for the further technology development in terms of eco-indicators. Four......-indicators thus high-light the CNT production, but also foaming processes etc. as focus areas for further technology development. Potential release of nano particles during the life cycle is also a particular issue to devote consideration....... of the nanocomposites were evaluated, i.e. so-called “cradle to gate” assessment. Overall, the study emphasises the CNT production as a main cause of impact. Variations occur depending on the type of technology considered (HiPco, FBCVD). However, acid production (for purification process), electricity production...

  9. Modal analysis of pre and post impacted nano composite laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Velmurugan

    Full Text Available Modal analysis is carried out on pre and post impacted nano composite laminates. The laminates are prepared using 3, 5 and 8 layers of 610gsm glass woven roving mats(WRM with epoxy resin and montmorillonite(MMT clay content is varied from 1% to 5%. Impulse hammer technique is used to find natural frequency and damping factor of laminates. Medium velocity impact tests are conducted by using a gas gun. The vibration responses of natural frequency and damping factor are obtained and are studied for laminates with all edges clamped boundary conditions. Results show considerable improvement in natural frequency and damping factor due to nano clay addition. It is also seen that the nano clay controls the delamination due to impact loading.

  10. Action of colloidal silica films on different nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, S.; Al-Marzouki, F.; Obaid, A.; Gamal, S.

    Nano-composite films have been the subject of extensive work to develop the energy-storage efficiency of electrostatic capacitors. Factors such as polymer purity, nano-particles size, and film morphology drastically affect the electrostatic efficiency of the dielectric material that form an insulating film between conductive electrodes of a capacitor. This in turn affects the energy storage performance of the capacitor. In the present work, we have studied the dielectric properties of 4 high pure amorphous polymer films: polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polystyrene, polyimide and poly-4-vinylpyridine. Comparison between the dielectric properties of these polymers has revealed that the higher break down performance is a character of polyimide PI and PMMA. Also, our experimental data shows that adding colloidal silica to PMMA and PI leads to a net decrease in the dielectric properties compared to the pure polymer.

  11. Origin of (0 0 1) orientation and superlattice structure identification in L10-FePt/B4C multilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Xie, Jian; Wang, Yi; Wang, Hanbin; Liu, Xiang; Ye, Cong; Wang, Hao

    2015-12-01

    (0 0 1) textured L10 FePt/B4C multilayer thin films have been prepared on amorphous substrates by magnetron sputtering. High resolution transmission electron microscopy investigation indicates that the Fe and Pt atoms stacked alternately along the c-axis of L10 FePt, confirming the formation of the superlattice structure of L10-ordered FePt. The internal stress calculation and geometrical phase analysis confirm the existence of the in-plane tensile strain in the L10 FePt thin films. The diffusion of the B and C atoms into the FePt layers results in expansion of the FePt unit cells in the interfaces, which induces an in-plane tensile strain in the adjacent deep parts of FePt layer. Such an in-plane tensile strain creates a favorable condition for the FePt films to stabilize the (0 0 1) texture because it relaxes the ordering strain energy of FePt during phase transformation.

  12. Gamma radiation effects on nano composites of Ag nanoparticles in Zn O matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villasenor C, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    The study of gamma radiation effects in nano composites of silver nanoparticles in a Zn O matrix has been performed in this work. First, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by colloidal methods, with two different mean average sizes, 48 nm and 24 nm respectively. These nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (Tem) and UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Then, with the synthesized AgNPs, nano composites in a matrix of Zn O were prepared. The first nano composite was prepared with the 48 nm AgNPs at 9.5 weight % of silver (Ag) and the second nano composite with the 24 nm nanoparticles at 1.0 weight % of Ag. Both nano composites were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (Sem). The formation of the Zn O phase in the nano composite was corroborated through X-ray diffraction analysis. It was observed that the presence of AgNPs during the formation of the AgNPs/Zn O nano composite modified the size and morphology of the structures obtained compared to those of the pure Zn O without nanoparticles, however both exhibit a radial structure. Then, the nano composite at 9.5 weight % of Ag was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 1, 20 and 50 kGy. Samples were analyzed by Sem and the Bet technique, before and after being irradiated, in order to determine the effect of gamma radiation in the morphology, porosity and surface area of the studied material. Even when there are changes in porosity and Surface area, this difference is not very significant for some applications, however it will have to be considered during the design of a specific application of the nano composites. On the other hand, no morphology modifications were identified on the samples irradiated at the studied doses, with the electron microscopy techniques used. (Author)

  13. Study of thermal properties and the dispersion state of nano composites epoxy/clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, Juliana D.; Bertholdi, Jonas; Toledo, Tais C.; Folgueras, Marilena V.; Pezzin, Sergio H.; Coelho, Luiz A.F.

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates an exfoliation/intercalation of nano clays in an epoxy resin by means of x-rays diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis and dilatometric analysis. A comparison of two techniques for preparing nano composites is addressed: mechanical stirring and sonication. X-rays analysis showed that an exfoliation/intercalation is occurring in some samples. TG analysis indicated and increase in thermal stability of the nano composites compared to the neat resin. Finally, dilatometric analysis indicates and increase in Tg for nano composites compared to the neat resin. (author)

  14. PREFACE: International Conference on Structural Nano Composites (NANOSTRUC 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuguna, James

    2012-09-01

    Dear Colleagues It is a great pleasure to welcome you to NanoStruc2012 at Cranfield University. The purpose of the 2012 International Conference on Structural Nano Composites (NanoStruc2012) is to promote activities in various areas of materials and structures by providing a forum for exchange of ideas, presentation of technical achievements and discussion of future directions. NanoStruc brings together an international community of experts to discuss the state-of-the-art, new research results, perspectives of future developments, and innovative applications relevant to structural materials, engineering structures, nanocomposites, modelling and simulations, and their related application areas. The conference is split in 7 panel sessions, Metallic Nanocomposites and Coatings, Silica based Nanocomposites, safty of Nanomaterials, Carboin based Nanocomposites, Multscale Modelling, Bio materials and Application of Nanomaterials. All accepted Papers will be published in the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE), and included in the NanoStruc online digital library. The abstracts will be indexed in Scopus, Compedex, Inspec, INIS (International Nuclear Information System), Chemical Abstracts, NASA Astrophysics Data System and Polymer Library. Before ending this message, I would like to acknowledge the hard work, professional skills and efficiency of the team which ensured the general organisation. As a conclusion, I would like to Welcome you to the Nanostruc2012 and wish you a stimulating Conference and a wonderful time. On behalf of the scientific committee, Signature James Njuguna Conference Chair The PDF of this preface also contains committee listings and associates logos.

  15. Lightweight Aluminum/Nano composites for Automotive Drive Train Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Knoth, Edward A.; Schumaker, Edward J.

    2012-12-14

    During Phase I, we successfully processed air atomized aluminum powders via Dynamic Magnetic Compaction (DMC) pressing and subsequent sintering to produce parts with properties similar to wrought aluminum. We have also showed for the first time that aluminum powders can be processed without lubes via press and sintering to 100 % density. This will preclude a delube cycle in sintering and promote environmentally friendly P/M processing. Processing aluminum powders via press and sintering with minimum shrinkage will enable net shape fabrication. Aluminum powders processed via a conventional powder metallurgy process produce too large a shrinkage. Because of this, sinter parts have to be machined into specific net shape. This results in increased scrap and cost. Fully sintered aluminum alloy under this Phase I project has shown good particle-to-particle bonding and mechanical properties. We have also shown the feasibility of preparing nano composite powders and processing via pressing and sintering. This was accomplished by dispersing nano silicon carbide (SiC) powders into aluminum matrix comprising micron-sized powders (<100 microns) using a proprietary process. These composite powders of Al with nano SiC were processed using DMC press and sinter process to sinter density of 85-90%. The process optimization along with sintering needs to be carried out to produce full density composites.

  16. Effect of organo clay addition on thermal properties of poly lactide/ polycaprolactone (PLA/ PCL) nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Zulaiha Hairaldin; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus; Norazoma Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    In this study, melt blending technique was applied to prepare poly lactide/polycaprolactone (PLA/ PCL) nano composites with various blends. Montmorillonite (MMT) was used as an addition to the matrix. In this study, melt blending technique was applied to prepare poly lactide/polycaprolactone (PLA/ PCL) nano composites. Montmorillonite (MMT) was used as an addition to the matrix with various percentages. The other one is modified clay prepared by modifying the nature of montmorillonite with octadecylamine (ODA) to improve the characteristic of PLA/ PCL blends. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated intercalation of the PLA/ PCL into silicate nano size interlayers galleries of the nano composites. The presence of modified clays in nano composite was confirmed by FTIR spectrum. TGA and DTG results show addition of MMT and modified clay ODA-MMT improved the thermal stability of the PLA/ PCL blends. (author)

  17. Preparation and corrosion behavior evaluation of amalgam/titania nano composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Bahremandi Tolou

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: By adding nano particles of titania and preparing amalgam/titania nano composite as a dental amalgam, corrosion behavior and mercury release during the 2 st h after preparation could be improved.

  18. Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Nano-composite PMMA: TiO2 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyly Nyl Ismail; Ahmad Fairoz Aziz; Habibah Zulkefle

    2011-01-01

    There are two nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 solutions were prepared in this research. First solution is nano-composite PMMA commercially available TiO 2 nanopowder and the second solution is nano-composite PMMA with self-prepared TiO 2 powder. The self-prepared TiO 2 powder is obtained by preparing the TiO 2 sol-gel. Solvo thermal method were used to dry the TiO 2 sol-gel and obtained TiO 2 crystal. Ball millers were used to grind the TiO 2 crystal in order to obtained nano sized powder. Triton-X was used as surfactant to stabilizer the composite between PMMA: TiO 2 . Besides comparing the nano-composite solution, we also studied the effect of the thin films thickness on the optical properties and surface morphology of the thin films. The thin films were deposited by sol-gel spin coating method on glass substrates. The optical properties and surface characterization were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer equipment and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The result showed that nano-composite PMMA with self prepared TiO 2 give high optical transparency than nano-composite PMMA with commercially available TiO 2 nano powder. The results also indicate as the thickness is increased the optical transparency are decreased. Both AFM images showed that the agglomerations of TiO 2 particles are occurred on the thin films and the surface roughness is increased when the thickness is increased. High agglomeration particles exist in the AFM images for nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 with TiO 2 nano powder compare to the other nano-composite solution. (author)

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance applied to the study of polymeric nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Polymers and nanoparticles based nano composites were prepared by intercalation by solution. The obtained nano composites were characterized mainly by the nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR), applying the analysis of carbon-13 (polymeric matrix), silicon-29 (nanoparticle), and by determination of spin-lattice relaxation of the hydrogen nucleus (T 1 H) (polymeric matrix). The NMR have presented a promising technique in the characterization of the nano charge dispersion in the studied polymeric matrixes.

  20. Development and evaluation of fast forming nano-composite hydrogel for ocular delivery of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingyi; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Chen, Hao

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a fast forming nano-composite hydrogel was developed for potential application in ocular drug delivery. The optical transmission (OT) as well as rheological properties of nano-composite hydrogel was characterized. The developed nano-composite hydrogel given a high diclofenac micelles loading and provided a sustained release manner of diclofenac within 6h. The developed nano-composite hydrogel formulation was administrated into the eye as flowable solution, quickly forming a hydrogel that is able to resist of the blinking and flushing of tear, yet resulting in the prolonged residence time of pre-corneal. In vivo eye irritation test suggested that the developed nano-composite hydrogel was none-eye irritation might be suitable for various ocular applications. In vivo pharmacokinetic study indicated that the developed nano-composite hydrogel could significantly increase the bioavailability of diclofenac and maintain the concentration of diclofenac in aqueous humor above MEC at least 24h after administration as compared with that of the commercial diclofenac sodium eye drops, which might be able to reduce the frequency of administration for patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nano-Composite Foam Sensor System in Football Helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, A Jake; Christensen, William F; Seeley, Matthew K; Bowden, Anton E; Fullwood, David T

    2017-12-01

    American football has both the highest rate of concussion incidences as well as the highest number of concussions of all contact sports due to both the number of athletes and nature of the sport. Recent research has linked concussions with long term health complications such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and early onset Alzheimer's. Understanding the mechanical characteristics of concussive impacts is critical to help protect athletes from these debilitating diseases and is now possible using helmet-based sensor systems. To date, real time on-field measurement of head impacts has been almost exclusively measured by devices that rely on accelerometers or gyroscopes attached to the player's helmet, or embedded in a mouth guard. These systems monitor motion of the head or helmet, but do not directly measure impact energy. This paper evaluates the accuracy of a novel, multifunctional foam-based sensor that replaces a portion of the helmet foam to measure impact. All modified helmets were tested using a National Operating Committee Standards for Athletic Equipment-style drop tower with a total of 24 drop tests (4 locations with 6 impact energies). The impacts were evaluated using a headform, instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer, mounted to a Hybrid III neck assembly. The resultant accelerations were evaluated for both the peak acceleration and the severity indices. These data were then compared to the voltage response from multiple Nano Composite Foam sensors located throughout the helmet. The foam sensor system proved to be accurate in measuring both the HIC and Gadd severity index, as well as peak acceleration while also providing additional details that were previously difficult to obtain, such as impact energy.

  2. Ferromagnetism and interlayer exchange coupling in thin metallic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienert, Jochen

    2008-07-15

    This thesis is concerned with the ferromagnetic Kondo lattice (s-d,s-f) model for film geometry. The spin-fermion interaction of this model refers to substances in which localized spins interact with mobile charge carriers like in (dilute) magnetic semiconductors, manganites, or rare-earth compounds. The carrier-mediated, indirect interaction between the localized spins comprises the long-range, oscillatory RKKY exchange interaction in the weak-coupling case and the short-range doubleexchange interaction for strong spin-fermion coupling. Both limits are recovered in this work by mapping the problem onto an effective Heisenberg model. The influence of reduced translational symmetry on the effective exchange interaction and on the magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic Kondo lattice model is investigated. Curie temperatures are obtained for different parameter constellations. The consequences of charge transfer and of lattice relaxation on the magnetic stability at the surface are considered. Since the effective exchange integrals are closely related to the electronic structure in terms of the density of states and of the kinetic energy, the discussion is based on the modifications of these quantities in the dimensionally-reduced case. The important role of spin waves for thin film and surface magnetism is demonstrated. Interlayer exchange coupling represents a particularly interesting and important manifestation of the indirect interaction among localized magnetic moments. The coupling between monatomic layers in thin films is studied in the framework of an RKKY approach. It is decisively determined by the type of in-plane and perpendicular dispersion of the charge carriers and is strongly suppressed above a critical value of the Fermi energy. Finally, the temperature-dependent magnetic stability of thin interlayer-coupled films is addressed and the conditions for a temperature-driven magnetic reorientation transition are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Study of Ion Transport Behaviour in (PVA-NH4I):SIO2 Nano Composite Polymer Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Mridula; Trivedi, Shivangi; Upadhyay, Ruby; Singh, Markandey; Pandey, N. D.; Pandey, Kamlesh

    2013-07-01

    Development and characterization of Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) based nano composite polymer electrolytes comprising of (PVA-NH4I):SiO2 is reported. Sol-gel derived silica powder of nano dimension has been used as ceramic filler for development of nano composite electrolyte. Formation of nano composites, change in the structural and microscopic properties of the system have been investigated by X-ray differaction, SEM and conductivity.

  4. Comparison of the mechanical properties between carbon nanotube and nanocrystalline cellulose polypropylene based nano-composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jun; Rodrigue, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SWCNT and NCC can effectively improve the mechanical properties of nano-composites. • SWCNT is more effective than NCC to increase modulus and strength. • Longer NCC is more effective to improve the mechanical properties of nano-composites. • It is more economic to use NCC than SWCNT to improve mechanical properties. - Abstract: Using beam and tetrahedron elements to simulate nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and polypropylene (PP), finite element method (FEM) is used to predict the mechanical properties of nano-composites. The bending, shear and torsion behaviors of nano-composites are especially investigated due to the limited amount of information in the present literature. First, mixed method (MM) and FEM are used to compare the bending stiffness of NCC/PP and SWCNT/PP composites. Second, based on mechanics of materials, the shear moduli of both types of nano-composites are obtained. Finally, fixing the number of fibers and for different volume contents, four NCC lengths are used to determine the mechanical properties of the composites. The bending and shearing performances are also compared between NCC and SWCNT based composites. In all cases, the elastic–plastic analyses are carried out and the stress or strain distributions for specific regions are also investigated. From all the results obtained, an economic analysis shows that NCC is more interesting than SWCNT to reinforce PP

  5. A comparison study of polymer/cobalt ferrite nano-composites synthesized by mechanical alloying route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Rashidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of different biopolymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG and polyvinylalcohol (PVA on synthesis and characterization of polymer/cobalt ferrite (CF nano-composites bymechanical alloying method has been systematically investigated. The structural, morphological andmagnetic properties changes during mechanical milling were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, fieldemission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques(VSM, respectively. The polymeric cobalt ferrite nano-composites were obtained by employing atwo-step procedure: the cobalt ferrite of 20 nm mean particle size was first synthesized by mechanicalalloying route and then was embedded in PEG or PVA biopolymer matrix by milling process. Theresults revealed that PEG melted due to the local temperature raise during milling. Despite thisphenomenon, cobalt ferrite nano-particles were entirely embedded in PEG matrix. It seems, PAV is anappropriate candidate for producing nano-composite samples due to its high melting point. InPVA/CF nano-composites, the mean crystallite size and milling induced strain decreased to 13 nm and0.48, respectively. Moreover, milling process resulted in well distribution of CF in PVA matrix eventhough the mean particle size of cobalt ferrite has not been significantly affecetd. FTIR resultconfirmed the attachment of PVA to the surface of nano-particles. Magnetic properties evaluationshowed that saturation magnetization and coercivity values decreased in nano-composite samplecomparing the pure cobalt ferrite.

  6. Biochar-based nano-composites for the decontamination of wastewater: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Yun-Guo; Gu, Yan-Ling; Xu, Yan; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Hu, Xin-Jiang; Liu, Shao-Bo; Wang, Xin; Liu, Si-Mian; Li, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Synthesizing biochar-based nano-composites can obtain new composites and combine the advantages of biochar with nano-materials. The resulting composites usually exhibit great improvement in functional groups, pore properties, surface active sites, catalytic degradation ability and easy to separation. These composites have excellent abilities to adsorb a range of contaminants from aqueous solutions. Particularly, catalytic material-coated biochar can exert simultaneous adsorption and catalytic degradation function for organic contaminants removal. Synthesizing biochar-based nano-composites has become an important practice for expanding the environmental applications of biochar and nanotechnology. This paper aims to review and summarize the various synthesis techniques for biochar-based nano-composites and their effects on the decontamination of wastewater. The characteristic and advantages of existing synthesis methods are summarized and discussed. Application of biochar-based nano-composites for different contaminants removal and the underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Furthermore, knowledge gaps that exist in the fabrication and application of biochar-based nano-composites are also identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sub wavelength Microstructures Fabrication by Self-Organization Processes in Photopolymerizable Nano composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisyuk, I.Yu.; Sobeshuk, N.O.; Burunkova, J.A.; Vorzobova, N.D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes our research results on nanometers sizes sub wavelength nano structure fabrication by UV curing of special nano composite material with self-organization and light self-focusing effects. For this purpose, special UV curable nano composite material with a set of effects was developing: light self-focusing in the photo polymer with positive refractive index change, self-organization based on photo-induced nanoparticles transportation, and oxygen-based polymerization threshold. Both holographic and projection lithography writing methods application for microstructure making shows geometrical optical laws perturbation as result of nano composite self-organization effects with formation of nanometers-sized high-aspect-ratio structures. Obtained results will be useful for diffraction limit overcoming in projection lithography as well as for deep lithography technique.

  8. Functional properties of extruded nano composites based on cassava starch, polyvinyl alcohol and montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debiagi, Flavia; Mali, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to produce expanded nano composites (foams) based on starch, PVA and sodium montmorillonite and characterize them according to their expansion index (EI), density, water absorption capacity (WSC), mechanical properties and X-ray diffraction. The nano composites were prepared in a single-screw extruder using different starch contents (97.6 - 55.2 g/100 g formulation), PVA (0 - 40 g/100 g formulation), unmodified nano clay - Closite - Na (0 - 4. 8 g/100 g formulation) and glycerol (20 g/100 g formulation) as plasticizer. The addition of montmorillonite and PVA resulted in an increase of EI and a decrease of density of the samples, and reduced WSC and increased the mechanical strength of the foams. Through the analysis of X-ray diffraction can be observed that the addition of montmorillonite led to production of intercalated nano composites in all samples. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the acquirement of nano composites of polypropylene and a bentonite organophilized by different methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Lucilene B. de; Morales, Ana R.; Branciforti, Marcia C.; Bretas, Rosario E.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the organophilization of an argentinean sodium bentonite with a quaternary ammo nium salt, by two methodologies: cation exchange in aqueous dispersion and intercalation in semi-solid medium. The modified samples were used in the preparation of nano composites, with polypropylene as a matrix and polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride as a coupling agent, through melt intercalation by using a twin-screw micro extruder. The organophilic bentonites were characterized by the swelling capacity test in water and in xylene and by X-ray diffraction, and the nano composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electronic microscopy. The results showed that were obtained nano composites with structures partially intercalated and exfoliated. (author)

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum–fly ash nano composites made by ultrasonic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimha Murthy, I.; Venkata Rao, D.; Babu Rao, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nano structured fly ash has been produced by 30 h milling time. ► Al–fly ash nano composites were produced by ultrasonic cavitation route. ► A homogeneous distribution of nano fly ash particles was observed in the matrix. ► No additional contamination in the nano composites from the atmosphere. ► Presence of nano fly ash leads to improvement in the strength of the composites. -- Abstract: In this paper an attempt has been made to modify the micro sized fly ash into nano structured fly ash using high energy ball mill. Ball milling was carried out for the total duration of 30 h. The sample was taken out after every 5 h of milling for characterizing. The nano structured fly ash was characterized for its crystallite size and lattice strain by using X-ray diffractometer. It was found that a steady decrease in the crystallite size and increased lattice strain was observed with milling time; the crystallite size at 30 h milling time was found to be 23 nm. The fresh fly ash particles are mostly spherical in shape; whereas the shape of the 30 h milled fly ash particles is irregular and the surface morphology is rough. Al–fly ash nano composites were produced by ultrasonic cavitation route successfully. Scanning electron microscopy images of nano composites reveal a homogeneous distribution of the nano fly ash particles in the AA 2024 matrix. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis of nano composites reveals that the fabricated nano composite did not contain any additional contamination from the atmosphere. As the amount of nano fly ash is increasing the hardness of the composite also increasing. The nano fly ash addition leads to improvement in the compression strength of the composites.

  11. A study on the resistance performance of epoxy nano-composites under the vacuum ultraviolet irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Guo-hui; Jiang, Li-xiang

    2008-12-01

    Irradiation damage effects of the epoxy resin 648 and epoxy nano-composites are studied by means of simulating the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation whose wavelength ranges from 5 to 200 nm. Experimental results of the mass loss, SEM and XPS show that nano-TiO 2 particles exhibit better resistance performance under VUV. Comparing with epoxy resin, the epoxy nano-composite brings significantly less mass loss, slighter flexural strength variation and decreasing gas extraction with less gas component varieties after irradiation. What is more, no new carbon peak-value has been found and principle components of Ols peak-value remain unchanged on the surface.

  12. Synthesis of Poly aniline-Montmorillonite Nano composites Using H2O2 as the Oxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binitha, N.; Binitha, N.; Suraja, V.; Zahira Yaakob; Sugunan, S.

    2011-01-01

    Poly aniline montmorillonite nano composite was prepared using H 2 O 2 as the oxidant. The catalytic environment of montmorillonite favours polymerization. Intercalation and composite formation was proven from various techniques such as XRD, FTIR, DRS and thermal analysis. XRD patterns give the dimension of the intercalated PANI, from the shift of 2θ values, which is in the nano range. FTIR showed that PANI composite formation occurred without affecting the basic clay layer structure. Thus the successful development of an alternative cheap route for poly aniline-montmorillonite nano composite was well established. (author)

  13. Chemical Functionalization, Self-Assembly, and Applications of Nano materials and Nano composites 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, X.; Jiao, T.; Balan, L.; Chen, X.; Hu, M.Z.; Liu, W.

    2014-01-01

    The growing interests in nano materials and nano composites call for the development of processing techniques to obtain multiple functionalization nano structures and achieve the tailoring of specific features of the nanometer size. Functional nano materials and nano composites will expand the applied range of the original material and at the same time promote the development of inter discipline. Thus, the chemical functionalization and bottom-up assemblies of nano materials and subsequent applications will accelerate the development of nano science and nano technology.

  14. Processing and properties of Cu based micro- and nano-composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cosity of Cu matrix at higher sintering temperature which results in efficient pore filling. In case of nano-composites as the interfacial area is more, the detrimental effect of inter- facial phenomenon (decohesion, void formation) are more likely to prevail at high sintering temperature as compared to lower sintering temperature.

  15. [Development and property study of zirconia toughened nano-composite alumina ceramic powder for dental application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke; Chao, Yong-lie; Yang, Zheng

    2003-09-01

    To prepare zirconia toughened nano-composite alumina ceramic powder for dental application. Physical and chemical property of the prepared material were tested, and the effect of development technology on composite powder was also studied in this study. Nano-composite alumina powder was prepared by surface-induced precipitation method. The effect of pH value and dispersing agent content on volume of alumina suspension sediment was recorded. The effect of ultrasonic time on agglomeration was measured also. X ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyze powder phase before and after the stabilizer was added. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM) was applied for characterizing the specimen. The dispersion was better at pH=9 and wt (dispersing agent) = 0.2% approximately 0.3%. Selecting proper ultrasonic time can decrease the agglomeration of powders and lower the average particle size. XRD analysis indicated that the phase composition of the prepared nano-composite ceramic powder was shown as alpha-Al2O3, t-ZrO2 and a small amount of m-ZrO2 after the addition of stabilizer. Through SEM observation, nanometer-sized ZrO2 particles (80 approximately 100 nm) were uniformly located on the surface of submicrometer alumina grains. By choosing appropriate preparation method, weakly agglomerated powders with fine particle size can be obtained. The zirconia part of nano-composite powder was transmitted to partially stabled zirconia after the use of stabilizer.

  16. Investigation on Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Nylon66/GnP Nano-composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankara Narayana, Kota; Suman, Koka Naga Sai; Arun Vikram, Kothapalli

    2017-04-01

    The tribological behavior of graphene nano platelets (GnP) reinforced Nylon66 polymer Nano composites were studied using a pin-on-disc apparatus under dry sliding conditions. The influence of wear control factors like applied load, velocity, sliding distance and weight percentage of GnP reinforcement on the responses like specific wear rate and frictional coefficient were investigated. Nano composites were developed by melt mixing of various weight fractions of GnP (0/0.5/1/2) with nylon 66 using twin screw extruder. A design of experiments based on the Taguchi technique was performed to acquire data in a controlled way and was successfully used to identify the optimal combinations of control factors influencing the outputs. Analysis of variance was employed to investigate the influence and contribution of control factors on the responses. The results showed that the inclusion of GnP as reinforcing material in Nylon66 Nano composites, decreases the friction coefficient and increases the wear resistance of the Nano composites significantly.

  17. Drug-Carrying Magnetic Nano composite Particles for Potential Drug Delivery Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmatulu, R.; Wamocha, H.L.; Eltabey, M.M.; Fakhari, A.; Chu, H.Y.; Chen, Y.Y.; Ho, J.C.; Eltabey, M.M.; Hamdeh, H.H.; Ho, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Drug-carrying magnetic nano composite spheres were synthesized using magnetite nanoparticles and poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) for the purpose of magnetic targeted drug delivery. Magnetic nanoparticles (∼13 nm on average) of magnetite were prepared by a chemical coprecipitation of ferric and ferrous chloride salts in the presence of a strong basic solution (ammonium hydroxide). An oil-in-oil emulsion/solvent evaporation technique was conducted at 7000 rpm and 1.5-2 hours agitation for the synthesis of nano composite spheres. Specifically, PLGA and drug were first dissolved in acetonitrile (oily phase I) and combined with magnetic nanoparticles, then added dropwise into viscous paraffin oil combined with Span 80 (oily phase II). With different contents (0%, 10%, 20%, and 25%) of magnetite, the nano composite spheres were evaluated in terms of particle size, morphology, and magnetic properties by using dynamic laser light scattering (DLLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The results indicate that nano composite spheres (200 nm to 1.1μm in diameter) are superparamagnetic above the blocking temperature near 40 K and their magnetization saturates above 5000 Oe at room temperature.

  18. Investigation the Al–Fe–Cr–Ti nano composites structures with using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Investigation the Al–Fe–Cr–Ti nano composites structures with using XRD and AFM techniques. ALI BAHARI1,3,∗, AREF SADEGHI NIK2,. MANDANA ROODBARI3 and NORDIN MIRNIA3. 1Department of Physics, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch,. Mazandaran, Iran. 2Young Researchers Club ...

  19. Processing and properties of Cu based micro- and nano-composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    also carried out in order to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the micro- and nano-composites for a fixed opti- mum sintering temperature. ... decreases and flexural modulus increases with the increase in reinforcement content. Keywords. ... sity as a result of which the service performance increases. The decrease in ...

  20. Characterization of nano-composite PVD coatings for wear-resistant applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galvan, D.; Pei, Y.T.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2005-01-01

    Various methodologies for the characterization of nano-composite coatings are discussed, which consist TiC nano-particles distributed in an amorphous hydrocarbon (a-C:H) matrix. Complications that arise from the influence of coating roughness and underlying substrate on the properties are evaluated

  1. Processing and properties of Cu based micro-and nano-composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nano-composites of 1, 3, 5 and 7 vol% Al2O3 (average size < 50 nm) and microcomposites having compositions 5, 10, 15, 20 vol% of Al2O3 (average size ∼ 10 m) reinforced in copper matrix were fabricated by powder metallurgy route. All the specimens were sintered at different sintering temperatures (850, 900 and ...

  2. Temperature and cooling field dependent exchange coupling in [Cr/Gd]{sub 5} multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Z.W.; Chen, H.J.; Jiang, W.D.; Wang, J.F.; Yu, S.J. [Department of Physics, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou (China); Hou, Y.L.; Lu, B.; Ye, Q.L. [Department of Physics, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou (China)

    2016-09-15

    Exchange coupling has been investigated in the [Cr/Gd]{sub 5} multilayers deposited at 25, 200, and 400 C, where the Neel temperature (T{sub N}) of antiferromagnetic Cr is slightly higher than the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) of ferromagnetic Gd. It was found that the exchange coupling existed not only at T{sub C} < T < T{sub N}, but also above the temperature (T{sub N}) of antiferromagnetic orderings with incommensurate spin-density wave structures transiting to paramagnetic state. These results can be discussed in terms of the crucial role played by the antiferromagnetic spins of Cr with commensurate spin-density wave structures in the vicinity of the Cr/Gd interfaces. Moreover, the exchange coupling of the multilayers grown at different temperatures exhibited different dependencies on the measuring temperature and the cooling field, respectively. Positive exchange bias was observed in the multilayers grown at 200 and 400 C. The interfacial roughness, grain size, and the antiferromagnetic orderings of Cr may be responsible for the anomalous exchange coupling of the multilayers. In addition, the competition between the exchange coupling at Cr/Gd interfaces and the external field-Cr surface magnetic coupling can explain the appearance of negative or positive exchange bias. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Preparation and corrosion behavior evaluation of amalgam/titania nano composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolou, Neda Bahremandi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Monshi, Ahmad; Mortazavi, Vajihesadat; Shirani, Farzaneh

    2011-12-01

    Many attempts have been performed and continued for improvement of dental amalgam properties during last decades. The aim of present research was fabrication and characterization of amalgam/titania nano composite and evaluation of its corrosion behavior. In this experimental research, nano particles of titania were added to initial amalgam alloy powder and then, dental amalgam was prepared. In order to investigate the effect of nano particle amounts on properties of dental amalgam, proper amount of 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 wt% of titania nano particles were added to amalgam alloy powder and the prepared composite powder was triturated by a given percent of mercury. X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy techniques were use to characterize the prepared nano composites. Potentiodynamic polarization corrosion tests were performed in the Normal Saline (0.9 wt% NaCl) and Ringer's solutions as electrolytes at 37°C. Immersion corrosion tests were also performed immediately 2 h after preparation of cylindrical samples (4 mm in diameter and 8 mm height) via immersion into a 100 ml volumetric flask consisting of artificial saliva. The results indicated that the current corrosion density of amalgam/titania nano composite changes a bit with adding 1% of nano particles of titania. Also, during the 1(st) h after preparation, initial released mercury from prepared nano composite dental amalgam decreased. By adding nano particles of titania and preparing amalgam/titania nano composite as a dental amalgam, corrosion behavior and mercury release during the 2(st) h after preparation could be improved.

  4. Skyrmion states in multilayer exchange coupled ferromagnetic nanostructures with distinct anisotropy directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraerman, A.A.; Ermolaeva, O.L.; Skorohodov, E.V.; Gusev, N.S.; Mironov, V.L.; Vdovichev, S.N.; Demidov, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of magnetic skyrmion states in patterned ferromagnetic nanostructures consisting of perpendicular magnetized Co/Pt multilayer film exchange coupled with Co nanodisks in vortex state. The magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations show that depending on the magnitude of Co/Pt perpendicular anisotropy in these systems two different modes of skyrmion formation are realized. - Highlights: • The magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations of magnetic states in multilayer exchange coupled ferromagnetic nanostructures. • The effects of exchange interaction in Co/Pt multilayer film coupled with Co nanodisks have been studied. • The magnetic scyrmion states at room temperature have been observed

  5. Synthesis and characterization of new polyimide/organo clay nano composites containing benzophenone moieties in the main chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, K.; Ashouri, M.; Feyzi, A., E-mail: k-faghihi@araku.ac.ir [Arak University, Faculty of Science, Organic Polymer Chemistry Research Laboratory, 38158-879 Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-08-01

    A series of nano composites consist of organic polyimide and organo-modified clay content varying from 0 to 5 wt %, were successfully prepared by in situ polymerization. Polyimide used as a matrix of nano composite was prepared through the reaction of 1,4-bis [4-aminophenoxy] butane and 3,3,4,4-benzophenone tetra carboxylic dianhydride in N,N-dimethylacetamide (Dmac). The resulting nano composite films were characterized by Ft-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. (Author)

  6. Synthesis and characterization of new polyimide/organo clay nano composites containing benzophenone moieties in the main chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, K.; Ashouri, M.; Feyzi, A.

    2013-01-01

    A series of nano composites consist of organic polyimide and organo-modified clay content varying from 0 to 5 wt %, were successfully prepared by in situ polymerization. Polyimide used as a matrix of nano composite was prepared through the reaction of 1,4-bis [4-aminophenoxy] butane and 3,3,4,4-benzophenone tetra carboxylic dianhydride in N,N-dimethylacetamide (Dmac). The resulting nano composite films were characterized by Ft-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. (Author)

  7. Optimization of spring exchange coupled ferrites, studied by in situ neutron diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlburg, Jakob; Christensen, Mogens; Granados-Miralles, Cecilia

    have a spin it will also be possible to measure a magnetic signal and investigate the exchange-coupling. After the reduction the samples was furthermore investigated using powder x-ray diffraction and VSM (vibrating sample magnetometer). To understand the reaction mechanism, a series of experiments...

  8. Ultrafast spin exchange-coupling torque via photo-excited charge-transfer processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Fang, F.; Li, Q.; Zhu, J.; Yang, Y.; Wu, Y. Z.; Zhao, H. B.; Lüpke, G.

    2015-10-01

    Optical control of spin is of central importance in the research of ultrafast spintronic devices utilizing spin dynamics at short time scales. Recently developed optical approaches such as ultrafast demagnetization, spin-transfer and spin-orbit torques open new pathways to manipulate spin through its interaction with photon, orbit, charge or phonon. However, these processes are limited by either the long thermal recovery time or the low-temperature requirement. Here we experimentally demonstrate ultrafast coherent spin precession via optical charge-transfer processes in the exchange-coupled Fe/CoO system at room temperature. The efficiency of spin precession excitation is significantly higher and the recovery time of the exchange-coupling torque is much shorter than for the demagnetization procedure, which is desirable for fast switching. The exchange coupling is a key issue in spin valves and tunnelling junctions, and hence our findings will help promote the development of exchange-coupled device concepts for ultrafast coherent spin manipulation.

  9. Exchange coupling interactions in a Fe6 complex: A theoretical study using density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauchy, Thomas; Ruiz, Eliseo; Alvarez, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical methods based on density functional theory have been employed to analyze the exchange interactions in an Fe 6 complex. The calculated exchange coupling constants are consistent with an S=5 ground state and agree well with those reported previously for other Fe III polynuclear complexes. Ferromagnetic interactions may appear through exchange pathways formed by two bridging hydroxo or oxo ligands

  10. Ultrafast spin exchange-coupling torque via photo-excited charge-transfer processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X; Fang, F; Li, Q; Zhu, J; Yang, Y; Wu, Y Z; Zhao, H B; Lüpke, G

    2015-10-28

    Optical control of spin is of central importance in the research of ultrafast spintronic devices utilizing spin dynamics at short time scales. Recently developed optical approaches such as ultrafast demagnetization, spin-transfer and spin-orbit torques open new pathways to manipulate spin through its interaction with photon, orbit, charge or phonon. However, these processes are limited by either the long thermal recovery time or the low-temperature requirement. Here we experimentally demonstrate ultrafast coherent spin precession via optical charge-transfer processes in the exchange-coupled Fe/CoO system at room temperature. The efficiency of spin precession excitation is significantly higher and the recovery time of the exchange-coupling torque is much shorter than for the demagnetization procedure, which is desirable for fast switching. The exchange coupling is a key issue in spin valves and tunnelling junctions, and hence our findings will help promote the development of exchange-coupled device concepts for ultrafast coherent spin manipulation.

  11. First principles calculations of interlayer exchange coupling in bcc Fe/Cu/Fe structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalewski, M.; Heninrich, B. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Schulthess, T.C.; Butler, W.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The authors report on theoretical calculations of interlayer exchange coupling between two Fe layers separated by a modified Cu spacer. These calculations were motivated by experimental investigations of similar structures by the SFU group. The multilayer structures of interest have the general form: Fe/Cu(k)/Fe and Fe/Cu(m)/X(1)/Cu(n)/Fe where X indicates one AL (atomic layer) of foreign atoms X (Cr, Ag, or Fe) and k, m, n represent the number of atomic layers of Cu. The purpose of the experimental and theoretical work was to determine the effect of modifying the pure Cu spacer by replacing the central Cu atomic layer with the atomic layer of foreign atoms X. The first principles calculation were performed using the Layer Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (LKKR) method. The theoretical thickness dependence of the exchange coupling between two semi-infinite Fe layers was calculated for pure Cu spacer thicknesses in the range of 0 < k < 16. The effect of the foreign atoms X on the exchange coupling was investigated using the structure with 9 AL Cu spacer as a reference sample. The calculated changes in the exchange coupling are in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  12. Conductive nano composites based on cellulose nano fiber coated poly aniline via in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Michael J. da; Sanches, Alex O.; Malmonge, Luiz F.; Malmonge, Jose A.; Medeiros, Eliton S. de; Rosa, Morsyleide F.

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose nano fiber (CNF) was extracted by acid hydrolysis from cotton microfibril and nano composites of CNF/PANI-DBSA were obtained by in situ polymerization of aniline onto CNF. The ratios between DBSA/aniline and aniline/oxidant were varied and the nano composites were characterized by four probes direct current (dc) electrical conductivity, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis-NIR) and FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrical conductive about ∼10 -1 S/cm was research and was independent of DBSA/aniline molar ratio between 2-4 and the aniline/oxidant molar ratio between 1-5. X-ray patterns of the samples show crystalline peaks characteristic of cellulose I. The FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of PANI and CNF in all samples. (author)

  13. Optical and Structural Properties of MEH-PPV: ZnO Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Zayana Yahya; Mohamad Rusop; Mohamad Rusop

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of conducting unsaturated polymer of red color poly [2- methoxy-5(2-ethyl hexyloxy)-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) containing different weight percent of ZnO nanoparticles were deposited by spin coating techniques. The MEH-PPV: ZnO solutions were spin coated onto glass substrates. The spun MEH-PPV: ZnO thin films were used for investigating the optical properties by using Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrometer (UV-Vis). The structural properties of the thin films were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). For MEH-PPV: ZnO nano composites, the UV-Vis absorption bands increases and showing slight blue shift compared to the pure MEH-PPV. From the SEM images of some MEH-PPV: ZnO nano composites, it can be seen that ZnO nanoparticles form aggregated regions. (author)

  14. Finite Element Model Characterization Of Nano-Composite Thermal And Environmental Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshiki; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    Thermal and environmental barrier coatings have been applied for protecting Si based ceramic matrix composite components from high temperature environment in advanced gas turbine engines. It has been found that the delamination and lifetime of T/EBC systems generally depend on the initiation and propagation of surface cracks induced by the axial mechanical load in addition to severe thermal loads. In order to prevent T/EBC systems from surface cracking and subsequent delamination due to mechanical and thermal stresses, T/EBC systems reinforced with nano-composite architectures have showed promise to improve mechanical properties and provide a potential crack shielding mechanism such as crack bridging. In this study, a finite element model (FEM) was established to understand the potential beneficial effects of nano-composites systems such as SiC nanotube-reinforced oxide T/EBC systems.

  15. Surface modifications and Nano-composite coatings to improve the bonding strength of titanium-porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Litong, E-mail: guolitong810104@163.com [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); ustralian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Xuemei; Feng, Wei [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Li, Baoe [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Lin, Cheng; Tao, Xueyu; Qiang, Yinghuai [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Surface modifications of Ti and nano-composite coatings were employed to simultaneously improve the surface roughness, corrosion resistance and chemical bonding between porclain-Ti. The specimens were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, surface roughness, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, corrosion resistance and bonding strength tests. The SEM results showed that hybrid structures with micro-stripes, nano-pores and nano-protuberances were prepared by surface modification of Ti, which significantly enhanced the surface roughness and corrosion resistance of Ti. Porous nano-composite coatings were synthesized on Ti anodized with pre-treatment in 40% HF acid. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were added into the hybrid coating to increase the solid phase content of the sols and avoid the formation of microcracks. With the TiO{sub 2} content increasing from 45 wt% to 60 wt%, the quantities of the microcracks on the coating surface gradually decreased. The optimal TiO{sub 2} content for the nanocomposite coatings is 60 wt% in this research. Compared to the uncoated group, the bonding strength of the coated groups showed a bonding strength improvement of 23.96%. The cytotoxicity of the 4# coating group was ranked as zero, which corresponds to non-cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • Surface roughness of Ti was increased by surface modification of Ti. • Corrosion resistance was enhanced by surface modification of Ti. • Porous nano-composite coatings were synthesized on Ti by sol–gel process. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were added into the coating to avoid formation of cracks. • The nano-composite coatings increased the bonding strength of about 24%.

  16. Marginal and internal fit of nano-composite CAD/CAM restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Hyun Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal and internal fit of nano-composite CAD-CAM restorations. Materials and Methods A full veneer crown and an mesio-occluso-distal (MOD inlay cavity, which were prepared on extracted human molars, were used as templates of epoxy resin replicas. The prepared teeth were scanned and CAD-CAM restorations were milled using Lava Ultimate (LU and experimental nano-composite CAD/CAM blocks (EB under the same milling parameters. To assess the marginal and internal fit, the restorations were cemented to replicas and were embedded in an acrylic mold for sectioning at 0.5 mm intervals. The measured gap data were pooled according to the block types and measuring points for statistical analysis. Results Both the block type and measuring point significantly affected gap values, and their interaction was significant (p = 0.000. In crowns and inlays made from the two blocks, gap values were significantly larger in the occlusal area than in the axial area, while gap values in the marginal area were smallest (p < 0.001. Among the blocks, the restorations milled from EB had a significantly larger gap at all measuring points than those milled from LU (p = 0.000. Conclusions The marginal and internal gaps of the two nano-composite CAD/CAM blocks differed according to the measuring points. Among the internal area of the two nano-composite CAD/CAM restorations, occlusal gap data were significantly larger than axial gap data. The EB crowns and inlays had significantly larger gaps than LU restorations.

  17. Progress in Tribological Properties of Nano-Composite Hard Coatings under Water Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianzhi Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The tribological properties, under water-lubricated conditions, of three major nano-composite coatings, i.e., diamond-like carbon (DLC or a-C, amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx and transition metallic nitride-based (TiN-based, CrN-based, coatings are reviewed. The influences of microstructure (composition and architecture and test conditions (counterparts and friction parameters on their friction and wear behavior under water lubrication are systematically elucidated. In general, DLC and a-CNx coatings exhibit superior tribological performance under water lubrication due to the formation of the hydrophilic group and the lubricating layer with low shear strength, respectively. In contrast, TiN-based and CrN-based coatings present relatively poor tribological performance in pure water, but are expected to present promising applications in sea water because of their good corrosion resistance. No matter what kind of coatings, an appropriate selection of counterpart materials would make their water-lubricated tribological properties more prominent. Currently, Si-based materials are deemed as beneficial counterparts under water lubrication due to the formation of silica gel originating from the hydration of Si. In the meantime, the tribological properties of nano-composite coatings in water could be enhanced at appropriate normal load and sliding velocity due to mixed or hydrodynamic lubrication. At the end of this article, the main research that is now being developed concerning the development of nano-composite coatings under water lubrication is described synthetically.

  18. Micro-structural characterisation of homogeneous and layered MFC nano-composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Averianova, Natalia; Gibadullin, Marat; Petrov, Vladimir; Leirset, Ingebjørg; Syverud, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The complementary capabilities of various characterisation methods for micro-structural assessment are demonstrated. The assessed structures were composed of unbleached microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in combination with bleached and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO) pre-treated MFC materials. The biodegradable nano-composites were thus characterised in detail, including laser profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in high and low vacuum modes, and field-emission SEM. The distribution of the unbleached MFC materials was assessed by staining the unbleached MFC with osmium tetroxide (OsO(4)), which reacts with C=C double bonds encountered in lignin. In addition, some properties of the MFC nano-composite films were tested, i.e. tensile properties, water wettability and oxygen permeability. In general, the group of characteristics of the nano-composite MFC films was better than the properties of the films made of the neat MFC qualities. This indicates that mixing complementary MFC qualities could give synergetic effects that are not exploited completely when using the MFC qualities separately. The study thus confirms the suitability of unbleached MFC materials as a component in multilayer structures, for example biodegradable packaging applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polyurethane/organo clay nano composite materials via in-situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehab, A.; Agag, T; Akelah, A.; Shalaby, N.

    2005-01-01

    Polyurethane/organo clay nano composites have been synthesized via in situ polymerization. The organo clay firstly prepared by intercalation of lyamine or amino lauric acid into montmorillonite-clay (MMT) through ion exchange process. The syntheses of polyurethane/organo clay hybrid films containing different ratio of clay were carried out by swelling the organo clay, into diol and diamine or into different kinds of diols, followed by addition of diisocyanate. The nano composites with dispersed structure of MMT was obtained as evidence by scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction. X-ray analysis showed that the d-spacing increased to more than 44A since there is no peaks corresponding to do spacing in organo clay with all the ratios (1, 5, 10, 20%). Also, SEM results confirm the dispersion of nanometer silicate layers in the polyurethane matrix. This indicated that the clay was completely exfoliated and homogeneous dispersion in the polyurethane matrix. Also, it was found that the presence of organo clay leads to improvement the mechanical properties. Since, the tensile strength increased with increasing the organo clay contents to 20% by the ratio 194% in compared to the 1H: with 0% organo clay. Also, the elongation is a decreases with increasing the organo clay contents. The results shown the tensile strength of PU/SMA/ALA-MMT nano composites is high by 6-7 times than the corresponding to PU/Tvr-MMT

  20. Oxidation Behavior of AlN/h-BN Nano Composites at High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Haiyun; Huang Yinmao; Feng Dawei; He Bo [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Yang Jianfeng, E-mail: hebo@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behaviour of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2011-10-29

    Both AlN/ nano h-BN composites and AlN/ micro h-BN composites were fabricated. The high temperature oxidation behaviors were investigated at 1000deg. C and 1300deg. C using a cycle-oxidation method. The results showed that there were little changes of both nano composites and monolithic AlN ceramic at temperature of 1000deg. C. And at 1300deg. C, the oxidation dynamics curve of composites could be divided into two courses: a slowly weight increase and a rapid weight decrease, but the oxidation behavior of nano composites was better than micro composites. It was due to that the uniform distribution of oxidation production (Al{sub 18}B{sub 4}O{sub 33}) surround the AlN grains in nano composites and the oxidation proceeding was retarded. The XRD analysis and SEM observations showed that there was no BN remained in the composites surface after 1300deg. C oxidation and the micropores remain due to the vaporizing of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxidized by BN.

  1. Characterization of dispersion of a nano composites PP/TiO2 non modified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Igor L.; Tavares, Maria I.B.; Silva, Vanessa A. da; Legramanti, Cintia; Luetkmeyer, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric nano composites are composite materials where an inorganic particle, which has a dimension in the nanometer range, is dispersed in a polymer matrix. Nano composites, using polypropylene (PP) as matrix polymer and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) as filler, have great versatility in marketing applications, this factor is inherent in the PP and the inherent ability photo degraded TiO 2 particles. This combination can lead to a widely used material and a degradation time after discharge reduced, there by becoming, a residue of low environmental impact. This study aimed to evaluate the dispersion and particle distribution of TiO 2 , non modified, in PP matrix, using the process of preparation by melt extrusion pathway and characterization of the materials obtained: on the molecular dynamics, using low field NMR solid state, measures the relaxation time spin-network (T 1 H); morphology using XRD technique, and thermal analysis technique with the TGA of pure PP and nano composites PP/TiO 2 . (author)

  2. Effective reduction of p-nitrophenol by silver nanoparticle loaded on magnetic Fe3O4/ATO nano-composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Hem Prakash; Ojha, Devi Prashad; Joshi, Mahesh Kumar; Kim, Han Joo

    2018-03-01

    A silver loaded hematite (Fe3O4) and antimony doped tin oxide (ATO) magnetic nano-composite (Ag-Fe3O4/ATO) was successfully synthesized by in situ one pot green and facile hydrothermal process. The formation of nano-composite, its structure, morphology, and stability were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron diffraction spectroscopy (EDS), elemental mapping by high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). UV-vis spectroscopy was used to monitor the catalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol (PNP) into p-aminophenol (PAP) in presence of Ag-Fe3O4/ATO nano-composite with excess of sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The pseudo-first order kinetic equation could describe the reduction of p-nitrophenol with excess of NaBH4. For the first time, ATO surface was used for hydrothermal growth of silver and iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. The in situ growth of these nanoparticles provided an effective bonding of components of the nano-composite over the surface of ATO nanoparticles. This nano-composite exhibited easy synthesis, high stability, cost effective and rapid separation using external magnet. The excellent catalytic and anti-bacterial activity of as-synthesized silver nano-composite makes it potential nano-catalyst for waste water treatment as well as biomedical application.

  3. BACTERICIDE IMPACT OF POLYMER-STABILIZED MULTI-FUNCTIONAL NANO-COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graskova I.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis on the basis of natural matrices in order to acquire products with the desired properties is one of the promising trends of modern science. Using polysaccharides as a matrix allowed to generate derivatives with diverse structures and new properties. Growing interest towards anti-microbe effect of selenium-containing nano-composites is induced by the phenomenon of antibiotic-resistance of contemporary pathogenic microorganisms.Clavibacter genus bacteria are the most significant and widely spread among gram-positive bacteria. Bacteria cells are static pleimorphous rods, normally singular, sometimes coupled or joined in short chains, strict anaerobes in need of certain growth factors, non-sporogenous. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus cause potato ring rot. At the tuber slice the damage is shaped as a ring; growing bacteria are accumulated in the conducting vessels causing their occlusion and therefore gradual withering of leaves and stem. This disease is distributed at all the continents including Australia. Harvest loss through ring rot damage may reach 10-45%.Our work was aimed at the study of complex interaction between microbe cultivar and selenium-based nanocomposites. Bacterial strain Аs1405 was acquired from the All-Russia collection of microorganisms, IMBP RAS. This genus is not included in the classification of pathogenic microorganisms by pathogenic groups of Sanitary-Epidemiological Rules SP 1.3.2322-08. The present study was focused on characteristics of the acquired strain.Fluorescent and electronic-scanning microscope was used to acquire photographs of bacterial cells. Pathogen was identified by PCR-analysis, which confirmed the presence of DNA of desired size. The extracted DNA was sequenced with the sequenced sequence added to Gen Bank under the number HQ394204. Cellulolytic and phytotoxic activity of this strain was determined.Chemistry Institute named A.E. Favorsky provided water-soluble nano-composites

  4. Properties of Exchange Coupled All-garnet Magneto-Optic Thin Film Multilayer Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nur-E-Alam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exchange coupling on magnetic switching properties of all-garnet multilayer thin film structures are investigated. All-garnet structures are fabricated by sandwiching a magneto-soft material of composition type Bi1.8Lu1.2Fe3.6Al1.4O12 or Bi3Fe5O12:Dy2O3 in between two magneto-hard garnet material layers of composition type Bi2Dy1Fe4Ga1O12 or Bi2Dy1Fe4Ga1O12:Bi2O3. The fabricated RF magnetron sputtered exchange-coupled all-garnet multilayers demonstrate a very attractive combination of magnetic properties, and are of interest for emerging applications in optical sensors and isolators, ultrafast nanophotonics and magneto-plasmonics. An unconventional type of magnetic hysteresis behavior not observed previously in magnetic garnet thin films is reported and discussed.

  5. Optimization of spring exchange coupled ferrites, studied by in situ neutron diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlburg, Jakob; Christensen, Mogens; Granados-Miralles, Cecilia

    the magnetic energy product. For the exchange coupling to happen it is crucial to have the right ratio between the hard and the soft phase but also to control the size of the particles since exchange coupling is a very small range effect. In this study, nanoparticles of the spinel CoFe2O4 (hard magnet......) is reduced to a metallic alloy CoFe (soft magnet) by heating the sample and flowing it with hydrogen gas. It is studied in situ using neutron powder diffraction with a time resolution of 12 min. The transition from spinel to pure metal goes through an intermediate step of a metal oxide before being fully......Strong permanent magnets with a high energy-product are vital for a great number of electronic devices, these can be found in transformers, loudspeakers, windmills etc. Normally the preferred type of magnets are Rare Earth Metals (REM) containing magnets. REM excels since the magnetic contribution...

  6. Effects of oxygen concentration in Co/CoO exchange-coupled spin valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, J.C.; Stern, N.P.; Snowden, D.S.; Checkelsky, J.G.; Sparks, P.D.; Carey, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of Co/CoO x exchange-coupled spin valves are explored at temperatures to 5 K. The spin valve structure is: 100 A CoO x /30 A Co/30 A Cu/10 A Co/50 A NiFe/50 A Ti. Our discovery is the considerable differences between the properties of the spin valves for which the CoO x layer is prepared in different O 2 concentrations

  7. Probing conformational changes in rhodopsin using hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Tivadar; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to evaluate changes in protein conformation between two or more states. Here, we describe a complete methodology that can be used to assess conformational changes in rhodopsin accompanying its transition from the inactive to activated state upon light exposure. This approach may be employed to investigate the structure and conformational changes of various membrane proteins.

  8. Investigation of exchange coupled bilayer Fe/CuMnAs by pump–probe experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saidl, Vít; Němec, P.; Wadley, P.; Edmonds, K. W.; Campion, R. P.; Novák, Vít; Gallagher, B. L.; Trojánek, F.; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-5, č. článku 1600441. ISSN 1862-6254 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antiferromagnets * exchange coupling Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 3.032, year: 2016

  9. Modification of interlayer exchange coupling in Fe/V/Fe trilayers using hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoryna, J., E-mail: jskoryna@ifmpan.poznan.pl [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17 St., 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Marczyńska, A. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17 St., 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Lewandowski, M. [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85 St., 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Smardz, L. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17 St., 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Magnetic films and multilayers. • Thin films. • Hydrogen absorbing materials. • Magnetic measurements. • Exchange coupling. - Abstract: Fe/V/Fe trilayers with constant-thickness Fe and step-like wedged V sublayers were prepared at room temperature using UHV magnetron sputtering. The bottom Fe layer grows onto oxidised Si(1 0 0) substrate and shows relatively high coercivity. The top Fe layer grows on vanadium spacer and shows considerably lower coercivity. The planar growth of the Fe and V sublayers was confirmed in-situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results show that the Fe sublayers are weakly exchange coupled for d{sub V} > 1.4 nm. Results on the coercivity studies as a function of the V interlayer thickness show near d{sub V} ∼ 1.95 nm (∼2.45 nm) weak antiferromagnetic (ferromagnetic) coupling, respectively. The hydrogenation of the Fe/V/Fe trilayers leads to increase of the strength of the ferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling.

  10. Spin-wave resonance frequency in ferromagnetic thin film with interlayer exchange coupling and surface anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuhui; Rong, Jianhong; Wang, Huan; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated the dependence of spin-wave resonance(SWR) frequency on the surface anisotropy, the interlayer exchange coupling, the ferromagnetic layer thickness, the mode number and the external magnetic field in a ferromagnetic superlattice film by means of the linear spin-wave approximation and Green's function technique. The SWR frequency of the ferromagnetic thin film is shifted to higher values corresponding to those of above factors, respectively. It is found that the linear behavior of SWR frequency curves of all modes in the system is observed as the external magnetic field is increasing, however, SWR frequency curves are nonlinear with the lower and the higher modes for different surface anisotropy and interlayer exchange coupling in the system. In addition, the SWR frequency of the lowest (highest) mode is shifted to higher (lower) values when the film thickness is thinner. The interlayer exchange coupling is more important for the energetically higher modes than for the energetically lower modes. The surface anisotropy has a little effect on the SWR frequency of the highest mode, when the surface anisotropy field is further increased.

  11. Study of rheological, viscoelastic and vulcanization behavior of sponge EPDM/NR blended nano- composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M Arshad; Shahid, M; Ahmed, Riaz; Yahya, A G

    2014-01-01

    In this research paper the effect of blending ratio of natural rubber (NR) with Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) were investigated. Different samples of EPDM/NR ratio were prepared to study the variation of NR in EPDM on rheology, curing characteristics, tangent δ, and viscosity variation during vulcanization of sponge nano composites.The main aim of present research is to develop elastomeric based sponge composites with the blending ratio of base elastomers along with the carbon nano particles for high energy absorbing and damping applications. The curing characteristics, rheology and viscoelastic nature of the composite is remarkably influenced with the progressive blending ratio of the base elastomeric matrix

  12. Study of rheological, viscoelastic and vulcanization behavior of sponge EPDM/NR blended nano-composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M. A.; Shahid, M.; Ahmed, R.; Yahya, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this research paper the effect of blending ratio of natural rubber (NR) with Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) were investigated. Different samples of EPDM/NR ratio were prepared to study the variation of NR in EPDM on rheology, curing characteristics, tangent d, and viscosity variation during vulcanization of sponge nano composites. The main aim of present research is to develop elastomeric based sponge composites with the blending ratio of base elastomers along with the carbon nano particles for high energy absorbing and damping applications. The curing characteristics, rheology and viscoelastic nature of the composite is remarkably influenced with the progressive blending ratio of the base elastomeric matrix. (author)

  13. Surface modifications and Nano-composite coatings to improve the bonding strength of titanium-porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Litong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Xuemei; Feng, Wei; Li, Baoe; Lin, Cheng; Tao, Xueyu; Qiang, Yinghuai

    2016-04-01

    Surface modifications of Ti and nano-composite coatings were employed to simultaneously improve the surface roughness, corrosion resistance and chemical bonding between porclain-Ti. The specimens were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, surface roughness, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, corrosion resistance and bonding strength tests. The SEM results showed that hybrid structures with micro-stripes, nano-pores and nano-protuberances were prepared by surface modification of Ti, which significantly enhanced the surface roughness and corrosion resistance of Ti. Porous nano-composite coatings were synthesized on Ti anodized with pre-treatment in 40% HF acid. TiO2 nanoparticles were added into the hybrid coating to increase the solid phase content of the sols and avoid the formation of microcracks. With the TiO2 content increasing from 45 wt% to 60 wt%, the quantities of the microcracks on the coating surface gradually decreased. The optimal TiO2 content for the nanocomposite coatings is 60 wt% in this research. Compared to the uncoated group, the bonding strength of the coated groups showed a bonding strength improvement of 23.96%. The cytotoxicity of the 4# coating group was ranked as zero, which corresponds to non-cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Marginal and internal fit of nano-composite CAD/CAM restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Hyun; Shin, Yoo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the marginal and internal fit of nano-composite CAD-CAM restorations. Materials and Methods A full veneer crown and an mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) inlay cavity, which were prepared on extracted human molars, were used as templates of epoxy resin replicas. The prepared teeth were scanned and CAD-CAM restorations were milled using Lava Ultimate (LU) and experimental nano-composite CAD/CAM blocks (EB) under the same milling parameters. To assess the marginal and internal fit, the restorations were cemented to replicas and were embedded in an acrylic mold for sectioning at 0.5 mm intervals. The measured gap data were pooled according to the block types and measuring points for statistical analysis. Results Both the block type and measuring point significantly affected gap values, and their interaction was significant (p = 0.000). In crowns and inlays made from the two blocks, gap values were significantly larger in the occlusal area than in the axial area, while gap values in the marginal area were smallest (p inlays had significantly larger gaps than LU restorations. PMID:26877989

  15. Radiation induced synthesis of conducting polymers and their metal nano-composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Zhenpeng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the versatility of the gamma (γ)-rays based radiolytic method and to extend our methodology to the synthesis of various conducting polymers (CPs) in water in different experimental conditions. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene) (PEDOT) and poly-pyrrole (PPy) conjugated polymers were successfully prepared and characterized in solution and after deposition by complementary spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Also their thermal stability and their electrical conductivity were studied and compared with those of CPs prepared by conventional methods. The influence of the nature of radiation-induced oxidizing radicals, of the ionic strength, of the medium, of the pH, of the presence of surfactant-based soft templates on the growth mechanism, on the efficiency of polymerization, on the morphology of the obtained CPs as well as on their absorption and conducting properties was checked. Also, the radiolytic method was extend to the synthesis of CPs/noble metal nano-composites. Different preparation methodologies were developed based on two-step method and one-pot method, by using oxidation route or reduction route. Our new radiolytic strategy described and extended in this manuscript opens the way for the preparation of different kinds of CPs and CPs nano-composites not only in aqueous solutions but also in various environments foreshadowing many promising applications.. (author)

  16. Preparation and Characterization of New Nano-Composite Scaffolds Loaded With Vascular Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianbin Ren

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, vascular stents were fabricated from poly (lactide-ε-caprolactone/collagen/nano-hydroxyapatite (PLCL/Col/nHA by electrospinning, and the surface morphology and breaking strength were observed or measured through scanning electron microscopy and tensile tests. The anti-clotting properties of stents were evaluated for anticoagulation surfaces modified by the electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. In addition, nano-composite scaffolds of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid/polycapr-olactone/nano-hydroxyapatite (PLGA/PCL/nHA loaded with the vascular stents were prepared by thermoforming-particle leaching and their basic performance and osteogenesis were tested in vitro and in vivo. The results show that the PLCL/Col/nHA stents and PLGA/PCL/nHA nano-composite scaffolds had good surface structures, mechanical properties, biocompatibility and could guide bone regeneration. These may provide a new way to build vascularized-tissue engineered bone to repair large bone defects in bone tissue engineering.

  17. Fabrication of Surface Level Cu/Si Cp Nano composites by Friction Stir Processing Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, R. C.; Karunanithi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) technique has been successfully employed as low energy consumption route to prepare copper based surface level nano composites reinforced with nano sized silicon carbide particles (Si Cp). The effect of FSP parameters such as tool rotational speed, processing speed, and tool tilt angle on microstructure and microhardness was investigated. Single pass FSP was performed based on Box-Behnken design at three factors in three levels. A cluster of blind holes 2 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth was used as particulate deposition technique in order to reduce the agglomeration problem during composite fabrication. K-type thermocouples were used to measure temperature histories during FSP. The results suggest that the heat generation during FSP plays a significant role in deciding the microstructure and microhardness of the surface composites. Microstructural observations revealed a uniform dispersion of nano sized Si Cp without any agglomeration problem and well bonded with copper matrix at different process parameter combinations. X-ray diffraction study shows that no intermetallic compound was produced after processing. The microhardness of nano composites was remarkably enhanced and about 95% more than that of copper matrix

  18. Synthesis and ion conduction mechanism on hot-pressed sodium ion conducting nano composite polymer electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angesh Chandra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and ion conduction studies on SiO2 dispersed hot-pressed sodium ion conducting nano-composite polymer electrolytes (100 − x[70PEO:30NaHCO3] + xSiO2, where x is in wt.%, are reported. The nano-composite polymer electrolytes (NCPEs are cast by the dispersion of nano-filler SiO2 using a hot-press method in place of the traditional solution-cast technique. The effect of nano-filler SiO2 is characterized with the help of some basic ion transport parameters viz. ionic conductivity, ionic mobility, mobile ion concentration and activation energy measurements. The material characterization and polymer–salt/SiO2 complexation are reported with the help of XRD, FTIR, SEM, DSC and TGA studies. Based on SPE host and NCPE OCC, a solid state polymeric battery fabrication and cell-potential discharge characteristics are also reported at different load conditions.

  19. Surface enhanced 316L/SiC nano-composite coatings via laser cladding and following cold-swaging process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhang; Gao, Shiyou

    2017-10-01

    Cold-swaging is one of a cold deformation processes, and ceramic-reinforcement nano-composite coatings can effectively improve the performance of metal matrix surface. Therefore, the two processes are innovatively combined to further improve the surface properties of the metal matrix in this paper. The microstructure and surface properties of the laser cladding 316L + 10 wt% SiC nano-composite coatings were examined through designed experiments after cold-swaging by self-developed hydraulic machine. Furthermore, the coatings were compared with those without cold-swaging coatings at the same time. The result shows that the cold-swaging process can further enhance the tensile strength, micro-hardness and the wear resistance of the composite coating. This study can be used as a reference for further strengthening of laser cladding nano-composite coatings in future research.

  20. Spin waves in the soft layer of exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-min Xiong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic dynamical properties of the soft layer in exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers have been investigated numerically using a one-dimensional atomic chain model. The frequencies and spatial profiles of spin wave eigenmodes are calculated during the magnetization reversal process of the soft layer. The spin wave modes exhibit a spatially modulated amplitude, which is especially evident for high-order modes. A dynamic pinning effect of surface magnetic moment is observed. The spin wave eigenfrequency decreases linearly with the increase of the magnetic field in the uniformly magnetized state and increases nonlinearly with field when spiral magnetization configuration is formed in the soft layer.

  1. Spin waves in the soft layer of exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Zheng-min; Ge, Su-qin; Wang, Xi-guang; Li, Zhi-xiong; Xia, Qing-lin; Wang, Dao-wei; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2016-05-15

    The magnetic dynamical properties of the soft layer in exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers have been investigated numerically using a one-dimensional atomic chain model. The frequencies and spatial profiles of spin wave eigenmodes are calculated during the magnetization reversal process of the soft layer. The spin wave modes exhibit a spatially modulated amplitude, which is especially evident for high-order modes. A dynamic pinning effect of surface magnetic moment is observed. The spin wave eigenfrequency decreases linearly with the increase of the magnetic field in the uniformly magnetized state and increases nonlinearly with field when spiral magnetization configuration is formed in the soft layer.

  2. Quantum size effects in Pb layers with absorbed Kondo adatoms: Determination of the exchange coupling constant

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-07-01

    We consider the magnetic interaction of manganese phtalocyanine (MnPc) absorbed on Pb layers that were grown on a Si substrate. We perform an ab initio calculation of the density of states and Kondo temperature as a function of the number of Pb monolayers. Comparison to experimental data [Y.-S. Fu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 256601 (2007)] then allows us to determine the exchange coupling constant J between the spins of the adsorbed molecules and those of the Pb host. This approach gives rise to a general and reliable method for obtaining J by combining experimental and numerical results.

  3. Exchange-coupled nanoscale SmCo/NdFeB hybrid magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dapeng; Poudyal, Narayan; Rong, Chuanbing [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Zhang Ying [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Ames Laboratory, USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Kramer, M.J. [Materials Science and Engineering, Ames Laboratory, USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Liu, J. Ping, E-mail: pliu@uta.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Nanoscale hybrid magnets containing SmCo{sub 5} and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B hard magnetic phases have been produced via a novel 'in-one-pot' processing route. The grain size of the processed bulk composite materials is controlled below 20 nm. The refinement of the nanoscale morphology leads to effective inter-phase exchange coupling that results in single-phase like magnetic properties. Energy product of 14 MGOe was obtained in the isotropic nanocomposite magnets at room temperature. At elevated temperatures, the hybrid magnets have greatly improved thermal stability compared to the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B single-phase counterpart and have substantially increased magnetization and energy products compared to the single-phase SmCo{sub 5} counterpart. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We realize interphase exchange coupling in nanoscale SmCo{sub 5}/Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We observe homogenously distributed two-phase grains with size smaller than 20 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We observe a common Curie temperature in the hybrid magnet. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-temperature magnetic properties of the hybrid magnets greatly improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plastic deformation of composite materials leads to self-nanoscaling of grains.

  4. Low-energy magnetoelectric control of domain states in exchange-coupled heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahdawi, Muftah; Pati, Satya Prakash; Shiokawa, Yohei; Ye, Shujun; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Sahashi, Masashi

    2017-04-01

    The electric manipulation of antiferromagnets has become an area of great interest recently for zero-stray-field spintronic devices, and for their rich spin dynamics. Generally, the application of antiferromagnetic media for information memories and storage requires a heterostructure with a ferromagnetic layer for readout through the exchange-bias field. In magnetoelectric and multiferroic antiferromagnets, the exchange coupling exerts an additional impediment (energy barrier) to magnetization reversal by the applied magnetoelectric energy. We proposed and verified a method to overcome this barrier. We controlled the energy required for switching the magnetic domains in magnetoelectric Cr2O3 films by compensating the exchange-coupling energy from the ferromagnetic layer with the Zeeman energy of a small volumetric spontaneous magnetization found for the sputtered Cr2O3 films. Based on a simplified phenomenological model of the field-cooling process, the magnetic and electric fields required for switching could be tuned. As an example, the switching of antiferromagnetic domains around a zero-threshold electric field was demonstrated at a magnetic field of 2.6 kOe.

  5. BaM/YIG nano-composites: A microwave material for C to U band application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Sharma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hexaferrites have become important candidates for a variety of microwave and millimeter wave devices due to their large uniaxial magneto-crystalline anisotropy and high saturation magnetization. The goal of the present investigation is to synthesize Barium hexaferrite/Yttrium Iron Garnet (BaFe12O19/Y3Fe5O12: (BaM/YIG Nano-Composites (NCs to be used in broad band microwave frequency range applications, especially as microwave absorber. X-ray diffractometry, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM, and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR techniques were used to characterize these NCs. Using a Cu coplanar wave guide and a Vector Network Analyzer, broadband (C to U microwave absorption were investigated by placing the bulk sample in flip chip mode. Various mathematical models were employed to fit the experimental data to yield intrinsic and extrinsic damping parameters.

  6. Development, characterization and machining of Al and SiCp nano particles metal matrix nano composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Pradyut Kumar; Sahool, Ashok Kumar; Das, Ratnakar; Padhi, Payodhar

    2018-02-01

    The present study has been developed to ensure proper mixing of SiCp nano particle with powder of aluminum metal matrix. Different wt fraction of SiCp 1, 1.5 and 2% samples were prepared for characterization of nano composite material. The paper deals with the influence of different machining parameters at different wt fraction of SiCp in aluminum metal matrix. It was also observed that the cutting forces are affected by dry turning machining operation. As result, high cutting forces were required for machining of high percentage of SiCp nano particles. The study also deals with the dispersion of nano particle and segregation of the particles near the grain boundaries due to grain growth.

  7. Study on the nano-composite electroless coating of Ni-P/Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongfang; Tian Fang; Li Dan; Guo Qiang

    2009-01-01

    The nano-composite coating of Ni-P/Ag was obtained by adding silver nanoparticles to the Ni-P electroless plating solutions. The properties of the coating were tested by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microsclerometer. Silver nanoparticles changed the properties of the composite coating. The Ni-P electroless coating contains 12.23 wt.% P while the composite coating of Ni-P/Ag contains 11.17 wt.% P and 0.24 wt.% Ag. The hardness of the composite coating is bigger than that of Ni-P alloy coating. Differential scanning calorimeter studies showed the amorphous to crystalline transition with precipitation of Ni 3 P and Ni around 335 deg. C

  8. Mathematical Simulation of Temperature Profiles within Microwave Heated Wood Made for Wood-Based Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; He, X.; Lv, J.; Wu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, H.

    2013-01-01

    High intensive microwave pretreatment is a new method to modify wood for the fabrication of wood-based nano composites. Based on the physical law on heat transfer, a mathematical model to describe the temperature profiles within wood heated by high intensive microwave was established and simulated in this research. The results showed that the temperature profiles within wood were related to microwave heating methods; The temperature inside wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased along the direction of microwave transmission when the unilateral microwave heating was applied, and the temperature difference along the thickness direction of wood was very significant; The temperature with wood firstly increased and then gradually decreased from the wood surface to interior when the bilateral microwave heating was applied. Compared with the unilateral microwave heating, bilateral microwave heating is a better microwave heating method for the more uniform wood microwave pretreatment.

  9. Thermal and mechanical properties of compression-moulded poly(lactic acid)/gluten/clays bio(nano)composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio(nano)composites comprising agricultural-based polymers blended with biodegradable plant-based fillers and clays were produced to develop novel hydrophobic, yet biodegradable materials that have properties comparable to those of petroleum-based plastics. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA), wheat vital glut...

  10. Investigation, evaluation and analysis of SiCp nano particle metal matrix nano composite using a hybrid process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Pradyut Kumar; Sahool, Ashok Kumar; Das, Ratnakar; Padhi, Payodhar

    2018-02-01

    The present study was performed on mixing of fine powder of aluminum and silicon carbide nano particles 25nm size each. In this process, aluminum works as matrix and silicon carbide works as reinforcement with volume fraction of 1, 1.5 and 2%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microscopy techniques were used for crystal structure and micro structural characterization of the nano composite material. The objective of study was to achieve uniform distribution of SiCp nano particles in the aluminum matrix. The effect of reinforcement of Silicon carbide nano particle size and its volume fraction with aluminum encouraged investigation of stress strain response, elastic modulus and yield strength of nano composite metal matrix. Nano indentation and compression test were performed to characterize the nano composite material. Yield strength, compressive strength and elastic modulus were obtained from the compression test. Whereas, nano indentation results gave the yield strength, maximum shear stress and elastic modulus. The tensile test was conducted to find out the ultimate tensile strength. FESEM and EDAX techniques were also used to evaluate the different elements and their properties of Aluminum and SiCp nano particle metal matrix nano composite. The study reveals that in the liquid metal nano particle were uniformly dispersed and the segregation of the particles near the grain boundaries is due to pushing of the nano particle during growth of grain.

  11. Effect of lateral size of graphene nano-sheets on the mechanical properties and machinability of alumina nano-composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Porwal, H.; Saggar, Richa; Tatarko, P.; Grasso, S.; Saunders, T.; Dlouhý, Ivo; Reece, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (2016), s. 7533-7542 ISSN 0272-8842 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 264526 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Alumina * Graphene nano-sheets * Nano-composites * Mechanical properties * Machinability Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.986, year: 2016

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Hippurate Nano composite and Its Cytotoxicity Effect in Combination with Cytarabine against HL-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Ali, S.H.H.; Al-Qubaisi, M.; Ismail, M.; El Zowalaty, M.; Hussein, M.Z.; Ismail, M.

    2013-01-01

    Hippuric acid (HA) was intercalated into a zinc-layered hydroxide (ZLH) by direct reaction of an aqueous suspension of zinc oxide with an aqueous solution of hippuric acid to obtain hippurate nano composite (HAN). Various concentrations of hippuric acid (0.05, 0.2, and 0.4 molar) were used for the synthesis of the nano composite. The as-synthesized HAN using 0.2 molar was found to give a well-ordered layered nano composite material with an increase in the basal spacing to 21.3 Å which indicated the insertion of hippurate organic moiety into the ZLH interlayers. The cytotoxicity of HAN in combination with cytarabine against human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) was tested using MTT cell viability assay and trypan blue dye exclusion assay. The combination of cytarabine with HAN showed higher tumor suppression efficiency as compared to that of cytarabine alone. The IC 50 values of HAN/cytarabine combination and cytarabine alone were μg/mL and μg/mL, respectively. DNA fragmentation was also studied, and the exposure of HL-60 cells to cytarabine produced % DNA fragmentation compared to % when cells were exposed to combination of cytarabine with HAN. The antimicrobial activity of hippuric acid and HAN nano composite was carried out against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. It was found that Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were more sensitive to HAN compared to Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella choleraesuis

  13. The diametral tensile strength and hydrostability of polymer-ceramic nano-composite (pcnc) material prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepez, Johanna

    Statement of the problem: There is a weak connection between the filler and the resin matrix of dental composites caused primarily by hydrolysis of silane coupling agent, therefore, jeopardizing the mechanical properties of the dental restorations. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the diametral tensile strength (DTS) of a nano-mechanically bonded polymer ceramic nano composite (pcnc) versus the chemically bonding prototype polymer ceramic nano composite (pcnc) fabricated by using hydrolytically stable interphase. Materials and Methods: Composites were made with 60wt % filler, 38% triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEDGMA), 1% camphorquinone (CQ) and 1% 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). Tests for DTS were performed using a universal testing machine. The disk-shaped specimens were loaded in compression between two supporting plates at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. The samples, measuring 3 mm in height and 6 mm in diameter, were produced in a round stainless steel (SS) mold. A total of 144 samples were created. Groups of 48 samples were made for each of three different fillers. Specimens were soaked in artificial saliva at 37° for four time periods, dry(t=0), 1 day, 7 days, 28 days). At the end of each soaking time DTS tests were performed. Results: There where statistically significant differences in the DTS between the filler groups and the soaking times (p=dental composites is a detrimental factor in the mechanical behavior. The silanation of the filler particles have a positive influence on the mechanical properties of dental composites but the hydrolysis of the silane coupling agent can dramatically reduce the average lifetime of dental composites.

  14. Radiation effect on characterization and physical properties of polymer nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, E.K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric materials are of interest in scientific and technological research, because they can be tailored to meet specific requirement for a verity of applications, this is mainly due to their light weight, good mechanical strength, and optical properties.From which, Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) is one of the most important polymeric materials, because it has many applications in industry and is of relatively low cost in manufacture. It is well documented that electrical and optical properties of polymers can be improved to a desired limit through suitable doping. In this concern, and since Ag + is a fast conducting ion in a number of crystalline and amorphous materials, its incorporation within a polymeric system may be expected to enhance its electrical and optical properties. In the present study the PVA/Ag nano composite with different contents of inorganic phase of (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8) wt % were prepared by reduction of Ag + ions in PVA solution using gamma irradiation with different dose of (15, 25, 50, 75, 100) kGy. The Ag particle size was found to be around 14.0 nm based on the UV-Vis spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurements. Also, the structural studies of the synthesized PVA/Ag nano composites have been carried out through FTIR, and XRD studies. Further, the dependence of the optical and electrical properties of PVA on the concentration of the embedded nano-Ag was reported. As well, the effects of γ- irradiation have been studied applying UV-Vis spectroscopy and electrical characteristics measurements, respectively.

  15. Exchange-coupled nanoscale SmCo/NdFeB hybrid magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dapeng; Poudyal, Narayan; Rong, Chuanbing; Zhang, Ying; Kramer, Matthew J.; Liu, J. Ping

    2012-05-11

    Nanoscalehybridmagnets containing SmCo5 and Nd2Fe14B hard magnetic phases have been produced via a novel “in-one-pot” processing route. The grain size of the processed bulk composite materials is controlled below 20 nm. The refinement of the nanoscale morphology leads to effective inter-phase exchange coupling that results in single-phase like magnetic properties. Energy product of 14 MGOe was obtained in the isotropic nanocomposite magnets at room temperature. At elevated temperatures, the hybridmagnets have greatly improved thermal stability compared to the Nd2Fe14B single-phase counterpart and have substantially increased magnetization and energy products compared to the single-phase SmCo5 counterpart.

  16. Enhancement of exchange coupling interaction of NdFeB/MnBi hybrid magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong Xuan; Nguyen, Khanh Van; Nguyen, Vuong Van

    2018-03-01

    MnBi ribbons were fabricated by melt - spinning with subsequent annealing. The MnBi ribbons were ground and mixed with NdFeB commercial Magnequench powders (MQA). The hybrid powder mixtures were subjected thrice to the annealing and ball-milling route. The hybrid magnets (100 - x)NdFeB/xMnBi, x=0, 30, 40, 50 and 100 wt% were in-mold aligned in an 18 kOe magnetic field and warm compacted at 290 °C by 2000 psi uniaxial pressure for 10 min. An enhancement of the exchange coupling of NdFeB/MnBi hybrid magnets was obtained by optimizing the magnets' microstructures via annealing and ball-milling processes. The magnetic properties of prepared NdFeB/MnBi hybrid magnets were studied and discussed in details.

  17. The influence of magnetostatic interactions in exchange-coupled composite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokoun, D; Beleggia, M; De Graef, M; Hou, HC; Lai, CH

    2010-01-01

    Exchange-coupled composite (ECC) particles are the basic constituents of ECC magnetic recording media. We examine and compare two types of ECC particles: (i) core-shell structures, consisting of a hard-magnetic core and a coaxial soft-magnetic shell and (ii) conventional ECC particles, with a hard-magnetic core topped by a soft cylindrical element. The model we present describes the magnetic response of the two ECC particle types, taking into account all significant magnetic contributions to the energy landscape. Special emphasis is given to the magnetostatic (dipolar) interaction energy. We find that both the switching fields and the zero-field energy barrier depend strongly on the particle geometry. A comparison between the two types reveals that core-shell ECC particles are more effective in switching field reduction, while conventional ECC particles maintain a larger overall figure of merit.

  18. Spin quantum tunneling via entangled states in a dimer of exchange coupled single-molecule magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiron, R.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Aliaga-Alcalde, N.; Foguet-Albiol, D.; Christou, G.

    2004-03-01

    A new family of supramolecular, antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled dimers of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) has recently been reported [W. Wernsdorfer, N. Aliaga-Alcalde, D.N. Hendrickson, and G. Christou, Nature 416, 406 (2002)]. Each SMM acts as a bias on its neighbor, shifting the quantum tunneling resonances of the individual SMMs. Hysteresis loop measurements on a single crystal of SMM-dimers have now established quantum tunneling of the magnetization via entangled states of the dimer. This shows that the dimer really does behave as a quantum-mechanically coupled dimer. The transitions are well separated, suggesting long coherence times compared to the time scale of the energy splitting. This result is of great importance if such systems are to be used for quantum computing. It also allows the measurement of the longitudinal and transverse superexchange coupling constants [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 227203 (2003)].

  19. Exchange coupling in hybrid anisotropy magnetic multilayers quantified by vector magnetometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, C., E-mail: C.Morrison.2@warwick.ac.uk; Miles, J. J.; Thomson, T. [School of Computer Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Anh Nguyen, T. N. [Materials Physics, School of ICT, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Spintronics Research Group, Laboratory for Nanotechnology (LNT), VNU-HCM, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Fang, Y.; Dumas, R. K. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Åkerman, J. [Materials Physics, School of ICT, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-05-07

    Hybrid anisotropy thin film heterostructures, where layers with perpendicular and in-plane anisotropy are separated by a thin spacer, are novel materials for zero/low field spin torque oscillators and bit patterned media. Here, we report on magnetization reversal and exchange coupling in a archetypal Co/Pd (perpendicular)-NiFe (in-plane) hybrid anisotropy system studied using vector vibrating sample magnetometry. This technique allows us to quantify the magnetization reversal in each individual magnetic layer, and measure of the interlayer exchange as a function of non-magnetic spacer thickness. At large (>1 nm) spacer thicknesses Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-like exchange dominates, with orange-peel coupling providing a significant contribution only for sub-nm spacer thickness.

  20. The influence of magnetostatic interactions in exchange-coupled composite particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vokoun, D.; Beleggia, Marco; De Graef, M.

    2010-01-01

    Exchange-coupled composite (ECC) particles are the basic constituents of ECC magnetic recording media. We examine and compare two types of ECC particles: (i) core-shell structures, consisting of a hard-magnetic core and a coaxial soft-magnetic shell and (ii) conventional ECC particles, with a hard...... that both the switching fields and the zero-field energy barrier depend strongly on the particle geometry. A comparison between the two types reveals that core-shell ECC particles are more effective in switching field reduction, while conventional ECC particles maintain a larger overall figure of merit.......-magnetic core topped by a soft cylindrical element. The model we present describes the magnetic response of the two ECC particle types, taking into account all significant magnetic contributions to the energy landscape. Special emphasis is given to the magnetostatic (dipolar) interaction energy. We find...

  1. Optimization of spring exchange coupled ferrites, studied by in situ neutron diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlburg, Jakob; Christensen, Mogens; Granados-Miralles, Cecilia

    ) is reduced to a metallic alloy CoFe (soft magnet) by heating the sample and flowing it with hydrogen gas. It is studied in situ using neutron powder diffraction with a time resolution of 12 min. The transition from spinel to pure metal goes through an intermediate step of a metal oxide before being fully...... reduced. These metal oxides are antiferromagnetically ordered an is therefore considered a parasitic phase. However by fine-tuning the reaction temperature and hydrogen flow rate the occurrence of the phase can be minimized. In order to distinguish between Co and Fe Neutrons are chosen. Since neutrons...... have a spin it will also be possible to measure a magnetic signal and investigate the exchange-coupling. After the reduction the samples was furthermore investigated using powder x-ray diffraction and VSM (vibrating sample magnetometer). To understand the reaction mechanism, a series of experiments...

  2. Autonomous quantum Maxwell's demon based on two exchange-coupled quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszyński, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    I study an autonomous quantum Maxwell's demon based on two exchange-coupled quantum dots attached to the spin-polarized leads. The principle of operation of the demon is based on the coherent oscillations between the spin states of the system which act as a quantum iSWAP gate. Due to the operation of the iSWAP gate, one of the dots acts as a feedback controller which blocks the transport with the bias in the other dot, thus inducing the electron pumping against the bias; this leads to the locally negative entropy production. Operation of the demon is associated with the information transfer between the dots, which is studied quantitatively by mapping the analyzed setup onto the thermodynamically equivalent auxiliary system. The calculated entropy production in a single subsystem and information flow between the subsystems are shown to obey a local form of the second law of thermodynamics, similar to the one previously derived for classical bipartite systems.

  3. Magnetic interactions in exchange-coupled yet unbiased IrMn/NiCu bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichelero, R; Harres, A; Sossmeier, K D; Schmidt, J E; Geshev, J

    2013-10-23

    This paper reports experimental and model magnetization results obtained on exchange-coupled ferromagnet/antiferromagnet (FM/AF) bilayers that show zero net bias. The coercivity of the films, either irradiated with He or implanted with Ge ions at 40 keV, varies significantly with the fluence used. We employed the remanence plots technique in order to estimate the nature of the interactions present and check if there exists a correlation between their type and the coercivity variations. The analysis of the remanence plots through numerical simulations based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation demonstrated that outcomes of interactions within the FM layer could be distinguished from those coming from coupling at the FM/AF interface and that demagnetizing interaction effects could be achieved without the presence of dipolar interactions. Our findings indicate that such experiments could give selective information on modifications caused by a post-deposition treatment in each layer of the film.

  4. Effect of annealing on magnetic exchange coupling in CoPt/Co bilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Barmak, K.; De Graef, M.; Lewis, L. H.; Crew, D. C.

    2000-01-01

    Thin film CoPt/Co bilayers have been prepared as a model system to investigate the relationship between microstructure and exchange coupling in two-phase nanocomposite permanent magnets. The bilayers were prepared by magnetron sputter deposition of near-equiatomic CoPt with a thickness of 25 nm onto oxidized Si wafers. In the as-deposited state, CoPt had the A1 (fcc) structure and was magnetically soft. Before reinsertion into the sputtering chamber for the deposition of 2.8-16.7 nm thick Co layers, the CoPt films were annealed at 700 degree sign C for 120 min to produce the magnetically hard, fully ordered L1 0 phase. The presence of exchange coupling in the bilayers was verified by magnetic hysteresis and recoil measurements and showed that only for Co thicknesses below 6.3 nm was this layer (in its as-deposited state) coupled through its full thickness to the CoPt layer. Annealing the bilayer samples at 300 and 550 degree sign C for 20 min resulted in improvement of the interlayer magnetic coupling and produced clear differences in the magnetic reversal coherency and the recoil curves. However, for some samples, the improved coupling resulted in a decrease in coercivity, indicating that there is an optimum in the coupling strength for the attainment of high coercivity. Transmission electron microscopy studies of the bilayers in plan view showed that the increased interlayer coupling with annealing was a result of improved granular epitaxy of Co to CoPt. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  5. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/ clay nano composites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, A.M.; Mansor Ahmad; Nor Azowa Ibrahim; Rida Tajau; Wan Mohd Zin Wan Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/ clay nano composites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4 ' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5 % wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nano composites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nano clay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 Angstrom, while the structure morphology of the nano composites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nano composites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nano composites was significantly increased by incorporation of nano clay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the T g was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nano composites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nano composites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA. (author)

  6. Cooperative cytotoxic activity of Zn and Cu in bovine serum albumin-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites in PC12 cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Jie; Yu, Xue-Hong; Wang, Cai-Feng; Cao, Ying

    2013-11-01

    Series of self-assembled and mono-dispersed bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites with different Zn/Cu ratios had been successfully synthesized by a combination method of the biomimetic synthesis and ion-exchange strategy under the gentle conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation, Fourier transform infrared spectra and zeta potential analysis demonstrated that BSA-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites with well dispersity had the hierarchical structure and BSA was a key factor to control the morphology and surface electro-negativity of final products. The real-time monitoring by atomic absorption spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction revealed that the Zn/Cu ratio of nano-composites could be controlled by adjusting the ion-exchange time. In addition, the metabolic and morphological assays indicated that the metabolic proliferation and spread of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells could be inhibited by nano-composites, with the high anti-cancer activity at a low concentration (4 ppm). What were more important, Zn and Cu in nano-composites exhibited a positive cooperativity at inhibiting cancer cell functions. The microscope observation and biochemical marker analysis clearly revealed that the nano-composites-included lipid peroxidation and disintegration of membrane led to the death of PC12 cells. Summarily, the present study substantiated the potential of BSA-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites as anti-cancer drug.

  7. Cooperative cytotoxic activity of Zn and Cu in bovine serum albumin-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites in PC12 cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hua-Jie, E-mail: wanghuajie972001@163.com; Yu, Xue-Hong; Wang, Cai-Feng; Cao, Ying, E-mail: caoying1130@sina.com [Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2013-11-15

    Series of self-assembled and mono-dispersed bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites with different Zn/Cu ratios had been successfully synthesized by a combination method of the biomimetic synthesis and ion-exchange strategy under the gentle conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation, Fourier transform infrared spectra and zeta potential analysis demonstrated that BSA-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites with well dispersity had the hierarchical structure and BSA was a key factor to control the morphology and surface electro-negativity of final products. The real-time monitoring by atomic absorption spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction revealed that the Zn/Cu ratio of nano-composites could be controlled by adjusting the ion-exchange time. In addition, the metabolic and morphological assays indicated that the metabolic proliferation and spread of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells could be inhibited by nano-composites, with the high anti-cancer activity at a low concentration (4 ppm). What were more important, Zn and Cu in nano-composites exhibited a positive cooperativity at inhibiting cancer cell functions. The microscope observation and biochemical marker analysis clearly revealed that the nano-composites-included lipid peroxidation and disintegration of membrane led to the death of PC12 cells. Summarily, the present study substantiated the potential of BSA-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites as anti-cancer drug.

  8. Interlayer exchange coupling, crystalline and magnetic structure in Fe/CsCl-FeSi multilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekoster, J.; Degroote, S.; Meersschaut, J.; Moons, R.; Vantomme, A. [K.U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica (Belgium); Bottyan, L.; Deak, L.; Szilagyi, E.; Nagy, D.L. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (Hungary); Baron, A.Q.R. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (France); Langouche, G. [K.U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica (Belgium)

    1999-09-15

    Crystalline and magnetic structure as well as the interlayer exchange coupling in MBE grown Fe/FeSi multilayers are investigated. From conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy and ion beam channeling measurements the spacer FeSi material is found to be stabilized in a crystalline metastable metallic FeSi phase with the CsCl structure. Strong non-oscillatory interlayer exchange coupling is identified with magnetometry and synchrotron Moessbauer reflectometry. From the fits of the time spectrum and the resonant {phi}-{phi} scans a model for the sublayer magnetization of the multilayer is deduced.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of aluminium–alumina micro- and nano-composites by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, K., E-mail: khushbudash@gmail.com; Chaira, D.; Ray, B.C.

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: The evolution of microstructure by varying the particle size of reinforcement in the matrix employing spark plasma sintering has been demonstrated here in Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. An emphasis has been laid on varying the reinforcement particle size and evaluating the microstructural morphologies and their implications on mechanical performance of the composites. Nanocomposites of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7 volume % alumina (average size < 50 nm) reinforced in aluminium matrix were fabricated by powder metallurgy route using spark plasma sintering technique technique at a temperature of 773 K and pressure of 50 MPa. Another set of specimens having composition 1, 5, 20 vol.% of alumina (average size ∼ 10 μm) had been fabricated to compare the physical as well as mechanical attributes of the microcomposite as well as the nanocomposites. These micro- and nano-composites have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy followed by density, microhardness and nanoindentation measurements. The alumina nanoparticles revealed an interface showing appreciable physical intimacy with the aluminium matrix compared to that of the alumina microparticles. The interfacial integrity in case of nanocomposites is better than in the microcomposite which has been studied using microscopic techniques. Spark plasma sintering imparts enhanced densification as well as matrix-reinforcement proximity which has been corroborated with the experimental results. - Highlights: • The Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} micro- and nano-composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering. • Better matrix-reinforcement integrity in nanocomposites than microcomposites. • Spark plasma sintering method results in higher density and hardness values. • High density and hardness values of nanocomposites than microcomposites. • High dislocation density in spark plasma sintered Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites. - Abstract: In the

  10. High pressure synthesis of novel, zeolite based nano-composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Meso/micro-porous solids such as zeolites are complex materials exhibiting an impressive range of applications, including molecular sieve, gas storage, catalysis, electronics and photonics. We used these materials, particularly non catalytic zeolites in an entirely different fashion. In fact, we performed high pressure (0.5-30 GPa) chemical reactions of simple molecules on a sub-nanometer scale in the channels of a pure SiO2 zeolite, silicalite to obtain unique nano-composite materials with drastically modified physical and chemical properties. Our material investigations are based on a combination of X-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy techniques in the diamond anvil cell. I will first briefly show how silicalite can be easily filled by simple molecules such as Ar, CO2 and C2H4 among others from the fluid phase at high pressures, and how this efficient filling removes the well known pressure induced amorphization of the silica framework (Haines et al., JACS 2010). I will then present on a silicon carbonate crystalline phase synthesized by reacting silicalite and molecular CO2 that fills the nano-pores, at 18-26 GPa and 600-980 K; after the synthesis the compound is temperature quenched and it results to be slightly metastable at room conditions (Santoro et al., PNAS 2011). On the other hand, a stable at room condition spectacular crystalline nano-composite is obtained by photo-polymerizing ethylene at 0.5-1.5 GPa under UV (351-364 nm) irradiation in the channels of silicalite (Santoro et al., Nat. Commun, in press 2013). For this composite we obtained a structure with single polyethylene chains adapting very well to the confining channels, which results in significant increases in bulk modulus and density, and the thermal expansion coefficient changes sign from negative to positive with respect to the original silicalite host. Mechanical properties may thus be tuned by varying the amount of polymerized ethylene. We then think our findings could allow the

  11. Preparation of new series of poly(amide-imide) reinforced layer silicate nano composite containing N-trimellitimide-L-alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, K.; Soleimani, M.; Shabanian, M.

    2011-01-01

    A new poly(amide-imide)-montmorillonite series were generated through solution intercalation technique. Cloisite 20A was used as a modified montmorillonite for ample compatibility with the poly(amide-imide) (PAI) matrix. The PAI 5 chains were synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of N-trimellitylimido-L-alanine (3) with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether (4) in the presence of tryphenyl phosphites (TPP), CaCl 2 , pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nano composite films 5a-5d with (5-20 Wt%) silicate particles were characterized by Ftir spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nano composites films were investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and water uptake measurements. (Author)

  12. Preparation of new series of poly(amide-imide) reinforced layer silicate nano composite containing N-trimellitimide-L-alanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, K.; Soleimani, M. [Polymer Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shabanian, M., E-mail: k-faghihi@araku.ac.ir [Young Researches Club, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    A new poly(amide-imide)-montmorillonite series were generated through solution intercalation technique. Cloisite 20A was used as a modified montmorillonite for ample compatibility with the poly(amide-imide) (PAI) matrix. The PAI 5 chains were synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of N-trimellitylimido-L-alanine (3) with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether (4) in the presence of tryphenyl phosphites (TPP), CaCl{sub 2}, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nano composite films 5a-5d with (5-20 Wt%) silicate particles were characterized by Ftir spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nano composites films were investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and water uptake measurements. (Author)

  13. Magnetic self-assembly for the synthesis of magnetically exchange coupled MnBi/Fe–Co composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xia; Hong, Yang-Ki; Park, Jihoon; Lee, Woncheol; Lane, Alan M.; Cui, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Exchange coupled hard/soft MnBi/Fe–Co core/shell structured composites were synthesized using a magnetic self-assembly process. MnBi particles were prepared by arc-melting, and Fe–Co nanoparticles were synthesized by an oleic acid assisted chemical reduction method. Grinding a mixture of micron-sized MnBi and Fe–Co nanoparticles in hexane resulted in MnBi/Fe–Co core/shell structured composites. The MnBi/Fe–Co (95/5 wt%) composites showed smooth magnetic hysteresis loops, enhanced remanent magnetization, and positive values in the ΔM curve, indicating exchange coupling between MnBi and Fe–Co particles. - Graphical abstract: Both MnBi and Fe–Co particles were dispersed in hexane for grinding. Because of the oleic acid used during the Fe–Co nanoparticle synthesis, they could be well dispersed in hexane. During the grinding, the size of MnBi particles was decreased, hexane was evaporated, and the Fe–Co nanoparticles were concentrated in the solvent and magnetically attracted by MnBi particles, forming a core/shell structure. - Highlights: • Exchange coupled MnBi/Fe–Co composites are synthesized through magnetic selfassembly. • Magnetic exchange coupling is demonstrated by smooth magnetic hysteresis loops, enhanced remanent magnetization, and dominant positive peak in the ΔM curve. • The experimental results in magnetic properties are close to the theoretical calculation results.

  14. Nanostructured exchange coupled hard/soft composites: From the local magnetization profile to an extended 3d simple model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russier, V., E-mail: russier@glvt-cnrs.fr [ICMPE, UMR 7182 CNRS and University UPEC, 2 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Younsi, K.; Bessais, L. [ICMPE, UMR 7182 CNRS and University UPEC, 2 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2012-03-15

    In nanocomposite magnetic materials the exchange coupling between phases plays a central role in the determination of the extrinsic magnetic properties of the material: coercive field,remanence magnetization. Exchange coupling is therefore of crucial importance in composite systems made of magnetically hard and soft grains or in partially crystallized media including nanosized crystallites in a soft matrix. It has been shown also to be a key point in the control of stratified hard/soft media coercive field in the research for optimized recording media. A signature of the exchange coupling due to the nanostructure is generally obtained on the magnetization curve M(H) with a plateau characteristic of the domain wall compression at the hard/soft interface ending at the depinning of the wall inside the hard phase. This compression/depinning behavior is clearly evidenced through one dimensional description of the interface, which is rigorously possible only in stratified media. Starting from a local description of the hard/soft interface in a model for nanocomposite system we show that one can extend this kind of behavior for system of hard crystallites embedded in a soft matrix. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exchange coupling between hard and soft components of a magnetic nanocomposite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Connection between one dimensional stratified media and three dimensional model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of the compression behavior of the local magnetization profile at the interface.

  15. An Overview on the Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Ceramics Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, J.; Brito, J. D.; Silvestre, N.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their prominent properties (mechanical, stiffness, strength, thermal stability), ceramic composite materials (CMC) have been widely applied in automotive, industrial and aerospace engineering, as well as in biomedical and electronic devices. Because monolithic ceramics exhibit brittle behaviour and low electrical conductivity, CMC s have been greatly improved in the last decade. CMC s are produced from ceramic fibres embedded in a ceramic matrix, for which several ceramic materials (oxide or non-oxide) are used for the fibres and the matrix. Due to the large diversity of available fibres, the properties of CMC s can be adapted to achieve structural targets. They are especially valuable for structural components with demanding mechanical and thermal requirements. However, with the advent of nanoparticles in this century, the research interests in CMC s are now changing from classical reinforcement (e.g., microscale fibres) to new types of reinforcement at nano scale. This review paper presents the current state of knowledge on processing and mechanical properties of a new generation of CMC s : Ceramics Nano composites (CNC s )

  16. Synthesis and characterization of aluminium–alumina micro- and nano-composites by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, K.; Chaira, D.; Ray, B.C.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The evolution of microstructure by varying the particle size of reinforcement in the matrix employing spark plasma sintering has been demonstrated here in Al–Al 2 O 3 system. An emphasis has been laid on varying the reinforcement particle size and evaluating the microstructural morphologies and their implications on mechanical performance of the composites. Nanocomposites of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7 volume % alumina (average size 2 O 3 micro- and nano-composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering. • Better matrix-reinforcement integrity in nanocomposites than microcomposites. • Spark plasma sintering method results in higher density and hardness values. • High density and hardness values of nanocomposites than microcomposites. • High dislocation density in spark plasma sintered Al–Al 2 O 3 composites. - Abstract: In the present study, an emphasis has been laid on evaluation of the microstructural morphologies and their implications on mechanical performance of the composites by varying the reinforcement particle size. Nanocomposites of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7 volume % alumina (average size 2 O 3 nancomposites respectively. Spark plasma sintering imparts enhanced densification and matrix-reinforcement proximity which have been corroborated with the experimental results

  17. Functional properties of extruded nano composites based on cassava starch, polyvinyl alcohol and montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debiagi, Flavia; Matsuda, Daniel K.M.; Marengo, Vitor A.; Vercelheze, Ana Elisa S.; Mali, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to produce biodegradable trays based on cassava starch (native or modified by acid), sugarcane fibers and nano clay (sodium montmorillonite) and also to characterize the produced trays according to their density, tensile strength, X-ray diffraction and biodegradability. The trays were obtained by thermoforming into a hydraulic press coupled to a Teflon mold (18 x 23 cm) at 130 degree C/ 20 min and 100 bars of pressure. The peak related to the nano clay (2 = 7.1 o ) were not observed in XRD patterns of the trays, suggesting the formation of an exfoliated structure in the nano composite. The addition of modified starch increased tensile strength and density of the samples, and the addition of fibers and nano clays decreased the tensile strength of native and modified starch trays. The weight loss of trays was not affected by the starch type, however the addition of fibers increased the biodegradation and the addition of nano clays decreased. (author)

  18. Synthesis and characterization of liposomes nano-composite-particles with hydrophobic magnetite as a MRI probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Limin; Zhou, Xingping

    2016-07-01

    Nano-magnetic liposomes (MLs) consist of liposomes and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Due to the active surfaces of liposomes, various functional groups can be attached for ligand-specific targeting. Here, we describe synthesis of magnetic nano-composite liposomes (HMLs) by a thin film dispersing method, based on hydrophobic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. The results showed that the particle diameter of the HMLs containing Fe3O4sbnd OA NPs at a final Fe loading of 11.02 g/mol phosphatidylcholine (POPC) mainly in a sandwich-structure was 125.3 ± 12.9 nm determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). While the initial Fe concentration in the solution varied from 0.25 to 3.0 mg/mL, an effective Fe3O4 NPs loading was achieved, with encapsulation efficiency (EE%) from 91.0% to 71.0%. Subsequently, the HMLs were confirmed to be quite cytocompatible and hemocompatible in the applied concentration range by MTT and hemolysis assays. We also found that HMLs had more advantages than those liposomes with hydrophilic Fe3O4 NPs by comparing their EE% and r2 relaxivity. Finally, it was concluded that the analyzed Fe concentration in HMLs was sufficient to produce a pronouncedly weak signal for MRI in vitro to enhance the contrast between tumors and normal tissues.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene-Based Magnetic Hybrid Nano composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jashiela Wani Jusin; Madzlan Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Graphene-based magnetic hybrid nano composite has the advantage of exhibiting better performance as platform or supporting materials to develop novel properties of composite by increasing selectivity of the targeted adsorbate. The hybrid nano material was prepared by mixing and hydrolysing iron (II) and iron (III) salt precursors in the presence of GO dispersion through coprecipitation method followed by in situ chemical reduction of GO. The effect of weight loading ratio of Fe to GO (4:1, 2.5:1, 1:1 and 1:4) on structural properties of the hybrid nano materials was investigated. The presence of characteristic peaks in FTIR spectra indicated that GO has been successfully oxidized from graphite while the decrease in oxygenated functional groups and peaks intensity evidenced the formation of hybrid nano materials through the subsequent reduction process. The presence of characteristic peaks in XRD pattern denoted that magnetite nanoparticles disappeared at higher loading of GO. TEM micrograph showed that the best distribution of iron oxide particles on the surface of hybrid nano material occurred when the loading ratio of Fe to GO was fixed at 2:5 to 1. The reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets in the hybrid materials showed less wrinkled sheet like structure compared to GO due to exfoliation and reduction process during the synthesis. The layered morphology of GO degrades at higher concentrations of iron oxide. (author)

  20. Thermal Properties, Structure and Morphology of Graphene Reinforced Polyethylene Terephthalate/ Polypropylene Nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inuwa, I.M.; Hassan, A.; Shamsudin, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work the thermal properties, structure and morphology of a blend of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polypropylene (PP) reinforced with graphene nano platelets (GNP) were investigated. A blend of PET/ PP (70/ 30 weight percent) compatibilized with styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene grafted maleic anhydride triblock copolymer (10 phr) were fabricated by melt extrusion process in a twin screw extruder. The effective thermal conductivity of the nano composites increased as a function of the GNP concentration. More than 80 % increase in effective thermal conductivity was observed for the 7 phr reinforced sample compared to the neat blend. This observation was attributed to the development interconnected GNP sheets which formed heat conductive bridges that are suitable for maximum heat transfer. However, in the case of thermal stability which is a function of dispersibility of GNP in polymer matrix, the maximum increase was observed at 3 phr GNP loading which could be attributed to the uniform dispersion of GNPs in the matrix. It is explained that the GNP nano fillers migrated to the surface of matrix forming an effective oxygen barrier due to char formation. Morphological studies revealed uniform dispersion graphene in the polymer matrix at 3 phr GNP loading along with isolated instances of exfoliation of the graphene layers. (author)

  1. Designing of Hybrid Structured Glass Laminated Transparent Nano Composites through Vacuum infusion Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherji, A.; Tarapure, N. D.; Wakure, G. N.

    2017-05-01

    Glass is the most commonly used transparent material. However, glass is not suitable in applications where low weight, high strength is required. The present invention comprises a method of making a Transparent Glass Laminated Nano composite product. The product contains a Bidirectionally oriented E-Glass Fabric an essentially bidirectional yarn woven fabrics is stretched Bidirectionally by specially fabricated steel frame associated with both co and counter rotating device. These fibers include glass fibrics/cloths or mixtures of any of these. The synthetic fiber may be any synthetic silica based oven waived bi-directional or Uni-directional fabrics. Engaged gear provided in the device develops uniform tension on fabric, in both direction. Nano particle dispersed resin to be used is formulated with their respective curing agents and extenders. The formulated resin contains 0.1-0.5% of Nano additives and the product composed from 5-10 % of Glass fabric, between 10 to 20 % of ordinary glass, and between 60-80 % of the product is the Nano particles dispersed formulated resin, all measured by volume.

  2. Preparation and characterization of PVP-PVA–ZnO blend polymer nano composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divya, S., E-mail: divi.fysics@gmail.com; Saipriya, G.; Hemalatha, J., E-mail: hemalatha@nitt.edu [Advanced Materials Lab, Department of Physics, National Institute Of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India - 620 015 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Flexible self-standing films of PVP-PVA blend composites are prepared by using ZnO as a nano filler at different concentrations. The structural, compositional, morphological and optical studies made with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra are presented in this paper. The results of XRD indicate that ZnO nanoparticles are formed with hexagonal phase in the polymeric matrix. SEM images show the dispersion of ZnO nano filler in the polymer matrix. UV–vis spectra reveal that the absorption peak is centered around 235 nm and 370 nm for the nano composite films. The blue shift is observed with decrease in the concentration of the nano filler. PL spectra shows the excitation wavelength is given at 320 nm.The emission peaks were observed at 383 nm ascribing to the electronic transitions between valence band and conduction band and the peak at 430 nm.

  3. Thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of polyanaline based ceramic nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, M.; Khan, M. S.; Khattak, N. S.

    2016-08-01

    Micro/nanohybrid materials have vast applications due to their great potentialities in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein we report an investigation on the fabrication and physicochemical characterization of ceramic (Fe0.01La0.01Al0.5Zn0.98O) and hybrid ceramic-polyaniline nano-composits. Ceramic nano-particles were prepared by sol-gel technique while optimizing the molar ratios of the constituent's metal nitrates. The prepared inorganic particles were then embedded in the polymer matrix via one-pot blending method. The prepared ceramic particles and their composites with polyaniline were analysed under FT- IR, SEM and TGA. The presence of some chemical species was observed at the interface of the compositing materials. TGA analysis showed the thermal stability of the composite material. Frequency dependent dielectric properties were analysed and it was found that conducting polyaniline has an additional effect on the electrical behaviour of the composite. Rheology study showed enhanced mechanical properties of composite material as compared to their constituting counterparts.

  4. Graphene–Noble Metal Nano-Composites and Applications for Hydrogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Basu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Graphene based nano-composites are relatively new materials with excellent mechanical, electrical, electronic and chemical properties for applications in the fields of electrical and electronic devices, mechanical appliances and chemical gadgets. For all these applications, the structural features associated with chemical bonding that involve other components at the interface need in-depth investigation. Metals, polymers, inorganic fibers and other components improve the properties of graphene when they form a kind of composite structure in the nano-dimensions. Intensive investigations have been carried out globally in this area of research and development. In this article, some salient features of graphene–noble metal interactions and composite formation which improve hydrogen gas sensing properties—like higher and fast response, quick recovery, cross sensitivity, repeatability and long term stability of the sensor devices—are presented. Mostly noble metals are effective for enhancing the sensing performance of the graphene–metal hybrid sensors, due to their superior catalytic activities. The experimental evidence for atomic bonding between metal nano-structures and graphene has been reported in the literature and it is theoretically verified by density functional theory (DFT. Multilayer graphene influences gas sensing performance via intercalation of metal and non-metal atoms through atomic bonding.

  5. Effect of Alumina Addition to Zirconia Nano-composite on Low Temperature Degradation Process and Biaxial Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moluk Aivazi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic dental materials have been considered as alternatives to metals for dental implants application. In this respect, zirconia tetragonal stabilized with %3 yttrium, is of great importance among the ceramic materials for endosseous dental implant application. Because of its good mechanical properties and color similar to tooth. The aim and novelty of this study was to design and prepare Y-TZP nano-composite to reduce the degradation process at low temperature by alumina addition and maintaining submicron grain sized. Also, flexural strength of nano-composite samples was evaluated. Toward this purpose, alumina-Y-TZP nano-composites containing 0–30 vol% alumina (denoted as A-Y-TZP 0-30 were fabricated using α-alumina and Y-TZP nano-sized by sintering pressure less method. The synthesized samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. Nano-composite samples with high density (≥96% and grain sized of ≤ 400 nm was obtained by sintering at 1270 °C for 170 min. After low temperature degradation test (LTD, A-Y-TZP20 and A-Y-TZP30 not showed monoclinic phase and the flexural strength in all of samples were higher than A-Y-TZP0. It was concluded that the grains were remained in submicron sized and A-Y-TZP20 and A-Y-TZP30 did not present biaxial strength reduction after LTD test.

  6. Effect of Addition of Colloidal Silica to Films of Polyimide, Polyvinylpyridine, Polystyrene, and Polymethylmethacrylate Nano-Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla, Soliman; Al-Marzouki, Fahad; Obaid, Abdullah; Gamal, Salah

    2016-01-01

    Nano-composite films have been the subject of extensive work for developing the energy-storage efficiency of electrostatic capacitors. Factors such as polymer purity, nanoparticle size, and film morphology drastically affect the electrostatic efficiency of the dielectric material that forms the insulating film between the conductive electrodes of a capacitor. This in turn affects the energy storage performance of the capacitor. In the present work, we have studied the dielectric properties of...

  7. Interference of processing variables on the mechanical behavior of nano composites HDPE/clay; Interferencia das variaveis de processamento no comportamento mecanico de nanocompositos PEAD/argila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, R. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Souza, D.D.; Nobrega, K.C.; Araujo, E.M.; Melo, T.J. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande - UAEMa Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Nano composites were processed using the technique of melt intercalation, starting from a concentrated polar compatibilizer / organo clay (PE-g-MA / organo clay) prepared in an internal mixer. The concentrate was incorporated into the matrix of PEAD by two methods: (I) twin screw contrarrotational extruder and (II) twin screw corrotational extruder, using two thread profiles (ROS and 2KB90), after extrusion, the specimens of the extruded composites were injection molded. The diffraction of X-ray was used to analyze the degree of expansion of the clays prepared, and the degree of exfoliation of nano composites developed. The interference of processing variables on mechanical properties was studied by the behavior of the modulus and tensile strength of nano composite systems. Observed similar behavior in the use of thread (or 2KB90 ROS) of the nano composites, with a reduction in modulus and tensile strength. (author)

  8. Polypropylene Nano composites Obtained by In Situ Polymerization Using Metallocenes Catalyst: Influence of the Nanoparticles on the Final Polymer Morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, P.; Quijada, R.

    2012-01-01

    Polypropylene nano composites containing silica nanospheres based on the sol-gel methods were produced via in situ polymerization using a rac-Et(Ind) 2 ZrCl 2 /methylaluminoxane (MAO) system. Two different routes were used depending on the interaction between the silica nanoparticles with the catalytic system. In route 1 the nanoparticles were added together with the catalytic system (rac-Et(Ind) 2 ZrCl 2 )/(MAO) directly into the reactor, and in route 2 the metallocenes rac-Et(Ind) 2 ZrCl 2 was supported on silica nanospheres pretreated with (MAO). SEM images show that when the nanospheres were added by both routes, they were replicated in the final polymer particle morphology; this phenomenon was more pronounced for PP obtained by route 2. The polypropylene (PP) nano composites obtained by both routes had a slightly higher percent crystallinity and crystallinity temperatures than pure PP. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the nanospheres were well dispersed into the polypropylene matrix, particularly in the nano composites obtained by the support system (route 2).

  9. Nano composite of CeO2 and High-Coercivity Magnetic Carrier with Large Specific Surface Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantlikova, A. R.; Pacakova, B.; Kubickova, S.; Vejpravova, J.; Plocek, J.; Vik, O.; Niznansky, D.; Slouf, M.

    2016-01-01

    We succeeded in the preparation of CoFe 2 O 4 /CeO 2 nano composites with very high specific surface area (up to 264 g/m 2 ). First, highly crystalline nanoparticles (NP s ) of CoFe 2 O 4 (4.7 nm) were prepared by hydrothermal method in water-alcohol-oleic acid system. The oleate surface coating was subsequently modified by ligand exchange to citrate. Then the NP s were embedded in CeO 2 using heterogeneous precipitation from diluted Ce 3 + sulphate solution. Dried samples were characterized by Powder X-Ray Diffraction, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, Moessbauer Spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. Moreover, detailed investigation of magnetic properties of the bare NP s and final composite was carried out. We observed homogeneous embedding of the magnetic NP s into the CeO 2 without significant change of their size and magnetic properties. We have thus demonstrated that the proposed synthesis method is suitable for preparation of extremely fine CeO 2 nano powders and their nano composites with NP s . The morphology and magnetic nature of the obtained nano composites make them a promising candidate for magneto responsive catalysis.

  10. Spin-orbit torque switching without an external field using interlayer exchange coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yong-Chang; Betto, Davide; Rode, Karsten; Coey, J. M. D.; Stamenov, Plamen

    2016-09-01

    Manipulation of the magnetization of a perpendicular ferromagnetic free layer by spin-orbit torque (SOT) is an attractive alternative to spin-transfer torque (STT) in oscillators and switches such as magnetic random-access memory (MRAM) where a high current is passed across an ultrathin tunnel barrier. A small symmetry-breaking bias field is usually needed for deterministic SOT switching but it is impractical to generate the field externally for spintronic applications. Here, we demonstrate robust zero-field SOT switching of a perpendicular CoFe free layer where the symmetry is broken by magnetic coupling to a second in-plane exchange-biased CoFe layer via a nonmagnetic Ru or Pt spacer. The preferred magnetic state of the free layer is determined by the current polarity and the sign of the interlayer exchange coupling (IEC). Our strategy offers a potentially scalable solution to realize bias-field-free switching that can lead to a generation of SOT devices, combining a high storage density and endurance with a low power consumption.

  11. A modified CAS-CI approach for an efficient calculation of magnetic exchange coupling constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Karin; Staemmler, Volker

    2013-09-01

    A modification of the conventional wavefunction-based CAS-CI method for the calculation of magnetic exchange coupling constants J in small molecules and transition metal complexes is presented. In general, CAS-CI approaches yield much too small values for J since the energies of the important charge transfer configurations are calculated with the ground state orbitals and are therefore much too high. In the present approach we improve these energies by accounting for the relaxation of the orbitals in the charge transfer configurations. The necessary relaxation energies R can be obtained in separate calculations using mononuclear or binuclear model systems. The method is applied to a few examples, small molecules, binuclear transition metal complexes, and bulk NiO. It allows to obtaining fairly reliable estimates for J at costs that are not higher than those of conventional CAS-CI calculations. Therefore, extended and very time-consuming perturbation theory (PT2), configuration interaction (CI), or coupled cluster (CC) schemes on top of the CAS-CI calculation can be avoided and the modified CAS-CI (MCAS-CI) approach can be applied to rather large systems.

  12. Functional unfolding of alpha1-antitrypsin probed by hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Je-Hyun; Yang, Won Suk; Lee, Cheolju; Yu, Myeong-Hee

    2009-05-01

    The native state of alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha(1)AT), a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) family, is considered a kinetically trapped folding intermediate that converts to a more stable form upon complex formation with a target protease. Although previous structural and mutational studies of alpha(1)AT revealed the structural basis of the native strain and the kinetic trap, the mechanism of how the native molecule overcomes the kinetic barrier to reach the final stable conformation during complex formation remains unknown. We hypothesized that during complex formation, a substantial portion of the molecule undergoes unfolding, which we dubbed functional unfolding. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled with ESI-MS was used to analyze this serpin in three forms: native, complexing, and complexed with bovine beta-trypsin. Comparing the deuterium content at the corresponding regions of these three samples, we probed the unfolding of alpha(1)AT during complex formation. A substantial portion of the alpha(1)AT molecule unfolded transiently during complex formation, including not only the regions expected from previous structural studies, such as the reactive site loop, helix F, and the following loop, but also regions not predicted previously, such as helix A, strand 6 of beta-sheet B, and the N terminus. Such unfolding of the native interactions may elevate the free energy level of the kinetically trapped native serpin sufficiently to cross the transition state during complex formation. In the current study, we provide evidence that protein unfolding has to accompany functional execution of the protein molecule.

  13. Large coercivity and unconventional exchange coupling in manganese-oxide-coated manganese—gallium nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jun-Ning; Liu Wei; Geng Dian-Yu; Ma Song; Yu Tao; Zhao Xiao-Tian; Dai Zhi-Ming; Zhao Xin-Guo; Zhang Zhi-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The microstructures and magnetic properties of nanoparticles, each composed of an antiferromagnetic (AFM) manganese-oxide shell and a ferromagnetic-like core of manganese—gallium (MnGa) compounds, are studied. The core-shell structure is confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The ferromagnetic-like core contains three kinds of MnGa binary compounds, i.e., ferrimagnetic (FI) D0 22 -type Mn 3 Ga, ferromagnetic (FM) Mn 8 Ga 5 , and AFM D0 19 -type Mn 3 Ga, of which the first two correspond respectively to a hard magnetic phase and to a soft one. Decoupling effect between these two phases is found at low temperature, which weakens gradually with increasing temperature and disappears above 200 K. The exchange bias (EB) effect is observed simultaneously, which is caused by the exchange coupling between the AFM shell and FM-like core. A large coercivity of 6.96 kOe (1 Oe = 79.5775 A·m −1 ) and a maximum EB value of 0.45 kOe are achieved at 300 K and 200 K respectively. (special topic — international conference on nanoscience and technology, china 2013)

  14. Initialization method for triple-layer exchanged coupled direct overwrite MO disk (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatwar, T. K.; Genova, D. J.; Palumbo, A. C.

    1993-05-01

    Increasing efforts are directed at the development of direct overwrite (DOW) capability for achieving higher data transfer rate in MO media. DOW by light intensity modulation on a triple-layer medium has shown great promise. The three layers consist of memory, reference, and intermediate layers that are weakly coupled to each other. This scheme uses an auxiliary magnet to initialize the reference layer in one direction in addition to the bias magnet. DOW is between high and low power levels. High power aligns the magnetization of the coupled layers in one direction, and low power aligns the magnetization in the opposite direction. These high (Ph) and low (Pl) powers are generally widely separated. Since the focused writing beam has a Gaussian profile, when the center of the spot does the high power writing, the ``skirt'' is actually doing the low power writing. As a result, if the background is initialized in the direction of the high power written mark, a chain-like domain pattern is observed. This leads to high writing noise. We found that such writing noise can be eliminated by initializing the background in the direction of the low power written marks. We will discuss the spin structure in exchanged coupled triple-layer films and the DOW characteristics of the disk with the two different initialization methods.

  15. Magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy of weakly exchange coupled transition metal dimers: A model study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piligkos, S.; Slep, L.D.; Weyhermuller, T.

    2009-01-01

    bands of the minority spin Ni(II) ligand field bands were observed to change sign relative to the parent complex 2. This behavior has been analyzed. The present work hence provides a benchmark study for the application of MCD spectroscopy to weakly interacting transition metal dinners. (C) 2008 Elsevier......A detailed study of the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of weakly exchange coupled transition metal heterodimers is reported. The systems consist of three isostructural complexes of the type [LM(III)(PyA)(3)M(II)](ClO4)(2) where L represents 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclonanane and Py......A- is the monoanion of pyridine-2-aldoxime. The trivalent metal ion M(III) is either diamagnetic Ga(III) or paramagnetic Cr(III) (S-Cr = 3/2). The divalent metal ion M(II) is either diamagnetic Zn(II) or paramagnetic Ni(II) (S-Ni = 1). The three systems 1 (CrZn), 2 (GaNi) and 3 (CrNi) have been structurally...

  16. Synthesis, characterization and magnetic behavior of Co/MCM-41 nano-composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuello, N. [CITeQ-Universidad Tecnológica Nacional-Facultad Regional Córdoba, Maestro López esq. Cruz Roja Argentina, 5016 Córdoba (Argentina); Elías, V. [CITeQ-Universidad Tecnológica Nacional-Facultad Regional Córdoba, Maestro López esq. Cruz Roja Argentina, 5016 Córdoba (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina); Crivello, M. [CITeQ-Universidad Tecnológica Nacional-Facultad Regional Córdoba, Maestro López esq. Cruz Roja Argentina, 5016 Córdoba (Argentina); Oliva, M. [FaMAF-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba (Argentina); IFEG-CONICET (Argentina); Eimer, G., E-mail: geimer@scdt.frc.utn.edu.ar [CITeQ-Universidad Tecnológica Nacional-Facultad Regional Córdoba, Maestro López esq. Cruz Roja Argentina, 5016 Córdoba (Argentina); CONICET (Argentina)

    2013-09-15

    Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of Co/MCM-41 as magnetic nano-composites have been investigated. Mesoporous materials with different degrees of metal loading were prepared by wet impregnation and characterized by ICP, XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption, UV–vis DRS, TPR and EPMA-EDS. Cobalt oxide clusters and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-particles could be confined inside the mesopores of MCM-41, being this fact favored by the Co loading increasing. In addition, larger crystals of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} detectable by XRD also grow on the surface when the Co loading is enhanced. The magnetic characterization was performed in a SQUID magnetometer using a maximum magnetic applied field µ{sub 0}Ha=1 T. While the samples with the higher Co loadings showed a behavior typically paramagnetic, a superparamagnetic contribution is more notorious for lower loadings, suggesting high Co species dispersion. - Graphical abstract: Room temperature hysteresis loops as a function of the Co content. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Co species as isolated Co{sup 2+}, oxide clusters and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano-particles were detected. • For higher Co loads were detected, by XRD, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles on the external surface. • The confining of Co species inside the mesopores was achieved by increasing Co load. • Paramagnetism from oxide clusters/nano-particles becomes dominant for higher Co loads. • Superparamagnetism can be assigned to Co species of small size and finely dispersed.

  17. Static and dynamic behavior of interlayer exchange coupled Ni80Fe20/Ru continuous films and nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L. L.; Adeyeye, A. O.

    2018-01-01

    We present the static and dynamic results of engineered interlayer exchange coupled Ni80Fe20 (Py)/Ru continuous films and arrays of nanowires. We demonstrate a robust control of the coupling mechanism by varying the number of ferromagnetic layers and the thickness of Ru. We found that the antiferromagnetic coupling strength affects both the static and dynamic behaviors of the ferromagnetic layers (a strong antiferromagnetic coupling when the Ru thickness is 1 nm and negligible antiferromagnetic coupling when it is 1.4 nm). Most interestingly, multiple resonant modes were found for five-layer nanowires at remanence due to the interlayer exchange coupling. There is a good qualitative agreement between the experiment and the micromagnetic simulation. The results may suggest a novel way in the design of spintronic devices.

  18. The influence of interlayer exchange coupling in giant-magnetoresistive devices on spin diode effect in wide frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziętek, Sławomir, E-mail: zietek@agh.edu.pl; Skowroński, Witold; Wiśniowski, Piotr; Czapkiewicz, Maciej; Stobiecki, Tomasz [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Ogrodnik, Piotr [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Barnaś, Józef [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)

    2015-09-21

    Spin diode effect in a giant magnetoresistive strip is measured in a broad frequency range, including resonance and off-resonance frequencies. The off-resonance dc signal is relatively strong and also significantly dependent on the exchange coupling between magnetic films through the spacer layer. The measured dc signal is described theoretically by taking into account magnetic dynamics induced by Oersted field created by an ac current flowing through the system.

  19. Deterministic and Robust Room-Temperature Exchange Coupling in Monodomain Multiferroic BiFeO3/Co Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenrang, Wittawat

    Exchange coupling between antiferromagnetic order in multiferroic BiFeO 3 and a fer- romagnetic overlayer has until now only been shown in multidomain BiFeO3 films in which domain walls, either for their ferromagnetic or ferroelastic properties, are considered essential to the coupling. Difficulties controlling domain wall properties, including fatigue and leakage, as well as devices challenges of reproducibility and scaling suggest an alternative approach may be necessary for practical exchange coupled spintronic devices based on BiFeO3. Here we show a room temperature, deterministic and robust "intrinsic" (without domain wall) exchange coupling. In situ ferroelectric switching of monodomain BiFeO3/Co heterostructures performed during photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) and magnetooptic Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements reproducibly show a coherent ˜75° clockwise rotation of the Co magnetization upon poling and counterclockwise ˜75° rotation upon reverse poling, for hundreds of cycles. The Co magnetization rotation is strictly correlated to single, domain 71° ferroelectric switching and reorientation of the antiferromagnetic spin-cycloid plane from in-plane to nearly vertical. The experimentally observed reorientation of the Co magnetization can be explained by competition between the substrate-induced magnetic anisotropy that dominates in the pole "down" state, and exchange coupling between Co and the vertical spin-cycloid plane that dominates in the pole "up" state. Our experimental data demonstrate that the spin-cycloid properties in these strained films are different from bulk BiFeO3, suggesting that the internal magnetoelectric coupling is changed by the strain-induced crystal symmetry lowering that is likely responsible for the strong intrinsic coupling at the BiFeO3/Co interface reported here.

  20. First-order-reversal-curve analysis of exchange-coupled SmCo/NdFeB nanocomposite alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Mingxiang; Zhang, Pengyue, E-mail: Zhang_pengyue@cjlu.edu.cn; Ge, Hongliang; Yu, Nengjun; Wu, Qiong

    2014-06-01

    Exchange-coupled SmCo{sub 5}/Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B nanocomposite magnets have been fabricated by ball milling of the micrometer sized SmCo{sub 5} and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B powders. The influence of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B content on the microstructure and magnetic properties of these hybrid alloys was investigated. The alloys that show strong intergrain exchange-coupling behavior with (BH){sub max}=2.95 MGOe was obtained when the two hard phases are well coupled. A first-order-reversal-curve (FORC) analysis was performed for both SmCo{sub 5} single-phase magnet and SmCo{sub 5}/Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B hybrid magnet; the FORC diagrams results show two major peaks for the hybrid magnets. In both cases, the magnetization reversal behaviors for these alloys were discussed in detail and are consistent with the results of δM plots. - Highlights: • Exchange-coupled SmCo{sub 5}/Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B nanocomposite magnets were studied. • Magnetization reversal behaviors of the hybrid magnet were discussed. • The FORCs analysis is taken to identify the optimal conditions for hybrid magnet.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation for calculating the exchange couplings in Ca2CrNO6 (N = Mo, Re double perovskites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. El rhazouani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years there has been a growing interest in mixed magnetic oxides containing the transition-metal Cr, as they show interesting physical properties and a great ability to use in spintronic, photovoltaic and magnetocaloric applications. Therefore, several publications have appeared documenting Cr-based double perovskites, but very few have explored the promising compounds Ca2CrNO6 (N = Mo, Re. Exchange couplings in Ca2CrNO6 (N = Mo, Re Double perovskites (DPs have been fitted by Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS calculations in the framework of Ising model by using a method based on a relation between internal energy per site and magnetization per site. The exchange couplings JCr−Mo=−1.977meV, JCr−Cr=4.614meV and JMo−Mo=1.481meV have been obtained for Ca2CrMoO6, while JCr−Re=−12.221meV, J'Cr−Cr=11.244meV and JRe-Re=11.492meV have been obtained for Ca2CrReO6. The role of exchange couplings strengths in the magnetism of this class of materials has been discussed. Internal energy per site has been calculated.

  2. Role of an ultrathin platinum seed layer in antiferromagnet-based perpendicular exchange coupling and its electrical manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Y.; Song, C.; Zhang, J.Y.; Pan, F.

    2017-01-01

    The requirement for low-power consumption advances the development of antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronics manipulated by electric fields. Here we report an electrical manipulation of metallic AFM moments within IrMn/[Co/Pt] by interface engineering, where ultrathin non-magnetic metals are highlighted between IrMn and ferroelectric substrates. Ultrathin Pt seed layers are proved to be vital in elevating the blocking temperature and enhancing the perpendicular exchange coupling through modulating the domain structures of as-prepared IrMn AFM. Further electrical manipulations of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy crucially verify the indispensable role of pre-deposited ultrathin Pt layers in modulating IrMn antiferromagnetic moments, which is confirmed by the intimate correlation between the electrically manipulating AFM and improving its blocking temperature. Instead of immediate contact between IrMn AFM and ferroelectric substrates in a conventional way, interface engineering by adopting ultrathin seed layers here adds a new twist to the electrical modulation of AFM metals. This would provide scientific basis on how to manipulate AFM moments and optimize the design of practical AFM spintronics. - Highlights: • An alternative for manipulating antiferromagnet by interface engineering is provided. • Ultrathin Pt seed layers are vital in elevating the blocking temperature of IrMn. • Perpendicular exchange coupling in IrMn/[Co/Pt] can be modulated by seed layers. • Ultrathin Pt seed layers enable electrical control of perpendicular exchange coupling.

  3. Role of an ultrathin platinum seed layer in antiferromagnet-based perpendicular exchange coupling and its electrical manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.Y., E-mail: wangyy@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, C., E-mail: songcheng@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, J.Y. [Department of Physics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Pan, F. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-04-15

    The requirement for low-power consumption advances the development of antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronics manipulated by electric fields. Here we report an electrical manipulation of metallic AFM moments within IrMn/[Co/Pt] by interface engineering, where ultrathin non-magnetic metals are highlighted between IrMn and ferroelectric substrates. Ultrathin Pt seed layers are proved to be vital in elevating the blocking temperature and enhancing the perpendicular exchange coupling through modulating the domain structures of as-prepared IrMn AFM. Further electrical manipulations of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy crucially verify the indispensable role of pre-deposited ultrathin Pt layers in modulating IrMn antiferromagnetic moments, which is confirmed by the intimate correlation between the electrically manipulating AFM and improving its blocking temperature. Instead of immediate contact between IrMn AFM and ferroelectric substrates in a conventional way, interface engineering by adopting ultrathin seed layers here adds a new twist to the electrical modulation of AFM metals. This would provide scientific basis on how to manipulate AFM moments and optimize the design of practical AFM spintronics. - Highlights: • An alternative for manipulating antiferromagnet by interface engineering is provided. • Ultrathin Pt seed layers are vital in elevating the blocking temperature of IrMn. • Perpendicular exchange coupling in IrMn/[Co/Pt] can be modulated by seed layers. • Ultrathin Pt seed layers enable electrical control of perpendicular exchange coupling.

  4. Omega-3 PUFA concentration by a novel PVDF nano-composite membrane filled with nano-porous silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemian, Samaneh; Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ahmadi Gavlighi, Hasan

    2017-09-01

    In this study, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and nano-porous silica particle were used to fabricate an asymmetric nano-composite membrane. Silica particles enhanced the thermal stability of PVDF/SiO 2 membranes; increasing the decomposition temperature from 371°C to 408°C. Cross sectional morphology showed that silica particles were dispersed in polymer matrix uniformly. However, particle agglomeration was found at higher loading of silica (i.e., 20 by weight%). The separation performance of nano-composite membranes was also evaluated using the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentration at a temperature and pressure of 30°C and 4bar, respectively. Silica particle increased the omega-3PUFA concentration from 34.8 by weight% in neat PVDF to 53.9 by weight% in PVDF with 15 by weight% of silica. Moreover, PVDF/SiO 2 nano-composite membranes exhibited enhanced anti-fouling property compared to neat PVDF membrane. Fouling mechanism analysis revealed that complete pore blocking was the predominant mechanism occurring in oil filtration. The concentration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important in the oil industries. While the current methods demand high energy consumptions in concentrating the omega-3, membrane separation technology offers noticeable advantages in producing pure omega-3 PUFA. Moreover, concentrating omega-3 via membrane separation produces products in the triacylglycerol form which possess better oxidative stability. In this work, the detailed mechanisms of fouling which limits the performance of membrane separation were investigated. Incorporating silica particles to polymeric membrane resulted in the formation of mixed matrix membrane with improved anti-fouling behaviour compared to the neat polymeric membrane. Hence, the industrial potential of membrane processing to concentrate omega-3 fatty acids is enhanced. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Investigation on Nano composite Membrane of Multi walled Carbon Nano tube Reinforced Polycarbonate Blend for Gas Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, A.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nano tube has been explored as a nano filler in high performance polymeric membrane for gas separation. In this regard, nano composite membrane of polycarbonate (PC), poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVFHFP), and multi walled carbon nano tube (MWCNT) was fabricated via phase inversion technique. Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) was employed for the compatibilization of the blend system. Two series of PC/PVFHFP/PEG were developed using purified P-MWCNT and acid functional A-MWCNT nano filler. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs have shown fine nano tube dispersion and wetting by matrix, compared with the purified system. Tensile strength and Young s modulus of PC/PVFHFP/PEG/MWCNT-A 1-5 were found to be in the range of 63.6-72.5 MPa and 110.6-122.1 MPa, respectively. The nano composite revealed 51% increase in Young s modulus and 28% increase in tensile stress relative to the pristine blend. The A-MWCNT was also effective in enhancing the perm selectivity αCO 2 /N 2 (31.2-39.9) of nano composite membrane relative to the blend membrane (21.6). The permeability ρCO 2 of blend was 125.6 barrer; however, the functional series had enhancedρCO 2 values ranging from 142.8 to 186.6 barrer. Moreover, A-MWCNT loading improved the gas diffusivity of PC/PVFHFP/PEG/MWCNT-A 1-5; however, filler content did not significantly influence the CO 2 and N 2 solubility.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of ion transport behavior in Cu2+-conducting nano composite polymer electrolyte membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala Sahu, Tripti; Sahu, Manju; Karan, Shrabani; Mahipal, Y. K.; Sahu, D. K.; Agrawal, R. C.

    2017-07-01

    Synthesis and characterization of ion transport behavior in Cu2+-conducting nano composite polymer electrolyte (NCPE) films: [90PEO: 10Cu(CF3SO3)2]  +  x CuO have been reported. NCPE films have been formed by hot-press casting technique using solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film composition: [90PEO: 10Cu(CF3SO3)2] as 1st-phase host and nanoparticles of CuO in varying wt.(%) as 2nd-phase active filler. SPE: [90PEO: 10Cu(CF3SO3)2] was identified earlier as highest conducting film with room temperature conductivity (σ rt) ~ 3.0 x 10-6 S cm-1, which is three orders of magnitude higher than that of pure polymer host PEO with σ rt ~ 3.2  ×  10-9 S cm-1. Filler particle concentration dependent conductivity study revealed NCPE film: [90PEO: 10Cu(CF3SO3)2]  +  3%CuO as optimum conducting composition (OCC) exhibiting σ rt ~ 1.14  ×  10-5 S cm-1. Hence, by the fractional dispersal of 2nd-phase active filler into 1st-phase SPE host, σ-enhancement of approximately an order of magnitude has further been obtained. Ion transport behavior in NCPE OCC film has been characterized in terms of basic ionic parameters viz. ionic conductivity (σ), total ionic transference (t ion)/cationic (t +) numbers. Temperature dependent conductivity measurement has also been done to explain the mechanism of ion transport and to compute activation energy (E a). Materials characterization and hence, confirmation of complexation of salt in polymeric host and/or dispersal of filler particles in SPE host have been done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). All-solid-state battery in the cell configuration: Cu (Anode) || SPE host/NCPE OCC film || C  +  I2  +  Electrolyte) (Cathode) has been fabricated and cell performance has been studied under two load resistances viz

  7. Magnetic nanoparticles based nano-composites: synthesis, contribution of the fillers dispersion and the chains conformation on the reinforcement properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbes, Anne-Sophie

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of polymeric nano-composite films can be considerably enhanced by the inclusion of inorganic nanoparticles due to two main effects: (i) the local structure of fillers dispersion and (ii) the potential modification of the chains conformation and dynamics in the vicinity of the filler/polymer interface. However, the precise mechanisms which permit to correlate these contributions at nano-metric scale to the macroscopic mechanical properties of the materials are actually poorly described. In such a context, we have synthesized model nano-composites based on magnetic nanoparticles of maghemite γ-Fe 2 O 3 (naked or grafted with a polystyrene (PS) corona by radical controlled polymerization) dispersed in a PS matrix, that we have characterized by combining small angle scattering (X-Ray and neutron) and transmission electronic microscopy. By playing on different parameters such as the particle size, the concentration, or the size ratio between the grafted chains and the ones of the matrix in the case of the grafted fillers, we have obtained nano-composite films a large panel of controlled and reproducible controlled filler structures, going from individual nanoparticles or fractal aggregates up to the formation of a connected network of fillers. By applying an external magnetic field during the film processing, we succeeded in aligning the different structures along the direction of the field and we obtained materials with remarkable anisotropic reinforcement properties. The conformation of the chains of the matrix, experimentally determined thanks to the specific properties of neutron contrast of the system, is not affected by the presence of the fillers, whatever their confinement, the dispersion the fillers or their chemical state surface. The alignment of the fillers along the magnetic field has allowed us to describe precisely the evolution of the reinforcement modulus of the materials with the structural reorganization of the fillers and

  8. Development of an Organic/Inorganic nano-composite Separator for Lithium Ion Batteries Using an Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hyeok; Kim, Min

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the organic/inorganic nano-composite separator including an inorganic filler over 90% was prepared for preventing internal short in Li-ion battery, which was enhanced mechanical property and electrochemical stability by irradiation treatment. The polymer binder is essential in preparing inorganic separator. However, since most of polymer binders dissolve or absorb in liquid electrolyte, the mechanical property could be not maintained. To solve this problem, the polymer binders of prepared nanocomposite separator was irradiated by e-beam

  9. Study of the morphology exhibited by exfoliated polyurethane/montmorillonite nano composites during in situ recovery tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Iaci M., E-mail: iaci@ctex.eb.br [Divisao Belica do Centro Tecnologico do Exercito. CTEx, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Orefice, Rodrigo L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Departamento de Metalurgia e Materiais. UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    By using small-angle X-ray scattering, this study aims to examine the SM behavior of montmorillonite polyurethane nano composites. To investigate the phase morphology, a deformed specimen was placed on a heating stage mounted at the Synchrotron beamline; the shape recovery was measured during 15 min. As temperature increases, the crystalline fraction rapidly decreases. The degree of clay delamination within the matrix increases, disturbing the formation of hard and soft segments. Deformation induces changes in the phase proportion, increasing the disperse phase contribution. During in situ tests, the ratio between matrix and disperse phase reaches an equilibrium controlled by the temperature. (author)

  10. Novel 'nano in nano' composites for sustained drug delivery: biodegradable nanoparticles encapsulated into nanofiber non-wovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Thieme, Marcel; Nguyen, Juliane; Schmehl, Thomas; Gessler, Tobias; Seeger, Werner; Agarwal, Seema; Greiner, Andreas; Kissel, Thomas

    2010-12-08

    Novel 'nano in nano' composites consisting of biodegradable polymer nanoparticles incorporated into polymer nanofibers may efficiently modulate drug delivery. This is shown here using a combination of model compound-loaded biodegradable nanoparticles encapsulated in electrospun fibers. The dye coumarin 6 is used as model compound for a drug in order to simulate drug release from loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles. Dye release from the nanoparticles occurs immediately in aqueous solution. Dye-loaded nanoparticles which are encapsulated by electrospun polymer nanofibers display a significantly retarded release. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effect of tunneling barrier as spacer on exchange coupling of CoFeB/AlOx/Co trilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuan-Tsung; Wu, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The direct spin exchange-coupling effect of the CoFeB/Co bilayer structure is stronger than the indirect spin exchange-coupling effect of the CoFeB/AlO x /Co MTJ. → The relationship between the Co texture and the magnetic properties suggests that the enhanced Co texture increases the saturation magnetization (Ms) and reduces the coercivity (Hc). → Higher Hc values are obtained at thinner AlO x thicknesses, because the spin decoupling effect occurs between the CoFeB and Co layers. - Abstract: Magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs) have a sandwiched structure, which comprises a top ferromagnetic (FM1) layer, an insulating tunneling layer (spacer), and a bottom ferromagnetic (FM2) layer. Exchange coupling in MTJs has been extensively widely examined because the effect of spacer thickness on the ferromagnetic spin-coupling can be exploited in read-head sensors, spin-valve structures, and magntoresistance random access memories (MRAMs). In this investigation, MTJs were deposited in the sequence, glass/CoFeB(50 A)/AlO x (d)/Co(100 A), where the thickness of the AlO x layer d = 12, 17, 22, 26 or 30 A. Saturation magnetization (M s ) results demonstrate that the exchange coupling strength and coercivity (H c ) can be varied considerably by varying the tunneling barrier AlO x spacer. The X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) include a main peak from hexagonal close-packed (HCP) Co with a highly (0 0 2) textured structure at 2θ = 44.7 o , and AlO x and CoFeB are amorphous phases. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the Co (0 0 2) peak declines as the AlO x thickness increases, revealing that the Co layer becomes more crystalline. The magnetic results reveal that the magnetic characteristics are related to the Co crystallinity. The exchange coupling strength increases with AlO x thickness. The coercivity (H c ) also increases, because the Co crystallinity is eliminated.

  12. Removal of Dibenzothiophene Using Activated Carbon/γ-Fe2O3 Nano-Composite: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Investigation of the Removal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Fayazi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, removal of dibenzothiophene (DBT from model oil (n-hexane was investigated using magnetic activated carbon (MAC nano-composite adsorbent. The synthesized nano-composite was characterized by FT-IR, FE-SEM, BET and VSM techniques. The MAC nano-composite exhibited a nearly superparamagnetic property with a saturation magnetization (Ms of 29.2 emu g-1, which made it desirable for separation under an external magnetic field. The magnetic adsorbent afforded a maximum adsorption capacity of 38.0 mg DBT g-1 at the optimized conditions (adsorbent dose, 8 g l-1; contact time, 1 h; temperature, 25 °C. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were used to fit equilibrium data for MAC nano-composite. Adsorption process could be well described by the Langmuir model. Kinetic studies were carried out and showed the sorption kinetics of DBT was best described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In addition, the MAC nano-composite exhibited good capability of recycling to adsorb DBT in gasoline deep desulfurization.

  13. Structural and magnetic characteristics of PVA/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano-composites prepared via mechanical alloying method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, S.; Ataie, A., E-mail: aataie@ut.ac.ir

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Single phase CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano-particles synthesized in one step by mechanical alloying. • PVA/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} magnetic nano-composites were fabricated via mechanical milling. • FTIR confirmed the interaction between PVA and magnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles. • Increasing in milling time and PVA amount led to well dispersion of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. - Abstract: In this research, polyvinyl alcohol/cobalt ferrite nano-composites were successfully synthesized employing a two-step procedure: the spherical single-phase cobalt ferrite of 20 ± 4 nm mean particle size was synthesized via mechanical alloying method and then embedded into polymer matrix by intensive milling. The results revealed that increase in polyvinyl alcohol content and milling time causes cobalt ferrite particles disperse more homogeneously in polymer matrix, while the mean particle size and shape of cobalt ferrite have not been significantly affected. Transmission electron microscope images indicated that polyvinyl alcohol chains have surrounded the cobalt ferrite nano-particles; also, the interaction between polymer and cobalt ferrite particles in nano-composite samples was confirmed. Magnetic properties evaluation showed that saturation magnetization, coercivity and anisotropy constant values decreased in nano-composite samples compared to pure cobalt ferrite. However, the coercivity values of related nano-composite samples enhanced by increasing PVA amount due to domain wall mechanism.

  14. Functionalized Multi walled Carbon Nano tubes-Reinforced Viny lester/Epoxy Blend Based Nano composites: Enhanced Mechanical, Thermal, and Electrical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praharaj, A. P.; Behera, D.; Bastia, T. K.; Rout, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the mechanical, thermal, and electrical characterization of a new class of low cost multiphase nano composites consisting of Vinyl ester resin/epoxy (VER/EP) blend (40:60 w/w) reinforced with amine functionalized multi walled carbon nano tubes (f-MWCNTs). Five different sets of VER/EP nano composites are fabricated with addition of 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 wt.% of f-MWCNTs. A detailed investigation of mechanical properties like tensile strength, impact strength, Young’s modulus, and hardness, thermal properties like thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and thermal conductivity, electrical properties like dielectric strength, dielectric constant, and electrical conductivity, and corrosive and swelling properties of the nano composites has been carried out. Here, we report significant improvement in all the above properties of the fabricated nano composites with nano filler (f-MWCNTs) addition compared to the virgin blend (0 wt. nano filler loading). The properties are best observed in case of 5 wt.% nano filler loading with gradual deterioration thereafter which may be due to the nucleating tendency of the nano filler particles. Thus the above nano composites could be a preferable candidate for a wide range of structural, thermal, electrical, and solvent based applications.

  15. Effect of stacking sequence and surface treatment on the thermal conductivity of multilayered hybrid nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, G. C.; Pappa, E. J.; Portan, D. V.; Kotrotsos, A.; Kollia, E.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of both the stacking sequence and surface treatment on the thermal conductivity of multilayered hybrid nano-composites. Four types of multilayered hybrid nanocomposites were manufactured and tested: Nitinol- CNTs (carbon nanotubes)- Acrylic resin; Nitinol- Acrylic resin- CNTs; Surface treated Nitinol- CNTs- Acrylic resin and Surface treated Nitinol- Acrylic resin- CNTs. Surface treatment of Nitinol plies was realized by means of the electrochemical anodization. Surface topography of the anodized nitinol sheets was investigated through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was found that the overall thermal response of the manufactured multilayered nano-composites was greatly influenced by both the anodization and the stacking sequence. A theoretical model for the prediction of the overall thermal conductivity has been developed considering the nature of the different layers, their stacking sequence as well as the interfacial thermal resistance. Thermal conductivity and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements were conducted, to verify the predicted by the model overall thermal conductivities. In all cases, a good agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental results was found.

  16. Digital selective fabrication of micro/nano-composite structured TiO2 nanorod arrays by laser direct writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; He, Xiaoning; Liu, Hongzhong; Yin, Lei; Shi, Yongsheng; Ding, Yucheng

    2014-11-01

    In this article, we report on the digital selective fabrication of micro/nano-composite structured TiO2 nanorod arrays by laser direct writing. The pattern of TiO2 nanorod arrays can be easily designed and fabricated by laser scanning technology integrated with a computer-aided design system, which allows a high degree of freedom corresponding to the various pattern design demands. The approach basically involves the hydrothermal growth of TiO2 nanorod arrays on a transparent conductive substrate, the micropattern of TiO2 nanorod arrays and surface fluorination treatment. With these micro/nano-composite TiO2 nanorod array based films, we have demonstrated superhydrophilic patterned TiO2 nanorod arrays with rapid water spreading ability and superhydrophobic patterned TiO2 nanorod arrays with an excellent droplet bouncing effect and a good self-cleaning performance. The dynamic behaviours of the water droplets observed on the patterned TiO2 nanorod arrays were demonstrated by experiments and simulated by a finite element method. The approaches we will show are expected to provide potential applications in fields such as self-cleaning, surface protection, anticrawling and microfluidic manipulation.

  17. One-Pot Hydrothermal Synthesis of Magnetite Prussian Blue Nano-Composites and Their Application to Fabricate Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzaldeen Younes Jomma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we presented a simple method to synthesize magnetite Prussian blue nano-composites (Fe3O4-PB through one-pot hydrothermal process. Subsequently, the obtained nano-composites were used to fabricate a facile and effective glucose biosensor. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The resultant Fe3O4-PB nanocomposites have magnetic properties which could easily controlled by an external magnetic field and the electro-catalysis of hydrogen peroxide. Thus, a glucose biosensor based on Fe3O4-PB was successfully fabricated. The biosensor showed super-electrochemical properties toward glucose detection exhibiting fast response time within 3 to 4 s, low detection limit of 0.5 µM and wide linear range from 5 µM to 1.2 mM with sensitivity of 32 µA∙mM−1∙cm−2 and good long-term stability.

  18. Development of controlled drug release formulation based on pamoate-zinc-aluminium-layered double hydroxide nano composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaemah Jubri

    2008-01-01

    Controlled drug release formulation of pamoate was developed by the intercalation of pamoate anion into Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH). The resulting layered organic-inorganic hybrid nano composite material was formed using pamoate as guest anion intercalated into the Zn-Al layered double hydroxide inorganic host by direct co-precipitation method. As a result of successful intercalation of pamoate ion into the interlayer structure of Zn-Al-LDH, an expansion of the interlayer spacing, from 8.9 Angstrom in the layered double hydroxide to 18.1 Angstrom in the nano composite (ZAP) could be observed in the powder X-ray diffractogram. The reverse process, for example the de intercalation or release of the guest, pamoate was found to be rapid initially, followed by a more sustained release thereafter and this behavior was dependent on the pH of the release medium, the aqueous solution. The mechanism of release has been interpreted on the basis of the ion-exchange process between the pamoate anion intercalated in the lamella host and nitrate, or hydroxyl anions in the aqueous solution. This study suggest that layered double hydroxide can be used as a carrier for drugs that allow safe and controlled delivery of various bio agents into target with high efficiency. (author)

  19. Novel nano-composite biomimetic biomaterial allows chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow concentrate derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigolo, Brunella; Cavallo, Carola; Desando, Giovanna; Manferdini, Cristina; Lisignoli, Gina; Ferrari, Andrea; Zini, Nicoletta; Facchini, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    In clinical orthopedics suitable materials that induce and restore biological functions together with the right mechanical properties are particularly needed for the regeneration of osteochondral lesions. For this purpose, the ideal scaffold should possess the right properties with respect to degradation, cell binding, cellular uptake, non-immunogenicity, mechanical strength, and flexibility. In addition, it should be easy to handle and serve as a template for chondrocyte and bone cells guiding both cartilage and bone formation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the chondrogenic and osteogenic capability of bone marrow concentrated derived cells seeded onto a novel nano-composite biomimetic material. These properties have been evaluated by means of histological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopy analyses. The data obtained demonstrated that freshly harvested cells obtained from bone marrow were able, once seeded onto the biomaterial, to differentiate either down the chondrogenic and osteogenic pathways as evaluated by the expression and production of specific matrix molecules. These findings support the use, for the repair of osteochondral lesions, of this new nano-composite biomimetic material together with bone marrow derived cells in a "one step" transplantation procedure.

  20. Au–C allotrope nano-composite films at extreme conditions generated by intense ultra-short laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Saif A., E-mail: khansaifahmad@gmail.com [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Saravanan, K. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China); Tayyab, M.; Bagchi, S. [Laser Plasma Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Amity University, Noida 201313, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2016-07-15

    Structural evolution of gold–carbon allotrope nano-composite films under relativistically intense, ultra-short laser pulse irradiation is studied in this work. Au–C nano-composite films, having 4 and 10 at.% of Au, were deposited by co-sputtering technique on silicon substrates. Au–C{sub 60} NC films with 2.5 at.% Au were deposited on 12 μm thick Al foil using co-evaporation technique. These samples were radiated with single pulse from 45 fs, 10 TW Ti:Sapphire Laser at RRCAT at an intensity of 3 × 10{sup 18} W cm{sup −2}. The morphological and compositional changes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry (RBS) techniques. Laser pulse created three morphologically distinct zones around the point of impact on samples with silicon substrates. The gold content in 600 μm circular region around a point of impact is found to reduce by a factor of five. Annular rings of ∼70 nm in diameter were observed in case of Au–C NC film after irradiation. Laser pulse created a hole of about 400 μm in the sample with Al foil as substrate and wavy structures of 6 μm wavelength are found to be created around this hole. The study shows radial variation in nano-structure formation with varying local intensity of laser pulse.

  1. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Poly-pyrrole hybrid nano-composite materials for super-capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallouki, M.; Tran-Van, F.; Sarrazin, C.; Chevrot, C. [Cergy-Pontoise Univ., Lab. de Physicochimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces (LPPI), EA 2528 95 (France); Fauvarque, J.F. [CNAM, Lab. d' Electrochimie Industrielle, 75 - Paris (France); Simon, P. [Universite Paul Sabatier, CIRIMAT-LCMIE, UMR 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France); De, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)

    2004-07-01

    Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Poly-pyrrole hybrid nano-composite materials chemically synthesized from colloid particles of iron oxide in aqueous solution have been processed to realize electrode materials for super-capacitor applications. The performances have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvano-static techniques in a three-electrode cell. The capacitance of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-PPy hybrid nano-composite doped with para-toluene-sulfonate reaches 47 mAh/g in PC/NEt{sub 4}BF{sub 4} with a good stability during cycling (loss of 3% after 1000 cycles). Transmission Electronic Microscopy indicates a porous nano-structure with spherical particles in a range of 400-500 nm which ensures a good accessibility of the electrolyte in the bulk of the electro-active hybrid material. Preliminary studies with room temperature ionic liquid show promising results since the specific capacitance reaches 427 F/g in 1- ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis((tri-fluoro-methyl)sulfonyl)amide (EMITFSI). (authors)

  2. Significantly Elevated Dielectric and Energy Storage Traits in Boron Nitride Filled Polymer Nano-composites with Topological Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yefeng; Zhang, Jianxiong; Hu, Jianbing; Li, Shichun; Peng, Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Interface induced polarization has a prominent influence on dielectric properties of 0-3 type polymer based composites containing Si-based semi-conductors. The disadvantages of composites were higher dielectric loss, lower breakdown strength and energy storage density, although higher permittivity was achieved. In this work, dielectric, conductive, breakdown and energy storage properties of four nano-composites have been researched. Based on the cooperation of fluoropolymer/alpha-SiC layer and fluoropolymer/hexagonal-BN layer, it was confirmed constructing the heterogeneous layer-by-layer composite structure rather than homogeneous mono-layer structure could significantly reduce dielectric loss, promote breakdown strength and increase energy storage density. The former worked for a larger dielectric response and the latter layer acted as a robust barrier of charge carrier transfer. The best nano-composite could possess a permittivity of 43@100 Hz ( 3.3 times of polymer), loss of 0.07@100 Hz ( 37% of polymer), discharged energy density of 2.23 J/cm3@249 kV/cm ( 10 times of polymer) and discharged energy efficiency of 54%@249 kV/cm ( 5 times of polymer). This work might enlighten a facile route to achieve the promising high energy storage composite dielectrics by constructing the layer-by-layer topological structure.

  3. Synthesis of Silica Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel: Size-Dependent Properties, Surface Modification, and Applications in Silica-Polymer Nano composites-A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.R.; Vejayakumaran, P.

    2012-01-01

    Application of silica nanoparticles as fillers in the preparation of nano composite of polymers has drawn much attention, due to the increased demand for new materials with improved thermal, mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. Recent developments in the synthesis of monodispersed, narrow-size distribution of nanoparticles by sol-gel method provide significant boost to development of silica-polymer nano composites. This paper is written by emphasizing on the synthesis of silica nanoparticles, characterization on size-dependent properties, and surface modification for the preparation of homogeneous nano composites, generally by sol-gel technique. The effect of nano silica on the properties of various types of silica-polymer composites is also summarized.

  4. Functional properties of extruded nano composites based on cassava starch, polyvinyl alcohol and montmorillonite; Propriedades funcionais de nanocompositos extrusados de amido de mandioca, alcool polivinilico e montmorilonita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debiagi, Flavia; Mali, Suzana [Departamento de Bioquimica e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objectives of this work were to produce expanded nano composites (foams) based on starch, PVA and sodium montmorillonite and characterize them according to their expansion index (EI), density, water absorption capacity (WSC), mechanical properties and X-ray diffraction. The nano composites were prepared in a single-screw extruder using different starch contents (97.6 - 55.2 g/100 g formulation), PVA (0 - 40 g/100 g formulation), unmodified nano clay - Closite - Na (0 - 4. 8 g/100 g formulation) and glycerol (20 g/100 g formulation) as plasticizer. The addition of montmorillonite and PVA resulted in an increase of EI and a decrease of density of the samples, and reduced WSC and increased the mechanical strength of the foams. Through the analysis of X-ray diffraction can be observed that the addition of montmorillonite led to production of intercalated nano composites in all samples. (author)

  5. Micromagnetic finite element study for magnetic properties of nanocomposite exchange coupled Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe multilayer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryo, Hyok-Su [School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Faculty of Physics, Kim Il Sung University, Pyongyang 999093, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Hu, Lian-Xi [School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Kim, Jin-Guk [School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Faculty of Physics, Kim Il Sung University, Pyongyang 999093, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Yu-Lin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2017-03-15

    In this study, magnetic properties of exchange coupled nanocomposite multilayer thin films constructed alternately with magnetic hard Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B layers and soft α-Fe layers have been studied by micromagnetic finite element method (FEM). According to the results, effects of the thicknesses of layers and the magneto-crystalline anisotropy on the magnetic properties of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe multilayer systems have been estimated. On the other hand, the results have been analyzed by means of efficiency of interphase exchange coupling, which can be estimated by volume ratios of exchange coupled areas between magnetically hard Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and soft α-Fe phase layers. The results show that the magnetic properties of exchange coupled Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe multilayer systems can be enhanced by efficient interphase exchange coupling between magnetically hard Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B layers and soft α-Fe layers. - Highlights: • Phase layer thicknesses dependence of magnetic properties of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe multilayers. • Analyzation of the effectiveness of exchange coupling between the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and α-Fe layers. • Dependence of the magnetic properties on direction of external field of exchange coupled Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe multilayers. • Dependence of the magnetic properties on magneto-crystalline anisotropy of exchange coupled Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/α-Fe multilayers.

  6. Interface structures in FePt/Fe3Pt hard-soft exchange-coupled magnetic nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Wang Zhonglin; Zeng Hao; Sun Shouheng; Ping Liu, J.

    2003-01-01

    Self-assembly of FePt and Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles of different sizes led to various FePt-Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposites. Annealing the composite under reducing atmosphere at 650 and 700 deg. C induced magnetically hard FePt phase and magnetically soft Fe 3 Pt phase. The FePt and Fe 3 Pt phases were either linked by a common interface or coexisted within one grain as domains with sizes <10 nm. This ensures the effective exchange coupling of magnetically hard and soft phases. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies provide detailed structural characterization for the FePt based nanocomposites

  7. Spin Quantum Tunneling via Entangled States in a Dimer of Exchange-Coupled Single-Molecule Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiron, R.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Foguet-Albiol, D.; Aliaga-Alcalde, N.; Christou, G.

    2003-11-01

    A new family of supramolecular, antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled dimers of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) has recently been reported. Each SMM acts as a bias on its neighbor, shifting the quantum tunneling resonances of the individual SMMs. Hysteresis loop measurements on a single crystal of SMM dimers have now established quantum tunneling of the magnetization via entangled states of the dimer. This shows that the dimer really does behave as a quantum mechanically coupled dimer, and also allows the measurement of the longitudinal and transverse superexchange coupling constants.

  8. Interfacial Exchange Coupling Induced Anomalous Anisotropic Magnetoresistance in Epitaxial γ′-Fe 4 N/CoN Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zirun

    2015-02-02

    Anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) of the facing-target reactively sputtered epitaxial γ′-Fe4N/CoN bilayers is investigated. The phase shift and rectangular-like AMR appears at low temperatures, which can be ascribed to the interfacial exchange coupling. The phase shift comes from the exchange bias (EB) that makes the magnetization lag behind a small field. When the γ′-Fe4N thickness increases, the rectangular-like AMR appears. The rectangular-like AMR should be from the combined contributions including the EB-induced unidirectional anisotropy, intrinsic AMR of γ′-Fe4N layer and interfacial spin scattering.

  9. Thermal stability, thermal expansion and grain-growth in exchange-coupled Fe-Pt-Ag-B bulk nanocomposite magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicula, R.; Crisan, O.; Crisan, A.D.; Mercioniu, I.; Stir, M.; Vasiliu, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Formation of the L10 FePt hard-magnetic phase (>90%) directly in the as-cast state. • Specific alternating hard/soft nanostructure is stable to 600 °C without grain growth. • Anisotropic and non-linear thermal expansion effects. • The FePtAgB alloy behaves like a single magnetic phase (full exchange coupling). - Abstract: Rare-earth free (RE-free) exchange coupling nanocomposite magnets are intensively studied nowadays due to their potential use in applications demanding stable high-temperature operation and corrosion resistance. In this respect, the FePt alloy system is one of the most actively addressed potential permanent magnet solutions. In FePt alloys, promising magnetic features arise from the co-existence of hard magnetic L1 0 FePt and soft magnetic L1 2 Fe 3 Pt phases emerged from the same metastable precursor. The present work deals with an in-situ temperature-resolved synchrotron radiation study of the thermal stability, thermal expansion and microstructure evolution in exchange-coupled FePtAgB alloys. The as-cast microstructural state as well as the optimized magnetic behavior are given as reference and correlated to the observed microstructural evolution with temperature. The melt-spun Fe 48 Pt 28 Ag 6 B 18 alloy ribbons were examined in situ by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction from ambient temperature up to 600 °C. The FePt-Fe 3 Pt exchange-coupled microstructure achieved by rapid solidification is not significantly altered during the high temperature exposure. The thermal expansion of the FePt L1 0 unit cell has been found to be strongly anisotropic, being essentially an in-plane expansion which may be seen as an anisotropic invar effect. For the FePt L1 0 phase, a significant deviation from linear thermal expansion is observed at the Curie temperature T C = 477 °C. This non-linear behavior above T C is tentatively linked to a diffusion/segregation mechanism of Ag. The promising hard magnetic properties as well as the

  10. Exchange coupling mechanism for magnetization reversal and thermal stability of Co nanoparticles embedded in a CoO matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givord, Dominique; Skumryev, Vassil; Nogues, Josep

    2005-01-01

    A model providing a semi-quantitative account of the magnetic behavior of Co nanoparticles embedded in a CoO matrix is presented. The results confirm that exchange coupling at the interface between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) nanostructures could provide an extra source of magnetic anisotropy, leading to thermal stability of the FM nanoparticles. It is shown that perpendicular coupling between the AFM and FM moments may result in large coercivities. The energy barrier, which works against reversal is due to the AFM susceptibility anisotropy. The experimentally observed exchange bias is tentatively ascribed to pre-existing intrinsic canting of the AFM moments at the interface

  11. Thermal stability, thermal expansion and grain-growth in exchange-coupled Fe-Pt-Ag-B bulk nanocomposite magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicula, R., E-mail: radu.nicula@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Advanced Materials Processing, Feuerwerkerstr. 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland); Crisan, O.; Crisan, A.D.; Mercioniu, I. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Stir, M. [University of Berne, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freiestrasse 3, CH-3012 Berne (Switzerland); Vasiliu, F. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Formation of the L10 FePt hard-magnetic phase (>90%) directly in the as-cast state. • Specific alternating hard/soft nanostructure is stable to 600 °C without grain growth. • Anisotropic and non-linear thermal expansion effects. • The FePtAgB alloy behaves like a single magnetic phase (full exchange coupling). - Abstract: Rare-earth free (RE-free) exchange coupling nanocomposite magnets are intensively studied nowadays due to their potential use in applications demanding stable high-temperature operation and corrosion resistance. In this respect, the FePt alloy system is one of the most actively addressed potential permanent magnet solutions. In FePt alloys, promising magnetic features arise from the co-existence of hard magnetic L1{sub 0} FePt and soft magnetic L1{sub 2} Fe{sub 3}Pt phases emerged from the same metastable precursor. The present work deals with an in-situ temperature-resolved synchrotron radiation study of the thermal stability, thermal expansion and microstructure evolution in exchange-coupled FePtAgB alloys. The as-cast microstructural state as well as the optimized magnetic behavior are given as reference and correlated to the observed microstructural evolution with temperature. The melt-spun Fe{sub 48}Pt{sub 28}Ag{sub 6}B{sub 18} alloy ribbons were examined in situ by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction from ambient temperature up to 600 °C. The FePt-Fe{sub 3}Pt exchange-coupled microstructure achieved by rapid solidification is not significantly altered during the high temperature exposure. The thermal expansion of the FePt L1{sub 0} unit cell has been found to be strongly anisotropic, being essentially an in-plane expansion which may be seen as an anisotropic invar effect. For the FePt L1{sub 0} phase, a significant deviation from linear thermal expansion is observed at the Curie temperature T{sub C} = 477 °C. This non-linear behavior above T{sub C} is tentatively linked to a diffusion/segregation mechanism of Ag

  12. Microfluidic active mixers employing ultra-high aspect-ratio rare-earth magnetic nano-composite polymer artificial cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbar, Mona; Gray, Bonnie L; Shannon, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    We present a new micromixer based on highly magnetic, flexible, high aspect-ratio, artificial cilia that are fabricated as individual micromixer elements or in arrays for improved mixing performance. These new cilia enable high efficiency, fast mixing in a microchamber, and are controlled by small electromagnetic fields. The artificial cilia are fabricated using a new micromolding process for nano-composite polymers. Cilia fibers with aspect-ratios as high as 8:0.13 demonstrate the fabrication technique's capability in creating ultra-high aspect-ratio microstructures. Cilia, which are realized in polydimethylsiloxane doped with rare-earth magnetic powder, are magnetized to produce permanent magnetic structures with bidirectional deflection capabilities, making them highly suitable as mixers controlled by electromagnetic fields. Due to the high magnetization level of the polarized nano-composite polymer, we are able to use miniature electromagnets providing relatively small magnetic fields of 1.1 to 7 mT to actuate the cilia microstructures over a very wide motion range. Mixing performances of a single cilium, as well as different arrays of multiple cilia ranging from 2 to 8 per reaction chamber, are characterized and compared with passive diffusion mixing performance. The mixer cilia are actuated at different amplitudes and frequencies to optimize mixing performance. We demonstrate that more than 85% of the total volume of the reaction chamber is fully mixed after 3.5 min using a single cilium mixer at 7 mT compared with only 20% of the total volume mixed with passive diffusion. The time to achieve over 85% mixing is further reduced to 70 s using an array of eight cilia microstructures. The novel microfabrication technique and use of rare-earth permanently-magnetizable nano-composite polymers in mixer applications has not been reported elsewhere by other researchers. We further demonstrate improved mixing over other cilia micromixers as enabled by the high

  13. Transition from reversible to irreversible magnetic exchange-spring processes in antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled hard/soft/hard trilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiguang; Guo Guanghua; Zhang Guangfu

    2011-01-01

    The demagnetization processes of antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled hard/soft/hard trilayer structures have been studied based on the discrete one-dimensional atomic chain model and the linear partial domain-wall model. It is found that, when the magnetic anisotropy of soft layer is taken into account, the changes of the soft layer thickness and the interfacial exchange coupling strength may lead a transition of demagnetization process in soft layer from the reversible to the irreversible magnetic exchange-spring process. For the trilayer structures with very thin soft layer, the demagnetization process exhibits typical reversible exchange-spring behavior. However, as the thickness of soft layer is increased, there is a crossover point t c , after which the process becomes irreversible. Similarly, there is also a critical interfacial exchange coupling constant A sh c , above which the exchange-spring process is reversible. When A sh sh c , the irreversible exchange-spring process is achieved. The phase diagram of reversible and irreversible exchange-spring processes is mapped in the plane of the interfacial exchange coupling A sh and soft layer thickness N s . - Research highlights: → A differing magnetic exchange-spring process is found in antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled hard/soft/hard trilayers if the magnetic anisotropy of the soft layers is taken into account. → The change of the soft layer thickness may lead to a transition of demagnetization process in soft layer from the reversible to the irreversible exchange-spring process. → The change of the soft-hard interfacial exchange coupling strength may lead a transition of demagnetization process in soft layer from the reversible to the irreversible exchange-spring process. → The phase diagram of reversible and irreversible exchange-spring processes is mapped in the plane of the interfacial exchange coupling and soft layer thickness.

  14. Carbon nanoparticle doped micro-patternable nano-composites for wearable sensing applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Ajit

    2017-04-01

    This talk focuses on preparation, characterization and micropatterning of electrically conducting KETJENBLACK carbon black nanoparticle (80 nm-diameter) doped Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by employing extrusion mixing. Previously, we had reported fabrication of various micropatternable nanocomposites for wearable sensing applications vis solvent assisted ultrasonic mixing technique[1-16] . Extrusion mixing has an advantage as no organic solvents are used and homogenous dispersion of carbon nanoparticles is observed, which is confirmed by SEM analysis. The developed nanocomposite can be micropatterened using standard microfabrication techniques. It is also observed that percolation threshold occurs at 0.51 wt% of carbon nanoparticles in polymer matrix. Examples of developed nano-composites for wearable sensing applications for precision medicine will also be discussed. References: 1.http://summit.sfu.ca/item/12017 A. Khosla. Micropatternable multifunctional nanocomposite polymers for flexible soft MEMS applications. Diss. Applied Science: School of Engineering Science, 2011. 2. A. Khosla ; B. L. Gray; Fabrication of multiwalled carbon nanotube polydimethylsiloxne nanocomposite polymer flexible microelectrodes for microfluidics and MEMS. Proc. SPIE 7642, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2010, 76421V (April 09, 2010); doi:10.1117/12.847292. 3. Ang Li ; Ajit Khosla ; Connie Drewbrook ; Bonnie L. Gray; Fabrication and testing of thermally responsive hydrogel-based actuators using polymer heater elements for flexible microvalves. Proc. SPIE 7929, Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems IX, 79290G (February 14, 2011); doi:10.1117/12.873197. 4. Khosla, A. and Gray, B. L. (2010), Preparation, Micro-Patterning and Electrical Characterization of Functionalized Carbon-Nanotube Polydimethylsiloxane Nanocomposite Polymer. Macromol. Symp., 297: 210-218. doi:10.1002/masy.200900165 5. A. Khosla ; D. Hilbich ; C. Drewbrook ; D. Chung ; B. L. Gray; Large

  15. Graphene nano-devices and nano-composites for structural, thermal and sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Fazel

    In this dissertation we have developed graphene-based nano-devices for applications in integrated circuits and gas sensors; as well as graphene-based nano-composites for applications in structures and thermal management. First, we have studied the bandgap of graphene for semiconductor applications. Graphene as a zero-bandgap material cannot be used in the semiconductor industry unless an effective method is developed to open the bandgap in this material. We have demonstrated that a bandgap of 0.206 eV can be opened in graphene by adsorption of water vapor molecules on its surface. Water molecules break the molecular symmetries of graphene resulting in a significant bandgap opening. We also illustrate that the lack of bandgap in graphene can be used to our advantage by making sensors that are able to detect low concentrations of gas molecules mixed in air. We have shown that 1-2 layers of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition enables detection of trace amounts of NO 2 and NH3 in air at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The gas species are detected by monitoring changes in electrical resistance of the graphene film due to gas adsorption. The sensor response time is inversely proportional to the gas concentration. Heating the film expels chemisorbed molecules from the graphene surface enabling reversible operation. The detection limits of ~100 parts-per-billion (ppb) for NO2 and ~500 ppb for NH3 obtained using this device are markedly superior to commercially available NO2 and NH3 detectors. This sensor is fabricated using individual graphene sheets that are exquisitely sensitive to the chemical environment. However, the fabrication and operation of devices that use individual nanostructures for sensing is complex, expensive and suffers from poor reliability due to contamination and large variability from sample-to-sample. To overcome these problems we have developed a gas sensor based on a porous 3D network of graphene sheets called graphene foam

  16. Effect of Addition of Colloidal Silica to Films of Polyimide, Polyvinylpyridine, Polystyrene, and Polymethylmethacrylate Nano-Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman Abdalla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano-composite films have been the subject of extensive work for developing the energy-storage efficiency of electrostatic capacitors. Factors such as polymer purity, nanoparticle size, and film morphology drastically affect the electrostatic efficiency of the dielectric material that forms the insulating film between the conductive electrodes of a capacitor. This in turn affects the energy storage performance of the capacitor. In the present work, we have studied the dielectric properties of four highly pure amorphous polymer films: polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, polystyrene, polyimide and poly-4-vinylpyridine. Comparison between the dielectric properties of these polymers has revealed that the higher breakdown performance is a character of polyimide (PI and PMMA. Also, our experimental data shows that adding colloidal silica to PMMA and PI leads to a net decrease in the dielectric properties compared to the pure polymer.

  17. Processing of tenorite and galena with participation of material of steel mill solid to oxide-sulfide nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urakaev, F.; Shevchenko, V.; Tyumentseva, O.; Aknazarov, C.; Ketegenov, T.

    2003-01-01

    New abrasive mechanic-chemical method was developed and used for reduction work up of tenorite and galena by its joint processing with amorphous quartz material in miller with steel furniture. Products of mechanical activation were investigated by X-ray phase analysis. Results of analysis show the proceeding of following processes: abrasive erase of steel miller solids; amorphization; reduction of copper from tenorite and lead from galena; crystalline phase absence both oxides and sulfides of iron - other products of reducing reactions, for example: CuO + Fe = Cu + FeO. Differences that take place at processing of tenorite and galena were discussed. So, processing of the natural minerals (tenorite, galena) in mixture with abrasive (melted quartz) in miller AGO-2 with steel furniture possesses to obtain nano composite metal-oxide-sulfide powder on the base of quartz matrix

  18. Immobilization of laccase on a novel ZnO/SiO2 nano-composited support for dye decolorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Xun; Sun, Huai-Yan; Zhang, Rui-Feng

    2015-07-01

    ZnO nanowires were introduced into macroporous SiO2 by means of in situ hydrothermal growth. The obtained nano-composite was then used to immobilize laccase (secured from Trametes versicolor) through the process of static adsorption. The average loading amount was as high as 193.4 μmol-g-1. The immobilized laccase was proven to be an effective biocatalyst in the decolorization of two dyes: Remazol Brilliant Blue B, and Acid Blue 25. The decolorization percentage of Remazol Brilliant Blue B and Acid Blue 25 reached 93% and 82% respectively. The immobilized laccase exhibited enhanced thermal stability and pH adaptability compared to free laccase. After ten recycles, the immobilized laccase retained 42% decolorization catalytic activity.

  19. Immobilization of laccase on a novel ZnO/SiO2 nano-composited support for dye decolorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei-Xun; Sun, Huai-Yan; Zhang, Rui-Feng

    2015-01-01

    ZnO nanowires were introduced into macroporous SiO 2 by means of in situ hydrothermal growth. The obtained nano-composite was then used to immobilize laccase (secured from Trametes versicolor) through the process of static adsorption. The average loading amount was as high as 193.4 μmol-g -1 . The immobilized laccase was proven to be an effective biocatalyst in the decolorization of two dyes: Remazol Brilliant Blue B, and Acid Blue 25. The decolorization percentage of Remazol Brilliant Blue B and Acid Blue 25 reached 93% and 82% respectively. The immobilized laccase exhibited enhanced thermal stability and pH adaptability compared to free laccase. After ten recycles, the immobilized laccase retained 42% decolorization catalytic activity. (paper)

  20. SYNTHESIS AND CORROSION PROTECTION BEHAVIOR OF EPOXYTiO2-MICACEOUS IRON OXIDE NANO - COMPOSITE COATING ON St-37

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Khorram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The micro layers micaceous iron oxide and nano-TiO 2 were incorporated into the epoxy resin by mechanical mixing and sonication process. Optical micrographs showed that the number and diameter size of nanoparticle agglomerates were decreased by sonication. The structure and composition of the nanocomposite was determined using transmission electron microscopy which showed the presence of dispersed nano-TiO 2 in the polymer matrix. The anticorrosive properties of the synthesized nano-composites coating were investigated using salt spray, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and polarization measurement. The EIS results showed that coating resistance increased by addition of micaceous iron oxide micro layers and nano-TiO 2 particles to the epoxy coatings. It was observed that higher corrosion protection of nanocomposite coatings obtained by the addition of 3 %wt micaceous iron oxide and 4%wt nano-TiO 2 into epoxy resin.

  1. Rare-earth element doped Si3N4/SiC micro/nano-composites-RT and HT mechanical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lojanová, Š.; Tatarko, P.; Chlup, Zdeněk; Hnatko, M.; Dusza, J.; Lenčéš, Z.; Šajgalík, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 9 (2010), s. 1931-1944 ISSN 0955-2219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Si3N4 * SiC * Nano-composites * Fracture toughness * Hardness * Strength * Creep Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 2.574, year: 2010

  2. A new route for graphene wrapping LiVPO4F/C nano composite toward superior lithium storage property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhaomeng; Peng, Wenjie; Fan, Yulei; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhixing; Guo, Huajun; Wang, Jiexi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple solution route was used for coating process. • Core–shell structure with multi conductive shell was obtained. • Greatly enhanced electrochemical performance was demonstrated. - Abstract: To enhance the electronic conductivity of LiVPO 4 F, graphene-decorated LiVPO 4 F/C nano composites were prepared via a solution route followed by low-temperature calcination. XRD results reveal that the crystal structure of LiVPO 4 F/C with graphene wrapping remains unchanged. SEM and TEM images demonstrate that the as-synthesized graphene modified particles tend to become smaller and are dispersed uniformly into the graphene layers. The graphene sheets stretch out and cross-link into a conducting network around the LiVPO 4 F particles, resulting in improved electronic conductivity and enhanced electrolyte permeability. SAED patterns confirmed the presence of graphene, as well as crystalline nature of LiVPO 4 F with clear lattice structure and sharp diffraction spots. When applied as cathodes for lithium ion batteries, the graphene wrapped LiVPO 4 F/C nano composites exhibit better cycle ability and rate capability than the pristine one. Particularly, the sample prepared by using 60 mL graphene oxide dispersion demonstrates a superior rate capability with a discharge capacity of 117 mA h g −1 at 8 C, as well as excellent cycling stability, maintaining 83.7% capacity retention after 350 cycles at 8 C. CV and EIS tests separately indicate that the graphene modified samples possess lower polarization and faster charge transfer than the bare sample

  3. Preparation of Ag@mSiO2 and Pt@mSiO2nano composites using trioctylmethyl ammonium hydrogen phthalate (TOMAHP) ionic liquid as reaction medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Sujoy; Dasgupta, Kinshuk; Bahadur, Jitendra; Tewari, Raghavendra; Mazumder, Subhasish

    2016-01-01

    A novel one step green chemistry approach utilizing trioctylmethyl ammonium hydrogen phthalate (TOMAHP), task specific ionic liquid has been attempted for synthesis of Ag and Pt nanoparticles supported on silica (Ag@mSiO 2 and Pt@mSiO 2 ). Structure, size distribution and morphology of these nano-composite particles were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle neutron scattering (SANS) as well as small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. The XRD results show that Ag/Pt metal nanoparticles deposited on to SiO 2 surface are face center cubic (fcc) in nature. The TEM and SAXS/SANS results show the morphology and size distributions of Ag and Pt nanoparticles loaded on to the surface of SiO 2 . It has been found that Ag nanoparticles are well dispersed on to the SiO 2 surface and are quite monodisperse in size, whereas Pt nanoparticles are quite polydisperse in size and forms aggregate or chain like structure on SiO 2 surface containing primary nanoparticles of typical size range 3–7 nm. The stability of nanoparticles, which controls its dispersion on SiO 2 substrate, has been discussed. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism for Ag@mSiO 2 and Pt@mSiO 2 nano composites in TOMAHP ionic liquid medium. - Highlights: • Novel methods for preparation of Pt@SiO 2 and Ag@SiO 2 nano composite in functionalized ionic liquid. • Pt@SiO 2 and Ag@SiO 2 nano composite are characterized using XRD, TEM as well as small angle x-ray scattering techniques. • The sizes of nano composite is <10 nm in size. • The method is simple one step, green chemical reduction method to prepare SiO 2 support nano catalyst.

  4. Enhanced magnetic properties in ZnCoAlO caused by exchange-coupling to Co nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Qi; Dizayee, Wala; Li, Xiaoli; Score, David S.; Neal, James R.; Behan, Anthony J.; Mokhtari, Abbas; Alshammari, Marzook S.; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed S.; Blythe, Harry J.; Chantrell, Roy W.; Heald, Steve M.; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Fox, A. Mark; Gehring, Gillian A.

    2016-11-01

    We report the results of a sequence of magnetisation and magneto-optical studies on laser ablated thin films of ZnCoAlO and ZnCoO that contain a small amount of metallic cobalt. The results are compared to those expected when all the magnetization is due to isolated metallic clusters of cobalt and with an oxide sample that is almost free from metallic inclusions. Using a variety of direct magnetic measurements and also magnetic circular dichroism we find that there is ferromagnetism within both the oxide and the metallic inclusions, and furthermore that these magnetic components are exchange-coupled when aluminium is included. This enhances both the coercive field and the remanence. Hence the presence of a controlled quantity of metallic nanoparticles in ZnAlO can improve the magnetic response of the oxide, thus giving great advantages for applications in spintronics.

  5. Gamma radiation effects on nano composites of Ag nanoparticles in Zn O matrices; Efectos de la radiacion gamma en nanocompositos de nanoparticulas de Ag en matrices de ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasenor C, L. S.

    2015-07-01

    The study of gamma radiation effects in nano composites of silver nanoparticles in a Zn O matrix has been performed in this work. First, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by colloidal methods, with two different mean average sizes, 48 nm and 24 nm respectively. These nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (Tem) and UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Then, with the synthesized AgNPs, nano composites in a matrix of Zn O were prepared. The first nano composite was prepared with the 48 nm AgNPs at 9.5 weight % of silver (Ag) and the second nano composite with the 24 nm nanoparticles at 1.0 weight % of Ag. Both nano composites were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (Sem). The formation of the Zn O phase in the nano composite was corroborated through X-ray diffraction analysis. It was observed that the presence of AgNPs during the formation of the AgNPs/Zn O nano composite modified the size and morphology of the structures obtained compared to those of the pure Zn O without nanoparticles, however both exhibit a radial structure. Then, the nano composite at 9.5 weight % of Ag was irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 1, 20 and 50 kGy. Samples were analyzed by Sem and the Bet technique, before and after being irradiated, in order to determine the effect of gamma radiation in the morphology, porosity and surface area of the studied material. Even when there are changes in porosity and Surface area, this difference is not very significant for some applications, however it will have to be considered during the design of a specific application of the nano composites. On the other hand, no morphology modifications were identified on the samples irradiated at the studied doses, with the electron microscopy techniques used. (Author)

  6. Nano-composite powders Ag-SnO2 prepared by reactive milling sintering and microstructural evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorrain, Nathalie

    2000-01-01

    This work aims at controlling the synthesis and the sintering of nano-composite powders Ag-SnO 2 in order to obtain a dense and nano-structured material for electrical contact as a substitute of the toxic compound Ag - CdO. The powder is prepared by reactive milling from silver oxide (Ag 2 O) and silver bronze (Ag 3 Sn) powders. This process leads to a fine dispersion of silver and tin oxide nanometer sized particles. We first studied the mechanisms of reaction promoted by milling in vacuum and in air. A two-stage oxidation of tin in Ag 3 Sn occurs: during forced contact with Ag 2 O, tin oxidises in SnO, then in SnO 2 . In air, gaseous oxygen also participates to the oxidation of tin in SnO 2 but the reaction is slower because of the formation of silver carbonates from a reaction of Ag 2 O with CO 2 .Then the sintering behaviour of the nano-composite powder as a function of the compacting pressure and of the heating rate has been studied. We show: (i) a diffusion of pure silver towards porosity and free surfaces (exo-diffusion) which destroys the nano-structure and (ii) a severe de-densification. We show that the origin of these phenomena is due to carbonates on to the Ag 2 O starting powder, which are incorporated, in the milled Ag-SnO 2 powder in course of milling; during sintering, decomposition gases generate internal stresses. Low stresses lead to a diffusional creep with exo-diffusion whereas high stresses induce an intensive de-densification by local plastic deformation but no exo-diffusion. A modelling shows that exo-diffusion is limited by heating very quickly a strongly compacted powder that contains a high quantity of carbonates. The experimental results confirm the predictions of the model. Finally, we propose solutions allowing a full densification and a process for decreasing the tin oxide concentration. (author) [fr

  7. Conductive nano composites based on cellulose nano fiber coated poly aniline via in situ polymerization; Nanocompositos condutores de nanofibras de celulose recobertas com polianilina via polimerizacao in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Michael J. da; Sanches, Alex O.; Malmonge, Luiz F.; Malmonge, Jose A. [Grupo de Polimero, Depto de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Eliton S. de [Depto de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Rosa, Morsyleide F. [Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Cellulose nano fiber (CNF) was extracted by acid hydrolysis from cotton microfibril and nano composites of CNF/PANI-DBSA were obtained by in situ polymerization of aniline onto CNF. The ratios between DBSA/aniline and aniline/oxidant were varied and the nano composites were characterized by four probes direct current (dc) electrical conductivity, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis-NIR) and FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrical conductive about {approx}10{sup -1}S/cm was research and was independent of DBSA/aniline molar ratio between 2-4 and the aniline/oxidant molar ratio between 1-5. X-ray patterns of the samples show crystalline peaks characteristic of cellulose I. The FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of PANI and CNF in all samples. (author)

  8. Dielectric relaxation and ac conduction in γ-irradiated UHMWPE/MWCNTs nano composites: Impedance spectroscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Syed Asad; Mehmood, Malik Sajjad; Mukhtar, Saqlain Saqib; Baluch, Mansoor A.; Khan, Shamim; Yasin, Tariq; Khan, Yaqoob

    2017-05-01

    The dielectric behavior of γ-irradiated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and its nano composites (NCs) with γ-ray modified multi wall carbon nano tubes (γ-MWCNTs) and MWCNTs had been studied using impedance spectroscopy. The study had been carried out in the frequency range of 20-2 MHz at room temperature. All samples (pure and NCs) were prepared in the form of sheets and irradiated with γ-dose of 50 kGy and 100 kGy, respectively. The comprehensive analysis of results revealed that resistivity of UHMWPE for conduction decreased on irradiation and incorporation of MWCNTs (whether γ ray modified or un-modified) due to the radiation induced damage and conductive networks induced by MWCNTs. At low frequency range a significant increase in the dielectric constant had been observed because of irradiation and addition of MWNCTs. The trend of loss tangent and ac conductivity for each investigated sample depended on resistivity offered and had a decreasing trend as a function of frequency. Moreover, dissipation factor increased with the incorporation of MWNCTs and irradiation from 0.12 to 0.22. In addition to this, non-frequency dependent static dielectric constant was also found to increase with irradiation and incorporation of MWCNTs. The relaxation time was found to increase from 1.2 to 4.3 ms due to hindrance offered by radiation induced mutual cross linking of PE chains and polymer-MWNCTs bindings.

  9. Multiscale simulation of polymer nano-composites (PNC) using molecular dynamics (MD) and generalized interpolation material point method (GIMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Abilash R.

    Recent mechanical characterization experiments with pultruded E-Glass / polypropylene (PP) and compression molded E-Glass/Nylon-6 composite samples with 3-4 weight% nanoclay and baseline polymer (polymer without nanoclay) confirmed significant improvements in compressive strength (˜122%) and shear strength (˜60%) in the nanoclay modified nanocomposites, in comparison with baseline properties. Uniaxial tensile tests showed a small increase in tensile strength (˜3.4%) with 3 wt % nanoclay loading. While the synergistic reinforcing influence of nanoparticle reinforcement is obvious, a simple rule-of-mixtures approach fails to quantify the dramatic increase in mechanical properties. Consequently, there is an immediate need to investigate and understand the mechanisms at the nanoscale that are responsible for such unprecedented strength enhancements. In this work, an innovative and effective method to model nano-structured components in a thermoplastic polymer matrix is proposed. Effort will be directed towards finding fundamental answers to the reasons for significant changes in mechanical properties of nanoparticle-reinforced thermoplastic composites. This research ensues a multiscale modeling approach in which (a) a concurrent simulations scheme is developed to visualize atomistic behavior of polymer molecules as a function of continuum scale loading conditions and (b) a novel nanoscale damage mechanics model is proposed to capture the constitutive behavior of polymer nano composites (PNC). The proposed research will contribute towards the understanding of advanced nanostructured composite materials, which should subsequently benefit the composites manufacturing industry.

  10. Polyethylene ionomer-based nano-composite foams prepared by a batch process and MuCell injection molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hidetomo; Mori, Tomoki; Okamoto, Masami; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Hayami, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    To understand the correlation between foamability and melt rheology of polyethylene-based ionomers having different degrees of the neutralization and corresponding nano-composites, we have conducted the foam processing via a batch process in an autoclave and microcellular foam injection molding (FIM) process using the MuCell technology. We have discussed the obtainable morphological properties in both foaming processes. All cellular structures were investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The competitive phenomenon between the cell nucleation and the cell growth including the coalescence of cell was discussed in light of the interfacial energy and the relaxation rate as revealed by the modified classical nucleation theory and rheological measurement, respectively. The FIM process led to the opposite behavior in the cell growth and coalescence of cell as compared with that of the batch process, where the ionic cross-linked structure has significant contribution to retard the cell growth and coalescence of cell. The mechanical properties of the structural foams obtained by FIM process were discussed.

  11. The investigation of the C–Si interface structure in diamond/Si nano-composite films with first principle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuejie; Yin, Yongjie; Ren, Yuan; Wei, Huai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the stability of the monolayer Si interface on diamond (001) surface. • The adsorption energies of the four kinds of 8C8Si configurations on diamond (001) surface were calculated by DFT. • The stability of the monolayer SiC interface on diamond (001) surface is investigated. - Abstract: In order to improve the quality of nano-diamond films, a new type of diamond/Si nano-composite films was proposed. The monolayer Si interface and monolayer SiC interface were studied in this paper. The system total energies and adsorption energies of monolayer Si and monolayer SiC on diamond (001) surface were calculated with first principle method based on the density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the stability of the two kinds of interface structures in the Diamond/Si nano-composite films. Moreover, the variation of the configuration energy and structures when the hydrogen atom and CH 2 radical adsorbed on the two kinds of interfaces were researched to verify whether the diamond phase was able to nucleate and grow or not in the process of diamond/Si nano-composite films deposition. It turned out that (1) the diamond surface structure which is terminated by monolayer silicon atoms is not very stable. It is difficult to form the stable monolayer Si interface in diamond/Si nano-composite films; (2) the monolayer SiC interface with the carbon and silicon atomic ratio of 1:1in which the carbon and silicon atoms are located in the same row respectively is a more stable structure. The interface is conductive to the second nucleation in the process of diamond growth

  12. Influence of Hydroxyapatite Nano-particles on the Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Orthopedic Cement-Based Nano-composites Measured by Nano-indentation and Nano-scratch Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh Shirazi, H.; Ayatollahi, M. R.; Naimi-Jamal, M. R.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanical and tribological properties of a commercially available bone cement by incorporating nano-sized hydroxyapatite using nano-indentation and nano-scratch experiments. In order to achieve this goal, the nano-composite cement samples with different amounts of commercial nano-hydroxyapatite (HAc), as a bone compatible nano-filler, were prepared via vacuum mixing method. The results indicated that nano-indentation and nano-scratch experiments are acceptable methods for measuring the mechanical and tribological properties of orthopedic cement-based nano-composites. Moreover, it was found that the nano-composite of 10 wt.% HAc exhibits the optimum performance compared to the other nano-composite samples in terms of mechanical and tribological properties. These findings can play an important role in achieving the goal of clinical and biomechanical function optimization of bone cement, especially in the field of orthopedic surgery.

  13. High photocatalytic degradation activity of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-vitamin C (VC)-TiO2 nano-composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changjun; Gong, Chuqing; Peng, Tianyou; Deng, Kejian; Zan, Ling

    2010-06-15

    A novel photodegradable polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-vitamin C (VC)-TiO(2) nano-composite film was prepared by embedding VC modified nano-TiO(2) photocatalyst into the commercial PVC plastic. The solid-phase photocatalytic degradation behavior of PVC-VC-TiO(2) nano-composite film under UV light irradiation was investigated and compared with those of the PVC-TiO(2) film and the pure PVC film, with the aid of UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), weight loss monitoring, and X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD). The results show that PVC-VC-TiO(2) nano-composite film has a high photocatalytic activity; the photocatalytic degradation rate of it is two times higher than that of PVC-TiO(2) film and fifteen times higher than that of pure PVC film. The optimal mass ratio of VC to TiO(2) is found to be 0.5. The mechanism of enhancing photocatalytic activity is attributed to the formation of a Ti(IV)-VC charge-transfer complex with five-member chelate ring structure and a rapid photogenerated charge separation is thus achieved. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. W-band PELDOR with 1 kW microwave power: Molecular geometry, flexibility and exchange coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginsson, Gunnar W.; Hunter, Robert I.; Cruickshank, Paul A. S.; Bolton, David R.; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th.; Smith, Graham M.; Schiemann, Olav

    2012-03-01

    A technique that is increasingly being used to determine the structure and conformational flexibility of biomacromolecules is Pulsed Electron-Electron Double Resonance (PELDOR or DEER), an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) based technique. At X-band frequencies (9.5 GHz), PELDOR is capable of precisely measuring distances in the range of 1.5-8 nm between paramagnetic centres but the orientation selectivity is weak. In contrast, working at higher frequencies increases the orientation selection but usually at the expense of decreased microwave power and PELDOR modulation depth. Here it is shown that a home-built high-power pulsed W-band EPR spectrometer (HiPER) with a large instantaneous bandwidth enables one to achieve PELDOR data with a high degree of orientation selectivity and large modulation depths. We demonstrate a measurement methodology that gives a set of PELDOR time traces that yield highly constrained data sets. Simulating the resulting time traces provides a deeper insight into the conformational flexibility and exchange coupling of three bisnitroxide model systems. These measurements provide strong evidence that W-band PELDOR may prove to be an accurate and quantitative tool in assessing the relative orientations of nitroxide spin labels and to correlate those orientations to the underlying biological structure and dynamics.

  15. FeOOH-loaded MnO2 nano-composite: An efficient emergency material for thallium pollution incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meiqing; Wu, Pingxiao; Yu, Langfeng; Liu, Shuai; Ruan, Bo; Hu, Haihui; Zhu, Nengwu; Lin, Zhang

    2017-05-01

    A FeOOH-loaded MnO 2 nano-composite was developed as an emergency material for Tl(I) pollution incident. Structural characterizations showed that FeOOH successfully loaded onto MnO 2 , the nanosheet-flower structure and high surface area (191 m 2  g -1 ) of material contributed to the excellent performance for Tl(I) removal. FeOOH-loaded MnO 2 with a Fe/Mn molar ratio of 1:2 exhibited a noticeable enhanced capacity for Tl(I) removal compared to that of pure MnO 2 . The outstanding performance for Tl(I) removal involves in extremely high efficiency (achieved equilibrium and drinking water standard within 4 min) and the large maximum adsorption capacity (450 mg g -1 ). Both the control-experiment and XPS characterization proved that the removal mechanism of Tl(I) on FeOOH-loaded MnO 2 included adsorption and oxidation: the oxidation of MnO 2 played an important role for Tl(I) removal, and the adsorption of FeOOH loaded on MnO 2 enhanced Tl(I) purification at the same time. In-depth purification of Tl(I) had reach drinking water standards (0.1 μg L -1 ) at pH above 7, and there wasn't security risk produced from the dissolution of Mn 2+ and Fe 2+ . Moreover, the as-prepared material could be utilized as a recyclable adsorbent regenerated by using NaOH-NaClO binary solution. Therefore, the synthesized FeOOH-loaded MnO 2 in this study has the potential to be applied as an emergency material for thallium pollution incident. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Titanium nano-composites synthesis by laser pyrolysis; Synthese de nanocomposites a base de titane par pyrolyse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskrot, H. [CEA Saclay, Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules, Lab. Francis Perrin (CEA-CNRS URA 2453), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, Ti/C/O nano-powders have been obtained by using a titanium iso-prop-oxide aerosol as precursor and a hydrocarbon gas as a sensitizer. A production velocity in the range of 10-20 g/h and a titanium yield superior to 80% have been obtained. The main TiO{sub 2} crystalline phase was always the anatase. The measured specific surface areas are in the range 65-115 m{sup 2}/g with grain sizes of 12 to 40 nm. These sizes are inferior to those of the Degussa powder P25 (45 m{sup 2}/g) which is often cited as reference in catalysis. According to the sensitizer concentration and the laser power, the colours of the powders have changed from light grey to black, corresponding to the different free carbon amounts (3{>=}C{>=}12 % weight). Metal/Ti/C/O nano-composites have been obtained in adding a metal precursor (for instance platinum acetylacetonate) in the liquid precursor. The preliminary catalytic tests lead to an encouraging catalytic activity. Ti/Si/C/O nano-particles have been prepared too with a production rate near 20 g/h. The Si/Ti ratio in the powder (0.1{<=}Si/Ti{<=}0.9) is controlled in adjusting the mixture of the precursors. A substoichiometric secondary phase of titanium oxide leading to SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2-x} composites has been identified in these powders. In conclusion, the laser pyrolysis allows to synthesize titanium nano-powders with production rates and sizes at least also attracting than those found in the literature. A quantification of the catalytic activity of the different obtained materials is in study. (O.M.)

  17. An in vivo evaluation of PLLA/PLLA-gHA nano-composite for internal fixation of mandibular bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Weihai; Zheng, Wei; Shi, Kai; Wang, Wangshu; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Duo

    2015-11-09

    Internal fixation of bone fractures using biodegradable poly(L-lactic-acid) (PLLA)-based materials has attracted the attention of many researchers. In the present study, 36 male beagle dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: PLLA/PLLA-gHA (PLLA-grafted hydroxyapatite) group and PLLA group. PLLA/PLLA-gHA and PLLA plates were embedded in the muscular bags of the erector spinae and also implanted to fix mandibular bone fractures in respective groups. At 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively, the PLLA/PLLA-gHA and PLLA plates were evaluated by adsorption and degradation tests, and the mandibles were examined through radiographic analysis, biomechanical testing, and histological analysis. The PLLA/PLLA-gHA plates were non-transparent and showed a creamy white color, and the PLLA plates were transparent and faint yellow in color. At all time points following surgery, adsorption and degradation of the PLLA/PLLA-gHA plates were significantly less than those of the PLLA plates, and the lateral and longitudinal bending strengths of the surgically treated mandibles of the beagle dogs in the PLLA/PLLA-gHA group were significantly greater than those of the PLLA group and reached almost the value of intact mandibles at 12 months postoperatively. Additionally, relatively rapid bone healing was observed in the PLLA/PLLA-gHA group with the formation of new lamellar bone tissues at 12 months after the surgery. The PLLA/PLLA-gHA nano-composite can be employed as a biodegradable material for internal fixation of mandibular bone fractures.

  18. Creatinine and urea biosensors based on a novel ammonium ion-selective copper-polyaniline nano-composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhybak, M; Beni, V; Vagin, M Y; Dempsey, E; Turner, A P F; Korpan, Y

    2016-03-15

    The use of a novel ammonium ion-specific copper-polyaniline nano-composite as transducer for hydrolase-based biosensors is proposed. In this work, a combination of creatinine deaminase and urease has been chosen as a model system to demonstrate the construction of urea and creatinine biosensors to illustrate the principle. Immobilisation of enzymes was shown to be a crucial step in the development of the biosensors; the use of glycerol and lactitol as stabilisers resulted in a significant improvement, especially in the case of the creatinine, of the operational stability of the biosensors (from few hours to at least 3 days). The developed biosensors exhibited high selectivity towards creatinine and urea. The sensitivity was found to be 85 ± 3.4 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the creatinine biosensor and 112 ± 3.36 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the urea biosensor, with apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (KM,app), obtained from the creatinine and urea calibration curves, of 0.163 mM for creatinine deaminase and 0.139 mM for urease, respectively. The biosensors responded linearly over the concentration range 1-125 µM, with a limit of detection of 0.5 µM and a response time of 15s. The performance of the biosensors in a real sample matrix, serum, was evaluated and a good correlation with standard spectrophotometric clinical laboratory techniques was found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of exchange coupled Ce.sup.3+./sup. ions in Lu.sub.2./sub.SiO.sub.5./sub. single crystal scintillator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buryi, Maksym; Laguta, Valentyn; Rosa, Jan; Nikl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, Jul (2016), s. 23-26 ISSN 1350-4487 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029; GA MŠk LO1409 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electron paramagnetic resonance * scintillators * lutetium oxyorthosilicate * exchange coupled ions * cerium ions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.442, year: 2016

  20. Design and Micromagnetic Simulation of Fe/L10-FePt/Fe Trilayer for Exchange Coupled Composite Bit Patterned Media at Ultrahigh Areal Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warunee Tipcharoen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exchange coupled composite bit patterned media (ECC-BPM are one candidate to solve the trilemma issues, overcome superparamagnetic limitations, and obtain ultrahigh areal density. In this work, the ECC continuous media and ECC-BPM of Fe/L10-FePt/Fe trilayer schemes are proposed and investigated based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The switching field, Hsw, of the hard phase in the proposed continuous ECC trilayer media structure is reduced below the maximum write head field at interlayer exchange coupling between hard and soft phases, Aex, higher than 20 pJ/m and its value is lower than that for continuous L10-FePt single layer media and L10-FePt/Fe bilayer. Furthermore, the Hsw of the proposed ECC-BPM is lower than the maximum write head field with exchange coupling coefficient between neighboring dots of 5 pJ/m and Aex over 10 pJ/m. Therefore, the proposed ECC-BPM trilayer has the highest potential and is suitable for ultrahigh areal density magnetic recording technology at ultrahigh areal density. The results of this work may be gainful idea for nanopatterning in magnetic media nanotechnology.

  1. Synthesis, characterisation and methyl orange adsorption capacity of ferric oxide-biochar nano-composites derived from pulp and paper sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaukura, Nhamo; Murimba, Edna C.; Gwenzi, Willis

    2017-09-01

    A Fe2O3-biochar nano-composite (Fe2O3-BC) was prepared from FeCl3-impregnated pulp and paper sludge (PPS) by pyrolysis at 750 °C. The characteristics and methyl orange (MO) adsorption capacity of Fe2O3-BC were compared to that of unactivated biochar (BC). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the composite material was nano-sized. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of hydroxyl and aromatic groups on BC and on Fe2O3-BC, but Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) porosity were lower for Fe2O3-BC than BC. Despite the lower BET surface area and porosity of Fe2O3-BC, its MO adsorption capacity was 52.79 % higher than that of BC. The equilibrium adsorption data were best represented by the Freundlich model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 20.53 mg g-1 at pH 8 and 30 min contact time. MO adsorption obeyed pseudo-second-order kinetics for both BC and Fe2O3-BC with R 2 values of 0.996 and 0.999, respectively. Higher MO adsorption capacity for Fe2O3-BC was attributed to the hybrid nature of the nano-composites; adsorption occurred on both biochar matrix and Fe2O3 nanocrystals. Gibbs free energy calculations confirmed the adsorption is energetically favourable and spontaneous with a high preference for adsorption on both adsorbents. The nano-composite can be used for the efficient removal of MO (>97 %) from contaminated wastewater.

  2. An investigation of magnetic and fluorescent core-shell CdTe/Fe3O4 nano-composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Zhang, Ji mei; Xu, Shi chao; Dai, Zhao; Sun, Bo; Sun, Shu qing; Feng, Tie lin; Zi, Yan; Liu, Jing wei; Liang, Chu; Luo, Hao

    2009-07-01

    The magnetic nanoparticles with luminescent properties make the marker and separation work further convenient in the biological fields, such as bio-imaging, bio-labeling, bio-medicine, bio-treatment, etc. In the current research, a multifunctional nanoparticles with a magnetic Fe3O4 core and a CdTe quantum dots (QDs) shell of was prepared via self-assembling method and characterized via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet spectrum (UV), and fluorescence spectrum (FS). Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were firstly prepared by chemical precipitation method with sodium hydroxide as precipitant at 50°C, well dispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles in size of 10 nm were observed via TEM and were use as core. The synthesized CdTe QDs were surface modified with 2-mercaptopropionic acid and the magnetic core-shell CdTe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles were constructed by the formation of electrovalent bond between -NH3+ and -COO-. The prepared core-shell CdTe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be simply separated or precipitated from the reactant solution. The factors influencing the properties of nanoparticles were investigated, including mol ratio of Fe3O4:CdTe, refluxing time, reacting temperature, and pH value etc. The results indicated the core-shell CdTe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles with excellent magnetic and fluorescent properties can be achieved when the mol ratio of Fe3O4:CdTe is 1:3, and pH was set at 6.0, refluxed for 0.5h at 30 °C. 15nm of average size of the CdTe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles was confirmed with TEM. The red shift of maximum emission wavelength from 530 nm to 570 nm and maximum absorbance wavelength from 530 nm to 535 nm were determined via FS and UV, respectively, these data inferred the formation of CdTe shells. The core-shell magnetic and fluorescent CdTe/Fe3O4 nano-composites will be an useful tools in biological, genetics, and bio-pharmic applications.

  3. Characterizing reactive oxygen generation and bacterial inactivation by a zerovalent iron-fullerene nano-composite device at neutral pH under UV-A illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdim, Esra; Badireddy, Appala Raju; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We synthesized a novel ZVI/nC 60 nano-composite device for multi-ROS generation. • O 2 · − (UV-A independent) and 1 O 2 (UV-A dependent) are generated at neutral pH. • At low Fe concentration, ZVI/nC 60 device is a better ROS generator than ZVI alone. • C 60 mediates electron transfer from ZVI surface to dissolved O 2 to produce O 2 · − . • Bacteria are rapidly inactivated by O 2 · − even at low ZVI/nC 60 ratio. - Abstract: A nano-composite device composed of nano-scale zerovalent iron (ZVI) and C 60 fullerene aggregates (ZVI/nC 60 ) was produced via a rapid nucleation method. The device was conceived to deliver reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by photosensitization and/or electron transfer to targeted contaminants, including waterborne pathogens under neutral pH conditions. Certain variations of the nano-composite were fabricated differing in the amounts of (1) ZVI (0.1 mM and 2 mM) but not nC 60 (2.5 mg-C/L), and (2) nC 60 (0–25 mg-C/L) but not ZVI (0.1 mM). The generation of ROS by the ZVI/nC 60 nano-composites and ZVI nanoparticles was quantified using organic probe compounds. 0.1 mM ZVI/2.5 mg-C/L C 60 generated 3.74-fold higher O 2 · − concentration and also resulted in an additional 2-log inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa when compared to 0.1 mM ZVI (3-log inactivation). 2 mM ZVI/2.5 mg-C/L nC 60 showed negligible improvement over 2 mM ZVI in terms of O 2 · − generation or inactivation. Further, incremental amounts of nC 60 in the range of 0–25 mg-C/L in 0.1 mM ZVI/nC 60 led to increased O 2 · − concentration, independent of UV-A. This study demonstrates that ZVI/nC 60 device delivers (1) enhanced O 2 · − with nC 60 as a mediator for electron transfer, and (2) 1 O 2 (only under UV-A illumination) at neutral pH conditions

  4. Study of the influence of Nb buffer layer on the exchange coupling induced at the Co/IrMn interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, I.L.C., E-mail: isabel5cas@gmail.com [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil); Figueiredo, L.C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília 70910-900 (Brazil); Passamani, E.C.; Nascimento, V.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória 29075-910 (Brazil); Pelegrini, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia 74560-900 (Brazil); Baggio Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Nb buffer layer favors smooth/rough Co/IrMn interfaces, depending on its thickness. • Double and single-like hysteresis loop features depend on the Nb thickness. • Co uniaxial anisotropy induced exchange-bias in as-deposited sample. • Uniaxial and exchange-bias anisotropy directions depend on the Nb thickness. • Thicker Nb favors non-collinear anisotropies, while thinner Nb favors collinear. - Abstract: Hybrid Nb(t{sub Nb})/Co(10 nm)/IrMn(15 nm)/Nb(10 nm) heterostructured materials were prepared by DC Magnetron Sputtering and systematically studied by X-ray, magnetization and ferromagnetic resonance techniques. For thinner Nb buffer layer (≤10 nm), it was found that there is an inter-diffusion at Co/IrMn interface, which favors double-like hysteresis loop. For thicker Nb layers, however, a gradual transition from double to single-like hysteresis loops is observed and it is associated with the reduction of the Nb roughness, which also enhances the exchange coupling at the Co/IrMn interface. Nb grown on IrMn layer induces the formation of an NbIrMn alloy layer, while no evidence of inter-diffusion at the Co/Nb interface is observed. For rougher Nb buffer layers (t{sub Nb} < 50 nm), exchange bias and Co uniaxial anisotropies are pointing at the same direction (β∼zero), but for smoother Nb buffer layer (t{sub Nb} = 50 nm) a β angle of 150{sup o} is found. Exchange bias effect was measured in as-prepared and in field-cooled samples; being its presence, in as-prepared sample, attributed to the unidirectional anisotropy of the Co layer (its intensity is modified in case of sample with a CoIrMn alloy layer). Considering that the Si/Nb/Co/IrMn interfaces have different β values (t{sub Nb} = 35 and 50 nm), a study of the influence of magnetization direction, governed by exchange-biased layers, on superconducting properties of Nb films can be successfully done in this hybrid system.

  5. Generation of new Agm Ten clusters via laser ablation synthesis using Ag-Te nano-composite as precursor. Quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawale, Ravi Madhukar; Amato, Filippo; Alberti, Milan; Havel, Josef

    2014-12-30

    Silver tellurides find applications in the development of infrared detection, imaging, magnetics, sensors, memory devices, and optic materials. However, only a limited number of silver tellurides have been described to date. Laser ablation synthesis (LAS) was selected to generate new Ag-Te clusters. Isothermal adsorption was used to study the formation of silver nano-particles-tellurium aggregates. Laser desorption ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-QIT-TOFMS) was used for the generation and analysis of Agm Ten clusters. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to visualize the structure of materials. The stoichiometry of the generated clusters was determined by computer modeling of isotopic patterns. A simple, one-pot method for the preparation of Ag-Te nano-composite was developed and found suitable for LAS of silver tellurides. The LDI of Ag-Te nano-composite leads to the formation of 11 unary and 52 binary clusters. The stoichiometry of the 34 novel Agm Ten clusters is reported here for the first time. LAS with TOFMS detection was proven to be a powerful technique for the generation of silver telluride clusters. Knowledge of the stoichiometry of the generated clusters might facilitate the further development of novel high-tech silver tellurium nano-materials. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Preparation and Faraday rotation of Nd2O3 doped Fe2O3-SiO2 nano-composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xueling; Yao, Lanfang; Li, Lin; Tian, Lin-lin; Xu, Ruiqing; Wang, Shuo

    2011-02-01

    Magneto-optic properties of magnetic materials have much influence on the performance of these current sensors. For practical using, it is generally demanded that the sensing materials had the good magneto-optic properties of large Faraday rotation. Among the most attractive properties of the transparent materials containing Fe2O3 are those related to the magneto-optical effects. The Sol-gel processes are extensively used for the preparation of optical or magneto-optical nano-composite materials though the incorporation of metal ions in the silica matrix. In this study, the Nd2O3 doped Fe2O3-SiO2 nano-composite films with different concentrations of Nd2O3, heated temperature and the number of layers were prepared by sol-gel method. The dependence of Faraday rotation angle of films is studied at room temperature. We find that appropriate concentrations of Nd2O3 (Nd/Si=0.011) doped has improved magneto-optic properties of higher Faraday rotation angle, the θF value increases with the decrease of the temperature below 500°C, the absolute value of Faraday rotation angle increases as the number of layers increases.

  7. A comparative study of gelatin and starch-based nano-composite films modified by nano-cellulose and chitosan for food packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh-Soltani, S M; Zerafat, M M; Sabbaghi, S

    2018-06-01

    Environmental concerns have led to extensive research for replacing polymer-based food packaging with bio-nano-composites. In this study, incorporation of nano-cellulose into gelatin and starch matrices is investigated for this purpose. Chitosan is used to improve mechanical, anti-fungal and waterproof properties. Experiments are designed and analyzed using response surface methodology. Nano-Cellulose is synthesized via acid hydrolysis and incorporated in base matrices through wet processing. Also, tensile strength test, food preservation, transparency in visible and UV and water contact angle are performed on the nano-composite films. DSC/TGA and air permeability tests are also performed on the optimal films. The results show that increasing nano-cellulose composition to 10% leads to increase the tensile strength at break to 8121 MN/m 2 and decrease the elongation at break. Also, increasing chitosan composition from 5% to 30% can enhance food preservation up to 15 days. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Silane effects on the surface morphology and abrasion resistance of transparent SiO2/UV-curable resin nano-composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, Hsing-I.; Chang, Yu-Lun; Chen, Chi-Yu; Yen, Fu-Su

    2011-01-01

    Transparent ultraviolet curable nano-composite coatings consisting of nano-sized SiO 2 and acrylate resin have been developed to improve the abrasion resistance of organic polymers. The nano-sized SiO 2 particles were surface-modified using various amounts of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane concentration effects on the surface morphology and abrasion resistance of the transparent SiO 2 /ultraviolet-curable resin nano-composites were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that as the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane/SiO 2 weight ratio increased from 0.2 to 0.6, the dispersion, compatibility and cross-linking density between the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane-modified SiO 2 particles and acrylate resin were improved, leading to an increase in abrasion resistance. However, as the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane/SiO 2 weight ratio was increased to 1.5, the additional 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane may exceed that needed to fill the pores with the probability of SiO 2 nano-particles existing on the coating surface was lower than that for samples with a 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane/SiO 2 weight ratio of 0.6. This produced a decrease in abrasion resistance.

  9. The evaluation of prepared microgroove pattern by femtosecond laser on alumina-zirconia nano-composite for endosseous dental implant application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivazi, Moluk; Hossein Fathi, Mohammad; Nejatidanesh, Farahnaz; Mortazavi, Vajihesadat; HashemiBeni, Batoul; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Savabi, Omid

    2016-12-01

    Ceramic dental materials, especially alumina (20 %vol)-yttrium stabilized tetragonal zirconia poly crystal (A-Y-TZP20), have been considered as alternatives to metals for endosseous dental implant application. For increasing the bone-to-implant contact as well as the speed of bone formation, a new surface modification can be effective. The aim of this study was to design microgroove patterns by femtosecond laser on A-Y-TZP20 nano-composite disks for endosseous dental implant application. The phase composition and the morphology of the A-Y-TZP20 nano-composite samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. Statistical analysis was submitted to Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Student's t test for independent variables, with a 5 % significance level. EDAX analysis revealed a significant decrease in the relative content of contaminants like carbon (p < 0.05) in laser surface-treated group as compared to non surface-treated group. X-ray diffraction did not show any change in the crystalline structure induced by laser processing. It was concluded that the femtosecond laser is a clean and safe method for surface modification of A-Y-TZP20.

  10. Preparation and characterization of nano-composites with carbon nanotubes and core-shell type polyaniline for the conductive colloidal ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmin; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Printing method for electronics elements fabrication has attractive advantages such as low material consumption, high speed fabrication, and low temperature process. The stable conductive ink is the most important factor for the fabrication of printed electronics elements with high resolution. These materials are widely used as fillers in conductive inks; metal particles, conductive polymers, and carbon materials. Among these materials, the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are extremely attractive filler for printed electronics due to its superior electrical properties, extra high mechanical properties, and excellent chemical stability. In this research, nano-composites which are composed of multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and polyaniline core-shell type particles were synthesized and formulated into electrically conductive colloidal inks. The poly(acrylonitrile-co-itaconic acid-co-methylacrylate) nanoparticles were used as cores. And this core was coated with polyaniline. The surface treatments for MWCNTs were applied to make the stable nano-composites. The experimental conditions were optimized to achieve high miscibility between MWCNTs and polyaniline coated particles. Their structure and surface morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy. And four point probe automatic resistivity meter was used to measure the conductivities of the nanocomposites.

  11. Magnetic properties of weakly exchange-coupled high spin Co(II) ions in pseudooctahedral coordination evaluated by single crystal X-band EPR spectroscopy and magnetic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Nicolás I; Winkler, Elín; Peña, Octavio; Passeggi, Mario C G; Rizzi, Alberto C; Brondino, Carlos D

    2014-03-03

    We report single-crystal X-band EPR and magnetic measurements of the coordination polymer catena-(trans-(μ2-fumarato)tetraaquacobalt(II)), 1, and the Co(II)-doped Zn(II) analogue, 2, in different Zn:Co ratios. 1 presents two magnetically inequivalent high spin S = 3/2 Co(II) ions per unit cell, named A and B, in a distorted octahedral environment coordinated to four water oxygen atoms and trans coordinated to two carboxylic oxygen atoms from the fumarate anions, in which the Co(II) ions are linked by hydrogen bonds and fumarate molecules. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements of 1 indicate weak antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the S = 3/2 spins of the Co(II) ions in the crystal lattice. Oriented single crystal EPR experiments of 1 and 2 were used to evaluate the molecular g-tensor and the different exchange coupling constants between the Co(II) ions, assuming an effective spin S′= 1/2. Unexpectedly, the eigenvectors of the molecular g-tensor were not lying along any preferential bond direction, indicating that, in high spin Co(II) ions in roughly octahedral geometry with approximately axial EPR signals, the presence of molecular pseudo axes in the metal site does not determine preferential directions for the molecular g-tensor. The EPR experiment and magnetic measurements, together with a theoretical analysis relating the coupling constants obtained from both techniques, allowed us to evaluate selectively the exchange coupling constant associated with hydrogen bonds that connect magnetically inequivalent Co(II) ions (|JAB(1/2)| = 0.055(2) cm(–1)) and the exchange coupling constant associated with a fumarate bridge connecting equivalent Co(II) ions (|JAA(1/2)| ≈ 0.25 (1) cm(–1)), in good agreement with the average J(3/2) value determined from magnetic measurements.

  12. Spin transfer torque switching in exchange-coupled amorphous GdFeCo/TbFe bilayers for thermally assisted MRAM application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bing; Guo, Yong; Zhu, Jiaqi; Kato, Takeshi; Iwata, Satoshi; Tsunashima, Shigeru; Yang, Lei; Han, Jiecai

    2017-04-01

    Exchange-coupled amorphous GdFeCo/TbFe memory layers in giant magneto-resistance (GMR) devices for spin transfer torque (STT) switching have been studied, and temperature dependence of the critical current density of the GMR devices was measured to discuss the effect of exchange-coupled bilayers as a memory layer of the thermally assisted magnetic random access memory (MRAM). The GMR devices having amorphous GdFeCo and TbFe memory bilayers with various thicknesses were prepared by magnetron sputtering and subsequent micro-fabrication processes. A pulsed current was applied to the GMR devices in order to investigate the spin transfer torque (STT) switching. The maximum magneto-resistance (MR) ratio was around 0.15%, and the coercivity of the memory bilayer increased with the TbFe thickness and decreased with elevating temperature. The critical current densities J c to switch the memory bilayer with structure of Gd21.4 (Fe90Co10)78.6(9 nm)/Tb16Fe84 (1 nm) as low as 2.2  ×  107 A cm-2 was obtained. The J c reduced with increasing the temperature and was found to scale with the effective anisotropy K eff of GdFeCo/TbFe bilayer, which is believed to be suitable for the application of thermally assisted STT-MRAM.

  13. The effect of magnetic field treatment on the enhanced exchange coupling of a Nd2Fe14B/Fe3B magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.J.; Park, E.B.

    1997-01-01

    An externally applied magnetic field during heat treating a Nd 2 Fe 14 B/Fe 3 B based spring magnet was found to enhance the exchange coupling between the hard and soft magnetic grains. A >30 increase in M r /M s values for melt-spun Nd 4 Fe 7.35 Co 3 (Hf 1-x Ga x )B 18.5 (x=0. 0.5, 1) alloys resulted from a uniform distribution of Fe 3 B, α-Fe and Nd 2 Fe 14 B phases, and a 20 increase from a reduced grain size of those phases. The externally applied magnetic field induced a uniform distribution of fine grains. The present study also shows that there is an optimum grain size exhibiting a high coercivity (22 nm for Nd 4 Fe 73.5 Co 3 Hf 1-x Ga x B 18.5 alloys) which is discussed in terms of previously simulated exchange coupling parameters. (orig.)

  14. Reduction of intergranular exchange coupling and grain size for high Ku CoPt-based granular media: Metal-oxide buffer layer and multiple oxide boundary materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Kim Kong; Kushibiki, Ryosuke; Kamada, Tomonari; Hinata, Shintaro; Saito, Shin

    2018-05-01

    Investigation of magnetic properties and microstructure of granular media with various multiple oxides as the grain boundary material is reported. Saturation magnetization (Ms), uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ku), and magnetic grain diameter (GD) of the granular media show linear correlation with volume weighted average for melting point (Tm) of each oxides (Tmave). Ku of magnetic grains (Kugrain) shows a trade-off relation with GD that it is a big challenge to satisfy both high Kugrain and small GD by only controlling Tmave. To obtain a granular medium with appropriate Kugrain, GD, and low degree of intergranular exchange coupling, the combination of Tmave control of grain boundary material by mixing oxides and employment of a buffer layer are required. Here the degree of intergranular exchange coupling is estimated from the slope of M-H loop at around coercivity (α). By applying this technique, a typical granular medium with Kugrain of 1.0×107 erg/cm3, GD of 5.1 nm, and α of 1.2 is realized.

  15. Electric-field-modulated exchange coupling within and between magnetic clusters on metal surfaces: Mn dimers on Cu(1 1 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juárez-Reyes, L; Pastor, G M; Stepanyuk, V S

    2014-01-01

    The effects of external electric fields (EFs) on the magnetic state and substrate-mediated magnetic coupling between Mn dimers on Cu(1 1 1) have been studied using a first-principles theoretical method. The calculations show that a change in the ground-state magnetic order, from antiferromagnetic (AF) to ferromagnetic (FM), can be induced within an isolated Mn 2 on Cu(1 1 1) by applying a moderately strong EF of about 1 V Å −1 . The magnetic exchange coupling between pairs of dimers displays Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida-like oscillations as a function of the interdimer distance, which depend significantly on the magnetic order within the dimers (FM or AF) and on their relative orientation on the surface. Moreover, it is observed that applying EFs allows modulation of the exchange coupling within and between the clusters as a function of the intercluster distance. At short distances, AF order within the dimers is favoured even in the presence of EFs, while for large distances the EF can induce a FM order. EFs pointing outwards and inwards with respect to the surface favour parallel and antiparallel magnetic alignment between the dimers, resspectively. The dependence of the substrate-mediated interaction on the magnetic state of Mn 2 is qualitatively interpreted in terms of the differences in the scattering of spin-polarized surface electrons. (paper)

  16. Solvent-Mediated Eco-Friendly Synthesis and Characterization of Monodispersed Bimetallic Ag/Pd Nano composites for Sensing and Raman Scattering Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiyadevi, G.; Loganathan, B.; Karthikeyan, B.; Karthikeyan, B.

    2014-01-01

    The solvent-mediated eco-friendly monodispersed Ag/Pd bimetallic nano composites (BNCs) having thick core and thin shell have been prepared through novel green chemical solvent reduction method. Reducing solvent, dimethyl formamide (DMF) is employed for the controlled green synthesis. Characterization of the synthesized Ag/Pd BNCs has been done by x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. The nature of the interaction of L-cysteine with Ag/Pd BNCs has been studied by using surface plasmon spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and theoretical methods.

  17. Experimental study of optical and electrical properties of ZnO nano composites electrodeposited on n-porous silicon substrate for photovoltaic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmane Naceur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO films deposited on silicon porous substrates (PS were prepared by electro-deposition anodization on n type (100 silicon wafer. This ZnO/PS structure combines substrates having specific structural and optical properties (IR emission, with nano-composites of ZnO potentially interesting due to their functional properties (UV emission to be integrated as constitutive elements of devices in various optoelectronic applications mainly in blue light emitters. With this combined structure, the blue shift in the PL peak is possible and easy to obtain (467nm. The vibration modes of PS and ZnO films on PS substrates (ZnO /PS were investigated by infrared (FTIR measurements and their behaviors were analyzed and discussed by considering the structural properties characterized by X-ray diffraction (DRX and scanning electronic microscopy (MEB.

  18. Graphene/Gold Nano composites-Based Thin Films as an Enhanced Sensing Platform for Voltammetric Detection of Cr(VI) Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh, Ch.; Saranya, M.; Ramachandran, R.; Felix, S.; Velmurugan, V.; Grace, A.N.

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive and selective Cr(VI) sensor with graphene-based nano composites film as an enhanced sensing platform is reported. The detection of chromium species is a challenging task because of the different possible oxidation states in which the element can occur. The sensing film was developed by homogeneously distributing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto the two-dimensional (2D) graphene nano sheet matrix by electrochemical method. Such nano structured composite film platforms combine the advantages of AuNPs and graph ene nano sheets because of the synergistic effect between them. This effect greatly facilitates the electron-transfer processes and the sensing behavior for Cr(VI) detection, leading to a remarkably improved sensitivity and selectivity. The interference from other heavy metal ions is studied in detail. Such sensing elements are very promising for practical environmental monitoring applications.

  19. Organic-inorganic nano-composite films for photonic applications made by multi-beam multi-target pulsed laser deposition with remote control of the plume directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Abdalla M.; Moore, Shaelynn; Mohammed, Aziz; Alexander, Deonte'; Bastian, Tyler; Dorlus, Wydglif; Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Patel, Darayas N.; Mele, Paolo; Koplitz, Brent

    2016-09-01

    There has been an explosive interest in the technique of laser assisted deposition of polymer nano-composite films exploiting the matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) with regard to the polymer host as can be judged form recent publications.1-4 In MAPLE, a frozen solution of a polymer in a relatively volatile solvent is used as a laser target. The solvent and concentration are selected so that first, the polymer of interest can dissolve to form a dilute, particulate free solution, second, the majority of the laser energy is initially absorbed by the solvent molecules and not by the solute molecules, and third, there is no photochemical reaction between the solvent and the solute. The light-material interaction in MAPLE can be described as a photothermal process. The photon energy absorbed by the solvent is converted to thermal energy that causes the polymer to be heated but the solvent to vaporize. As the surface solvent molecules are evaporated into the gas phase, polymer molecules are exposed at the gas-target matrix interface. The polymer molecules attain sufficient kinetic energy through collective collisions with the evaporating solvent molecules, to be transferred into the gas phase. By careful optimization of the MAPLE deposition conditions (laser wavelength, repetition rate, solvent type, concentration, temperature, and background gas and gas pressure), this process can occur without any significant polymer decomposition. The MAPLE process proceeds layer-by-layer, depleting the target of solvent and polymer in the same concentration as the starting matrix. When a substrate is positioned directly in the path of the plume, a coating starts to form from the evaporated polymer molecules, while the volatile solvent molecules are evacuated by the pump from the deposition chamber. In case of fabrication of polymer nanocomposites, MAPLE targets are usually prepared as nano-colloids of the additives of interest in the initial polymer solutions. Mixing

  20. Investigations of Relaxation Dynamics and Observation of Nearly Constant Loss Phenomena in PEO20-LiCF3SO3-ZrO2 Based Polymer Nano-Composite Electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, Tapabrata; Tripathy, Satya N.; Paluch, Marian; Jena, Sidhartha S.; Pradhan, Dillip K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ion conduction mechanism is studied using broad band dielectric spectroscopy. • Existence and cause of Nearly Constant Loss is explored. • The crossover between UDR to NCL phenomena is investigated. • Effect of filler concentration on ion transport using scaling approach is discussed. - Abstract: The conduction mechanism of polymer nano-composite electrolytes are studied using broadband dielectric spectroscopy over a wide range of frequency and temperature. The polymer nano-composites consisting of polyethylene oxide as polymer host, lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate as salt, and nano-crystalline zirconia as filler are prepared using solution casting method. Formation of polymer salt complex and nano-composites are confirmed from x-ray diffraction studies. The electrical conductivity and relaxation phenomena of the polymer salt complex as well as the composites are studied using broadband dielectric spectroscopy. At room temperature, the dc conductivity of the polymer nano-composites are found higher by two orders of magnitude than that of corresponding polymer salt complex. Temperature dependence of dc conductivity is following Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher trend, suggesting strong coupling between ionic conductivity and segmental relaxation in polymer electrolytes. Relaxation phenomena are studied with dielectric and modulus formalism. Frequency dependent ac conductivity show universal dielectric response and nearly constant loss features at high and low temperature regions respectively. The origin of universal dielectric response and nearly constant loss are analysed and discussed using different approaches. Kramer - Krönig approach suggests the origin of nearly constant loss is due to caged ion dynamics feature.

  1. Synthesis and properties of Ag/ZnO/g-C3N4 ternary micro/nano composites by microwave-assisted method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zijie; Li, Xuexue; Chen, Haitao; Shao, Gang; Zhang, Rui; Lu, Hongxia

    2018-01-01

    Ag/ZnO/g-C3N4 ternary micro/nanocomposites, as novel visible-light-driven photocatalysts, were prepared by a simple and convenient microwave-assisted method. The resulting ternary structure micro/nano composites were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and infrared radiation techniques to examine its phase structure, valence state, morphological, thermal and optical properties. Well crystallized Ag/ZnO/g-C3N4 ternary micro/nano composites were synthesized under microwave-radiation for 15 min with the output of 240 W. Further experiments indicated Ag(5.0mol%)/ZnO/g-C3N4 photocatalyst in degradation of methylene blue exhibited an outstanding photocatalytic activity and its reaction rate constant (k, 0.0084 min-1) is 7.5, 2.4 2.9 and 3.5 times higher than that of monolithic ZnO (k, 0.0011 min-1), ZnO/g-C3N4(k, 0.0035 min-1), Ag(5 mol%)/ZnO(k, 0.0029 min-1) and Ag(5mol%)/g-C3N4 (k, 0.0024 min-1) respectively. Finally, a possible photocatalytic mechanism of Ag/ZnO/g-C3N4 photocatalyst in degradation process was proposed. This work provides a feasible strategy to synthesize an efficient ZnO-based photocatalyst which combines structure and properties of different dimensional components and made this ternary system an exciting candidate for sunlight-driven photocatalytic water treatment.

  2. Preparation of Ag@mSiO{sub 2} and Pt@mSiO{sub 2}nano composites using trioctylmethyl ammonium hydrogen phthalate (TOMAHP) ionic liquid as reaction medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Sujoy, E-mail: sujoyb@barc.gov.in [Chemical Engineering Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dasgupta, Kinshuk [Materials Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bahadur, Jitendra [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tewari, Raghavendra [Materials Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mazumder, Subhasish [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-09-15

    A novel one step green chemistry approach utilizing trioctylmethyl ammonium hydrogen phthalate (TOMAHP), task specific ionic liquid has been attempted for synthesis of Ag and Pt nanoparticles supported on silica (Ag@mSiO{sub 2} and Pt@mSiO{sub 2}). Structure, size distribution and morphology of these nano-composite particles were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle neutron scattering (SANS) as well as small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. The XRD results show that Ag/Pt metal nanoparticles deposited on to SiO{sub 2} surface are face center cubic (fcc) in nature. The TEM and SAXS/SANS results show the morphology and size distributions of Ag and Pt nanoparticles loaded on to the surface of SiO{sub 2}. It has been found that Ag nanoparticles are well dispersed on to the SiO{sub 2} surface and are quite monodisperse in size, whereas Pt nanoparticles are quite polydisperse in size and forms aggregate or chain like structure on SiO{sub 2} surface containing primary nanoparticles of typical size range 3–7 nm. The stability of nanoparticles, which controls its dispersion on SiO{sub 2} substrate, has been discussed. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism for Ag@mSiO{sub 2} and Pt@mSiO{sub 2} nano composites in TOMAHP ionic liquid medium. - Highlights: • Novel methods for preparation of Pt@SiO{sub 2} and Ag@SiO{sub 2} nano composite in functionalized ionic liquid. • Pt@SiO{sub 2} and Ag@SiO{sub 2} nano composite are characterized using XRD, TEM as well as small angle x-ray scattering techniques. • The sizes of nano composite is <10 nm in size. • The method is simple one step, green chemical reduction method to prepare SiO{sub 2} support nano catalyst.

  3. Magnetic hybride layers. Magnetic properties of locally exchange-coupled NiFe/IrMn layers; Magnetische Hybridschichten. Magnetische Eigenschaften lokal austauschgekoppelter NiFe/IrMn-Schichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Christine

    2010-10-06

    By the lateral modification of the magnetic properties of exchange-coupled NiFe/IrMn layers soft-magnetic layers were produced, which show both new static and dynamic properties. As lateral structuration methods hereby the localoxidation as well as ion implantation were applied. By means of thes procedures it has been succeeded to mould specific magnetic domain configurations with strp structure into the layers. In dependence of the structure orientation as well as strip period the remagnetization behavior as well as the magnetic-resonance frequency and damping of the layers could directly be modified. The new dynamical properties are hereby discussed in the framework of the coupling via dynamical charges and the direct affection of the effective field of the artificially inserted domain state. The presented results prove by this the large potential of the lateral magneto-structuration for the tuning of specifical static as well as dynamic properties of magnetically thin layers.

  4. Interlayer exchange coupling, dipolar coupling and magnetoresistance in Fe/MgO/Fe trilayers with a subnanometer MgO barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozioł-Rachwał, A.; Skowroński, W.; Frankowski, M.; Chęciński, J.; Ziętek, S.; Rzeszut, P.; Ślęzak, M.; Matlak, K.; Ślęzak, T.; Stobiecki, T.; Korecki, J.

    2017-01-01

    Fe/MgO/Fe trilayers with a subnanometer MgO tunnel barrier were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Longitudinal magnetooptic Kerr effect measurements confirmed the existence of the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) between the Fe layers for 2 Åexchange coupling (IEC) between Fe layers in Fe/MgO/Fe. • After nanofabrication the effective AFM IEC is enhanced due to the dipolar coupling. • The dipolar coupling that appeared after the nanofabrication process modified the effective coupling between layers. • Non-zero magnetoresistance values registered for the Fe/MgO/Fe trilayers with the MgO spacers as thin as 3.4 Å.

  5. Exchange-coupling of hard and soft magnetic sublattices and magnetic anomalies in mixed spinel NiFe0.75Cr1.25O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubutin, I. S.; Starchikov, S. S.; Baskakov, A. O.; Gervits, N. E.; Lin, Chun-Rong; Tseng, Yaw-Teng; Lee, Wen-Jen; Shih, Kun-Yauh

    2018-04-01

    A set of single-crystalline nanoparticles (NPs) of nickel-chromium ferrite NiFe0.75Cr1.25O4 with a cubic spinel structure were synthesized and investigated. The NPs size can be varied from about 5 to 50 nm by the final annealing of the precursor at different temperatures. The distribution of cations over the tetrahedral (A) and the octahedral [B] sites (Fe0.75 Ni0.25) [Ni0.75 Cr1.25] O4 was established from the magnetic and Mössbauer measurements. In large NPs, the magnetic structure at low temperatures is close to the collinear antiferromagnetic (AFM) structure of the Neel type; and the total magnetic moment Mtot of the ferrite coincides with the direction of the B-sublattice moment. Several size-dependent magnetic anomalies were revealed. Three types of magnetic ions present in the A- and B- sublattices cause the competition of AFM and FM exchange interactions resulting in the highly frustrated magnetic ordering and the occurrence of canted magnetic structure in the octahedral B-sublattice. The frustrated structure is very flexible and significantly subjected to temperature and applied field. It results in several magnetic anomalies observed, including the occurrence of magnetic compensation, abnormal behavior of ZFC and FC magnetization curves and hysteresis loops. It was shown that magnetic anomalies can be explained in terms of exchange coupling of "soft" and "hard" magnetic B- and A-sublattices. This effect in the (Fe0.75 Ni0.25) [Ni0.75Cr1.25] O4 NPs can be considered as an atomic-scale analog of a similar effect observed in two-phase exchange-coupled alloys developed for permanent magnets and for the perpendicular recoding media.

  6. Interlayer exchange coupling, dipolar coupling and magnetoresistance in Fe/MgO/Fe trilayers with a subnanometer MgO barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozioł-Rachwał, A. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Skowroński, W.; Frankowski, M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Chęciński, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Ziętek, S.; Rzeszut, P. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Ślęzak, M.; Matlak, K.; Ślęzak, T. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Stobiecki, T. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Korecki, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 8, 30-239 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    Fe/MgO/Fe trilayers with a subnanometer MgO tunnel barrier were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Longitudinal magnetooptic Kerr effect measurements confirmed the existence of the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) between the Fe layers for 2 Åexchange coupling (IEC) between Fe layers in Fe/MgO/Fe. • After nanofabrication the effective AFM IEC is enhanced due to the dipolar coupling. • The dipolar coupling that appeared after the nanofabrication process modified the effective coupling between layers. • Non-zero magnetoresistance values registered for the Fe/MgO/Fe trilayers with the MgO spacers as thin as 3.4 Å.

  7. Flow-induced crystallization of a nano composite of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate)/montmorillonite; Cinetica de cristalizacao induzida por fluxo de nanocomposito de poli(butileno adipato-co-tereftalato)/montmorilonita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonel, Alan B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos. UFSCar, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais DEMa, SP (Brazil); Rego, Bruna T.; Beatrice, Cesar A.G.; Marini, Juliano; Bretas, Rosario E.S., E-mail: bretas@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos. UFSCar, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) with 5wt% of an organically modified montmorillonite with polar surfactant was prepared by melt blending in a co-rotational twin-screw extruder at 160 degree C. 100rpm and 1 kg/h. Both pure polymer and nano composite were characterized by wide measurements. The study of the flow-induced crystallization was also done by rheological measurements, monitoring the viscosity as a function of time. The nano clay's lamellas were intercalated in the polymer m loss moduli of the nano composite, at low frequencies, showed that the particles of the nano clay were well dispersed and distributed thru the PBAT matrix. Finally, the presence of the nano clay's particles reduced the induction tim crystals growth, due to the strong interactions with the PBAT chains. (author)

  8. Highly efficient inverted organic light emitting diodes by inserting a zinc oxide/polyethyleneimine (ZnO:PEI) nano-composite interfacial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaçar, Rifat; Pıravadılı Mucur, Selin; Yıldız, Fikret; Dabak, Salih; Tekin, Emine

    2017-06-01

    The electrode/organic interface is one of the key factors in attaining superior device performance in organic electronics, and inserting a tailor-made layer can dramatically modify its properties. The use of nano-composite (NC) materials leads to many advantages by combining materials with the objective of obtaining a desirable combination of properties. In this context, zinc oxide/polyethyleneimine (ZnO:PEI) NC film was incorporated as an interfacial layer into inverted bottom-emission organic light emitting diodes (IBOLEDs) and fully optimized. For orange-red emissive MEH-PPV based IBOLEDs, a high power efficiency of 6.1 lm W-1 at a luminance of 1000 cd m-2 has been achieved. Notably, the external quantum efficiency (EQE) increased from 0.1 to 4.8% and the current efficiency (CE) increased from 0.2 to 8.7 cd A-1 with rise in luminance (L) from 1000 to above 10 000 cd m-2 levels when compared to that of pristine ZnO-based devices. An identical device architecture containing a ZnO:PEI NC layer has also been used to successfully fabricate green and blue emissive IBOLEDs. The significant enhancement in the inverted device performance, in terms of luminance and efficiency, is attributed to a good energy-level alignment between the cathode/organic interface which leads to effective carrier balance, resulting in efficient radiative-recombination.

  9. Improved dehydriding property of polyvinylpyrrolidone coated Mg-Ni hydrogen storage nano-composite prepared by hydriding combustion synthesis and wet mechanical milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linglong Yao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP coated Mg95Ni5 nano-composites were prepared by hydriding combustion synthesis (HCS plus wet mechanical milling (WM with tetrahydrofuran (THF and donated as WM-x wt% PVP (x = 1, 3, 5 and 7 respectively. The phase compositions, microstructures and dehydriding property, as well as the co-effect of PVP and THF were investigated in detail. XRD results showed that the average crystal size of MgH2 in the milled Mg95Ni5 decreased from 23 nm without PVP to 18 nm with 1 wt% PVP. The peak temperature of dehydrogenation of MgH2 in the milled Mg95Ni5 decreased from 293.0 °C without THF to 250.4 °C with THF. The apparent activation energy for decomposition of MgH2 in WM-7 wt% PVP was estimated to be 66.94 kJ/mol, which is 37.70 kJ/mol lower than that of milled Mg95Ni5 without THF and PVP. PVP and THF can facilitate the refinement of particle size during mechanical milling process. Attributed to small particle sizes and synergistic effect of PVP and THF, the composites exhibit markedly improved dehydriding properties. Keywords: Mg-Ni-PVP, Composite, Mg-based alloy, Wet mechanical milling, Dehydriding temperature

  10. Encapsulation of paclitaxel into a bio-nano-composite. A study combining inelastic neutron scattering to thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, M.L.; Orecchini, A.; Aguilera, L.; Matic, A.; Eckert, J.; Saeki, M.J.; Bordallo, H.N.

    2015-01-01

    The anticancer drug Paclitaxel was encapsulated into a bio-nano-composite formed by magnetic nanoparticles, chitosan and apatite. The aim of this drug carrier is to provide a new perspective against breast cancer. The dynamics of the pure and encapsulated drug were investigated in order to verify possible molecular changes caused by the encapsulation, as well as to follow which interactions may occur between paclitaxel and the composite. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, inelastic (INS) and quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments were performed. These very preliminary results suggest the successful encapsulation of the drug. Here we put forward a new idea that by using INS further insight on the local dynamics of the pure drug molecule and how its dynamics is affected by the encapsulation can be obtained. Since neutron scattering is not a surface technique and the sample does not need to be manipulated in order to obtain the data, this probe is extremely suitable for confinement studies. Using neutron scattering we show that a number of vibrational modes are damped indicating that the Paclitaxel molecule is constrained by the encapsulation

  11. Heat treatment of mechano-chemically produced BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nano-composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molaei, M J; Ataie, A; Raygan, S, E-mail: mjmolaee@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, PO Box: 14395-553, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-04-01

    Barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) magnetic powder was synthesized via ceramic route by mixing of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3} and subsequent calcination of the mixed powder in air at 1150 deg. C. The synthesized barium hexaferrite was mixed with graphite to be treated mechano-chemically in high energy ball mill in air atmosphere for various times. Subsequently, the milled samples were subjected to high temperature in argon atmosphere. XRD patterns of the milled samples revealed that graphite partially reduced barium hexaferrite to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} after 15 hours of milling, resulted in a magnetic nano-composite of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Extending milling time to 80 hours promoted the reduction process to FeO. Heat treatment of the milled samples resulted in different magnetic composites. Iron was seen in XRD pattern of the 40 hours milled sample that was heat treated at 680 deg. C. SEM images showed that after heat treatment, fine particles in agglomerates grew and larger particles formed. As a result, mean particle size increased due to the heat treatment of the milled powder.

  12. Preparation and characterization of bio resin natural tannin/poly (vinylidene fluoride): A high dielectric performance nano-composite for electrical storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, S.; Pizzi, A.; Al-Ghamdi, Maryam A.; AlWafi, Reem

    2017-09-01

    We have prepared films of polymer nano-composite (PNC) of poly [vinylidene-fluoride] (PVDF) and bio resin natural tannin (BRNT) nanoparticles. The α and γ electro-active phases were detected, and the addition of BRNT drastically increases the formation of the α-phase. Addition of BRNT produces up to 98% of electro-active phases. Robust electrostatic interactions arise between charges at the BRNT-surfaces, and differences in electron affinity between CH2 and CF2 groups created dielectric dipoles. The addition of BRNT has not only enhanced the formation of the electrically active phases but also makes each dipole in the phase has its specific characteristics for example its own relaxation time. The AC-electrical permittivity showed that the dielectric constant of 10%wt-BRNT nanoparticles in PVDF has a value 44 ε0, which is four times more than the dielectric constant of the as-prepared PVDF films. These data show the importance of these polymers as easy, flexible, and durable energy storage materials.

  13. [Biomimetic synthesis of a novel antibacterial nano-composite materials of hydroxyapatite and gelatin for bone repair and its biocompatibility in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiao-chen; Li, Quan-li; Zhou, Jian; Tang, Jian

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the bioactivity of a new type of antibacterial nano-composite materials of low-crystallinity hydroxyapatite and gelatin for bone repair in vitro. The nanocomposite was prepared by a biomimetic method. A certain amount of acidic solution containing hydroxyapatite and minocycline was added into gelatin solution at 40 degrees centigrade and pH 7-8 to obtain HA-Gel composite containing anti-bacterial drug minocycline. The material was co-cultured with rat bone marrow stromal cells(BMSCs) in vitro. The results indicated that the nanoscopic low-crystallinity hydroxyapatite was distributed evenly in the fibrils of the composite by controlling crystal growth. The HA-Gel nanocomposite had complicated porous structure. It could promote BMSCs adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation in vitro. The BMSCs response to the material considerably shows that it is bioactive. The nanocomposite may be promising as a kind of materials for bone replacement and a carrier for controlled-release therapeutic agents.

  14. Combinatorial study of low-refractive Mg-F-Si-O nano-composites deposited by magnetron co-sputtering from compound targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertin, Stefan; Länzlinger, Tony; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Muralt, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Deposition of nano-composite Mg-F-Si-O films on optical grade silica glass was studied employing RF magnetron co-sputtering from magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and fused silica (SiO2) targets. The aim was to obtain a stable and reliable sputtering process for optical coatings exhibiting a refractive index lower than the one of quartz glass (1.46 at 550 nm) without adding gaseous fluorine to the deposition process. The two magnetrons were installed in a confocal way at 45° off-axis with respect to a static substrate, thus creating a lateral gradient in the thin-film composition. The deposited Mg-F-Si-O coatings were structurally analysed by electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained films consist of MgF2 nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2-rich amorphous matrix. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry measurements showed that they are highly transparent exhibiting a very-low extinction coefficient k and a refractive index n in the desired range between the one of MgF2 (1.38) and SiO2 (1.46). Films with n = 1.424 and 1.435 at 550 nm were accomplished with absorption below the detection threshold.

  15. The antifungal effects and mechanical properties of silver bromide/cationic polymer nano-composite-modified Poly-methyl methacrylate-based dental resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Yin-Yan; Huang, Li; Chai, Zhi-Guo; Shen, Li-Juan; Xiao, Yu-Hong

    2017-05-08

    Poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based dental resins with strong and long-lasting antifungal properties are critical for the prevention of denture stomatitis. This study evaluated the antifungal effects on Candida albicans ATCC90028, the cytotoxicity toward human dental pulp cells (HDPCs), and the mechanical properties of a silver bromide/cationic polymer nano-composite (AgBr/NPVP)-modified PMMA-based dental resin. AgBr/NPVP was added to the PMMA resin at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 wt%, and PMMA resin without AgBr/NPVP served as the control. Fungal growth was inhibited on the AgBr/NPVP-modified PMMA resin compared to the control (P  0.05) between the experimental and control groups. These data indicate that the incorporation of AgBr/NPVP conferred strong and long-lasting antifungal effects against Candida albicans to the PMMA resin, and it has low toxicity toward HDPCs, and its mechanical properties were not significantly affected.

  16. Carbon-Rich Silicon Oxycarbide (SiOC) and Silicon Oxycarbide/Element (SiOC/X, X= Si, Sn) Nano-Composites as New Anode Materials for Li-Ion Battery Application

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-rich silicon oxycarbide (SiOC) and silicon oxycarbide/element nano-composites (SiOC/X, X=Si, Sn) are prepared via thermal conversion of polyorganosiloxanes and studied as potential anode material for Li-ion battery application. The obtained materials are characterized by various chemical, structural, electrochemical and electro-analytical methods. The chemical composition and microstructure of the samples is analyzed and correlated with their electrochemical properties and performance....

  17. Characterization of dispersion of a nano composites PP/TiO{sub 2} non modified; Caracterizacao da dispersao dos nanocompositos de PP/TiO{sub 2} nao modificados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Igor L.; Tavares, Maria I.B.; Silva, Vanessa A. da; Legramanti, Cintia, E-mail: igorl@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Instituto de Macromoleculas - IMA (Brazil); Luetkmeyer, Leandro [Universidades Federais do Mato Grosso - UFMT, Escritorio de Inovacao Tecnologica - EIT (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polymeric nano composites are composite materials where an inorganic particle, which has a dimension in the nanometer range, is dispersed in a polymer matrix. Nano composites, using polypropylene (PP) as matrix polymer and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) as filler, have great versatility in marketing applications, this factor is inherent in the PP and the inherent ability photo degraded TiO{sub 2} particles. This combination can lead to a widely used material and a degradation time after discharge reduced, there by becoming, a residue of low environmental impact. This study aimed to evaluate the dispersion and particle distribution of TiO{sub 2}, non modified, in PP matrix, using the process of preparation by melt extrusion pathway and characterization of the materials obtained: on the molecular dynamics, using low field NMR solid state, measures the relaxation time spin-network (T{sub 1}H); morphology using XRD technique, and thermal analysis technique with the TGA of pure PP and nano composites PP/TiO{sub 2}. (author)

  18. Molecular analogue of the perovskite repeating unit and evidence for direct MnIII-CeIV-MnIII exchange coupling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuijs, Annaliese E; Li, Xiang-Guo; Wang, Yun-Peng; Abboud, Khalil A; Zhang, X-G; Cheng, Hai-Ping; Christou, George

    2017-09-11

    The perovskite manganites AMnO 3 and their doped analogues A 1-x B x MnO 3 (A and B = main group and lanthanide metals) are a fascinating family of magnetic oxides exhibiting a rich variety of properties. They are thus under intense investigation along multiple fronts, one of which is how their structural and physical properties are modified at the nanoscale. Here we show that the molecular compound [Ce 3 Mn 8 O 8 (O 2 CPh) 18 (HO 2 CPh) 2 ] (Ce III 2 Ce IV Mn III 8 ; hereafter Ce 3 Mn 8 ) bears a striking structural resemblance to the repeating unit seen in the perovskite manganites. Further, magnetic studies have established that Ce 3 Mn 8 exhibits both the combination of pairwise Mn III 2 ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, and the resultant spin vector alignments that are found within the 3-D C-type antiferromagnetic perovskites. First-principles theoretical calculations reveal not only the expected nearest-neighbor Mn III 2 exchange couplings via superexchange pathways through bridging ligands but also an unusual, direct Mn III -Ce IV -Mn III metal-to-metal channel involving the Ce IV f orbitals.Perovskite manganites exhibit intriguing but poorly understood properties, including multiferroicity. Here, the authors synthesize a Ce 3 Mn 8 cluster that structurally resembles a perovskite repeat unit, and use this molecular analogue to elucidate mechanisms driving bulk perovskite properties.

  19. Mechanism and kinetics of tyrosinase inhibition by glycolic acid: a study using conventional spectroscopy methods and hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupling with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Da; Tu, Zong-Cai; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Lu; He, Na; McClements, David Julian

    2017-01-25

    Tyrosinase is an enzyme that promotes enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables, thereby reducing product quality. A variety of analytical tools were used to characterize the interactions between tyrosinase and a natural tyrosinase inhibitor (glycolic acid). Hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupling with mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) was used to elucidate the interaction mechanism between glycolic acid and tyrosinase. UV-visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy analysis indicated that glycolic acid inhibited tyrosinase activity in a mixed-type manner with an IC 50 of 83 ± 14 μM. The results of these techniques suggested that glycolic acid bound to tyrosinase through hydrophobic attraction, and this interaction led to a pronounced conformational change of the enzyme molecules. HDX-MS analysis showed that the activity of tyrosinase was primarily inhibited by a structural perturbation of its active site (His 263). This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the interaction between glycolic acid and tyrosinase, which could lead to new approaches to control tyrosinase activity in foods and other products.

  20. Verification of antiferromagnetic exchange coupling at room temperature using polar magneto-optic Kerr effect in thin EuS/Co multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goschew, A., E-mail: alexander.goschew@fu-berlin.de; Scott, M.; Fumagalli, P. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-08-08

    We report on magneto-optic Kerr measurements in polar geometry carried out on a series of thin Co/EuS multilayers on suitable Co/Pd-multilayer substrates. Thin Co/EuS multilayers of a few nanometers individual layer thickness usually have their magnetization in plane. Co/Pd multilayers introduce a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the Co/EuS layers deposited on top, thus making it possible to measure magneto-optic signals in the polar geometry in remanence in order to study exchange coupling. Magneto-optic Kerr-effect spectra and hysteresis loops were recorded in the visible and ultraviolet photon-energy range at room temperature. The EuS contribution to the magneto-optic signal is extracted at 4.1 eV by combining hysteresis loops measured at different photon energies with polar magneto-optic Kerr-effect spectra recorded in remanence and in an applied magnetic field of 2.2 T. The extracted EuS signal shows clear signs of antiferromagnetic coupling of the Eu magnetic moments to the Co layers. This implies that the ordering temperature of at least a fraction of the EuS layers is above room temperature proving that magneto-optic Kerr-effect spectroscopy can be used here as a quasi-element-specific method.

  1. Anisotropy effects in magnetic hyperthermia: A comparison between spherical and cubic exchange-coupled FeO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khurshid, H., E-mail: khurshid@usf.edu, E-mail: sharihar@usf.edu; Nemati, Z.; Phan, M. H.; Mukherjee, P.; Srikanth, H., E-mail: khurshid@usf.edu, E-mail: sharihar@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Alonso, J. [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); BCMaterials Edificio No. 500, Parque Tecnológico de Vizcaya, Derio 48160 (Spain); Fdez-Gubieda, M. L.; Barandiarán, J. M. [BCMaterials Edificio No. 500, Parque Tecnológico de Vizcaya, Derio 48160 (Spain); Depto. Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco, Leioa 48940 (Spain)

    2015-05-07

    Spherical and cubic exchange-coupled FeO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, with different FeO:Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} ratios, have been prepared by a thermal decomposition method to probe anisotropy effects on their heating efficiency. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal that the nanoparticles are composed of FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phases, with an average size of ∼20 nm. Magnetometry and transverse susceptibility measurements show that the effective anisotropy field is 1.5 times larger for the cubes than for the spheres, while the saturation magnetization is 1.5 times larger for the spheres than for the cubes. Hyperthermia experiments evidence higher values of the specific absorption rate (SAR) for the cubes as compared to the spheres (200 vs. 135 W/g at 600 Oe and 310 kHz). These observations point to an important fact that the saturation magnetization is not a sole factor in determining the SAR and the heating efficiency of the magnetic nanoparticles can be improved by tuning their effective anisotropy.

  2. Improved cycling performance of nano-composite Li{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} as a lithium battery cathode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begam, K.M. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri, Iskandar, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Prabaharan, S.R.S. [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2006-09-13

    We have recently reported our success in identifying a family of new polyanion cathode materials, namely Li{sub 2}M{sup '}{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} [M'=Ni, Co and Mn] and synthesized these polyanion derivatives using soft-combustion based solution synthesize technique. It is known that the polyanion cathode materials reported hither to suffer invariably from intrinsic lattice electronic conductivities regardless of their structure. The new polyanion materials reported by us also suffer from low lattice electronic conductivity. Considering its lithium rich phase to be useful for battery application, we attempted to improvise the electronic conductivity of Li{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} by adding mesoporous (nano-sized) non-graphitized carbon black (NCB) particles as an additional conductive additive together with acetylene black and compared its electrochemical performance with the conventional composite electrode having acetylene black as a conductive additive. The test electrode fabricated with NCB as conductive additive has profound effect on the discharge properties by enhancing the grain-grain contact much more effectively and establishing much better intimacy between the electrode-active grains and thus improving the overall electronic conductivity of the composite electrode. As a result, we found that the conventional composite positive electrode yielded a first discharge capacity of 26mAhg{sup -1} between 4.9 and 2.0V, whereas the nano-composite electrode yielded a discharge capacity of 86mAhg{sup -1} which is approximately a four-fold increase. It was also observed that NCB addition facilitated the extended cycling performance in terms of lithium insertion and structural stability retention of the host cathode material. (author)

  3. Conductivity and Thermal Studies on Plasticized Nano-Composite Solid Polymer Electrolyte, Peo: Ec: LiTf: Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitawala, H. M. J. C.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Poly (ethylene oxide)-(PEO)-based composite polymer electrolytes are of great interest for solid-state-electrochemical devices. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study on electrical conductivity and thermal behavior (DSC) of composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) containing PEO: LiCF3SO3 complexed with plasticizer (EC) and incorporating nano-sized particles of the ceramic filler Al2O3. Ionic conductivity enhancement in these electrolytes has been obtained by optimizing the combined effect of the plasticizer and the ceramic filler. Nano-composite, plasticized polymer electrolyte films (400-600μm) were prepared by common solvent casting method. It was revealed that the presence of the Al2O3 filler in PEO: LiTf polymer electrolyte significantly enhanced the ionic conductivity in the temperature range of interest, giving the maximum conductivity for (PEO)9LiTf+15 wt.% Al2O3 CPE [σRT (max)=2×10-5 S cm-1]. It was also observed that the addition of plasticizer (EC) to this electrolyte up to a concentration of 50 wt. % EC, showed a further conductivity enhancement [σRT (max) = 1.5×10-4 S cm-1]. It is suggested that the conductivity is enhanced mainly by two mechanisms. The plasticizer (EC) would directly contribute by reducing the crystallinity and increasing the amorphous phase content of the polymer electrolytes. The ceramic filler (Al2O3) would contribute to conductivity enhancement by creating additional sites to migrating ionic species through transient bonding with O/OH groups in the filler surface. The decrease of Tg values of plasticized CPE systems seen in the DSC thermograms points towards the improved segmental flexibility of polymer chains, increasing the mobility of conducting ions.

  4. Preparation and characterization of green-nano-composite material based on polyaniline, multiwalled carbon nano tubes and carboxymethyl cellulose: For electrochemical sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Vineeta; Singh, Karan Pratap; Yadav, Vijay Laxmi

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we are presenting the preparation and characterization of "polyaniline/multiwalled carbon nanotubes/carboxymethyl cellulose" based novel composite material. It's morphological, thermal, structural, and electrochemical properties were investigated by using different instrumental techniques. During the in-situ chemical polymerization of aniline in the aqueous suspension of CMC and MWCNTs, the particle size change in two different ways "top to bottom" (low molecular weight oligomers grows in size) and "bottom to top" (long fibers of CMC fragmented in the reaction mixture). The combination of these two processes facilitated the fabrication of an integrated green-nano-composite material. In addition, a little amount of conductive nanofillers (MWCNTs) boosts the electrical and electrocatalytic properties of the material. Electron-rich centers of benzenoid rings exhibited π-π stacking with sp 2 carbon of MWCNTs. CMC dominantly impact on the properties of PANI, negatively charged carboxylate group of CMC ionically bonded with protonated amine/imine. FTIR and Raman analysis confirmed that the material has dominated quinoid units and effective charge transfer. Hydroxyl and carboxyl groups and bonded water molecules of CMC results in a network of hydrogen bonds (which induced directional property). PANI/MWCNTs/CMC have nanobead-like structures (TEM analysis), large surface area, large pore volume, small pore diameter (BET and BJH studies) and good dispersion ability in the aqueous phase. Nanostructures of aligned PANI exhibited excellent electrochemical properties have attracted increasing attention. Modified carbon paste electrode was used for electrocatalytic detection of ascorbic acid (as a model analyte). The sensor exhibited a linear range 0.05 mM-5 mM, sensitivity 100.63 μA mM -1  cm -2 , and limit of detection 0.01 mM. PANI/MWCNTs/CMC is suitable nanocomposite material for apply electroactive/conducting ink and membrane (which could be

  5. EPR of exchange coupled systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bencini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    From chemistry to solid state physics to biology, the applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) are relevant to many areas. This unified treatment is based on the spin Hamiltonian approach and makes extensive use of irreducible tensor techniques to analyze systems in which two or more spins are magnetically coupled. This edition contains a new Introduction by coauthor Dante Gatteschi, a pioneer and scholar of molecular magnetism.The first two chapters review the foundations of exchange interactions, followed by examinations of the spectra of pairs and clusters, relaxation in oligon

  6. Generation of Au(p)Ag(q)Te(r) clusters via laser ablation synthesis using Au-Ag-Te nano-composite as precursor: quadrupole ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawale, Ravi Madhukar; Amato, Filippo; Alberti, Milan; Havel, Josef

    2014-07-30

    Metal tellurides have applications in various fields of science and technology but only a few gold-silver tellurides have been reported. The laser ablation synthesis (LAS) method allows the preparation of nano-materials from solid substrates. Therefore, this method was selected to synthesise some gold-silver tellurides. Laser desorption ionisation quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI QIT TOF MS) was used for the generation of new Au(p)Ag(q)Te(r) clusters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used to characterise the materials. The stoichiometry of the clusters generated was determined via collision-induced dissociation (CID) and modeling of isotopic patterns. Chemisorption of gold and silver nano-particles on tellurium powder led to the formation of a new kind of Au-Ag-Te nano-composite. The LDI of this nano-composite yielded nine unary (Ag(q), Te(r)), 40 binary (Au(p)Te(r) and Ag(p)Te(r)) and 78 ternary clusters. The stoichiometry of these novel Au(p)Ag(q)Te(r) clusters is reported here for the first time. The new Au-Ag-Te nano-composite was found to be a more suitable precursor for the generation of clusters than the mixtures of the elements. TOF MS was shown to be a useful technique for following the generation of gold-silver tellurides. Knowledge of the cluster stoichiometry could accelerate the further development of novel high-tech materials such as chalcogenide glasses. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Nano-composite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Blue, Craig A.; Peter, William H.; Chen, Wei; Aprigliano, Louis F.

    2015-07-14

    A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase.

  8. Magnetic Interactions in the Copper Complex (L-Aspartato)(1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II) Hydrate. An Exchange-Coupled Extended System with Two Dissimilar Copper Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondino, Carlos D.; Calvo, Rafael; Atria, Ana María; Spodine, Evgenia; Nascimento, Otaciro R.; Peña, Octavio

    1997-07-02

    We report EPR measurements in single-crystal samples at the microwave frequencies 9.8 and 34.3 GHz and magnetic susceptibility measurements in polycrystalline samples for the ternary complex of copper with aspartic acid and phenanthroline, (L-aspartato)(1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II) hydrate. The crystal lattice of this compound is composed of two dissimilar copper ions identified as Cu(A) and Cu(B), which are in two types of copper chains called A and B, respectively, running parallel to the b crystal axis. The copper ions in the A chains are connected by the aspartic acid molecule, and those in the B chains by a chemical path that involves a carboxylate bridge and a hydrogen bond. Both chains are held together by a complex network of hydrogen bonds and by hydrophobic interactions between aromatic amines. Magnetic susceptibility data indicate a Curie-Weiss behavior in the studied temperature range (2-300 K). The EPR spectra at 9.8 GHz display a single exchange collapsed resonance for any magnetic field orientation, in the so-called strong exchange regime. Those at 34.3 GHz are within the so-called weak exchange regime and display two resonances which belong to each type of copper ion chain. The decoupling of the spectra at 34.3 GHz using a theory based on Anderson's model for the case of two weakly exchange coupled spins S = (1)/(2) allows one to obtain the angular variation of the squares of the g-factor and the peak-to-peak line width of each resonance. This model also allows one to evaluate the exchange parameter |J(AB)/k| = 2.7(6) mK associated with the chemical path connecting dissimilar copper ions. The line width data obtained for each component of the spectra at 34.3 GHz are analyzed in terms of a model based on Kubo and Tomita's theory, to obtain the exchange parameters |J(A)/k| = 0.77(2) K and |J(B)/k| = 1.44(2) K associated with the chemical paths connecting the similar copper ions of types A and B, respectively.

  9. The study of structural properties of carbon nanotubes decorated with NiFe₂O₄ nanoparticles and application of nano-composite thin film as H₂S gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajihashemi, R; Rashidi, Ali M; Alaie, M; Mohammadzadeh, R; Izadi, N

    2014-11-01

    Nano-composite of multiwall carbon nanotube, decorated with NiFe2O4 nanoparticles (NiFe2O4-MWCNT), was synthesized using the sol-gel method. NiFe2O4-MWCNTs were characterized using different methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The average size of the crystallites is 23.93 nm. The values of the saturation magnetization (MS), coercivity (HC) and retentivity (MR) of NiFe2O4-MWCNTs are obtained as 15 emu g(-1), 21Oe and 5 emu g(-1), respectively. In this research, NiFe2O4-MWCNT thin films were prepared with the spin-coating method. These thin films were used as the H2S gas sensor. The results suggest the possibility of the utilization of NiFe2O4-MWCNT nano-composite, as the H2S detector. The sensor shows appropriate response towards 100 ppm of H2S at 300°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exchange coupling and microwave absorption in core/shell-structured hard/soft ferrite-based CoFe2O4/NiFe2O4 nanocapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Feng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Core/shell-structured, hard/soft spinel-ferrite-based CoFe2O4/NiFe2O4 (CFO/NFO nanocapsules with an average diameter of 17 nm are synthesized by a facile two-step hydrothermal process using CFO cores of ∼15 nm diameter as the hard magnetic phase and NFO shells of ∼1 nm thickness as the soft magnetic phase. The single-phase-like hysteresis loop with a high remnant-to-saturation magnetization ratio of 0.7, together with a small grain size of ∼16 nm, confirms the existence of exchange-coupling interaction between the CFO cores and the NFO shells. The effect of hard/soft exchange coupling on the microwave absorption properties is studied. Comparing to CFO and NFO nanoparticles, the finite-size NFO shells and the core/shell structure enable a significant reduction in electric resistivity and an enhancement in dipole and interfacial polarizations in the CFO/NFO nanocapsules, resulting in an obvious increase in dielectric permittivity and loss in the whole S–Ku bands of microwaves of 2–18 GHz, respectively. The exchange-coupling interaction empowers a more favorable response of magnetic moment to microwaves, leading to enhanced exchange resonances in magnetic permeability and loss above 10 GHz. As a result, strong absorption, as characterized by a large reflection loss (RL of -20.1 dB at 9.7 GHz for an absorber thickness of 4.5 mm as well as a broad effective absorption bandwidth (for RL<-10 dB of 8.4 GHz (7.8–16.2 GHz at an absorber thickness range of 3.0–4.5 mm, is obtained.

  11. Formulation and characterization of polyethylenes and organo-clays. Barrier properties of the obtained nano-composites; Formulation et caracterisation de polyethylenes charges avec des argiles. Proprietes barriere des nanocomposites obtenus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wache, R.

    2004-10-01

    The particularity of polymer layered silicate nano-composites is based on the exfoliation of the clay platelets in the polymer matrix. Therefore properties may be dramatically modified with very low clay loading. In this work polyethylene and organo-clay have been melt blended. Due to a lack of polarity, the polymer chains do not intercalate the clay stacking. However exfoliation is achieved using maleate polyethylene. We used this polymer as a compatibilizer to promote clay exfoliation in the polyethylene matrix. Partial exfoliation is obtained. Barrier properties of these materials have been characterized. Permeability is higher for the clay reinforced products than their matrix. To understand the poor permeability results a tortuosity model has been developed. The quality of the interface seems to be involved. Several organo-clays and compatibilizers have been tested to improve it. But for the concentrations of these products used polyethylene clay interactions always exist and lead to an increase of diffusion. (author)

  12. Mechanical properties and tribological behaviour of silicon carbide/carbon nano fibers nano composites; Propiedades mecanicas y tribologicas de materiales nanoestructurados de carburo de silicio/nanofibras de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrell, A.; Torrecillas, R.; Rocha, V. G.; Fernandez, A.; Bonache, V.; Salvador, M. D.

    2011-07-01

    The development of new ceramic/carbon nano structured materials is a very interesting option from the point of view of the automotive and aerospace industries. Its low density, high mechanical strength, high oxidation resistance and excellent friction behavior allows the use of these composites as functional materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of carbon nano fibers (CNFs) on the mechanical and tribological behavior of silicon carbide/CNFs nano composite obtained by spark plasma sintering technique. The tribological study was carried out in a ball-on-disk apparatus under dry sliding conditions (dry friction) and a fixed load of 15 N. The friction coefficient and wear rate were measured for each composite. Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze wear surface formed. The results show simultaneous improvement of wear behavior and mechanical properties of ceramic materials by incorporating of carbon nano fibers. (Author) 23 refs.

  13. Microscopic origin of the unidirectional anisotropy on the exchange-coupled CoO/Co interface; Mikroskopischer Ursprung der unidirektionalen Anisotropie an der austauschgekoppelten CoO/Co-Grenzflaeche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadimi, M.R.

    2006-03-03

    Exchange coupling at the interface between an antiferromagnet (AFM) and a ferromagnet (FM) causes unidirectional anisotropy of the FM layer, which induces a shift of the hysteresis loop along the magnetic field axis. In order to understand the microscopic origin of EB, the domain state (DS) model was proposed. This model is based on the physics of diluted antiferromagnets in an external magnetic field (DAFF) and yields the description of the most salient EB features of any model to date. The intentional dilution is realized by implementing non-magnetic defects in the bulk of the AFM. Under certain conditions, DAFF develops in a metastable domain state after cooling below the Neel-temperature in an external magnetic field. These domains carry a remanent domain state magnetization. One part of the domain state magnetization, the so-called irreversible domain state magnetization, provides the exchange coupling field at the interface to the FM layer giving rise to the EB. The stability and the size of the domains in the AFM and therefore the EB can be controlled by the number of defects and their different types throughout the volume part of the AFM. In this work, the experimental evidences of a direct influence of different types of defects (twins and 3d-growth as structural defects and dilution as substitutional defects) on the EB in epitaxially grown CoO/Co bilayers are presented. Furthermore, the influence of the crystal orientation of the CoO layer on EB is demonstrated. (orig.)

  14. Preparation of Nd-Fe-B/α-Fe nano-composite thick-film magnets on various substrates using PLD with high laser energy density above 10 J/cm2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, M.; Kondo, H.; Yamashita, A.; Yanai, T.; Itakura, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2018-05-01

    PLD (Pulsed Laser Deposition) method with high laser energy density (LED) above 10 J/cm2 followed by a flash annealing enabled us to obtain isotropic nano-composite thick-film magnets with (BH)max ≧ 80 kJ/m3 on polycrystalline Ta substrates. We also have demonstrated that a dispersed structure composed of α-Fe together with Nd2Fe14B phases with the average grain diameter of approximately 20 nm could be formed on the Ta substrates. In this study, we tried to enhance the (BH)max value by controlling the microstructure due to the usage of different metal based substrates with each high melting point such as Ti, Nb, and W. Although it was difficult to vary the microstructure and to improve the magnetic properties of the films deposited on the substrates, we confirmed that isotropic thick-film magnets with (BH)max ≧ 80 kJ/m3 based on the nano-dispersed α-Fe and Nd2Fe14B phases could be obtained on various metal substrates with totally different polycrystalline structure. On the other hand, the use of a glass substrate lead to the deterioration of magnetic properties of a film prepared using the same preparation process.

  15. Novel organo soluble poly imides and polyimide nano composites based on 1,4-bis(4-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiaz olyl)benzene, BAOB, via BAOB-modified organo clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoori, Y.; Darvishi, K.

    2014-01-01

    New, thermally stable poly imides (PI) containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring in the polymer backbone based on 1,4-bis((4-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiaz olyl)benzene, BAOB, were synthesized. The prepared polymers were soluble in polar and aprotic solvents. The obtained results reveal that within the prepared polymers, polyimide which has been obtained from BAOB and 4,4-oxy diphthalic dianhydride, ODPA, has the most improved thermal properties. In the next part, thermally stable organophilic clay was obtained via cation exchange reaction between sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) and the hydrochloride salt of BAOB. Then, a series of PI/clay nano composite materials (PCNs) were synthesized from the in situ polymerization reaction of BAOB and ODPA via thermal imidization, BAOB-MMT was used as the filler at different concentrations. Intercalation of polymer chains within the organo clay galleries was confirmed by W XRD. The glass transition temperature is increased with respect to pristine PI for PCNs 1-3 wt %. At high clay loadings, the aggregation of organo clay particles results in a decrease in T g . In the Sem images of the pure polymer too many micro-cracks were observed in the background, while surface homogeneity of PCN 1 wt % is increased and micro-cracks are reduced. (Author)

  16. Novel organo soluble poly imides and polyimide nano composites based on 1,4-bis(4-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiaz olyl)benzene, BAOB, via BAOB-modified organo clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoori, Y.; Darvishi, K., E-mail: ya_mansoori@yahoo.com [University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, Daneshgah, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    New, thermally stable poly imides (PI) containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring in the polymer backbone based on 1,4-bis((4-aminophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiaz olyl)benzene, BAOB, were synthesized. The prepared polymers were soluble in polar and aprotic solvents. The obtained results reveal that within the prepared polymers, polyimide which has been obtained from BAOB and 4,4-oxy diphthalic dianhydride, ODPA, has the most improved thermal properties. In the next part, thermally stable organophilic clay was obtained via cation exchange reaction between sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) and the hydrochloride salt of BAOB. Then, a series of PI/clay nano composite materials (PCNs) were synthesized from the in situ polymerization reaction of BAOB and ODPA via thermal imidization, BAOB-MMT was used as the filler at different concentrations. Intercalation of polymer chains within the organo clay galleries was confirmed by W XRD. The glass transition temperature is increased with respect to pristine PI for PCNs 1-3 wt %. At high clay loadings, the aggregation of organo clay particles results in a decrease in T{sub g}. In the Sem images of the pure polymer too many micro-cracks were observed in the background, while surface homogeneity of PCN 1 wt % is increased and micro-cracks are reduced. (Author)

  17. Exchange coupling in transition-metal ferromagnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frota-Pessoa, S.; Muniz, R. B.; Kudrnovský, Josef

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 9 (2000), s. 5293-5296 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010829 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.065, year: 2000

  18. Synthesis of Ag-liposome nano composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, Hossein; Montazer, Majid; Toliyat, Tayebeh; Samadi, Nasrin

    2010-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized and stabilized by a simple, environment-friendly method in a liposomes structure. Liposomes were prepared by facing lecithin to the aqueous-phase solutions while stirring vigorously. The ratio of lecithin concentration to silver nitrate (K(Lec/Ag) = [Lecithin]/[AgNO(3)]) is the influencing factor in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The stability, size distribution, and antibacterial properties of synthesized silver nanoparticles were studied by ultraviolet (UV)-visible, dynamic light scattering, and antibacterial assay. The UV spectra indicated a single symmetric extinction peak at 400 nm, confirming the spherical shape of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. A high K(Lec/Ag) value leads to a reduction in the intensity of extinction spectra and increases the size of Ag-liposomes nanocomposites. The large Ag-liposomes nanocomposites are transformed to the smaller Ag-liposomes nanocomposites (from 342 to 190 nm) due to sonication treatment. The stabilized silver nanoparticles with various lecithin concentrations showed a good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterium, and Escherichia coli, a Gram-negative bacterium.

  19. Crystalline Structure of Starch Based Nano Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Amidi Fazli; Afshin Babazadeh; Farnaz Amidi Fazli

    2015-01-01

    In contrast with literal meaning of nano, researchers have been achieved mega adventures in this area and every day more nanomaterials are being introduced to the market. After long time application of fossil-based plastics, nowadays accumulation of their waste seems to be a big problem to the environment. On the other hand, mankind has more attention to safety and living environment. Replacing common plastic packaging materials with degradable ones that degrade faster an...

  20. Cirrus Dopant Nano-Composite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    coatings without alteration to the existing plating process. Glen Slater, Cirrus Materials | Stephen Flint, Auckland UniServices Ltd Report...ADDRESS(ES) University of Auckland ,Cirrus Materials, Auckland , New Zealand, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY...JiA/ g THE UNIVERSITY ’-" OF AUCKLAND NEW ZEALAND Te Whare Wanan a o Thmaki Makaurau ~"""’ • ........,." ... Southwest Pacific Basin . p

  1. Rheological Characterization Of Nano-Composite Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Jack

    Engineered Polymer hydrogels and hydrogels from Bio macromolecules have visco-elastic properties that can be measured using Oscillatory Shear Rheology. Manipulation and measurement of physical properties in gels including F-127 Pluronic Block Co-Polymer and Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-Clay are shown through OSR by addition of salts, clays and glucose at physiological levels. Rheological analysis of f-127 illustrates changes in G' reduction with phase transition temperature. Measurements also indicate physical changes due to the aforementioned additives vary as a function of the gel physical and chemical structure. In particular, non-enzymatic glycation is shown to change the modulus of elasticity in both of the gels tested. Rheological analysis is also interpreted to produce a reduction In gel mesh size in the PNIPA -clay gels due to a possible co-solvency between phases of varying degrees of hydration.

  2. A study on the extent of exchange coupling between (Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19}){sub 1−x}(CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub x} magnetic nanocomposites synthesized by solgel combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harikrishnan, V.; Ezhil Vizhi, R., E-mail: revizhi@gmail.com

    2016-11-15

    One step citrate gel combustion method followed by high temperature annealing was employed for preparing (Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19}){sub 1−x}(CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub x} (x=0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) composite ferrite powders. The powders were subjected to annealing at 800 °C in order to decisively study the phase evolution of the combined hard and soft ferrites. Thermogravitry (TGA)/differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis exhibited three stages of decomposition in the precursor gels combined with an exothermic peak at 210 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that the diffraction peaks were perfectly indexed to the hexagonal magnetoplumbite structure of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and the cubic spinel structure of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis for the samples showed a Co–O stretching vibration accompanied with Co–O–Co or Fe–O–Fe bands at 1220 cm{sup −1}. The morphology of the samples were examined by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The crystallinity of a selected sample was evaluated by using the high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. It confirmed the presence of planes comprising the hard and soft phases in the synthesized nanocomposites. The magnetic parameters like saturation magnetization M{sub S}, remanent magnetization M{sub R}, squareness ratio S{sub R}, coercivity H{sub C} and magnetic moment µ{sub B} were evaluated using hysteresis by employing vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Maximum H{sub C} of 4.7 kOe and M{sub S} of 60.4 emu/g were obtained for (Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19}){sub 0.9}(CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 0.1}. Switching field distribution curves were analysed by using the demagnetization curve. The exchange coupling between the hard and soft phases were analysed by the dM/dH plots and it

  3. Interlayer exchange coupling in (Ga,Mn)As based multilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giddings, A.D.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Gallagher, B. L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 12 (2006), s. 4070-4073 ISSN 1610-1634 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0575; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100530; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * standing-wave fluorescence * x-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  4. Roles of Surface and Interface Spins in Exchange Coupled Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Manh-Huong

    Exchange bias (EB) in magnetic nanostructures has remained a topic of global interest because of its potential use in spin valves, MRAM circuits, magnetic tunnel junctions, and spintronic devices. The exploration of EB on the nanoscale provides a novel approach to overcoming the superparamagnetic limit and increasing the thermoremanence of magnetic nanoparticles, a critical bottleneck for magnetic data storage applications. Recent advances in chemical synthesis have given us a unique opportunity to explore the EB in a variety of nanoparticle systems ranging from core/shell nanoparticles of Fe/γFe2O3, Co/CoO,and FeO/Fe3O4 to hollow nanoparticles of γFe2O3 and hybrid composite nanoparticles of Au/Fe3O4. Our studies have addressed the following fundamental and important questions: (i) Can one decouple collective contributions of the interface and surface spins to the EB in a core/shell nanoparticle system? (ii) Can the dynamic and static response of the core and shell be identified separately? (iii) Can one tune ``minor loop'' to ``exchange bias'' effects in magnetic hollow nanoparticles by varying the number of surface spins? (iv) Can one decouple collective contributions of the inner and outer surface spins to the EB in a hollow nanoparticle system? (v) Can EB be induced in a magnetic nanoparticle by forming its interface with a non-magnetic metal? Such knowledge is essential to tailor EB in magnetic nanostructures for spintronics applications. In this talk, we will discuss the aforementioned findings in terms of our experimental and atomistic Monte Carlo studies. The work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46438.

  5. Hidden Interface Driven Exchange Coupling in Oxide Heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Aiping [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Wang, Qiang [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown WV 26506 USA; Fitzsimmons, Michael R. [Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville TN 37996 USA; Enriquez, Erik [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Weigand, Marcus [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Harrell, Zach [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; McFarland, Brian [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Lü, Xujie [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Dowden, Paul [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. [Department of Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 OFS UK; Yarotski, Dmitry [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Jia, Quanxi [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Department of Materials Design and Innovation, University at Buffalo - The State University of New York, Buffalo NY 14260 USA

    2017-05-02

    A variety of emergent phenomena have been enabled by interface engineering in complex oxides. The existence of an intrinsic interfacial layer has often been found at oxide heterointerfaces. However, the role of such an interlayerin controlling functionalities is not fully explored. Here, we report the control of the exchange bias (EB) in single-phase manganite thin films with nominallyuniform chemical composition across the interfaces. The sign of EB depends on the magnitude of the cooling field. A pinned layer, confirmed by polarized neutron reflectometry, provides the source of unidirectional anisotropy. The origin of the exchange bias coupling is discussed in terms of magnetic interactions between the interfacial ferromagnetically reduced layer and the bulk ferromagnetic region. The sign of EB is related to the frustration of antiferromagnetic coupling between the ferromagnetic region and the pinned layer. Our results shed new light on using oxide interfaces to design functional spintronic devices.

  6. Modification of bentonite clay and application on polypropylene nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Akidauana D.B.; Rodrigues, Andre W.B.; Agrawal, Pankaj; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Melo, Tomas J.A.

    2009-01-01

    This work consisted on the modification of Brasgel PA clay with ionic surfactant Praepagen WB and its incorporation into polypropylene. The results of infrared and DR-X was showed that the intercalation of surfactant in the clay and the incorporation of organoclay in PP matrix resulted in the formation of an intercalated structure. The impact strength of PP increased with the incorporation of organoclay. (author)

  7. Fast Reacting Nano Composite Energetic Materials: Synthesis and Combustion Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-24

    understanding of fast reacting energetic nanocomposite systems (Kappagantula, Pantoya and Horn, Effect of surface coatings on aluminum fuel particles...J. Horn. "Effect of surface coatings on aluminum fuel particles toward nanocomposite combustion." Surface and Coatings Technology 237 (2013): 456...themal transport properties of aluminum‐ polytetrafluoroethylene nanocomposites with graphene and carbon nanotube additives 2012

  8. Novel Nano-Composite Catalysts for Renewable Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaguptapu, Surya Vamsi

    Spinel NiCo2O4 catalysts are considered the promising precious metal-free catalyst for oxygen reactions. Significant efforts are mainly explore optimal chemical doping and substituent to tune its electronic structures for enhanced performance. Here, we focuses on morphology control and determine the morphology-dependent activity for bifunctional oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In particular, three types of spinel NiCo2O4 were prepared using temple-free, SiO 2 hard template, and Pluronic-123 soft template hydrothermal methods, showing significantly different morphologies, respectively. In particular, template-free method yield dense structures. Sold-template method assists the formation of porous and hollow structures. Importantly, the soft template is effective to prepare a unique nanoflower morphology containing abundant rose petal (needle) like structures. The effect of the utilization of templates, both soft and hard as well as a template free synthesis on the morphology as well as the activity and stability of the final catalyst is investigated. Compared to others, the nanoflower-like NiCo2O4 exhibited the highest bifunctional catalytic activity simultaneously for ORR and OER, likely due to the facile absorption of oxygen molecules on increased surface areas with efficient mass transfer. The nanoflower NiCo2O 4 also exhibited an onset and half-wave potentials of 0.94 and 0.82 V for the ORR in alkaline media. Although it is still inferior to state of the art Pt, the new type of spinel NiCo2O4 catalyst represents the best activity compared to reported carbon-free oxides. Meanwhile, OER activity and stability were achieved with an onset potential of 1.48 V generating a current density of 14 mA/cm2 at 1.6 V. The OER activity does not declined after 10,000 potential cycles demonstrating excellent stability, which is superior to the benchmark of Ir for the OER. This work provides an effective solution to enhance catalytic activity and stability of oxides by engineering their morphology and nanostructures. The high performance bifunctional oxide catalyst is carbon free and can eventually overcome the stability issue for reversible fuel cell and metal-air battery applications. In addition, we have synthesized highly active transition metal doped Carbon Nano Tubes of very small thickness called Graphene Tubes which when integrated with metal oxides can lead to enhanced activity and durability for ORR and OER with current density as high as 25mAcm-2 at 1.6V vs RHE for OER and an onset potential of 1.0V vs RHE during ORR. Finally, we conclude by giving a brief description of the Hydrogen Economy and the role that ammonia decomposition can play in achieving the potential of hydrogen economy. We detail the synthesis procedures of some highly active transition metal nitride- alkali metal imide composites and study their activity for ammonia decomposition. The catalysts show conversion efficiencies as high as 95%.

  9. Fullerene and dendrimer based nano-composite gas separation membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterescu, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of new materials for membrane based gas separation processes. Long-term stable, loosely packed (high free volume) amorphous polymer films were prepared by introduction of super-molecular pendant groups, which possess hardsphere properties to avoid dense

  10. Advanced glucose biosensing and nano-composite research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba, Humphreys Douglas I.

    The fascinating and enhanced properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been of intense interest since their discovery. This is primarily due to their exceptional mechanical , electrical, and thermal properties , as well as their many and varied applications in modern industries such as in fuel cells, sensors, reinforced composites, electromagnetic interference shielding applications, actuators and fabrication of sophisticated nanostructures. During the production of CNTs, there are associated impurities such as metal nanoparticle and carbonaceous impurities. There are different types of CNTs such as single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), double-walled nanotubes (DWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs). In this study, XD-grade CNTs (XD) was used. XD is a mixture of SWNTs, DWNTs and MWNTs. The focus of this study was primarily geared toward the purification and application of CNTs. Two generally accepted cycles of purification were followed, purification under oxygen environment and purification under oxygen/argon mixture environment. XD was purified to different extents by oxidation and acid wash. The raw and purified CNTs were compounded into Epikote 862 and Epikure W epoxy resin to prepare composite materials and also in the biosensor studies. The CNTs and composite materials were characterized by means of thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transimssion electron microscopy (TEM). It was discovered that, excessive purification would not lead to further removal of metal residues; instead, it could result in disruption of the structure and property of CNTs. The use of CNTs as fillers was found to hinder the epoxy curing in general, and the removal of metal impurities seemed to worsen the situation. This would imply that the metal residue might catalyze the epoxy curing to a certain degree while the increased viscosity should be the primary reason for the slowed curing. An electrochemical biosensor is an analytical device that can convert a biological reaction into a current or voltage signal. A biosensor consists of a biological element that is immobilized on a film and connected to a transducer. The reaction occurs at the film where the substrate of interest is converted to a product that causes an electrical response. The response is measured by the transducer and then amplified, processed and displayed by a meter and a computer with laboratory data acquisition system. Amperometric biosensors function by monitoring the current when a constant potential is applied on the working electrode. The performances of the biosensor are evaluated by their response time, dynamic ranges and sensitivity. Response should be prompt, accurate, replicable, linear over a broad analytical range, with a reasonable recovery time, and a long working life time. Purification of the CNTs led to the opening and functionalization by oxidation of the nanotube array which may provide increased surface area for the immobilization of the enzyme, glucose oxidase. The platinum substrate provided the direct transduction platform for signal monitoring. GDI-modified (glutarate dialdehyde) chitosan played the role of an immobilization matrix. Hopefully, this research will further lead to the development of third generation biosensor system by using the CNT to directly link the electrode surface and the redox center in the enzyme molecule where superb selectivity and complete oxygen independence can be expected.

  11. 3rd International Conference on Structural Nano Composites (NANOSTRUC2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuguna, J.

    2017-05-01

    The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen hosted The NANOSTRUC 2016 in Aberdeen (Scotland, United Kingdom). The conference focused on ‘Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies - Recent Advances towards Nanoproducts and Applications’. It promoted activities in various areas on materials and structures by providing a forum for exchange of ideas, presentation of technical achievements and discussion of future directions. The conference benefitted from keynote lectures focused on topical issues in nanosciences and nanotechnology. The key sessions were on Application of Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites, Functional Nanocomposites, Graphene and Carbon-based Nanocomposites, Metallic and Metals Oxide Nanocomposites, Sustainability - Nanosafety & Environment, Toughness of Polymer Nanocomposites, Biocomposites and Nanofibres and on Fibre Reinforced Composites. A sample of papers presented at the NANOSTRUC 2016 are briefly summarised in this Issue

  12. NanoComposite Polymers for High Resolution Near Infrared Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop nanocomposite materials with tuned refractive index in the near infra red spectral range as an index-matched immersion lens for high resolution infra-red...

  13. Multiphase Nano-Composite Coatings for Achieving Energy Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nainaparampil, Jose

    2012-03-26

    UES Inc. and ANL teamed in this work to develop novel coating systems for the protection of surfaces from thermal degradation mainly in two applications; Machining and Die casting. These coatings were specifically designed for the purpose by incorporating required material phases and the overall architecture, which led to reduce the energy usage and increase efficiency of the operations. Following the UES/ANL's feasibility work, the coatings were developed utilizing High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPMS) and Large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) techniques. Toughness, hardness and oxidation resistance: contrasting qualities have been mixed in the right proportion to attain the suitable material characteristic for the cause. Hafnium diboride (HfB2) based materials provided such a system and its properties were tamed to attain the right combination of toughness and hardness by working on the microstructure and architecture of coatings. An effective interfacing material (graded concentrations of topcoat) was also achieved in this work to provide the required adhesion between the substrate and the coating. Combination of an appropriate bond coat and a functional top coat provided the present thermal degradation resistant coating for cutting tools and die-casting applications. Laboratory level performance tests and industrial level application tests by partner companies (Beta Site Testing) were used for the development of these coatings.

  14. Reinforcement of polymer nano-composites: theory, experiments and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vilgis, T. A; Heinrich, G; Klüppel, M

    2009-01-01

    ...-performance rubber materials. Reinforcement is explored on all relevant length scales, from molecular to macroscopic, using a variety of methods ranging from statistical physics and computer simulations to experimental techniques. Presenting numerous technological applications of reinforcement in rubber such as tire tread compounds, this ...

  15. Carbon Nano-Composite Ablative Rocket Nozzles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The constantly evolving science of nanotechnology keeps coming around to old ideas re-tooled with new technologies. Though much work has been done examining the...

  16. Moessbauer-spectroscopic study of structure and magnetism of the exchange-coupled layer systems Fe/FeSn{sub 2}, and Fe/FeSi/Si and the ion-implanted diluted magnetic semiconductor SiC(Fe); Moessbauerspektroskopische Untersuchung von Struktur und Magnetismus der austauschgekoppelten Schichtsysteme Fe/FeSn{sub 2} und Fe/FeSi/Si und des ionenimplantierten verduennten magnetischen Halbleiters SiC(Fe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberg, Frank

    2009-07-07

    In line with this work the structural and magnetic properties of the exchange coupled layered systems Fe/FeSn{sub 2} and Fe/FeSi/Si and of the Fe ion implanted diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) SiC(Fe) were investigated. The main measuring method was the isotope selective {sup 57}Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), mostly in connection with the {sup 57}Fe tracer layer technique, in a temperature range from 4.2 K to 340 K. Further measurement techniques were X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron diffraction (LEED, RHEED), SQUID magnetometry and FMR (Ferromagnetic Resonance). In the first part of this work the properties of thin AF FeSn{sub 2}(001) films and of the exchange-bias system Fe/FeSn{sub 2}(001) on InSb(001) were investigated. With the application of {sup 57}Fe-tracer layers and CEMS both the Fe-spin structure and the temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field (B{sub hf}) of FeSn{sub 2} could be examined. The evaporation of Fe films on the FeSn{sub 2} films produced in the latter ones a high perpendicular spin component at the Fe/FeSn{sub 2} interface. In some distance from the interface the Fe spins rotate back into the sample plane. Furthermore {sup 57}Fe-CEMS provided a correlation between the absolute value of the exchange field vertical stroke He vertical stroke and the amount of magnetic defects within the FeSn{sub 2}. Temperature dependent CEMS-measurements yielded informations about the spin dynamics within the AF. The transition temperatures T{sub B}{sup *}, which were interpreted as superparamagnetic blocking temperatures, obtain higher values compared to the temperatures T{sub B} of the exchange-bias effect, obtained with magnetometry measurements. The second part of this work deals with the indirect exchange coupling within Fe/FeSi/Si/FeSi/Fe multilayers and FeSi diffusion barriers. The goal was to achieve Fe free Si interlayers. The CEMS results show that starting from a thickness of t{sub FeSi}=10-12 A of the

  17. Microscopic origins of the ferromagnetic exchange coupling in oxoverdazyl-based Cu(II) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Jean-Baptiste; Calzado, Carmen J; Train, Cyrille; Robert, Vincent

    2010-04-21

    The exchange channels governing the experimentally reported coupling constant (J(expt)=6 cm(-1)) value in the verdazyl-ligand based Cu(II) complex [Cu(hfac)(2)(imvdz)] are inspected using wave function-based difference dedicated configuration interaction calculations. The interaction between the two spin 1/2 holders is summed up in a unique coupling constant J. Nevertheless, by gradually increasing the level of calculation, different mechanisms of interaction are turned on step by step. In the present system, the calculated exchange interaction then appears alternatively ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic. Our analysis demonstrates the tremendously importance of some specific exchange mechanisms. It is actually shown that both parts of the imvdz ligand simultaneously influence the ferromagnetic behavior which ultimately reaches J(calc)=6.3 cm(-1), in very good agreement with the experimental value. In accordance with the alternation of J, it is shown that the nature of the magnetic behavior results from competing channels. First, an antiferromagnetic contribution can be essentially attributed to single excitations involving the pi network localized on the verdazyl part. In contrast, the sigma ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) involving the imidazole moiety affords a ferromagnetic contribution. The distinct nature sigma/pi of the mechanisms is responsible for the net ferromagnetic behavior. The intuitively innocent part of the verdazyl-based ligands is deeply reconsidered and opens new routes into the rational design of magnetic objects.

  18. General strategy for the ab initio calculation of exchange coupling in polynuclear complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handrick, K.; Malrieu, J. P.; Castell, O.

    1994-08-01

    A general strategy for the calculation of energy differences between states of different total spin is proposed. The procedure goes through the definition of a minimal model space and a set of energy-difference contributing determinants is established through the second-order development of the corresponding Hamiltonian in the framework of the quasidegenerate perturbation theory. The forementioned determinants are treated variationally in a so-called differential configuration interaction (CI). Several test calculations for simple model Li clusters have been carried out, and the results of the differential CI compare favorably with those of the exact solution in the full CI procedure.

  19. Noise suppression and long-range exchange coupling for gallium arsenide spin qubits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowski, Filip

    This thesis presents the results of the experimental study performed on spin qubits realized in gate-defined gallium arsenide quantum dots, with the focus on noise suppression and long-distance coupling. First, we show that the susceptibility to charge noise can be reduced by reducing the gradient...... to put the highest, up to date, lower bound on the electron spin coherence time in gallium arsenide: 870 ms. Later, we study the perspectives of exploiting a multielectron quantum dot as a mediator of the exchange interaction. We investigate interaction between a single spin and the multelectron quantum...

  20. Antiphase boundaries induced exchange coupling in epitaxial Fe3O4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, S.K.; Sofin, R.G.S.; Nolan, A.; Shvets, I.V.

    2005-01-01

    We have observed an exchange bias effect on field cooling of epitaxial magnetite, Fe 3 O 4 , films on MgO (1 0 0) substrates. We attribute this effect to the presence of antiphase boundaries (APBs). Magnitude of the exchange bias field (H e ) strongly depends on the thermo-magnetic history of the sample. The strength of the H e was found to increase with an increase in film thickness and is attributed to the strain driven redistribution of atoms in the vicinity of APBs leading to enhanced antiferromagnetic exchange interactions

  1. Investigation of the field dependent spin structure of exchange coupled magnetic heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurieva, Tatiana

    2016-05-01

    This thesis describes the investigation of the field dependent magnetic spin structure of an antiferromagnetically (AF) coupled Fe/Cr heterostructure sandwiched between a hardmagnetic FePt buffer layer and a softmagnetic Fe top layer. The depth-resolved experimental studies of this system were performed via Magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE), Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) and various measuring methods based on nuclear resonant scattering (NRS) technique. Nucleation and evolution of the magnetic spiral structure in the AF coupled Fe/Cr multilayer structure in an azimuthally rotating external magnetic field were observed using NRS. During the experiment a number of time-dependent magnetic side effects (magnetic after-effect, domain-wall creep effect) caused by the non-ideal structure of a real sample were observed and later explained. Creation of the magnetic spiral structure in rotating external magnetic field was simulated using a one-dimensional micromagnetic model.The cross-sectional magnetic X-ray diffraction technique was conceived and is theoretically described in the present work. This method allows to determine the magnetization state of an individual layer in the magnetic heterostructure. It is also applicable in studies of the magnetic structure of tiny samples where conventional x-ray reflectometry fails.

  2. Sign of the electron exchange coupling in random radical encounter pairs in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurnauer, M.C.; Chiu, T.M.; Trifunac, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    An important parameter in the study of reacting radical systems is the electron exchange interaction, J. The properties of interest are the sign and magnitude of J, and its functional dependence on distance between radicals. One source of information about J is from understanding the Chemically Induced Dynamic Electron Polarization (CIDEP) which is observed in the EPR spectra of reactive radical systems. For radicals reacting in solution to form new covalent bonds, it has generally been found that J O. It is suggested that F-pairs react at a separation greater than that at which spin correlated (geminate) pairs of the same radicals are formed, so that the intervening solvent molecules become involved in the exchange interaction giving rise to J>O via some sort of superexchange process. This is an interesting proposition since superexchange via solvent molecules may play a role in rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions and in the electron transfer reactions of photosynthesis. However, the model suggested runs contrary to all F-air radicals are produced. In order to clarify this important point, the authors present here a definitive study in which we examine several systems of radgenerated independently (exclusive F-pairs) by pulsed laser photolysis and pulsed radiolicals generatedysis in aqueous, alcoholic and hydrocarbon solvents

  3. Magnetic properties of exchange-coupled trilayers of amorphous rare-earth-cobalt alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuechner, S.; Toussaint, J.C.; Voiron, J.

    1997-01-01

    From amorphous thin films from alloys of rare earths (Gd, Sm), yttrium or zirconium with cobalt we have prepared trilayers with very clean interfaces appropriate for the study of magnetic coupling. The sandwiches were typically Y-Co/Gd-Co/Y-Co and Sm-Co/X/Sm-Co ' (X=Gd-Co, Co-Zr, Co). The three individual layers are coupled magnetically by exchange interactions between cobalt moments throughout the entire sample. This coupling associated with the specific properties of the given alloy (magnetic moment, anisotropy, coercivity) leads to ferrimagnetic or ferromagnetic structures of the magnetization of adjacent layers and to novel magnetization processes. For systems consisting of magnetically hard external layers with different coercivities and a soft central layer (Sm-Co/X/Sm-Co ' , X=Gd-Co, Co-Zr), the influence of the central layer close-quote s thickness and type of the material on coupling and magnetization processes have been studied quantitatively. Numerical simulations using a one-dimensional model for describing the magnetization processes observed in sandwich systems fit the magnetization curves of these model systems particularly well. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Observation of a Central Mode in an Exchange-Coupled Singlet-Ground State System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Kjems, Jørgen; Buyers, W. J. L.

    1977-01-01

    A central mode in the ferromagnetic phase transition of Pr3Tl is observed by inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering. The integrated intensity has a Lorentzian wavevector dependence with a correlation range that is much larger than in ordinary ferromagnets. The softening of the exciton mode...

  5. The influence of magnetostatic interactions in exchange-coupled composite particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, M.; De Graef, M.; Hou, H.C.; Lai, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2010), s. 275001-275007 ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic recording materials * magnetic multilayers * magnetic thin film * magnetostac interaction * magnetic anisotropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.105, year: 2010 http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/43/27/275001/

  6. Interstitial Mn in (Ga,Mn)As: Hybridization with conduction band and electron mediated exchange coupling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašek, Jan; Kudrnovský, Josef; Máca, František; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 2 (2007), s. 215-219 ISSN 0587-4246 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0456; GA MŠk OC 150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : dilute magnetic semiconductors * impurities * carrier mediated ferromagnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.340, year: 2007

  7. Contribution to the theoretical study of metallic systems containing rare earths: hyperfine interactions and exchange coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troper, A.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical study involving rare earth impurities, which were embedded in transition metals (s-p or noble), from the point of view of the hyperfine interactions is presented. A model was created to describe a d-resonance (Anderson-Moriya) acting on a s-p conduction band which was strongly perturbed by a slater-koster potential, used to describe the rare earths which were diluted in matrices of transition elements. (author)

  8. Magnetic properties of epitaxial CoCr films with depth-dependent exchange-coupling profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallarino, Lorenzo; Kirby, Brian J.; Pancaldi, Matteo; Riego, Patricia; Balk, Andrew L.; Miller, Casey W.; Vavassori, Paolo; Berger, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    We present a study of the compositional and temperature-dependent magnetic properties of epitaxial CoCr thin films whose composition has a bathtublike depth profile Co /C o1 →1 -xcC r0 →xc/C o1 -xcC rxc/Co1 -x c→1C rxc→0/Co with the highest Cr concentration (xc) at the center of the sample. Polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) shows that the effective Curie temperature varies as a function of depth and exhibits a minimum in the center of the structure. Correspondingly, we observe that the effective coupling between the two outer Co layers is strongly dependent on the magnetization of the graded CoCr spacer and can be continuously tuned via xc and temperature T . In particular, for xc=0.28 , magnetometry reveals a transition from one-step to two-step reversal behavior for temperatures T > 260 K, indicating a transition from a fully correlated magnetic film structure to an uncoupled system containing effectively two independent magnetic sublayers. Corroborating evidence of the temperature-dependent coupling of the top and bottom regions for xc=0.28 was revealed by PNR, which demonstrated the field-dependent occurrence of antiparallel magnetization alignment on opposite interfaces at sufficiently high temperatures only.

  9. Bilayer exchange coupling and Neel temperature of YBa2Cu3O6.2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bilayer antiferromagnets; high-Tc superconductors; Neel temperature. PACS Nos 75.30; 74.72 Bk; 75.10 ... (experimentally and theoretically) studied systems both in their superconducting as well as in the normal state. In the normal ..... the recent neutron scattering experiment of Reznik et al [13]. As per their estimation the.

  10. Exchange coupled pairs of dangling bond spins as a new type of paramagnetic defects in nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, V. Yu., E-mail: osipov@mail.ioffe.r [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytechnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Faculty of Electronics, St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University (LETI), 197376 (Russian Federation); Shames, A.I. [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 84105 Be' er-Sheva (Israel); Vul' , A. Ya. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytechnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15

    EPR in detonation nanodiamonds (DND) reveals two different signals associated with intrinsic carbon inherited paramagnetic defects. Main carbon inherited EPR signal is narrow intensive Lorentzian-like singlet with g=2.0028 and spin concentration N{sub s}=(6-7)x10{sup 19} spin/g that yields on average 13-15 spins per each DND particle. Additional chemical treatment of DND powder allows practically complete removal of trace amounts of transition metal impurities that reveals a new doublet EPR signal consisting of two relatively narrow lines within the half-field region (gapprox4) separated by a distance of 10.4 mT. The intensity of the doublet signal is five orders of magnitude lower than that of the main singlet signal. The former signal has been observed in a wide variety of DND samples disregarding of the impurity level reached and thus may be attributed to some intrinsic defects in DND particles. Such half-field EPR signals correspond to 'forbidden' DELTAM{sub s}=2 transitions within thermally populated triplet (S=1) levels observed in polycrystalline samples containing exchange dimers-antiferromagnetically coupled spin pairs. Estimates suggest that the concentration of such defects is about one dimer per hundreds DND particles.

  11. Electrical measurement of antiferromagnetic moments in exchange-coupled IrMn/NiFe stacks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martí, X.; Park, B.G.; Wunderlich, Joerg; Reichlová, Helena; Kurosaki, Y.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Nishide, A.; Hayakawa, J.; Takahashi, H.; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2012), , , "017201-1"-"017201-4" ISSN 0031-9007 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : tunneling magnetoresistance * antiferromagnetic spintronics * exchange bias Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.943, year: 2012

  12. Complex Magnetic Exchange Coupling between Co Nanostructures and Ni(111) across Epitaxial Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barla, Alessandro; Bellini, Valerio; Rusponi, Stefano; Ferriani, Paolo; Pivetta, Marina; Donati, Fabio; Patthey, François; Persichetti, Luca; Mahatha, Sanjoy K; Papagno, Marco; Piamonteze, Cinthia; Fichtner, Simon; Heinze, Stefan; Gambardella, Pietro; Brune, Harald; Carbone, Carlo

    2016-01-26

    We report on the magnetic coupling between isolated Co atoms as well as small Co islands and Ni(111) mediated by an epitaxial graphene layer. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and scanning tunneling microscopy combined with density functional theory calculations reveal that Co atoms occupy two distinct adsorption sites, with different magnetic coupling to the underlying Ni(111) surface. We further report a transition from an antiferromagnetic to a ferromagnetic coupling with increasing Co cluster size. Our results highlight the extreme sensitivity of the exchange interaction mediated by graphene to the adsorption site and to the in-plane coordination of the magnetic atoms.

  13. Tuning the metal-insulator transition in manganite films through surface exchange coupling with magnetic nanodots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, T Z; Gai, Z; Xu, X Y; Guo, H W; Yin, L F; Shen, J

    2011-04-15

    In strongly correlated electronic systems, the global transport behavior depends sensitively on spin ordering. We show that spin ordering in manganites can be controlled by depositing isolated ferromagnetic nanodots at the surface. The exchange field at the interface is tunable with nanodot density and makes it possible to overcome dimensionality and strain effects in frustrated systems to greatly increasing the metal-insulator transition and magnetoresistance. These findings indicate that electronic phase separation can be controlled by the presence of magnetic nanodots.

  14. Deposition of exchange-coupled dinickel complexes on gold substrates utilizing ambidentate mercapto-carboxylato ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Börner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemisorption of magnetically bistable transition metal complexes on planar surfaces has recently attracted increased scientific interest due to its potential application in various fields, including molecular spintronics. In this work, the synthesis of mixed-ligand complexes of the type [NiII2L(L’](ClO4, where L represents a 24-membered macrocyclic hexaazadithiophenolate ligand and L’ is a ω-mercapto-carboxylato ligand (L’ = HS(CH25CO2− (6, HS(CH210CO2− (7, or HS(C6H42CO2− (8, and their ability to adsorb on gold surfaces is reported. Besides elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS, UV–vis spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography (for 6 and 7, the compounds were also studied by temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements (for 7 and 8 and (broken symmetry density functional theory (DFT calculations. An S = 2 ground state is demonstrated by temperature-dependent susceptibility and magnetization measurements, achieved by ferromagnetic coupling between the spins of the Ni(II ions in 7 (J = +22.3 cm−1 and 8 (J = +20.8 cm−1; H = −2JS1S2. The reactivity of complexes 6–8 is reminiscent of that of pure thiolato ligands, which readily chemisorb on Au surfaces as verified by contact angle, atomic force microscopy (AFM and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The large [Ni2L] tail groups, however, prevent the packing and self-assembly of the hydrocarbon chains. The smaller film thickness of 7 is attributed to the specific coordination mode of the coligand. Results of preliminary transport measurements utilizing rolled-up devices are also reported.

  15. Nano-composition of riboflavin–nafion functional film and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu urs

    Thus, this experiment has introduced a new biosensor for the sensitive determination of H2O2 in solution. 4. Conclusions. The results show that nafion was able to immobilize riboflavin onto the surface of a gold electrode with good. Figure 6. (a) Cyclic voltammograms obtained at a nafion–riboflavin– horseradish peroxidase ...

  16. Sumac silver novel biodegradable nano composite for bio-medical application: antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Parisa; Soltani, Mozhgan; Homayouni-Tabrizi, Masoud; Namvar, Farideh; Azizi, Susan; Mohammad, Rosfarizan; Moghaddam, Amin Boroumand

    2015-07-17

    The development of reliable and ecofriendly approaches for the production of nanomaterials is a significant aspect of nanotechnology nowadays. One of the most important methods, which shows enormous potential, is based on the green synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extract. In this paper, we aimed to develop a rapid, environmentally friendly process for the synthesis silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of sumac. The bioactive compounds of sumac extract seem to play a role in the synthesis and capping of silver nanoparticles. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized using FTIR, XRD, FESEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The formation of Ag-NP was immediate within 10 min and confirmed with an absorbance band centered at 438 nm. The mean particle size for the green synthesized silver nanoparticles is 19.81 ± 3.67 nm and is fairly stable with a zeta potential value of -32.9 mV. The bio-formed Ag-NPs were effective against E. coli with a maximum inhibition zone of 14.3 ± 0.32 mm.

  17. MnFe 2 O 4 /bentonite nano composite as a novel magnetic material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    precipitation method. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD results indicated the presence of free quartz in bentonite. The magnetic ferrite MnFe2O4 has spinel structure.

  18. Gold and Hydroxyapatite Nano-Composite Scaffolds for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: In Vitro Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S E; White, R A; Grant, D A; Grant, S A

    2016-01-01

    Current anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft replacement materials often fail due to the lack of biological integration. While many newly developed extracellular matrix based scaffolds show good biocompatibility they often do not entice cellular remodeling and the rebuilding of a functional ligament. We have proposed the conjugation of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAp) to acellular tissue to enhance cell attachment and proliferation while maintaining an improved degradation resistance and open microstructure. We are the first to investigate the double conjugation of AuNP and nano-HAp onto decellularized tissue to improve the tissue remodeling response. Decellularized porcine diaphragm was crosslinked with two types of nano-HAp and amine-functionalized AuNP with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethlaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) crosslinker. Scaffolds were characterized using electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and fibroblast assays. Results demonstrated that scaffolds with nano-HAp have increased thermal stability at low levels of crosslinking. The open microstructure of the scaffold was not compromised allowing for cell migration while still providing increased degradation resistance. The addition of < 200 nm nano-HAp decreased cell viability compared to scaffolds without nanoparticles, but the addition of AuNP to scaffolds showed enhanced cell viability in the presence of < 200 nm nano-HAp. The addition of < 40 nm nano-HAp showed an increase in cell viability compared to scaffolds crosslinked without nanoparticles. It is concluded that attaching AuNP and < 40nm nano-HAp to extracellular matrices may improve overall properties.

  19. Surface Coating of Oxide Powders: A New Synthesis Method to Process Biomedical Grade Nano-Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Palmero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Composite and nanocomposite ceramics have achieved special interest in recent years when used for biomedical applications. They have demonstrated, in some cases, increased performance, reliability, and stability in vivo, with respect to pure monolithic ceramics. Current research aims at developing new compositions and architectures to further increase their properties. However, the ability to tailor the microstructure requires the careful control of all steps of manufacturing, from the synthesis of composite nanopowders, to their processing and sintering. This review aims at deepening understanding of the critical issues associated with the manufacturing of nanocomposite ceramics, focusing on the key role of the synthesis methods to develop homogeneous and tailored microstructures. In this frame, the authors have developed an innovative method, named “surface-coating process”, in which matrix oxide powders are coated with inorganic precursors of the second phase. The method is illustrated into two case studies; the former, on Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA materials for orthopedic applications, and the latter, on Zirconia-based composites for dental implants, discussing the advances and the potential of the method, which can become a valuable alternative to the current synthesis process already used at a clinical and industrial scale.

  20. Understanding and Quantifying the Reactivity of Energetic NanoParticles and NanoComposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    is given in Incropera and DeWitt32 up to 3000 K, and we extrapolate it to 3500 K. For copper, the thermal conductivity can be estimated as a...International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 1999, 43, (1), 127-138. 32. F. P. Incropera ; D. P. DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. 3rd ed

  1. Sensing strain and damage in polyurethane/MWCNT nano-composite foams using electrical measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baltopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the damage identification in polymeric foams through the monitoring of the electrical resistance of the system. To assess this idea electrically conductive rigid Poly-Urethane (PUR foams at various densities were prepared. Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT were dispersed in the host polymer at various concentrations through high shear mixing to provide electrical conductivity to the system. The PUR/MWCNT foams exhibited varying electrical conductivity on a wide range of densities and nano-filler contents. The prepared foams were subject to compression tests. Electrical resistance was recorded online during the tests to monitor the change of the bulk property of the materials. A structural-electrical cross-property relation was exhibited. The distinctive phases of foam compression were successfully identified from the electrical resistance profile recorded during the tests. A characteristic master curve of the change of electrical resistivity with respect to load and damage is proposed and analyzed. It was shown that the found electrical resistance profile is a characteristic of all the MWCNT contents and depends on density and conductivity. MWCNT content contributes mainly to the sensitivity of electrical sensing in the initial stage of compression. Later compression stages are dominated by foam microstructural damage which mask any effect of CNT dispersion. Micro-structural observations were employed to verify the experimental findings and curves.

  2. Investigation the Al–Fe–Cr–Ti nano composites structures with using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It shows that Al–Fe–Cr–Ti composites have very low diffusivity and equilibrium solubility in Al (0.05 at.% Fe, >0.02 at.% Cr, and >0.3 at.% Ti). Al–Ti– Fe–Cr composite powders have also been prepared from sol–gel method starting from elemental powders at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The obtained results ...

  3. Preparation of organo clays thermally stable to be employed as filler in PET nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, I.F.; Soares, A.P.S.; Silva, S.M.L.; Malta, O.M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal stability of organically modified clays is fundamental to melt processing polymer nanocomposites, especially, poly(terephthalate ethylene) (PET). However, the use of organic salts with high thermal stability is factor essential to obtaining of organoclays with great thermal properties. This work has as purpose to evaluate the influence of organic modifier based on alkyl ammonium, alkyl phosphonium and aryl phosphonium, in the clay organic modification visa to improve thermal properties to use as filler in nanocomposites preparation, where temperatures at about 260 deg C will be employed. The most common, and commercially available, surfactants used for cation exchange reactions with montmorillonites, rendering them organophilic, are quaternary ammonium salts, that when present as cations in montmorillonite, typically begin degradation at above 200 deg C. However, organoclays prepared with quaternary alkyl phosphonium salts may be potentially useful for the organoclays preparation stable thermally. In this study bentonite clay from Bentonit Uniao Nordeste/PB was purified and organically modified with the organic salts reported above. Organoclays were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and analysis thermogravimetry. The results shown that the samples modified with the salts based on phosphonium presented higher thermal stability that the alkyl ammonium salt. (author)

  4. Development of Radiation Processed Nano-Composite Blends and Nano-Coatings for Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, K.A.; Kumar, Virendra; Bhardwaj, Yatender; Chaudhari, Chandrasekhar; Sarma, K.S.S.; Khader, Sheikh Abdul; Acharya, Satyanarayan

    2011-01-01

    Radiation processing of nanoparticle-filled polymer blends and coatings is expected to synergize the benefits of radiation processing and the flexibility of achieving various property combinations. High energy radiation can be utilized in a variety of ways to modify these systems. It can be used to crosslink the matrix, to compatibilize the blend components, to synthesize graft copolymer based compatibilizers, to improve interfacial bonding between the nanofiller/polymers or to freeze the morphology. Properties like flame retardency, permeability, abrasion resistance, biocompatibility and antibacterial activity can also be significantly affected by this composite approach. Due to the variety and quality of the product it promises, radiation processing of these mixed systems has been our core interest in the last few years. In the report, some of results on the radiation processing of SBR/EPDM blends and SBR/EPDM/MWNT nanocomposites are presented. (author)

  5. Sumac Silver Novel Biodegradable Nano Composite for Bio-Medical Application: Antibacterial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Parisa Ghorbani; Mozhgan Soltani; Masoud Homayouni-Tabrizi; Farideh Namvar; Susan Azizi; Rosfarizan Mohammad; Amin Boroumand Moghaddam

    2015-01-01

    The development of reliable and ecofriendly approaches for the production of nanomaterials is a significant aspect of nanotechnology nowadays. One of the most important methods, which shows enormous potential, is based on the green synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extract. In this paper, we aimed to develop a rapid, environmentally friendly process for the synthesis silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of sumac. The bioactive compounds of sumac extract seem to play a role in the s...

  6. Lightweight, High Strength Nano-Composite Magnesium for Radiators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I SBIR, Terves will develop processing routes to produce high thermal conductivity magnesium composites for use in heat transfer applications such as...

  7. Magnetically responsive (nano) composites as perspective materials for environmental technology applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    -, č. 0 (2010), s. 85-90 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) 2A-1TP1/094; GA MŠk OC09052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : magnetically responsive materials * ( nano )biocomposites * environmental technology Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  8. Development of polymer nano composite patterns using fused deposition modeling for rapid investment casting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Tiwary; Arunkumar, P.; Deshpande, A. S.; Vinayak, Malik; Kulkarni, R. M.; Asif, Angadi

    2018-04-01

    Conventional investment casting is one of the oldest and most economical manufacturing techniques to produce intricate and complex part geometries. However, investment casting is considered economical only if the volume of production is large. Design iterations and design optimisations in this technique proves to be very costly due to time and tooling cost for making dies for producing wax patterns. However, with the advent of Additive manufacturing technology, plastic patterns promise a very good potential to replace the wax patterns. This approach can be very useful for low volume production & lab requirements, since the cost and time required to incorporate the changes in the design is very low. This research paper discusses the steps involved for developing polymer nanocomposite filaments and checking its suitability for investment castings. The process parameters of the 3D printer machine are also optimized using the DOE technique to obtain mechanically stronger plastic patterns. The study is done to develop a framework for rapid investment casting for lab as well as industrial requirements.

  9. Development of nano-composite membranes to improve alkaline fuel cell performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonjola, P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ] A.S. Aricoa, S. Srinivasan, V. Antonuccia, Fuel Cells 1 (2001) p133 [4] X. Ren, P. Zelenay, S. Thomas, J. Davey, S. Gottesfeld, J. Power Sources 86 (2000) p111 [5] Y. Shao, G. Yin, Z. Wang, Y. Gao, J. Power Sources 167 (2007) p235 [6] J. Fang, P...

  10. Investigation the Al–Fe–Cr–Ti nano composites structures with using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    strain diagrams. It shows that Al–Fe–Cr–Ti composites have very low diffusivity and ... Al–Ti–. Fe–Cr composite powders have also been prepared from sol–gel method starting from elemental powders at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The obtained ... C to remove water and acetic acid and leave a white to light.

  11. Studying The Rheological Properties of Xanthan Cellulose Gum-Dioxide Titanium Nano-Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulazeez O. Mousa Al-Ogaili

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the rheological properties of xanthan cellulose gum(Xn dissolves in distilled water for different concentrations (0.1 , 0.2, …, 0.8% g/mL before and after adding (0.25 g of (TiO2 for each concentration. The rheological properties such as shear viscosity have been practically measured, but relative viscosity, specific viscosity, reduced viscosity and viscosity average molecular weight have been calculated, all the viscosities depend on density and concentration. The results show that adding (TiO2 led to increase the values of all types of viscosities before and after adding(TiO2.

  12. IMPROVING AIRCRAFT PARTS DUE TO USING NANO-COMPOSITE AND MICRO-COMPOSITE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassany Merhdad Boer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is investigated how to make composite carbon nanofiber/ epoxy resin and carbon micro-fiber / epoxy resin. Also, these materials' features are compared and it is shown how effective and benefitial are the received products containing carbon nano- and micro-fibers.In this study, epoxy composites were prepared in order to improve their mechanical and electrical properties. Ergo, carbon nanofibers and carbon microfibers were used as fillers. On the one hand, purchased microfibers were incorporatedinto the epoxy resin to produce epoxy/carbon microfiber composites via mechanical mixing at 1800 rpm in different concentrations (0.0125, 0.0225, 0.05, and 0.1.On the other hand, carbon nanofibers were prepared via electrospining method at room temperature, then epoxy/carbon nanofiber nanocomposites were prepared at mixing temperature of 60 °C at 1200 rpm at different concentrations (0.0125, 0.05, and 0.1.Morphology of samples was investigated via Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM. Mechanical properties of samples were investigated via tensile and bending tests. Tensile test results revealed that incorporation of 0.0125 wt% carbon naofibers increased the epoxy resins modulus about 200%. Bending strength of sample containing 0.1wt% carbon microfibers had the most increment (from 20 to 100 MPa.

  13. The Development of Nano-Composite Electrodes for Solid Oxide Electrolyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorte, Raymond J.; Vohs, John M.

    2014-03-26

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and electrolyzers (SOE) offer an attractive means for converting between electrical and chemical energy. Because they operate at high temperatures and are usually based on electrolytes that are oxygen-ion conducting ceramics, such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), they are equally capable of converting between CO and CO2 as between H2 and H2O. When operated in the SOFC mode, they are able to operate on hydrocarbon fuels so long as there are no materials within the anode that can catalyze carbon formation. Compared to other types of electrolyzers, SOE can exhibit the highest efficiencies because the theoretical Nernst potential is lower at high temperatures and because the electrode overpotentials in SOE tend to be much lower. Finally, pure H2 can be produced without an external electrical source by electrolysis of steam at one electrode and oxidation of any fuel at the other electrode through a process known as Natural-Gas Assisted Steam Electrolysis. This final report describes results from studies of novel electrodes for SOE and SOFC prepared by infiltration methods.

  14. Enhancement of microbial fuel cell performance by introducing a nano-composite cathode catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Mounika; Herrera, Sergio; Kabir, Sadia; Serov, Alexey; Santoro, Carlo; Ieropoulos, Ioannis; Atanassov, Plamen

    2018-03-01

    Iron aminoantipyrine (Fe-AAPyr), graphene nanosheets (GNSs) derived catalysts and their physical mixture Fe-AAPyr-GNS were synthesized and investigated as cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with the activated carbon (AC) as a baseline. Fe-AAPyr catalyst was prepared by Sacrificial Support Method (SSM) with silica as a template and aminoantipyrine (AAPyr) as the organic precursor. 3D-GNS was prepared using modified Hummers method technique. The Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) activity of these catalysts at different loadings was investigated by using rotating ring disk (RRDE) electrode setup in the neutral electrolyte. The performance of the catalysts integrated into air-breathing cathode was also investigated. The co-presence of GNS (2 mg cm -2 ) and Fe-AAPyr (2 mg cm -2 ) catalyst within the air-breathing cathode resulted in the higher power generation recorded in MFC of 235 ± 1 μW cm -2 . Fe-AAPyr catalyst itself showed high performance (217 ± 1 μW cm -2 ), higher compared to GNS (150 ± 5 μW cm -2 ) while AC generated power of roughly 104 μW cm -2 .

  15. Understanding and Quantifying the Reactivity of Energetic NanoParticles and NanoComposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    The Effects of Aluminum Hydride as a Fuel Supplement on the Performance of Traditional NanoThermites, Journal of Propulsion and Power (06 2013...Sullivan, , K-S. Lee,, Y. H. Kim, , R. Zahaf, , M. R. Zachariah, D. Lee . Microstructural Behavior of the Alumina Shell and Aluminum CoreBefore and...After Melting of Aluminum Nanoparticles, J Phys Chem , (01 2012): 404. doi: N. Piekiel, M.R. Zachariah. N.W. Piekiel and M.R. ZachariahDecomposition

  16. Modeling Networks and Dynamics in Complex Systems: from Nano-Composites to Opinion Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng

    Complex networks are ubiquitous in systems of physical, biological, social or technological origin. Components in those systems range from as large as cities in power grids, to as small as molecules in metabolic networks. Since the dawn of network science, significant attention has focused on the implications of dynamics in establishing network structure and the impact of structural properties on dynamics on those networks. The first part of the thesis follows this direction, studying the network formed by conductive nanorods in nano-materials, and focuses on the electrical response of the composite to the structure change of the network. New scaling laws for the shear-induced anisotropic percolation are introduced and a robust exponential tail of the current distribution across the network is identified. These results are relevant especially to "active" composite materials where materials are exposed to mechanical loading and strain deformations. However, in many real-world networks the evolution of the network topology is tied to the states of the vertices and vice versa. Networks that exhibit such a feedback are called adaptive or coevolutionary networks. The second part of the thesis examines two closely related variants of a simple, abstract model for coevolution of a network and the opinions of its members. As a representative model for adaptive networks, it displays the feature of self-organization of the system into a stable configuration due to the interplay between the network topology and the dynamics on the network. This simple model yields interesting dynamics and the slight change in the rewiring strategy results in qualitatively different behaviors of the system. In conclusion, the dissertation aims to develop new network models and tools which enable insights into the structure and dynamics of various systems, and seeks to advance network algorithms which provide approaches to coherently articulated questions in real-world complex systems such as social networks and composite materials.

  17. Nano-Composite Cathodes for High Performance Lithium Ion Microbatteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TPL Inc. proposes to develop a novel, high performance, nanostructured cathode material for lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. The proposed approach will modify lithium...

  18. Nano-composition of riboflavin–nafion functional film and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Biosensor; functional membrane; horseradish peroxidase; nanoparticles. Abstract. A novel nafion–riboflavin membrane was constructed and characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric techniques.

  19. Lysozyme-Mediated Formation of Protein-Silica Nano-Composites for Biosensing Applications (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-05

    reagents Lysozyme (from hen egg white), tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (St. Louis...Hydrochloric acid, acetone, bovine serum albumin (BSA, fract V, cold alcohol precipitated) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were all purchased from

  20. Preface: 2nd International Conference on Structural Nano Composites (NANOSTRUC2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njuguna, J; Verdejo, R

    2014-01-01

    The NANOSTRUC 2014 took place at CSIC, Madrid, Spain. The conference theme on 'Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies – Recent Advances towards Nanoproducts and Applications'. The conference aimed to promote activities in various areas of materials and structures by providing a forum for exchange of ideas, presentation of technical achievements and discussion of future directions. NANOSTRUC conferences brings together an international community of experts to discuss the state-of-the-art, new research results, perspectives of future developments, and innovative applications relevant to structural materials, engineering structures, nanocomposites, modelling and simulations, and their related application areas

  1. Morphing nacelle inlet lip with pneumatic actuators and a flexible nano composite sandwich panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Nazli Gulsine; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Remillat, Chrystel; Jagessur, Yogesh; Craciun, Monica; Lira, Cristian; Da Rocha-Schmidt, Luiz

    2015-01-01

    We present a hybrid pneumatic/flexible sandwich structure with thermoplastic (TP) nanocomposite skins to enable the morphing of a nacelle inlet lip. The design consists of pneumatic inflatables as actuators and a flexible sandwich panel that morphs under variable pressure combinations to adapt different flight conditions and save fuel. The sandwich panel forms the outer layer of the nacelle inlet lip. It is lightweight, compliant and impact resistant with no discontinuities, and consists of graphene-doped thermoplastic polyurethane (G/TPU) skins that are supported by an aluminium Flex-core honeycomb in the middle, with near zero in-plane Poisson’s ratio behaviour. A test rig for a reduced-scale demonstrator was designed and built to test the prototype of morphing nacelle with custom-made pneumatic actuators. The output force and the deflections of the experimental demonstrator are verified with the internal pressures of the actuators varying from 0 to 0.41 MPa. The results show the feasibility and promise of the hybrid inflatable/nanocomposite sandwich panel for morphing nacelle airframes. (paper)

  2. Nano-composites chitosan-curcumin synergistically inhibits the oxidative stress induced by toxic metal cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Taweel, Gasem M Abu; Hidayathulla, Syed

    2018-03-01

    The present study intends to compare the influence of pre-treatment with nanoparticles of curcumin (Cr-NPS), chitosan (Ch-NPS) and nanocomposites chitosan-curcumin (CC-NPS) on cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative damage in the liver, kidneys, and blood indices in Swiss strain adult male mice. The pretreated mice with Cr-NPS, Ch-NPS, and CC-NPS were exposed to Cd (10mg/kg) for three weeks. The non-enzymatic Oxidative Stress (OS) indices like lipid peroxides (TBARS), reduced total glutathione (GSH), enzymatic OS indices like catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated together with some blood indices. Cadmium was able to induce a significant increase in TBARS and a significant decrease in GSH, GST, CAT and SOD levels in all the tissues, which were pretreated with nanocomposite. Furthermore, the blood indices like counts of red and white blood cells, platelets, hemoglobin and packed cell volume were also depleted due to Cd exposure but remained unaffected and kept under normal levels in pretreated mice group. The results indicate that Cr-NPS, Ch-NPS, and CC-NPS may act as natural antioxidants and when compared among the three, CC-NPS appears to be the best antioxidant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fabrication and Dielectric Properties of AlN Filled Epoxy Nano-composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Naiui; Yu Xin; Jin Haiyun; He Bo; Dong Pu [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710049 (China); Gao Chao, E-mail: hyjin@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2011-10-29

    Epoxy resins were materials with excellent mechanical, electrical properties and good chemical stability. Thus, they had been used in various fields, especially in electrical and electronic application. However, because they were brittle material, the fields of application were limited. Adding nano-Aluminum Nitride (AlN) into Epoxy resins could improve the toughness of the composites, the thermal behaviors of composites could also be improved, but the influence on dielectric properties was not very clear. In this research, epoxy resin based composites were fabricated. The relationships between the dielectric properties and the nano-AlN particle content were investigated. The results showed that, both relative permittivity ({epsilon}{sub r}) and dielectric loss tangent (tan{delta}) decreased to be less than that of monolithic epoxy when nano-AlN particle content was no more than certain amount, the DC volume resistivity ({rho}{sub v}) and low frequency resistivity decreased with increasing nano-AlN content (in certain range of content). AC breakdown strength (E{sub B}) did not have an obvious tendency with nano-AlN content.

  4. Anti-flammable vinyl ester resin nano-composite with nano-titania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rajib

    Anti-flammable material is a common expectation for any industry and household applications to protect the material from fire accident. Polymer composites also play a significant role in preparing anti flammable materials. Vinyl ester resins (VERs) are thermosetting resins that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resins and Nanotitania is an inexpensive, nontoxic and biocompatible inorganic material. In this paper to investigate the flame retardency of polymer nanocomposites VER is used as polymer matrix and TiO2 is used as inorganic nanofiller.3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino) ethylamino]propyl-trimethoxysilane (TATMS), a kind of silane is used as a coupling agent to functionalize the surface of nanoTiO2 to improve its flame retardency by adding Si and N2 group. TGA test and FTIR test have been performed and different peaks for Si and N2 in the modified nanofiller and weight loss of fabricated nanofiller confirmed that fabrication method was successful. After that, nanocomposite sample of VERs reinforced with nano TiO2 prepared and the effects of different loadings on mechanical and flame retardant properties are investigated after and before the modification of nanofillers. From tensile test result it is found that up to 5% loading of modified nanofiller the tensile strength is 62 MPa that is almost as same as pure VER and the tensile strength of unmodified nanofiller based PNC is 68 MPa which is not significant improvement in its mechanical property. From MCC test of flame retardancy it is found that the normalized heat release capacity of modified nanofiller based nanocomposite is decreased by 27.7% than unmodified nanofiller based PNC that is 9.8%. Also the normalized total heat release of modified nanofiller based PNC is 21.4% than unmodified PNC that is 12.4%.

  5. Sumac Silver Novel Biodegradable Nano Composite for Bio-Medical Application: Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Ghorbani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of reliable and ecofriendly approaches for the production of nanomaterials is a significant aspect of nanotechnology nowadays. One of the most important methods, which shows enormous potential, is based on the green synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extract. In this paper, we aimed to develop a rapid, environmentally friendly process for the synthesis silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of sumac. The bioactive compounds of sumac extract seem to play a role in the synthesis and capping of silver nanoparticles. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the nanoparticles were characterized using FTIR, XRD, FESEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The formation of Ag-NP was immediate within 10 min and confirmed with an absorbance band centered at 438 nm. The mean particle size for the green synthesized silver nanoparticles is 19.81 ± 3.67 nm and is fairly stable with a zeta potential value of −32.9 mV. The bio-formed Ag-NPs were effective against E. coli with a maximum inhibition zone of 14.3 ± 0.32 mm.

  6. Fabrication and performances of AI/CuO nano composite films for ignition application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Gao, Yun; Jia, Xin; Zhou, Bin; Shen, Rui-Qi

    2015-07-01

    In an effort to explore the application possibility of composite films in ignition field, Al/CuO was fabricated on semiconductor bridge (SCB) chip by ion beam sputtering technique. Surface morphology and elemental composition of the composite films were analysed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Spatial size and duration of the products was detected with the open-air combustion experiment. The results showed that the prepared composite films surface is smooth, flat, and uniform. Element weight ratio meets the design requirements. And the chemical reaction of the Al/CuO nCFs improves output performances of ignition chip.

  7. Microstructure-Based Computational Modeling of Mechanical Behavior of Polymer Micro/Nano Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Leading to the evidences that facilitate the processes of fabrication.  Minimizing the manufacture risks (cost, schedule, and technical). 1.3 Research...automotive, defense, sport, civil, aerospace, health , etc.). Here, a combination of non-linear thermo-viscoelastic (Schapery’s non-linear...Journal of Boundary Elements 1, 316- 335. 391 Lloyd, D.J., 1994. Particle reinforced aluminium and magnesium matrix composites. International

  8. Adsorption of Ni2+ from aqueous solution by magnetic Fe@graphite nano-composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konicki Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The removal of Ni2+ from aqueous solution by iron nanoparticles encapsulated by graphitic layers (Fe@G was investigated. Nanoparticles Fe@G were prepared by chemical vapor deposition CVD process using methane as a carbon source and nanocrystalline iron. The properties of Fe@G were characterized by X-ray Diffraction method (XRD, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM, Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, BET surface area and zeta potential measurements. The effects of initial Ni2+ concentration (1–20 mg L−1, pH (4–11 and temperature (20–60°C on adsorption capacity were studied. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium increased from 2.96 to 8.78 mg g−1, with the increase in the initial concentration of Ni2+ from 1 to 20 mg L−1 at pH 7.0 and 20oC. The experimental results indicated that the maximum Ni2+ removal could be attained at a solution pH of 8.2 and the adsorption capacity obtained was 9.33 mg g−1. The experimental data fitted well with the Langmuir model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 9.20 mg g−1. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamics parameters, ΔHO, ΔGO and ΔSO, were calculated, indicating that the adsorption of Ni2+ onto Fe@G was spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  9. Nonequilibrium self-organization in alloys under irradiation leading to the formation of nano composites

    CERN Document Server

    Enrique, R A; Averback, R S; Bellon, P

    2003-01-01

    Alloys under irradiation are continuously driven away from equilibrium: Every time an external particle interacts with the atoms in the solid, a perturbation very localized in space and time is produced. Under this external forcing, phase and microstructural evolution depends ultimately on the dynamical interaction between the external perturbation and the internal recovery kinetics of the alloy. We consider the nonequilibrium steady state of an immiscible binary alloy subject to mixing by heavy-ion irradiation. It has been found that the range of the forced atomic relocations taking place during collision cascades plays an important role on the final microstructure: when this range is large enough, it can lead to the spontaneous formation of compositional patterns at the nanometer scale. These results were rationalized in the framework of a continuum model solved by deriving a nonequilibrium thermodynamic potential. Here we derive the nonequilibrium structure factor by including the role of fluctuations. In ...

  10. Enhancement of flame retardancy and water repellency properties of cotton fabrics using silanol based nano composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amina L; El-Sheikh, Manal A; Waly, Ahmed I

    2014-02-15

    Environmental concerns related to fluorinated and organophosphorus compounds led to a consideration of the methods for imparting flame retardancy and water/oil repellency to textiles. A simple and facile method for fabricating the cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy is described in the present work. Complex coating with amino-functionalized silica nano-particles on epoxy-functionalized cotton accompanied with ZnO nano-particles coating are carried out. In This context, new preparation techniques were used to prepare both aminated silica and ZnO nano-particles. The particle size was investigated using Transition Electron Microscope (TEM) and the chemical structure was investigated using FT-IR analysis and other analytical techniques. Cotton was functionalized with epoxy and carboxyl via grafting cotton with nano-emulsion consisted of mixture of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and acrylic acid (AA), and then treated for functional finishing through conventional pad-dry-cure method. The treated fabrics showed good water repellency and excellent flame retardant properties as determined by the standard test methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of polypropylene/graphite nano composite preparation for in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagna, L.S.; Fim, F. de C.; Galland, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of polypropylene/graphite nanocomposites through in situ polymerization, using the metallocene catalyst C 20 H 16 Cl 2 Zr (dichloro(rac-ethylenebis(indenyl))zircon(IV)). The graphite nanosheets in nano dimensions were added to the polymer matrix in percentages of 0.6;1.0;4.2;4.8 and 6.0% (w/w). The TEM images indicated that the thickness of graphite nanosheets ranged from 4 to 60 nm and by means of XRD analysis it was observed that the physical and chemical treatment did not destroyed the graphite layers. The presence of nanosheets did not decrease the catalytic activity of the nanocomposites. TEM images and XRD analysis of nanocomposites showed a good dispersion of the graphite nanosheets in the polypropylene matrix. (author)

  12. New approach to obtain elastomeric nano composites with clay from lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeredo, Luciane K. de; Jacobi, Marly M.

    2009-01-01

    Rubber-Montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by Continuous Dynamic Latex Compounding (CDLC). This technique, recently developed in our laboratory, permits an intensive intercalation of the polymer at very small residence times in an elongational flow reactor. The processing conditions strongly affect the morphology of nanocomposites characterized by TEM and XRD. Clay-rubber nanocomposites were prepared from the mixture of NBR-, XNBR- and SBR-latex and aqueous suspensions of Na-montmorillonite. The polarity of rubbers influences the final properties of nanocomposites. The nanocomposites obtained by CDLC showed better reinforcement and permeation resistance at far less volume fractions than the obtained with carbon black or silica by conventional methods. (author)

  13. Effect of Material Parameters on Mechanical Properties of Biodegradable Polymers/Nanofibrillated Cellulose (NFC) Nano Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yottha Srithep; Ronald Sabo; Craig Clemons; Lih-Sheng Turng; Srikanth Pilla; Jun Peng

    2012-01-01

    Using natural cellulosic fibers as fillers for biodegradable polymers can result in fully biodegradable composites. Biodegradable composites were prepared using nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) as the reinforcement and poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate, PHBV) as the polymer matrix. The objective of this study was to determine how various additives (i.e.,...

  14. Enhanced microwave absorption in ZnO/carbonyl iron nano-composites by coating dielectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chang; Fang Qingqing; Yan Fangliang; Wang Weina; Wu Keyue; Liu Yanmei; Lv Qingrong; Zhang Hanming; Zhang Qiping; Li Jinguang; Ding Qiongqiong

    2012-01-01

    The microwave absorption properties of zinc oxide/carbonyl iron composite nanoparticles fabricated by high energy ball milling were studied at 0–20 GHz. Experiments showed that ZnO as a kind of dielectric material coating carbonyl iron particles made the bandwidth of reflection loss (RL)<−5 dB expanding to the low frequency, and enhanced absorption effect obviously. For a 3 mm thickness absorber of ZnO/carbonyl iron after 30 h milling, the values of RL<−5 dB and RL<−8 dB were obtained in the frequency range from 7.0 GHz to 17.8 GHz and from 9.8 dB to 14.9 dB, respectively, and its strongest RL peak was −29.34 dB at 13.59 GHz. The magnetic loss of carbonyl iron particles and the dielectric loss of ZnO particles were the main mechanisms of microwave absorption for the composites. - Highlights: ► We fabricated zinc oxide/carbonyl iron composites by high energy ball milling. ► ZnO dielectric property increased absorption effect and absorption bandwidth. ► Absorbing frequence of composites is expanding to low frequency direction. ► The craft of high energy ball milling is easy to realize commerce production.

  15. Graphene reinforced biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate nano-composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sridhar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate [PHBV]/graphene nanocomposites were prepared by solution casting. The thermal properties, crystallization behavior, microstructure, and fracture morphology of the composites were investigated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM results show that graphene layers are homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD and dynamic scanning calorimetry (DSC studies show that the well dispersed graphene sheets act as nucleating agent for crystallization. Consequently, the mechanical properties of the composites have been substantially improved as evident from dynamic mechanical and static tensile tests. Differential thermal analysis (DTA showed an increase in temperature of maximum degradation. Soil degradation tests of PHBV/graphene nanocomposites showed that presence of graphene doesn’t interfere in its biodegradability.

  16. High Capacity Nano-Composite Cathodes for Human-Rated Lithium-Ion Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-incremental improvements are necessary in lithium-ion batteries order to meet future space applications demands such as NASA's call for lithium-ion battery...

  17. Developing light nano-composites with improved mechanical properties for neutron shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, F. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Medicine; Mortazavi, S.M.J. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Medical Physics and Medical Engineering; Shiraz Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). The Center for Radiological Research; Kardan, M. [Nuclear Science and Technology Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiation Application School; Mosleh-Shirazi, M.A. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiotherapy Dept.; Sina, S. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Radiation Research Center; Rahpeyma, J.

    2017-12-15

    Although radiation exposures in manned space missions are normally below the limits recommended to NASA by NCRP, in long-duration deep space exploratory missions astronauts may receive relatively high doses of ionizing radiation. Novel light polyethylene-based composites can be considered as effective radiation shields in space explorations. However, normally these composites cannot provide desired mechanical properties. Over the past several years our laboratories have focused on developing efficient methods for both physical and biological protection of the crew in long term space missions. In this study carbon nanotubes and either nano-sized or micro-sized boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) fillers were incorporated into the continuous phase of low density polyethylene (LDPE). In the next phase, the mechanical characteristics of the composites as well as their neutron attenuation properties were studied. Findings of this study indicated enhanced mechanical properties accompanied by an enhanced shielding efficiency for neutrons at some specific weight fraction of the fillers.

  18. Flexible nano-GFO/PVDF piezoelectric-polymer nano-composite films for mechanical energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Monali; Roy, Amritendu; Dash, Sukalyan; Mukherjee, Somdutta

    2018-03-01

    Owing to the persistent quest of renewable energy technology, piezoelectric energy harvesters are gathering considerable research interest due to their potential in driving microelectronic devices with small power requirement. Electrical energy (milli to microwatt range) is generated from mechanical counterparts such as vibrations of machines, human motion, flowing water etc. based on the principles of piezoelectricity. Flexible high piezoelectric constant (d33) ceramic/polymer composites are crucial components for fabricating these energy harvesters. The polymer composites composed of gallium ferrite nanoparticles and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as the matrix have been synthesized by solvent casting method. First, 8 wt. % PVDF was dissolved in DMF and then different compositions of GaFeO3 or GFO (10, 20, 30 wt. %) (with respect to PVDF only) nanocomposites were synthesized. The phase of the synthesized nanocomposites were studied by X- Ray diffraction which shows that with the increase in the GFO concentration, the intensity of diffraction peaks of PVDF steadily decreased and GFO peaks became increasingly sharp. As the concentration of GFO increases in the PVDF polymer matrix, band gap is also increased albeit to a small extent. The maximum measured output voltage and current during mechanical pressing and releasing conditions were found to be ~ 3.5 volt and 4 nA, respectively in 30 wt % GFO-PVDF composite, comparable to the available literature.

  19. Fabrication and Dielectric Properties of AlN Filled Epoxy Nano-composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Naiui; Yu Xin; Jin Haiyun; He Bo; Dong Pu; Gao Chao

    2011-01-01

    Epoxy resins were materials with excellent mechanical, electrical properties and good chemical stability. Thus, they had been used in various fields, especially in electrical and electronic application. However, because they were brittle material, the fields of application were limited. Adding nano-Aluminum Nitride (AlN) into Epoxy resins could improve the toughness of the composites, the thermal behaviors of composites could also be improved, but the influence on dielectric properties was not very clear. In this research, epoxy resin based composites were fabricated. The relationships between the dielectric properties and the nano-AlN particle content were investigated. The results showed that, both relative permittivity (ε r ) and dielectric loss tangent (tanδ) decreased to be less than that of monolithic epoxy when nano-AlN particle content was no more than certain amount, the DC volume resistivity (ρ v ) and low frequency resistivity decreased with increasing nano-AlN content (in certain range of content). AC breakdown strength (E B ) did not have an obvious tendency with nano-AlN content.

  20. Preparation and dielectric property of Ag-PVA nano-composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qunqiang; Dang Zhimin; Li Na; Cao Xiaolong

    2003-01-01

    The property of nano-powder was reviewed with emphasis on its Coulomb blockade effects. Ag-colloid of different concentration with different particle size was prepared. Ag-PVA composite colloid was obtained by mixing Ag-colloid with PVA solution. TEM showed that Ag particles (<100 nm) were uniformly dispersed in PVA. The resistivity at room and low temperatures and breakdown field strength of samples were investigated. The results show that dielectric properties of composite change while Ag content or distributing state changes. The composite with 20-30 nm Ag particles has a higher resistivity and breakdown field than its matrix. In a word, Coulomb blockade effects of metal powders could improve resistivity and breakdown field of its matrix

  1. Exchange coupled manganese complexes:Model systems for the active centres of redoxproteins investigated with EPR techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Kai-Oliver

    2003-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurden austauschgekoppelte, gemischtvalente Mangankomplexe in den Oxidationsstufen Mn(III)Mn(IV) und Mn(II)Mn(III), sowie die Mangankatalase aus Thermus thermophilus und das Protein B des schwefel-oxidierenden Enzymkomplexes (SoxB) aus Paracoccus panatrophus mit Methoden der Elektronenspin-Resonanz spektroskopisch charakterisiert. Zur Simulation der EPR und ENDOR Spektren, die die Grundlage der Auswertung bildet, wurden zwei Computerprogramme geschrieben, mit denen Spektren e...

  2. Pinpointing changes in higher-order protein structure by hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2013-01-01

    This Feature describes the use of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) to analyze the hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) of proteins at increased spatial resolution down to the level of individual residues. A practical overview of how to couple ETD to the classical bottom-up HDX-MS workflow is given...

  3. Material Studies Related to the Use of NaK Heat Exchangers Coupled to Stirling Heater Heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locci, Ivan E.; Bowman, Cheryl L.; Geng, Steven M.; Robbie, Malcolm G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been supporting design studies and technology development that could provide power to an outpost on the Moon, Mars, or an asteroid. Technology development efforts have included fabrication and evaluation of components used in a Stirling engine power conversion system. Destructive material evaluation was performed on a NaK shell heat exchanger that was developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and integrated with a commercial 1 kWe Stirling convertor from Sunpower Incorporated. The NaK Stirling test demonstrated Stirling convertor electrical power generation using a pumped liquid metal heat source under thermal conditions that represent the heat exchanger liquid metal loop in a Fission Power Systems (FPS) reactor. The convertors were operated for a total test time of 66 hr at a maximum temperature of 823 K. After the test was completed and NaK removed, the heat exchanger assembly was sectioned to evaluate any material interactions with the flowing liquid metal. Several dissimilar-metal braze joint options, crucial for the heat exchanger transfer path, were also investigated. A comprehensive investigation was completed and lessons learned for future heat exchanger development efforts are discussed.

  4. Perpendicular exchange coupling effects in ferrimagnetic TbFeCo/GdFeCo hard/soft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Yahong; Ling, Fujin; Xu, Zhan

    2018-04-01

    Bilayers consisting of magnetically hard TbFeCo and soft GdFeCo alloy were fabricated. Exchange-spring and sharp switching in a step-by-step fashion were observed in the TbFeCo/GdFeCo hard/soft bilayers with increasing GdFeCo thickness. A perpendicular exchange bias field of several hundred Oersteds is observed from the shift of minor loops pinned by TbFeCo layer. The perpendicular exchange energy is derived to be in the range of 0.18-0.30 erg/cm2. The exchange energy is shown to increase with the thickness of GdFeCo layer in the bilayers, which can be attributed to the enhanced perpendicular anisotropy of GdFeCo layer in our experimental range.

  5. Oriented attachment and exchange coupling of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Cathrine; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Lebech, Bente

    2005-01-01

    We show that antiferromagnetic nanoparticles of alpha-Fe2O3 (hematite) under wet conditions can attach into chains along a common [001] axis. Electron microscopy shows that such chains typically consist of two to five particles. X-ray and neutron diffraction studies show that both structural...

  6. Modulations of exchange coupling in oxoferrylporphyrin cation radical complexes detected by Mössbauer and EPR measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, E.; Ding, X.-Q.; Bominaar, E. L.; Butzlaff, Ch.; Trautwein, A. X.; Mandon, D.; Weiss, R.; Gold, A.

    1992-04-01

    Oxoferrylporphyrin cation radical complexes were generated using the prophyrin dianions: tetrakis 2,6-dichlorophenyl (TDCPP) and tetrakis 2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl (TTMPP). Spin coupling between ferryl iron (S=1) and porphyrin radical S'=1/2), ligand field interaction and hyperfine parameters of iron were studied by Mössbauer and EPR measurements and corresponding spin Hamiltonian analyses. Samples of [FeIV=0 TDCPP], which had to be prepared in CH2Cl2, were “vacuum dried” in order to obtain Mössbauer spectra.

  7. Strain sensor using stress-magnetoresistance effect of Ni-Fe/Mn-Ir exchange-coupled magnetic film

    OpenAIRE

    Sonehara, M; Shinohara, T; Sato, T; Yamasawa, K; Miura, Y

    2010-01-01

    This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS. 107(9):09E718 (2010) and may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3362902 .

  8. Strong sp-d exchange coupling in ZnMnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojnar, Piotr; Janik, Elzbieta; Szymura, Malgorzata; Zaleszczyk, Wojciech; Kret, Slawomir; Klopotowski, Lukasz; Wojciechowski, Tomasz; Baczewski, Lech T.; Wiater, Maciej; Karczewski, Grzegorz; Wojtowicz, Tomasz; Kossut, Jacek [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Suffczynski, Jan; Papierska, Joanna [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-07-15

    In this work, our recent progress in the growth and optical studies of telluride nanowire heterostructures containing a small molar fraction of magnetic Mn-ions of only a few percent is overviewed. ZnMnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires (NWs) are grown by molecular beam epitaxy by employing the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism assisted with gold catalyst. The structures are studied by means of photoluminescence and microphotoluminescence in an external magnetic field. In the first step, however, an activation of the near band edge emission from ZnTe and ZnMnTe nanowires is described, which is achieved by coating the nanowires with shells made of ZnMgTe. The role of these shells is to passivate Zn(Mn)Te surface states. The incorporation of Mn ions into the crystalline lattice of ZnMnTe nanowires is manifested as a considerable blue shift of near band edge emission with increasing Mn concentration inside the nanowire cores, which reflects directly the increase of their energy gap. In an external magnetic field the near band edge emission exhibits a giant spectral redshift accompanied by an increase of the circular polarization of the emitted light. Both effect are fingerprints of giant Zeeman splitting of the band edges due to sp-d exchange interaction between the band carriers and magnetic Mn-ions. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Graphene mediated domain formation in exchange coupled graphene/Co3O4(111)/Co(0001) trilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Kong, Lingmei; Pasquale, Frank L; Cao, Yuan; Dong, Bin; Tanabe, Iori; Binek, Christian; Dowben, Peter A; Kelber, Jeffry A

    2013-11-27

    Graphene grown directly on Co3O4(111)/Co(0001) by molecular beam epitaxy exhibits extrinsic p-type doping, as demonstrated by photoemission and conductivity measurements. Trilayer heterostructures of graphene/Co3O4(111)/Co(0001) reveal an unconventional magneto-optical Kerr hysteresis with vanishing remanence for temperatures up to 400 K. Magnetic force microscopy measurements demonstrate that the vanishing remanence is due to a complex domain state, indicating substrate-induced graphene spin polarization. The domain formation of the Co magnetization is in strong contrast to the magnetic behavior of Co in Co/Co3O4 bilayers. This suggests that the Co3O4 interlayer mediates the variable Co magnetization and induced graphene spin polarization, with possible retroaction of graphene on the Co film.

  10. The effect of interface anisotropy on demagnetization progress in perpendicularly oriented hard/soft exchange-coupled multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Chen, Jun; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Guoping; Ma, Qiang

    2017-06-27

    The demagnetization progress of various hard/soft multilayers with perpendicular crystalline anisotropy has been studied by a micromagnetic model, incorporating the effect of the interface anisotropy, which is evident on the nucleation field when the soft layer thickness is small. Both microscopic and macroscopic hysteresis loops as well as angular distributions for the magnetizations in the thickness direction have been calculated, taking into account of realistic values of the interface anisotropy. The formula for the nucleation field has been derived analytically, where the nucleation field increases linearly with the interface anisotropy for a wide thickness region. While the nucleation field could change by more than 90% due to the influence of the interface anisotropy, the interface anisotropy has no effect on the pinning field or the coercivity, but it has some slight influence on the angular distributions. On the other hand, positive interface anisotropy enhances the remanence and the energy products, whereas negative interface anisotropy deteriorates both of them. Comparison with the experimental data justifies our calculation, indicating that negative interface anisotropy should be avoided in the experiment.

  11. Nature of magnetic domains in an exchange coupled BiFeO3/CoFe heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, D. Y.; Ashraf, K.; Salahuddin, S.

    2013-03-01

    We use the micromagnetic model to simulate magnetization in a multidomain BiFeO3(BFO)/CoFe bilayer. We show that CoFe couples to weak ferromagnetism on the BFO surface and breaks into domains that correspond exactly with BFO domains. Switching the direction of the BFO spins switches the corresponding CoFe domains and reverses the net magnetization. Since magnetization is coupled to polarization in BFO, this demonstrates a mechanism for controlling magnetization reversal with an electric field. Comparison with experimental values of BFO surface moment and hysteresis allows us to extract BFO/CoFe exchange and spin canting energies and predict behavior for domains of varying sizes.

  12. Production of Al2O3–SiC nano-composites by spark plasma sintering; Producción de nano-composites – SiC–Al2O3 por spark plasma sinterizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour Razavi; Ali Reza Farajipour; Mohammad Zakeri; Mohammad Reza Rahimipour; Ali Reza Firouzbakht

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, Al2O3–SiC composites were produced by SPS at temperatures of 1600°C for 10min under vacuum atmosphere. For preparing samples, Al2O3 with the second phase including of micro and nano-sized SiC powder were milled for 5h. The milled powders were sintered in a SPS machine. After sintering process, phase studies, densification and mechanical properties of Al2O3–SiC composites were examined. Results showed that the specimens containing micro-sized SiC have an important effect on bulk density, hardness and strength. The highest relative density, hardness and strength were 99.7%, 324.6 HV and 2329MPa, respectively, in Al2O3–20wt% SiCmicro composite. Due to short time sintering, the growth was limited and grains still remained in nano-meter scale. [Spanish] En este trabajo se muestran compuestos de Al2O3-SiC producidos por SPS, en vacío, a 1.600 °C durante 10 min. Para la preparación de muestras, se molieron polvos de Al2O3 durante 5 h con la segunda fase de micro-y-nano polvo de SiC. Posteriormente, estos polvos molidos se sinterizaron mediante SPS. Después del proceso de sinterización, se realizaron estudios de fase, densificación y propiedades mecánicas de los compuestos de Al2O3-SiC obtenidos. Los resultados mostraron que micro-SiC en las muestras tiene un efecto importante en su densidad aparente, dureza y resistencia. La mayor densidad relativa, dureza y resistencia fueron respectivamente del 99,7%, 324,6 HV y 2.329 MPa para Al2O3 con un 20% en peso micro-SiC. Debido al corto tiempo de sinterización, el crecimiento los granos fue limitado y se mantuvieron en escala nanométrica.

  13. Fabrication of Cu2O-TiO2 Nano-composite with High Photocatalytic Performance under Simulated Solar Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu2O-P25 (TiO2 nano-heterostructures with different mass ratios were synthesized via a wet chemical precipitation and hydrothermal method, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. DRS results showed that the light absorption of P25 extended to the visible light region with the loading of Cu2O. XPS results showed that Cu existed in the state of Cu+ in the presence of hydroxylamine hydrochloride, confirming the formation of Cu2O. The obtained products exhibited efficient photocatalytic performance in degradation of methyl orange (MO and methylene blue (MB under simulated solar light. The sample of 5% Cu2O-P25 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity among all as-prepared samples. And the photocatalysts can be recycled without obvious loss of photocatalytic activity.

  14. Nano-silver mediated polymerization of pyrrole: synthesis and gas sensing properties of polypyrrole (PPy)/Ag nano-composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Kunal H; Damkale, Shubhangi R; Khanna, P K; Jain, G H

    2011-09-01

    Thermal polymerization of pyrrole was performed using silver nitrate as source of silver ions followed by its conversion to Polypyrrole (PPy)/Ag nano-comoposites without using any external oxidizing agent or solvent. The formation of PPy was monitored by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy showing a band at approximately 464 nm. XRD measurement confirmed characteristic peaks for face centered cubic (fcc) silver and presence of PPy at 2 theta of approximately 23 degrees suggesting the formation of PPy/Ag nanocomposite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed non-aggregated spherical Ag nano-particles of about 5-10 nm. PPy/Ag thick film acts as a NH3 sensor at 100 degrees C, a H2S sensor at 250 degrees C and CO2 sensor at 350 degrees C. The thick films showed capability to recognize various gases at different operating temperature.

  15. A Highly Sensitive Electrochemical DNA Biosensor from Acrylic-Gold Nano-composite for the Determination of Arowana Fish Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Heng, Lee Yook; Futra, Dedi; Chiang, Chew Poh; Rashid, Zulkafli A.; Ling, Tan Ling

    2017-08-01

    The present research describes a simple method for the identification of the gender of arowana fish ( Scleropages formosus). The DNA biosensor was able to detect specific DNA sequence at extremely low level down to atto M regimes. An electrochemical DNA biosensor based on acrylic microsphere-gold nanoparticle (AcMP-AuNP) hybrid composite was fabricated. Hydrophobic poly(n-butylacrylate-N-acryloxysuccinimide) microspheres were synthesised with a facile and well-established one-step photopolymerization procedure and physically adsorbed on the AuNPs at the surface of a carbon screen printed electrode (SPE). The DNA biosensor was constructed simply by grafting an aminated DNA probe on the succinimide functionalised AcMPs via a strong covalent attachment. DNA hybridisation response was determined by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique using anthraquinone monosulphonic acid redox probe as an electroactive oligonucleotide label (Table 1). A low detection limit at 1.0 × 10-18 M with a wide linear calibration range of 1.0 × 10-18 to 1.0 × 10-8 M ( R 2 = 0.99) can be achieved by the proposed DNA biosensor under optimal conditions. Electrochemical detection of arowana DNA can be completed within 1 hour. Due to its small size and light weight, the developed DNA biosensor holds high promise for the development of functional kit for fish culture usage.

  16. Synthesis and application of green mixed-metal oxide nano-composite materials from solid waste for dye degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Seema; Srivastava, Vimal Chandra; Mandal, Tapas Kumar; Mall, Indra Deo; Lo, Shang Lien

    2016-10-01

    Present study demonstrates reutilization of electrochemical (EC) sludge as a potential low-cost green catalyst for dye degradation. Hexagonal Fe2O3 type phase with trevorite (NiFe2O4)-type cubic phase nanocomposite material (NCM) was synthesized from solid waste sludge generated during EC treatment of textile industry wastewater with stainless steel electrode. For NCM synthesis, sludge was heated at different temperatures under controlled condition. Various synthesized NCMs were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The synthesized NCMs were found to contain iron, chromium, nickel and oxygen in the form of α-Fe2O3 (metal: oxygen = 40:60), (Fe,Cr,Ni)2O3 and trevorite NiFe2O4, (Ni,Fe,Cr) (Fe,Cr,Ni)2O4 (metal: oxygen = 43:57). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), pore size distribution, and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis showed distribution of grains of different shapes and sizes. Catalytic activity of NCM was studied by the methylene red dye degradation by using the catalytic wet peroxidation process. Zeta potential study was performed under different pH so as to determine the performance of the NCMs during dye degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electric characteristics of thin films and gas sensors with varying conductivity: from purely organic materials to nano-composite architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeau, Jean Paul

    1998-01-01

    This research thesis reports a work which aimed at producing active molecular devices which could be used for gas detection, and which notably display better electric characteristics than existing ones. The author first outlines that these devices present a high sensitivity, and then discusses why they display these reliability problems in terms of electric characteristics. Thus, he studied the influence of the electrode/material interface, and the influence of the material thickness on measured electric characteristics. He highlighted the non negligible influence of a control of physical-chemical properties of the electrode/material interface on the measurement of electric characteristics. Then, in order to solve these problems, the author proposes and reports the study of a mixing, within the same material, of organic molecules (for detection purposes) and metallic particles (for transduction purposes) [fr

  18. Data in support of in vivo studies of silk based gold nano-composite conduits for functional peripheral nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suradip Das

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present data article we report the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of fabricated nerve conduits described in Das et al. [1]. Green synthesised gold nanoparticles (GNPs were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in rat Schwann cells (SCTM41. We also describe herein the adhesion and proliferation of Schwann cells over the nanofibrous scaffolds. Methods describing surgical implantation of conduits in a rat sciatic nerve injury model, confirming its accurate implantation as well as the porosity and swelling tendency of the nerve conduits are illustrated in the various figures and graphs.

  19. Preparation and optimization of CdWO{sub 4}-polymer nano-composite film as an alpha particle counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziluei, Hossein [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azimirad, Rouhollah [Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mojtahedzadeh Larijani, Majid, E-mail: mmojtahedfr@yahoo.com [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaie, Farhoud [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-21

    In this research work, CdWO{sub 4}/polymer composite films with different thicknesses were prepared using Poly-methyl acrylate polymer and synthesized CdWO{sub 4} powder. The CdWO{sub 4} powder was synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method in the laboratory. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy proved that the CdWO{sub 4} powder was successfully prepared. Moreover, photoluminescence analysis showed that adding polymer does not change the emission peak of CdWO{sub 4}. Also, the responses of all samples were measured using an {sup 241}Am alpha source with 1860 Bq activity. Results showed that the sample having thickness of 177 mg/cm{sup 2} has the best counting efficiency (over 2π geometry) among the others. The efficiency measurement was further evaluated using a {sup 230}Th source whose activity is 190.7 Bq. It revealed that the counting efficiency of this sample for both {sup 241}Am and {sup 230}Th was nearly equal.

  20. Surface quality prediction model of nano-composite ceramics in ultrasonic vibration-assisted ELID mirror grinding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Bo; Chen, Fan; Jia, Xiao-feng; Zhao, Chong-yang; Wang, Xiao-bo [Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo (China)

    2017-04-15

    Ultrasonic vibration-assisted Electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) grinding is a highly efficient and highly precise machining method. The surface quality prediction model in ultrasonic vibration-assisted ELID mirror grinding was studied. First, the interaction between grits and workpiece surface was analyzed according to kinematic mechanics, and the surface roughness model was developed. The variations in surface roughness under different parameters was subsequently calculated and analyzed by MATLAB. Results indicate that compared with the ordinary ELID grinding, ultrasonic vibration-assisted ELID grinding is superior, because it has more stable and better surface quality and has an improved range of ductile machining.

  1. Electrodeposition of r-GO/SiC nano-composites on Magnesium and its Corrosion Behavior in Aqueous Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavimani, V.; K, Soorya Prakash; R, Rajesh; Rammasamy, Devaraj; Selvaraj, Nivas Babu; Yang, Tao; Prabakaran, Balasubramanian; Jothi, Sathiskumar

    2017-12-01

    In this paper a detailed investigation for corrosion behavior of magnesium substrate electrodeposited differently by nanoparticles like Reduced Graphene Oxide (r-GO synthesized through Modified Hummer's Method), Silicon Carbide (SiCsbnd mechanically alloyed) and also r-GO/SiC nanocomposites (dispersed through ultrasonication process) as coating materials for varying time period was done. Synthesized nanocomposite was characterized through various physio-chemical techniques and confirmation of the same was carried out. Surface morphology of the developed set of specimens was scrutinized through SEM and EDAX which establishes a clean surface coating with minimal defects attainment through electro deposition technique. Electrochemical corrosion behavior for the magnesium substrates coated with r-GO, SiC, r-GO/SiC for 5 and 10 min coating time period was conceded over in 0.1 M of NaCl and Na2SO4 aqueous solution using Tafel polarization and then compared with a pure magnesium substrate. r-GO/SiC nanocomposite coated magnesium substrate showcased a drastic breakthrough in corrosion resistance when compared with other set of specimens in aqueous medium. Delamination behavior for the same set of specimens was carried and the r-GO/SiC nanocomposite coated magnesium exposed a minimum delamination area accounting to the hydrophobic property of graphene and the binding effect of SiC nano particles.

  2. The influence of orientation and practical size on the interface fracture of a bone-nano composite cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilik, Igor; Khandaker, Morshed

    2010-01-01

    Clinical follow-up studies in cemented total hip arthroplasties found that femoral prosthesis loosening is caused by the fracture of the bone-cement interfaces. The research objectives were to determine whether orientation of the bone has any influence on the interface fracture strength, and to determine whether inclusion of micro/nano sizes MgO particles on Cobalt HV bone cement has any influence on the interface fracture strength. Flexural tests were conducted on five groups of specimens to find Young Modulus and bending strength: (1) longitudinal bone, (2) transverse bone, (3) pure cement particles, (4) cement with 36 im and 27 nm MgO particles, and (5) cement with 27nm MgO particles. Also, fracture tests were conducted on six groups of bone-cement specimen to find interface fracture toughness: (1) longitudinal bone-cement without MgO particles, (2) transverse bone-cement without MgO particles, (3) longitudinal bone-cement with 36 im MgO particles, (4) transverse bone-cement with 36 im MgO particles, (5) , longitudinal bone-cement with 27 nm MgO particles, and (6) transverse bone-cement with 27 nm MgO particles. Transverse bone specimen was 14% stiffer than longitudinal specimen, while bending strength and fracture toughness of longitudinal specimen was 29% and 2.6 times lower than the transverse specimen, respectively. Reduction of Young's modulus (7.3%), bending strength (27%) and fracture toughness (16%) was observed by the inclusion of microsize MgO particles, and a reduction of the Young's Modulus (19%), bending strength (21%),and fracture toughness (19%) for nanosize MgO particles. The interface toughness of the transverse bone infused with 27nm MgO was about 6 times higher than transverse bone infused with 36 im particles of MgO. Preliminary studies show that orientation of the bone has significant influence on the interface fracture. MgO particles size have a significant effect on the strength of the bone - cement interface.(Author)

  3. Effect of cobalt content on wear and corrosion behaviors of electrodeposited Ni-Co/WC nano-composite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadeh, A; Ebadpour, R

    2013-02-01

    Metal-ceramic composite coatings are widely used in automotive and aerospace industries as well as micro-electronic systems. Electrodeposition is an economic method for application of these coatings. In this research, nickel-cobalt coatings reinforced by nano WC particles were applied on carbon steel substrate by pulse electrodeposition from modified Watts bath containing different amounts of cobalt sulphate as an additive. Saccharin and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) were also added to electroplating bath as grain refiner and surfactant, respectively. The effect of cobalt content on wear and corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated. Wear and corrosion properties were assessed by pin-on-disk and potentiodynamic polarization methods, respectively. Phase analysis was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using CuK(alpha) radiation and the worn surfaces were studied by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the addition of cobalt improved the wear resistance of the coatings. In the presence of 18 g/L cobalt in electrodeposition bath, the wear rate of the coating decreased to 0.002 mg/m and the coefficient of friction reduced to 0.695 while they were 0.004 mg/m and 0.77 in the absence of cobalt, respectively. This improvement in wear properties can be attributed to the formation of hcp phase in metallic matrix. Meanwhile, the corrosion resistance of the coatings slightly reduced because cobalt is more active metal with respect to nickel.

  4. Mechanical behaviour of AlSiC nano composites produced by ball milling and spark plasma sintering =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheim, Claudia Sofia de Andrade Redondo Murilhas

    Neste trabalho foram produzidos nanocompositos de AlSiC misturando aluminio puro com nano particulas de SiC com diâmetro de 45 - 55 nm, usando, de forma sequencial, a tecnica da metalurgia do po e a compactacao por "Spark Plasma Sintering". O composito obtido apresentava graos com 100 nm de diâmetro, encontrandose as particulas de SiC localizadas, principalmente, nas fronteiras de grao. O nanocomposito sob a forma de provetes cilindricos foi submetido a testes de compressao uniaxial e a testes de nanoindentacao para analisar a influencia das nanoparticulas de SiC, da fracao volumica de acido estearico e do tempo de moagem, nas propriedades mecânicas do material. Para efeitos de comparacao, utilizouse o comportamento mecânico do Al puro processado em condicoes similares e da liga de aluminio AA1050O. A tensao limite de elasticidade do nanocomposito com 1% Vol./Vol. de SiC e dez vezes superior a do AA1050. O refinamento de grao a escala nano constitui o principal mecanismo de aumento de resistencia mecânica. Na realidade, o Al nanocristalino sem reforco de particulas de SiC, apresenta uma tensao limite de elasticidade sete vezes superior a da liga AA1050O. A adicao de 0,5 % Vol./Vol. e de 1 % Vol./Vol. de SiC conduzem, respetivamente, ao aumento da tensao limite de elasticidade em 47 % e 50%. O aumento do tempo de moagem e a adicao de acido estearico ao po durante a moagem conduzem apenas a um pequeno aumento da tensao de escoamento. A dureza do material medida atraves de testes de nanoindentacao confirmaram os dados anteriores. A estabilidade das microestruturas do aluminio puro e do nanocomposito AlSiC, foi testada atraves de recozimento de restauracao realizado as temperaturas de 150 °C e 250 °C durante 2 horas. Aparentemente, o tratamento termico nao influenciou as propriedades mecânicas dos materiais, excepto do nanocomposito com 1 % Vol./Vol. de SiC restaurado a temperatura de 250 °C, para o qual se observou uma reducao da tensao limite de elasticidade na ordem dos 13 %. No aluminio nanocristalino, a tensao de escoamento e controlada pelo efeito de HallPetch. As particulas de SiC, sao segregadas pelas fronteiras do grao e nao contribuem para o aumento de resistencia mecânica segundo o mecanismo de Orowan. Alternativamente, as nanoparticulas de SiC constituem um reforco das fronteiras do grao, impedindo o seu escorregamento e estabilizando a nanoestrutura. Deste modo, as propriedades mecânicas do aluminio nanocristalino e do nanocomposito de AlSiC poderao estar relacionadas com a facilidade ou dificuldade do escorregamento das fronteiras de grao, embora nao seja apresentada prova explicita deste mecanismo a temperatura ambiente.

  5. Development of nano-composite 9Cr-ODS martensitic steels by means of α to γ phase transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaito, Takeji; Ukai, Shigeharu; Hatakeyama, Koichi; Okuda, Takanari; Kobayashi, Toshimi

    2003-01-01

    Leading technology development of the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels has being conducted in JNC particularly emphasizing fuel cladding application for the fast reactors, since they have a potential to realize the high burnup fuel and higher outlet coolant temperature operation. The improvement in formability and ductility, which are indispensable in the cold-rolling method for manufacturing cladding tube, were achieved by controlling the microstructure using technique α to γ phase transformation. The cold-rolling of hardened 9Cr-ODS steels was successfully made to manufacture cladding tubes by using cold-rolling pilger mill. The 9Cr-ODS martensitic cladding tubes manufactured using the technique showed that ring tensile and internal creep rupture strengths exhibit excellent performance far beyond that of conventional ferritic-martensitic steel (PNC-FMS). Adequate ductility in hoop direction was also maintained. These improvement in high temperature mechanical properties have been accomplished through a uniform distribution of nano-scale Y 2 O 3 -TiO 2 oxide particles of less than 5 nm size by mechanical milling process. (author)

  6. Improved biodegradation of synthetic azo dye by horseradish peroxidase cross-linked on nano-composite support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huaiyan; Jin, Xinyu; Long, Nengbing; Zhang, Ruifeng

    2017-02-01

    A ZnO nanowires/macroporous SiO 2 composite was used as support to immobilize horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by in-situ cross-linking method. Using diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (DDE) as a long-chained cross-linker, it was adsorbed on the surface of ZnO nanowires before reaction with HRPs, the resulted composite was quite different from the traditional cross-linking enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) on both structure and catalytic performance. The immobilized HRP showed high activity in the decolorization of azo dyes. The effect of various conditions such as the loading amount of HRP, solution pH, temperature, contact time and concentration of dye were optimized on the decolorization. The decolorization percentage of Acid Blue 113 and Acid black 10 BX reached as high as 95.4% and 90.3%, respectively. The immobilized HRP gave the highest decolorization rate under dye concentration as 50mg/L and reaction time of 35min. The immobilized HRP exhibited much better resistance to temperature and pH inactivation than free HRP. The storage stability and reusability were greatly improved through the immobilization, from the decolorization of Acid blue 113 it was found that 80.4% of initial efficiency retained after incubation at 4°C for 60 days, and that 79.4% of decolorization efficiency retained after 12 cycles reuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Production of Al2O3–SiC nano-composites by spark plasma sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Razavi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Al2O3–SiC composites were produced by SPS at temperatures of 1600 °C for 10 min under vacuum atmosphere. For preparing samples, Al2O3 with the second phase including of micro and nano-sized SiC powder were milled for 5 h. The milled powders were sintered in a SPS machine. After sintering process, phase studies, densification and mechanical properties of Al2O3–SiC composites were examined. Results showed that the specimens containing micro-sized SiC have an important effect on bulk density, hardness and strength. The highest relative density, hardness and strength were 99.7%, 324.6 HV and 2329 MPa, respectively, in Al2O3–20 wt% SiCmicro composite. Due to short time sintering, the growth was limited and grains still remained in nano-meter scale.

  8. Polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene with layered double hydroxide nano composites: In situ synthesis, morphology and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botan, Rodrigo; Nogueira, Telma R.; Lona, Liliane M.F.; Wypych, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, polymer nanocomposites have attracted interest, both in industry and in academia, because they often exhibit remarkable improvement in their properties when compared with pure polymer or conventional micro and macro-composites using low levels of reinforcements. In this work polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene reinforced with layered double hydroxide, which was intercalated with sodium dodecyl sulfate were synthesized by in situ bulk polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized and compared by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test. The X-ray diffraction demonstrated that synthesized nanocomposites showed a high global dispersion of layered double hydroxide, suggesting exfoliated morphology. The result of thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test for synthesized polystyrene/ layered double hydroxide nanocomposite presented a significant improvement in thermal stability and flammability property when compared with pure polymer. (author)

  9. Enhancement in biological response of Ag-nano composite polymer membranes using plasma treatment for fabrication of efficient bio materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Narendra Kumar; Sharma, Tamanna Kumari; Chauhan, Manish; Agarwal, Ravi; Vijay, Y. K.; Swami, K. C.

    2016-05-01

    Biomaterials are nonviable material used in medical devices, intended to interact with biological systems, which are becoming necessary for the development of artificial material for biological systems such as artificial skin diaphragm, valves for heart and kidney, lenses for eye etc. Polymers having novel properties like antibacterial, antimicrobial, high adhesion, blood compatibility and wettability are most suitable for synthesis of biomaterial, but all of these properties does not exist in any natural or artificial polymeric material. Nano particles and plasma treatment can offer these properties to the polymers. Hence a new nano-biomaterial has been developed by modifying the surface and chemical properties of Ag nanocomposite polymer membranes (NCPM) by Argon ion plasma treatment. These membranes were characterized using different techniques for surface and chemical modifications occurred. Bacterial adhesion and wettability were also tested for these membranes, to show direct use of this new class of nano-biomaterial for biomedical applications.

  10. Interplay of Electronic Cooperativity and Exchange Coupling in Regulating the Reactivity of Diiron(IV)-oxo Complexes towards C-H and O-H Bond Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Azaj; Ansari, Mursaleem; Singha, Asmita; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2017-07-26

    Activation of inert C-H bonds such as those of methane are extremely challenging for chemists but in nature, the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) enzyme readily oxidizes methane to methanol by using a diiron(IV) species. This has prompted chemists to look for similar model systems. Recently, a (μ-oxo)bis(μ-carboxamido)diiron(IV) ([Fe IV 2 O(L) 2 ] 2+ L=N,N-bis-(3',5'-dimethyl-4'-methoxypyridyl-2'-methyl)-N'-acetyl-1,2-diaminoethane) complex has been generated by bulk electrolysis and this species activates inert C-H bonds almost 1000 times faster than mononuclear Fe IV =O species and at the same time selectively activates O-H bonds of alcohols. The very high reactivity and selectivity of this species is puzzling and herein we use extensive DFT calculations to shed light on this aspect. We have studied the electronic and spectral features of diiron {Fe III -μ(O)-Fe III } +2 (complex I), {Fe III -μ(O)-Fe IV } +3 (II), and {Fe IV -μ(O)-Fe IV } +4 (III) complexes. Strong antiferromagnetic coupling between the Fe centers leads to spin-coupled S=0, S=3/2, and S=0 ground state for species I-III respectively. The mechanistic study of the C-H and O-H bond activation reveals a multistate reactivity scenario where C-H bond activation is found to occur through the S=4 spin-coupled state corresponding to the high-spin state of individual Fe IV centers. The O-H bond activation on the other hand, occurs through the S=2 spin-coupled state corresponding to an intermediate state of individual Fe IV centers. Molecular orbital analysis reveals σ-π/π-π channels for the reactivity. The nature of the magnetic exchange interaction is found to be switched during the course of the reaction and this offers lower energy pathways. Significant electronic cooperativity between two metal centers during the course of the reaction has been witnessed and this uncovers the reason behind the efficiency and selectivity observed. The catalyst is found to prudently choose the desired spin states based on the nature of the substrate to effect the catalytic transformations. These findings suggest that the presence of such factors play a role in the reactivity of dinuclear metalloenzymes such as sMMO. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Dissecting the Binding Mode of Low Affinity Phage Display Peptide Ligands to Protein Targets by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Coupled to Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leurs, Ulrike; Lohse, Brian; Ming, Shonoi A

    2014-01-01

    of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to characterize interactions of low affinity peptides with their cognate protein targets. The HDX-MS workflow was optimized to accurately detect low-affinity peptide-protein interactions by use of ion mobility, electron transfer dissociation, non...

  12. Two-dimensional J.sub.eff./sub.=1/2 antiferromagnetic insulator unraveled from interlayer exchange coupling in artificial perovskite iridate superlattices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hao, L.; Meyers, D.; Frederick, C.; Fabbris, G.; Yang, J.; Traynor, N.; Horák, L.; Kriegner, Dominik; Choi, Y.; Kim, J.-W.; Haskel, D.; Ryan, P.J.; Dean, M.P.M.; Liu, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku 027204. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37427G; GA MŠk EF16_013/0001405 Grant - others:OP VVV - LNSM(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001405 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Heisenberg-antiferromagnet * optical-properties * Sr 2 IrO 4 * lattice * oxides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  13. Topological Self-Assembly of Highly Symmetric Lanthanide Clusters: A Magnetic Study of Exchange-Coupling "Fingerprints" in Giant Gadolinium(III) Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Zhou, Guo-Jun; Yu, You-Zhu; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Schröder, Christian; Winpenny, Richard E P; Zheng, Yan-Zhen

    2017-11-15

    The creation of a perfect hollow nanoscopic sphere of metal centers is clearly an unrealizable synthetic challenge. It is, however, an inspirational challenge from the viewpoint of chemical architecture and also as finite molecular species may provide unique microscopic insight into the origin and onset of phenomena such as topological spin-frustration effects found in infinite 2D and 3D systems. Herein, we report a series of high-symmetry gadolinium(III) (S = 7/2) polyhedra, Gd 20 , Gd 32 , Gd 50 , and Gd 60 , to test an approach based on assembling polymetallic fragments that contain different polygons. Structural analysis reveals that the Gd 20 cage resembles a dodecahedron; the vertices of the Gd 32 polyhedron exactly reveal symmetry O h ; Gd 50 displays an unprecedented polyhedron in which an icosidodecahedron Gd 30 core is encapsulated by an outer Gd 20 dodecahedral shell with approximate I h symmetry; and the Gd 60 shows a truncated octahedron geometry. Experimental and theoretical magnetic studies show that this series produces the expected antiferromagnetic interaction that can be modeled based on classical spins at the Gd sites. From the magnetization analyses, we can roughly correlate the derivative bands to the Gd-O-Gd angles. Such a magneto-structural correlation may be used as "fingerprints" to identify these cages.

  14. Conformational dynamics of the bovine mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier isoform 1 revealed by hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Martial; Man, Petr; Clémençon, Benjamin; Trézéguet, Véronique; Brandolin, Gérard; Forest, Eric; Pelosi, Ludovic

    2010-11-05

    The mitochondrial adenine nucleotide carrier (Ancp) catalyzes the transport of ADP and ATP across the mitochondrial inner membrane, thus playing an essential role in cellular energy metabolism. During the transport mechanism the carrier switches between two different conformations that can be blocked by two toxins: carboxyatractyloside (CATR) and bongkrekic acid. Therefore, our understanding of the nucleotide transport mechanism can be improved by analyzing structural differences of the individual inhibited states. We have solved the three-dimensional structure of bovine carrier isoform 1 (bAnc1p) in a complex with CATR, but the structure of the carrier-bongkrekic acid complex, and thus, the detailed mechanism of transport remains unknown. Improvements in sample processing in the hydrogen/deuterium exchange technique coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) have allowed us to gain novel insights into the conformational changes undergone by bAnc1p. This paper describes the first study of bAnc1p using HDX-MS. Results obtained with the CATR-bAnc1p complex were fully in agreement with published results, thus, validating our approach. On the other hand, the HDX kinetics of the two complexes displays marked differences. The bongkrekic acid-bAnc1p complex exhibits greater accessibility to the solvent on the matrix side, whereas the CATR-bAnc1p complex is more accessible on the intermembrane side. These results are discussed with respect to the structural and biochemical data available on Ancp.

  15. Conformational dynamics of the bovine mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier isoform revealed by hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rey, M.; Man, Petr; Clemencon, B.; Trezeguet, V.; Brandolin, G.; Forest, E.; Pelosi, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 285, č. 45 (2010), s. 34981-34990 ISSN 0021-9258 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ADENINE-NUCLEOTIDE CARRIER * ADP ATP CARRIER * PHOSPHOLIPASE A(2) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.328, year: 2010

  16. Nano composite system based on coumarin derivative–titanium dioxide nanoparticles and ionic liquid: Determination of levodopa and carbidopa in human serum and pharmaceutical formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazloum-Ardakani, Mohammad; Khoshroo, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Nanostructured electrochemical sensor based on TiO 2 and ionic liquid was used for the determination of levodopa in the presence of carbidopa. •Selectivity, reproducibility and low detection limit make the nanostructured modified electrode very useful for accurate determination of levodopa. •This sensor was applied in determination of levodopa and carbidopa in pharmaceutical formulations, blood serum and urine. -- Abstract: The combination of coumarin derivative (7-(1,3-dithiolan-2-yl)-9,10-dihydroxy-6H-benzofuro[3,2-c]chromen-6-on), (DC)–titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 ) and ionic liquid (IL) yields nanostructured electrochemical sensor, formed a novel kind of structurally uniform and electrocatalytic activity material. This new ionic liquid–TiO 2 nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode (IL–CTP) due to its enhanced conductivity presented very large current response from electroactive substrates. The modified electrode was characterized by different methods including a scanning electron microscope (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and voltammetry. A pair of well-defined quasi reversible redox peaks of coumarin derivative was obtained at the modified carbon paste electrode (DC/IL–CTP) by direct electron transfer between the coumarin derivative and the CP electrode. Dramatically enhanced electrocatalytic activity was exemplified at the DC/IL–CTP electrode, as an electrochemical sensor to study the electro oxidation of levodopa (LD) and carbidopa (CD). Based on differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), the oxidation of LD and CD exhibited the dynamic range between 0.10– 900.0 μM and 20.0–900.0 μM respectively, and the detection limit (3σ) for LD and CD were 41 nM and 0.38 μM, respectively. DPV was used for simultaneous determination of LD and CD at the DC/IL–CTP electrode, and quantitation of LD and CD in some real samples (such as tablets of Parkin-C Fort and Madopar, Sinemet, water, urine, and human blood serum) by the standard addition method

  17. Investigation of microstructural and physical characteristics of nano composite tin oxide-doped Al3+ in Zn2+ based composite coating by DAECD technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawe, P. A. L.; Fayomi, O. S. I.; Popoola, A. P. I.

    In other to overcome the devastating deterioration of mild steel in service, Zn-based embedded Al/SnO2 composite coatings have been considered as reinforcing alternative replacements to the more traditional deposition for improved surface properties by using Dual Anode Electrolytic Co-deposition (DAECD) technique from chloride bath. The structural characterization of the starting materials and deposited coating are evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) elemental analysis and atomic force microscope (AFM). The hardness behaviour, wear and intermetallic distribution was examined by diamond based microhardness tester, CETR reciprocating sliding test rig and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) respectively. The corrosion properties of the developed coating were examined in 3.5% NaCl. The microstructure of the deposited sample obtained at 7% SnO2, revealed fine-grains deposit of the Al/SnO2 on the mild steel surface. The results showed that the Al/SnO2 strengthening alloy plays a significant role in impelling the wear and corrosion behaviour of Zn-Al/SnO2 coatings in an aggressive saline environment. Interestingly Zn-30Al-7Sn-chloride showed the highest wear and improved corrosion resistance due to Al/SnO2 oxide passive film that forms during anodic polarization. This work established that co-deposition of mild steel with Al/SnO2 is auspicious in increasing the anti-wear and corrosion progression.

  18. Magnetic and photocatalytic response of Ag-doped ZnFeO nano-composites for photocatalytic degradation of reactive dyes in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, Asif; Ramay, Shahid Mahmood; Al-Zaghayer, Yousef S.; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Shahid; Al-Johani, Meshal S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-consistent sol–gel based auto-combustion route was used. • Photocatalytic degradation of reactive dyes in aqueous solution was investigated. • Due to Ag doping, band gap reduced. • Activity of Ag-doped samples was higher than that of un-doped ones. - Abstract: To investigate the photocatalytic degradation of reactive dyes in aqueous solution, pure ZnO and Fe/Ag-doped magnetic photocatalysts having nominal compositions of Zn 0.95−x Fe 0.05 Ag x O (x = 0.0, 0.05 and 0.1) have been synthesized via self-consistent sol–gel based auto-combustion route. Thermally stable samples were subsequently confirmed to exhibit wurtzite type hexagonal structure, characteristic of ZnO. The nature of chemical bonding was elaborated by Fourier transform analysis. Electron microscopic techniques were employed to investigate the structural morphology and to evaluate the particle size. Ferromagnetic nature of the Fe/Ag doped samples was revealed by vibrating sample magnetometry, enabling the photocatalytic samples to be re-collected magnetically for repeated usage. The enhanced photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation with 5 and 10 wt.% Ag/ZnFeO has been observed validating the potential applications of these materials in the field of photo-degradation of organic pollutants

  19. BiVO4/N-rGO nano composites as highly efficient visible active photocatalyst for the degradation of dyes and antibiotics in eco system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appavu, Brindha; Thiripuranthagan, Sivakumar; Ranganathan, Sudhakar; Erusappan, Elangovan; Kannan, Kathiravan

    2018-04-30

    Herein, we report the synthesis of novel nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide/ BiVO 4 photo catalyst by single step hydrothermal method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized using XRD, N 2 adsorption-desorption, Raman, XPS, SEM TEM, DRS-UV and EIS techniques. The synthesized catalysts were tested for their catalytic activity in the photo degradation of some harmful textile dyes (methylene blue & congo red) and antibiotics (metronidazole and chloramphenicol) under visible light irradiation. Reduced charge recombination and enhanced photocatalytic activity were observed due to the concerted effect between BiVO 4 and nitrogen-rGO. The degradation efficiency of BiVO 4 /N-rGO in the degradation of CR and MB was remarkably high i.e 95% and 98% under visible light irradiation. Similarly 95% of MTZ and 93% of CAP were degraded under visible light irradiation. HPLC studies implied that both the dyes and antibiotics were degraded to the maximum extent. The plausible photocatalytic mechanism on the basis of experimental results was suggested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 5-Fluorouracil intercalated iron oxide@layered double hydroxide core-shell nano-composites with isotropic and anisotropic architectures for shape-selective drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncelli, Gülsevde; Ay, Ahmet Nedim; Zümreoglu-Karan, Birgül

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization and in vitro release behavior of anti-cancer drug carrying iron oxide@layered double hydroxide core-shell nanocomposites with sizes ranging from 40 to 300 nm, good drug loading capacities and soft ferromagnetic properties. HRTEM analyses verified that nearly spherical isotropic carriers were obtained by coating spherical magnetite particles while anisotropic carriers were obtained by coating spindle-shaped hematite particles. They both displayed a fluctuating in vitro release profile with a higher release percentage for the anisotropic carrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nano composite system based on coumarin derivative–titanium dioxide nanoparticles and ionic liquid: Determination of levodopa and carbidopa in human serum and pharmaceutical formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazloum-Ardakani, Mohammad, E-mail: mazloum@yazd.ac.ir; Khoshroo, Alireza

    2013-10-10

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Nanostructured electrochemical sensor based on TiO{sub 2} and ionic liquid was used for the determination of levodopa in the presence of carbidopa. •Selectivity, reproducibility and low detection limit make the nanostructured modified electrode very useful for accurate determination of levodopa. •This sensor was applied in determination of levodopa and carbidopa in pharmaceutical formulations, blood serum and urine. -- Abstract: The combination of coumarin derivative (7-(1,3-dithiolan-2-yl)-9,10-dihydroxy-6H-benzofuro[3,2-c]chromen-6-on), (DC)–titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2}) and ionic liquid (IL) yields nanostructured electrochemical sensor, formed a novel kind of structurally uniform and electrocatalytic activity material. This new ionic liquid–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode (IL–CTP) due to its enhanced conductivity presented very large current response from electroactive substrates. The modified electrode was characterized by different methods including a scanning electron microscope (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and voltammetry. A pair of well-defined quasi reversible redox peaks of coumarin derivative was obtained at the modified carbon paste electrode (DC/IL–CTP) by direct electron transfer between the coumarin derivative and the CP electrode. Dramatically enhanced electrocatalytic activity was exemplified at the DC/IL–CTP electrode, as an electrochemical sensor to study the electro oxidation of levodopa (LD) and carbidopa (CD). Based on differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), the oxidation of LD and CD exhibited the dynamic range between 0.10– 900.0 μM and 20.0–900.0 μM respectively, and the detection limit (3σ) for LD and CD were 41 nM and 0.38 μM, respectively. DPV was used for simultaneous determination of LD and CD at the DC/IL–CTP electrode, and quantitation of LD and CD in some real samples (such as tablets of Parkin-C Fort and Madopar, Sinemet, water, urine, and human blood serum) by the standard addition method.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of polypropylene/graphite nano composite preparation for in situ polymerization; Sintese e caracterizacao de nanocompositos polipropileno/grafite obtidos pela polimerizacao in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagna, L.S.; Fim, F. de C.; Galland, G.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Basso, N.R.S., E-mail: nrbass@pucrs.b [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of polypropylene/graphite nanocomposites through in situ polymerization, using the metallocene catalyst C{sub 20}H{sub 16}Cl{sub 2}Zr (dichloro(rac-ethylenebis(indenyl))zircon(IV)). The graphite nanosheets in nano dimensions were added to the polymer matrix in percentages of 0.6;1.0;4.2;4.8 and 6.0% (w/w). The TEM images indicated that the thickness of graphite nanosheets ranged from 4 to 60 nm and by means of XRD analysis it was observed that the physical and chemical treatment did not destroyed the graphite layers. The presence of nanosheets did not decrease the catalytic activity of the nanocomposites. TEM images and XRD analysis of nanocomposites showed a good dispersion of the graphite nanosheets in the polypropylene matrix. (author)

  3. Study on influence of Surface roughness of Ni-Al2O3 nano composite coating and evaluation of wear characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, C. R.; Basavarajappa, S.; Sogalad, Irappa

    2018-02-01

    Electrodeposition is one of the most technologically feasible and economically superior techniques for producing metallic coating. The advancement in the application of nano particles has grabbed the attention in all fields of engineering. In this present study an attempt has been made on the Ni-Al2O3nano particle composite coating on aluminium substrate by electrodeposition process. The aluminium surface requires a specific pre-treatment for better adherence of coating. In light of this a thin zinc layer is coated on the aluminium substrate by electroless process. In addition to this surface roughness is an important parameter for any coating method and material. In this work Ni-Al2O3 composite coating were successfully coated by varying the process parameters such as bath temperature, current density and particle loading. The experimentation was performed using central composite design based 20 trials of experiments. The effect of process parameters and surface roughness before and after coating is analyzed on wear rate and coating thickness. The results shown a better wear resistance of Ni-Al2O3 composite electrodeposited coating compared to Ni coating. The particle loading and interaction effect of current density with temperature has greater significant effect on wear rate. The surface roughness is significantly affected the wear behaviour and thickness of coating.

  4. A novel non-enzymatic H2O2 sensor based on polypyrrole nanofibers-silver nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide nano composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moozarm Nia, Pooria; Lorestani, Farnaz; Meng, Woi Pei; Alias, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), was electrochemically reduced on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by an amperometry method (AMP-AgNPs-rGO/GCE). Then, Pyrrole was electropolymerized on the surface of the modified electrode through amperometry process in order to obtain nanofibers of polypyrrole (AMP-PpyNFs-AgNPs-rGO). Fourier-transform infrared transmission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction approved that during the amperometry process, the GO and Ppy nanofibers were reduced and polymerized respectively and the silver nanoparticles were formed. Field emission scanning electron microscope images indicated that the silver nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed on the rGO surface with a narrow nano size distribution and polypyrrole synthesized in the form of nanofibers with diameter around 100 nm. The first linear section was in the range of 0.1-5 mM with a limit of detection of 1.099 and the second linear section raised to 90 mM with a correlation factor of 0.085 (S/N of 3)

  5. A novel non-enzymatic H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor based on polypyrrole nanofibers–silver nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide nano composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moozarm Nia, Pooria, E-mail: pooriamn@yahoo.com; Lorestani, Farnaz, E-mail: farnaz.lorestani@siswa.um.edu.my; Meng, Woi Pei, E-mail: pmwoi@um.edu.my; Alias, Y., E-mail: yatimah70@um.edu.my

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Decorating silver nanoparticles on the surface of graphene oxide nanocomposites. • Using and comparing two different electrochemical methods for reducing graphene oxide. • Investigating the effect of cyclic voltammetry and amperometry on electropolymerization of polypyrrole nanofibers. • The senor shows superior performances (LOD, LOQ, selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility and stability) towards H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), was electrochemically reduced on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by an amperometry method (AMP-AgNPs-rGO/GCE). Then, Pyrrole was electropolymerized on the surface of the modified electrode through amperometry process in order to obtain nanofibers of polypyrrole (AMP-PpyNFs-AgNPs-rGO). Fourier-transform infrared transmission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction approved that during the amperometry process, the GO and Ppy nanofibers were reduced and polymerized respectively and the silver nanoparticles were formed. Field emission scanning electron microscope images indicated that the silver nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed on the rGO surface with a narrow nano size distribution and polypyrrole synthesized in the form of nanofibers with diameter around 100 nm. The first linear section was in the range of 0.1–5 mM with a limit of detection of 1.099 and the second linear section raised to 90 mM with a correlation factor of 0.085 (S/N of 3)

  6. A novel non-enzymatic H2O2 sensor based on polypyrrole nanofibers–silver nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moozarm Nia, Pooria; Lorestani, Farnaz; Meng, Woi Pei; Alias, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Decorating silver nanoparticles on the surface of graphene oxide nanocomposites. • Using and comparing two different electrochemical methods for reducing graphene oxide. • Investigating the effect of cyclic voltammetry and amperometry on electropolymerization of polypyrrole nanofibers. • The senor shows superior performances (LOD, LOQ, selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility and stability) towards H 2 O 2 . - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), was electrochemically reduced on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by an amperometry method (AMP-AgNPs-rGO/GCE). Then, Pyrrole was electropolymerized on the surface of the modified electrode through amperometry process in order to obtain nanofibers of polypyrrole (AMP-PpyNFs-AgNPs-rGO). Fourier-transform infrared transmission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction approved that during the amperometry process, the GO and Ppy nanofibers were reduced and polymerized respectively and the silver nanoparticles were formed. Field emission scanning electron microscope images indicated that the silver nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed on the rGO surface with a narrow nano size distribution and polypyrrole synthesized in the form of nanofibers with diameter around 100 nm. The first linear section was in the range of 0.1–5 mM with a limit of detection of 1.099 and the second linear section raised to 90 mM with a correlation factor of 0.085 (S/N of 3)

  7. Encapsulation of cardamom essential oil in chitosan nano-composites: In-vitro efficacy on antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens and cytotoxicity studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Jamil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural antimicrobial agents, particularly essential oils present an excellent alternative to current antibiotics due to their potent and broad-spectrum antimicrobial potential, unique mechanisms of action and low tendency to induce resistance. However their potential as a viable therapeutic alternative is greatly compromised due to their hydrophobic and volatile nature. The objective of the current research was to explore the anti-pathogenic potential of essential oils in a bio-based nano-carrier system. Six different essential oils were tested on multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens. However, cardamom oil was selected for nano-encapsulation because of most potent anti-microbial activity. Cardamom oil loaded chitosan nano-particles were prepared by ionic gelation method with an encapsulation efficiency of more than 90% and size was estimated to be 50-100 nm. The Zeta potential was more than +50 mV that indicate a stable nano-dispersion. Cytotoxicity analysis indicated non haemolytic and non-cytotoxic behaviour on Human Corneal Epithelial Cells and HepG2 cell lines. Cardamom oil loaded chitosan nano-particles were found to exhibit excellent anti-microbial potential against extended spectrum β lactamase producing Escherichia coli and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggested safety and efficacy of cardamom oil loaded chitosan nano-particles for treating multi drug resistant pathogens hence offer an effective alternative to current antibiotic therapy.

  8. Potentiodynamic studies of Ni-P-TiO2 nano-composited coating on the mild steel deposited by electroless plating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttam, Vibha; Duchaniya, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Now a days, corrosion studies are important for reducing the wastage of metals. The importance of corrosion studies is two folds i.e. first is economic, including the reduction of material losses resulting from the wasting away or sudden failure of materials and second is conservation Electroless process is an autocatalytic reduction method in which metallic ions are reduced in the solution. Nanocomposite coatings of Ni-P-TiO2 on mild steel are deposited by varying volume of TiO2 nano-powder by electroless method from Ni-P plating bath containing Nickel Sulphate as a source of nickel ions, sodium hypophosphite as the reducing agent, lactic acid as a complexing agents and TiO2 nano powder. Electroless Ni-P-TiO2 coating have been widely used in the chemical process industries, mechanical industries, electronic industries and chloroalkali industries due to their excellent corrosion with mechanical properties. In the present work, deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposited coatings were done on the mild steel and corrosion properties were studied with Potentio-dynamic polarization measurements method in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution. It showed in the experiments that Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposited coating has better corrosion resistance as comparedthan Ni-P alloy coating. Morphological studies were done by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These studies confirmed the deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposited coating.

  9. Biphasic calcium phosphate nano-composite scaffolds reinforced with bioglass provide a synthetic alternative to autografts in a canine tibiofibula defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dezhi; Xu, Guohua; Yang, Zhou; Holz, Jonathan; Ye, Xiaojian; Cai, Shu; Yuan, Wen; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    Bone grafting is commonly used to repair bone defects. As the porosity of the graft scaffold increases, bone formation increases, but the strength decreases. Early attempts to engineer materials were not able to resolve this problem. In recent years, nanomaterials have demonstrated the unique ability to improve the material strength and toughness while stimulating new bone formation. In our previous studies, we synthesized a nano-scale material by reinforcing a porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramic scaffold with Na2O-MgO-P2O5-CaO bioglass (β-TCP/BG). However, the in vivo effects of the β-TCP/BG scaffold on bone repair remain unknown. We investigated the efficacy of β-TCP/BG scaffolds compared to autografts in a canine tibiofibula defect model. The tibiofibula defects were created in the right legs of 12 dogs, which were randomly assigned to either the scaffold group or the autograft group (six dogs per group). Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-surgery. The involved tibias were extracted at 12 weeks and were tested to failure via a three-point bending. After the biomechanical analysis, specimens were subsequently processed for scanning electron microscopy analysis and histological evaluations. Radiographic evaluation at 12 weeks post-operation revealed many newly formed osseous calluses and bony unions in both groups. Both the maximum force and break force in the scaffold group (n = 6) were comparable to those in the autograft group (n = 6, P > 0.05), suggesting that the tissue-engineered bone repair achieved similar biomechanical properties to autograft bone repair. At 12 weeks post-operation, obvious new bone and blood vessel formations were observed in the artificial bone of the experimental group. The results demonstrated that new bone formation and high bone strength were achieved in the β-TCP/BG scaffold group, and suggested that the β-TCP/BG scaffold could be used as a synthetic alternative to autografts for the repair of bone defects.

  10. Effect of degree of deacetylation of chitosan on adsorption capacity and reusability of chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/TiO2nano composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiba, Umma; Joo, Tan Chin; Siddique, Tawsif A; Salleh, Areisman; Ang, Bee Chin; Afifi, Amalina M

    2017-11-01

    The chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/TiO 2 composite was synthesized. Two different degrees of deacetylation of chitosan were prepared by hydrolysis to compare the effectiveness of them. The composite was analyzed via field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, weight loss test and adsorption study. The FTIR and XRD results proved the interaction among chitosan, PVA and TiO 2 without any chemical reaction. It was found that, chitosan with higher degree of deacetylation has better stability. Furthermore, it also showed that higher DD of chitosan required less time to reach equilibrium for methyl orange. The adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were fitted well for isotherm study. Adsorption capacity was higher for the composite containing chitosan with higher DD. The dye removal rate was independent of the dye's initial concentration. The adsorption capacity was increased with temperature and it was found from reusability test that the composite containing chitosan with higher DD is more reusable. It was notable that adsorption capacity was even after 15 runs. Therefore, chitosan/PVA/TiO 2 composite can be a very useful material for dye removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of alumina precursor and alumina to be used as nano composite; Sintese e caracterizacao de precursores de alumina e alumina para uso em nanocompositos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, M.L.P., E-mail: malu@sorocaba.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Santos, H. Souza [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Santos, P. Souza [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2009-07-01

    With the evolution of nanomaterials technology, mainly in the 90s, it was possible to observe produced composites with alumina matrix and nanomaterial as reinforcing materials. It results in a significant improvement of mechanical proprieties of these composites. Thenceforth the study of synthesis and characterization of nanostructured materials has attracted great scientific interest. In this perspective, the aim of this work is to present an experimental procedure to obtain nordstrandite (aluminum hydroxide) with nanometric dimensions. Nordstrandite synthesis, obtained by the reaction of slightly amalgamated aluminum foil with aqueous ethylene glycol, which allows the control of the size of crystal produced. This control could be confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction and Electron Microscopy. Thermal transformation study is also presented. This study allowed the identification of transition aluminas that have potential to produce nanometric aluminas. (author)

  12. A novel nano-composite multi-layered biomaterial for treatment of osteochondral lesions: technique note and an early stability pilot clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, E; Delcogliano, M; Filardo, G; Pressato, D; Busacca, M; Grigolo, B; Desando, G; Marcacci, M

    2010-07-01

    Osteochondral articular defects are a key concern in orthopaedic surgery. Current surgical techniques to repair osteochondral defects lead to poor subchondral bone regeneration and fibrocartilage formation, which is often associated with joint pain and stiffness. The objective of this pilot clinical study is to evaluate the performance and the intrinsic stability of a newly developed biomimetic osteochondral scaffold and to test the safety and the feasibility of the surgical procedure. A gradient composite osteochondral scaffold based on type I collagen-hydroxyapatite was obtained by nucleating collagen fibrils with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Thirteen patients (15 defect sites) were treated with scaffold implantation from January 2007 to July 2007: four at the medial femoral condyle, two at the lateral femoral condyles, five at the patellas and four at the trochleas. The mean size of the defects was 2.8 cm(2) (range: 1.5-5.9 cm(2)). All patients were followed up prospectively. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to determine "the early postoperative adherence rate" at 4-5 weeks and 25-26 weeks after scaffold implantation. Moreover, the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score was performed on every MRI. Two second-looks were performed at 6 months; cartilage repair was assessed using the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) visual scoring system and histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the two biopsies was carried out. A completely attached graft and repair tissue were found in 13 of 15 lesions (86.7%). A partial detachment was observed in two patients (13.3%). No detached grafts were found. Complete filling of the cartilage defect and congruency of the articular surface were seen in 10 lesions (66.7%) with MRI evaluation at 6 months. The complete integration of the grafted cartilage was detected in eight lesions (53.3%). Subchondral bone changes (oedema or sclerosis) were found in eight defects (53.3%). Statistical analysis showed a significant improvement in the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective and objective scores from preoperative to 6 months' follow-up (p<0.0005). Visual scoring of the repaired tissue at second-look revealed a normal repair score in one case and a near-normal repair score in the other case. Histological analysis showed the formation of subchondral bone without the presence of biomaterial. The cartilage repair tissue appeared to be engaged in an ongoing maturation process. The technique is safe and MRI evaluation at short-term follow-up has demonstrated good stability of the scaffold without any other fixation device. The preliminary clinical results at short-term follow-up are encouraging. A clinical and MRI study with longer follow-up and randomised studies will be done to confirm the high potential of this novel osteochondral scaffold. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Final Report - Recovery Act - Development and application of processing and process control for nano-composite materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Claus [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Hagans, Patrick [A123 Systems, Inc.; Babinec, Sue [A123 Systems, Inc.

    2013-08-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and A123 Systems, Inc. collaborated on this project to develop a better understanding, quality control procedures, and safety testing for A123 System s nanocomposite separator (NCS) technology which is a cell based patented technology and separator. NCS demonstrated excellent performance. x3450 prismatic cells were shown to survive >8000 cycles (1C/2C rate) at room temperature with greater than 80% capacity retention with only NCS present as an alternative to conventional polyolefin. However, for a successful commercialization, the coating conditions required to provide consistent and reliable product had not been optimized and QC techniques for being able to remove defective material before incorporation into a cell had not been developed. The work outlined in this report addresses these latter two points. First, experiments were conducted to understand temperature profiles during the different drying stages of the NCS coating when applied to both anode and cathode. One of the more interesting discoveries of this study was the observation of the large temperature decrease experienced by the wet coating between the end of the infrared (IR) drying stage and the beginning of the exposure to the convection drying oven. This is not a desirable situation as the temperature gradient could have a deleterious effect on coating quality. Based on this and other experimental data a radiative transfer model was developed for IR heating that also included a mass transfer module for drying. This will prove invaluable for battery coating optimization especially where IR drying is being employed. A stress model was also developed that predicts that under certain drying conditions tensile stresses are formed in the coating which could lead to cracking that is sometimes observed after drying is complete. Prediction of under what conditions these stresses form is vital to improving coating quality. In addition to understanding the drying process other parameters such as slurry quality and equipment optimization were examined. Removal of particles and gels by filtering, control of viscosity by %solids and mixing adjustments, removal of trapped gas in the slurry and modification of coater speed and slot die gap were all found to be important for producing uniform and flaw-free coatings. Second, an in-line Hi-Pot testing method has been developed specifically for NCS that will enable detection of coating flaws that could lead to soft or hard electrical shorts within the cell. In this way flawed material can be rejected before incorporation into the cell thus greatly reducing the amount of scrap that is generated. Improved battery safety is an extremely important benefit of NCS. Evaluation of battery safety is usually accomplished by conducting a variety of tests including nail penetration, hot box, over charge, etc. For these tests entire batteries must be built but the resultant temperature and voltage responses reveal little about the breakdown mechanism. In this report is described a pinch test which is used to evaluate NCS quality at various stages including coated anode and cathode as well as assembled cell. Coupled with post-microscopic examination of the damaged pinch point test data can assist in the coating optimization from an improved end-use standpoint. As a result of this work two invention disclosures, one for optimizing drying methodology and the other for an in-line system for flaw detection, have been filed. In addition, 2 papers are being written for submission to peer-reviewed journals.

  14. Potentiodynamic studies of Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nano-composited coating on the mild steel deposited by electroless plating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uttam, Vibha, E-mail: vibhauttam74@gmail.com; Duchaniya, R. K., E-mail: rkduchaniya.meta@mnit.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, MNIT Jaipur (India)

    2016-05-06

    Now a days, corrosion studies are important for reducing the wastage of metals. The importance of corrosion studies is two folds i.e. first is economic, including the reduction of material losses resulting from the wasting away or sudden failure of materials and second is conservation Electroless process is an autocatalytic reduction method in which metallic ions are reduced in the solution. Nanocomposite coatings of Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} on mild steel are deposited by varying volume of TiO{sub 2} nano-powder by electroless method from Ni-P plating bath containing Nickel Sulphate as a source of nickel ions, sodium hypophosphite as the reducing agent, lactic acid as a complexing agents and TiO{sub 2} nano powder. Electroless Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} coating have been widely used in the chemical process industries, mechanical industries, electronic industries and chloroalkali industries due to their excellent corrosion with mechanical properties. In the present work, deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposited coatings were done on the mild steel and corrosion properties were studied with Potentio-dynamic polarization measurements method in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution. It showed in the experiments that Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposited coating has better corrosion resistance as comparedthan Ni-P alloy coating. Morphological studies were done by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy–dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These studies confirmed the deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposited coating.

  15. Synthesis Of Fe3O4-Chitosan Magnetic NanoComposites By Gamma Irradiation For Absorbing Of Heavy Metals In Aqueous Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Minh Quynh; Nguyen Van Binh; Nguyen Quang Long; Hoang Dang Sang

    2014-01-01

    Studies on adsorption capacity of the obtained Fe 3 O 4 -chitosan nanoparticles for metal ions in aqueous solutions showed that initial amount of adsorbent and pH have much influenced on their adsorption capacity. Adsorption rate was quite fast at first, then slower. Maximum adsorption capacity were measured at 25 o C are 71, 41.4 and 26 mg/g obtained at pH 5, 6 and 7 for Cu(CH 3 COO) 2 .H 2 O, Pb(CH 3 COO) 2 .3H 2 O and NaH 2 AsO 4 .7H 2 O, respectively. The adsorption capacity increased with adsorbent amount to a certain value, then leveled off. These results suggested that the Fe 3 O 4 -chitosan nanoparticles can be applied as a potential adsorbent for removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution, but it required further studies including of adsorption kinetics and desorption in order to control the process in practice. (author)

  16. CRADA Final Report for NFE-08-01826: Development and application of processing and processcontrol for nano-composite materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, C.; Armstrong, B.; Maxey, C.; Sabau, A.; Wang, H.; Hagans, P. (A123 Systems, Inc.); and Babinec, S. (A123 Systems, Inc.)

    2012-12-15

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and A123 Systems, Inc. collaborated on this project to develop a better understanding, quality control procedures, and safety testing for A123 System’s nanocomposite separator (NCS) technology which is a cell based patented technology and separator. NCS demonstrated excellent performance. x3450 prismatic cells were shown to survive >8000 cycles (1C/2C rate) at room temperature with greater than 80% capacity retention with only NCS present as an alternative to conventional polyolefin. However, for a successful commercialization, the coating conditions required to provide consistent and reliable product had not been optimized and QC techniques for being able to remove defective material before incorporation into a cell had not been developed. The work outlined in this report addresses these latter two points. First, experiments were conducted to understand temperature profiles during the different drying stages of the NCS coating when applied to both anode and cathode. One of the more interesting discoveries of this study was the observation of the large temperature decrease experienced by the wet coating between the end of the infrared (IR) drying stage and the beginning of the exposure to the convection drying oven. This is not a desirable situation as the temperature gradient could have a deleterious effect on coating quality. Based on this and other experimental data a radiative transfer model was developed for IR heating that also included a mass transfer module for drying. This will prove invaluable for battery coating optimization especially where IR drying is being employed. A stress model was also developed that predicts that under certain drying conditions tensile stresses are formed in the coating which could lead to cracking that is sometimes observed after drying is complete. Prediction of under what conditions these stresses form is vital to improving coating quality. In addition to understanding the drying process other parameters such as slurry quality and equipment optimization were examined. Removal of particles and gels by filtering, control of viscosity by %solids and mixing adjustments, removal of trapped gas in the slurry and modification of coater speed and slot die gap were all found to be important for producing uniform and flaw-free coatings. Second, an in-line Hi-Pot testing method has been developed specifically for NCS that will enable detection of coating flaws that could lead to soft or hard electrical shorts within the cell. In this way flawed material can be rejected before incorporation into the cell thus greatly reducing the amount of scrap that is generated. Improved battery safety is an extremely important benefit of NCS. Evaluation of battery safety is usually accomplished by conducting a variety of tests including nail penetration, hot box, over charge, etc. For these tests entire batteries must be built but the resultant temperature and voltage responses reveal little about the breakdown mechanism. In this report is described a pinch test which is used to evaluate NCS quality at various stages including coated anode and cathode as well as assembled cell. Coupled with post-microscopic examination of the damaged ‘pinch point’ test data can assist in the coating optimization from an improved end-use standpoint. As a result of this work two invention disclosures, one for optimizing drying methodology and the other for an in-line system for flaw detection, have been filed. In addition, 2 papers are being written for submission to peer-reviewed journals.

  17. Investigating a new drug delivery nano composite membrane system based on PVA/PCL and PVA/HA(PEG) for the controlled release of biopharmaceuticals for bone infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Taoyu; Stylios, George K; Giannoudi, Marilena; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2015-12-01

    The capability for sustained and gradual release of pharmaceuticals is a major requirement in the development of a guided antimicrobial bacterial control system for clinical applications. In this study, PVA gels with varying constituents that were manufactured via a refreeze/thawing route, were found to have excellent potential for antimicrobial delivery for bone infections. Cefuroxime Sodium with poly(ethylene glycol) was incorporated into 2 delivery systems poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA), by a modified emulsion process. Our results indicate that the Cefuroxime Sodium released from poly(e-caprolactone) in PVA was tailored to a sustained release over more than 45 days, while the release from hydroxyapatite PVA reach burst maximum after 20 days. These PVA hydrogel-systems were also capable of controlled and sustained release of other biopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Computational designing ultra-sensitive nano-composite based on boron doped and CuO decorated graphene to adsorb H2S and CO gaseous molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Hamed; Vaezzadeh, Majid

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, interactions of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with doped and decorated graphene were investigated by using density functional theory and quantum-espresso packages. First of all, impurity effects and properties like adsorption mechanism, the more probable position, binding energy, bond length, Lowdin charge analyze and density of state (DOS) have been determined and then the properties of CO and H2S adsorption calculated, and a brief comparison with other studies has been done. All of these lead to tuning the electronic structure of graphene sheet with impurities that show higher affinities with H2S and CO molecules in comparison to pristine graphene. The obtained results from DOS and charge transfer show that electrical conductance of the B doped graphene sheet and CuO Nano particle decorated—Boron doped graphene sheets are significantly changed compared to the pristine graphene sheet by an increase in the electronic states of near the Fermi’s energy states.

  19. Thermal and mechanical properties of polyamide 6/compatibilizer/clay nano composites; Propriedades termicas e mecanicas de nanocompositos de poliamida 6/compatibilizante/argila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, P.; Brito, G.F.; Cunha, C.T.C.; Araujo, E.M.; Melo, T.J.A., E-mail: tomas@dema.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    In this work, the thermal and mechanical properties of Polyamide 6 (PA6)/compatibilizer/clay (CL20A) nanocomposites were investigated. The nanocomposites were prepared in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder at 240 deg C and 50 rpm, and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetry (TG) and mechanical properties. XRD results showed that when the clay is mixed with PA6, the clay peak is shifted to lower 2{theta} angles, indicating that PA6 was intercalated between the clay platelets. For PA6/compatibilizer/clay system, the results indicated that a nanocomposite with exfoliated structure was formed. TG results showed that the thermal stability of PA6/CL20A and PA6/compatibilizer/CL20A was higher than that of neat PA6. The mechanical properties results showed that the addition of the compatibilizer to PA6/CL20A substantially increased the impact strength and decreased the stiffness. (author)

  20. Neutron diffraction evidence for double exchange coupling in Ru-substituted La0.6Pb0.4Mn1-x Ru x O3, 0≤x≤0.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siruguri, V.; Gutierrez, J.; Barandiaran, J.M.; Lazpita, P.; Singh, Brajendra; Sahu, Ranjan K.; Manoharan, S. Sundar; Henry, P.; Mondelli, C.

    2006-01-01

    Double exchange (DE)-mediated ferromagnetism in manganites, in which the Zener pair (Mn 3+ /Mn 4+ ) is a key factor, is marked by the coexistence of the magnetic transition and the metal-insulator transition, thus distinguishing itself from superexchange (SE)-mediated ferromagnetism. Through detailed magnetization, transport and XAS studies, it was proposed by some of us that a unique magnetic pair-making effect occurs in Ru-substituted La 0.6 Pb 0.4 Mn 1- x Ru x O 3 by virtue of variable valency of Ru and Mn. Ru ion, exhibiting a variable valency of Ru 4+ and Ru 5+ , governs the DE-mediated coupling by initiating a magnetic pair-making effect with Mn 3+ and Mn 4+ states. Neutron diffraction measurements carried out on these compounds in the temperature range 4.2-500 K reveal the microscopic nature of magnetic ordering. Data obtained, in conjunction with data from other experimental techniques above, show that (i) Ru participates in the DE interaction with Mn for x≤0.4 (ii) there is a weakening of DE due to depletion of Ru 5+ for x>0.4, and (iii) SE ferromagnetic interactions are favored for x>0.4

  1. Comparision between ab-initio and phenomenological modeling of the exchange couplings in diluted magnetic semiconductors: the case of Zn.sub.1-x./sub.Cr.sub.x./sub.Te

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouzerar, G.; Bouzerar, R.; Kudrnovský, Josef; Ziman, T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 203, č. 11 (2006), s. 2989-2994 ISSN 0031-8965 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ab-intio * exchange interactions * Curie temperatures * diluted systems * RPA Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.221, year: 2006

  2. Influence of the surfactant in the shear-induced crystallization kinetics of HDPE/MMT nano composites; Influencia do tratamento superficial da montmorilonita na cinetica de cristalizacao induzida por fluxo de nanocompositos de HDPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonel, A.B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMA/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Beatrice, C.A.G.; Marini, J.; Bretas, R.E.S., E-mail: bretas@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) compatibilized with ethylene vinyl-acetate copolymer (EVA)r, with 5 wt% of two different organically modified montmorillonite (with polar and non-polar surfactant) were prepared by melt blending in a corrotational twin-screw extruder at 225 deg C, 100rpm and 3kg/h. Both nanocomposites were characterized by wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and rheological measurements. The nanoclay's lamellas were intercalated in both samples. The storage and the loss moduli of the nanocomposites, at low frequencies, showed that the particles of the nanoclay modified with a polar surfactant were well dispersed thru the HDPE matrix, while the particles of the other nanoclay were well distributed thru the matrix. The presence of a nanoclay modified with a non-polar surfactant reduced the induction times for the crystals growth, due to the strong interactions with the HDPE chains. (author)

  3. Tungsten-doped TiO2/reduced Graphene Oxide nano-composite photocatalyst for degradation of phenol: A system to reduce surface and bulk electron-hole recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manisha; Yadav, Asha; Fernandes, Rohan; Popat, Yaksh; Orlandi, Michele; Dashora, Alpa; Kothari, D C; Miotello, Antonio; Ahuja, B L; Patel, Nainesh

    2017-12-01

    Recombination of photogenerated charges is the main factor affecting the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 . Here, we report a combined strategy of suppressing both the bulk as well as the surface recombination processes by doping TiO 2 with tungsten and forming a nanocomposite with reduced graphene oxide (rGO), respectively. Sol-gel method was used to dope and optimize the concentration of W in TiO 2 powder. UV-Vis, XPS, PL and time resolved PL spectra along with DFT calculations indicate that W 6+ in TiO 2 lattice creates an impurity level just below the conduction band of TiO 2 to act as a trapping site of electrons, which causes to improve the lifetime of the photo-generated charges. Maximum reduction in the PL intensity and the improvement in charge carrier lifetime was observed for TiO 2 doped with 1 at.% W (1W-TiO 2 ), which also displayed the highest photo-activity for the degradation of p-nitro phenol pollutant in water. Tuning of rGO/TiO 2 ratio (weight) disclosed that the highest activity can be achieved with the composite formed by taking equal amounts of TiO 2 and rGO (1:1), in which the strong interaction between TiO 2 and rGO causes an effective charge transfer via bonds formed near the interface as indicated by XPS. Both these optimized concentrations were utilized to form the composite rGO/1W-TiO 2 , which showed the highest activity in photo-degradation of p-nitro phenol (87%) as compared to rGO/TiO 2 (42%), 1W-TiO 2 (62%) and pure TiO 2 (29%) in 180 min. XPS and PL results revealed that in the present nanocomposite, tungsten species traps the excited electron to reduce the interband recombination in the bulk, while the interaction between TiO 2 and rGO creates a channel for fast transfer of excited electrons towards the latter before being recombined on the surface defect sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Des (bio)nano-composites utilisés dans le traitement d'eaux contaminées par de l'arsenic/gentamicine ou pour des applications médicales

    OpenAIRE

    He , Jing

    2013-01-01

    Bionanocomposites represent an emerging group of nano-structured hybrid materials. They are formed by the combination of natural polymers and inorganic solids and show at least one dimension on the nanometer scale (Darder et al., 2007). These hybrid materials retain the structural and functional properties of nano-structured materials. Meanwhile, the presence of biopolymer can reduce the public health and environmental risk of nano-sized material. The properties inherent to the biopolymers, t...

  5. Des (bio)nano-composites utilisés dans le traitement d'eaux contaminées par de l'arsenic/gentamicine ou pour des applications médicales

    OpenAIRE

    HE, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Les composés dits 'bionano' (bionanocomposites) apparaissent comme un nouveau groupe de matériaux hybrides nano-structurés. Ils sont issus de la combinaison de polymères naturels et de solides inorganiques et sont de l'ordre du nanomètre dans au moins une direction. Ces matériaux hybrides conservent les structures et les propriétés fonctionnelles des polymères et matériaux inorganiques dont ils sont composés. Parallèlement, la présence de biopolymères permet de diminuer les risques environnem...

  6. Polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene with layered double hydroxide nano composites: In situ synthesis, morphology and thermal properties; Nanocompositos de polimetacrilato de metila e poliestireno com hidroxido duplo lamelar: sintese in situ, morfologia e propriedades termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Over the past decade, polymer nanocomposites have attracted interest, both in industry and in academia, because they often exhibit remarkable improvement in their properties when compared with pure polymer or conventional micro and macro-composites using low levels of reinforcements. In this work polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene reinforced with layered double hydroxide, which was intercalated with sodium dodecyl sulfate were synthesized by in situ bulk polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized and compared by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test. The X-ray diffraction demonstrated that synthesized nanocomposites showed a high global dispersion of layered double hydroxide, suggesting exfoliated morphology. The result of thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test for synthesized polystyrene/ layered double hydroxide nanocomposite presented a significant improvement in thermal stability and flammability property when compared with pure polymer. (author)

  7. Influence of blending sequence on the rheological behavior of HDPE/LLDPE/MMT nano composites; Influencia da sequencia de mistura no comportamento reologico de nanocompositos HDPE/LLDPE/MMT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passador, F.R.; Pessan, L.A., E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMA/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Ruvolo Filho, A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPGCEM/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The blending sequence affects the rheological behavior and the morphology formation of the nanocomposites. In this work, the blending sequences were explored to see its influence in the rheological behavior of HDPE/LLDPE/MMT nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were obtained by melt-intercalation using HDPE-g-MA as a compatibilizer in a torque rheometer (Haake Rheomix 600p at 180 deg C and rotor speed of 80rpm) and five blending sequences were studied. The materials structures were characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and by rheological properties. The nanoclay's addition increased the shear viscosity at low shear rates, changing the behavior of HDPE/LLDPE matrix to a Bingham model behavior with an apparent yield stress. Intense interactions were obtained for the blending sequence where HDPE and HDPE-g-MA were first reinforced with organoclay and then the HDPE/HDPE-g-MA/organoclay nanocomposite was later blended with LLDPE. (author)

  8. Developing an electrochemical sensor based on a carbon paste electrode modified with nano-composite of reduced graphene oxide and CuFe2O4 nanoparticles for determination of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvidi, Ali; Nafar, Mohammad Taghi; Jahanbani, Shahriar; Tezerjani, Marzieh Dehghan; Rezaeinasab, Masoud; Dalirnasab, Sudabeh

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a highly sensitive voltammetric sensor based on a carbon paste electrode with CuFe 2 O 4 nanoparticle (RGO/CuFe 2 O 4 /CPE) was designed for determination of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The electrocatalytic reduction of H 2 O 2 was examined using various techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry, amperometry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). CuFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method and characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. Then, a high conductive platform based on a carbon paste electrode modified with RGO and CuFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles was prepared as a suitable platform for determination of hydrogen peroxide. Under the optimum conditions (pH5), the modified electrode indicated a fast amperometric response of determination of hydrogen peroxide. Also, the peak current of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) of hydrogen peroxide is increased linearly with its concentration in the ranges of 2 to 10μM and 10 to 1000μM. The obtained detection limit for hydrogen peroxide was evaluated to be 0.064μM by DPV. The designed sensor was successfully applied for the assay of hydrogen peroxide in biological and pharmaceutical samples such as milk, green tea, and hair dye cream and mouthwash solution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Modification of UHMWPE membrane with a PE/clay/PE-G-MA nano composite film to treat oily effluents; Modificacao de membrana de PEUAPM com filme nanocomposito de PEAD/argila/PE-G-MA para o tratamento de efluentes oleosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Suelem S.L.; Silva, Caio M.B.; Leal, Tania L.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Costa, Anna R.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)], e-mail: tanlucleal@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    Interest in techniques of surface modification is evinced by the large number of studies in recent decades. In this work the internal surfaces of polymeric membranes of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were modified by impregnation of HDPE/organoclay/PE-g-MA nanocomposite film. The addition of PE-g-MA aims to increase polymer/clay interaction and to control and/or modify surface characteristics of UHMWPE membranes, such as permeability and pore size, so as to make the membranes more efficient and/or appropriate for effluent treatment, more specifically in the treatment of oil contaminated water. The films were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the modified membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their performance (permeate flux and selectivity) were measured using distilled water and an oil in water dispersion. (author)

  10. Preparation of organo clays thermally stable to be employed as filler in PET nano composites; Preparacao de argilas organofilicas estaveis termicamente para serem empregadas como cargas em nanocompositos de PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, I.F. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGMTR/CCEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia de Materiais; Soares, A.P.S.; Silva, S.M.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Malta, O.M.L. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza. Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    2009-07-01

    Thermal stability of organically modified clays is fundamental to melt processing polymer nanocomposites, especially, poly(terephthalate ethylene) (PET). However, the use of organic salts with high thermal stability is factor essential to obtaining of organoclays with great thermal properties. This work has as purpose to evaluate the influence of organic modifier based on alkyl ammonium, alkyl phosphonium and aryl phosphonium, in the clay organic modification visa to improve thermal properties to use as filler in nanocomposites preparation, where temperatures at about 260 deg C will be employed. The most common, and commercially available, surfactants used for cation exchange reactions with montmorillonites, rendering them organophilic, are quaternary ammonium salts, that when present as cations in montmorillonite, typically begin degradation at above 200 deg C. However, organoclays prepared with quaternary alkyl phosphonium salts may be potentially useful for the organoclays preparation stable thermally. In this study bentonite clay from Bentonit Uniao Nordeste/PB was purified and organically modified with the organic salts reported above. Organoclays were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and analysis thermogravimetry. The results shown that the samples modified with the salts based on phosphonium presented higher thermal stability that the alkyl ammonium salt. (author)

  11. Design of 3D-Printable Conductive Composites for 3D-Printed Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    In this research, a biocompatible nano-composite is designed for the application of 3D printed battery. The nano-composite paste is composed of an electrically conductive silver nanowire (AgNW) filler within a thixotropic carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) matrix. Experimental demonstration and computational simulations on nano-composites with various filler fractions are performed to find the electrical percolation threshold of the nano-composite. The percolation threshold as 0.7 vol. % of AgNWs ...

  12. Preparation of nano composite latex of poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) P (BA-co-MMA) and layered double hydroxide (LDH) by mini emulsion polymerization; Preparacao de latex nanocomposito de poli(acrilato de butila-co-metacrilato de metila) P (BA-co-MMA) e hidroxido duplo lamelar (HDL) por meio da tecnica de polimerizacao em miniemulsao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rodrigo D.; Lona, Liliane M.F., E-mail: liliane@feq.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Unicamp, Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica, SP (Brazil); Dube, Marc A. [Universidade de Ottawa. Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the present work, the synthesis of polymeric nonconsumption (PNCs) of P(BA-coMMA) and layered LDH through mini emulsion polymerization (MEP) was studied. The commercial organically modified LDH Perkalite F100S was used as filler and octadecyl acrylate (ODA) as costabilizer of the mini emulsions. Two types of surfactant, a cationic and nonionic one, were investigated and the cationic one could not stabilize the system when the LDH was present. The polymerization kinetics was not significantly affected by the presence of LDH which kept the pH of the system constant during the reaction. The dispersion of the inorganic material in the polymeric matrix was evaluated by X-ray diffraction which suggested exfoliation of the LDH. (author)

  13. Mechanical characterization of scalable cellulose nano-fiber based composites made using liquid composite molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamdad Barari; Thomas K. Ellingham; Issam I. Ghamhia; Krishna M. Pillai; Rani El-Hajjar; Lih-Sheng Turng; Ronald Sabo

    2016-01-01

    Plant derived cellulose nano-fibers (CNF) are a material with remarkable mechanical properties compared to other natural fibers. However, efforts to produce nano-composites on a large scale using CNF have yet to be investigated. In this study, scalable CNF nano-composites were made from isotropically porous CNF preforms using a freeze drying process. An improvised...

  14. Effect of Amount of 3-Methacryloxy Propyl Thrimethoxysilane Coupling Agent and Nano Filling Structure on Physic-Mechanical Properties of Dental Resin Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Tondnevis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers in the field of dental polymeric base nano composite investigated the effect filling morphology and filling material content on mechanical and physical properties of construction after setting reaction. Our present study concentrated on the effect of ϒ metacryloxy propyloxt tri metoxy silane (ϒ MPS content as coupling agent (orgnic material on physical and mechanical performance of nano composite material. It was shown that despite of contraction after setting reaction, all this properties improved and efficient silanization can efficiently affect structural integrity of dental filling nano composite

  15. Thermo oxidative degradation of HMSPP/clay nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Luiz G.H.; Oliani, Washington L.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of thermal ageing in dumbbell samples of nano composites using stove at 110 deg C, with air circulation at different periods of time. The clay, Cloisite 20 A, was added to HMSPP to obtain nano composites in proportion of 5 and 10 wt%. The nano composites were processed in twin screw extruder to compatibilizer the HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene), polypropylene graft maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) and the Cloisite 20 A The effects were evaluated by carbonyl index determination (CI), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The nano composites showed intense cracks and yellowing after thermal ageing. (author)

  16. Enhanced Carbon Nanotube Ultracapacitors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation utilizes carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with pseudo-capacitive MnO2 material as nano-composite electrode and ionic electrolyte for the...

  17. 2. Home 3. Journals 4. Bulletin of Materials Science 5. Volume 37 6 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    . 963. Cadmium sulfide. Chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films doped ..... Electrodeposition. Electrodeposition and characterization of Ni–W/ZrO2 nano- composite coatings. 1053. Effect of ethyl vanillin on ZnNi alloy electrodeposition and.

  18. Electromagnetic properties and performance of exfoliated graphite (EG) - thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanocomposites at microwaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valentini, M.; Piana, Francesco; Pionteck, J.; Lamastra, F. R.; Nanni, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, 19 June (2015), s. 26-33 ISSN 0266-3538 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : exfoliated graphite * functional composites * nano composites Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.897, year: 2015

  19. Effect of sintering temperature and time on the mechanical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Mo/58S bioglass porous nano-composite. MAJID TAGHIAN DEHAGHANI* and MEHDI AHMADIAN. Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran. MS received 26 August 2014; accepted 6 ...

  20. Characterization of casein and casein-silver conjugated nanoparticle containing multifunctional (pectin–sodium alginate/casein) bilayer film

    OpenAIRE

    Bora, Anupama; Mishra, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Casein nano particles and casein-silver conjugated nano composite containing edible bilayer pouch was developed from a heat sealable casein layer laminated with sodium alginate–pectin layer. The physicochemical, mechanical, biodegradability and the toxicity of the film were evaluated. The synthesized casein nano particle was incorporated in the casein layer (inner layer) of the film, however, the casein-silver conjugated nano composite were incorporated in the sodium alginate–pectin (outer) l...

  1. SYNTHSIS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SILVER NANOCOMPOSITES POLYMER ELECTROLYTE

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 仁和

    2016-01-01

    The silver nano composite polymer electrolytes are prepared by the method of two kinds of the ultrafine particle direct dispersion method and in situ synthesis. The structure of the silver nano composite polymer electrolyte is characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer spectrophotometer (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) .The optical property is evaluated by the optical absorption. The electrical property is also evaluated by the ac i...

  2. Grazing incidence polarized neutron scattering in reflection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    along with suppression of training effect in exchange coupled system was microscopically identified using neutron ..... reversal mechanism and suppression of training in an exchange-coupled system by Paul et al are worth ...... density functional calculations based on Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker–Coherent potential-.

  3. Structural, Magnetic, and Transport Properties of Polymer-Nano ferrite Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, N.G.G.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a series of (x) BaTiO 3 / (1-x) Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 nano composite samples were prepared using citrate auto combustion and the samples were classified into three groups.In first group: A series of (x) BaTiO 3 / (1-x) Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 ; 0.0≤ x ≤ 1.0 were prepared by double sintering technique and citrate auto combustion method in comparison study due to different characterization analysis. The comparison reveals that from X-ray diffraction; all the samples from the two methods formed in single phase in both; cubic spinel structure NiZnFe 2 O 4 (NZF) ferrite and perovskite tetragonal structure BaTiO 3 (BTO).In group two, in another compassion, multiferroic hybrid nano composites based on different polymers as a matrix for the prepared magnetoelectric biferroic nano composite system 0.5 BaTiO 3 / 0.5Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 that has been prepared by citrate auto combustion method. Four different polymers namely poly aniline (PANI), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and polyethylene glycol (PEG), with fixed ration (1:1) with respect to the dispersed magnetoelectric nano composite.In group three, the nano composites materials with formula (1-y) [0.5 BaTiO 3 / 0.5 Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 ] / (y) (PEG); 0.0 ≤y ≤+ 1.0, have been prepared at room temperature by weight mixing and cold pressing. Physical properties of nano composite materials consisting different ratios of polyethylene glycol were investigated. With the variation of y content, typical magnetic hysteresis loops of nano composites have been observed in the nano composites at room temperature. When PEG content increase, the saturation magnetization decrease. Meanwhile, the coercive force tends to stable. Additionally, the dielectric constant (ε ' ) and dielectric loss factor (ε '' ) of nano composites materials shift toward higher frequency. The value of (ε ' ) decreased with increasing frequency, which indicates that the major contribution

  4. Characterization of casein and casein-silver conjugated nanoparticle containing multifunctional (pectin-sodium alginate/casein) bilayer film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Anupama; Mishra, Poonam

    2016-10-01

    Casein nano particles and casein-silver conjugated nano composite containing edible bilayer pouch was developed from a heat sealable casein layer laminated with sodium alginate-pectin layer. The physicochemical, mechanical, biodegradability and the toxicity of the film were evaluated. The synthesized casein nano particle was incorporated in the casein layer (inner layer) of the film, however, the casein-silver conjugated nano composite were incorporated in the sodium alginate-pectin (outer) layer of the film. The mechanical, barrier, physical and antimicrobial properties of the film were investigated. Addition of nano composite/nano particle reduced the water solubility (from 67 to 46 % at 80 °C temperature) of the film improved the water barrier properties, light barrier properties, tensile strength and thermal properties of the film. The light barrier properties of the film increased and transparency reduced with increase in silver content in the conjugated nano composite film. The nano particles/nano composite containing film showed antibacterial activity against E. coli . The films were recorded safe for red blood cells as % haemolysis for all the tested samples were found to be well below the safe level.

  5. Microwave assisted polymer stabilized synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its application in the degradation of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Pankaj Kumar; Ganesan, Vellaichamy; Krishnamoorthi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide and dextran are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone. ► Silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM) is synthesized by microwave heating. ► The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as stabilizing and reducing agent. ► Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite shows efficient catalytic activity for the reduction of environmental pollutants. - Abstract: Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide (PAM) and dextran (Dx) are synthesized by grafting PAM chains onto a Dx backbone (Dx-g-PAM) with ceric ion induced solution polymerization technique. Partial hydrolysis of Dx-g-PAM is carried out with sodium hydroxide solution to obtain HDx-g-PAM. To synthesize silver nanoparticles dispersed copolymer nano-composite (Ag-HDx-g-PAM), reduction of silver ions with HDx-g-PAM is carried out using microwave heating. The environmentally benign and biodegradable copolymer, HDx-g-PAM acts as both stabilizer and reducing agent. The copolymer nano-composite, Ag-HDx-g-PAM is characterized by FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. Further, the catalytic activity of Ag-HDx-g-PAM nano-composite towards the reduction of environmental pollutants like phenosafranine dye and aromatic nitro compounds are studied.

  6. Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehrdad shokrieh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite materials have recently attracted increasing interests in the field of modelling. Finite element modelling can be used for computation of bulk properties of polymer/clay nanocomposites. In this study, by   considering the structure of a nano-composite material, a quasi real model is proposed. The model has been used to predict the elastic constants by selection of suitable elements and boundary conditions. The effects of nano-structural parameters on the mechanical properties of a polymer/clay nano-composite are studied. The geometrical overlap of particles, horizontal distance between particles, length of particles and nano-clay volume fraction are defined as functions of the nano-structural parameters and their effects on mechanical properties of nano-composites are studied by a finite element modelling technique.

  7. Functional biocompatible magnetite-cellulose nanocomposite fibrous networks: Characterization by fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Neda

    2015-02-01

    The preparation and characterization of functional biocompatible magnetite-cellulose nano-composite fibrous material is described. Magnetite-cellulose nano-composite was prepared by a combination of the solution-based formation of magnetic nano-particles and subsequent coating with amino celluloses. Characterization was accomplished using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis. The peaks of Fe3O4 in the XRD pattern of nanocomposite confirm existence of the nanoparticles in the amino cellulose matrix. Magnetite-cellulose particles exhibit an average diameter of roughly 33 nm as demonstrated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Magnetite nanoparticles were irregular spheres dispersed in the cellulose matrix. The vibration corresponding to the Nsbnd CH3 functional group about 2850 cm-1 is assigned in the FTIR spectra. Functionalized magnetite-cellulose nano-composite polymers have a potential range of application as targeted drug delivery system in biomedical field.

  8. The Effect of Gamma Radiation on the Bond Strength and Micro leakage of Two Aesthetic Restorative Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seif, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on bond strength and micro leakage of nano-composite and nano-glassionomer, and to detect any alterations in their molecular structure due to gamma radiation. Materials and Methods: 80 specimens were used as follow; 40 specimens for shear bond strength evaluation, 20 specimens for micro leakage assessment, while the remaining 20 specimens for deducing the chemical structure. For shear bond strength (SBS) test 2 mm thick wafers of dentine were sectioned and 3 mm diameter holes were drilled through the wafers. 20 specimens were restored with nano-composite and nano-glassionomer without irradiation (Group A1, B1). The remaining 20 specimens were restored with nano-composite and nano-glassionomer (Group A2, B2), then they were irradiated with therapeutic dose of 60 gray for 1 week (3 days/week). For micro leakage, 10 natural teeth with two prepared class V cavities were used. One of the cavities was restored with nano-composite while the other one with nano-glassionomer to be examined before and after gamma radiation. Spectrophotometric analysis was performed for all tested materials before and after radiation to trace any structural changes. Results: Significant increase in SBS of nano-composite after irradiation while nano-glassionomer was insignificantly increased. For micro leakage no significant difference existed between the irradiated and non-irradiated groups of both materials. Conclusion: Therapeutic dose of head and neck gamma radiation had improved dentin shear bond strength of nano-composite. On the other hand, it had not an effect on shear bond strength of nano-glassionomer and the micro leakage of both tested materials. Gamma radiation did not alter the chemical structure of the tested material.

  9. Particularities of impact of functionalization of carbon nanomaterial on the properties of polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsevich, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    The methods of functionalization of nano filler to eliminate agglomeration and sedimentation in the CNM dispersion compositions and for the effective application of CNM as a filler for polymer nano composite materials are presented. Introduction of functionalized samples CNM in the thermoplastic polymer matrix leads to significant changes in some of their technical characteristics. Changes in the properties of nano composites were made possible by pre-modifying treatments of CNM, which in turn contributed to the increase of interfacial interactions in contact nano filler-polymer and increase of share of the boundary layer. (authors).

  10. Influence of surface activated carbon nano fibres on mechanical properties of poly ether ketone (PEK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajeesh, G.; Bhowmik, S.; Sivakumar, V.; Varshney, L.

    2017-05-01

    This investigation highlights different surface functionalization processes of Carbon Nano Fibres (CNF’s) and their effects on mechanical properties of Polyetherketone (PEK) nano composite. Surfaces of CNF’s were modified by low pressure plasma process. There is a significant change in physico-chemical characteristics of CNF’s after low plasma treatment as evident from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform infrared Spectroscopic (FTIR) studies. Significant modification in surface morphology and oxygen functionalities are observed as a result of surface modification. There is a significant increase in mechanical properties of high performance polymeric nano composites when surface functionalized CNF’s are dispersed in polymeric matrix.

  11. Novel Approaches to the Synthesis, Processing and Applications of Nanocomposite Magnets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, J

    2003-01-01

    .... Remarkable progress has been made to February 2003 which includes: 1. a new model analysis in exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets was made which is in good agreement with the experimental data; 2...

  12. Spin-state transfer in laterally coupled quantum-dot chains with disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Song; Bayat, Abolfazl; Bose, Sougato

    2010-01-01

    Quantum dot arrays are a promising medium for transferring quantum information between two distant points without resorting to mobile qubits. Here we study the two most common disorders, namely hyperfine interaction and exchange coupling fluctuations, in quantum dot arrays and their effects on quantum communication through these chains. Our results show that the hyperfine interaction is more destructive than the exchange coupling fluctuations. The average optimal time for communication is not affected by any disorder in the system and our simulations show that antiferromagnetic chains are much more resistive than the ferromagnetic ones against both kind of disorders. Even when time modulation of a coupling and optimal control is employed to improve the transmission, the antiferromagnetic chain performs much better. We have assumed the quasistatic approximation for hyperfine interaction and time-dependent fluctuations in the exchange couplings. Particularly for studying exchange coupling fluctuations we have considered the static disorder, white noise, and 1/f noise.

  13. First-principles investigations of the magnetic properties of graphite boron nitride sheet induced by Fe doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaohui; Wang, Wenwei; Zhang, Dengyu; Lu, Wei; Fan, Bingbing

    2010-05-26

    The first-principles spin polarization method is used to investigate the magnetic properties of graphite boron nitride (g-BN) sheet induced by Fe doping. We find that a nitrogen or boron atom substituted by Fe can induce a magnetic moment. From standard Mulliken population analysis, we also find that the magnetic moment is mainly dominated by Fe 3d states. Using Heisenberg exchange coupling theory, we study the exchange coupling mechanisms by constructing two-Fe centers in g-BN. The results show the presence of relatively strong exchange coupling for two-Fe substituted two-B atoms and the coupling is ferromagnetic. For the case of two-Fe substituted two-N atoms, the coupling is antiferromagnetic and the exchange coupling is very weak. The paper enriches recent molecular magnetic investigations.

  14. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, Co–Cr–Mo/58S bioglass porous nano-composite samples were successfully produced using 30 wt% carbonate hydrogen ammonium and polyvinyl alcohol solution as space holder and binder, respectively. The cold compacted samples were heated at 175°C for 2 h and then were heated to sinter at ...

  15. Nanomaterials in biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela; Vuluga, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in nano materials have lead to applications in many areas from automotive to electronics and medicine. Nano composites are a popular group of nano materials. Nanocomposites in medical applications provide novel solutions to common problems. Materials for implants, biosensors and drug del...

  16. Reinforcement of 2124 Al alloy with low micron SiC and nano Al2O3 via solid-state forming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gxowa, Z

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A powder metallurgical process was used to fabricate Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs). A 2124 aluminium alloy was reinforced with 5 and 10 vol. % of Al2O3 (40-70nm) to form Metal Matrix Nano Composites (MMNCs) as well as 10 and 15 vol. % of SiC (1...

  17. A study on role of nanosized SiO2 on deformation mechanism of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    more brittle, the amount of plastic deformation will reduce, and, therefore, the extent of mirror zone will decrease. In other words, if the initial crack has long dispread time, it increases the extent of mirror zone (Zebarjad et al 2008). By comparing the SEM photographs of fabricated nano- composite and neat resin fracture ...

  18. Nanomaterials in biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela; Vuluga, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in nano materials have lead to applications in many areas from automotive to electronics and medicine. Nano composites are a popular group of nano materials. Nanocomposites in medical applications provide novel solutions to common problems. Materials for implants, biosensors and drug...

  19. Nano-ZnO Doping Induced Changes in Structure, Mechanical and Optical Properties of PVA Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Galil, A.; BalboulM, R.; Ali, H.E.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide ( ZnO ) nanoparticles ( NPs) were synthesized using t he co-precipitation method. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to confirm the nanoparticle size of the ZnO powder sample. ZnO NPs (with different ratios) were dispersed into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix to get ZnO/PVA nano composites using the blending method. The structure of Pva polymer and ZnO/PVA nano composites was identified by X - ray diffraction (XRD). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of PVA and ZnO/PVA nano composites has been carried out before and after γ- irradiation with different doses . The TGA , DTG thermo grams and the degradation activation energy have been studied. The results indicated the enhancement in thermal stability of PVA polymer as an effect of ZnO NPs. Irradiation doses lead to a change in the degradation activation energy as a result of the degradation and cross- linking processes of the PVA polymer. Moreover, the mechanical performance of PVA polymer has been improved by adding ZnO NPs and by γ- irradiation. The optical band gap of the PVA film was investigated with different ratios of ZnO NPs. The band gap de creased with increasing the ZnO NPs ratio. The effect of γ-irradiation, with different doses on the optical band gap of ZnO/PVA nano composites also has been studied

  20. Toughened and machinable glass matrix composites reinforced with graphene and graphene-oxide nano platelets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Porwal, H.; Tatarko, Peter; Grasso, S.; Hu, Ch.; Boccaccini, A. R.; Dlouhý, Ivo; Reece, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2013), Art.N. 055007 ISSN 1468-6996 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 264526 - GLACERCO Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : silica * graphene/graphene-oxide nano platelets * nano composites * mechanical properties * sintering Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 2.613, year: 2013

  1. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition heat treatments are also carried out in the microwave oven of the power rating of 760 W. The powders thus produced have been characterized by SEM, EPMA, VSM, XRD and thermal analysis techniques. As a forward step towards EL nano-composite coatings, Ni-P- ( = BaZn2- CoFe16O27) coatings with ...

  2. Selective response of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By grafting with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), novel multi-walled carbon nanotube nano-composites (EDTA-MWCNTs) have been successfully prepared. The integration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and novel functionalized matrix shows very promising applications in the fabrication of biosensors for sensitive ...

  3. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nano-composites of 1, 3, 5 and 7 vol% Al2O3 (average size < 50 nm) and microcomposites having compositions 5, 10, 15, 20 vol% of Al2O3 (average size ∼ 10 m) reinforced in copper matrix were fabricated by powder metallurgy route. All the specimens were sintered at different sintering temperatures (850, 900 and ...

  4. Some Tensile Properties of Unsaturated Polyester Resin Reinforced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recent emergence of nano science and nano technology has added another dimension to the staple of the modern composite technology. Instead of micron diameter fibres and particles, nano particles are being incorporated into polymer matrices to form a composite blend known as polymer nano composites (PNCs).

  5. Wood surface modification by in-situ sol-gel deposition of hybrid inorganic-organic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; Li-Piin Sung

    2007-01-01

    Interest in the use of nanoparticles of iron, titanium, aluminum, and zinc oxides in transparent coatings for wood is increasing. Such nano-composite coatings have the potential of not only preserving the natural color of the wood, but also stabilizing the wood surface against the combined degradative effects of sunlight and moisture. The nanoparticles can be used as...

  6. Band gap determination of Ni–Zn ferrites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tocopying, conductive paints, drug delivery, rechargeable batteries etc (Suri et al 2001). Materials with nanoscale microstructure, i.e. nanocrystalline materials or nano- composites, are increasingly becoming important for their technological importance due to their unique ele- ctrical, magnetic and optical properties.

  7. Engineered Nanoparticles and Their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsoukas, T.; Desai, T.; Lee, K.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles engineered for shape, size, and surface properties impart special functionalities including catalytic behavior, improved strength, enhanced thermal and electrical conductivity, and controlled release of host molecules. These advances have opened up applications in biomedicine, nano energetic materials, and functional nano composites. This special issue highlights successes in developing nanoparticles for a number of diverse applications.

  8. The effects of different cross-linking conditions on collagen-based nanocomposite scaffolds-an in vitro evaluation using mesenchymal stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchý, Tomáš; Šupová, Monika; Sauerová, P.; Verdánová, M.; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Rýglová, Šárka; Žaloudková, Margit; Sedláček, R.; Hubálek Kalbáčová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, DEC (2015), č. článku 065008. ISSN 1748-6041 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-25813A Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : cross-linking agents * nano-composite scaffolds * human mesenchymal stem cells * EDC/NHS * genipin Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2015

  9. Optical properties of polymer nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Nanomaterials have emerged as an area of interest motivated by potential applications of these materials in light emitting ... the effect of interfacial morphology, interparticle spacing and finite size effects on optical properties of nano- composites. Systematic shift in ... and magnetic multipole oscillations. Mie's (1908) theory.

  10. Preparation of biocompatible magnetite-carboxymethyl cellulose nanocomposite: characterization of nanocomposite by FTIR, XRD, FESEM and TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Neda

    2014-10-15

    The preparation and characterization of magnetite-carboxymethyl cellulose nano-composite (M-CMC) material is described. Magnetite nano-particles were synthesized by a modified co-precipitation method using ferrous chloride tetrahydrate and ferric chloride hexahydrate in ammonium hydroxide solution. The M-CMC nano-composite particles were synthesized by embedding the magnetite nanoparticles inside carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) using a freshly prepared mixture of Fe3O4 with CMC precursor. Morphology, particle size, and structural properties of magnetite-carboxymethyl cellulose nano-composite was accomplished using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis. As a result, magnetite nano-particles with an average size of 35nm were obtained. The biocompatible Fe3O4-carboxymethyl cellulose nano-composite particles obtained from the natural CMC polymers have a potential range of application in biomedical field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. CO2-selective PEO–PBT (PolyActive™)/graphene oxide composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Karunakaran, Madhavan

    2015-07-31

    CO2-selective graphene oxide (GO) nano-composite membranes were prepared for the first time by embedding GO into a commercially available poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEO–PBT) copolymer (PolyActive™). The as-prepared GO membrane shows high CO2 permeability (143 Barrer) and CO2/N2 selectivity (α = 73).

  12. The effect of FR enhancement in reactive ion beam sputtered Bi, Gd, Al-substituted iron- garnets: Bi2O3 nanocomposite films

    OpenAIRE

    Berzhansky, V.; Shaposhnikov, A.; Karavainikov, A.; Prokopov, A.; Mikhailova, T.; Lukienko, I.; Kharchenko, Yu.; Miloslavskaya, O.; Kharchenko, N.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of considerable Faraday rotation (FR) and figure of merit (Q) enhancement in Bi, Gd, Al-substituted iron garnets: Bi2O3 nano-composite films produced by separate reactive ion beam sputtered Bi:YIG and Bi2O3 films was found. It reached threefold enhancement of the FR and twofold of the Q one on GGG substrates.

  13. Thermally stimulated iron oxide transformations and magnetic behaviour of cerium dioxide/iron oxide reactive sorbents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luňáček, J.; Životský, O.; Jirásková, Yvonna; Buršík, Jiří; Janoš, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, OCT (2016), s. 295-303 ISSN 1044-5803 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Oxide-nano- composite s * Mössbauer spectroscopy * TEM * Cerium oxide * Magnetic parameters Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.714, year: 2016

  14. CoCl2 reinforced polymeric nanocomposites of conjugated polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    400–4000 cm–1 using KBr pellet. The pellet was prepared by mixing KBr and CoCl2-doped PANI nanocomposite. (1 : 20), duly pressed with 5 t of load for 1 : 30 min. Mor- phological studies of PANI and CoCl2-doped PANI nano- composite were carried out using FESEM (FESEM model: ZEISS, Supra 55 spectrometer) duly ...

  15. Oxidation of nano-reinforced polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Castro, G.G.

    2010-11-01

    Nano-composite materials attract search due to their improvements on barrier properties by incorporating low level of nano-filler of 5%w. Nowadays, organically modified montmorillonite (MMT-O) is the most used filler due to its high aspect ratio which permits stronger clay/polymer interactions. If nano-reinforced materials are highly performing, the ways in which clay presence affects polyolefin durability have not being subject of a rigorous study, thus they are not yet clear. Our goal was to examine unstabilized clay polypropylene and unstabilized clay polyethylene nano composites to get a better comprehension of the clay effects on their thermo-oxidation process under low temperatures. The effects induced by a dual physic-chemical nature of the clay were explored. The problem was tackled from both experimental and theoretical point of views for degradation process not controlled and controlled by oxygen diffusion (homogenous and heterogeneous respectively). It seems that MMT-O speeds up oxidation. This phenomenon was modeled by adding a catalytic reaction between metallic particles initially present in the MMT-O and hydroperoxide groups (main responsible of oxidation). Regarding the oxygen permeability two situations were confronted: for the clay polypropylene system a decrease of 45% of oxygen permeability was measured. On the other hand, no variation was found for the polyethylene case. This effect was attributed to the fact that polyethylene nano-composite reached a blend morphology less developed than those of the polypropylene nano-composite. Kinetics and oxidation products profiles across the sample thickness were simulated for both systems by coupling oxidation reactions with oxygen diffusion equations. For the polyethylene case, the effects induced by oxidation on molar mass and crystalline morphology were also simulated. Finally, based on a structure-property relationship, simulations of mechanic modulus profiles were performed for the heterogeneous

  16. Radiation induced synthesis of conducting polymer nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we prepared a series of Ag/PVA and Ag/PANI nano composites were prepared successfully using a modern and new method. Our synthetic route did not need complicated apparatus, expensive surfactants or additional reducing agents. The prepared nano composite developed optically functional material that does not exist for metal or polymer alone. The present work contains five chapters in addition to the list of figures, tables, abbreviations and references. The first two chapters are concerned with the introduction and reviews of previous studies. Chapter 3 describes the preparation methodology, experimental setup and techniques used in the Ag/PVA and Ag/PANI nano composites processing and analysis. Ag nanoparticles with different particle sizes were prepared via chemical method and gamma- irradiation method. Several techniques were used to detect the structural changes of the nano composites as UV-Visible spectrophotometer, Transmission Electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Chapter 4 includes the obtained results and their discussions: Part I: Synthesis of Ag/PVA nano composite via gamma irradiation From UV/VIS spectroscopy the surface plasmon bands appearing in the visible region (406-422 nm) for Ag/PVA nano composite films are characteristic of the noble metal nanoparticles. The obtained data regarding the change of the absorption intensity and wavelength at maximum absorption and the size of Ag nanoparticles as a function of either irradiation dose or Ag + concentration pointed the following remark: The particle size of Ag nanoparticles in the as-prepared Ag/PVA nano composite films decreases with increasing either irradiation dose or Ag + ion concentration. Transmission electron microscope images illustrated that the average diameter of the Ag nanoparticles is indicated as the peak position of the Gaussian curves of the histogram to be from 40-16 nm. The

  17. Successful transplantation of in vitro expanded human corneal endothelial precursors to corneal endothelial surface using a nanocomposite sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikumar P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Though the transplantation of in vitro expanded human corneal endothelial precursors in animal models of endothelial damage by injecting into the anterior chamber has been reported, the practical difficulties of accomplishing such procedure in human patients have been a hurdle to clinical translation. Here we report the successful transplantation of in vitro expanded human corneal precursor cells to an animal eye using a transparent Nano-composite sheet and their engraftment.Materials and Methods: Human Corneal endothelial cells (HCEC were isolated from human cadaver eyes with informed consent and expanded in the lab using a sphere forming assay in a novel Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP for 26 days. HCEC obtained by sphere forming assay were seeded in a novel Nano-composite sheet, which was made of PNIPA-NC gels by in-situ, free-radical polymerization of NIPA monomer in the presence of exfoliated clay (synthetic hectorite “Laponite XLG” uniformly dispersed in aqueous media. After a further seven days in vitro culture of HCEC in the Nano-composite sheet, cells were harvested and transplanted on cadaver-bovine eyes (n=3. The cells were injected between the corneal endothelial layer and the Nano-composite sheet that had been placed prior to the injection in close proximity to the endothelial layer. After three hours, the transplanted Nano-composite sheets were removed from the bovine eyes and subjected to microscopic examination. The corneas were subjected to Histo-pathological studies along with controls. Results: HCEC formed sphere like colonies in TGP which expressed relevant markers as confirmed by RT-PCR. Microscopic studies of the Nanosheets and histopathological studies of the cornea of the Bull’s eye revealed that the HCEC got engrafted to the corneal endothelial layer of the bovine eyes with no remnant cells in the Nanosheet. Conclusion: Transplantation of in vitro expanded donor human corneal endothelial cells

  18. Synthesis and photoluminescence enhancement of nano-PAA-ZnCl2 with controllable dimension and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Kaige; Zhou, Yukun; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Guiren

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • One kind of large area nano-PAA-ZnCl 2 composite film is fabricated, its dimension and morphology is controllable. The properties of nano-composite films have been heavily influenced by the concentration of initial ZnCl 2 solution, the depth of nano-PAAM substrate and the growth time of ZnCl 2 crystals. • At room temperature, the nano-PAA-ZnCl 2 film has the same excitation center (335 nm) and emission center (430 nm) as the nano-PAAM substrate, and the PL intensities can be doubly enhanced. • After annealing at 500 °C, the emission peak spectra of the nano-composite films stabilized at 385 nm, 402 nm, and 430 nm. - Abstract: One kind of ZnCl 2 nano-films with controllable dimension and morphology is successfully synthesized on the top surface of nano-porous anodic alumina membrane (nano-PAAM) by self-organized method. The nano-PAA-ZnCl 2 composite films are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, and laser confocal Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the concentration of initial ZnCl 2 solution, the depth of nano-PAAM substrate and the growth time of ZnCl 2 crystals have important influences on the properties of nano-composite films. Furthermore, the characteristics of nano-composites such as the photoluminescence (PL) spectra are investigated. Compared with the nano-PAAM substrate, at room temperature, all of the nano-PAA-ZnCl 2 composite films have both the same excitation center (335 nm) and emission center (430 nm), no matter what the nano-composite morphologies being; and the PL intensity of nano-PAA-ZnCl 2 composite films are all enhanced and the maximum enhancement is two times; after annealing at 500 °C, the emission spectra of the nano-composite films stabilized at the 385 nm, 402 nm and 430 nm. The research provides a new, simple, economical and practical technology to fabricate nano-PAA composite films with higher luminousintensity.

  19. Synthesis and photoluminescence enhancement of nano-PAA-ZnCl{sub 2} with controllable dimension and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jianguo [State Key Laboratory of Cultivation Base for Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials, Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology of Shaanxi Province, National Center for International Research of Photoelectric Technology & Nano-functional Materials and Application, Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Physics Department, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Wang, Kaige, E-mail: wangkg@nwu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cultivation Base for Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials, Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology of Shaanxi Province, National Center for International Research of Photoelectric Technology & Nano-functional Materials and Application, Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Zhou, Yukun; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen [State Key Laboratory of Cultivation Base for Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials, Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology of Shaanxi Province, National Center for International Research of Photoelectric Technology & Nano-functional Materials and Application, Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Wang, Guiren [State Key Laboratory of Cultivation Base for Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials, Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology of Shaanxi Province, National Center for International Research of Photoelectric Technology & Nano-functional Materials and Application, Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Mechanical Engineering Department & Biomedical Engineering Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia SC 29208 (United States); and others

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • One kind of large area nano-PAA-ZnCl{sub 2} composite film is fabricated, its dimension and morphology is controllable. The properties of nano-composite films have been heavily influenced by the concentration of initial ZnCl{sub 2} solution, the depth of nano-PAAM substrate and the growth time of ZnCl{sub 2} crystals. • At room temperature, the nano-PAA-ZnCl{sub 2} film has the same excitation center (335 nm) and emission center (430 nm) as the nano-PAAM substrate, and the PL intensities can be doubly enhanced. • After annealing at 500 °C, the emission peak spectra of the nano-composite films stabilized at 385 nm, 402 nm, and 430 nm. - Abstract: One kind of ZnCl{sub 2} nano-films with controllable dimension and morphology is successfully synthesized on the top surface of nano-porous anodic alumina membrane (nano-PAAM) by self-organized method. The nano-PAA-ZnCl{sub 2} composite films are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, and laser confocal Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the concentration of initial ZnCl{sub 2} solution, the depth of nano-PAAM substrate and the growth time of ZnCl{sub 2} crystals have important influences on the properties of nano-composite films. Furthermore, the characteristics of nano-composites such as the photoluminescence (PL) spectra are investigated. Compared with the nano-PAAM substrate, at room temperature, all of the nano-PAA-ZnCl{sub 2} composite films have both the same excitation center (335 nm) and emission center (430 nm), no matter what the nano-composite morphologies being; and the PL intensity of nano-PAA-ZnCl{sub 2} composite films are all enhanced and the maximum enhancement is two times; after annealing at 500 °C, the emission spectra of the nano-composite films stabilized at the 385 nm, 402 nm and 430 nm. The research provides a new, simple, economical and practical technology to fabricate nano-PAA composite films with higher

  20. Successful transplantation of in vitro expanded human corneal endothelial precursors to corneal endothelial surface using a nanocomposite sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikumar, P; John, S; Senthilkumar, R; Manjunath, S; Baskar, S; Haraguchi, K; Abraham, S

    2011-01-01

    Though the transplantation of in vitro expanded human corneal endothelial precursors in animal models of endothelial damage by injecting into the anterior chamber has been reported, the practical difficulties of accomplishing such procedure in human patients have been a hurdle to clinical translation. Here we report the successful transplantation of in vitro expanded human corneal precursor cells to an animal eye using a transparent Nano-composite sheet and their engraftment. Human Corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) were isolated from human cadaver eyes with informed consent and expanded in the lab using a sphere forming assay in a novel Thermoreversible Gelation Polymer (TGP) for 26 days. HCEC obtained by sphere forming assay were seeded in a novel Nano-composite sheet, which was made of PNIPA-NC gels by in-situ, free-radical polymerization of NIPA monomer in the presence of exfoliated clay (synthetic hectorite "Laponite XLG") uniformly dispersed in aqueous media. After a further seven days in vitro culture of HCEC in the Nano-composite sheet, cells were harvested and transplanted on cadaver-bovine eyes (n=3). The cells were injected between the corneal endothelial layer and the Nano-composite sheet that had been placed prior to the injection in close proximity to the endothelial layer. After three hours, the transplanted Nano-composite sheets were removed from the bovine eyes and subjected to microscopic examination. The corneas were subjected to Histo-pathological studies along with controls. HCEC formed sphere like colonies in TGP which expressed relevant markers as confirmed by RT-PCR. Microscopic studies of the Nanosheets and histopathological studies of the cornea of the Bull's eye revealed that the HCEC got engrafted to the corneal endothelial layer of the bovine eyes with no remnant cells in the Nanosheet. Transplantation of in vitro expanded donor human corneal endothelial cells using a transparent Nano-composite sheet was feasible in bovine eyes and the

  1. Barrier versus tilt exchange gate operations in spin-based quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yun-Pil; Tahan, Charles

    2018-04-01

    We present a theory for understanding the exchange interaction between electron spins in neighboring quantum dots, either by changing the detuning of the two quantum dots or independently tuning the tunneling barrier between quantum dots. The Hubbard model and a more realistic confining-potential model are used to investigate how the tilting and barrier control affect the effective exchange coupling and thus the gate fidelity in both the detuning and symmetric regimes. We show that the exchange coupling is less sensitive to the charge noise through tunnel barrier control (while allowing for exchange coupling operations on a sweet spot where the exchange interaction has zero derivative with respect to the detuning). Both GaAs and Si quantum dots are considered, and we compare our results with experimental data showing qualitative agreements. Our results answer the open question of why barrier gates are preferable to tilt gates for exchange-based gate operations.

  2. Induced Ti magnetization at La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and BaTiO3 interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaohua Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In artificial multiferroics hybrids consisting of ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO and ferroelectric BaTiO3 epitaxial layers, net Ti moments are found from polarized resonant soft x-ray reflectivity and absorption. The Ti dichroic reflectivity follows the Mn signal during the magnetization reversal, indicating exchange coupling between the Ti and Mn ions. However, the Ti dichroic reflectivity shows stronger temperature dependence than the Mn dichroic signal. Besides a reduced ferromagnetic exchange coupling in the interfacial LSMO layer, this may also be attributed to a weak Ti-Mn exchange coupling that is insufficient to overcome the thermal energy at elevated temperatures.

  3. Competing magnetic anisotropies in an AFM-FM-AFM trilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, R.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B.B.; Scholl, A.; Arenholz, E.; Suzuki, Y.; Blamire, M.G.

    2009-08-01

    An antiferromagnet-ferromagnet-antiferromagnet trilayer was grown in magnetic field using CoMn, permalloy (Py), and FeMn, respectively. Magnetometry studies show that the direction of exchange coupling of CoMn with Py was perpendicular to that of Py with FeMn. These results are explained by a spin flop in the CoMn layer and show that the spin structure of an antiferromagnet may undergo severe modification due to a relatively small magnetic field applied during its growth. The perpendicular exchange coupling was exploited in the CoMn-Py-FeMn trilayer to manipulate the easy axis of the ferromagnet.

  4. Exchange bias and asymmetric hysteresis loops from a microscopic model of core/shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Oscar; Batlle, Xavier; Labarta, Amilcar

    2007-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo simulations of hysteresis loops of a model of a magnetic nanoparticle with a ferromagnetic core and an antiferromagnetic shell with varying values of the core/shell interface exchange coupling which aim to clarify the microscopic origin of exchange bias observed experimentally. We have found loop shifts in the field direction as well as displacements along the magnetization axis that increase in magnitude when increasing the interfacial exchange coupling. Overlap functions computed from the spin configurations along the loops have been obtained to explain the origin and magnitude of these features microscopically

  5. Entangled spin clusters: some special features

    OpenAIRE

    Tribedi, Amit; Bose, Indrani

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study three specific aspects of entanglement in small spin clusters. We first study the effect of inhomogeneous exchange coupling strength on the entanglement properties of the S=1/2 antiferromagnetic linear chain tetramer compound NaCuAsO_{4}. The entanglement gap temperature, T_{E}, is found to have a non-monotonic dependence on the value of $\\alpha$, the exchange coupling inhomogeneity parameter. We next determine the variation of T_{E} as a function of S for a spin dimer...

  6. Micromagnetic analysis of current-induced domain wall motion in a bilayer nanowire with synthetic antiferromagnetic coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komine, Takashi, E-mail: komine@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp; Aono, Tomosuke [Faculty of Engineering, Ibaraki University 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 316-8511 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate current-induced domain wall motion in bilayer nanowire with synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) coupling by modeling two body problems for motion equations of domain wall. The influence of interlayer exchange coupling and magnetostatic interactions on current-induced domain wall motion in SAF nanowires was also investigated. By assuming the rigid wall model for translational motion, the interlayer exchange coupling and the magnetostatic interaction between walls and domains in SAF nanowires enhances domain wall speed without any spin-orbit-torque. The enhancement of domain wall speed was discussed by energy distribution as a function of wall angle configuration in bilayer nanowires.

  7. Simulations of magnetic hysteresis loops for dual layer recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fal, T. J.; Plumer, M. L.; Whitehead, J. P.; Mercer, J. I.; van Ek, J.; Srinivasan, K.

    2013-05-01

    A Kinetic Monte-Carlo algorithm is applied to examine MH loops of dual-layer magnetic recording media at finite temperature and long time scales associated with typical experimental measurements. In contrast with standard micromagnetic simulations, which are limited to the ns-μs time regime, our approach allows for the direct calculation of magnetic configurations over periods from minutes to years. The model is used to fit anisotropy and coupling parameters to experimental data on exchange-coupled composite media which are shown to deviate significantly from standard micromagnetic results. Sensitivities of the loops to anisotropy, inter-layer exchange coupling, temperature, and sweep rate are examined.

  8. Atomistic spin dynamics simulations of the MnAl τ -phase and its antiphase boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, P.; Arapan, S.; Schrelf, T.; Cuesta-Lopez, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we develop an atomistic spin dynamics model for the ideal Mn50Al50τ -phase by means of first-principles calculations. The model is applied to study the domain wall and antiphase boundary phenomenology. In particular, it allows us to obtain the dependence on the interfacial exchange coupling of the nucleation and depinning fields, as well as the macroscopic magnetization profile across the antiphase boundary. We find that microscopic antiferromagnetic exchange coupling stronger than 10 meV could unavoidably lead to the formation of a domain wall at the antiphase boundary.

  9. HDPE/LLDPE blend-based nanocomposites - Part I: evaluation of thermo-mechanical properties and weathering resistance; Nanocompositos de blendas HDPE/LLDPE e OMMT - parte I: avaliacao das propriedades termo-mecanicas e da resistencia ao intemperismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passador, Fabio R.; Backes, Eduardo H.; Travain, Daniel R.; Ruvolo Filho, Adhemar; Pessan, Luiz A., E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2013-07-01

    Nano composites from high density polyethylene/ linear low density polyethylene (HDPE/LLDPE) blends were prepared at the melt state in an extruder, using HDPE-g-MA as compatibilizer agent. The structural characterization was performed through wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that adding the compatibilizer induced formation of a predominant intercalated microstructure. Dynamic-mechanical studies showed that the addition of the compatibilizer increases the interactions between the nano clay surface and the polyolefin matrix. The weathering conditions affected the mechanical behavior of HDPE/LLDPE blend-based nano composites. Both treatments performed in hot water and in a forced convection air oven provided the relief of residual stresses in the polymer matrix, while the treatment in an accelerated aging chamber provided the formation of carbonyl groups that lead to a decreased degree of crystallinity and elastic modulus of the nanocomposites. (author)

  10. Characterized and cleaning process of montmorillonite clay from Parelhas, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil; Caracterizacao e processo de purificacao de argila montmorilonitica da cidade de Parelhas, RN, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, G.N; Costa, T.C.C; Paskocimas, C.A, E-mail: gudson.nicolau@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The application of montmorillonite nano composites has been improved in order to obtain dispersed phase with particles of nano metric dimensions. To obtain these nanoparticles, the clays must pass an effective purification process for removing unwanted materials, which would undermine the processes of intercalation and exfoliation of montmorillonite in a polymer matrix. This study intention to characterize and purify a montmorillonite clay from deposit recently discovered in the city of Parelhas in Rio Grande do Norte, through the separation of coarser materials by decantation followed by a chemical attack that promoted oxidation in samples where it was realized reduction of impurities such as organic matter and other substances that would hinder the achievement of nanoparticles. Under these conditions, the clay is suitable for the work as dispersed phase in a polymer matrix nano composite. The results were demonstrated by analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical analysis, BET and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  11. Effect of Co substitution on absorption properties of SrCoxFe12-xO19 hexagonal ferrites based nanocomposites in X-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Soma; Bhattacharyya, Nidhi Saxena; Bhattacharyya, Satyajib

    2017-12-01

    Cobalt doped M-type strontium hexaferrite nanoparticles (SrCoxFe12-xO19, x = 0.2-1.2) is synthesized and used as inclusions in Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) matrix for developing nano-composites with 60 wt% of these nanoparticles. Absorption performance of the developed nano-composites is evaluated in the X-band. The thickness optimization is carried out for obtaining maximum reflection loss by using the transmission line model (TLM), with measured values of permittivity and permeability of the composite. The best reflection loss is observed experimentally for x = 0.8 with an absorber thickness of 3 mm for which a wide -10 dB bandwidth covering almost the entire X-band is obtained. The composites are light weight and not affected by exposure to water.

  12. Nanocomposite YSZ-NiO Particles with Tailored Structure Synthesized in a Two-Stage Continuous Hydrothermal Flow Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Philipp; Xu, Yu; Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    The increasing amount of fluctuating electricity generation from renewable sources requires a flexible energy system and storage technologies to ensure that energy services can be covered in a stable and affordable manner. In order to become truly independent from fossil fuels, increasing...... the performance of energy storage and conversion devices such as fuel cells, electrolyzers and batteries is important. One promising approach to further improve these devices is the use of carefully structured nanosized materials. Nano-composite particles combining different materials in advanced geometries like......-composites. Here we report on the design of the two-stage continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis reactor and first results on obtaining structured nano-composite consisting of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and NiO materials. These materials are commonly applied in the fuel electrodes of today’s state...

  13. Silicon Nano wires with MoSx and Pt as Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.H.; Ho, S.T.; Chen, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    A convenient method was used for synthesizing Pt-nanoparticle//silicon nano wires nano composites. Obtained Pt-/silicon nano wires electrocatalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrogen evolution reaction efficiency of the Pt-/silicon nano wire nano composite catalysts was assessed by examining polarization and electrolysis measurements under solar light irradiations. The electrochemical characterizations demonstrate that Pt-/silicon nano wire electrodes exhibited an excellent catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction in an acidic electrolyte. The hydrogen production capability of Pt-/silicon nano wires is also comparable to /silicon nano wires and Pt/silicon nano wires. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments suggest that the enhanced performance of Pt-/silicon nano wires can be attributed to the fast electron transfer between Pt-/silicon nano wire electrodes and electrolyte interfaces.

  14. Electro spun Borneol-PVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Yan, L.; Xia, W.; Deng-Guang, Y.; Shuai, Y.; Qi-Kun, K.; Qing-Wen, Y.; Xin-Zhe, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the validity of electro spun borneol-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nano composites in enhancing drug dissolution rates and improving drug physical stability. Based on hydrogen bonding interactions and via an electro spinning process, borneol and PVP can form stable nano fiber-based composites. FESEM observations demonstrate that composite nano fibers with uniform structure could be generated with a high content of borneol up to 33.3% (w/w). Borneol is well distributed in the PVP matrix molecularly to form the amorphous composites, as verified by DSC and XRD results. The composites can both enhance the dissolution profiles of borneol and increase its physical stability against sublimation for long-time storage by immobilization of borneol molecules with PVP. The incorporation of borneol in the PVP matrix weakens the tensile properties of nano fibers, and the mechanism is discussed. Electro spun nano composites can be alternative candidates for developing novel nano-drug delivery systems with high performance.

  15. Molecular Dynamics Simulation for the Mechanical Properties of CNT/Polymer Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Hwa; Cho, Maeg Hyo

    2007-01-01

    In order to obtain mechanical properties of CNT/Polymer nano-composites, molecular dynamics simulation is performed. Overall system was modeled as a flexible unit cell in which carbon nanotubes are embedded into a polyethylene matrix for N σ T ensemble simulation. COMPASS force field was chosen to describe inter and intra molecular potential and bulk effect was achieved via periodic boundary conditions. In CNT-polymer interface, only Lennard-Jones non-bond potential was considered. Using Parrinello-Rahman fluctuation method, mechanical properties of orthotropic nano-composites under various temperatures were successfully obtained. Also, we investigated thermal behavior of the short CNT reinforced nanocomposites system with predicting glass transition temperature

  16. Characterized and cleaning process of montmorillonite clay from Parelhas, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, G.N; Costa, T.C.C; Paskocimas, C.A

    2010-01-01

    The application of montmorillonite nano composites has been improved in order to obtain dispersed phase with particles of nano metric dimensions. To obtain these nanoparticles, the clays must pass an effective purification process for removing unwanted materials, which would undermine the processes of intercalation and exfoliation of montmorillonite in a polymer matrix. This study intention to characterize and purify a montmorillonite clay from deposit recently discovered in the city of Parelhas in Rio Grande do Norte, through the separation of coarser materials by decantation followed by a chemical attack that promoted oxidation in samples where it was realized reduction of impurities such as organic matter and other substances that would hinder the achievement of nanoparticles. Under these conditions, the clay is suitable for the work as dispersed phase in a polymer matrix nano composite. The results were demonstrated by analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical analysis, BET and X-ray diffraction (XRD). (author)

  17. Photoluminescence enhancement in few-layer WS2 films via Au nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Yuk Choi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nano-composites of two-dimensional atomic layered WS2 and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs have been fabricated by sulfurization of sputtered W films followed by immersing into HAuCl4 aqueous solution. The morphology, structure and AuNPs distribution have been characterized by electron microscopy. The decorated AuNPs can be more densely formed on the edge and defective sites of triangle WS2. We have compared the optical absorption and photoluminescence of bare WS2 and Au-decorated WS2 layers. Enhancement in the photoluminescence is observed in the Au-WS2 nano-composites, attributed to localized surface plasmonic effect. This work provides the possibility to develop photonic application in two-dimensional materials.

  18. Enhancement of porous silicon photoluminescence using (Ni) treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabil, M.; Elnouby, M.; Gayeh, N.; Sakr, A. H.; Motaweh, H. A.

    2017-10-01

    A new method has been developed to improve the photoluminescence intensity of porous silicon (PS). Self-organized (PS) can be used in various fields. The deposition of metal nanoparticles (Ni) allows utilizing the obtained nano-composite for numerous applications such as sensor technology, biomedicine, and many more. (Ni/PS) nano-composite powders are prepared using Ni deposition on the PS powder surface. The (Ni/PS) powders became hydrophilic by the deposited Ni nanoparticles. At the different percentages of (Ni: PS), at a higher percentage than (3:1) the values of the crystallite size of Ni and PS are nearly equivalent which suggests the saturation case of PS surface by Ni particles. It also depends on the deposition time value. In this study, that is the commercialization of nanostructured materials, it is important that the manufacturing costs are appropriate and inexpensive for large scale production, in addition, the enhancement of the photoluminescence intensity of (PS).

  19. Magnetically separable photocatalytic composite gamma-Fe(2)O(3)@TiO(2) synthesized by heterogeneous precipitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tyrpekl, Václav; Vejpravová, J.P.; Roca, A.G.; Murafa, Nataliya; Szatmáry, Lórant; Nižňanský, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 257, č. 11 (2011), s. 4844-4848 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA AV ČR KAN400100653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : nano composite * oxides * magnetic properties * transmission electron microscopy * X-ray powder diffraction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.103, year: 2011

  20. Thermal Effect of Ceramic Nanofiller Aluminium Nitride on Polyethylene Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sohail, Omer Bin; Sreekumar, P. A.; De, S. K.; Jabarullah Khan, Masihullah; Hakeem, Abbas; Alshaiban, Ahmad A.; Al-Harthi, Mamdouh A.

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene polymerization was done to form polyethylene nano-composite with nanoaluminum nitride using zirconocene catalysts. Results show that the catalytic activity is maximum at a filler loading of 15 mg nanoaluminum nitride. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that percentage crystallinity was also marginally higher at this amount of filler. Thermal behavior of polyethylene nanocomposites (0, 15, 30, and 45) mg was studied by DSC and thermal grav...