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Sample records for exchange membrane pem

  1. DOD Residential Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Demonstration Program. Volume 2. Summary of Fiscal Year 2001-2003 Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    produced many of the Beatles 1970s recordings. This facility was selected to host the UK PEM demonstration project from a selection of four potential sites...funded the Department of Defense (DOD) Residential PEM Demonstration Project to demonstrate domestically-produced, residential Proton Exchange Membrane...PEM) fuel cells at DOD Facilities. The objectives were to: (1) assess PEM fuel cells’ role in supporting sustainability at military installations

  2. HOGEN{trademark} proton exchange membrane hydrogen generators: Commercialization of PEM electrolyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W.F.; Molter, T.M. [Proton Energy Systems, Inc., Rocky Hill, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    PROTON Energy Systems` new HOGEN series hydrogen generators are Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) based water electrolyzers designed to generate 300 to 1000 Standard Cubic Feet Per Hour (SCFH) of high purity hydrogen at pressures up to 400 psi without the use of mechanical compressors. This paper will describe technology evolution leading to the HOGEN, identify system design performance parameters and describe the physical packaging and interfaces of HOGEN systems. PEM electrolyzers have served US and UK Navy and NASA needs for many years in a variety of diverse programs including oxygen generators for life support applications. In the late 1970`s these systems were advocated for bulk hydrogen generation through a series of DOE sponsored program activities. During the military buildup of the 1980`s commercial deployment of PEM hydrogen generators was de-emphasized as priority was given to new Navy and NASA PEM electrolysis systems. PROTON Energy Systems was founded in 1996 with the primary corporate mission of commercializing PEM hydrogen generators. These systems are specifically designed and priced to meet the needs of commercial markets and produced through manufacturing processes tailored to these applications. The HOGEN series generators are the first step along the path to full commercial deployment of PEM electrolyzer products for both industrial and consumer uses. The 300/1000 series are sized to meet the needs of the industrial gases market today and provide a design base that can transition to serve the needs of a decentralized hydrogen infrastructure tomorrow.

  3. Internal humidifying of PEM [Proton Exchange Membrane] fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staschewski, D [Karlsruhe Research Center (FZK), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technics

    1996-12-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells (FC) for vehicular traction should stand out for a car-specific lightweight design. As regards PEMFC systems containing proton exchange membranes, this quality can be considerably improved by introducing porous bipolar plates which are conditioned by a water loop and deliver hot humidifying water to the adjacent membrane-electrode assembly (MEA). According to the principle of internal humidification here indicated special fuel cells based on sintered fiber and powder graphite were manufactured at FZK on a semi-technical scale. Self-made Pt/C electrodes hotpressed onto Nafion resulted in currents up to 200 A with pure oxygen as oxidant, providing the precondition for detailed studies of turnover and drainage rates within a monocell test arrangement. (author)

  4. Commercialization of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, N.; Pant, A.; Sera, G.

    1995-01-01

    The MCTTC performed a market assessment for PEM Fuel Cells for terrestrial applications for the Center for Space Power (CSP). The purpose of the market assessment was to gauge the market and commercial potential for PEM fuel cell technology. Further, the market assessment was divided into subsections of technical and market overview, competitive environment, political environment, barriers to market entry, and keys to market entry. The market assessment conducted by the MCTTC involved both secondary and primary research. The primary target markets for PEM fuel cells were transportation and utilities in the power range of 10 kW to 100 kW. The fuel cell vehicle market size was estimated under a pessimistic scenario and an optimistic scenario. The estimated size of the fuel cell vehicle market in dollar terms for the year 2005 is $17.3 billion for the pessimistic scenario and $34.7 billion for the optimistic scenario. The fundamental and applied research funded and conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and DOE in the area of fuel cells presents an excellent opportunity to commercialize dual-use technology and enhance U.S. business competitiveness. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  5. Water droplet accumulation and motion in PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell mini-channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carton, J.G.; Lawlor, V.; Olabi, A.G.; Hochenauer, C.; Zauner, G.

    2012-01-01

    Effective water management is one of the key strategies for improving low temperature PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell performance and durability. Phenomena such as membrane dehydration, catalyst layer flooding, mass transport and fluid flow regimes can be affected by the interaction, distribution and movement of water in flow plate channels. In this paper a literature review is completed in relation to PEM fuel cell water flooding. It is clear that droplet formation, movement and interaction with the GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer) have been studied extensively. However slug formation and droplet accumulation in the flow channels has not been analysed in detail. In this study, a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) model and VOF (Volume of Fluid) method is used to simulate water droplet movement and slug formation in PEM fuel cell mini-channels. In addition, water slug visualisation is recorded in ex situ PEM fuel cell mini-channels. Observation and simulation results are discussed with relation to slug formation and the implications to PEM fuel cell performance. -- Highlights: ► Excess water in mini-channels from the collision and coalescence of droplets can directly form slugs in PEM fuel cells. ► Slugs can form at low flow rates so increasing the flow rate can reduce the size and frequency of slugs. ► One channel of a double serpentine mini-channel may become blocked due to the redistribution of airflow and pressure caused by slug formation. ► Correct GDL and mini-channel surface coatings are essential to reduce slug formation and stagnation. ► Having geometry changes (bends and steps) in the flow fields can disrupt slug movement and avoid channel blockages.

  6. Influence of the rated power in the performance of different proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Martin, J.I.; Zamora, I.; San Martin, J.J.; Aperribay, V.; Torres, E.; Eguia, P.

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cells are clean generators that provide both electrical and thermal energy with a high global efficiency level. The characteristics of these devices depend on numerous parameters such as: temperature, fuel and oxidizer pressures, fuel and oxidizer flows, etc. Therefore, their influence should be evaluated to appropriately characterize behaviour of the fuel cell, in order to enable its integration in the electric system. This paper presents a theoretical and experimental analysis of the performance of two commercial Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells of 40 and 1200 W, and introduces the application of the principle of geometrical similarity. Using the principle of geometrical similarity it is possible to extrapolate the results obtained from the evaluation of one fuel cell to other fuel cells with different ratings. An illustrating example is included.

  7. Exergoeconomic analysis of vehicular PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell systems with and without expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayadi, Saeed; Tsatsaronis, George; Duelk, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we perform an exergoeconomic analysis to a PEM (proton exchange membrane) vehicular fuel cell system used in the latest generation of environmentally friendly cars. Two alternative configurations of a fuel cell system are considered (with and without an expander), and two alternative design concepts for each configuration: BoL (Begin of Life) and EoL (End of Life). The system including an expander generates additional power from the exhaust gases leaving the fuel cell stack, which might increase the system efficiency. However the total investment costs for this case are higher than for the other system configuration without an expander, due to the investment costs associated with the expander and its accessories. The fuel cell stack area in the EoL-sized systems is larger than in the BoL-sized systems. A larger stack area on one hand raises the investment costs, but on the other hand decreases the fuel consumption due to a higher cell efficiency. In this paper, exergoeconomic analyses have been implemented to consider a trade-off between positive and negative effects of using an expander in the system and to select the proper design concept. The results from the exergoeconomic analysis show that (a) an EoL-sized system with an expander is the most cost effective system, (b) the compression and humidification of air are very expensive processes, (c) the stack is by far the most important component from the economic viewpoint, and (d) the thermodynamic efficiency of almost all components must be improved to increase the cost effectiveness of the overall system. - Highlights: • Two vehicular PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell system configurations are studied in this paper. • Exergoeconomics has been performed to compare these two system configurations. • The compression and humidification of air are very expensive processes. • The stack is by far the most important component from the economic viewpoint. • The thermodynamic efficiencies

  8. Simulation study of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system with autothermal reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersoz, Atilla [TUBITAK Marmara Research Centre, Energy Systems and Environmental Research Institute, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Olgun, Hayati [TUBITAK Marmara Research Centre, Energy Systems and Environmental Research Institute, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, Sibel [Marmara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 81040 Goztepe, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2006-08-15

    This paper presents the results of a study for a 100 kW net electrical power PEM fuel cell system. The major system components are an autothermal reformer, high and low temperature shift reactors, a preferential oxidation reactor, a PEM fuel cell, a combustor and an expander. Intensive heat integration within the PEM fuel cell system has been necessary to achieve acceptable net electrical efficiency levels. The calculations comprise the auxiliary equipment such as pumps, compressors, heaters, coolers, heat exchangers and pipes. The process simulation package 'ASPEN-HYSYS 3.1' has been used along with conventional calculations. The operation conditions of the autothermal reformer have been studied in detail to determine the values, which lead to the production of a hydrogen rich gas mixture with CO concentration at ppm level. The operation parameters of the other reactors have been determined considering the limitations implied by the catalysts involved. A gasoline type hydrocarbon fuel has been studied as the source for hydrogen production. The chemical composition of the hydrocarbon fuel affects the favorable operation conditions of autothermal reforming and the following fuel purification steps. Thermal efficiencies have been calculated for all of the major system components for selected operation conditions. The fuel cell stack efficiency has been calculated as a function of the number of cells (500-1250 cells). Efficiencies of all of the major system components along with auxiliary unit efficiencies determine the net electrical efficiency of the PEM fuel cell system. The obtained net electrical efficiency levels are between 30 (500 cells) and 37% (1250 cells). Hence, they are comparable with or higher than those of the conventional gasoline based internal combustion engine systems, in terms of the mechanical power efficiency.

  9. Simulation study of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system with autothermal reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersoz, Atilla; Olgun, Hayati; Ozdogan, Sibel

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study for a 100 kW net electrical power PEM fuel cell system. The major system components are an autothermal reformer, high and low temperature shift reactors, a preferential oxidation reactor, a PEM fuel cell, a combustor and an expander. Intensive heat integration within the PEM fuel cell system has been necessary to achieve acceptable net electrical efficiency levels. The calculations comprise the auxiliary equipment such as pumps, compressors, heaters, coolers, heat exchangers and pipes. The process simulation package 'ASPEN-HYSYS 3.1' has been used along with conventional calculations. The operation conditions of the autothermal reformer have been studied in detail to determine the values, which lead to the production of a hydrogen rich gas mixture with CO concentration at ppm level. The operation parameters of the other reactors have been determined considering the limitations implied by the catalysts involved. A gasoline type hydrocarbon fuel has been studied as the source for hydrogen production. The chemical composition of the hydrocarbon fuel affects the favorable operation conditions of autothermal reforming and the following fuel purification steps. Thermal efficiencies have been calculated for all of the major system components for selected operation conditions. The fuel cell stack efficiency has been calculated as a function of the number of cells (500-1250 cells). Efficiencies of all of the major system components along with auxiliary unit efficiencies determine the net electrical efficiency of the PEM fuel cell system. The obtained net electrical efficiency levels are between 30 (500 cells) and 37% (1250 cells). Hence, they are comparable with or higher than those of the conventional gasoline based internal combustion engine systems, in terms of the mechanical power efficiency

  10. Carbon monoxide tolerant anodes for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. 1. Catalyst development approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holleck, G L; Pasquariello, D M; Clauson, S L

    1998-07-01

    PEM fuel cells are highly attractive for distributed power and cogeneration systems. They are efficient and function virtually without noise or pollution. To be competitive PEM fuel cells must operate on fuel mixtures obtained by reforming of widely available natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons. Reformed fuel gas mixtures invariably contain CO, a strong poison for Pt. Therefore CO tolerant anode catalysts are essential for wide spread PEMFC introduction. It is the objective to develop effective CO tolerant fuel cell catalysts based on multi-component platinum-transition metal alloys. Towards this goal the authors have developed a novel approach for the synthesis and performance evaluation of multifunctional ternary alloy fuel cell catalysts. The alloys are prepared as well-defined thin films on standard TFE-bonded carbon substrates via a dc magnetron sputtering technique. The anodes are laminated to Nafion membranes and the electrochemical performance is measured in a representative fuel cell configuration with H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CO gas mixtures. The multi-target sputtering technique permits one to reproducibly synthesize true alloy films of controlled composition. The deposit morphology and electrode structure are determined by the standardized TFE bonded carbon substrate. The thin catalyst layer is concentrated at the electrode ionomer interface where it can be fully utilized in a representative fuel cell configuration. Thus, a true comparative fuel cell catalyst evaluation is possible. The effectiveness of this approach will be demonstrated with Pt, Pt-Ru and Pt-Ru-X catalyzed anodes.

  11. Highly fluorinated comb-shaped copolymer as proton exchange membranes (PEMs): Fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Sik; Guiver, Michael D.; Ding, Jianfu [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Kim, Yu.Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S. [Materials Physics and Applications, Sensors and Electrochemical Devices Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The fuel cell performance (DMFC and H{sub 2}/air) of highly fluorinated comb-shaped copolymer is reported. The initial performance of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) fabricated from comb-shaped copolymer containing a side-chain weight fraction of 22% are compared with those derived from Nafion and sulfonated polysulfone (BPSH-35) under DMFC conditions. The low water uptake of comb copolymer enabled an increase in proton exchange site concentrations in the hydrated polymer, which is a desirable membrane property for DMFC application. The comb-shaped copolymer architecture induces phase separated morphology between the hydrophobic fluoroaromatic backbone and the polysulfonic acid side chains. The initial performance of the MEAs using BPSH-35 and Comb 22 copolymer were comparable and higher than that of the Nafion MEA at all methanol concentrations. For example, the power density of the MEA using Comb 22 copolymer at 350 mA cm{sup -2} and 0.5 M methanol was 145 mW cm{sup -2}, whereas the power densities of MEAs using BPSH-35 were 136 mW cm{sup -2}. The power density of the MEA using Comb 22 copolymer at 350 mA cm{sup -2} and 2.0 M methanol was 144.5 mW cm{sup -2}, whereas the power densities of MEAs using BPSH-35 were 143 mW cm{sup -2}. (author)

  12. Durability of PEM Fuel Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyu; Reifsnider, Ken

    Durability is still a critical limiting factor for the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, a leading energy conversion technology for powering future hydrogen fueled automobiles, backup power systems (e.g., for base transceiver station of cellular networks), portable electronic devices, etc. Ionic conducting polymer (ionomer) electrolyte membranes are the critical enabling materials for the PEM fuel cells. They are also widely used as the central functional elements in hydrogen generation (e.g., electrolyzers), membrane cell for chlor-alkali production, etc. A perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer with the trade name Nafion® developed by DuPont™ is the most widely used PEM in chlor-alkali cells and PEM fuel cells. Similar PFSA membranes have been developed by Dow Chemical, Asahi Glass, and lately Solvay Solexis. Frequently, such membranes serve the dual function of reactant separation and selective ionic conduction between two otherwise separate compartments. For some applications, the compromise of the "separation" function via the degradation and mechanical failure of the electrolyte membrane can be the life-limiting factor; this is particularly the case for PEM in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells.

  13. Production of hydrogen using composite membrane in PEM water electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhi priya, E.L.; Mahender, C.; Mahesh, Naga; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally, Hyderabad-500 085, A.P (India); Anjaneyulu, Y. [Director, TLGVRC, JSU Box 18739, JSU, Jackson, MS 32917-0939 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Electrolysis of water is the best known technology till today to produce hydrogen. The only practical way to produce hydrogen using renewable energy sources is by proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis. The most commonly used PEM membrane is Nafion. Composite membrane of TiO2 is synthesized by casting method using Nafion 5wt% solution. RuO2 is used as anode and 10 wt% Pd on activated carbon is used as cathode in the water electrolyser system. The performance of this Composite membrane is studied by varying voltage range 1.8 to 2.6V with respect to hydrogen yield and at current density 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5(A cm-2). This Composite membrane has been tested using in-house fabricated single cell PEM water electrolysis cell with 10cm2 active area at temperatures ranging from 30,45,65 850c and at 1 atmosphere pressure.

  14. A two-phase flow and non-isothermal agglomerate model for a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Lei; Liu, Xiaoteng; Alaje, Taiwo; Kumar, Ravi; Mamlouk, Mohamed; Scott, Keith

    2014-01-01

    A two dimensional, across the channel, steady-state model for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is presented in which the non-isothermal model for temperature distribution, the two-phase flow model for liquid water transport and the agglomerate model for oxygen reduction reaction are fully coupled. This model is used to investigate thermal transport within the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) associated with the combinational water phase-transfer and transport mechanisms. Effective temperature distribution strategies are established aim to enhance the cell performance. Agglomerate assumption is adopted in which the ionomer and liquid water in turn cover the agglomerate to form the ionomer and liquid water films. Ionomer swelling is associated with the non-uniform distribution of the water content. The modelling results show that heat accumulates within the cathode catalyst layer under the channel. Higher operating temperature improves the cell performance by increasing the kinetics, reducing the liquid water saturation on the cathode and increasing the water carrying capacity of the anode gas. Applying higher temperature on the anode and enlarging the width ratio of the channel/rib could improve the cell performance. Higher cathode temperature decreases the oxygen mole fraction, resulting in an insufficient oxygen supply and a limitation of the cell performance. - Highlights: • The two-phase flow and non-isothermal model couple with the agglomerate model. • Oxygen diffusivity and solubility in Nafion ® relate to water content and temperature. • Higher anode operating temperature improves the fuel cell performance. • Insufficient oxygen supply limits cell performance at higher current densities

  15. Using the multiple regression analysis with respect to ANOVA and 3D mapping to model the actual performance of PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell at various operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hadeethi, Farqad; Al-Nimr, Moh'd; Al-Safadi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The performance of PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell was experimentally investigated at three temperatures (30, 50 and 70 °C), four flow rates (5, 10, 15 and 20 ml/min) and two flow patterns (co-current and counter current) in order to generate two correlations using multiple regression analysis with respect to ANOVA. Results revealed that increasing the temperature for co-current and counter current flow patterns will increase both hydrogen and oxygen diffusivities, water management and membrane conductivity. The derived mathematical correlations and three dimensional mapping (i.e. surface response) for the co-current and countercurrent flow patterns showed that there is a clear interaction among the various variables (temperatures and flow rates). - Highlights: • Generating mathematical correlations using multiple regression analysis with respect to ANOVA for the performance of the PEM fuel cell. • Using the 3D mapping to diagnose the optimum performance of the PEM fuel cell at the given operating conditions. • Results revealed that increasing the flow rate had direct influence on the consumption of oxygen. • Results assured that increasing the temperature in co-current and counter current flow patterns increases the performance of PEM fuel cell.

  16. Synthesis of protons exchange polymeric membranes via co-poly-esters doped with sodium dodecyl sulfate for application in PEM fuel cells; Sintese de membranas polimericas condutoras de protons por imobilizacao de MDs em copoliesteres para aplicacao em PEM-FC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, R.A.; Brioude, M.M.; Bresciani, D.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Polymers are largely studied for use in PEM-type fuel cell (Proton Exchange membrane, PEMFC). These fuel cells are based on polymer membranes as electrolyte, also called protons conductor. This work developed co-polyesters made electrical conductors by doping with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The copolymers were synthesized from the copolymerization of terephthalic and adipic acids with glycerol. The material was processed in a reactor and shaped by hot pressing, yielding homogeneous and flexible plates, with excellent surface finish. The co-polyesters were analyzed by SEM, FTIR, TG, DSC, and XRD. The thermal analysis showed that the composites were thermally stable up to about 250 deg C. The micrographics revealed the MDS homogeneously dispersed in the polymeric matrix. These copolymers showed electrical conductivity between 10-7 to 10-1 S/cm, suggesting strong potential use in PEM fuel cells. (author)

  17. A parametric study of assembly pressure, thermal expansion, and membrane swelling in PEM fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2016-01-01

    Proton Exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are still undergoing intense development, and the combination of new and optimized materials, improved product development, novel architectures, more efficient transport processes, and design optimization and integration are expected to lead to major gains in performance, efficiency, durability, reliability, manufacturability and cost-effectiveness. PEM fuel cell assembly pressure is known to cause large strains in the cell components. All components ...

  18. Three-Dimensional Transport Modeling for Proton Exchange Membrane(PEM Fuel Cell with Micro Parallel Flow Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Soon Hwang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro channel are beingused extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of thefundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype forengineering application. In this study, we used a single-phase, fully three dimensionalsimulation model for PEMFC that can deal with both anode and cathode flow field forexamining the micro flow channel with electrochemical reaction. The results show thathydrogen and oxygen were solely supplied to the membrane by diffusion mechanism ratherthan convection transport, and the higher pressure drop at cathode side is thought to becaused by higher flow rate of oxygen at cathode. And it is found that the amount of water incathode channel was determined by water formation due to electrochemical reaction pluselectro-osmotic mass flux directing toward the cathode side. And it is very important tomodel the back diffusion and electro-osmotic mass flux accurately since the two flux wasclosely correlated each other and greatly influenced for determination of ionic conductivityof the membrane which directly affects the performance of fuel cell.

  19. Three-Dimensional Transport Modeling for Proton Exchange Membrane(PEM) Fuel Cell with Micro Parallel Flow Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pil Hyong; Han, Sang Seok; Hwang, Sang Soon

    2008-03-03

    Modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro channel are beingused extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of thefundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype forengineering application. In this study, we used a single-phase, fully three dimensionalsimulation model for PEMFC that can deal with both anode and cathode flow field forexamining the micro flow channel with electrochemical reaction. The results show thathydrogen and oxygen were solely supplied to the membrane by diffusion mechanism ratherthan convection transport, and the higher pressure drop at cathode side is thought to becaused by higher flow rate of oxygen at cathode. And it is found that the amount of water incathode channel was determined by water formation due to electrochemical reaction pluselectro-osmotic mass flux directing toward the cathode side. And it is very important tomodel the back diffusion and electro-osmotic mass flux accurately since the two flux wasclosely correlated each other and greatly influenced for determination of ionic conductivityof the membrane which directly affects the performance of fuel cell.

  20. Novel High Temperature Membrane for PEM Fuel Cells, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed in this STTR program is a high temperature membrane to increase the efficiency and power density of PEM fuel cells. The NASA application is...

  1. Effect of humidity content and direction of the flow of reactant gases on water management in the 4-serpentine and 1-serpentine flow channel in a PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazaee, I.; Sabadbafan, H.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell depends on design and operating parameters such as relative humidity, operation pressure, and number of channels and direction of the flow of reactant gases. In this study, a three-dimensional, two-phase model has been established to investigate the water management and performance of PEM fuel cell with rectangular geometry and 1-serpentine and 4-serpentine with parallel flow, counter flow and cross flow for hydrogen and oxygen. The numerical simulation was realized with a PEM fuel cell model based on the FLUENT. The active area of each cell is 24.8 cm 2 that its weight is 1300 gr. The material of the gas diffusion layer is carbon clothes, the membrane is nafion117 and the catalyst layer is a plane with 0.004 g cm −2 platinum. Pure hydrogen is used on the anode side and oxygen on the cathode side. Simulation results are obtained for voltage as a function of current density at different humidity. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data, and the agreement is found to be good. The results show that the cell performance at lower voltages increases with increasing humidity in cell with 4-Serpentine flow channel and also in cell with 1-Serpentine flow channel, cell performance at all voltages increases with increasing humidity. In cell with 4-Serpentine and parallel flow channel cell performance is better than counter and cross flow in low voltage and in cell with 1-Serpentine and parallel flow, performance is better than counter and cross flow in high voltage. - Highlights: • Investigation new geometries of a fuel cell. • The effect of geometry on current density, oxygen and water distribution. • The effect of humidity on current density, oxygen and water distribution. • Seeing the interacting and complex electrochemical phenomena.

  2. Modeling Of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    The objective of this doctoral thesis was to develop reliable steady-state and transient component models suitable to asses-, develop- and optimize proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems. Several components in PEM fuel cell systems were characterized and modeled. The developed component...... cell systems. Consequences of indirectly fueling PEM stacks with hydrocarbons using reforming technology were investigated using a PEM stack model including CO poisoning kinetics and a transient Simulink steam reforming system model. Aspects regarding the optimization of PEM fuel cell systems...

  3. Development of a computational model applied to a unitary 144 cm{sup 2} proton exchange membrane fuel cell; Desenvolvimento de um modelo numerico computacional aplicado a uma celula a combustivel unitaria de 144 CM{sup 2} tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robalinho, Eric

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the development of a numerical computer model and methodology to study and design polymeric exchange membrane fuel cell - PEM. For the validation of experimental results, a sequence of routines, appropriate to fit the data obtained in the laboratory, was described. At the computational implementation it was created a new strategy of coupling two 3-dimensional models to satisfy the requirements of the comprehensive model of the fuel cell, including its various geometries and materials, as well as the various physical and chemical processes simulated. To effective assessment of the real cell analogy with numerical model, numerical studies were carried out. Comparisons with values obtained in the literature, characterization of variables through laboratory experiments and estimates from models already tested in the literature were also performed. Regarding the experimental part, a prototype of a fuel cell unit of 144 cm of geometric area was designed, produced and operated at laboratory with the purpose of validating the numerical computer model proposed, with positive results. The results of simulations for the 2D and 3D geometries proposed are presented in the form of polarization curves, highlighting the catalytic layer model based on the geometry of agglomerates. Parametric and sensitivity studies are presented to illustrate the change in performance of the fuel cell studied. The final model is robust and useful as a tool for design and optimization of PEM type fuel cells in a wide range of operating conditions. (author)

  4. Development of a computational model applied to a unitary 144 CM{sup 2} proton exchange membrane fuel cell; Desenvolvimento de um modelo numerico computacional aplicado a uma celula a combustivel unitaria de 144 CM{sup 2} tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robalinho, Eric

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the development of a numerical computer model and methodology to study and design polymeric exchange membrane fuel cell - PEM. For the validation of experimental results, a sequence of routines, appropriate to fit the data obtained in the laboratory, was described. At the computational implementation it was created a new strategy of coupling two 3-dimensional models to satisfy the requirements of the comprehensive model of the fuel cell, including its various geometries and materials, as well as the various physical and chemical processes simulated. To effective assessment of the real cell analogy with numerical model, numerical studies were carried out. Comparisons with values obtained in the literature, characterization of variables through laboratory experiments and estimates from models already tested in the literature were also performed. Regarding the experimental part, a prototype of a fuel cell unit of 144 cm{sup 2} of geometric area was designed, produced and operated at laboratory with the purpose of validating the numerical computer model proposed, with positive results. The results of simulations for the 2D and 3D geometries proposed are presented in the form of polarization curves, highlighting the catalytic layer model based on the geometry of agglomerates. Parametric and sensitivity studies are presented to illustrate the change in performance of the fuel cell studied. The final model is robust and useful as a tool for design and optimization of PEM type fuel cells in a wide range of operating conditions. (author)

  5. Development of Novel PEM Membrane and Multiphase CD Modeling of PEM Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. J. Berry; Susanta Das

    2009-12-30

    To understand heat and water management phenomena better within an operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell's (PEMFC) conditions, a three-dimensional, two-phase computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow model has been developed and simulated for a complete PEMFC. Both liquid and gas phases are considered in the model by taking into account the gas flow, diffusion, charge transfer, change of phase, electro-osmosis, and electrochemical reactions to understand the overall dynamic behaviors of species within an operating PEMFC. The CFD model is solved numerically under different parametric conditions in terms of water management issues in order to improve cell performance. The results obtained from the CFD two-phase flow model simulations show improvement in cell performance as well as water management under PEMFCs operational conditions as compared to the results of a single phase flow model available in the literature. The quantitative information obtained from the two-phase model simulation results helped to develop a CFD control algorithm for low temperature PEM fuel cell stacks which opens up a route in designing improvement of PEMFC for better operational efficiency and performance. To understand heat and water management phenomena better within an operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell's (PEMFC) conditions, a three-dimensional, two-phase computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow model has been developed and simulated for a complete PEMFC. Both liquid and gas phases are considered in the model by taking into account the gas flow, diffusion, charge transfer, change of phase, electro-osmosis, and electrochemical reactions to understand the overall dynamic behaviors of species within an operating PEMFC. The CFD model is solved numerically under different parametric conditions in terms of water management issues in order to improve cell performance. The results obtained from the CFD two-phase flow model simulations show improvement in cell

  6. Teledyne Energy Systems, Inc., Proton Exchange Member (PEM) Fuel Cell Engineering Model Powerplant. Test Report: Initial Benchmark Tests in the Original Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyselle, Patricia; Prokopius, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology is the leading candidate to replace the alkaline fuel cell technology, currently used on the Shuttle, for future space missions. During a 5-yr development program, a PEM fuel cell powerplant was developed. This report details the initial performance evaluation test results of the powerplant.

  7. Degradation modeling and operational optimization for improving the lifetime of high-temperature PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jintae; Kim, Minjin; Kang, Taegon; Sohn, Young-Jun; Song, Taewon; Choi, Kyoung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature PEMFCs (proton exchange membrane fuel cells) using PA (phosphoric acid)-doped PBI (polybenzimidazole) membranes have received attention as a potential solution to several of the issues with traditional low-temperature PEMFCs. However, the durability of high-temperature PEMFCs deteriorates rapidly with increasing temperature, although its performance improves. This characteristic makes it difficult to select the proper operating temperature to achieve its target lifetime. In this paper, to resolve this problem, models were developed to predict the performance and durability of the high-temperature PEMFC as a function of operating temperature. The optimal operating temperature was then determined for a variety of lifetimes. Theoretical model to estimate cell performance and empirical model to predict the degradation rate of cell performance were constructed, respectively. The prediction results of the developed models agreed well with the experimental data. From the simulation, we could obtain higher average cell performances by optimizing the operating temperature for the given target lifetime compared to the cell performance at some temperatures determined using an existing rule of thumb. It is expected that the proposed methodologies will lead to the more rapid commercialization of this technology in such applications as stationary and automotive fuel cell systems. - Highlights: • High-temperature PEMFCs (proton exchange membrane fuel cells). • Operational optimization for improving the lifetime. • Development of the degradation modeling for high-temperature PEMFCs

  8. Epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly (phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Michael; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Norman, Kirsten; Hickner, Michael A.

    2010-10-19

    An epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer composition used as proton exchange membranes, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cell, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes, and in sulfur dioxide electrolyzers. These improved membranes are tougher, have higher temperature capability, and lower SO.sub.2 crossover rates.

  9. Development and testing of a hybrid system with a sub-kW open-cathode type PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhen-Ming; Su, Ay; Liu, Ying-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack has been evaluated for a hybrid power system test platform. To simulate vehicle acceleration, the stack was operated under dynamic-loading, and to demonstrate the exchange of power flow between two power sources the hybrid power system was tested under three different modes. A unit cell was fabricated for high stack performance and the stack was constructed with 18 open-cathode type fuel cells. Air which acts as a coolant as well as an oxidant for electrochemical reactions is provided by a pair of fans. The capabilities of the stack for hybrid power system test platform were validated by successful dynamic-loading tests. The performance of the stack for various air fan voltage was evaluated and an optimal value was concluded. The conditions like inlet temperature of H 2 and the stack current were established for maximum power. It was also found that humidification of hydrogen at anode inlet degrades the stack performance and stability due to flooding. Evidence shows that for the higher overall performance, the fuel cell acts continuously on constant current output. The study contributes to the design of mobility hybrid system to get better performance and reliability. - Highlights: • An open-cathode type PEMFC (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell) stack (rated output 300 W) was fabricated. • The open-cathode configuration simplifies the design of a stack system. • Assess the feasibility of combining a fuel cell stack in a hybrid system. • The study contributes to the design of mobility hybrid system to get better performance and reliability

  10. Dynamic performance of a high-temperature PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell – Modelling and fuzzy control of purging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Caizhi; Liu, Zhitao; Zhang, Xiongwen; Chan, Siew Hwa; Wang, Youyi

    2016-01-01

    To improve fuel utilization of HT-PEMFC (high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell), which normally operates under dead-end mode, with properly periodical purging to flush out the accumulated water vapour in the anode flow-field is necessary, otherwise the performance of HT-PEMFC would drop gradually. In this paper, a semi-empirical dynamic voltage model of HT-PEMFC is developed for controller design purpose via fitting the experimental data and validated with experimental results. Then, a fuzzy controller is designed to schedule the purging based on the obtained model. According to the result, the developed model well reflects transient characteristics of HT-PEMFC voltage and the fuzzy controller offers good performance for purging scheduling under uncertain load demands. - Highlights: • A semi-empirical dynamic voltage model of HT-PEMFC is developed for control design. • The model is developed via fitting and validated with experimental results. • A fuzzy controller is designed to schedule the purging based on the obtained model.

  11. Hydrogen production using the waste heat of Benchmark pressurized Molten carbonate fuel cell system via combination of organic Rankine cycle and proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nami, Hossein; Akrami, Ehsan; Ranjbar, Faramarz

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste heat of the Benchmark system recovered using an ORC. • An integrated system is proposed to produce power and hydrogen. • The effects of some decision parameters on the produced hydrogen have investigated. - Abstract: Energy and exergy analyses are carried out for hydrogen production via combination of Benchmark system and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) coupled with a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer. A parametric study is reported and effects of such organic Rankine cycle significant variables as evaporator temperature, pinch point temperature difference in the evaporator and degree of superheat at the ORC turbine inlet on the rate of produced hydrogen, sustainability index, overall exergy efficiency and organic Rankine cycle net produced power are investigated. It is observed that the rate of produced hydrogen and overall exergy efficiency of the proposed combined system take the maximum value to change in the evaporator temperature. Also, it is revealed that increasing the pinch point temperature difference in the evaporator decreases the rate of produced hydrogen and the overall exergy efficiency of the system. Furthermore, the effects on the rate of produced hydrogen and the overall exergy efficiency of the degree of superheat at the ORC turbine inlet are the same as the effect of pinch point temperature difference.

  12. Proton exchange membranes prepared by grafting of styrene/divinylbenzene into crosslinked PTFE membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingye; Ichizuri, Shogo; Asano, Saneto; Mutou, Fumihiro; Ikeda, Shigetoshi; Iida, Minoru; Miura, Takaharu; Oshima, Akihiro; Tabata, Yoneho; Washio, Masakazu

    2005-01-01

    Thin PTFE membranes were prepared by coating the PTFE dispersion onto the aluminum films. Thus the thin crosslinked PTFE (RX-PTFE) membranes were obtained by means of electron beam irradiation above the melting temperature of PTFE under oxygen-free atmosphere. The RX-PTFE membranes were pre-irradiated and grafted by styrene with or without divinylbenzene (DVB) in liquid phase. The existence of DVB accelerated the initial grafting rate. The styrene grafted RX-PTFE membranes are white colored, on the other hand, the styrene/DVB grafted RX-PTFE membranes are colorless. The proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were obtained by sulfonating the grafted membranes using chlorosulfonic acid. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) values of the PEMs ranging from 1.5 to 2.8 meq/g were obtained. The PEMs made from the styrene/DVB grafted membranes showed higher chemical stability than those of the styrene grafted membranes under oxidative circumstance

  13. Numerical study of the effect of relative humidity and stoichiometric flow ratio on PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell performance with various channel lengths: An anode partial flooding modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Lei; Cai, Qiong; Xu, Chenxi; Liu, Chunbo; Scott, Keith; Yan, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    A two dimensional, along the channel, non-isothermal, two-phase flow, anode partial flooding model was developed to investigate the effects of relative humidity, stoichiometric flow ratio and channel length, as well as their interactive influence, on the performance of a PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell. Liquid water formation and transport at the anode due to the condensation of supersaturated anode gas initiated by hydrogen consumption was considered. The model considered the heat source/sink in terms of electrochemical reaction, Joule heating and latent heat due to water phase-transfer. The non-uniform temperature distributions inside the MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and channels at various stoichiometric flow ratios were demonstrated. The Peclet number was used to evaluate the contributions of advection and diffusion on liquid water and heat transport. Results indicated that higher anode relative humidity is required to the improved cell performance. As the decrease in the anode relative humidity and increase in channel length, the optimal cathode relative humidity was increased. The initial increase in stoichiometric flow ratio improved the limiting current densities. However, the further increases led to limited contributions. The Peclet number indicated that the liquid water transport through the electrode was mainly determined by the capillary diffusion mechanism. - Highlights: • Interactive effects of RH, stoichiometric flow ratio, channel length are studied. • Fully humidified anode is required to maintain the good cell performance. • Optimal RH_c is 30–40% for channel length of 1–10 cm at high current density. • Effect of stoichiometric flow ratio is more significant for longer channels. • Both liquid water and heat transport are diffusion dominated rather than advection.

  14. Performance of Pd on activated carbon as hydrogen electrode with respect to hydrogen yield in a single cell proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolyser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Mahesh, K.; Sarada Prasad, J.; Venkateswer Rao, M.; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500085 (A.P.) (India); Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu [TLGVRC, JSU Box 18739, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 32917 - 0939 (United States); Raghunathan Rao, P. [Fuel cell section, Heavy Water Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)

    2009-08-15

    Palladium (Pd) on activated carbon is used as electrocatalyst coated on Nafion 115 membrane as Hydrogen electrode and RuO{sub 2} is coated on other side of membrane used as oxygen electrode. 5 wt% and 10 wt% Pd on activated carbon is prepared as membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and investigated the performance of the same using inhouse prepared 10 cm{sup 2} single cell. The performance of the single cell assembly and the hydrogen yield are reported during electrolysis operation at temperatures 27 C, 45 C and 65 C at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 A/cm{sup 2} current densities with respect to voltages. (author)

  15. Nanostructure-based proton exchange membrane for fuel cell applications at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junsheng; Wang, Zhengbang; Li, Junrui; Pan, Mu; Tang, Haolin

    2014-02-01

    As a clean and highly efficient energy source, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been considered an ideal alternative to traditional fossil energy sources. Great efforts have been devoted to realizing the commercialization of the PEMFC in the past decade. To eliminate some technical problems that are associated with the low-temperature operation (such as catalyst poisoning and poor water management), PEMFCs are usually operated at elevated temperatures (e.g., > 100 degrees C). However, traditional proton exchange membrane (PEM) shows poor performance at elevated temperature. To achieve a high-performance PEM for high temperature fuel cell applications, novel PEMs, which are based on nanostructures, have been developed recently. In this review, we discuss and summarize the methods for fabricating the nanostructure-based PEMs for PEMFC operated at elevated temperatures and the high temperature performance of these PEMs. We also give an outlook on the rational design and development of the nanostructure-based PEMs.

  16. NaBH4 (sodium borohydride) hydrogen generator with a volume-exchange fuel tank for small unmanned aerial vehicles powered by a PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taegyu

    2014-01-01

    A proton exchange membrane fuel cell system integrated with a NaBH 4 (sodium borohydride) hydrogen generator was developed for small UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). The hydrogen generator was composed of a catalytic reactor, liquid pump and volume-exchange fuel tank, where the fuel and spent fuel exchange the volume within a single fuel tank. Co–B catalyst supported on a porous ceramic material was used to generate hydrogen from the NaBH 4 solution. Considering the power consumption according to the mission profile of a UAV, the power output of the fuel cell and auxiliary battery was distributed passively as an electrical load. A blended wing-body was selected considering the fuel efficiency and carrying capability of fuel cell components. First, the fuel cell stack and hydrogen generator were evaluated under the operating conditions, and integrated into the airframe. The ground test of the complete fuel cell UAV was performed under a range of load conditions. Finally, the fuel cell powered flight test was made for 1 h. The volume-exchange fuel tank minimized the fuel sloshing and the change in center of gravity due to fuel consumption during the flight, so that much stable operation of the fuel cell system was validated at different flight modes. - Highlights: • PEMFC system with a NaBH 4 hydrogen source was developed for small UAVs. • Volume-exchange fuel tank was used to reduce the size of the fuel cell system. • Passive power management was used for a stable power output during the flight. • BWB UAV was selected by taking the fuel cell integration into consideration. • Stable operation of the fuel cell system was verified from the flight test

  17. Use of hydrogen-deuterium exchange for contrast in {sup 1}H NMR microscopy investigations of an operating PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feindel, Kirk W.; Bergens, Steven H.; Wasylishen, Roderick E. [Department of Chemistry, Gunning/Lemieux Chemistry Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta. T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2007-11-08

    The use of hydrogen-deuterium (H-D) exchange as a method to introduce contrast in {sup 1}H NMR microscopy images and to investigate the dynamic distribution of water throughout an operating H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, PEMFC, is demonstrated. Cycling D{sub 2}O(l) through the flow channels of a PEMFC causes H-D exchange with water in the PEM to result in a D{sub 2}O-saturated PEM and thus concomitant removal of the {sup 1}H NMR signal. Subsequent operation of the PEMFC with H{sub 2}(g) enables visualization of the redistribution of water from wet or flooded conditions as H-D exchange occurs with D{sub 2}O in the PEM and results in recovery of the {sup 1}H NMR signal. Alternating between H{sub 2}(g) and D{sub 2}(g) as fuel allows observation of water distributions in the PEM while the cell is operating at a steady-state under low relative humidity. At similar currents, the rate of observable H-D exchange in the PEM during fuel cell operation was faster when the PEM was saturated with water than when under low relative humidity. These results are consistent with the known proportions of the conductive hydrophilic and nonconductive hydrophobic domains of Nafion when exposed to different relative humidities. (author)

  18. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  19. CAPSTONE SENIOR DESIGN - SUPRAMOLECULAR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR FUEL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to assume a leading role in the burgeoning hydrogen economy, new infrastructure will be required for fuel cell manufacturing and R&D capabilities. The objective of this proposal is the development of a new generation of advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) technol...

  20. Modelling membrane hydration and water balance of a pem fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2015-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells requires an appropriate hydration in order to ensure high efficiency and long durability. As water is essential for promoting proton conductivity in the membrane, it is important to control membrane water hydration to avoid flooding. In this study we...

  1. Proton exchange membrane water electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millet, P.

    2007-01-01

    This work deals with the PEM water electrolysis process. Are successively described: the thermodynamical, kinetic and energetic aspects, the different possible used electrolysis cells, the preparation of the membrane-electrode assembling, the used electrolysers, the annex production equipment, the uses fields and the limits of the process. (O.M.)

  2. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fengge; Miraoui, Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    The fuel cell is a potential candidate for energy storage and conversion in our future energy mix. It is able to directly convert the chemical energy stored in fuel (e.g. hydrogen) into electricity, without undergoing different intermediary conversion steps. In the field of mobile and stationary applications, it is considered to be one of the future energy solutions.Among the different fuel cell types, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has shown great potential in mobile applications, due to its low operating temperature, solid-state electrolyte and compactness.This book pre

  3. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lawrence [Edison, NJ

    2012-02-28

    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  4. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swathirajan, S. [General Motors R& D Center, Warren, MI (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are extremely promising as future power plants in the transportation sector to achieve an increase in energy efficiency and eliminate environmental pollution due to vehicles. GM is currently involved in a multiphase program with the US Department of Energy for developing a proof-of-concept hybrid vehicle based on a PEM fuel cell power plant and a methanol fuel processor. Other participants in the program are Los Alamos National Labs, Dow Chemical Co., Ballard Power Systems and DuPont Co., In the just completed phase 1 of the program, a 10 kW PEM fuel cell power plant was built and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating a methanol fuel processor with a PEM fuel cell stack. However, the fuel cell power plant must overcome stiff technical and economic challenges before it can be commercialized for light duty vehicle applications. Progress achieved in phase I on the use of monolithic catalyst reactors in the fuel processor, managing CO impurity in the fuel cell stack, low-cost electrode-membrane assembles, and on the integration of the fuel processor with a Ballard PEM fuel cell stack will be presented.

  5. Study of the Nafion quantity effect in membrane and electrodes assemblies (MEAs) of 50 cm{sup 2} used in type proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell operating with H{sub 2}/Air; Estudo do efeito da quantidade de Nafion em MEAs de 50 cm{sup 2} utilizadas em celula a combustivel tipo PEM operando com H{sub 2}/ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profeti, Demetrius; Colmati, Flavio; Carlindo, Adao A.J.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Gonzalez, Ernesto R.; Ticianelli, Edson A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: dprofeti@iqsc.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    The performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was investigated with the aim at characterizing the effects of the Nafion. content on the scale-up of the electrodes from 5 to 50 cm{sup 2}. It is observed that a diminution of the single cell performance occurred when the electrode area is increased from 5 to 50 cm{sup 2}. The tests carried out with different Nafion. contents, and fuel cell and humidifiers at the same temperature (T{sub cell}=T{sub H2}=T{sub air}=70 deg C) showed a slightly decrease of the fuel cell performance compared to the tests performed at different temperatures (T{sub cell}=70 deg C, T{sub H2}=85 deg C, T{sub air}=75 deg C). In the study of the variation on the Nafion. contents, the higher performance up to a current density of 0.8 A cm-2 is obtained with the 35.5 wt.% Nafion.. On the other hand, at higher current densities values, the performance of the fuel cells is very similar for the 31.0, 35.5 and 39.4 wt.% Nafion contents. (author)

  6. Proton Conductivity of Proton Exchange Membrane Synergistically Promoted by Different Functionalized Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhuang; Tang, Beibei; Wu, Peiyi

    2017-07-12

    In this study, two functionalized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), UiO-66-SO 3 H and UiO-66-NH 2 , were synthesized. Then, different composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared by single doping and codoping of these two MOFs, respectively. It was found that codoping of these two MOFs with suitable sizes was more conducive to the proton conductivity enhancement of the composite PEM. A synergistic effect between these two MOFs led to the the formation of more consecutive hydration channels in the composite PEM. It further greatly promoted the proton conductivity of the composite PEM. The proton conductivity of the codoped PEM reached up to 0.256 S/cm under 90 °C, 95% RH, which was ∼1.17 times higher than that of the recast Nafion (0.118 S/cm). Besides, the methanol permeability of the codoped PEM was prominently decreased owing to the methanol trapping effect of the pores of these two MOFs. Meanwhile, the high water and thermal stabilities of these two MOFs were beneficial to the high proton conductivity stability of the codoped PEM under high humidity and high temperature. The proton conductivity of the codoped PEM was almost unchanged throughout 3000 min of testing under 90 °C, 95% RH. This work provides a valuable reference for designing different functionalized MOFs to synergistically promote the proton conductivities of PEMs.

  7. LINEAR AND NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES AND STRESS MODELING FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Patankar, Kshitish A

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, the effect of temperature and humidity on the viscoelastic and fracture properties of proton exchange membranes (PEM) used in fuel cell applications was studied. Understanding and accurately modeling the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive properties of a PEM are important for making hygrothermal stress predictions in the cyclic temperature and humidity environment of operating fuel cells. In this study, Nafion® NRE 211, Gore-Select® 57, and Ion Power® N111...

  8. Multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Cy H [Albuquerque, NM; Hibbs, Michael [Albuquerque, NM; Ambrosini, Andrea [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-02-07

    Improved multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer compositions, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes. The multi-block architecture has defined, controllable hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. These improved membranes have better ion transport (proton conductivity) and water swelling properties.

  9. Bipolar Plates for PEM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lædre, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Summary of thesis: The Bipolar Plate (BPP) is an important component in both Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) and Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers (PEMWEs). Bipolar plate material and processing constitutes for a large fraction of the cost and weight of a PEM cell stack. The main tasks for the bipolar plates in both systems are to separate single cell in a stack, conduct current between single cells and remove heat from active areas. In addition, the BPPs distribu...

  10. Performance optimization of a PEM hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to develop a semi-empirical model that would simulate the performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells without extensive calculations. A fuel cell mathematical module has been designed and constructed to determine the performance of a PEM fuel cell. The influence of some operating parameters on the performance of PEM fuel cell has been investigated using pure hydrogen on the anode side and oxygen on the cathode side. The present model can be used to investigate t...

  11. A simple electric circuit model for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarou, Stavros; Pyrgioti, Eleftheria; Alexandridis, Antonio T.

    A simple and novel dynamic circuit model for a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell suitable for the analysis and design of power systems is presented. The model takes into account phenomena like activation polarization, ohmic polarization, and mass transport effect present in a PEM fuel cell. The proposed circuit model includes three resistors to approach adequately these phenomena; however, since for the PEM dynamic performance connection or disconnection of an additional load is of crucial importance, the proposed model uses two saturable inductors accompanied by an ideal transformer to simulate the double layer charging effect during load step changes. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed model its dynamic performance under load step changes is simulated. Experimental results coming from a commercial PEM fuel cell module that uses hydrogen from a pressurized cylinder at the anode and atmospheric oxygen at the cathode, clearly verify the simulation results.

  12. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  13. Effect of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) incorporation on water uptake and conductivity of proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproll, Véronique; Schmidt, Thomas J.; Gubler, Lorenz

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate how hygroscopic moieties like hydrolyzed glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) influence the properties of sulfonated polysytrene based proton exchange membranes (PEM). Therefore, several membranes were synthesized by electron beam treatment of the ETFE (ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) base film with a subsequent co-grafting of styrene and GMA at different ratios. The obtained membranes were sulfonated to introduce proton conducting groups and the epoxide moiety of the GMA unit was hydrolyzed for a better water absorption. The PEM was investigated regarding its structural composition, water uptake and through-plane conductivity. It could be shown that the density of sulfonic acid groups has a higher influence on the proton conductivity of the PEM than an increased water uptake.

  14. Analysis of coupled proton and water transport in a PEM fuel cell using the binary friction membrane model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, B.; Djilali, N.

    2006-01-01

    Transport of liquid water within a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is critical to the operation of a PEM fuel cell, due to the strong dependence of the membrane transport coefficients on water content. In addition, enhanced predictive abilities are particularly significant in the context of passive air breathing fuel cell designs where lower water contents will prevail in the membrane. We investigate and analyze the numerical predictions of a recently proposed rational model for transport of protons and water in a PEM, when compared to a widely used empirical model. While the performance is similar for a saturated membrane, for PEMs with low water content, the difference in computed current density and membrane water crossover can be substantial. The effects of coupling partially saturated gas diffusion electrodes (GDLs) with the membrane are studied in both a 1D and 2D context. In addition, a simplified 1D analytical membrane water transport model is validated against the complete 1D model predictions. Our numerical results predict a higher current density and more uniform membrane hydration using a dry cathode instead of a dry anode, and illustrate that the strongest 2D effects are for water vapor transport

  15. Design of an optical thermal sensor for proton exchange membrane fuel cell temperature measurement using phosphor thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Kristopher; Wang, Xia; Sangeorzan, Brian

    Internal temperatures in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell govern the ionic conductivities of the polymer electrolyte, influence the reaction rate at the electrodes, and control the water vapor pressure inside the cell. It is vital to fully understand thermal behavior in a PEM fuel cell if performance and durability are to be optimized. The objective of this research was to design, construct, and implement thermal sensors based on the principles of the lifetime-decay method of phosphor thermometry to measure temperatures inside a PEM fuel cell. Five sensors were designed and calibrated with a maximum uncertainty of ±0.6 °C. Using these sensors, surface temperatures were measured on the cathode gas diffusion layer of a 25 cm 2 PEM fuel cell. The test results demonstrate the utility of the optical temperature sensor design and provide insight into the thermal behavior found in a PEM fuel cell.

  16. Inorganic-based proton conductive composite membranes for elevated temperature and reduced relative humidity PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunmei

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are regarded as highly promising energy conversion systems for future transportation and stationary power generation and have been under intensive investigations for the last decade. Unfortunately, cutting edge PEM fuel cell design and components still do not allow economically commercial implementation of this technology. The main obstacles are high cost of proton conductive membranes, low-proton conductivity at low relative humidity (RH), and dehydration and degradation of polymer membranes at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to develop a systematic approach to design a high proton conductive composite membrane that can provide a conductivity of approximately 100 mS cm-1 under hot and dry conditions (120°C and 50% RH). The approach was based on fundamental and experimental studies of the proton conductivity of inorganic additives and composite membranes. We synthesized and investigated a variety of organic-inorganic Nafion-based composite membranes. In particular, we analyzed their fundamental properties, which included thermal stability, morphology, the interaction between inorganic network and Nafion clusters, and the effect of inorganic phase on the membrane conductivity. A wide range of inorganic materials was studied in advance in order to select the proton conductive inorganic additives for composite membranes. We developed a conductivity measurement method, with which the proton conductivity characteristics of solid acid materials, zirconium phosphates, sulfated zirconia (S-ZrO2), phosphosilicate gels, and Santa Barbara Amorphous silica (SBA-15) were discussed in detail. Composite membranes containing Nafion and different amounts of functionalized inorganic additives (sulfated inorganics such as S-ZrO2, SBA-15, Mobil Composition of Matter MCM-41, and S-SiO2, and phosphonated inorganic P-SiO2) were synthesized with different methods. We incorporated inorganic particles within Nafion clusters

  17. Composite proton exchange membrane based on sulfonated organic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitia, Emmanuel Sokiri

    As the world sets its sight into the future, energy remains a great challenge. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is part of the solution to the energy challenge because of its high efficiency and diverse application. The purpose of the PEM is to provide a path for proton transport and to prevent direct mixing of hydrogen and oxygen at the anode and the cathode, respectively. Hence, PEMs must have good proton conductivity, excellent chemical stability, and mechanical durability. The current state-of-the-art PEM is a perfluorosulfonate ionomer, Nafion®. Although Nafion® has many desirable properties, it has high methanol crossover and it is expensive. The objective of this research was to develop a cost effective two-phase, composite PEM wherein a dispersed conductive organic phase preferentially aligned in the transport direction controls proton transport, and a continuous hydrophobic phase provides mechanical durability to the PEM. The hypothesis that was driving this research was that one might expect better dispersion, higher surface to volume ratio and improved proton conductivity of a composite membrane if the dispersed particles were nanometer in size and had high ion exchange capacity (IEC, = [mmol sulfonic acid]/gram of polymer). In view of this, considerable efforts were employed in the synthesis of high IEC organic nanoparticles and fabrication of a composite membrane with controlled microstructure. High IEC, ~ 4.5 meq/g (in acid form, theoretical limit is 5.4 meq/g) nanoparticles were achieved by emulsion copolymerization of a quaternary alkyl ammonium (QAA) neutralized-sulfonated styrene (QAA-SS), styrene, and divinylbenzene (DVB). The effects of varying the counterion of the sulfonated styrene (SS) monomer (alkali metal and QAA cations), SS concentration, and the addition of a crosslinking agent (DVB) on the ability to stabilize the nanoparticles to higher IECs were assessed. The nanoparticles were ion exchanged to acid form. The extent of ion

  18. Development of the sulphonated poly(2,6-Dimethyl-1,4-Phenylene Oxide) membranes for proton exchange membranes fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrasu, Daniela; Petreanu, Irina; Iordache, Ioan; Stefanescu, Ioan; Gaspar, Costinela-Laura; Militaru, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Fuel cells have the potential to become an important energy conversion technology. Research efforts directed toward the widespread commercialization of fuel cells have accelerated the developing of new types of Proton Exchange Membranes (also termed 'polymer electrolyte membranes') (PEM). Common issues critical to all high performance proton exchange membranes include: - high protonic conductivity; - low electronic conductivity; - low permeability to fuel and oxidant; - low water transport through diffusion and electro-osmosis; - oxidative and hydrolytic stability; - good mechanical properties in both the dry and hydrated states; - cost; and capability for fabrication into Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs). In this sense we choose to use poly(2,6-Dimethyl-1,4-Phenylene Oxide) (PPO) as basis for development of new PEM membranes. The membranes were prepared by lamination from solution (Doctor Balde) method in controlled atmosphere (preliminary vacuum 0.003 Torr and/or nitrogen). FTIR spectra of the sulphonated polymers prove the sulphonic groups presence according the literature. Ionic exchange capacity (IEC) have the values 1.15-3.6 meq/g. TGA-DSC analysis put in evidence the thermal degradation of the sulphonated polymers at about 120 deg. C. These properties of the sulphonated PPO are in accordance of the requirements for PEM membranes and indicate that this polymer is suitable for PEM Fuel cells. (authors)

  19. Why do proton conducting polybenzimidazole phosphoric acid membranes perform well in high-temperature PEM fuel cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Jan-Patrick; Majer, Günter; Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-12-21

    Transport properties and hydration behavior of phosphoric acid/(benz)imidazole mixtures are investigated by diverse NMR techniques, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and conductivity measurements. The monomeric systems can serve as models for phosphoric acid/poly-benzimidazole membranes which are known for their exceptional performance in high temperature PEM fuel cells. 1 H- and 31 P-NMR data show benzimidazole acting as a strong Brønsted base with respect to neat phosphoric acid. Since benzimidazole's nitrogens are fully protonated with a low rate for proton exchange with phosphate species, proton diffusion and conduction processes must take place within the hydrogen bond network of phosphoric acid only. The proton exchange dynamics between phosphate and benzimidazole species pass through the intermediate exchange regime (with respect to NMR line separations) with exchange times being close to typical diffusion times chosen in PFG-NMR diffusion measurements (ms regime). The resulting effects, as described by the Kärger equation, are included into the evaluation of PFG-NMR data for obtaining precise proton diffusion coefficients. The highly reduced proton diffusion coefficient within the phosphoric acid part of the model systems compared to neat phosphoric acid is suggested to be the immediate consequence of proton subtraction from phosphoric acid. This reduces hydrogen bond network frustration (imbalance of the number of proton donors and acceptors) and therefore also the rate of structural proton diffusion, phosphoric acid's acidity and hygroscopicity. Reduced water uptake, shown by TGA, goes along with reduced electroosmotic water drag which is suggested to be the reason for PBI-phosphoric acid membranes performing better in fuel cells than other phosphoric-acid-containing electrolytes with higher protonic conductivity.

  20. Microalgae dewatering based on forward osmosis employing proton exchange membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jieun; Sung, Mina; Ryu, Hoyoung; Oh, You-Kwan; Han, Jong-In

    2017-11-01

    In this study, electrically-facilitated forward osmosis (FO) employing proton exchange membrane (PEM) was established for the purpose of microalgae dewatering. An increase in water flux was observed when an external voltage was applied to the FO equipped with the PEM; as expected, the trend became more dramatic with both concentration of draw solution and applied voltage raised. With this FO used for microalgae dewatering, 247% of increase in flux and 86% in final biomass concentration were observed. In addition to the effect on flux improvement, the electrically-facilitated FO exhibited the ability to remove chlorophyll from the dewatered biomass, down to 0.021±0015mg/g cell. All these suggest that the newly suggested electrically-facilitated FO, one particularly employed PEM, can indeed offer a workable way of dewatering of microalgae; it appeared to be so because it can also remove the ever-problematic chlorophyll from extracted lipids in a simultaneous fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  2. A numerical study on the effects of temperature and mass transfer in high temperature PEM fuel cells with ab-PBI membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hong; Xie, Chen; Chen, Hao; Almheiri, Saif

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-dimensional model is developed to study the HT-PEMFC with ab-PBI membrane. • The temperature distribution in the ab-PBI membrane is uneven. • With the increase of temperature, the resistance in ab-PBI membrane decreases. • Porosity has the most significant effect on the performance of HT-PEMFC. - Abstract: A two-dimensional, single-phase model is developed to study high temperature proton exchange membrane (HT-PEM) fuel cell with poly(2,5-benzimidazole) (ab-PBI) membrane. In this model, simulation region not only includes the cathode and anode, but also includes ab-PBI membrane; the continuity boundary condition at the interface between the catalyst layer (CL) and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) at each side of the cell is omitted by including the catalyst layers in the respective unified domains for the cathode and the anode. The flows, species, energy, current density are all coupled in the model. Experiments have been conducted to validate the proposed numerical simulations, and it is found that there is a good agreement between the modeling results and those obtained experimentally. By this simulation, not only the oxygen and water fraction distribution in the cathode, but also the temperature distribution and resistance distribution in the ab-PBI membrane are obtained, and the effects of the cell temperature, the porosity in the diffusion layer and its thickness on the current density are analyzed. The innovative researching results are that the temperature distribution is uneven in the ab-PBI membrane and its resistance is greatly affected by the operating temperature. Other results show that the increase of the cell temperature and the porosity in the diffusion layer, and the decrease of the diffusion layer thickness all improve the performance of HT-PEM fuel cells by promoting its internal mass transfer.

  3. Characterization of commercial proton exchange membrane materials after exposure to beta and gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, S.N.; Carson, R.; Muirhead, C.; Li, H.; Castillo, I.; Boniface, H.; Suppiah, S. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Ratnayake, A.; Robinson, J. [Tyne Engineering Inc., Burlington, ON (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) type electrolysis cells have a potential use for tritium removal and heavy water upgrading. AECL is currently exposing various commercial PEM materials to both gamma (Cobalt-60 source) and beta (tritiated water) radiation to study the effects of radiation on these materials. This paper summarizes the testing methods and results that have been collected to date. The PEM materials that are or have been exposed to radiation are: Nafion 112, 212, 117 and 1110. Membrane characterization pre- and post- exposure consists of non-destructive inspection (FTIR, SEM/XPS), mechanical (tensile strength, percentage elongation, and modulus), electrical (resistance), or chemical (ion-exchange capacity - IEC). It has appeared that the best characterization techniques to compare exposed versus unexposed membranes were IEC, ultimate tensile strength and percent elongation. These testing techniques are easy and cheap to perform. The non-destructive tests, such as SEM and FTIR did not provide particularly useful information on radiation-induced degradation. Where changes in material properties were measured after radiation exposure, they would be expected to result in poorer cell performance. However, for modest γ-radiation exposure, all membranes showed a slight decrease in cell voltage (better performance). In contrast, the one β-radiation exposed membrane did show the expected increase in cell voltage. The counterintuitive trend for γ-radiation exposed membranes is not yet understood. Based on these preliminary results, it appears that γ- and β-radiation exposures have different effects.

  4. Performance Degradation Tests of Phosphoric Acid Doped PBI Membrane Based High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fan; Araya, Samuel Simon; Grigoras, Ionela

    2014-01-01

    Degradation tests of two phosphoric acid (PA) doped PBI membrane based HT-PEM fuel cells were reported in this paper to investigate the effects of start/stop and the presence of methanol in the fuel to the performance degradation. Continuous tests with H2 and simulated reformate which was composed...... of H2, water steam and methanol as the fuel were performed on both single cells. 12-h-startup/12-h-shutdown dynamic tests were performed on the first single cell with pure dry H2 as the fuel and on the second single cell with simulated reformate as the fuel. Along with the tests electrochemical...... techniques such as polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to study the degradation mechanisms of the fuel cells. Both single cells showed an increase in the performance in the H2 continuous tests, because of a decrease in the ORR kinetic resistance probably due...

  5. Performance Analysis of Air Breathing Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack (PEMFCS) At Different Operating Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, V.; Venkata siva, G.; Yoganjaneyulu, G.; Ravikumar, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The answer for an emission free power source in future is in the form of fuel cells which combine hydrogen and oxygen producing electricity and a harmless by product-water. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is ideal for automotive applications. A single cell cannot supply the essential power for any application. Hence PEM fuel cell stacks are used. The effect of different operating parameters namely: type of convection, type of draught, hydrogen flow rate, hydrogen inlet pressure, ambient temperature and humidity, hydrogen humidity, cell orientation on the performance of air breathing PEM fuel cell stack was analyzed using a computerized fuel cell test station. Then, the fuel cell stack was subjected to different load conditions. It was found that the stack performs very poorly at full capacity (runs only for 30 min. but runs for 3 hours at 50% capacity). Hence, a detailed study was undertaken to maximize the duration of the stack’s performance at peak load.

  6. Performance analysis of a membrane humidifier containing porous metal foam as flow distributor in a PEM fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshari, Ebrahim; Baharlou Houreh, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three metal foam configurations for the membrane humidifier are introduced. • The performances of the humidifiers containing metal foam are investigated. • A 3D CFD model is developed to compare the introduced humidifiers with one another. • Using metal foam at dry side has no positive effect on the humidifier performance. - Abstract: Using metal foam as flow distributor in membrane humidifier for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system has some unique characteristics like more water transfer, low manufacturing complexity and low cost compared to the conventional flow channel plate. Metal foam can be applied at wet side or dry side or both sides of a humidifier. The three-dimensional CFD models are developed to investigate the performance of the above mentioned meanwhile compare them with the conventional humidifier. This model consists of a set of coupled equations including conservations of mass, momentum, species and energy for all regions of the humidifier. The results indicate that with the metal foam installed at wet side and both sides, water recovery ratio and dew point at dry side outlet are more than that of the conventional humidifier, indicating a better humidifier performance; while using metal foam at dry side has no positive effect on humidifier performance. At dry side mass flow rates higher than 10 mgr/s pressure drop in humidifier containing metal foam at wet side is lower than that of the conventional humidifier. As the mass flow rate increases from 9 to 15 mgr/s humidifier containing metal foam at wet side has better performance, while at mass flow rates lower than 9 mgr/s, the humidifier containing metal foam at both sides has better performance. At dry side inlet temperatures lower than 303 K, humidifier containing metal foam at wet side has better performance and at temperatures higher than 303 K, humidifier containing metal foam at both sides has better performance

  7. Preparation of the proton exchange membranes for fuel cell under pre-irradiation induced grafting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingye; Muto, F.; Matsuura, A.; Kakiji, T.; Miura, T.; Oshima, A.; Washio, M.; Katsumura, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared via pre-irradiation induced grafting of styrene or styrene/divinylbenzene (S/DVB) into the crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene (RX-PTFE) films with thickness around 10 m and then sulfonated by chlorosulfonic acid. The membrane electrode assembles (MEAs) based on these PEMs with ion exchange capacity (IEC) values around 2meq/g were prepared by hot-press with Nafion dispersion coated on the surfaces of the membranes and electrodes. And the MEA based on the Nafion 112 membrane was also prepared under same procedure as a comparison. The performances of the MEAs in single fuel cell were tested under different working temperatures and humidification conditions. The performance of the synthesized PEMs showed better results than that of Nafion 112 membrane under low humidification at 80 degree C. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) were taken with the direct current density of 0.5A/cm 2 and the resulted curves in Nyqvist representation obeyed the half circle pattern. (authors)

  8. Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boettner, Daisie

    2001-01-01

    .... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...

  9. PEM fuel cells for mobile applications. Project part: Membrane development. Final report; PEM-Brennstoffzellen fuer mobile Anwendungen. Teilprojekt: Membranentwicklung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, G

    1999-01-20

    Polymer-Electrolyte-Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) are attractive candidates for next century propulsion systems in passenger cars. The technical feasibility has been demonstrated by several car manufacturers. Today, PEMFC lack economical viability. One of the reasons is the cost of currently used materials, e.g. membranes. This project target towards the development of low cost, non-fluorinated membranes, which fulfil all technical requirements in PEMFC systems. In the frame of this project we were able to successfully develop new membranes based on polyaromatic polymers, which can be produced on a technical scale. These membranes enabled high power densities, exceeding 700 mW/cm{sup 2} at 80 C and their longevity has been demonstrated successfully up to 5,000 hours. Therefore, these membranes have sufficient electrochemical stability for the application in fuel cells. The prices in mass production for these new membranes can get significantly below prices of fluorinated membranes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Polymer-Elektrolyt-Membran-Brennstoffzellen (PEMFC) gelten als aussichtsreiche Kandidaten fuer alternative Fahrzeugantriebe fuer das naechste Jahrzehnt. Die technische Machbarkeit ist bereits mehrfach demonstriert worden. Allerdings sind die Kosten der PEMFC-Systeme noch zu hoch u.a. durch zu hohe Kosten der eingesetzten Materialien, so auch der Membranen. Ziel des Projektes war daher die Entwicklung kostenguenstiger, nichtfluorierter Membranen, die die technischen Anforderungen fuer die Anwendung in der PEM-Brennstoffzelle erfuellen. Im Projekt konnten erfolgreich Membranen auf Basis polyaromatischer Polymere entwickelt werden, die sich auch im technischen Massstab herstellen lassen. Die Membranen ermoeglichen hohe Leistungsdichten groesser 700 mW/cm{sup 2} bei Betriebstemperaturen von 80 C. Die Lebensdauer der Membranen wurde erfolgreich ueber 5.000 Stunden nachgewiesen. Die elektrochemische Stabilitaet der untersuchten Materialien ist damit gegeben. Die Preise dieser

  10. Real-Time Microscopic Monitoring of Flow, Voltage and Current in the Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Li, Shih-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hung; Huang, Yen-Ting; Wang, Yu-Syuan

    2018-03-15

    Looking for alternative energy sources has been an inevitable trend since the oil crisis, and close attentioned has been paid to hydrogen energy. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolyzer is characterized by high energy efficiency, high yield, simple system and low operating temperature. The electrolyzer generates hydrogen from water free of any carbon sources (provided the electrons come from renewable sources such as solar and wind), so it is very clean and completely satisfies the environmental requirement. However, in long-term operation of the PEM water electrolyzer, the membrane material durability, catalyst corrosion and nonuniformity of local flow, voltage and current in the electrolyzer can influence the overall performance. It is difficult to measure the internal physical parameters of the PEM water electrolyzer, and the physical parameters are interrelated. Therefore, this study uses micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology to develop a flexible integrated microsensor; internal multiple physical information is extracted to determine the optimal working parameters for the PEM water electrolyzer. The real operational data of local flow, voltage and current in the PEM water electrolyzer are measured simultaneously by the flexible integrated microsensor, so as to enhance the performance of the PEM water electrolyzer and to prolong the service life.

  11. Performance enhancement of membrane electrode assemblies with plasma etched polymer electrolyte membrane in PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong-Hun; Yoon, Won-Sub [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, 861-1 Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-702 (Korea); Bae, Jin Woo; Cho, Yoon-Hwan; Lim, Ju Wan; Ahn, Minjeh; Jho, Jae Young; Sung, Yung-Eun [World Class University (WCU) program of Chemical Convergence for Energy and Environment (C2E2), School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), 599 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea); Kwon, Nak-Hyun [Fuel Cell Vehicle Team 3, Advanced Technology Center, Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, 104 Mabuk-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-912 (Korea)

    2010-10-15

    In this work, a surface modified Nafion 212 membrane was fabricated by plasma etching in order to enhance the performance of a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Single-cell performance of MEA at 0.7 V was increased by about 19% with membrane that was etched for 10 min compared to that with untreated Nafion 212 membrane. The MEA with membrane etched for 20 min exhibited a current density of 1700 mA cm{sup -2} at 0.35 V, which was 8% higher than that of MEA with untreated membrane (1580 mA cm{sup -2}). The performances of MEAs containing etched membranes were affected by complex factors such as the thickness and surface morphology of the membrane related to etching time. The structural changes and electrochemical properties of the MEAs with etched membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectrometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. (author)

  12. A study for the research trends of membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sener, T.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A single PEM fuel cell is comprised of a membrane electrode assembly, two bipolar plates and two fields. Membrane electrode assembly is the basic component of PEM fuel cell due to its cost and function, and it consists a membrane sandwiched between two electrocatalyst layers/electrodes and two gas diffusion layers. Increasing the PEM fuel cell operation temperature from 80 o C to 150-200 o C will prevent electrocatalysts CO poisoning and increase the fuel cell performance. Therefore, membranes must have chemical and mechanical resistance and must keep enough water at high temperatures. The aim of membrane studies through fuel cell commercialization is to produce a less expensive thin membrane with high operation temperature, chemical and mechanical resistance and water adsorption capacity. Within this frame, alternative membrane materials, membrane electrode assembly manufacture and evaluation methods are being studied. In this paper, recent studies are reviewed to give a conclusion for research trends. (author)

  13. Estimation of contact resistance in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lianhong; Liu, Ying; Song, Haimin; Wang, Shuxin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhou, Yuanyuan; Hu, S. Jack [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States)

    2006-11-22

    The contact resistance between the bipolar plate (BPP) and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) is an important factor contributing to the power loss in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. At present there is still not a well-developed method to estimate such contact resistance. This paper proposes two effective methods for estimating the contact resistance between the BPP and the GDL based on an experimental contact resistance-pressure constitutive relation. The constitutive relation was obtained by experimentally measuring the contact resistance between the GDL and a flat plate of the same material and processing conditions as the BPP under stated contact pressure. In the first method, which was a simplified prediction, the contact area and contact pressure between the BPP and the GDL were analyzed with a simple geometrical relation and the contact resistance was obtained by the contact resistance-pressure constitutive relation. In the second method, the contact area and contact pressure between the BPP and GDL were analyzed using FEM and the contact resistance was computed for each contact element according to the constitutive relation. The total contact resistance was then calculated by considering all contact elements in parallel. The influence of load distribution on contact resistance was also investigated. Good agreement was demonstrated between experimental results and predictions by both methods. The simplified prediction method provides an efficient approach to estimating the contact resistance in PEM fuel cells. The proposed methods for estimating the contact resistance can be useful in modeling and optimizing the assembly process to improve the performance of PEM fuel cells. (author)

  14. CFD simulation of fuel cell proton exchange membrane multichannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argota, Raúl; García, Lázaro; Torre, Raciel de la; González, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen has several applications that make the strongest candidate for implementation as an energy carrier in the future sustainable scenario. Current hydrogen production is based on fossil fuels that have a high contribution to air pollution. The imminent depletion of fossil fuels and high emissions of greenhouse gases that cause consumption has brought the world to consider energy scenarios that are more environmentally friendly and yet profitable. The use of hydrogen as an energy carrier generally occurs with good application prospects. Fuel cells have attracted great interest for its application mainly in the transport sector. The fuel cell PEM proton exchange membrane which convert chemical energy stored in hydrogen into electrical energy directly and efficiently, with water as a byproduct, have the ability to reduce emissions and dependence on fossil fuels. A model for multiple cell PEM five channels using the ANSYS software CFD occurs. Performance analysis and optimization of the thermodynamic and geometric parameters of the fuel cell is performed. It was analyzed the overall electrical performance and assessed performance by local current density, flow and temperatures. (full text)

  15. Development of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jenn Jiang; Zou, Meng Lin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China)

    2010-05-01

    A proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cogeneration system that provides high-quality electricity and hot water has been developed. A specially designed thermal management system together with a microcontroller embedded with appropriate control algorithm is integrated into a PEM fuel cell system. The thermal management system does not only control the fuel cell operation temperature but also recover the heat dissipated by FC stack. The dynamic behaviors of thermal and electrical characteristics are presented to verify the stability of the fuel cell cogeneration system. In addition, the reliability of the fuel cell cogeneration system is proved by one-day demonstration that deals with the daily power demand in a typical family. Finally, the effects of external loads on the efficiencies of the fuel cell cogeneration system are examined. Results reveal that the maximum system efficiency was as high as 81% when combining heat and power. (author)

  16. H3PO4 imbibed polyacrylamide-graft-chitosan frameworks for high-temperature proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuangshuang; Tang, Qunwei; He, Benlin; Chen, Haiyan; Li, Qinghua; Ma, Chunqing; Jin, Suyue; Liu, Zhichao

    2014-03-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM), transferring protons from anode to cathode, is a key component in a PEM fuel cell. In the current work, a new class of PEMs are synthesized benefiting from the imbibition behavior of three-dimensional (3D) polyacrylamide-graft-chitosan (PAAm-graft-chitosan) frameworks to H3PO4 aqueous solution. Interconnected 3D framework of PAAm-graft-chitosan provides tremendous space for holding proton-conducting H3PO4. The highest anhydrous proton conductivity of 0.13 S cm-1 at 165 °C is obtained. A fuel cell using a thick membrane as a PEM showed a peak power density of 405 mW cm-2 with O2 and H2 as the oxidant and fuel, respectively. Results indicate that the interconnected 3D framework provides superhighway for proton conduction. The valued merits on anhydrous proton conductivity, huge H3PO4 loading, and easy synthesis promise the new membranes to be good alternatives as high-temperature PEMs.

  17. A review on the performance and modelling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucetta, A., E-mail: abirboucetta@yahoo.fr; Ghodbane, H., E-mail: h.ghodbane@mselab.org; Bahri, M., E-mail: m.bahri@mselab.org [Department of Electrical Engineering, MSE Laboratory, Mohamed khider Biskra University (Algeria); Ayad, M. Y., E-mail: ayadmy@gmail.com [R& D, Industrial Hybrid Vehicle Applications (France)

    2016-07-25

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), are energy efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional energy conversion for various applications in stationary power plants, portable power device and transportation. PEM fuel cells provide low operating temperature and high-energy efficiency with near zero emission. A PEM fuel cell is a multiple distinct parts device and a series of mass, energy, transport through gas channels, electric current transport through membrane electrode assembly and electrochemical reactions at the triple-phase boundaries. These processes play a decisive role in determining the performance of the Fuel cell, so that studies on the phenomena of gas flows and the performance modelling are made deeply. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of the state of the art on the Study of the phenomena of gas flow and performance modelling of PEMFC.

  18. Development of the novel control algorithm for the small proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack without external humidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Wook; Lee, Jong-Hak; Cho, Kwan-Seok; Choi, Woojin [Department of Electrical Engineering, Soongsil University, 1-1 Sangdo-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-743 (Korea); Park, Kyung-Won [Department of Chemical/Environmental Engineering, Soongsil University, 1-1 Sangdo-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-743 (Korea)

    2010-09-15

    Small PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell systems do not require humidification and have great commercialization possibilities. However, methods for controlling small PEM fuel cell stacks have not been clearly established. In this paper, a control method for small PEM fuel cell systems using a dual closed loop with a static feed-forward structure is defined and realized using a microcontroller. The fundamental elements that need to be controlled in fuel cell systems include the supply of air and hydrogen, water management inside the stack, and heat management of the stack. For small PEM fuel cell stacks operated without a separate humidifier, fans are essential for air supply, heat management, and water management of the stack. A purge valve discharges surplus water from the stack. The proposed method controls the fan using a dual closed loop with a static feed-forward structure, thereby improving system efficiency and operation stability. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by experiments using a 150-W PEM fuel cell stack. We expect the proposed algorithm to be widely used for controlling small PEM fuel cell stacks. (author)

  19. Experimental study of commercial size proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Wei-Mon; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Lee, Duu-Jong; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Guo, Yi-Fan; Su, Ay

    2011-01-01

    Commercial sized (16 x 16 cm 2 active surface area) proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells with serpentine flow chambers are fabricated. The GORE-TEX (registered) PRIMEA 5621 was used with a 35-μm-thick PEM with an anode catalyst layer with 0.45 mg cm -2 Pt and cathode catalyst layer with 0.6 mg cm -2 Pt and Ru or GORE-TEX (registered) PRIMEA 57 was used with an 18-μm-thick PEM with an anode catalyst layer at 0.2 mg cm -2 Pt and cathode catalyst layer at 0.4 mg cm -2 of Pt and Ru. At the specified cell and humidification temperatures, the thin PRIMEA 57 membrane yields better cell performance than the thick PRIMEA 5621 membrane, since hydration of the former is more easily maintained with the limited amount of produced water. Sufficient humidification at both the cathode and anode sides is essential to achieve high cell performance with a thick membrane, like the PRIMEA 5621. The optimal cell temperature to produce the best cell performance with PRIMEA 5621 is close to the humidification temperature. For PRIMEA 57, however, optimal cell temperature exceeds the humidification temperature.

  20. Produção de membranas híbridas zirconizadas de SPEEK/Copolissilsesquioxano para aplicação em células a combustível do tipo PEM Production of Zirconized SPEEK/Copolysilsesquioxane hybrid membranes for application in Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen R. Aguiar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Membranas baseadas em poli(aril éter cetona sulfonada mostraram ser bastante promissoras para aplicação em células a combustível com membrana trocadora de prótons (PEMFC. O poli(éter-éter-cetona sulfonado (SPEEK, com elevado grau de sulfonação (GS, apresenta alta condutividade de prótons, mas sofre perda de funcionalidade e condutividade em temperaturas altas e umidades baixas. O desenvolvimento de membranas híbridas é uma das possibilidades para melhorar o desempenho destes materiais. Neste trabalho foram preparadas membranas híbridas zirconizadas de SPEEK/copolissilsesquioxano fosfonado (CF por casting, a partir de SPEEK com GS entre 60% e 70% e soluções de cloreto de zirconila (ZrOCl2 1, 5, ou 10% (m/m. As membranas foram caracterizadas por espectroscopia na região do infravermelho (FTIR, difratometria de raios-X (DRX, análise termogravimétrica (TG, calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC, condutividade de prótons (σ e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. A análise por energia dispersiva (EDS confirmou a presença de Zr em domínios esféricos dispersos homogeneamente pelas membranas, enquanto análises de DRX mostraram que os produtos da zirconização são amorfos. Ensaios de impedância eletroquímica indicam aumento da condutividade protônica com a adição de CF e 1 ou 5% de ZrOCl2.Membranes based on sulfonated poly(aryl ether ketone are known to be very promising materials for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC. Sulfonated poly(ether-ether-ketone (SPEEK, with high sulfonation degrees (SD, present high proton conductivity. However, they lose functionality and conductivity at high temperatures and low humidity. To enhance the performance of these materials, hybrid membranes have gained considerable attention. In this work, zirconized SPEEK/phosphonated copolysilsesquioxane (CF hybrid membranes were prepared by casting, from SPEEK (60% < SD < 70% and 1, 5, or 10 wt. (% zirconyl chloride solutions

  1. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Zhang, Gang; Nam, Changwoo; Chung, T C Mike

    2015-12-04

    This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES) proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young's modulus >1400 MPa) and low water swelling (λ 3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective) properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm) than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO₂• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  2. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Kyu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES proton exchange membranes (PEMs for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young’s modulus >1400 MPa and low water swelling (λ < 15 even with high IEC >3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO2• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  3. Evaluation and characterization of ceramic membranes based on Pdms/SiC containing phosphotungstic acid as electrolytes for PEM-FC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Marcelo de Oliveira; Guimaraes, Danilo Hansen; Boaventura Filho, Jaime Soares; Jose, Nadia Mamede; Barbosa, Diego Augusto Batista; Paschoal, Carlos William de Araujo; Almeida, Rafael Mendonca; Tanaka, Auro Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the development of membranes with potential use in Proton Exchange Fuel Cells (PEM-FC), consisting of hybrid materials based on poly(dimethylsiloxane), crosslinked with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), and reinforced with silicon carbide and phosphotungstic acid. The membrane series PDMS/TEOS/SiC/PWA were prepared by the reaction of PDMS and TEOS, 70/30% proportions in mass, catalyzed by dibutyltin dilaurate. SiC was incorporated in a 25% proportion, and PWA in varied proportions (5, 10, 15 and 20%), by weight. The membranes were characterized by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. SiC and PWA addition to the membrane increased both structure organization and material crystallinity. The insertion of PWA provided an increase in the conductivity. However, maximum conductivity was obtained with concentration levels above 10%. The insertion of SiC associated with the PWA did not influence the conductivity for concentrations between 10 and 20%. (author)

  4. A novel analytical analysis of PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdi, Mohamad Zardoshtizade; Kalbasi, Mansour

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a quasi three-dimensional model was developed for a single proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The model was used for a half-cell which includes the cathode gas channel, gas diffusion layer (GDL), cathode catalyst layer and membrane is modeled. This model includes mass transfer in the gas channel and GDL, electrochemistry reaction in cathode catalyst layer, and charge transfer in the membrane phase. These expressions were solved by analytical methods. An agglomerate approach was used to describe cathode catalyst layer. By using analytical solution, the expressions can predict the PEM fuel cell behavior in different conditions which is the advantage of this method.

  5. Modeling efficiency and water balance in PEM fuel cell systems with liquid fuel processing and hydrogen membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Joshua B.; Bhargav, Atul; Shields, Eric B.; Jackson, Gregory S.; Hearn, Patrick L.

    Integrating PEM fuel cells effectively with liquid hydrocarbon reforming requires careful system analysis to assess trade-offs associated with H 2 production, purification, and overall water balance. To this end, a model of a PEM fuel cell system integrated with an autothermal reformer for liquid hydrocarbon fuels (modeled as C 12H 23) and with H 2 purification in a water-gas-shift/membrane reactor is developed to do iterative calculations for mass, species, and energy balances at a component and system level. The model evaluates system efficiency with parasitic loads (from compressors, pumps, and cooling fans), system water balance, and component operating temperatures/pressures. Model results for a 5-kW fuel cell generator show that with state-of-the-art PEM fuel cell polarization curves, thermal efficiencies >30% can be achieved when power densities are low enough for operating voltages >0.72 V per cell. Efficiency can be increased by operating the reformer at steam-to-carbon ratios as high as constraints related to stable reactor temperatures allow. Decreasing ambient temperature improves system water balance and increases efficiency through parasitic load reduction. The baseline configuration studied herein sustained water balance for ambient temperatures ≤35 °C at full power and ≤44 °C at half power with efficiencies approaching ∼27 and ∼30%, respectively.

  6. Nafion®/ODF-silica composite membranes for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Treekamol, Yaowapa

    2014-01-01

    A series of composite membranes were prepared by dispersing fluorinated polyoxadiazole oligomer (ODF)-functionalized silica nanoparticles in a Nafion matrix. Both melt-extrusion and solvent casting processes were explored. Ion exchange capacity, conductivity, water uptake and dimensional stability, thermal stability and morphology were characterized. The inclusion of functionalized nanoparticles proved advantageous, mainly due to a physical crosslinking effect and better water retention, with functionalized nanoparticles performing better than the pristine silica particles. For the same filler loading, better nanoparticle dispersion was achieved for solvent-cast membranes, resulting in higher proton conductivity. Filler agglomeration, however,was more severe for solvent-castmembranes at loadings beyond 5wt.%. The composite membranes showed excellent thermal stability, allowing for operation in medium temperature PEM fuel cells. Fuel cell performance of the compositemembranesdecreaseswithdecreasing relativehumidity, but goodperformance values are still obtained at 34% RHand 90 °C,with the best results obtained for solvent castmembranes loaded with 10 wt.% ODF-functionalized silica. Hydrogen crossover of the composite membranes is higher than that forpureNafion membranes,possiblydue toporosityresulting fromsuboptimalparticle- matrixcompatibility. © 2013 Crown Copyright and Elsevier BV. All rights reserved.

  7. Water Soluble Polymers as Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Joe Hwang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The relentless increase in the demand for useable power from energy-hungry economies continues to drive energy-material related research. Fuel cells, as a future potential power source that provide clean-at-the-point-of-use power offer many advantages such as high efficiency, high energy density, quiet operation, and environmental friendliness. Critical to the operation of the fuel cell is the proton exchange membrane (polymer electrolyte membrane responsible for internal proton transport from the anode to the cathode. PEMs have the following requirements: high protonic conductivity, low electronic conductivity, impermeability to fuel gas or liquid, good mechanical toughness in both the dry and hydrated states, and high oxidative and hydrolytic stability in the actual fuel cell environment. Water soluble polymers represent an immensely diverse class of polymers. In this comprehensive review the initial focus is on those members of this group that have attracted publication interest, principally: chitosan, poly (ethylene glycol, poly (vinyl alcohol, poly (vinylpyrrolidone, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid and poly (styrene sulfonic acid. The paper then considers in detail the relationship of structure to functionality in the context of polymer blends and polymer based networks together with the effects of membrane crosslinking on IPN and semi IPN architectures. This is followed by a review of pore-filling and other impregnation approaches. Throughout the paper detailed numerical results are given for comparison to today’s state-of-the-art Nafion® based materials.

  8. Preparations of an inorganic-framework proton exchange nanochannel membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. H.; Jiang, H. R.; Zhao, G.; Zeng, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a proton exchange membrane composed of straight and aligned proton conducting nanochannels is developed. Preparation of the membrane involves the surface sol-gel method assisted with a through-hole anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template to form the framework of the PEM nanochannels. A monomolecular layer (SO3Hsbnd (CH2)3sbnd Sisbnd (OCH3)3) is subsequently added onto the inner surfaces of the nanochannels to shape a proton-conducting pathway. Straight nanochannels exhibit long range order morphology, contributing to a substantial improvement in the proton mobility and subsequently proton conductivity. In addition, the nanochannel size can be altered by changing the surface sol-gel condition, allowing control of the active species/charge carrier selectivity via pore size exclusion. The proton conductivity of the nanochannel membrane is reported as high as 11.3 mS cm-1 at 70 °C with a low activation energy of 0.21 eV (20.4 kJ mol-1). First-principle calculations reveal that the activation energy for proton transfer is impressively low (0.06 eV and 0.07 eV) with the assistance of water molecules.

  9. Water permeation through anion exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoyan; Wright, Andrew; Weissbach, Thomas; Holdcroft, Steven

    2018-01-01

    An understanding of water permeation through solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membranes is crucial to offset the unbalanced water activity within SPE fuel cells. We examine water permeation through an emerging class of anion exchange membranes, hexamethyl-p-terphenyl poly (dimethylbenzimidazolium) (HMT-PMBI), and compare it against series of membrane thickness for a commercial anion exchange membrane (AEM), Fumapem® FAA-3, and a series of proton exchange membranes, Nafion®. The HMT-PMBI membrane is found to possess higher water permeabilities than Fumapem® FAA-3 and comparable permeability than Nafion (H+). By measuring water permeation through membranes of different thicknesses, we are able to decouple, for the first time, internal and interfacial water permeation resistances through anion exchange membranes. Permeation resistances on liquid/membrane interface is found to be negligible compared to that for vapor/membrane for both series of AEMs. Correspondingly, the resistance of liquid water permeation is found to be one order of magnitude smaller compared to that of vapor water permeation. HMT-PMBI possesses larger effective internal water permeation coefficient than both Fumapem® FAA-3 and Nafion® membranes (60 and 18% larger, respectively). In contrast, the effective interfacial permeation coefficient of HMT-PMBI is found to be similar to Fumapem® (±5%) but smaller than Nafion®(H+) (by 14%).

  10. The Effect of PFSA Membrane Compression on the Predicted Performance of a High Pressure PEM Electrolysis Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a non-equilibrium formulation of a compression dependent water uptake model has been implemented in a two-dimensional, two-phase, multi-component and non-isothermal high pressure PEM electrolysis model. The non-equilibrium formulation of the water uptake model was chosen in order...... to account for interfacial transport kinetics between each fluid phase and the perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane. Besides modeling water uptake, the devised membrane model accounts for water transport through diffusion and electro-osmotic drag in the electrolyte phase, and hydraulic permeation...... in the liquid phase. Charge transport and electrochemistry are likewise included. The obtained model is validated against experimental measurements. In order to investigate the effect of membrane compression, a parametric study is carried. Results underline that the predicted water uptake and cell voltage...

  11. Numerical study on channel size effect for proton exchange membrane fuel cell with serpentine flow field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaodong; Yan Weimon; Duan Yuanyuan; Weng Fangbor; Jung Guobin; Lee Chiyuan

    2010-01-01

    This work numerically investigates the effect of the channel size on the cell performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells with serpentine flow fields using a three-dimensional, two-phase model. The local current densities in the PEM, oxygen mass flow rates and liquid water concentrations at the interface of the cathode gas diffusion layer and catalyst layer were analyzed to understand the channel size effect. The predictions show that smaller channel sizes enhance liquid water removal and increase oxygen transport to the porous layers, which improve cell performance. Additionally, smaller channel sizes also provide more uniform current density distributions in the cell. However, as the channel size decreases, the total pressure drops across the cell increases, which leads to more pump work. With taking into account the pressure losses, the optimal cell performance occurs for a cell with a flow channel cross-sectional area of 0.535 x 0.535 mm 2 .

  12. A review on the effect of proton exchange membranes in microbial fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Rahimnejad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms in microbial fuel cells (MFC liberate electrons while the electron donors are consumed. In the anaerobic anode compartment, substrates such as carbohydrates are utilized and as a result bioelectricity is produced in the MFC. MFCs may be utilized as electricity generators in small devices such as biosensors. MFCs still face practical barriers such as low generated power and current density. Recently, a great deal of attention has been given to MFCs due to their ability to operate at mild conditions and using different biodegradable substrates as fuel. The MFC consists of anode and cathode compartments. Active microorganisms are actively catabolized to carbon sources, therefore generating bioelectricity. The produced electron is transmitted to the anode surface but the generated protons must pass through the proton exchange membrane (PEM in order to reach the cathode compartment. PEM as a key factor affecting electricity generation in MFCs has been investigated here and its importance fully discussed.

  13. Carbon Nitride Materials as Efficient Catalyst Supports for Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen Jorge

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nitride materials with graphitic to polymeric structures (gCNH were investigated as catalyst supports for the proton exchange membrane (PEM water electrolyzers using IrO2 nanoparticles as oxygen evolution electrocatalyst. Here, the performance of IrO2 nanoparticles formed and deposited in situ onto carbon nitride support for PEM water electrolysis was explored based on previous preliminary studies conducted in related systems. The results revealed that this preparation route catalyzed the decomposition of the carbon nitride to form a material with much lower N content. This resulted in a significant enhancement of the performance of the gCNH-IrO2 (or N-doped C-IrO2 electrocatalyst that was likely attributed to higher electrical conductivity of the N-doped carbon support.

  14. The effect of nitrogen oxides in air on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Daijun; Ma Jianxin; Xu Lin; Wu Minzhong; Wang Haijiang

    2006-01-01

    The effects of NO x on the performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell were investigated through the introduction of a mixture containing NO and NO 2 , in a ratio of 9:1, into the cathode stream of a single PEM fuel cell. The NO x concentrations used in the experiments were 1480 ppm, 140 ppm and 10 ppm, which cover a range of three orders. The experimental results obtained from the tests of durability, polarization, reversibility and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed a detrimental effect of NO x on the cell performance. The electrochemical measurements results suggested that the impacts of NO x are mainly resulted from the superposition of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), NO and HNO 2 oxidation reactions, and the increased cathodic impedance. Complete recovery of the cell performance was reached after operating the cell with clean air and then purging with N 2 for hours

  15. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Munoz-Ramos, Karina (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Pratt, Joseph William; Akhil, Abbas Ali (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Schenkman, Benjamin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today's technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  16. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joesph W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klebanoff, Leonard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Akhil, Abbas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Curgus, Dita B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today’s technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  17. Accelerating parameter identification of proton exchange membrane fuel cell model with ranking-based differential evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Wenyin; Cai, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    Parameter identification of PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell model is a very active area of research. Generally, it can be treated as a numerical optimization problem with complex nonlinear and multi-variable features. DE (differential evolution), which has been successfully used in various fields, is a simple yet efficient evolutionary algorithm for global numerical optimization. In this paper, with the objective of accelerating the process of parameter identification of PEM fuel cell models and reducing the necessary computational efforts, we firstly present a generic and simple ranking-based mutation operator for the DE algorithm. Then, the ranking-based mutation operator is incorporated into five highly-competitive DE variants to solve the PEM fuel cell model parameter identification problems. The main contributions of this work are the proposed ranking-based DE variants and their application to the parameter identification problems of PEM fuel cell models. Experiments have been conducted by using both the simulated voltage–current data and the data obtained from the literature to validate the performance of our approach. The results indicate that the ranking-based DE methods provide better results with respect to the solution quality, the convergence rate, and the success rate compared with their corresponding original DE methods. In addition, the voltage–current characteristics obtained by our approach are in good agreement with the original voltage–current curves in all cases. - Highlights: • A simple and generic ranking-based mutation operator is presented in this paper. • Several DE (differential evolution) variants are used to solve the parameter identification of PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cells) model. • Results show that our method accelerates the process of parameter identification. • The V–I characteristics are in very good agreement with experimental data

  18. Conductor polymeric membranes with potential for application in PEM type fuel cells; Membranas polimericas condutoras com potencialidades para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel do tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brioude, Michel de Meireles; Sodre, Livia Farias; Boaventura Filho, Jaime Soares; Jose, Nadia Mamede [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In this work two series of membranes were prepared; they were based on hybrid organic-inorganic or composite materials and presented potentiality for application in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, PEMFC. The polymeric phase was constituted of poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS, crosslinked with tetra ethoxysilane, TEOS, with a 70%/30% ratio. Phosphotungstic acid (PWA) or the sodium monododecylsulphate (MDS), as proton conductors, were added to the inorganic network, close to the gel point; the mixtures were transferred to a cast. The films were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The membranes showed good properties, as flexibility, thermal and mechanical stability with potentiality to be used as conducting membranes in technological applications. (author)

  19. Computational simulation of water transport in PEM fuel cells using an improved membrane model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, J.; Djilali, N.

    2000-01-01

    Computational models and simulation tools can provide valuable insight and guidance for design, performance optimization, and cost reduction of fuel cells. In proton-exchange membrane fuel cells it is particularly important to maintain appropriate water content and temperature in the electrolyte membrane. In this paper we describe a mathematical model for the membrane that takes into account the diffusion of water, the pressure variation, and the electro-osmotic drag in the membrane. Applying conservation laws for water and current and using an empirical relationship between electro-osmotic drag and water content, we obtain a transport equation for water molar concentration and derive a new equation for the electric potential that accounts for variable water content and is more accurate than the conventionally employed Laplace's equation does. The model is coupled with a computational fluid dynamics model for diffusive transport in the electrodes and convective transport in the reactant flow channels. Simulations for a two-dimensional cell are performed over nominal current densities ranging form i=0.1 A/cm≅ to 1.2 A/cm≅. The impact and importance of temperature and pressure non-uniformity, and of two-dimensionality are assessed and discussed. (author)

  20. Durability and Performance of Polystyrene-b-Poly(vinylbenzyl trimethylammonium) Diblock Copolymer and Equivalent Blend Anion Exchange Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    requiring circulation of the electrolyte to filter out the carbonate solids. The superior power density of proton exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFC ...without requir- ing a CO2 free oxidant stream, prevented commercial develop- ment of the liquid AFC, allowing PEMFCs to dominate low temperature fuel...cell research and development. PEMFCs employ a solid acidic polymer to transport protons from anode to cathode. PEMs have been researched heavily the

  1. Polymers application in proton exchange membranes for fuel cells (PEMFCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowiak-Kulikowska, Justyna; Wolska, Joanna; Koroniak, Henryk

    2017-07-01

    This review presents the most important research on alternative polymer membranes with ionic groups attached, provides examples of materials with a well-defined chemical structure that are described in the literature. Furthermore, it elaborates on the synthetic methods used for preparing PEMs, the current status of fuel cell technology and its application. It also briefly discusses the development of the PEMFC market.

  2. The Role of Ion Exchange Membranes in Membrane Capacitive Deionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanvand, Armineh; Wei, Kajia; Talebi, Sahar; Chen, George Q; Kentish, Sandra E

    2017-09-14

    Ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) are unique in combining the electrochemical properties of ion exchange resins and the permeability of a membrane. They are being used widely to treat industrial effluents, and in seawater and brackish water desalination. Membrane Capacitive Deionisation (MCDI) is an emerging, energy efficient technology for brackish water desalination in which these ion-exchange membranes act as selective gates allowing the transport of counter-ions toward carbon electrodes. This article provides a summary of recent developments in the preparation, characterization, and performance of ion exchange membranes in the MCDI field. In some parts of this review, the most relevant literature in the area of electrodialysis (ED) is also discussed to better elucidate the role of the ion exchange membranes. We conclude that more work is required to better define the desalination performance of the proposed novel materials and cell designs for MCDI in treating a wide range of feed waters. The extent of fouling, the development of cleaning strategies, and further techno-economic studies, will add value to this emerging technique.

  3. Fatigue and creep to leak tests of proton exchange membranes using pressure-loaded blisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongqiang; Dillard, David A.; Case, Scott W. [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0219 (United States); Ellis, Michael W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0238 (United States); Lai, Yeh-Hung; Gittleman, Craig S.; Miller, Daniel P. [Fuel Cell Research Lab, GM R and D, General Motors Corporation, 10 Carriage Street, Honeoye Falls, NY 14472-0603 (United States)

    2009-12-01

    In this study, three commercially available proton exchange membranes (PEMs) are biaxially tested using pressure-loaded blisters to characterize their resistance to gas leakage under either static (creep) or cyclic fatigue loading. The pressurizing medium, air, is directly used for leak detection. These tests are believed to be more relevant to fuel cell applications than quasi-static uniaxial tensile-to-rupture tests because of the use of biaxial cyclic and sustained loading and the use of gas leakage as the failure criterion. They also have advantages over relative humidity cycling test, in which a bare PEM or catalyst coated membrane is clamped with gas diffusion media and flow field plates and subjected to cyclic changes in relative humidity, because of the flexibility in allowing controlled mechanical loading and accelerated testing. Nafion {sup registered} NRE-211 membranes are tested at three different temperatures and the time-temperature superposition principle is used to construct stress-lifetime master curve. Tested at 90 C, 2%RH extruded Ion Power {sup registered} N111-IP membranes have a longer lifetime than Gore trademark -Select {sup registered} 57 and Nafion {sup registered} NRE-211 membranes. (author)

  4. Experimental study on the membrane electrode assembly of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell: effects of microporous layer, membrane thickness and gas diffusion layer hydrophobic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rui B.; Falcão, D.S.; Oliveira, V.B.; Pinto, A.M.F.R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • EIS is employed to investigate the MEA design of a PEM fuel cell. • Effects of MPL, membrane thickness and GDL hydrophobic treatment are studied. • MPL increases cell output at low to medium currents but reduces it at high currents. • Better results are obtained when employing a thinner Nafion membrane. • GDL hydrophobic treatment improves the cell performance. - Abstract: In this study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is employed to analyze the influence of microporous layer (MPL), membrane thickness and gas diffusion layer (GDL) hydrophobic treatment in the performance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Results show that adding a MPL increases cell performance at low to medium current densities. Because lower ohmic losses are observed when applying a MPL, such improvement is attributed to a better hydration state of the membrane. The MPL creates a pressure barrier for water produced at the cathode, forcing it to travel to the anode side, therefore increasing the water content in the membrane. However, at high currents, this same phenomenon seems to have intensified liquid water flooding in the anode gas channels, increasing mass transfer losses and reducing the cell performance. Decreasing membrane thickness results into considerably higher performances, due to a decrease in ohmic resistance. Moreover, at low air humidity operation, a rapid recovery from dehydration is observed when a thinner membrane is employed. The GDL hydrophobic treatment significantly improves the cell performance. Untreated GDLs appear to act as water-traps that not only hamper reactants transport to the reactive sites but also impede the proper humidification of the cell. From the different designs tested, the highest maximum power density is obtained from that containing a MPL, a thinner membrane and treated GDLs.

  5. Characterisation of a re-cast composite Nafion 1100 series of proton exchange membranes incorporating inert inorganic oxide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slade, S.M.; Smith, J.R.; Campbell, S.A.; Ralph, T.R.; Ponce de Leon, C.; Walsh, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    A series of cation exchange membranes was produced by impregnating and coating both sides of a quartz web with a Nafion solution (1100 EW, 10%wt in water). Inert filler particles (SiO 2 , ZrO 2 or TiO 2 ; 5-20%wt) were incorporated into the aqueous Nafion solution to produce robust, composite membranes. Ion-exchange capacity/equivalent weight, water take-up, thickness change on hydration and ionic and electrical conductivity were measured in 1 mol dm -3 sulfuric acid at 298 K. The TiO 2 filler significantly impacted on these properties, producing higher water take-up and increased conductivity. Such membranes may be beneficial for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell operation at low humidification. The PEM fuel cell performance of the composite membranes containing SiO 2 fillers was examined in a Ballard Mark 5E unit cell. While the use of composite membranes offers a cost reduction, the unit cell performance was reduced, in practice, due to drying of the ionomer at the cathode.

  6. Validation of cell voltage and water content in a PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cell model using neutron imaging for different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salva, J. Antonio; Iranzo, Alfredo; Rosa, Felipe; Tapia, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a one dimensional analytical model developed for a 50 cm"2 PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cell with five-channel serpentine flow field. The different coupled physical phenomena such as electrochemistry, mass transfer of hydrogen, oxygen and water (two phases) together with heat transfer have been solved simultaneously. The innovation of this work is that the model has been validated with two different variables simultaneously and quantitatively in order to ensure the accuracy of the results. The selected variables are the cell voltage and the water content within the membrane MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly) and GDL (gas diffusion layers) experimentally measured by means of neutron radiography. The results show a good agreement for a comprehensive set of different operating conditions of cell temperature, pressure, reactants relative humidity and cathode stoichiometry. The analytical model has a relative error less than 3.5% for the value of the cell voltage and the water content within the GDL + MEA for all experiments performed. This result presents a new standard of validation in the state of art of PEM fuel cell modeling where two variables are simultaneously and quantitatively validated with experimental results. The developed analytical model has been used in order to analyze the behavior of the PEM fuel cell under different values of relative humidity. - Highlights: • One dimensional analytical model has been developed for a PEM fuel cell. • The model is validated with two different variables simultaneously. • New standard of validation is proposed.

  7. Steam and partial oxidation reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yousri M.A. Welaya; Mohamed M. El Gohary; Nader R. Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM) generates electrical power from air and from hydrogen or hydrogen rich gas mixtures. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in converting current hydrocarbon based marine fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable to the PEM fuel cells on board ships. Using chemical flow sheeting software, the total system efficiency has been calculated. Natural gas appears to be the best fuel for hydrogen rich gas productio...

  8. An analytical model and parametric study of electrical contact resistance in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhiliang; Wang, Shuxin; Zhang, Lianhong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Hu, S. Jack [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents an analytical model of the electrical contact resistance between the carbon paper gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and the graphite bipolar plates (BPPs) in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The model is developed based on the classical statistical contact theory for a PEM fuel cell, using the same probability distributions of the GDL structure and BPP surface profile as previously described in Wu et al. [Z. Wu, Y. Zhou, G. Lin, S. Wang, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 182 (2008) 265-269] and Zhou et al. [Y. Zhou, G. Lin, A.J. Shih, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 163 (2007) 777-783]. Results show that estimates of the contact resistance compare favorably with experimental data by Zhou et al. [Y. Zhou, G. Lin, A.J. Shih, S.J. Hu, J. Power Sources 163 (2007) 777-783]. Factors affecting the contact behavior are systematically studied using the analytical model, including the material properties of the two contact bodies and factors arising from the manufacturing processes. The transverse Young's modulus of chopped carbon fibers in the GDL and the surface profile of the BPP are found to be significant to the contact resistance. The factor study also sheds light on the manufacturing requirements of carbon fiber GDLs for a better contact performance in PEM fuel cells. (author)

  9. Femtoelectron-Based Terahertz Imaging of Hydration State in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buaphad, P.; Thamboon, P.; Kangrang, N.; Rhodes, M. W.; Thongbai, C.

    2015-08-01

    Imbalanced water management in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell significantly reduces the cell performance and durability. Visualization of water distribution and transport can provide greater comprehension toward optimization of the PEM fuel cell. In this work, we are interested in water flooding issues that occurred in flow channels on cathode side of the PEM fuel cell. The sample cell was fabricated with addition of a transparent acrylic window allowing light access and observed the process of flooding formation (in situ) via a CCD camera. We then explore potential use of terahertz (THz) imaging, consisting of femtoelectron-based THz source and off-angle reflective-mode imaging, to identify water presence in the sample cell. We present simulations of two hydration states (water and nonwater area), which are in agreement with the THz image results. A line-scan plot is utilized for quantitative analysis and for defining spatial resolution of the image. Implementing metal mesh filtering can improve spatial resolution of our THz imaging system.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of radiation grafted FEP films as proton exchange membranes: Effects of the side chain length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xue; Zhao, Yang; Li, Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the microstructure of the prepared potential proton exchange membrane (PEM), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to lucubrate the transport behavior of water molecules and hydronium ions inside the hydrated sulfonated styrene grafted fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP...... whereas larger water clusters formed. The results of the mean square displacements (MSDs) show that the proton conductivities of the membranes with the proposed side chain lengths were about three fifths of the experimental data, of which the membrane with side chain length of 7 sulfonic styrene units...... was supposed to exhibit the highest proton conductivity, that is 115.69 mS cm-1. All of the supposed membrane models presented good proton conductivity that could definitely meet the application requirements of the proton exchange membranes. The MD simulations can provide an insight to the chain structure...

  11. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, Joseph W.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Munoz-Ramos, Karina; Akhil, Abbas A.; Curgus, Dita B.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine proton exchange membrane fuel cells on-board commercial airplanes. ► We model the added fuel cell system’s effect on overall airplane performance. ► It is feasible to implement an on-board fuel cell system with current technology. ► Systems that maximize waste heat recovery are the best performing. ► Current PEM and H 2 storage technology results in an airplane performance penalty. -- Abstract: Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they could offer a performance advantage for the airplane when using today’s off-the-shelf technology. We also examine the effects of the fuel cell system on airplane performance with (1) different electrical loads, (2) different locations on the airplane, and (3) expected advances in fuel cell and hydrogen storage technologies. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic simulation, we found that an additional fuel cell system on a commercial airplane is technically feasible using current technology. Although applied to a Boeing 787-type airplane, the method presented is applicable to other airframes as well. Recovery and on-board use of the heat and water that is generated by the fuel cell is an important method to increase the benefit of such a system. The best performance is achieved when the fuel cell is coupled to a load that utilizes the full output of the fuel cell for the entire flight. The effects of location are small and location may be better determined by other considerations such as safety and modularity. Although the PEM fuel cell generates power more efficiently than the gas turbine generators currently used, when considering the effect of the fuel cell system on the airplane’s overall performance we found that an overall

  12. Device and materials modeling in PEM fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Promislow, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Device and Materials Modeling in PEM Fuel Cells is a specialized text that compiles the mathematical details and results of both device and materials modeling in a single volume. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells will likely have an impact on our way of life similar to the integrated circuit. The potential applications range from the micron scale to large scale industrial production. Successful integration of PEM fuel cells into the mass market will require new materials and a deeper understanding of the balance required to maintain various operational states. This book contains articles from scientists who contribute to fuel cell models from both the materials and device perspectives. Topics such as catalyst layer performance and operation, reactor dynamics, macroscopic transport, and analytical models are covered under device modeling. Materials modeling include subjects relating to the membrane and the catalyst such as proton conduction, atomistic structural modeling, quantum molecular dynamics, an...

  13. Homogeneous cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolhe, Shailesh M.; G, Agathian; Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Preparation of a strong cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting of styrene on to polyethylene (LDPE) film by mutual irradiation technique in the presence of air followed by sulfonation is described. The grafting has been carried out in the presence of air and without any additive. Low dose rate has been seen to facilitate the grafting. Further higher the grafting percentage more is the exchange capacity. The addition of a swelling agent during the sulfonation helped in achieving the high exchange capacity. The TGA-MASS analysis confirmed the grafting and the sulfonation. (author)

  14. High power generation and COD removal in a microbial fuel cell operated by a novel sulfonated PES/PES blend proton exchange membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinadini, S.; Zinatizadeh, A.A.; Rahimi, M.; Vatanpour, V.; Rahimi, Z.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, firstly sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) was synthesized from polyethersulfone (PES) with sulfonation by chlorosulfonic acid as a sulfonating agent dissolved in concentrated sulfuric acid. PES/SPES blend proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared at four different compositions with the non-solvent induced phase separation technique as alternative materials to Nafion membrane for application in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The prepared PEMs were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, AFM, SEM, contact angle, water uptake and oxygen permeability. Performances of the fabricated PEMs and commercial Nafion 117 were evaluated in a dual chamber MFC for treating of wastewater and electricity generation. Maximum generated power and current of the fabricated membranes were 58.726 mWm −2  at current density of 317.111 mAm −2 , while it was 45.512 mWm −2  at 228.673 mAm −2 for Nafion 117 at the similar experimental condition. The observed properties of low biofouling, low oxygen permeability, high power generation, high COD removal and coulombic efficiency (CE) indicated that the SPES membrane has potential to improve significantly the productivity of MFCs. - Highlights: • Sulfonated PES (SPES) was synthesized by chlorosulfonic acid in concentrated H 2 SO 4 . • PES/SPES blend proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared for use in MFC. • Performance of PEMs and commercial Nafion 117 were tested to treat of wastewater. • Maximum generated power and current of SPES membrane was higher than Nafion 117.

  15. Aprediction study for the behaviour of fuel cell membrane subjected to hygro and thermal stresses in running PEM fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional, multi–phase, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell has been used and developed to investigate the hygro and thermal stresses in polymer membrane, which developed during the cell operation due to the changes of temperature and relative humidity. The behaviour of the membrane during operation of a unit cell has been studied and investigated under real cell operating conditions. The results show that the non-uniform distrib...

  16. Effects of clamping force on the water transport and performance of a PEM (proton electrolyte membrane) fuel cell with relative humidity and current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Dowon; Ahn, Jae Hwan; Kim, Hyung Soon; Kim, Yongchan

    2015-01-01

    The clamping force should be applied to a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell due to its structural characteristics. The clamping force affects the ohmic and mass transport resistances in the PEM fuel cell. In this study, the effects of the clamping force on the water transport and performance characteristics of a PEM fuel cell are experimentally investigated with variations in the relative humidity and current density. The water transport characteristics were analyzed by calculating the net drag coefficient. The ohmic resistance decreased with the increase in the clamping force due to the reduced contact resistance and more even membrane hydration. However, the mass transport resistance increased with the increase in the clamping force due to the gas diffusion layer compression. The net drag coefficient decreased with the increase in the clamping force due to high water back-diffusion. Additionally, the relationship between the total resistance and the net drag coefficient was investigated. - Highlights: • Effects of clamping force on the performance of a PEM fuel cell are investigated. • Water transport characteristics are analyzed using net drag coefficient. • Ohmic resistance decreased with clamping force, but mass transport resistance increased. • Net drag coefficient decreased with the increase in clamping force. • Total resistance was significantly degraded for a net drag coefficient below 0.2.

  17. Polypyrrole layered SPEES/TPA proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelakandan, S.; Kanagaraj, P. [PG & Research Department of Chemistry, Polymeric Materials Research Lab, Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi 630003 (India); Sabarathinam, R.M. [Functional Material Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006 (India); Nagendran, A., E-mail: nagimmm@yahoo.com [PG & Research Department of Chemistry, Polymeric Materials Research Lab, Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi 630003 (India)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of Ppy layered SPEES/TPA composite membranes were prepared. • SPEES/TPA-Ppy hybrid membranes displayed efficient methanol resistance than Nafion 117. • SPEES/TPA-Ppy4 membrane exhibits highest relative selectivity of 2.86 × 104 S cm{sup 3} s. • Increasing Ppy layer on membrane surface reduces the leaching out of tungstophosphoric acid. - Abstract: Hybrid membranes based on sulfonated poly(1,4-phenylene ether ether sulfone) (SPEES)/tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) were prepared. SPEES/TPA membrane surfaces were modified with polypyrrole (Ppy) by in situ polymerization method to reduce the TPA leaching. The morphology and electrochemical property of the surface coated membranes were studied by SEM, AFM, water uptake, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity, methanol permeability and tensile strength. The water uptake and the swelling ratio of the surface coated membranes decreased with increasing the Ppy layer. The surface roughness of the hybrid membrane was decreased with an increase in Ppy layer on the membrane surface. The methanol permeability of SPEES/TPA-Ppy4 hybrid membrane was significantly suppressed and found to be 2.1 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1}, which is 1.9 times lower than pristine SPEES membrane. The SPEES/TPA-Ppy4 membrane exhibits highest relative selectivity (2.86 × 10{sup 4} S cm{sup −3} s) than the other membrane with low TPA leaching. The tensile strength of hybrid membranes was improved with the introduction of Ppy layer. Combining their lower swelling ratio, high thermal stability and selectivity, SPEES/TPA-Ppy4 membranes could be a promising material as PEM for DMFC applications.

  18. Polypyrrole layered SPEES/TPA proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelakandan, S.; Kanagaraj, P.; Sabarathinam, R.M.; Nagendran, A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A series of Ppy layered SPEES/TPA composite membranes were prepared. • SPEES/TPA-Ppy hybrid membranes displayed efficient methanol resistance than Nafion 117. • SPEES/TPA-Ppy4 membrane exhibits highest relative selectivity of 2.86 × 104 S cm"3 s. • Increasing Ppy layer on membrane surface reduces the leaching out of tungstophosphoric acid. - Abstract: Hybrid membranes based on sulfonated poly(1,4-phenylene ether ether sulfone) (SPEES)/tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) were prepared. SPEES/TPA membrane surfaces were modified with polypyrrole (Ppy) by in situ polymerization method to reduce the TPA leaching. The morphology and electrochemical property of the surface coated membranes were studied by SEM, AFM, water uptake, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity, methanol permeability and tensile strength. The water uptake and the swelling ratio of the surface coated membranes decreased with increasing the Ppy layer. The surface roughness of the hybrid membrane was decreased with an increase in Ppy layer on the membrane surface. The methanol permeability of SPEES/TPA-Ppy4 hybrid membrane was significantly suppressed and found to be 2.1 × 10"−"7 cm"2 s"−"1, which is 1.9 times lower than pristine SPEES membrane. The SPEES/TPA-Ppy4 membrane exhibits highest relative selectivity (2.86 × 10"4 S cm"−"3 s) than the other membrane with low TPA leaching. The tensile strength of hybrid membranes was improved with the introduction of Ppy layer. Combining their lower swelling ratio, high thermal stability and selectivity, SPEES/TPA-Ppy4 membranes could be a promising material as PEM for DMFC applications.

  19. Novel proton exchange membrane based on crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Pan; Dai, Chi-An; Chao, Chi-Yang; Chang, Shoou-Jinn

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis and the characterization of poly (vinyl alcohol) based proton conducting membranes. In particular, we describe a novel physically and chemically PVA/HFA (poly (vinyl alcohol)/hexafluoroglutaric acid) blending membranes with BASANa (Benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt) and GA (Glutaraldehyde) as binary reaction agents. The key PEM parameters such as ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability were controlled by adjusting the chemical composition of the membranes. The IEC value of the membrane is found to be an important parameter in affecting water uptake, conductivity as well as the permeability of the resulting membrane. Plots of the water uptake, conductivity, and methanol permeability vs. IEC of the membranes show a distinct change in the slope of their curves at roughly the same IEC value which suggests a transition of structural changes in the network. The proton conductivities and the methanol permeability of all the membranes are in the range of 10-3-10-2 S cm-1 and 10-8-10-7 cm2 s-1, respectively, depending on its binary crosslinking density, and it shows great selectivity compared with those of Nafion®-117. The membranes display good mechanical properties which suggest a good lifetime usage of the membranes applied in DMFCs.

  20. Improving the Conductivity of Sulfonated Polyimides as Proton Exchange Membranes by Doping of a Protic Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Kuan Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membranes (PEMs are a key component of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Sulfonated polyimides (SPIs were doped by protic ionic liquid (PIL to prepare composite PEMs with substantially improved conductivity. SPIs were synthesized from diamine, 2,2-bis[4-(4-amino-phenoxyphenyl]propane (BAPP, sulfonated diamine, 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether-2,2'-disulfonic acid (ODADS and aromatic anhydride. BAPP improved the mechanical and thermal properties of SPIs, while ODADS enhanced conductivity. A PIL, 1-vinylimidazolium trifluoromethane-sulfonate ([VIm][OTf], was utilized. [VIm][OTf] offered better conductivity, which can be attributed to its vinyl chemical structure attached to an imidazolium ring that contributed to ionomer-PIL interactions. We prepared sulfonated polyimide/ionic liquid (SPI/IL composite PEMs using 50 wt% [VIm][OTf] with a conductivity of 7.17 mS/cm at 100 °C, and in an anhydrous condition, 3,3',4,4'-diphenyl sulfone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (DSDA was used in the synthesis of SPIs, leading to several hundred-times improvement in conductivity compared to pristine SPIs.

  1. Modeling and optimization for proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack using aging and challenging P systems based optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shipin; Chellali, Ryad; Lu, Xiaohua; Li, Lijuan; Bo, Cuimei

    2016-01-01

    Accurate models of PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cells are of great significance for the analysis and the control for power generation. We present a new semi-empirical model to predict the voltage outputs of PEM fuel cell stacks. We also introduce a new estimation method, called AC-POA (aging and challenging P systems based optimization algorithm) allowing deriving the parameters of the semi-empirical model. In our model, the cathode inlet pressure is selected as an additional factor to modify the expression of concentration over-voltage V con for traditional Amphlett's PEM fuel cell model. In AC-POA, the aging-mechanism inspired object updating rule is merged in existing P system. We validate through experiments the effectiveness of AC-POA and the fitting accuracy of our model. Modeling comparison results show that the predictions of our model are the best in terms of fitting to actual sample data. - Highlights: • Presented a p c -based modificatory semi-empirical model for PEMFC stack. • Introduced a new aging inspired improved parameter estimation algorithm, AC-POA. • Validated the effectiveness of the AC-POA and the new model. • Remodeled the practical PEM fuel cell system.

  2. Development of advanced PEM water electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Deschamps; C Etievant; C Puyenchet; V Fateev; S Grigoriev; A Kalinnikov; V Porembsky; P Millet

    2006-01-01

    Concerning the production of electrolytic hydrogen, the goal of present R and D is to develop advanced hydrogen generator based on proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysers. PEM-based water electrolysis offers a number of advantages, such as ecological safety, high gas purity (more than 99.99% for hydrogen), the possibility of producing compressed gases (up to 200 bar) for direct pressurized storage without additional power inputs, etc. PEM electrolysers are considered as rather attractive devices to accelerate the transition to the hydrogen economy and develop a hydrogen infrastructure network (for example for the development of re-filling stations for cars, using electric power stations at night hours and renewable energy sources). The work presented here result from a cooperation between Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology Institute (HEPTI) of Russian Research Center (RRC) 'Kurchatov Institute', Universite Paris - Sud XI and Compagnie d'Etudes des Technologies de l'Hydrogene. This project is supported by the Commission of the European Communities within the frame of the 6. Framework Programme (GenHyPEM, STREP no 019802). (authors)

  3. Proton Conductive Channel Optimization in Methanol Resistive Hybrid Hyperbranched Polyamide Proton Exchange Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a previously developed polyamide proton conductive macromolecule, the nano-scale structure of the self-assembled proton conductive channels (PCCs is adjusted via enlarging the nano-scale pore size within the macromolecules. Hyperbranched polyamide macromolecules with different size are synthesized from different monomers to tune the nano-scale pore size within the macromolecules, and a series of hybrid membranes are prepared from these two micromoles to optimize the PCC structure in the proton exchange membrane. The optimized membrane exhibits methanol permeability low to 2.2 × 10−7 cm2/s, while the proton conductivity of the hybrid membrane can reach 0.25 S/cm at 80 °C, which was much higher than the value of the Nafion 117 membrane (0.192 S/cm. By considering the mechanical, dimensional, and the thermal properties, the hybrid hyperbranched polyamide proton exchange membrane (PEM exhibits promising application potential in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC.

  4. Development of materials and processes for low-cost production of high-temperature bipolar plates for use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Final report; Material- und Verfahrensentwicklung fuer eine kostenguenstige Herstellung von Hochtemperatur-Bipolarplatten zum Einsatz in Polymer-Elektrolyt-Membran Brennstoffzellen (PEM-BZ). Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In the context of the project 'Verfahren zur spritzgiesstechnischen Herstellung von HT-BPP' (processes for injection moulding of high-temperature fuel cells), bipolar plates for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEM-FC) were produced by an injection moulding process suited for mass production. This implied extensive material analyses of fillers and matrix materials. A specific compound for application in fuel cells and suited for mass production was produced on this basis. (orig./AKB)

  5. Thermal curing of PBI membranes for high temperature PEM fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Cleemann, Lars N.; Li, Qingfeng

    2012-01-01

    (MEAs) is currently hampering the commercial viability of the technology. In the present study, thermoset PBI membranes were prepared by curing the membranes under inert atmosphere at temperatures of up to 350 °C prior to the acid doping. The systematic membrane characterizations with respect...... to solubility, phosphoric acid doping, radical-oxidative resistance and mechanical strength indicated that the PBI membranes were irreversibly cured by the thermal treatment. After curing, the PBI membranes demonstrated features that are fundamental characteristics of a thermoset resin including complete...

  6. Effect of sulphuric acid concentration on electroosmotic flow through polymer electrolyte membranes in PEM fuel cells. Paper no. IGEC-1-061

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, G.; Li, X.

    2005-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are highly efficient and environmentally clean, and hence one of the most promising power sources for both stationary and mobile applications. The operations of PEM fuel cells are complicated by the electroosmotic flow of water from anode to cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane leading to the membrane dehydration and fuel cell performance degradations. In this study, electro osmotic flow in polymer electrolyte membranes is modeled by incorporating the electro kinetic effects in the presence of euphoric acid. The governing Poisson-Boatman and the Nervier-Stokes equations were solved numerically for a single membrane pore to determine the electro osmotic flow distributions through the membrane over a wide range of acid concentrations. The presence of euphoric acid modifies the protons distribution in the membrane and hence alters the driving force for electroosmotic drag. Numerical results indicate that the electro osmotic flow increases steadily with acid concentration. The water transport due to electro osmosis is almost doubled at 2 M acid concentration compared with that of non-doped membrane. The value of electroosmotic drag coefficient however falls steadily with acid concentration due to the presence of a larger number of protons in the electrolyte. (author)

  7. Anhydrous proton exchange membrane of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) enabled by polydopamine-modified silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingtao; Bai, Huijuan; Zhang, Haoqin; Zhao, Liping; Chen, Huiling; Li, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The concept of acid/base pairs was employed to design anhydrous PEMs. • Polydopamine-modified silica particles were uniformly dispersed in SPEEK membrane. • The membranes displayed enhancement in both stability and anhydrous proton conductivity. - Abstract: Novel anhydrous proton exchange membrane is (PEM) facilely prepared by embedding dopamine-modified silica nanoparticles (DSiOis 2 ) into sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) polymer matrix. DSiO 2 bearing -NH 2 /-NH- groups are synthesized inspired by the bioadhesion principle, which are uniformly dispersed within SPEEK membrane due to the good interfacial compatibility. The interfacial electrostatic attractions render unique rearrangement of the nanophase-separated structure and the chain packing of the resultant hybrid membranes. As a result, the thermal and mechanical stabilities as well as structural stability of the hybrid membranes are enhanced when compared to SPEEK control membrane. On the other hand, induced by the attractions, acid–base pairs are formed at the SPEEK/DSiOarewere 2 interface, where fast proton transfer via Grotthuss mechanism is expected. These features confer much higher proton conductivities on the DSiO 2 -filled membranes under both hydrated and anhydrous conditions, compared to those of the SPEEK control membrane and SiO 2 -filled membranes. Particularly, the hybrid membrane with 15 wt% DSiO 2 achieve the highest conductivities of 4.52achieveachieved × 10 −3 S cm −1 at 120 °C under anhydrous condition, which is much higher than the SPEEK control membrane and the commercial Nafion membrane (0.1iswas × 10 −3 S cm −1 ). The membrane with 9 wt% DSiO 2 show an open cell potential of 0.98showshowed V and an optimum power density of 111.7 mW cm −2 , indicative of its potential application in fuel cell under anhydrous condition

  8. 21 CFR 173.21 - Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Perfluorinated ion exchange membranes. 173.21... ion exchange membranes. Substances identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as ion exchange membranes intended for use in the treatment of bulk quantities of liquid food under the...

  9. Development and fabrication of membrane electrode assembly for PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, M.A.R.; Arshad, M.; Hussain, S.; Saeed, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The 10 cm x 10 cm active area membrane electrode assembly (MEA) has been fabricated by adopting two routes, i.e., catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) and catalyst-coated support (CCS). In CCM method, the catalyst is directly applied on the Nafion membrane while in CCS method, catalyst is applied on support (GDL). The catalyst layer was prepared by nano-sized platinum on carbon particle, the ionomer material of the membrane and a solvent that allows the catalyst to behave like ink. The catalyst slurry was applied on the membrane, hot-pressed the sandwich of GDL and catalyst-coated Nafion membrane to form a single unit which behaves as electrodes. The primary tests regarding the efficiency of indigenously-fabricated MEAs have been carried out successfully. The performance of MEA with respect to continuous operation for long hours from the standpoint of proper functioning was also checked. A maximum power of 13 watt was obtained. (author)

  10. GenHyPEM: an EC-supported STREP program on high pressure PEM water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millet, P.

    2006-01-01

    GenHyPEM (generateur d'hydrogene PEM) is an international research project related to the electrolytic production of hydrogen from water, using proton exchange membrane (PEM) - based electrochemical generators. The specificity of this project is that all basic research efforts are devoted to the optimization of already existing electrolysers of industrial size, in order to facilitate the introduction of this technology in the industry and to propose technological solutions for the industrial and domestic production of electrolytic hydrogen. GenHyPEM is a three years long research program financially supported by the European Commission, gathering partners from academic institutions and from the industry, in order to reach three main technological objectives aimed at improving the performances of current 1000 Nliter/hour H 2 industrial PEM water electrolysers: (i) Development of alternative low-cost membrane electrode assemblies and stack components with electrochemical performances similar to those of state-of-the-art systems. The objectives are the development of nano-scaled electrocatalytic structures for reducing the amount of noble metals; the synthesis and characterization of non-noble metal catalytic compounds provided by molecular chemistry and bio-mimetic approaches; the preparation of new composite membrane materials for high current density, high pressure and high temperature operation; the development and optimization of low-cost porous titanium sheets acting as current collectors in the electrolysis stack; (ii) Development of an optimized stack structure for high current density (1 A.cm-2) and high pressure (50 bars) operation for direct pressurized storage; (iii) Development of an automated and integrated electrolysis unit allowing gas production from intermittent renewable sources of energy such as photovoltaic-solar and wind. Current status of the project as well as perspectives are described in this paper. This project, coordinated by University of

  11. A CFD analysis on the effect of ambient conditions on the hygro-thermal stresses distribution in a planar ambient air-breathing PEM fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2011-01-01

    The need for improved lifetime of air-breathing proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for portable applications necessitates that the failure mechanisms be clearly understood and life prediction models be developed, so that new designs can be introduced to improve long-term performance. An operating air-breathing PEM fuel cell has varying local conditions of temperature and humidity. As a result of in the changes in temperature and moisture, the membrane, GDL and bipolar plates will all e...

  12. Numerical study of assembly pressure effect on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taymaz, Imdat; Benli, Merthan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sakarya, 54187 Adapazari (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    The performance of the fuel cell is affected by many parameters. One of these parameters is assembly pressure that changes the mechanical properties and dimensions of the fuel cell components. Its first duty, however, is to prevent gas or liquid leakage from the cell and it is important for the contact behaviors of fuel cell components. Some leakage and contact problems can occur on the low assembly pressures whereas at high pressures, components of the fuel cell, such as bipolar plates (BPP), gas diffusion layers (GDL), catalyst layers, and membranes, can be damaged. A finite element analysis (FEA) model is developed to predict the deformation effect of assembly pressure on the single channel PEM fuel cell in this study. Deformed fuel cell single channel model is imported to three-dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model which is developed for simulating proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Using this model, the effect of assembly pressure on fuel cell performance can be calculated. It is found that, when the assembly pressure increases, contact resistance, porosity and thickness of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) decreases. Too much assembly pressure causes GDL to destroy; therefore, the optimal assembly pressure is significant to obtain the highest performance from fuel cell. By using the results of this study, optimum fuel cell design and operating condition parameters can be predicted accordingly. (author)

  13. Effect of crosslinking on the physico-chemical properties of radiation grafted PEM fuel cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Mahmoud Nasef; Hamdani Saidi

    2006-01-01

    The effect of crosslinking on the physico-chemical properties of radiation grafted proton conducting membranes (PFA-g-PSSA) was investigated. The membranes were prepared by radiation induced grafting of styrene/divinylbenzene (DVB) mixtures onto poly (tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluorovinyl either) (PFA) films followed by sulfonation reactions. The variation of DVB content in the grafting mixture was in the range of 1-4 vol %. The equivalent weight, swelling, behavior and the proton conductivity of crosslinked membranes having equal degrees of grafting prepared found to be dependent predominantly on the level of crosslinking. The obtained membranes were found to posses a good combination of physico-chemical properties that is matching the commercial Nation 117 membranes

  14. Evaluation and characterization of ceramic membranes based on Pdms/SiC containing phosphotungstic acid as electrolytes for PEM-FC; Avaliacao e caracterizacao de membranas ceramicas condutoras a base de PDMS/SiC contendo acido fosfotungstico como eletrolito para PEM-FC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marcelo de Oliveira; Guimaraes, Danilo Hansen; Boaventura Filho, Jaime Soares; Jose, Nadia Mamede [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais; Barbosa, Diego Augusto Batista; Paschoal, Carlos William de Araujo [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (DF/UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Almeida, Rafael Mendonca; Tanaka, Auro Atsushi [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (DQ/UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the development of membranes with potential use in Proton Exchange Fuel Cells (PEM-FC), consisting of hybrid materials based on poly(dimethylsiloxane), crosslinked with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), and reinforced with silicon carbide and phosphotungstic acid. The membrane series PDMS/TEOS/SiC/PWA were prepared by the reaction of PDMS and TEOS, 70/30% proportions in mass, catalyzed by dibutyltin dilaurate. SiC was incorporated in a 25% proportion, and PWA in varied proportions (5, 10, 15 and 20%), by weight. The membranes were characterized by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. SiC and PWA addition to the membrane increased both structure organization and material crystallinity. The insertion of PWA provided an increase in the conductivity. However, maximum conductivity was obtained with concentration levels above 10%. The insertion of SiC associated with the PWA did not influence the conductivity for concentrations between 10 and 20%. (author)

  15. Rapid fabrication of microfluidic polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in PDMS by surface patterning of perfluorinated ion-exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yong-Ak; Han, Jongyoon [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Batista, Candy [Roxbury Community College, 1234 Columbus Ave., Roxbury Crossing, MA 02120 (United States); Sarpeshkar, Rahul [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a simple and rapid fabrication method for a microfluidic polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which has become the de facto standard material in BioMEMS. Instead of integrating a Nafion sheet film between two layers of a PDMS device in a traditional ''sandwich format,'' we pattern a perfluorinated ion-exchange resin such as a Nafion resin on a glass substrate using a reversibly bonded PDMS microchannel to generate an ion-selective membrane between the fuel-cell electrodes. After this patterning step, the assembly of the microfluidic fuel cell is accomplished by simple oxygen plasma bonding between the PDMS chip and the glass substrate. In an example implementation, the planar PEM microfluidic fuel cell generates an open circuit voltage of 600-800 mV and delivers a maximum current output of nearly 4 {mu}A. To enhance the power output of the fuel cell we utilize self-assembled colloidal arrays as a support matrix for the Nafion resin. Such arrays allow us to increase the thickness of the ion-selective membrane to 20 {mu}m and increase the current output by 166%. Our novel fabrication method enables rapid prototyping of microfluidic fuel cells to study various ion-exchange resins for the polymer electrolyte membrane. Our work will facilitate the development of miniature, implantable, on-chip power sources for biomedical applications. (author)

  16. Development of Less Water-Dependent Radiation Grafted Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasef, M M; Ahmad, A; Saidi, H; Dahlan, K Z.M. [Institute of Hydrogen Economy, Energy Research Alliance (ERA), International Campus, Univeristi Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Radiation Processing Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Kajang (Malaysia)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of these studies was the development of proton exchange membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell operated above 100{sup o}C, in order to obtain less water dependent, high quality and cheap electrolyte membrane. Sulfonic acid membranes were prepared by radiation induced grafting (RIG) of sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) onto electron beam (EB) irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films in a single step reaction for the first time using synergetic effect of acid addition to grafting mixture under various grafting conditions. The fuel cell related properties of the membranes were evaluated and the in situ performance was tested in a single H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} fuel cell under dynamic conditions and compared with a similar sulfonated polystyrene PVDF membrane obtained by two-step conventional RIG method i.e. grafting of styrene and subsequent sulfonation. The newly obtained membrane (degree of grafting, G% = 53) showed an improved performance and higher stability together with a cost reduction mainly as a result of elimination of sulfonation reaction. Acid-base composite membranes were also studied. EB pre-irradiated poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films were grafted with N-vinyl pyridine (NVP). The effects of monomer concentration, dose, reaction time, film thickness, temperature and film storage time on G% were investigated. The membranes were subsequently doped with phosphoric acid under controlled condition. The proton conductivity of these membranes was investigated under low water conditions in correlation with the variation in G% and temperature (30-130{sup o}C). The performance of 34 and 49% grafted and doped membranes was tested in a single fuel cell at 130{sup o}C under dynamic conditions with 146 and 127 mW/cm{sup 2} power densities. The polarization, power density characteristics and the initial stability of the membrane showed a promising electrolyte candidate for fuel cell operation above 100 deg. C. (author)

  17. Transport parameters for the modelling of water transport in ionomer membranes for PEM-fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Frank; Eigenberger, Gerhart

    2004-01-01

    The water transport number (drag coefficient) and the hydraulic permeability were measured for Nafion. The results show a significant increase of both parameters with increasing water content indicating that they are strongly influenced by the membrane microstructure. Based on these experimental studies a new model approach to describe water transport in the H 2 -PEFC membrane is presented. This approach considers water transport by electro-osmosis caused by the proton flux through the membrane and by osmosis caused by a gradient in the chemical potential of water. It is parametrized by the measured data for the water transport number and the hydraulic permeability of Nafion. First simulation results applying this approach to a one-dimensional model of the H 2 -PEFC show good agreement with experimental data. Therefore, the developed model can be used for a new insight into the dominating mechanisms of water transport in the membrane

  18. Phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes: Physiochemical characterization and fuel cell applications [PEM fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Bjerrum, Niels

    2001-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell operational at temperatures around 150-200 degrees C is desirable for fast electrode kinetics and high tolerance to fuel impurities. For this purpose polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes have been prepared and H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/-doped in a doping range from 300...... doping level. At 160 degrees C a conductivity as high as 0.13 S cm/sup -1/ is obtained for membranes of high doping levels. Mechanical strength measurements show, however, that a high acid doping level results in poor mechanical properties. At operational temperatures up to 190 degrees C, fuel cells...... based on this polymer membrane have been tested with both hydrogen and hydrogen containing carbon monoxide....

  19. Characterization of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) based proton exchange membranes prepared by UV-radiation-induced graft copolymerization of styrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Mostak; Khan, Mohammad B.; Alam, S. Shamsul; Khan, M. Anwar H. [Department of Chemistry, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Khan, Mubarak A. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 3787, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Halim, Md. Abdul [Department of Chemistry, Jahangirnagar University, savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2011-01-15

    Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) were successfully prepared by simultaneous ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced graft copolymerization of styrene (35 vol.% concentration) onto poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) film, followed by sulfonation on the styrene monomer units in the grafting chain using 0.05 M chlorosulfonic acid (ClSO{sub 3}H). The radiation grafting and the sulfonation have been confirmed by titrimetric and gravimetric analyses as well as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The maximum ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of the PEM was measured to be 0.04385 mmol g{sup -1} at its highest level of grafting and sulfonation. They exhibited high thermal and mechanical properties as well as oxidative stability. They are highly stable in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions and can be used in the acidic fuel cells. The membranes showed low water uptake as well as low proton conductivity than Nafion. In this study, the preparation of PEMs from commodity-type polymers is found to be very inexpensive and is a suitable candidate for applications in fuel cells. (author)

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Reinforced Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone (SPEEK Composites for Proton Exchange Membrane Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As a clean energy utilization device, full cell is gaining more and more attention. Proton exchange membrane (PEM is a key component of the full cell. The commercial-sulfonated, tetrafluoroethylene-based fluoropolymer-copolymer (Nafion membrane exhibits excellent proton conductivity under a fully humidified environment. However, it also has some disadvantages in practice, such as high fuel permeability, a complex synthesis process, and high cost. To overcome these disadvantages, a low-cost and novel membrane was developed. The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone (SPEEK was selected as the base material of the proton exchange membrane. Sulfonated graphene (SG was cross-linked with SPEEK through the elimination reaction of hydrogen bonds. It was found that the sulfonic acid groups and hydrophilic oxygen groups increased obviously in the resultant membrane. Compared with the pure SPEEK membrane, the SG-reinforced membrane exhibited better proton conductivity and methanol permeability prevention. The results indicate that the SG/SPEEK could be applied as a new proton exchange membrane in fuel cells.

  1. GenHyPEM: A research program on PEM water electrolysis supported by the European Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, Pierre; Dragoe, Diana [Institut de Chimie Moleculaire et des Materiaux d' Orsay, UMR CNRS no 8182, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Grigoriev, Serguey; Fateev, Vladimir [Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology, Institute of Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, 1, Kurchatov sq., 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Etievant, Claude [Compagnie Europeenne des Technologies de l' Hydrogene (CETH), Innov' Valley Entreprise, Batiment D0, Route de Nozay, 91461 Marcoussis Cedex (France)

    2009-06-15

    GenHyPEM (Generateur d'Hydrogene par electrolyse de l'eau PEM <Exchange Membrane>>) is an STREP programme (no 019802) supported by the European Commission in the course of the 6th framework research programme. This R and D project which started in October 2005, is a 2.6 MEUR research effort over three years. It gathers partners from Belgium, Germany, Romania, Federation of Russia, Armenia and France. The main goal of the project is to develop low-cost and high pressure (50 bar) PEM water electrolysers for the production of up to several Nm{sup 3} H{sub 2}/h. The purpose of this communication is to present the current status of GenHyPEM. Major results and technological achievements obtained so far in the fields of academic (electrocatalysis, polymer electrolyte) and applied (stack development and performances) research are presented. Non-noble electrocatalysts have been identified to replace platinum for the HER and stable performances have been obtained during operation at high (1 A cm{sup -2}) current density, paving the way to substantial cost reductions. Prototype electrolysers producing from 0.1 to 5 Nm{sup 3} H{sub 2}/h have been successfully developed. (author)

  2. Analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell polarization losses at elevated temperature 120 C and reduced relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hui; Kunz, H. Russell [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Fenton, James M. [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Polarization losses of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells at 120 C and reduced relative humidity (RH) were analyzed. Reduced RH affects membrane and electrode ionic resistance, catalytic activity and oxygen transport. For a cell made of Nafion {sup registered} 112 membrane and electrodes that have 35 wt.% Nafion {sup registered} and 0.3 mg/cm{sup 2} platinum supported on carbon, membrane resistance at 20%RH was 0.407 {omega} cm{sup 2} and electrode resistance 0.203 {omega} cm{sup 2}, significantly higher than 0.092 and 0.041 {omega} cm{sup 2} at 100%RH, respectively. In the kinetically controlled region, 20%RH resulted in 96 mV more cathode activation loss than 100%RH. Compared to 100%, 20%RH also produced significant oxygen transport loss across the ionomer film in the electrode, 105 mV at 600 mA/cm{sup 2}. The significant increase in polarization losses at elevated temperature and reduced RH indicates the extreme importance of designing electrodes for high temperature PEM fuel cells since membrane development has always taken most emphasis. (author)

  3. Conceptual design report for a Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for transportation application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-05

    This report presents the conceptual design for a Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for transportation applications. The design is based on the initial selection of the Chrysler LH sedan as the target vehicle with a 50 kW (gross) PEM Fuel Cell Stack (FCS) as the primary power source, a battery-powered Load Leveling Unit (LLU) for surge power requirements, an on-board hydrogen storage subsystem containing high pressure gaseous storage, a Gas Management Subsystem (GMS) to manage the hydrogen and air supplies for the FCS, and electronic controllers to control the electrical system. The design process has been dedicated to the use of Design-to-Cost (DTC) principles. The Direct Hydrogen-Powered PEM Fuel Cell Stack Hybrid Vehicle (DPHV) system is designed to operate on the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) and Hiway Cycles. These cycles have been used to evaluate the vehicle performance with regard to range and hydrogen usage. The major constraints for the DPHV vehicle are vehicle and battery weight, transparency of the power system and drive train to the user, equivalence of fuel and life cycle costs to conventional vehicles, and vehicle range. The energy and power requirements are derived by the capability of the DPHV system to achieve an acceleration from 0 to 60 MPH within 12 seconds, and the capability to achieve and maintain a speed of 55 MPH on a grade of seven percent. The conceptual design for the DPHV vehicle is shown in a figure. A detailed description of the Hydrogen Storage Subsystem is given in section 4. A detailed description of the FCS Subsystem and GMS is given in section 3. A detailed description of the LLU, selection of the LLU energy source, and the power controller designs is given in section 5.

  4. Channel geometric scales effect on performance and optimization for serpentine proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youcef, Kerkoub; Ahmed, Benzaoui; Ziari, Yasmina; Fadila, Haddad

    2017-02-01

    A three dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is proposed in this paper to investigate the effect of flow field design and dimensions of bipolar plates on performance of serpentine proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). A complete fuel cell of 25 cm2 with 25 channels have been used. The aim of the work is to investigate the effect of flow channels and ribs scales on overall performance of PEM fuel cell. Therefore, geometric aspect ratio parameter defined as (width of flow channel/width of rib) is used. Influences of the ribs and openings current collector scales have been studied and analyzed in order to find the optimum ratio between them to enhance the production of courant density of PEM fuel cell. Six kind of serpentine designs have been used in this paper included different aspect ratio varying from 0.25 to 2.33 while the active surface area and number of channels are keeping constant. Aspect ratio 0.25 corresponding of (0.4 mm channel width/ 1.6mm ribs width), and Aspect ratio2.33 corresponding of (0.6 mm channel width/ 1.4mm ribs width. The results show that the best flow field designs (giving the maximum density of current) are which there dimensions of channels width is minimal and ribs width is maximal (Γ≈0.25). Also decreasing width of channels enhance the pressure drop inside the PEM fuel cell, this causes an increase of gazes velocity and enhance convection process, therefore more power generation.

  5. Performance optimization of a PEM hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Al-Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    The objective was to develop a semi-empirical model that would simulate the performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells without extensive calculations. A fuel cell mathematical module has been designed and constructed to determine the performance of a PEM fuel cell. The influence of some operating parameters on the performance of PEM fuel cell has been investigated using pure hydrogen on the anode side and oxygen on the cathode side. The present model can be used to investigate the influence of process variables for design optimization of fuel cells, stacks, and complete fuel cell power system. The possible mechanisms of the parameter effects and their interrelationships are discussed. In order to assess the validity of the developed model a real PEM fuel cell system has been used to generate experimental data. The comparison shows good agreements between the modelling results and the experimental data. The model is shown a very useful for estimating the performance of PEM fuel cell stacks and optimization of fuel cell system integration and operation.

  6. Carbon nanotubes rooted montmorillonite (CNT-MM) reinforced nanocomposite membrane for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manikandan, Dhanagopal, E-mail: dmani_cat@yahoo.co.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan, E-mail: mangal@udec.cl [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Avila, Ricardo E. [Personal Dosimetry Section, Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Cas. 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Siddheswaran, Rajendran [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Ananthakumar, Solaiappan [Materials and Minerals Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel montmorillonite-CNT (MM-CNT) nanohybrid materials were produced by CVD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly selective crystalline carbon nanotubes were grown over montmorillonite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabricated Nafion-MM-CNT nanocomposite membrane by solution casting method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneous dispersion of MM-CNT in the Nafion matrix was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined effect of montmorillonite and CNT improves the thermal stability of Nafion. - Abstract: Nafion based nanocomposite membranes containing montmorillonite-carbon nanotubes (a binary hybrid material) were produced to develop high performance polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Multi walled carbon nanotubes were grown over 20 and 25 wt% iron loaded montmorillonite catalysts by CVD using acetylene as the carbon precursor. Growth experiments were carried out at optimised conditions to obtain highly selective crystalline carbon nanotubes. X-ray diffraction spectra of the catalysts were recorded for the structural characterisation and definition of particle size. The carbon nanotubes obtained were examined by various physico chemical characterisation studies such as SEM, TEM, Raman spectroscopy and TG analyses to understand the morphology and crystallinity of the CNTs. The MM-CNT hybrid material with I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio of Raman spectral band as 0.53 represents the high selectivity towards CNTs. Thus the hybrid material produced was considered as the best nanofiller to develop polymer nanocomposites. Nafion based nanocomposite membranes were prepared by adding MM-CNT as nanofiller by solution casting method. A better dispersion of MM-CNT into the Nafion matrix was observed and the addition of the MM-CNT improved the thermal stability of the Nafion membrane.

  7. Homogeneous vs. heterogeneous membranes for the application in PEM type fuel cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouzek, K.; Cílová, Z.; Podubecká, P.; Paidar, M.; Schauer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 200, 1-3 (2006), s. 650-652 ISSN 0011-9164. [Conference Euromembrane. Giardini Naxos - Taormina, 24.09.2006-28.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0080 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer membranes * poly(phenylene oxide) * poly(phenylene sulfide) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2006

  8. Carbon nanotubes rooted montmorillonite (CNT-MM) reinforced nanocomposite membrane for PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikandan, Dhanagopal; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Avila, Ricardo E.; Siddheswaran, Rajendran; Ananthakumar, Solaiappan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel montmorillonite-CNT (MM-CNT) nanohybrid materials were produced by CVD. ► Highly selective crystalline carbon nanotubes were grown over montmorillonite. ► Fabricated Nafion-MM-CNT nanocomposite membrane by solution casting method. ► Homogeneous dispersion of MM-CNT in the Nafion matrix was achieved. ► Combined effect of montmorillonite and CNT improves the thermal stability of Nafion. - Abstract: Nafion based nanocomposite membranes containing montmorillonite-carbon nanotubes (a binary hybrid material) were produced to develop high performance polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Multi walled carbon nanotubes were grown over 20 and 25 wt% iron loaded montmorillonite catalysts by CVD using acetylene as the carbon precursor. Growth experiments were carried out at optimised conditions to obtain highly selective crystalline carbon nanotubes. X-ray diffraction spectra of the catalysts were recorded for the structural characterisation and definition of particle size. The carbon nanotubes obtained were examined by various physico chemical characterisation studies such as SEM, TEM, Raman spectroscopy and TG analyses to understand the morphology and crystallinity of the CNTs. The MM-CNT hybrid material with I D /I G ratio of Raman spectral band as 0.53 represents the high selectivity towards CNTs. Thus the hybrid material produced was considered as the best nanofiller to develop polymer nanocomposites. Nafion based nanocomposite membranes were prepared by adding MM-CNT as nanofiller by solution casting method. A better dispersion of MM-CNT into the Nafion matrix was observed and the addition of the MM-CNT improved the thermal stability of the Nafion membrane.

  9. A concise guide to sustainable PEMFCs: recent advances in improving both oxygen reduction catalysts and proton exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Megan E; Liu, Haiqing; Wong, Stanislaus S

    2015-08-21

    The rising interest in fuel cell vehicle technology (FCV) has engendered a growing need and realization to develop rational chemical strategies to create highly efficient, durable, and cost-effective fuel cells. Specifically, technical limitations associated with the major constituent components of the basic proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), namely the cathode catalyst and the proton exchange membrane (PEM), have proven to be particularly demanding to overcome. Therefore, research trends within the community in recent years have focused on (i) accelerating the sluggish kinetics of the catalyst at the cathode and (ii) minimizing overall Pt content, while simultaneously (a) maximizing activity and durability as well as (b) increasing membrane proton conductivity without causing any concomitant loss in either stability or as a result of damage due to flooding. In this light, as an example, high temperature PEMFCs offer a promising avenue to improve the overall efficiency and marketability of fuel cell technology. In this Critical Review, recent advances in optimizing both cathode materials and PEMs as well as the future and peculiar challenges associated with each of these systems will be discussed.

  10. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Engineering Model Powerplant. Test Report: Benchmark Tests in Three Spatial Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyselle, Patricia; Prokopius, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology is the leading candidate to replace the aging alkaline fuel cell technology, currently used on the Shuttle, for future space missions. This test effort marks the final phase of a 5-yr development program that began under the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program, transitioned into the Next Generation Launch Technologies (NGLT) Program, and continued under Constellation Systems in the Exploration Technology Development Program. Initially, the engineering model (EM) powerplant was evaluated with respect to its performance as compared to acceptance tests carried out at the manufacturer. This was to determine the sensitivity of the powerplant performance to changes in test environment. In addition, a series of tests were performed with the powerplant in the original standard orientation. This report details the continuing EM benchmark test results in three spatial orientations as well as extended duration testing in the mission profile test. The results from these tests verify the applicability of PEM fuel cells for future NASA missions. The specifics of these different tests are described in the following sections.

  11. A review of proton exchange membrane water electrolysis on degradation mechanisms and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qi; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Liu, Gaoyang; Wei, Bing; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang

    2017-10-01

    Proton exchange membrane water electrolysis (PEMWE) is an advanced and effective solution to the primary energy storage technologies. A better understanding of performance and durability of PEMWE is critical for the engineers and researchers to further advance this technology for its market penetration, and for the manufacturers of PEM water electrolyzers to implement quality control procedures for the production line or on-site process monitoring/diagnosis. This paper reviews the published works on performance degradations and mitigation strategies for PEMWE. Sources of degradation for individual components are introduced. With degradation causes discussed and degradation mechanisms examined, the review emphasizes on feasible strategies to mitigate the components degradation. To avoid lengthy real lifetime degradation tests and their high costs, the importance of accelerated stress tests and protocols is highlighted for various components. In the end, R&D directions are proposed to move the PEMWE technology forward to become a key element in future energy scenarios.

  12. An Equivalent Electrical Circuit Model of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Mathematical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh An Nguyen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Many of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC models proposed in the literature consist of mathematical equations. However, they are not adequately practical for simulating power systems. The proposed model takes into account phenomena such as activation polarization, ohmic polarization, double layer capacitance and mass transport effects present in a PEM fuel cell. Using electrical analogies and a mathematical modeling of PEMFC, the circuit model is established. To evaluate the effectiveness of the circuit model, its static and dynamic performances under load step changes are simulated and compared to the numerical results obtained by solving the mathematical model. Finally, the applicability of our model is demonstrated by simulating a practical system.

  13. Microscopy studies on pronton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes with different ionomer contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Shuang; Solterbeck, Claus Henning; Odgaard, Madeleine

    2009-01-01

    of the electrode was well displayed in the topography and phase images. The particle and pore size (Z) distributions showed the most frequent values at 30-40 nm and 20-30 nm, respectively. The particle size corresponds to the size of the carbon support for the platinum catalyst. Catalyst agglomeration was observed......Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell electrodes with different ionomer contents were studied with various microscopic techniques. The morphology and surface potential were examined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin Probe Microscopy (KPM), respectively. The particulate nature...... in high ionomer content electrodes. The surface potential images showed distinct difference to the topography images. The overall grain size was seen to increase, the pore volume to decrease, the surface roughness to decrease, and the surface potential variation to increase with the increase of ionomer...

  14. Covalently cross-linked polyetheretherketone proton exchange membrane for DMFC

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luo, H

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available -7 cm2/s) and good electrochemical stability. The results suggested that cross-linked polyetheretherketone membrane is particularly promising to be used as proton exchange membrane for the direct methanol fuel cell application....

  15. Polymers and composites synthesis and characterization for application on PEM type fuel cells; Sintese e caracterizacao de polimeros e compositos para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel do tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, Raigenis da Paz; Souza, Daniele Ribeiro; Barreto, Ednardo Gomes; Boaventura Filho, Jaime Soares; Jose, Nadia Mamede [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: raigenis@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The PEM (proton exchanging membrane) type fuel cell presents good potential for the energy production without the residue generation. However, its manufacture presents high costs for commercial application, mainly due to the electrolyte. Sulfonated Peek (polish-ether-ether-ketone) supported or auto immobilized the in a silicone matrix is an interesting alternative as electrolyte for PEM fuel cells. The commercial PEEK in powder form was functionalized with sulfuric acid, giving the SPEEK (Sulfonated PEEK). The membranes were produced by hot pressing the SPEEK immobilized in a silicone matrix produced by the sol-gel process. The membranes obtained were characterized by DRX, FTIR, TGA, MEV, DSC and protonic conductivity measurements. (author)

  16. Final report: Seven-layer membrane electrode assembly - an innovative approach to PEM fuel cell design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, A.

    2005-07-01

    Costs of materials and fabrication, rather than appropriateness of technology, are the major barriers to the sales of fuel cells. With the objective of reducing costs, potential alternative component materials for (a) the fluid flow plate (FFP) and (b) the gas diffusion layers were investigated. The concept of a 7-layer membrane electrode assembly (MEA), in which components are bonded into a unitised module, was also studied. The advantages of the bonded cell, and the flow field design, are expounded. Low-cost carbon particle composites were developed for the FFPs. The modular 7-layer MEA has an order of magnitude saving over current materials. Overall, the study has led to a greater volumetric power output, lower costs and greater reliability. The work was carried out by Morgan Group Technology Limited and funded by the DTI.

  17. 1D + 3D two-phase flow numerical model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rui B.; Falcão, D.S.; Oliveira, V.B.; Pinto, A.M.F.R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A 1D + 3D model of a PEM fuel cell is described and experimentally validated. •VOF method tracks the two-phase flow and electrochemical reactions are considered. •Water dynamics inside a serpentine channel is analyzed for different voltages. •Water content in different regions of channel is quantified. •Important issues on coupling of the VOF model with electrochemical reactions are addressed. -- Abstract: In this work, a numerical model of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is presented. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is employed to simulate the air-water two-phase flow in the cathode gas channel, at the same time that the cell electrochemical performance is predicted. The model is validated against an experimental polarization curve and through the visualization of water distribution inside a transparent fuel cell. The water dynamics inside a serpentine gas channel is numerically analyzed under different operating voltages. Moreover, water content in different regions of the channel is quantified. Current density and water generation rate spatial distributions are also displayed and it is shown how they affect the process of water emergence into the gas channel. Important issues on the simulation of the PEM fuel cells two-phase flow are addressed, especially concerning the coupling of the VOF technique with electrochemical reactions. Both the model and the numerical results aim to contribute to a better understanding of the two-phase flow phenomenon that occurs in these devices.

  18. A highly order-structured membrane electrode assembly with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes for ultra-low Pt loading PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Zhi Qun; Lim, San Hua; Poh, Chee Kok; Lin, Jianyi [Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, 1 Pesek Road, Jurong Island, Singapore 627833 (Singapore); Tang, Zhe; Chua, Daniel [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Xia, Zetao [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Luo, Zhiqiang; Shen, Zexiang [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637371 Singapore (Singapore); Shen, Pei Kang [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, and Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Feng, Yuan Ping [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2011-11-15

    A simple method was developed to prepare ultra-low Pt loading membrane electrode assembly (MEA) using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) as highly ordered catalyst support for PEM fuel cells application. In the method, VACNTs were directly grown on the cheap household aluminum foil by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), using Fe/Co bimetallic catalyst. By depositing a Pt thin layer on VACNTs/Al and subsequent hot pressing, Pt/VACNTs can be 100% transferred from Al foil onto polymer electrolyte membrane for the fabrication of MEA. The whole transfer process does not need any chemical removal and destroy membrane. The PEM fuel cell with the MEA fabricated using this method showed an excellent performance with ultra-low Pt loading down to 35 {mu}g cm{sup -2} which was comparable to that of the commercial Pt catalyst on carbon powder with 400 {mu}g cm{sup -2}. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we identified that it is possible to substantially reduce the Pt loading one order by application of order-structured electrode based on VACNTs as Pt catalysts support, compared with the traditional random electrode at a comparable performance through experimental and mathematical methods. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Sulfonated Holey Graphene Oxide (SHGO) Filled Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone) Membrane: The Role of Holes in the SHGO in Improving Its Performance as Proton Exchange Membrane for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-Jie; Jiang, Zhongqing; Tian, Xiaoning; Luo, Lijuan; Liu, Meilin

    2017-06-14

    Sulfonated holey graphene oxides (SHGOs) have been synthesized by the etching of sulfonated graphene oxides with concentrated HNO 3 under the assistance of ultrasonication. These SHGOs could be used as fillers for the sulfonated aromatic poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membrane. The obtained SHGO-incorporated SPEEK membrane has a uniform and dense structure, exhibiting higher performance as proton exchange membranes (PEMs), for instance, higher proton conductivity, lower activation energy for proton conduction, and comparable methanol permeability, as compared to Nafion 112. The sulfonated graphitic structure of the SHGOs is believed to be one of the crucial factors resulting in the higher performance of the SPEEK/SHGO membrane, since it could increase the local density of the -SO 3 H groups in the membrane and induce a strong interfacial interaction between SHGO and the SPEEK matrix, which improve the proton conductivity and lower the swelling ratio of the membrane, respectively. Additionally, the proton conductivity of the membrane could be further enhanced by the presence of the holes in the graphitic planes of the SHGOs, since it provides an additional channel for transport of the protons. When used, direct methanol fuel cell with the SPEEK/SHGO membrane is found to exhibit much higher performance than that with Nafion 112, suggesting potential use of the SPEEK/SHGO membrane as the PEMs.

  20. Thermo-economic analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell fuelled with methanol and methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleiman, B.; Abdulkareem, A.S.; Musa, U.; Mohammed, I.A.; Olutoye, M.A.; Abdullahi, Y.I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Modified proton exchange membrane fuel cell was reported. • Thermolib software was used for the simulation of PEM fuel cell configurations. • Optimal operating parameters at 50 kW output of each process were determined. • Thermo-economic analysis is the most efficient way of process selection. • Methane system configuration has been identified as the best preferred PEM fuel cell. - Abstract: Exergy and economic analysis is often used to find and identify the most efficient process configuration for proton exchange membrane fuel cell from the thermo-economic point of view. This work gives an explicit account of the synergetic effect of exergetic and economic analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using methanol and methane as fuel sources. This was carried out through computer simulation using Thermolib simulation toolbox. Data generated from the simulated model were subsequently used for the thermodynamic and economic analysis. Analysis of energy requirement for the two selected processes revealed that the methane fuelled system requires the lower amount of energy (4.578 kJ/s) in comparison to the methanol fuelled configuration which requires 180.719 J/s. Energy analysis of both configurations showed that the principle of energy conservation was satisfied while the result of the exergy analysis showed high exergetic efficiency around major equipment (heat exchangers, compressors and pumps) of methane fuelled configuration. Higher irreversibility rate were observed around the burner, stack, and steam reformer. These trends of exergetic efficiency and irreversibility rate were observed around equipment in the methanol fuelled system but with lower performance when compared with the methane fuelled process configuration. On the basis of overall exergetic efficiency and lost work, the methanol system was more efficient with lower irreversibility rate of 547.27 kJ/s and exergetic efficiency of 34.44% in comparison with the methane

  1. Characterization of anionic-exchange membranes for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abuin, GC

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available and Young modulus were evaluated and compared to other membrane materials commonly employed in PEM fuel cells. A quartz crystal microbalance (QMC) was used to measure the water uptake of thin membranes of this material casted over the quartz crystals...

  2. Functionalisation of mesoporous materials for application as additives in high temperature PEM fuel cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, Monir

    2012-03-06

    The presented thesis contains six original research articles dedicated to the preparation and characterization of organic-inorganic mesoporous materials as additives for polymer electroly1e membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The mesoporous materials Si-MCM-41 and benzene-PMO (periodic mesoporous organosilica) were chosen for the investigations. These materials were modified with functional groups for enhanced proton conductivity and water-keeping properties. In order to improve these materials Broenstedt acidic groups were introduced in the framework of mesoporous Si-MCM-41. Therefore, some silicium atoms in the framework were substituted by aluminium using different aluminium sources. Here NaAlO{sub 2} exhibits clearly the best results because the entire aluminium incorporated within the framework is tetragonally coordinated as observed by {sup 2}7AI MAS NMR. The increase of the proton conductivities results from an improved hydrophilicity, a decreased particle size, and newly introduced Broenstedt acidity in the mesoporous Al-MCM-41. However, mesoporous Si-MCM-41 materials functionalised by co-condensation with sulphonic acid groups exhibit the best results concerning proton conductivity, compared to those prepared by grafting. Hence, these materials where characterized in more detail by SANS and by MAS NMR measurements. The first one indicated that by co-condensation the entire inner pore surface is altered by functional groups which are, thus, distributed much more homogeneously than samples functionalised by grafting. This result explains the improved proton conductivities. Additionally, {sup 2}9Si NMR spectra proved that samples prepared by co-condensation lead to a successful and almost complete incorporation of mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilan (MPMS) into the mesoporous framework. Furthermore, it was shown by {sup 1}3C MAS NMR spectroscopy that the majority of the organic functional groups remained intact after H{sub 2}0{sub 2}-oxidation. However, proton

  3. Phase 1 feasibility study of an integrated hydrogen PEM fuel cell system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luczak, F.

    1998-03-01

    Evaluated in the report is the use of hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for devices requiring less than 15 kW. Metal hydrides were specifically analyzed as a method of storing hydrogen. There is a business and technical part to the study that were developed with feedback from each other. The business potential of a small PEM product is reviewed by examining the markets, projected sales, and required investment. The major technical and cost hurdles to a product are also reviewed including: the membrane and electrode assembly (M and EA), water transport plate (WTP), and the metal hydrides. It was concluded that the best potential stationary market for hydrogen PEM fuel cell less than 15 kW is for backup power use in telecommunications applications.

  4. Proton exchange membrane developed from novel blends of polybenzimidazole and poly(vinyl-1,2,4-triazole).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Mousumi; Jana, Tushar

    2012-10-24

    In continuation (J. Phys. Chem. B2008, 112, 5305; J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2010, 351, 374) of our quest for proton exchange membrane (PEM) developed from polybenzimidazole (PBI) blends, novel polymer blend membranes of PBI and poly(1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole) (PVT) were prepared using a solution blending method. The aim of the work was to investigate the effect of the blend composition on the properties, e.g., thermo-mechanical stability, swelling, and proton conductivity of the blend membranes. The presence of specific interactions between the two polymers in the blends were observed by studying the samples using varieties of spectroscopic techniques. Blends prepared in all possible compositions were studied using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and exhibited a single T(g) value, which lies between the T(g) value of the neat polymers. The presence of a single composition-dependent T(g) value indicated that the blend is a miscible blend. The N-H···N interactions between the two polymers were found to be the driving force for the miscibility. Thermal stability up to 300 °C of the blend membranes, obtained from thermogravimetric analysis, ensured their suitability as PEMs for high-temperature fuel cells. The proton conductivity of the blend membranes have improved significantly, compared to neat PBI, because of the presence of triazole moiety, which acts as a proton facilitator in the conduction process. The blend membranes showed a considerably lower increase in thickness and swelling ratio than that of PBI after doping with phosphoric acid (PA). We found that the porous morphology of the blend membranes caused the loading of a larger amount of PA and, consequently, higher proton conduction with lower activation energy, compared to neat PBI.

  5. A Comprehensive Review on Measurement and Correlation Development of Capillary Pressure for Two-Phase Modeling of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Si

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water transport and the corresponding water management strategy in proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells are quite critical for the improvement of the cell performance. Accuracy modeling of water transport in porous electrodes strongly depends on the appropriate constitutive relationship for capillary pressure which is referred to as pc-s correlation, where pc is the capillary pressure and s is the fraction of saturation in the pores. In the present PEM fuel cell two-phase models, the Leverett-Udell pc-s correlation is widely utilized which is proposed based on fitting the experimental data for packed sands. However, the size and structure of pores for the commercial porous electrodes used in PEM fuel cells differ from those for the packed sands significantly. As a result, the Leverett-Udell correlation should be improper to characterize the two-phase transport in the porous electrodes. In the recent decade, many efforts were devoted to measuring the capillary pressure data and developing new pc-s correlations. The objective of this review is to review the most significant developments in recent years concerning the capillary pressure measurements and the developed pc-s correlations. It is expected that this review will be beneficial to develop the improved PEM fuel cell two-phase model.

  6. Effects of Cationic Pendant Groups on Ionic Conductivity for Anion Exchange Membranes: Structure Conductivity Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sojeong; Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Won Bo

    Anion exchange membranes(AEMs) have been widely studied due to their various applications, especially for Fuel cells. Previous proton exchange membranes(PEMs), such as Nafions® have better conductivity than AEMs so far. However, technical limitations such as slow electrode kinetics, carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning of metal catalysts, high methanol crossover and high cost of Pt-based catalyst detered further usages. AEMs have advantages to supplement its drawbacks. AEMs are environmentally friendly and cost-efficient. Based on the well-defined block copolymer, self-assembled morphology is expected to have some relationship with its ionic conductivity. Recently AEMs based on various cations, including ammonium, phosphonium, guanidinium, imidazolium, metal cation, and benzimidazolium cations have been developed and extensively studied with the aim to prepare high- performance AEMs. But more fundamental approach, such as relationships between nanostructure and conductivity is needed. We use well-defined block copolymer Poly(styrene-block-isoprene) as a backbone which is synthesized by anionic polymerization. Then we graft various cationic functional groups and analysis the relation between morphology and conductivity. Theoretical and computational soft matter lab.

  7. Numerical simulation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at high operating temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jie; Lee, Seung Jae

    A three-dimensional, single-phase, non-isothermal numerical model for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell at high operating temperature (T ≥ 393 K) was developed and implemented into a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code. The model accounts for convective and diffusive transport and allows predicting the concentration of species. The heat generated from electrochemical reactions, entropic heat and ohmic heat arising from the electrolyte ionic resistance were considered. The heat transport model was coupled with the electrochemical and mass transport models. The product water was assumed to be vaporous and treated as ideal gas. Water transportation across the membrane was ignored because of its low water electro-osmosis drag force in the polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane. The results show that the thermal effects strongly affect the fuel cell performance. The current density increases with the increasing of operating temperature. In addition, numerical prediction reveals that the width and distribution of gas channel and current collector land area are key optimization parameters for the cell performance improvement.

  8. Numerical simulation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at high operating temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jie; Lee, Seung Jae [Energy Lab, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Mt. 14-1 Nongseo-Dong, Giheung-Gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-11-22

    A three-dimensional, single-phase, non-isothermal numerical model for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell at high operating temperature (T>=393K) was developed and implemented into a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code. The model accounts for convective and diffusive transport and allows predicting the concentration of species. The heat generated from electrochemical reactions, entropic heat and ohmic heat arising from the electrolyte ionic resistance were considered. The heat transport model was coupled with the electrochemical and mass transport models. The product water was assumed to be vaporous and treated as ideal gas. Water transportation across the membrane was ignored because of its low water electro-osmosis drag force in the polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane. The results show that the thermal effects strongly affect the fuel cell performance. The current density increases with the increasing of operating temperature. In addition, numerical prediction reveals that the width and distribution of gas channel and current collector land area are key optimization parameters for the cell performance improvement. (author)

  9. Uranium refining process using ion exchange membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira

    1977-01-01

    As for the method of refining uranium ore being carried out in Europe and America at present, uranium ore is roughly refined at the mine sites to yellow cake, then this is transported to refineries and refined by dry method. This method has the following faults, namely the number of processes is large, it requires expensive corrosion-resistant materials because of high temperature treatment, and the impurities in uranium tend to increase. On the other hand, in case of EXCER method, treatment is carried out at low temperature, and high purity uranium can be obtained, but the efficiency of electrolytic reduction process is extremely low, and economically infeasible. In the wet refining method called PNC process, uranium tetrafluoride is produced from uranium ore without making yellow cake, therefore the process is rationalized largely, and highly economical. The electrolytic reduction process in this method was developed by Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. by constructing the pilot plant in Ningyotoge Mine. The ion exchange membrane, the electrodes, and the problems concerning the process and the engineering for commercial plants were investigated. The electrolytic reduction process, the pilot plant, the development of the elements of electrolytic cells, the establishment of analytical process, the measurement of the electrolytic characteristics, the demonstration operation, and the life time of the electrolytic diaphragm are reported. (Kako, I.)

  10. Modeling a Distributed Power Flow Controller with a PEM Fuel Cell for Power Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chakravorty

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrical power demand is increasing at a relatively fast rate over the last years. Because of this increasing demand the power system is becoming very complex. Both electric utilities and end users of electric power are becoming increasingly concerned about power quality. This paper presents a new concept of distributed power flow controller (DPFC, which has been implemented with a proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell. In this paper, a PEM fuel cell has been simulated in Simulink/MATLAB and then has been used in the proposed DPFC model. The new proposed DPFC model has been tested on a IEEE 30 bus system.

  11. A durable alternative for proton-exchange membranes: sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dan [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Lab of PEMFC Key Materials and Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Liaoning, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Jinhuan [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Song, Min-Kyu; Liu, Meilin [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Yi, Baolian; Zhang, Huamin [Lab of PEMFC Key Materials and Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Liaoning, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-03-18

    To develop a durable proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel-cell applications, a series of sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s (SPTESBOs) are designed and synthesized, with anticipated good dimensional stability (via acid-base cross linking), improved oxidative stability against free radicals (via incorporation of thioether groups), and enhanced inherent stability (via elimination of unstable end groups) of the backbone. The structures and the degree of sulfonation of the copolymers are characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 19}F NMR). The electrochemical stabilities of the monomers are examined using cyclic voltammetry in a typical three-electrode cell configuration. The physicochemical properties of the membranes vital to fuel-cell performance are also carefully evaluated under conditions relevant to fuel-cell operation, including chemical and thermal stability, proton conductivity, solubility in different solvents, water uptake, and swelling ratio. The new membranes exhibit low dimensional change at 25 C to 90 C and excellent thermal stability up to 250 C. Upon elimination of unstable end groups, the co-polymers display enhanced chemical resistance and oxidative stability in Fenton's test. Further, the SPTESBO-HFB-60 (HFB-60=hexafluorobenzene, 60 mol% sulfone) membrane displays comparable fuel-cell performance to that of an NRE 212 membrane at 80 C under fully humidified condition, suggesting that the new membranes have the potential to be more durable but less expensive for fuel-cell applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. In-situ membrane hydration measurement of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yeh-Hung; Fly, Gerald W.; Clapham, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Achieving proper membrane hydration control is one of the most critical aspects of PEM fuel cell development. This article describes the development and application of a novel 50 cm2 fuel cell device to study the in-situ membrane hydration by measuring the through-thickness membrane swelling via an array of linear variable differential transducers. Using this setup either as an air/air (dummy) cell or as a hydrogen/air (operating) cell, we performed a series of hydration and dehydration experiments by cycling the RH of the inlet gas streams at 80 °C. From the linear relationship between the under-the-land swelling and the over-the-channel water content, the mechanical constraint within the fuel cell assembly can suppress the membrane water uptake by 11%-18%. The results from the air/air humidity cycling test show that the membrane can equilibrate within 120 s for all RH conditions and that membrane can reach full hydration at a RH higher than 140% in spite of the use of a liquid water impermeable Carbel MP30Z microporous layer. This result confirms that the U.S. DOE's humidity cycling mechanical durability protocol induces sufficient humidity swings to maximize hygrothermal mechanical stresses. This study shows that the novel experimental technique can provide a robust and accurate means to study the in-situ hydration of thin membranes subject to a wide range of fuel cell conditions.

  13. Membrane Contact Sites: Complex Zones for Membrane Association and Lipid Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Evan Quon; Christopher T. Beh

    2016-01-01

    Lipid transport between membranes within cells involves vesicle and protein carriers, but as agents of nonvesicular lipid transfer, the role of membrane contact sites has received increasing attention. As zones for lipid metabolism and exchange, various membrane contact sites mediate direct associations between different organelles. In particular, membrane contact sites linking the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represent important regulators of lipid and ion transfer...

  14. Self-Healing Proton-Exchange Membranes Composed of Nafion-Poly(vinyl alcohol) Complexes for Durable Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixuan; Liang, Liang; Liu, Changpeng; Li, Yang; Xing, Wei; Sun, Junqi

    2018-04-30

    Proton-exchange membranes (PEMs) that can heal mechanical damage to restore original functions are important for the fabrication of durable and reliable direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The fabrication of healable PEMs that exhibit satisfactory mechanical stability, enhanced proton conductivity, and suppressed methanol permeability via hydrogen-bonding complexation between Nafion and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) followed by postmodification with 4-carboxybenzaldehyde (CBA) molecules is presented. Compared with pure Nafion, the CBA/Nafion-PVA membranes exhibit enhanced mechanical properties with an ultimate tensile strength of ≈20.3 MPa and strain of ≈380%. The CBA/Nafion-PVA membrane shows a proton conductivity of 0.11 S cm -1 at 80 °C, which is 1.2-fold higher than that of a Nafion membrane. The incorporated PVA gives the CBA/Nafion-PVA membranes excellent proton conductivity and methanol resistance. The resulting CBA/Nafion-PVA membranes are capable of healing mechanical damage of several tens of micrometers in size and restoring their original proton conductivity and methanol resistance under the working conditions of DMFCs. The healing property originates from the reversibility of hydrogen-bonding interactions between Nafion and CBA-modified PVA and the high chain mobility of Nafion and CBA-modified PVA. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Stimulated-healing of proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latsuzbaia, R.; Negro, E.; Koper, G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Platinum nanoparticles, which are used as catalysts in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), tend to degrade after long-term operation. We discriminate the following mechanisms of the degradation: poisoning, migration and coalescence, dissolution, and electrochemical Ostwald ripening. There

  16. Triple-membrane reduces need for ion exchange regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcour, H.

    1989-01-01

    Triple-membrane water treatment systems are comprised of ultrafiltration units for pretreatment, electrodialysis reversal primary demineralizers, reverse osmosis secondary demineralizers, portable ion exchange unit polishing demineralizers, and ultraviolet sterilizers. The triple-membrane process is designed to provide an unprecedented degree of pretreatment to maximize efficiency, durability and reliability of the reverse osmosis, whilst reducing the required regeneration frequency of the ion exchange demineralizer by one to two orders of magnitude. (author)

  17. Exploring Alkaline Stable Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    1   1.1.2   Proton exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFCs ) ......................... 3   1.1.3   Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs...160   xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1:   Schematic diagram of a PEMFC ...according to the type of electrolyte they use. Nowadays, there are six major types of fuel cells: proton-exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFCs ), hydroxide

  18. Pressure data for various flow channels in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Son Ah; Lee, Pil Hyong; Han, Sang Seok; Hwang, Sang Soon

    2008-01-01

    Micro flow channels in flow plates of fuel cells have become much narrower and longer to improve reactant flow distribution leading to increase of pumping power. Therefore it is very important to minimize the pressure drops in the flow channel because increased pumping power reduces overall efficiency. We investigated pressure drops in a micro flow channel at the anode and cathode compared to pressure losses for cold flow in straight, bended and serpentine channels. The results show that friction factors for cold flow channels could be used for parallel and bended flow channel designs for fuel cells. Pressure drop in the serpentine flow channel is the lowest among all flow channels due to bypass flow across the gas diffusion layer under reactive flow condition, although its pressure drop is highest for a cold flow condition. So the effect of bypass flow for serpentine flow channels should be considered when designing flow channels

  19. Partially fluorinated electrospun proton exchange membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel porous membrane layer, to a novel method for producing a membrane, and the membranes produced by the novel method. The present invention further relates to a fuel cell comprising the porous layer, as well as any use of the porous layer in a fuel cell or in...... copolymer, and wherein at least one side chain of the graft copolymer comprises a polymerization product of a polymerizable proton donor group or a precursor thereof....

  20. Gas diffusion layer for proton exchange membrane fuel cells - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cindrella, L. [Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Department of Engineering Technology, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India); Kannan, A.M.; Lin, J.F.; Saminathan, K. [Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Department of Engineering Technology, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Ho, Y. [Department of Biotechnology, College of Health Science, Asia University, Taichung 41354 (China); Lin, C.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640 (China); Wertz, J. [Hollingsworth and Vose Co., A.K. Nicholson Research Lab, 219 Townsend Road, West Groton, MA 01472 (United States)

    2009-10-20

    Gas diffusion layer (GDL) is one of the critical components acting both as the functional as well as the support structure for membrane-electrode assembly in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The role of the GDL is very significant in the H{sub 2}/air PEM fuel cell to make it commercially viable. A bibliometric analysis of the publications on the GDLs since 1992 shows a total of 400+ publications (>140 papers in the Journal of Power Sources alone) and reveals an exponential growth due to reasons that PEMFC promises a lot of potential as the future energy source for varied applications and hence its vital component GDL requires due innovative analysis and research. This paper is an attempt to pool together the published work on the GDLs and also to review the essential properties of the GDLs, the method of achieving each one of them, their characterization and the current status and future directions. The optimization of the functional properties of the GDLs is possible only by understanding the role of its key parameters such as structure, porosity, hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, gas permeability, transport properties, water management and the surface morphology. This paper discusses them in detail to provide an insight into the structural parts that make the GDLs and also the processes that occur in the GDLs under service conditions and the characteristic properties. The required balance in the properties of the GDLs to facilitate the counter current flow of the gas and water is highlighted through its characteristics. (author)

  1. Process modeling of the impedance characteristics of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei Niya, Seyed Mohammad; Phillips, Ryan K.; Hoorfar, Mina

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The impedance of the PEM fuel cell is analytically calculated. • The measured impedances are presented for different operating conditions. • The high frequency arc in the measured Nyquist plot is related to the anode. • The intermediate frequency arc is related to the cathode. • The low frequency arc and high frequency resistance are related to the membrane. - Abstract: A complete process modeling of the impedance characteristics of the proton exchange membrane fuel cells is presented. The impedance of the cell is determined analytically and the resultant equivalent circuit is calculated. The model predictions are then compared against the measured impedances in different current densities, operating temperatures and anode and cathode relative humidities. It is shown that the model predicts the Nyquist plots in all different operating conditions extremely well. Next, the trends observed in the Nyquist plots reported in the literature are compared against the model predictions. The result of this comparison confirms the accuracy of the model. Using the verified model, various arcs in the Nyquist plots are separated and related to the fuel cell physical parameters.

  2. Imade-imide cross-linked PEEK proton exchange membrane.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luo, H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The proton exchange membrane is a key component of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). It plays an important role, conducts protons and separates the fuel from oxidant in PEMFC. DuPont’s Nafion is a perfluorinated sulfonic acid polymer...

  3. Increasing selectivity of a heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivčík, J.; Neděla, D.; Hadrava, J.; Brožová, Libuše

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 12 (2015), s. 3160-3166 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Membrane and Electromembrane Processes - MELPRO 2014. Prague, 18.05.2014-21.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : ion-exchange membrane * selectivity * permselectivity Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing Impact factor: 1.272, year: 2015

  4. Sulfonated hydrocarbon graft architectures for cation exchange membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic strategy to hydrocarbon graft architectures prepared from a commercial polysulfone and aimed as ion exchange membrane material is proposed. Polystyrene is grafted from a polysulfone macroinitiator by atom transfer radical polymerization, and subsequently sulfonated with acetyl sulfate...... to various degrees. Series of grafting densities and graft lengths are prepared, and membranes are solvent cast from DMSO. The membrane properties in aqueous environments are evaluated from their water swelling behavior, and their thermal properties and stability are investigated by thermogravimetric...

  5. Preliminary Study of the Use of Sulphonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK as Proton Exchange Membrane for Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Permana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK was utilized as a proton exchange membrane (PEM in Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC. The SPEEK performance in producing electricity had been observed in MFC using wastewater and glucose as substrates. The MFC with catering and tofu wastewater produced maximum power density about 0.31 mW/m2 and 0.03 mW/m2, respectively, lower that of MFC with tapioca average power density of 39.4 W/m2 over 48 h. The power density boosted because of the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as inoculum. The study using of S. cerevisiae and Acetobacter acetii, separately, were also conducted in with glucose as substrate. The MFC produced an average power densities were 7.3 and 6.4 mW/m2 for S. cerevisiae and A. acetii, respectively. The results of this study indicated that SPEEK membrane has the potential usage in MFCs and can substitute the commercial membrane, Nafion. Article History: Received: Juni 14th 2017; Received: Sept 25th 2017; Accepted: December 16th 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Putra, H.E., Permana, D and Djaenudin, D. (2018 Preliminary Study of the Use of Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK as Proton Exchange Membrane for Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 7(1, 7-12. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.7.1.7-12

  6. Analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell polarization losses at elevated temperature 120 {sup o}C and reduced relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hui [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)]. E-mail: huixu@lanl.gov; Kunz, H. Russell [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Fenton, James M. [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Polarization losses of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells at 120 {sup o}C and reduced relative humidity (RH) were analyzed. Reduced RH affects membrane and electrode ionic resistance, catalytic activity and oxygen transport. For a cell made of Nafion (registered) 112 membrane and electrodes that have 35 wt.% Nafion (registered) and 0.3 mg/cm{sup 2} platinum supported on carbon, membrane resistance at 20%RH was 0.407 {omega} cm{sup 2} and electrode resistance 0.203 {omega} cm{sup 2}, significantly higher than 0.092 and 0.041 {omega} cm{sup 2} at 100%RH, respectively. In the kinetically controlled region, 20%RH resulted in 96 mV more cathode activation loss than 100%RH. Compared to 100%, 20%RH also produced significant oxygen transport loss across the ionomer film in the electrode, 105 mV at 600 mA/cm{sup 2}. The significant increase in polarization losses at elevated temperature and reduced RH indicates the extreme importance of designing electrodes for high temperature PEM fuel cells since membrane development has always taken most emphasis.

  7. Membrane Contact Sites: Complex Zones for Membrane Association and Lipid Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Evan; Beh, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid transport between membranes within cells involves vesicle and protein carriers, but as agents of nonvesicular lipid transfer, the role of membrane contact sites has received increasing attention. As zones for lipid metabolism and exchange, various membrane contact sites mediate direct associations between different organelles. In particular, membrane contact sites linking the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represent important regulators of lipid and ion transfer. In yeast, cortical ER is stapled to the PM through membrane-tethering proteins, which establish a direct connection between the membranes. In this review, we consider passive and facilitated models for lipid transfer at PM–ER contact sites. Besides the tethering proteins, we examine the roles of an additional repertoire of lipid and protein regulators that prime and propagate PM–ER membrane association. We conclude that instead of being simple mediators of membrane association, regulatory components of membrane contact sites have complex and multilayered functions. PMID:26949334

  8. Ultrafiltration Membrane Fouling and the Effect of Ion Exchange Resins

    KAUST Repository

    Jamaly, Sanaa

    2011-12-01

    Membrane fouling is a challenging process for the ultrafiltration membrane during wastewater treatment. This research paper determines the organic character of foulants of different kinds of wastewater before and after adding some ion exchange resins. Two advanced organic characterization methods are compared in terms of concentration of dissolved organic carbons: The liquid chromatography with organic carbon (LC-OCD) and Shimadzu total organic carbon (TOC). In this study, two secondary wastewater effluents were treated using ultrafiltration membrane. To reduce fouling, pretreatment using some adsorbents were used in the study. Six ion exchange resins out of twenty were chosen to compare the effect of adsorbents on fouling membrane. Based on the percent of dissolved organic carbon’s removal, three adsorbents were determined to be the most efficient (DOWEX Marathon 11 anion exchange resin, DOWEX Optipore SD2 polymeric adsorbent, and DOWEX PSR2 anion exchange), and three other ones were determined to the least efficient (DOWEX Marathon A2 anion exchange resin, DOWEX SAR anion exchange resin, and DOWEX Optipore L493 polymeric adsorbent). Organic characterization for feed, permeate, and backwash samples were tested using LC-OCD and TOC to better understand the characteristics of foulants to prevent ultrafiltration membrane fouling. The results suggested that the polymeric ion exchange resin, DOWEX SD2, reduced fouling potential for both treated wastewaters. All the six ion exchange resins removed more humic fraction than other organic fractions in different percent, so this fraction is not the main for cause for UF membrane fouling. The fouling of colloids was tested before and after adding calcium. There is a severe fouling after adding Ca2+ to effluent colloids.

  9. Recent developments on ion-exchange membranes and electro-membrane processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarale, R K; Gohil, G S; Shahi, Vinod K

    2006-02-28

    Rapid growth of chemical and biotechnology in diversified areas fuels the demand for the need of reliable green technologies for the down stream processes, which include separation, purification and isolation of the molecules. Ion-exchange membrane technologies are non-hazardous in nature and being widely used not only for separation and purification but their application also extended towards energy conversion devices, storage batteries and sensors etc. Now there is a quite demand for the ion-exchange membrane with better selectivities, less electrical resistance, high chemical, mechanical and thermal stability as well as good durability. A lot of work has been done for the development of these types of ion-exchange membranes during the past twenty-five years. Herein we have reviewed the preparation of various types of ion-exchange membranes, their characterization and applications for different electro-membrane processes. Primary attention has been given to the chemical route used for the membrane preparation. Several general reactions used for the preparation of ion-exchange membranes were described. Methodologies used for the characterization of these membranes and their applications were also reviewed for the benefit of readers, so that they can get all information about the ion-exchange membranes at one platform. Although there are large number of reports available regarding preparations and applications of ion-exchange membranes more emphasis were predicted for the usefulness of these membranes or processes for solving certain type of industrial or social problems. More efforts are needed to bring many products or processes to pilot scale and extent their applications.

  10. INVESTIGATION OF PEM FUEL CELL FOR AUTOMOTIVE USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Mohiuddin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief investigation on suitability of Proton-exchange  membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs as the source of power for transportation purposes. Hydrogen is an attractive alternative transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel that can be used in an internal combustion engine (ICE and it is widely available. If hydrogen is used in a fuel cell which converts the chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity, (NOx emissions are eliminated. The investigation was carried out on a  fuel cell car model by implementing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM types of fuel cell as the source of power to propel the prototype car. This PEMFC has capability to propel the electric motor by converting chemical energy stored in hydrogen gas into useful electrical energy. PEM fuel cell alone is used as the power source for the electric motor without the aid of any other power source such as battery associated with it. Experimental investigations were carried out to investigate the characteristics of fuel cell used and the performance of the fuel cell car. Investigated papameters are the power it develops, voltage, current and speed it produces under different load conditions. KEYWORDS: fuel cell; automotive; proton exchange membrane; polymer electrolyte membrane; internal combustion engine

  11. Water Uptake Profile In a Model Ion-Exchange Membrane: Conditions For Water-Rich Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    these issues, more research is needed to improve their performance. Aqueous alkaline electrolytes such as potassium hydroxide (KOH) trace their begin...1.2 Water distribution Motivation Hydroxide ion transport through the membrane is fundamentally dependent on the amount and distribution of water...hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic ratio, for several reasons. First, this is the case for Nafion, the gold standard for PEM membranes; its unique pore structure

  12. PEM - fuel cell system for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britz, P. [Viessmann Werke GmbH and Co KG, 35107 Allendorf (Germany); Zartenar, N.

    2004-12-01

    Viessmann is developing a PEM fuel cell system for residential applications. The uncharged PEM fuel cell system has a 2 kW electrical and 3 kW thermal power output. The Viessmann Fuel Processor is characterized by a steam-reformer/burner combination in which the burner supplies the required heat to the steam reformer unit and the burner exhaust gas is used to heat water. Natural gas is used as fuel, which is fed into the reforming reactor after passing an integrated desulphurisation unit. The low temperature (600 C) fuel processor is designed on the basis of steam reforming technology. For carbon monoxide removal, a single shift reactor and selective methanisation is used with noble metal catalysts on monoliths. In the shift reactor, carbon monoxide is converted into hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction. The low level of carbon monoxide at the outlet of the shift reactor is further reduced, to approximately 20 ppm, downstream in the methanisation reactor, to meet PEM fuel cell requirements. Since both catalysts work at the same temperature (240 C), there is no requirement for an additional heat exchanger in the fuel processor. Start up time is less than 30 min. In addition, Viessmann has developed a 2 kW class PEFC stack, without humidification. Reformate and dry air are fed straight to the stack. Due to the dry operation, water produced by the cell reaction rapidly diffuses through the electrolyte membrane. This was achieved by optimising the MEA, the gas flow pattern and the operating conditions. The cathode is operated by an air blower. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Modeling two-phase flow in three-dimensional complex flow-fields of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyong; Luo, Gang; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2017-10-01

    3D fine-mesh flow-fields recently developed by Toyota Mirai improved water management and mass transport in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks, suggesting their potential value for robust and high-power PEM fuel cell stack performance. In such complex flow-fields, Forchheimer's inertial effect is dominant at high current density. In this work, a two-phase flow model of 3D complex flow-fields of PEMFCs is developed by accounting for Forchheimer's inertial effect, for the first time, to elucidate the underlying mechanism of liquid water behavior and mass transport inside 3D complex flow-fields and their adjacent gas diffusion layers (GDL). It is found that Forchheimer's inertial effect enhances liquid water removal from flow-fields and adds additional flow resistance around baffles, which improves interfacial liquid water and mass transport. As a result, substantial improvements in high current density cell performance and operational stability are expected in PEMFCs with 3D complex flow-fields, compared to PEMFCs with conventional flow-fields. Higher current density operation required to further reduce PEMFC stack cost per kW in the future will necessitate optimizing complex flow-field designs using the present model, in order to efficiently remove a large amount of product water and hence minimize the mass transport voltage loss.

  14. Development of a computational model applied to a unitary 144 CM2 proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robalinho, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the development of a numerical computer model and methodology to study and design polymeric exchange membrane fuel cell - PEM. For the validation of experimental results, a sequence of routines, appropriate to fit the data obtained in the laboratory, was described. At the computational implementation it was created a new strategy of coupling two 3-dimensional models to satisfy the requirements of the comprehensive model of the fuel cell, including its various geometries and materials, as well as the various physical and chemical processes simulated. To effective assessment of the real cell analogy with numerical model, numerical studies were carried out. Comparisons with values obtained in the literature, characterization of variables through laboratory experiments and estimates from models already tested in the literature were also performed. Regarding the experimental part, a prototype of a fuel cell unit of 144 cm 2 of geometric area was designed, produced and operated at laboratory with the purpose of validating the numerical computer model proposed, with positive results. The results of simulations for the 2D and 3D geometries proposed are presented in the form of polarization curves, highlighting the catalytic layer model based on the geometry of agglomerates. Parametric and sensitivity studies are presented to illustrate the change in performance of the fuel cell studied. The final model is robust and useful as a tool for design and optimization of PEM type fuel cells in a wide range of operating conditions. (author)

  15. An application of indirect model reference adaptive control to a low-power proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yee-Pien; Liu, Zhao-Wei; Wang, Fu-Cheng

    2008-05-01

    Nonlinearity and the time-varying dynamics of fuel cell systems make it complex to design a controller for improving output performance. This paper introduces an application of a model reference adaptive control to a low-power proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system, which consists of three main components: a fuel cell stack, an air pump to supply air, and a solenoid valve to adjust hydrogen flow. From the system perspective, the dynamic model of the PEM fuel cell stack can be expressed as a multivariable configuration of two inputs, hydrogen and air-flow rates, and two outputs, cell voltage and current. The corresponding transfer functions can be identified off-line to describe the linearized dynamics with a finite order at a certain operating point, and are written in a discrete-time auto-regressive moving-average model for on-line estimation of parameters. This provides a strategy of regulating the voltage and current of the fuel cell by adaptively adjusting the flow rates of air and hydrogen. Experiments show that the proposed adaptive controller is robust to the variation of fuel cell system dynamics and power request. Additionally, it helps decrease fuel consumption and relieves the DC/DC converter in regulating the fluctuating cell voltage.

  16. Entropy generation analysis of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a fermat spiral as a flow distributor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel-Hernandez, V.H.; Damian-Ascencio, C.; Juarez-Robles, D.; Gallegos-Munoz, A.; Zaleta-Aguilar, A.; Plascencia-Mora, H.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims at investigating the main sources of irreversibility in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) using a Fermat spiral as flow distributor and also to direct possible improvements in its design. The numerical analysis is based on a finite volume technique with a SIMPLE algorithm as numerical procedure. In order to have a more complete and rigorous analysis a new dimensionless parameter is proposed here. The parameter represents the ratio of the entropy generation due to mass transfer to the total entropy generation is proposed here. Results demonstrate that the main sources of irreversibility in a fuel cell are the concentration losses for the most part of the operational domain, whereas the heat transfer effect is not dominant. -- Highlights: → PEM Fuel Cell with Fermat Spiral as distributor. → Causes of irreversibilities. → A new dimensionless parameter to determine contribution of mass transfer in entropy generation.

  17. Modeling optimizes PEM fuel cell durability using three-dimensional multi-phase computational fluid dynamics model

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2010-01-01

    Damage mechanisms in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell are accelerated by mechanical stresses arising during fuel cell assembly (bolt assembling), and the stresses arise during fuel cell running, because it consists of the materials with different thermal expansion and swelling coefficients. Therefore, in order to acquire a complete understanding of the damage mechanisms in the membrane and gas diffusion layers, mechanical response under steady-state hygro-thermal stresses should be ...

  18. Study of Aging ion exchange membranes used in separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellakhal, N.; Ghalloussi, R.; Dammak, L.

    2009-01-01

    Presently, the most important application of ion exchange membranes (IEM) is the electrodialysis. This technique consists of a membrane separation using a series of anion exchange membranes alternately and cations, often used for the desalination of brackish water. These membranes are confronted with problems of aging. Indeed, the more they are used more physical and chemical properties will change. A comparative study of the behavior of both EMI and new but the same treatment is carried out by measuring a magnitude transfer characteristic: ion permeability. Ionic permeability is a physical quantity can have an idea about the selectivity of the membrane towards the charged species and the p orosity o f the membrane. It is a transport of ions (cations + anions) through the membrane. Thus, determining the ion permeability is to determine the diffusion flux of a strong electrolyte through a membrane separating two compartments (one containing electrolytes and other water initially ultrapure who will gradually electrolyte through the membrane). The measurement technique used is that by conductimetric detection because of the ease of its implementation and its accuracy. Thus, the variation of the concentration of the electrolyte is continuously monitored by measuring the conductivity of the solution diluted with time. The curves s = f (t) MEA and MEC new and used varying concentration of the electrolyte membranes show that let in less waste of strong electrolyte (NaCl and HCl) than new ones. This can be explained by: - The functional sites are combined with polyvalent ions present even in trace amounts in the solution process and become inactive. The membrane loses its hydrophilic character and turns into a film almost hydrophobic. - The chemical attacks and electrodialysis operations have degraded and eliminated much of the fixed sites leading to the same effects on the hydrophilic membrane. - These two assumptions have been reinforced by the extent of exchange

  19. Nafion®/ODF-silica composite membranes for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Treekamol, Yaowapa; Schieda, Mauricio; Robitaille, Lucie; MacKinnon, Sean M.; Mokrini, Asmae; Shi, Zhiqing; Holdcroft, Steven; Schulte, Karl I.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2014-01-01

    A series of composite membranes were prepared by dispersing fluorinated polyoxadiazole oligomer (ODF)-functionalized silica nanoparticles in a Nafion matrix. Both melt-extrusion and solvent casting processes were explored. Ion exchange capacity

  20. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  1. Optimal Control of a PEM Fuel Cell for the Inputs Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Rubio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The trajectory tracking problem of a proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell is considered. To solve this problem, an optimal controller is proposed. The optimal technique has the objective that the system states should reach the desired trajectories while the inputs are minimized. The proposed controller uses the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman method where its Riccati equation is considered as an adaptive function. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified by two simulations.

  2. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geise, Geoffrey M; Cassady, Harrison J; Paul, Donald R; Logan, Bruce E; Hickner, Michael A

    2014-10-21

    Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The charge density and polarizability

  3. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-08-26

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The

  4. The effect of organic ion-exchange resin on properties of heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivčík, J.; Vladařová, J.; Hadrava, J.; Černín, A.; Brožová, Libuše

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2010), s. 179-184 ISSN 1944-3994. [Membrane Science and Technology Conference of Visegrad Countries /4./ PERMEA 2009, 07.07.2009-11.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA4/116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane * membrane modification * particle size of distribution Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2010

  5. Anode partial flooding modelling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Model development and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Lei; Du, Shangfeng; Chen, Rui; Mamlouk, Mohamed; Scott, Keith

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional along-the-channel CFD (computational fluid dynamic) model, coupled with a two-phase flow model of liquid water and gas transport for a PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell is described. The model considers non-isothermal operation and thus the non-uniform temperature distribution in the cell structure. Water phase-transfer between the vapour, liquid water and dissolved phase is modelled with the combinational transport mechanism through the membrane. Liquid water saturation is simulated inside the electrodes and channels at both the anode and cathode sides. Three types of models are compared for the HOR (hydrogen oxidation reaction) and ORR (oxygen reduction reaction) in catalyst layers, including Butler–Volmer (B–V), liquid water saturation corrected B–V and agglomerate mechanisms. Temperature changes in MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and channels due to electrochemical reaction, ohmic resistance and water phase-transfer are analysed as a function of current density. Nonlinear relations of liquid water saturations with respect to current densities at both the anode and cathode are regressed. At low and high current densities, liquid water saturation at the anode linearly increases as a consequence of the linear increase of liquid water saturation at the cathode. In contrast, exponential relation is found to be more accurate at medium current densities. - Highlights: • A fully coupled 2D, along-the-channel, two-phase flow, non-isothermal, CFD model is developed. • Temperature rise due to electrochemical reactions, ohmic resistance and water phase-transfer is analysed. • Mathematical expressions of liquid water saturation against current density at anode and cathode are regressed. • Relationship between the liquid water saturation at anode and cathode is built.

  6. An experimental study of the dynamic behavior of a 2 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack under various loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Qifei; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Haoting

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of the PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell stack has great effect on the safety and effective operation of its applications. In this paper, a self-designed bulb-array is used to simulate the various loading conditions and study the dynamic behavior of a 2 kW PEM fuel cell stack. An evaluation index, including oscillation rate, pressure variation and dynamic resistance factor, is used to analyze the transient response of the PEM fuel cell stack. It is observed that the stack current increases about 8.6%, and the Oscillation rate decreases more rapidly after activation. In the step-up load stage, the oscillation rate and the dynamic resistance decrease more rapidly as the external load increases. Due to the periodic anodic purge process, a periodic voltage fluctuation can be seen. In addition, when the stack works in the open-loop state (working without the external load), the transient response of the stack current is significantly affected by the hydrogen humidity and the charge double-layer. - Highlights: • The working time of open-loop state significantly affects the transient response. • Oscillation rate decreases faster as the external load increases. • Dynamic resistance factor decreases as the external load increases. • The periodic anodic purge process leads to a slight periodic oscillation of voltage

  7. Evaluation of self-water-removal in a dead-ended proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Zhongmin; Liu, Jing; Luo, Zhiping; Tu, Zhengkai; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Operation characteristics in a dead-ended PEM fuel cell were addressed. ► Modified flow channel was used to realize water removal. ► A novel method by condensing the moisture in the stack end was introduced. - Abstract: In this paper, the operation characteristic of a dead-ended proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) placed with vertical orientation is investigated. The relationship between the channel geometry and the wettability of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) surface is theoretically analyzed. Based on the theoretical analysis, straight flow channels with 2.0 mm width and 1.0 mm depth are used for the experimental investigation and the moisture is condensed at the stack end to improve water removal. The results show that the designed fuel cell can operate for about 1 h at 800 mA cm −2 and the performance of the cell decreases with the increase in the operation temperature. Moreover, the recovered liquid water is corresponded closely to the theoretical values

  8. Neutron radiography characterization of an operating proton exchange membrane fuel cell with localized current distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardo, J.J.; Owejan, J.P.; Trabold, T.A.; Tighe, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron radiography has proven to be a powerful tool to study and understand the effects of liquid water in an operating fuel cell. In the present work, this experimental method is coupled with locally resolved current and ohmic resistance measurements, giving additional insight into water management and fuel cell performance under a variety of conditions. The effects of varying the inlet humidification level and the current density of the 50 cm 2 cell are studied by simultaneously monitoring electrochemical performance with a 10x10 matrix of current sensors, and liquid water volumes are measured using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) neutron imaging facility. A counter flow, straight channel proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is used to demonstrate localized performance loss corresponds to water-filled channels that impede gas transport to the catalyst layer, thereby creating an area that has low current density. Furthermore, certain operating conditions causing excess water accumulation in the channels can result in localized proton resistance increase, a result that can only be accurately observed with combined radiography and distributed electrochemical measurements.

  9. Proton exchange membrane materials for the advancement of direct methanol fuel-cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Christopher J [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-04-04

    A new class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, and methods of synthesis, that can be used as a proton exchange membrane in a direct methanol fuel cell. In contrast with Nafion.RTM. PEM materials, which have random sulfonation, the new class of materials have ordered sulfonation achieved through self-assembly of alternating polyimide segments of different molecular weights comprising, for example, highly sulfonated hydrophilic PDA-DASA polyimide segment alternating with an unsulfonated hydrophobic 6FDA-DAS polyimide segment. An inorganic phase, e.g., 0.5 5 wt % TEOS, can be incorporated in the sulfonated polyimide copolymer to further improve its properties. The new materials exhibit reduced swelling when exposed to water, increased thermal stability, and decreased O.sub.2 and H.sub.2 gas permeability, while retaining proton conductivities similar to Nafion.RTM.. These improved properties may allow direct methanol fuel cells to operate at higher temperatures and with higher efficiencies due to reduced methanol crossover.

  10. Investigation of physical properties and cell performance of Nafion/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite membranes for high temperature PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjadi, M.; Peighambardoust, S.J. [School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran); Rowshanzamir, S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran); Fuel Cell Research Laboratory, Green Research Centre, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran); Hosseini, M.G. [Electrochemistry Research Laboratory, Physical Chemistry Department, Chemistry Faculty, Tabriz University, Tabriz (Iran); Eikani, M.H. [Department of Chemical Industries, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), Tehran (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    Synthesis and characterization of Nafion/TiO{sub 2} membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) operating at high temperatures were investigated in this study. Nafion/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite membranes have been prepared by in-situ sol-gel and casting methods. In the sol-gel method, preformed Nafion membranes were soaked in tetrabutylortotitanate (TBT) and methanol solution. In order to compare synthesis methods, a Nafion/TiO{sub 2} composite membrane was fabricated with 3 wt.% of TiO{sub 2} particles by the solution casting method. The structures of membranes were investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDXA). Also, water uptake and proton conductivity of modified membranes were measured. Furthermore, the membranes were tested in a real PEMFC. X-Ray spectra of the composite membranes indicate the presence of TiO{sub 2} in the modified membranes. In case of the same doping level, sol-gel method produces more uniform distribution of Ti particles in Nafion/TiO{sub 2} composite membrane than the ones produced by casting method. Water uptake of Nafion/TiO{sub 2} membrane with 3 wt.% of doping level was found to be 51% higher than that of the pure Nafion membrane. EIS measurements showed that the conductivity of modified membranes decreases with increasing the amount of doped TiO{sub 2}. Finally, the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) prepared from Nafion/Titania nanocomposite membrane shows the highest PEMFC performance in terms of voltage vs. current density (V-I) at high temperature (110 C) which is the main goal of this study. (author)

  11. RADIATION STABILITY OF NAFION MEMBRANES USED FOR ISOTOPE SEPARATION BY PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, E.

    2009-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers have potential interest for use for hydrogen isotope separation from water. In order for PEME to be fully utilized, more information is needed on the stability of Nafion when exposed to radiation. This work examines Nafion 117 under varying exposure conditions, including dose rate, total dosage and atmospheric condition. Analytical tools, such as FT-IR, ion exchange capacity, DMA and TIC-TOC were used to characterize the exposed membranes. Analysis of the water from saturated membranes can provide important data on the stability of the membranes during radiation exposure. It was found that the dose rate of exposure plays an important role in membrane degradation. Potential mechanisms for membrane degradation include peroxide formation by free radicals

  12. RADIATION STABILITY OF NAFION MEMBRANES USED FOR ISOTOPE SEPARATION BY PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E

    2009-05-15

    Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers have potential interest for use for hydrogen isotope separation from water. In order for PEME to be fully utilized, more information is needed on the stability of Nafion when exposed to radiation. This work examines Nafion 117 under varying exposure conditions, including dose rate, total dosage and atmospheric condition. Analytical tools, such as FT-IR, ion exchange capacity, DMA and TIC-TOC were used to characterize the exposed membranes. Analysis of the water from saturated membranes can provide important data on the stability of the membranes during radiation exposure. It was found that the dose rate of exposure plays an important role in membrane degradation. Potential mechanisms for membrane degradation include peroxide formation by free radicals.

  13. Phosphoric acid doped imidazolium polysulfone membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2012-01-01

    A novel acid–base polymer membrane is prepared by doping of imidazolium polysulfone with phosphoric acid for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Polysulfone is first chloromethylated, followed by functionalization of the chloromethylated polysulfone with alkyl imidazoles i.e. me...

  14. Membrane resistance : The effect of salinity gradients over a cation exchange membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, A. H.; Vermaas, D. A.; Veerman, J.; Saakes, M.; Rijnaarts, H. H. M.; Post, J. W.; Nijmeijer, K.

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are used for selective transport of ions between two solutions. These solutions are often different in concentration or composition. The membrane resistance (R-M) is an important parameter affecting power consumption or power production in electrodialytic processes. In

  15. Membrane resistance: The effect of salinity gradients over a cation exchange membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, A.H.; Vermaas, D.A.; Veerman, J.; Saakes, M.; Rijnaarts, H.; Post, J.W.; Nijmeijer, K.

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are used for selective transport of ions between two solutions. These solutions are often different in concentration or composition. The membrane resistance (R-M) is an important parameter affecting power consumption or power production in electrodialytic processes. In

  16. Interfacial Water-Transport Effects in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienitz, Brian; Yamada, Haruhiko; Nonoyama, Nobuaki; Weber, Adam

    2009-11-19

    It is well known that the proton-exchange membrane is perhaps the most critical component of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. Typical membranes, such as Nafion(R), require hydration to conduct efficiently and are instrumental in cell water management. Recently, evidence has been shown that these membranes might have different interfacial morphology and transport properties than in the bulk. In this paper, experimental data combined with theoretical simulations will be presented that explore the existence and impact of interfacial resistance on water transport for Nafion(R) 21x membranes. A mass-transfer coefficient for the interfacial resistance is calculated from experimental data using different permeation cells. This coefficient is shown to depend exponentially on relative humidity or water activity. The interfacial resistance does not seem to exist for liquid/membrane or membrane/membrane interfaces. The effect of the interfacial resistance is to flatten the water-content profiles within the membrane during operation. Under typical operating conditions, the resistance is on par with the water-transport resistance of the bulk membrane. Thus, the interfacial resistance can be dominant especially in thin, dry membranes and can affect overall fuel-cell performance.

  17. Proton exchange membranes based on PVDF/SEBS blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokrini, A.; Huneault, M.A. [Industrial Materials Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 75 de Mortagne Blvd., Boucherville, Que. (Canada J4B 6Y4)

    2006-03-09

    Proton-conductive polymer membranes are used as an electrolyte in the so-called proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Current commercially available membranes are perfluorosulfonic acid polymers, a class of high-cost ionomers. This paper examines the potential of polymer blends, namely those of styrene-(ethylene-butylene)-styrene block copolymer (SEBS) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), in the proton exchange membrane application. SEBS/PVDF blends were prepared by twin-screw extrusion and the membranes were formed by calendering. SEBS is a phase-segregated material where the polystyrene blocks can be selectively functionalized offering high ionic conductivity, while PVDF insures good dimensional stability and chemical resistance to the films. Proton conductivity of the films was obtained by solid-state grafting of sulfonic acid moieties. The obtained membranes were characterized in terms of conductivity, ionic exchange capacity and water uptake. In addition, the membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties to establish the blends morphology-property relationships. Modification of interfacial properties between SEBS and PVDF was found to be a key to optimize the blends performance. Addition of a methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate-methyl methacrylate block copolymer (MMA-BA-MMA) was found to compatibilize the blend by reducing the segregation scale and improving the blend homogeneity. Mechanical resistance of the membranes was also improved through the addition of this compatibilizer. As little as 2wt.% compatibilizer was sufficient for complete interfacial coverage and lead to improved mechanical properties. Compatibilized blend membranes also showed higher conductivities, 1.9x10{sup -2} to 5.5x10{sup -3}Scm{sup -1}, and improved water management. (author)

  18. Performance Evaluations of Ion Exchanged Zeolite Membranes on Alumina Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nair, Sankar [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-08-27

    This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of molecular sieve zeolite membranes to separate and concentrate tritiated water (HTO) from dilute HTO-bearing aqueous streams. In the first phase of this effort, several monovalent and divalent cation-exchanged silico alumino phosphate (SAPO-34) molecular sieve zeolite membranes were synthesized on disk supports and characterized with gas and vapor permeation measurements. In the second phase, Linde Type A (LTA) zeolite membranes were synthesized in disk and tubular supports. The pervaporation process performance was evaluated for the separation and concentration of tritiated water.

  19. Poly (fluorenyl ether ketone) ionomers containing separated hydrophilic multiblocks used in fuel cells as proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, H.; Xiao, M.; Wang, S.J.; Meng, Y.Z. [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); The Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-01-15

    A series of sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone) with different hydrophilic block lengths were synthesized via a two-step one-pot polymerization from 9,9'-bis(4-Hydroxypheyl) fluorine, 3,3'-disulfonated-4,4'-difluorobenzophenone, and 4,4'-difluorobenzophenone. The resulting sulfonated block polymers with high inherent viscosity (0.8-1.37 dL/g) were very soluble in polar organic solvents and can form flexible and transparent membranes by casting from their solutions. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to examine the microstructure of the membranes and the results revealed that significant hydrophilic/hydrophobic microphase separation was produced. The effects of the multiblock structure and/or length were investigated by comparison of the properties of the multiblock copolymer and the corresponding random structure. The multiblock structure can provide enhanced proton transport, especially under partially hydrated conditions. The as-made membranes can also exhibit better oxidative stability and single cell performance than random copolymer. The multiblock structure design method provides a useful way to prepare proton exchange membrane used in PEM fuel cells. (author)

  20. Gas Transfer in Cellularized Collagen-Membrane Gas Exchange Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Justin H; Bassett, Erik K; Penson, Elliot J N; Hoganson, David M; Vacanti, Joseph P

    2015-08-01

    Chronic lower respiratory disease is highly prevalent in the United States, and there remains a need for alternatives to lung transplant for patients who progress to end-stage lung disease. Portable or implantable gas oxygenators based on microfluidic technologies can address this need, provided they operate both efficiently and biocompatibly. Incorporating biomimetic materials into such devices can help replicate native gas exchange function and additionally support cellular components. In this work, we have developed microfluidic devices that enable blood gas exchange across ultra-thin collagen membranes (as thin as 2 μm). Endothelial, stromal, and parenchymal cells readily adhere to these membranes, and long-term culture with cellular components results in remodeling, reflected by reduced membrane thickness. Functionally, acellular collagen-membrane lung devices can mediate effective gas exchange up to ∼288 mL/min/m(2) of oxygen and ∼685 mL/min/m(2) of carbon dioxide, approaching the gas exchange efficiency noted in the native lung. Testing several configurations of lung devices to explore various physical parameters of the device design, we concluded that thinner membranes and longer gas exchange distances result in improved hemoglobin saturation and increases in pO2. However, in the design space tested, these effects are relatively small compared to the improvement in overall oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer by increasing the blood flow rate. Finally, devices cultured with endothelial and parenchymal cells achieved similar gas exchange rates compared with acellular devices. Biomimetic blood oxygenator design opens the possibility of creating portable or implantable microfluidic devices that achieve efficient gas transfer while also maintaining physiologic conditions.

  1. The effect of water uptake gradient in membrane electrode assembly on fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, H., E-mail: hajime.phy@gmail.co [Research Institute for Science Engineering, Waseda University, 103, R.J.Shillman Hall, 3-14-9, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0072 (Japan); Shiraki, F.; Oshima, Y.; Tatsumi, T.; Yoshikawa, T.; Sasaki, T. [Research Institute for Science Engineering, Waseda University, 103, R.J.Shillman Hall, 3-14-9, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0072 (Japan); Oshima, A. [Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Washio, M. [Research Institute for Science Engineering, Waseda University, 103, R.J.Shillman Hall, 3-14-9, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0072 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Novel proton exchange membranes (PEMs) with functionally gradient ionic sites were fabricated utilizing low energy electron beam (EB) irradiations. The low energy electron beam irradiation to polymer membranes possessed the property of gradient energy deposition in the membrane thickness direction. In the process of EB grafting of styrene onto base films, selective ranges of the gradient energy deposition were used. Micro FT-IR spectra showed that the simulated energy deposition of EB irradiation to base polymer membranes in the thickness direction corresponded to the amount of styrene grafted onto EB-irradiated films. After sulfonation, a functionally gradient ionic site PEM (gradient-PEM) was prepared, corresponding to EB depth-dose profile. The functionally gradients of ionic sites in the gradient-PEM and flat-PEM were evaluated with XPS and SEM-EDX. The results of XPS and SEM-EDX suggest that the prepared gradient-PEM had a gradient sulfonated acid groups. In addition, the polarization performance of MEA based on gradient-PEM was improved in high current density. It was thought that water uptake gradient could have a function to prevent flooding in the MEA during FC operation. Thus, the functionally gradient-PEMs could be a promising solution to manage the water behavior in MEA.

  2. Rice mill wastewater treatment in microbial fuel cells fabricated using proton exchange membrane and earthen pot at different pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Manaswini; Jana, Partha S; More, Tanaji T; Ghangrekar, M M

    2010-10-01

    Performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), fabricated using an earthen pot (MFC-1) and a proton exchange membrane (MFC-2), was evaluated while treating rice mill wastewater at feed pH of 8.0, 7.0 and 6.0. A third MFC (MFC-3), fabricated using a proton exchange membrane (PEM), was operated as control without pH adjustment of the acidic raw wastewater. Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 96.5% and 92.6% were obtained in MFC-1 and MFC-2, respectively, at feed pH of 8.0. MFC-3 showed maximum COD removal of 87%. The lignin removal was 84%, 79%, and 77% and the phenol removal was 81%, 77%, and 76% in MFC-1, MFC-2, and MFC-3, respectively. Maximum sustainable volumetric power was obtained at feed pH of 8.0, and it was 2.3 W/m(3) and 0.53 W/m(3), with 100 ohm external resistance, in MFC-1 and MFC-2, respectively. The power was lower at lower feed pH. MFC-3 generated lowest volumetric power (0.27 W/m(3)) as compared to MFC-1 and MFC-2. More effective treatment of rice mill wastewater and higher energy recovery was demonstrated by earthen pot MFC as compared to MFC incorporated with PEM. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. based anion exchange membrane for alkaline polymer electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Hydroxyl ion (OH–) conducting anion exchange membranes based on modified poly (phenylene oxide) are fabricated for their application in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs). In the present study, chloromethylation of poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO) is performed by aryl substitution rather than benzyl.

  4. Anion-exchange membranes in electrochemical energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varcoe, J.R.; Atanassov, P.; Dekel, D.R.; Herring, A.M.; Hickner, M.A.; Kohl, P.A.; Kucernak, A. R.; Mustain, W.E.; Nijmeijer, K.; Scott, Keith; Xu, Tongwen; Zhuang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an up-to-date perspective on the use of anion-exchange membranes in fuel cells, electrolysers, redox flow batteries, reverse electrodialysis cells, and bioelectrochemical systems (e.g. microbial fuel cells). The aim is to highlight key concepts, misconceptions, the current

  5. Application of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    In this study a general PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) model has been developed to take into account the effect of pressure losses, water crossovers, humidity aspects and voltage over potentials in the cells. The model is zero dimensional and it is assumed to be steady state. The effect...

  6. Probing water structure and transport in proton exchange membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, X.

    2018-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have attracted tremendous attention as alternative energy sources because of their high energy density and practically zero greenhouse gas emission - water is their only direct by-product. Critical to the function of PEMFCs is fast proton and water

  7. New improved polymer electrolyte membrane for PEM fuel cell. Final Report, 1. Documentation synthesis and test of proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Peter B.; Dimitrov, I. (IRD A/S, Svendborg (Denmark)); Jankova, K.; Hvilsted, S. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Chemical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Juul Larsen, M.; Skou, E. (Univ. of Southern Denmark. Institute of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, Odense (Denmark))

    2010-07-15

    A novel concept for preparation of sulfonate containing fluorinated block co-polystyrenes have been developed based on initial ATRP of fluorinated styrene monomers. The strategy depends on well defined macroinitiatiors that after conversion to block copolymers can be post functionalized in two steps with propyl sulfonate groups in different ratios. Thermal investigations have demonstrated that addition of a PFS block to the sulfonate containing block improves the materials' thermal stability. (Author)

  8. Epoxides cross-linked hexafluoropropylidene polybenzimidazole membranes for application as high temperature proton exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Xu, Yixin; Liu, Peipei; Gao, Liping; Che, Quantong; He, Ronghuan

    2015-01-01

    Covalently cross-linked hexafluoropropylidene polybenzimidazole (F 6 PBI) was prepared and used to fabricate high temperature proton exchange membranes with enhanced mechanical strength against thermoplastic distortion. Three different epoxides, i.e. bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (R 1 ), bisphenol A propoxylate diglycidyl ether (R 2 ) and poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (R 3 ), were chosen as the cross-linkers to investigate the influence of their structures on the properties of the cross-linked F 6 PBI membranes. All the cross-linked F 6 PBI membranes displayed excellent stability towards the radical oxidation. Comparing with the pure F 6 PBI membrane, the cross-linked F 6 PBI membranes showed high acid doping level but less swelling after doping phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures. The mechanical strength at 130 °C was improved from 0.4 MPa for F 6 PBI membrane to a range of 0.8–2.0 MPa for the cross-linked F 6 PBI membranes with an acid doping level as high as around 14, especially for that crosslinking with the epoxide (R 3 ), which has a long linear structure of alkyl ether. The proton conductivity of the cross-linked membranes was increased accordingly due to the high acid doping levels. Fuel cell tests demonstrated the technical feasibility of the acid doped cross-linked F 6 PBI membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

  9. Impedance study of membrane dehydration and compression in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Canut, Jean-Marc; Latham, Ruth; Merida, Walter; Harrington, David A. [Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    2009-07-15

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to measure drying and rehydration in proton exchange membrane fuel cells running under load. The hysteresis between forward and backward acquisition of polarization curves is shown to be largely due to changes in the membrane resistance. Drying tests are carried out with hydrogen and simulated reformate (hydrogen and carbon dioxide), and quasi-periodic drying and rehydration conditions are studied. The membrane hydration state is clearly linked to the high-frequency arc in the impedance spectrum, which increases in size for dry conditions indicating an increase in membrane resistance. Changes in impedance spectra as external compression is applied to the cell assembly show that EIS can separate membrane and interfacial effects, and that changes in membrane resistance dominate. Reasons for the presence of a capacitance in parallel with the membrane resistance are discussed. (author)

  10. Non-platinum electrocatalysts for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Zhang, L.; Shi, Z.; Hui, R.; Zhang, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. For Fuel Cell Innovation

    2008-07-01

    High cost, low reliability and durability are the main barriers preventing widespread commercialization of fuel cells. In particular, the platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalysts used in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, including direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are major contributors to the high cost of PEM fuel cells. The Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation at the National Research Council of Canada has developed several new non-Pt electrocatalysts for PEM fuel cell applications. This paper presented the research results on these catalysts, including transition metal macrocycles, chalcogenides, and Ir- or Pd-based alloys. It also described catalyst structure modes via theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Research activities on these electrocatalysts was summarized in terms of catalytic activity and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Typical catalysts such as cobalt(Co)-polypyrrole (PPy) and the chalcogenides show promising results in terms of catalytic activity and a 4-electron reaction mechanism. Efforts are underway to modify both catalyst structure and synthesis methods in order to further improve catalyst performance. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Development of more efficient and cheaper MEA's for PEM fuel cells; Membrane-electrode-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde Andersen, S. (IRD Fuel Cell A/S, Svendborg (Denmark)); Nilsson, M.S. (Danish Power System Aps, Charlottenlund (Denmark)); Siu, A.; Plackett, D. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Dansk Polymer Center, Roskilde (Denmark)); Li, Q. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Chemistry, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2008-06-15

    The project covered 5 main areas: 1) polymer and membranes; 2) electrocatalysts; 3) gas diffusion electrodes; 4) MEAs; and 5) evaluation techniques. For the polymers, by purification of monomers and optimizing parameters, high molecular weight polybenzimidazoles have been synthesized in batches of 50 g with good reproducibility. Based on the polymer, two types of new membranes have been prepared. One is the cross-linked (covalently and acid-base) PBI blend membranes. The blend membranes were systematically characterized and show excellent properties such as very high acid doping levels, conductivity, mechanical strength and durability. The other type is composite membranes based on PBI and nanoclay. Using the modified nanoclay, good dispersion and transparent composite membranes have been achieved. For catalyst preparation, the carbon supports have been modified with thermal treatment. Improved corrosion resistance was achieved with little sacrificing of the catalytic activity. High Pt loading catalysts were prepared, based on which high performance gas diffusion electrodes were fabricated. The performance target of both cathode and anode was achieved, as evaluated by the PTFE half cell tests. New gas diffusion layer (GDL) materials have been developed and tested in different MEA configurations. Significant performance improvement has been achieved with also potential to reduce the cost. Techniques for applying micro porous layers and catalyst layers have been optimized, including tape casting, spraying, and catalyst-coated membrane (CCM). Using the developed membranes and gas diffusion electrodes, membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated for both single cell and stack tests. Selection of sealing materials and design of integrated gaskets have been made for both low and high temperature MEAs. Parameters for hot-pressing such as temperature, pressure and duration were systematically studied. 44 MEAs with an active area of 256 cm{sup 2} have been prepared

  12. PEM steam electrolysis at 130 °C using a phosphoric acid doped short side chain PFSA membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Kalmar; Aili, David; Christensen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Steam electrolysis test with a phosphoric acid doped Aquivion™ membrane was successfully conducted and current densities up to 775 mA cm-2 at 1.8 V was reached at 130 ºC and ambient pressure. A new composite membrane system using a perfluorosulfonic acid membrane (Aquivion™) as matrix and phospho...... implied that a new and highly corrosion resistant construction material was needed. Tantalum coated stainless steel felt was tested and found suitable as the anode gas diffusion layer. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Fibrinogen Reduction During Selective Plasma Exchange due to Membrane Fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Atsushi; Okado, Tomokazu; Miyamoto, Satoko; Hashimoto, Yurie; Komori, Shigeto; Yamamoto, Motoki; Maeda, Takuma; Itagaki, Ayako; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Seshima, Hiroshi; Kurashima, Naoki; Iimori, Soichiro; Naito, Shotaro; Sohara, Eisei; Uchida, Shinichi; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2017-06-01

    Fibrinogen is substantially reduced by most plasmapheresis modalities but retained in selective plasma exchange using Evacure EC-4A10 (EC-4A). Although EC-4A's fibrinogen sieving coefficient is 0, a session of selective plasma exchange reduced fibrinogen by approximately 19%. Here, we investigated sieving coefficient in five patients. When the mean processed plasma volume was 1.15 × plasma volume, the mean reduction of fibrinogen during selective plasma exchange was approximately 15%. Fibrinogen sieving coefficient was 0 when the processed plasma volume was 1.0 L, increasing to 0.07 when the processed plasma volume was 3.0 L, with a mean of 0.03 during selective plasma exchange. When fibrinogen sieving coefficient was 0, selective plasma exchange reduced fibrinogen by approximately 10%. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed internal fouling of EC-4A's hollow fiber membrane by substances such as fibrinogen fibrils. Thus, fibrinogen reduction by selective plasma exchange may be predominantly caused by membrane fouling rather than filtration. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and optimization of platinum-alloy nanoparticle catalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ratndeep

    Renewable hydrogen-fuelled proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) fuel cells have consistently demonstrated great promise as a future source of energy due to their high conversion efficiency, lower temperature of operation and lack of greenhouse emissions. One of the major impediments in the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is the insufficient catalytic reactivity and higher cost of Pt electrocatalysts which are utilized for the electroreduction of oxygen from air. This dissertation focuses primarily on a family of Pt alloy fuel cell electrocatalysts referred to as de-alloyed core-shell electrocatalysts. These materials are bimetallic or multimetallic nanoparticles, mostly supported on conductive supports which were first described in a dissertation by Dr. S. Koh earlier in 2009.1 De-alloyed Pt nanoparticle electrocatalysts are formed from base metal rich binary Pt-M and ternary Pt-M1-M 2 (M, M1, M2 = Cu, Co, Ni, Fe and Cr) alloy nanoparticle precursors. The precursors are transformed and activated by electrochemical selective dissolution of the less noble metal component of the precursors (de-alloying). They have shown exceptional activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in idealized electrochemical half cell measurements, in particular rotating disk electrode experiments. However, these materials were never tested or implemented in realistic Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA) and single PEM fuel cells. The objective of this work was to implement de-alloyed Pt particle catalysts in realistic fuel cell electrode layers as well as a detailed characterization of their behavior and stability. The major challenges of MEA implementation consists of the behavior of the new nanostructured electrocatalysts inside the complex three-phase interface of polymer membrane ionomer, liquid water, metal catalyst, support, and reactant gas. Activity measurements were followed by medium and long-term durability analysis by potential cycling of the membrane

  15. Analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance with alternate membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakizoe, Masanobu; Velev, O A; Srinivasan, S [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Texas Engineering Experiment Station

    1995-02-01

    Renewed interest in proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology for space and terrestrial (particularly electric vehicles) was stimulated by the demonstration, in the mid 1980s, of high energy efficiencies and high power densities. One of the most vital components of the PEMFC is the proton conducting membrane. In this paper, an analysis is made of the performances of PEMFCs with Dupont`s Nafion, Dow`s experimental, and Asahi Chemical`s Aciplex-S membranes. Attempts were also made to draw correlations between the PEMFC performances with the three types of membranes and their physico-chemical characteristics. Practically identical levels of performances (energy efficiency, power density, and lifetime) were achieved in PEMFCs with the Dow and the Aciplex-S membranes and these performances were better than in the PEMFCs with the Nafion-115 membrane. The electrode kinetic parameters for oxygen reduction are better for the PEMFCs with the Aciplex-S and Nafion membranes than with the Dow membranes. The PEMFCs with the Aciplex-S and Dow membranes have nearly the same internal resistances which are considerably lower than for the PEMFC with the Nafion membrane. The desired membrane characteristics to obtain high levels of performance are low equivalent weight and high water content. (Author)

  16. Application of the nanocomposite membrane as electrolyte of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahreni

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is currently still in development and commercialization. Several barriers to the commercialization of these Nafion membrane as electrolyte is its very sensitive to humidity fluctuation. Nafion must be modified by making a composite Nafion-SiO 2 -HPA to increase electrolyte resistance against humidity fluctuations during the cell used. Research carried out by mixing Nafion solution with Tetra Ethoxy Ortho Silicate (TEOS) and conductive materials is phosphotungstic acid (PWA) by varying the ratio of Nafion, TEOS and PWA. The membrane is produced by heating a mixture of Nafion, TEOS and PWA by varying the evaporation temperature, time and annealing temperature to obtain the transparent membrane. The resulting membrane was analyzed its physical, chemical and electrochemical properties by applying the membrane as electrolyte of PEMFC at various humidity and temperature of operation. The results showed that at low temperatures (30-90 °C) and high humidity at 100 % RH, pure Nafion membrane is better than composite membrane (Nafion-SiO 2 -PWA), but at low humidity condition composite membrane is better than the pure Nafion membrane. It can be concluded that the composite membranes of (Nafion-SiO 2 -PWA) can be used as electrolyte of PEMFC operated at low humidity (40 % RH) and temperature between (30-90 °C). (author)

  17. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK) anion exchange membrane for fuel cell

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luo, H

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available less than proton exchange membrane systems using alcohol as fuel. Many anion exchange membranes based on quaternised polymers have been developed and studied for AMFC3-5. The quaternary ammonium functional groups are the anion conductors...

  18. PORTABLE PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEM: WATER AND HEAT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI NAJIBAH ABD RAHMAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Portable polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM fuel cell power generator is a PEM fuel cell application that is used as an external charger to supply the demand for high energy. Different environments at various ambient temperatures and humidity levels affect the performance of PEM fuel cell power generators. Thermal and water management in portable PEM fuel cells are a critical technical barrier for the commercialization of this technology. The size and weight of the portable PEM fuel cells used for thermal and water management systems that determine the performance of portable PEM fuel cells also need to be considered. The main objective of this paper review was to determine the importance of water and thermal management systems in portable PEM fuel cells. Additionally, this review investigated heat transfer and water transport in PEM fuel cells. Given that portable PEM fuel cells with different powers require different thermal and water management systems, this review also discussed and compared management systems for low-, medium-, and high-power portable PEM fuel cells.

  19. The JPL Direct Methanol Liquid-feed PEM Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, there has been a breakthrough in fuel cell technology in the Energy Storage Systems Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with the develpment of a direct methanol, liquid-feed, solid polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell... The methanol liquid-feed, solid polymer electrolyte (PEM) design has numerous system level advantages over the gas-feed design. These include:...

  20. Three-dimensional mathematical modelling of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC); Dreidimensionale mathematische Modellierung einer Brennstoffzelle mit Protonen-Austausch-Membran (PEMFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosig, J

    1997-12-01

    The use of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) in motor vehicles is being explored worldwide and demonstrated in prototypes. The structural improvement of the cells requires an in-depth understanding of the physiochemical processes taking place in the interior. Mathematical simulations can considerably contribute to providing this understanding. In the present study, a mathematical model is presented which enables the calculation of mass and charge flows in the different material layers of a rectangular, planar PEM fuel cell and provides the corresponding three-dimensional concentration and potential distributions. The simulation software permits the steady-state and isothermal calculation of hydrogen/air single cells to which fuel and oxidant can be fed in a co-flow, counter-flow or cross-flow configuration. The mathematical solution method is based on the finite integration technique. The large, sparse systems of equations resulting from the discretization of the conservation equations are very efficiently solved using a multigrid method. A comparison of calculated current-density/voltage characteristics for a base-case cell with measured current-density/voltage characteristics confirms the good quality of the simulation results. Parameter variations show the dependence of the electrode kinetics on the cell temperature and on the gas pressures of the fuel and air side. Furthermore, the influence of the pressure difference between fuel and oxidant on the water regime of the electrolyte membrane is examined. Finally, simulation calculations for different fuel cell materials and ratios of gas-channel to ridge width show the influence of structural fuel cell parameters on the performance of a PEM fuel cell. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Einsatz von Brennstoffzellen mit Protonen-Austausch-Membran (PEMFC) in Kraftfahrzeugen wird weltweit erforscht und in Prototypen demonstriert. Ihre konstruktive Verbesserung erfordert ein tiefes Verstaendnis der im Inneren ablaufenden

  1. Optimization of a thermoelectric generator subsystem for high temperature PEM fuel cell exhaust heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xin; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2014-01-01

    In previous work, a thermoelectric (TE) exhaust heat recovery subsystem for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HT-PEM) fuel cell stack was developed and modeled. Numerical simulations were conducted and have identified an optimized subsystem configuration and 4 types of compact heat...... modules are now connected into branches. The procedures of designing and optimizing this TE exhaust heat recovery subsystem are drawn out. The contribution of TE exhaust heat recovery to the HT-PEM fuel cell power system is preliminarily concluded. Its feasibility is also discussed....... exchangers with superior performance for further analysis. In this work, the on-design performances of the 4 heat exchangers are more thoroughly assessed on their corresponding optimized subsystem configurations. Afterward, their off-design performances are compared on the whole working range of the fuel...

  2. PEM fuel cells thermal and water management fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yun; Cho, Sung Chan

    2014-01-01

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells convert chemical energy in hydrogen into electrical energy with water as the only by-product. Thus, PEM fuel cells hold great promise to reduce both pollutant emissions and dependency on fossil fuels, especially for transportation-passenger cars, utility vehicles, and buses-and small-scale stationary and portable power generators. But one of the greatest challenges to realizing the high efficiency and zero emissions potential of PEM fuel cells technology is heat and water management. This book provides an introduction to the essential concepts for effective thermal and water management in PEM fuel cells and an assessment on the current status of fundamental research in this field. The book offers you: An overview of current energy and environmental challenges and their imperatives for the development of renewable energy resources, including discussion of the role of PEM fuel cells in addressing these issues; Reviews of basic principles pertaining to PEM fuel cel...

  3. Impedance Analysis of the Conditioning of PBI–Based Electrode Membrane Assemblies for High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Vang, Jakob Rabjerg; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    2013-01-01

    This work analyses the conditioning of single fuel cell assemblies based on different membrane electrode assembly (MEA) types, produced by different methods. The analysis was done by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the changes in the fitted resistances of the all the tested...

  4. Ion exchange and luminescence of Eu3+ in Nafion membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petushkov, A.A.; Shilov, S.M.; Pak, V.N.

    2006-01-01

    Dehydration of Nafion perfluorosulphonic membranes at 110 deg C results in a significant reduction of their void space volume, the accessibility of sulphonic groups and the total exchange capacity towards Eu 3+ cations. Nevertheless, the ion exchange sorption of Eu 3+ takes place in accordance with stoichiometric ratio [-SO 3 H]/[Eu 3+ ]=3. The membranes thermal pretreatment also affects noticeably the spectroscopic features of the fastened Eu 3+ ions, such as the relationship between the intensities of the hypersensitive 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 and magnetic dipolar 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 transitions, the excited state life time, as well as the luminescence quenching in the course of water adsorption

  5. Cross-lined PEEK proton exchange membranes for fuel cell - Conference Poster

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luo, H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The low-cost cross-linked Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) proton exchange membranes were prepared via the simple route. The membranes exhibited similar electrochemical properties as compared with commercial Nafion. The membranes were highly proton...

  6. The effect of material properties on the performance of a new geometry PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazaee, Iman [Islamic Azad University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Torbat-e-jam Branch, Torbat-e-jam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghazikhani, Mohsen [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper a computational dynamics model for duct-shaped geometry proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell was used to investigate the effect of changing gas diffusion layer and membrane properties on the performances, current density and gas concentration. The proposed model is a full cell model, which includes all the parts of the PEM fuel cell, flow channels, gas diffusion electrodes, catalyst layers and the membrane. Coupled transport and electrochemical kinetics equations are solved in a single domain; therefore no interfacial boundary condition is required at the internal boundaries between cell components. This computational fluid dynamics code is used as the direct problem solver, which is used to simulate the 2-dimensional mass, momentum and species transport phenomena as well as the electron- and proton-transfer process taking place in a PEMFC that cannot be investigated experimentally. The results show that by increasing the thickness and decreasing the porosity of GDL the performance of the cell enhances that it is different with planner PEM fuel cell. Also the results show that by increasing the thermal conductivity of the GDL and membrane, the overall cell performance increases. (orig.)

  7. Simulation study of a PEM fuel cell system fed by hydrogen produced by partial oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdogan, S [Marmara University, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul (Turkey); Ersoz, A; Olgun, H [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Energy Systems and Environmental Research Institute, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    Within the frame of sustainable development, efficient and clean, if possible zero emission energy production technologies are of utmost importance in various sectors such as utilities, industry, households and transportation. Low-temperature fuel cell systems are suitable for powering transportation systems such as automobiles and trucks in an efficient and low-emitting manner. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems constitute the most promising low temperature fuel cell option being developed globally. PEM fuel cells generate electric power from air and hydrogen or from a hydrogen rich gas via electrochemical reactions. Water and waste heat are the only by-products of PEM fuel cells. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based common transportation fuels such as gasoline and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells. Hydrogen rich gases can be produced from conventional transportation fuels via various reforming technologies. Steam reforming, partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming are the three major reforming technologies. In this paper, we discuss the results of a simulation study for a PEM fuel cell with partial oxidation. The Aspen HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Two liquid hydrocarbon fuels have been selected to investigate the effect of average molecular weights of hydrocarbons, on the fuel processing efficiency. The overall system efficiency depends on the fuel preparation and fuel cell efficiencies as well as on the heat integration within the system. It is desired to investigate the overall system efficiencies for net electrical power production at 100 kW considering bigger scale transport applications. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel preparation system operating parameters and PEM fuel cell polarization curve characteristics all affect the overall system efficiency. (authors)

  8. Electricity generation and removal performance of a microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) as proton exchange membrane to treat phenol/acetone wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Fu, Yu; Guo, Chunyu; Li, Yanbo; Jiang, Nanzhe; Yin, Chengri

    2018-07-01

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) has emerged as a promising technology for wastewater treatment and energy recovery, but the expensive cost of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) is a problem that need to be solved. In this study, a two-chamber MFC based on our self-made PEM sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) membrane was set up to treat phenol/acetone wastewater and synchronously generate power. The maximum output voltage was 240-250 mV. Using phenol and acetone as substrates, the power generation time in an operation cycle was 289 h. The MFC exhibited good removal performance, with no phenol or acetone detected, respectively, when the phenol concentration was lower than 50 mg/L and the acetone concentration was lower than 100 mg/L. This study provides a cheap and eco-friendly way to treat phenol/acetone wastewater and generate useful energy by MFC technology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Junction Potentials Bias Measurements of Ion Exchange Membrane Permselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, Ryan S; Flotron, Sophie; Zhu, Shan; Call, Douglas F; Coronell, Orlando

    2018-04-17

    Ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are versatile materials relevant to a variety of water and waste treatment, energy production, and industrial separation processes. The defining characteristic of IEMs is their ability to selectively allow positive or negative ions to permeate, which is referred to as permselectivity. Measured values of permselectivity that equal unity (corresponding to a perfectly selective membrane) or exceed unity (theoretically impossible) have been reported for cation exchange membranes (CEMs). Such nonphysical results call into question our ability to correctly measure this crucial membrane property. Because weighing errors, temperature, and measurement uncertainty have been shown to not explain these anomalous permselectivity results, we hypothesized that a possible explanation are junction potentials that occur at the tips of reference electrodes. In this work, we tested this hypothesis by comparing permselectivity values obtained from bare Ag/AgCl wire electrodes (which have no junction) to values obtained from single-junction reference electrodes containing two different electrolytes. We show that permselectivity values obtained using reference electrodes with junctions were greater than unity for CEMs. In contrast, electrodes without junctions always produced permselectivities lower than unity. Electrodes with junctions also resulted in artificially low permselectivity values for AEMs compared to electrodes without junctions. Thus, we conclude that junctions in reference electrodes introduce two biases into results in the IEM literature: (i) permselectivity values larger than unity for CEMs and (ii) lower permselectivity values for AEMs compared to those for CEMs. These biases can be avoided by using electrodes without a junction.

  10. Analysis of the market for diesel PEM fuel cell auxiliary power units onboard long-haul trucks and of its implications for the large-scale adoption of PEM FCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contestabile, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEM FCs) offer a promising alternative to internal combustion engines in road transport. During the last decade PEM FC research, development and demonstration (RD and D) activities have been steadily increasing worldwide, and targets have been set to begin their commercialisation in road transport by 2015-2020. However, there still is considerable uncertainty on whether these targets will actually be met. The picture is complex and market and technology issues are closely interlinked; investment in RD and D projects is essential but not sufficient; the development of suitable early markets is also necessary and policy is set to play an important role. Auxiliary power units (APUs) are generally regarded as one important early market for FCs in transport. This paper analyses the possible future market for diesel PEM FC APUs onboard long-haul trucks and its implications for the development of PEM FCs in general. The analysis, part of the project HyTRAN (EC Contract no. 502577), is aided by the use of a dynamic simulation model of technology and markets developed by the author. Results suggest that an interesting window of opportunity for diesel PEM FC APUs exists but this is subject to additional research particularly targeted at the rapid development of fuel processors.

  11. Importance of balancing membrane and electrode water in anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omasta, T. J.; Wang, L.; Peng, X.; Lewis, C. A.; Varcoe, J. R.; Mustain, W. E.

    2018-01-01

    Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) offer several potential advantages over proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), most notably to overcome the cost barrier that has slowed the growth and large scale implementation of fuel cells for transportation. However, limitations in performance have held back AEMFCs, specifically in the areas of stability, carbonation, and maximum achievable current and power densities. In order for AEMFCs to contend with PEMFCs for market viability, it is necessary to realize a competitive cell performance. This work demonstrates a new benchmark for a H2/O2 AEMFC with a peak power density of 1.4 W cm-2 at 60 °C. This was accomplished by taking a more precise look at balancing necessary membrane hydration while preventing electrode flooding, which somewhat surprisingly can occur both at the anode and the cathode. Specifically, radiation-grafted ETFE-based anion exchange membranes and anion exchange ionomer powder, functionalized with benchmark benzyltrimethylammonium groups, were utilized to examine the effects of the following parameters on AEMFC performance: feed gas flow rate, the use of hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic gas diffusion layers, and gas feed dew points.

  12. PEM fuel cells operated at 0% relative humidity in the temperature range of 23-120 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianlu; Tang, Yanghua; Song, Chaojie; Cheng, Xuan; Zhang, Jiujun; Wang, Haijiang

    2007-01-01

    Operation of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell without external humidification (or 0% relative humidity, abbreviated as 0% RH) of the reactant gases is highly desirable, because it can eliminate the gas humidification system and thus decrease the complexity of the PEM fuel cell system and increase the system volume power density (W/l) and weight power density (W/kg). In this investigation, a PEM fuel cell was operated in the temperature range of 23-120 o C, in particular in a high temperature PEM fuel cell operation range of 80-120 o C, with dry reactant gases, and the cell performance was examined according to varying operation parameters. An ac impedance method was used to compare the performance at 0% RH with that at 100% RH; the results suggested that the limited proton transfer process to the Pt catalysts, mainly in the inonomer within the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) could be responsible for the performance drop. It was demonstrated that operating a fuel cell using a commercially available membrane (Nafion (registered) 112) is feasible under certain conditions without external humidification. However, the cell performance at 0% RH decreased with increasing operation temperature and reactant gas flow rate and decreasing operation pressure

  13. Facile preparation of salt-tolerant anion-exchange membrane adsorber using hydrophobic membrane as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinxin; Luo, Jianquan; Chen, Xiangrong; Wan, Yinhua

    2017-03-24

    In this study, a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hydrophobic membrane with high mechanical property was used as substrate to prepare salt-tolerant anion-exchange (STAE) membrane adsorber. Effective hydrophilization and functionalization of PVDF membrane was realized via polydopamine (PDA) deposition, thus overcoming the drawbacks of hydrophobic substrates including poor water permeability, inert property as well as severe non-specific adsorption. The following polyallylamine (PAH) coupling was carried out at pH 10.0, where unprotonated amine groups on PAH chains were more prone to couple with PDA. This membrane adsorber could remain 75% of protein binding capacity when NaCl concentration increased from 0 to 150mM, while its protein binding capacity was independent of flow rate from 10 to 100 membrane volume (MV)/min due to its high mechanical strength (tensile strength: 43.58±2.30MPa). With 200mM NaCl addition at pH 7.5, high purity (above 99%) and high recovery (almost 100%) of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) were obtained when using the STAE membrane adsorber to separate IgG/human serum albumin (HSA) mixture, being similar to that without NaCl at pH 6.0 (both under the flow rate of 10-100MV/min). Finally, the reliable reusability was confirmed by five reuse cycles of protein binding and elution operations. In comparison with commercial membrane adsorber, the new membrane adsorber exhibited a better mechanical property, higher IgG polishing efficiency and reusability, while the protein binding capacity was lower due to less NH 2 density on the membrane. The outcome of this work not only offers a facile and effective approach to prepare membrane adsorbers based on hydrophobic membranes, but also demonstrates great potential of this new designed STAE membrane adsorbers for efficient monoclonal antibody (mAb) polishing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of platinum/MWCNTs Nanocatalysts Synthesis Processes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan

    Due to the growing concerns on the depletion of petroleum based energy resources and climate change; fuel cell technologies have received much attention in recent years. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFCs) features high energy conversion efficiency and nearly zero greenhouse gas emissions, because of its combination of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) at anode side and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at cathode side. Synthesis of Pt nanoparticles supported on multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) possess a highly durable electrochemical surface area (ESA) and show good power output on proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance. Platinum on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) support were synthesized by two different processes to transfer PtCl62- from aqueous to organic phase. While the first method of Pt/MWCNTs synthesis involved dodecane thiol (DDT) and octadecane thiol (ODT) as anchoring agent, the second method used ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) as the dispersion/anchoring agent. The particle size and distribution of platinum were examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The TEM images showed homogenous distribution and uniform particle size of platinum deposited on the surface of MWCNTs. The single cell fuel cell performance of the Pt/MWCNTs synthesized thiols and ALS based electrode containing 0.2 (anode) and 0.4 mg (cathode) Pt.cm-2 were evaluated using Nafion-212 electrolyte with H2 and O2 gases at 80 °C and ambient pressure. The catalyst synthesis with ALS is relatively simple compared to that with thiols and also showed higher performance (power density reaches about 1070 mW.cm -2). The Electrodes with Pt/MWCNTs nanocatalysts synthesized using ALS were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) for durability evaluation using humidified H2 and N2 gases at room temperature (21 °C) along with commercial Pt/C for comparison. The ESA measured by cyclic voltammetry between 0.15 and 1.2 V showed significant

  15. Wastewater treatment with ion-exchange chitin membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulenova, A.; Fjeld, R. A.; Visacky, V.

    2001-01-01

    Chitin, poly(N-acetyl-D glucosamine) and chitosan, its deacetylated derivates have recently obtained attention as bio-sorbents, because they shown a great ability to accumulate heavy metals and other pollutants. It was found that recovery of metals is strongly affected by pH. At low acidic pH range 4-5 chitin membrane exhibits better selectivity for lead than for cadmium or zinc. Sorption preference for metals decreases in the order: Pb > Cd > Zn. For uranium, as well for strontium was observed significant increase of recovery at decrease of pH to slightly acidic, close to neutral value. It was shown that chemical behavior of chitin membrane is excellent; ion-exchange nature of chitin was not changed during chitin membrane manufacturing process. Using of chitin membrane instead of chitin flake column brings significant increasing of driving force of the separation process, limited in the case of column experimental design by diffusion coefficient, while in the case of membrane process only by mass transfer coefficient. (authors)

  16. Studies on PEM fuel cell noble metal catalyst dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. M.; Grahl-Madsen, L.; Skou, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of electrochemical, spectroscopic and gravimetric methods was carried out on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell electrodes with the focus on platinum and ruthenium catalysts dissolution, and the membrane degradation. In cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments, the noble metals were...... found to dissolve in 1 M sulfuric acid solution and the dissolution increased exponentially with the upper potential limit (UPL) between 0.6 and 1.6 vs. RHE. 2-20% of the Pt (depending on the catalyst type) was found to be dissolved during the experiments. Under the same conditions, 30-100% of the Ru...... (depending on the catalyst type) was found to be dissolved. The faster dissolution of ruthenium compared to platinum in the alloy type catalysts was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. The dissolution of the carbon supported catalyst was found one order of magnitude higher than the unsupported...

  17. Catalyst Degradation in High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Acid Doped Polybenzimidazole Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Buazar, F.; Li, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    and multi‐walled carbon nanotubes were used as supports for electrode catalysts and evaluated in accelerated durability tests under potential cycling at 150 °C. Measurements of open circuit voltage, area specific resistance and hydrogen permeation through the membrane were carried out, indicating little...... contribution of the membrane degradation to the performance losses during the potential cycling tests. As the major mechanism of the fuel cell performance degradation, the electrochemical active area of the cathodic catalysts showed a steady decrease in the cyclic voltammetric measurements, which was also......Degradation of carbon supported platinum catalysts is a major failure mode for the long term durability of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells based on phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes. With Vulcan carbon black as a reference, thermally treated carbon black...

  18. High throughput study of fuel cell proton exchange membranes: Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic polyelectrolyte blends and nanocomposites with zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata B., Pedro Jose

    Sustainability is perhaps one of the most heard buzzwords in the post-20 th century society; nevertheless, it is not without a reason. Our present practices for energy supply are largely unsustainable if we consider their environmental and social impact. In view of this unfavorable panorama, alternative sustainable energy sources and conversion approaches have acquired noteworthy significance in recent years. Among these, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are being considered as a pivotal building block in the transition towards a sustainable energy economy in the 21st century. The polyelectrolyte membrane or proton exchange membrane (PEM) is a vital component, as well as a performance-limiting factor, of the PEMFC. Consequently, the development of high-performance PEM materials is of utmost importance for the advance of the PEMFC field. In this work, alternative PEM materials based on semi-interpenetrated networks from blends of poly(vinyledene fluoride) (PVDF) (inert phase) and sulfonated crosslinked acrylic polyelectrolytes (PE) (proton-conducting phase), as well as tri-phase PVDF/PE/zirconium-based composites, are studied. To alleviate the burden resulting from the vast number of possible combinations of the different precursors utilized in the preparation of the membranes (PVDF: 5x, PE: 2x, Nanoparticle: 3x), custom high-throughput (HT) screening systems have been developed for their characterization. By coupling the data spaces obtained via these systems with the appropriate statistical and data analysis tools it was found that, despite not being directly involved in the proton transport process, the inert PVDF phase plays a major role on proton conductivity. Particularly, a univocal inverse correlation between the PVDF crystalline characteristics (i.e., crystallinity and crystallite size) and melt viscosity, and membrane proton conductivity was discovered. Membranes based on highly crystalline and viscous PVDF homopolymers exhibited reduced proton

  19. Modeling hydrogen starvation conditions in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohs, Jan Hendrik; Sauter, Ulrich; Maass, Sebastian [Robert Bosch GmbH, Robert-Bosch-Platz 1, 70839 Gerlingen-Schillerhoehe (Germany); Stolten, Detlef [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, IEF-3: Fuel Cells, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a steady state and isothermal 2D-PEM fuel cell model is presented. By simulation of a single cell along the channel and in through-plane direction, its behaviour under hydrogen starvation due to nitrogen dilution is analysed. Under these conditions, carbon corrosion and water electrolysis are observed on the cathode side. This phenomenon, causing severe cell degradation, is known as reverse current decay mechanism in literature. Butler-Volmer equations are used to model the electrochemical reactions. In addition, we account for permeation of gases through the membrane and for the local water content within the membrane. The results show that the membrane potential locally drops in areas starved from hydrogen. This leads to potential gradients >1.2 V between electrode and membrane on the cathode side resulting in significant carbon corrosion and electrolysis reaction rates. The model enables the analysis of sub-stoichiometric states occurring during anode gas recirculation or load transients. (author)

  20. Numerical model of a thermoelectric generator with compact plate-fin heat exchanger for high temperature PEM fuel cell exhaust heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Gao; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Chen, Min

    2012-01-01

    on a finite-element approach. On each discretized segment, fluid properties, heat transfer process and TEG performance are locally calculated for higher model precision. To benefit both the system design and fabrication, the way to model TEG modules is herein reconsidered; a database of commercialized compact......This paper presents a numerical model of an exhaust heat recovery system for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HTPEMFC) stack. The system is designed as thermoelectric generators (TEGs) sandwiched in the walls of a compact plate-fin heat exchanger. Its model is based...... plate-fin heat exchangers is adopted. Then the model is validated against experimental data and the main variables are identified by means of a sensitivity analysis. Finally, the system configuration is optimized for recovering heat from the exhaust gas. The results exhibit the crucial importance...

  1. Tandem cathode for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahrostami, Samira; Björketun, Mårten E.; Strasser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of proton exchange membrane fuel cells is limited mainly by the oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode. The large cathodic overpotential is caused by correlations between binding energies of reaction intermediates in the reduction of oxygen to water. This work introduces a novel...... to identify potentially active and selective materials for both catalysts. Co-porphyrin is recommended for the first step, formation of hydrogen peroxide, and three different metal oxides – SrTiO3(100), CaTiO3(100) and WO3(100) – are suggested for the subsequent reduction step....

  2. Mechanical Characterization of Anion Exchange Membranes Under Controlled Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-11

    little market penetration has been achieved. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFC ) have struggled primarily due to high cost, driven by the use...and requirements for Pt, Pt-alloy, and non-Pt oxygen reduction catalysts for PEMFCs , Appl. Catal. B Environ. 56 (2005) 9–35. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb...resins for PEMFCs , Electrochim. Acta. 50 (2004) 571–575. doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2004.01.133. [89] S. Bhadra, N.H. Kim, J.S. Choi, K.Y. Rhee, J.H. Lee

  3. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Applied for Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is investigated. PEMFC may be the most promising technology for fuel cell automotive systems, which is operating at quite low temperatures, (between 60 to 80℃). In this study the fuel cell motive power part of a lift truck has...... been investigated. The fuel cell stack used in this model is developed using a Ballard PEMFC [1], so that the equations used in the stack modeling are derived from the experimental data. The stack can produce 3 to 15 kilowatt electricity depending on the number of cells used in the stack. Some...

  4. Development of ion exchanging membranes synthesized by means of radiation grafting coplolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jie; Xu Yunshu; Huang Wei

    2006-01-01

    Separation material is an important type of functional materials. In this paper, the development of cation- exchange membranes was reviewed, the synthesis of fluoropolymer based sulfonic acid type membranes and other polymers based cation-exchange membranes were selectively introduced. (authors)

  5. High temperature PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianlu; Xie, Zhong; Zhang, Jiujun; Tang, Yanghua; Song, Chaojie; Navessin, Titichai; Shi, Zhiqing; Song, Datong; Wang, Haijiang; Wilkinson, David P.; Liu, Zhong-Sheng; Holdcroft, Steven [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada V6T 1W5)

    2006-10-06

    There are several compelling technological and commercial reasons for operating H{sub 2}/air PEM fuel cells at temperatures above 100{sup o}C. Rates of electrochemical kinetics are enhanced, water management and cooling is simplified, useful waste heat can be recovered, and lower quality reformed hydrogen may be used as the fuel. This review paper provides a concise review of high temperature PEM fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) from the perspective of HT-specific materials, designs, and testing/diagnostics. The review describes the motivation for HT-PEMFC development, the technology gaps, and recent advances. HT-membrane development accounts for {approx}90% of the published research in the field of HT-PEMFCs. Despite this, the status of membrane development for high temperature/low humidity operation is less than satisfactory. A weakness in the development of HT-PEMFC technology is the deficiency in HT-specific fuel cell architectures, test station designs, and testing protocols, and an understanding of the underlying fundamental principles behind these areas. The development of HT-specific PEMFC designs is of key importance that may help mitigate issues of membrane dehydration and MEA degradation. (author)

  6. Cation-exchange membranes: comparison of homopolymer, block copolymer, and heterogeneous membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Jan; Llanos, J.; Žitka, Jan; Hnát, J.; Bouzek, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 124, SI 1 (2012), E66-E72 ISSN 0021-8995 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08005 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 212903 - WELTEMP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : cation-exchange membranes * poly(phenylene oxide) * poly(ether ketones ) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.395, year: 2012

  7. Anion exchange membrane based on alkali doped poly(2,5-benzimidazole) for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luo, H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available was prepared. The alkali doped poly(2,5-benzimidazole) membrane is a promising candidate as anion exchange membrane for fuel cell application. The alkali doped poly(2,5-benzimidazole) membrane reached an anion conductivity of 2.3×10-2 S cm-1 at room temperature...

  8. Design of flexible polyphenylene proton-conducting membrane for next-generation fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Junpei; Taki, Ryunosuke; Mochizuki, Takashi; Shimizu, Ryo; Akiyama, Ryo; Uchida, Makoto; Miyatake, Kenji

    2017-10-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are promising devices for clean power generation in automotive, stationary, and portable applications. Perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomers (for example, Nafion) have been the benchmark PEMs; however, several problems, including high gas permeability, low thermal stability, high production cost, and environmental incompatibility, limit the widespread dissemination of PEMFCs. It is believed that fluorine-free PEMs can potentially address all of these issues; however, none of these membranes have simultaneously met the criteria for both high performance (for example, proton conductivity) and durability (for example, mechanical and chemical stability). We present a polyphenylene-based PEM (SPP-QP) that fulfills the required properties for fuel cell applications. The newly designed PEM exhibits very high proton conductivity, excellent membrane flexibility, low gas permeability, and extremely high stability, with negligible degradation even under accelerated degradation conditions, which has never been achieved with existing fluorine-free PEMs. The polyphenylene PEM also exhibits reasonably high fuel cell performance, with excellent durability under practical conditions. This new PEM extends the limits of existing fluorine-free proton-conductive materials and will help to realize the next generation of PEMFCs via cost reduction as well as the performance improvement compared to the present PFSA-based PEMFC systems.

  9. Review of cell performance in anion exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekel, Dario R.

    2018-01-01

    Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) have recently received increasing attention since in principle they allow for the use of non-precious metal catalysts, which dramatically reduces the cost per kilowatt of power in fuel cell devices. Until not long ago, the main barrier in the development of AEMFCs was the availability of highly conductive anion exchange membranes (AEMs); however, improvements on this front in the past decade show that newly developed AEMs have already reached high levels of conductivity, leading to satisfactory cell performance. In recent years, a growing number of research studies have reported AEMFC performance results. In the last three years, new records in performance were achieved. Most of the literature reporting cell performance is based on hydrogen-AEMFCs, although an increasing number of studies have also reported the use of fuels others than hydrogen - such as alcohols, non-alcohol C-based fuels, as well as N-based fuels. This article reviews the cell performance and performance stability achieved in AEMFCs through the years since the first reports in the early 2000s.

  10. Numerical evaluation of various gas and coolant channel designs for high performance liquid-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasmito, Agus P.; Kurnia, Jundika C.; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2012-01-01

    A careful design of gas and coolant channel is essential to ensure high performance and durability of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack. The channel design should allow for good thermal, water and gas management whilst keeping low pressure drop. This study evaluates numerically the performance of various gas and coolant channel designs simultaneously, e.g. parallel, serpentine, oblique-fins, coiled, parallel-serpentine and a novel hybrid parallel-serpentine-oblique-fins designs. The stack performance and local distributions of key parameters are investigated with regards to the thermal, water and gas management. The results indicate that the novel hybrid channel design yields the best performance as it constitutes to a lower pumping power and good thermal, water and gas management as compared to conventional channels. Advantages and limitation of the designs are discussed in the light of present numerical results. Finally, potential application and further improvement of the design are highlighted. -- Highlights: ► We evaluate various gas and coolant channel designs in liquid-cooled PEM fuel cell stack. ► The model considers coupled electrochemistry, channel design and cooling effect simultaneously. ► We propose a novel hybrid channel design. ► The novel hybrid channel design yields the best thermal, water and gas management which is beneficial for long term durability. ► The novel hybrid channel design exhibits the best performance.

  11. Regularization of the degradation behavior and working zone of proton exchange membrane fuel cells with a five-constant ideal cell as prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.F.; Pei, P.C.; Yuan, X.; Chao, P.X.; Wang, X.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Load-oriented cell lifetime endpoint definition to reveal two forms of lifetime. → Working zone representing the range of optimum operating endpoint candidates. → Ideal cell model to describe the commonness in PEM fuel cell specialties. → Ideal cell as prototype to regularize real cells. → Working zone of real cells uniformly characterized with five cell constants. - Abstract: This paper is to outline the working zone (the correlative assembly of all the practical steady-state operating points under all affordable constant power loads) of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells in united form. For this purpose, an ideal cell model is proposed to regularize the degradation behavior of real cells, and a load-oriented cell lifetime endpoint definition is made to reveal two forms of cell lifetime. As derived, the working zone of any cell is an enclosed region by three boundaries: one part of the initial steady-state polarization (SSP) curve, the lifetime end-curve and the zero current density line; and the ideal cell has three distinct shapes of working zone of the simplest expressions of lifetime end-curve. Practical data well support the ideal cell as a good prototype for the regularization, and thus the working zone of real cells can be approximately but uniformly and concisely outlined, with the boundaries characterized with five cell constants including two initial SSP constants, two degradation constants and the absolute lifetime.

  12. Coupling of a 2.5 kW steam reformer with a 1 kW el PEM fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiak, J.; Heinzel, A.; Roes, J.; Kalk, Th.; Kraus, H.; Brandt, H.

    The University of Duisburg-Essen has developed a compact multi-fuel steam reformer suitable for natural gas, propane and butane. This steam reformer was combined with a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEM FC) and a system test of the process chain was performed. The fuel processor comprises a prereformer step, a primary reformer, water gas shift reactors, a steam generator, internal heat exchangers in order to achieve an optimised heat integration and an external burner for heat supply as well as a preferential oxidation step (PROX) as CO purification. The fuel processor is designed to deliver a thermal hydrogen power output from 500 W to 2.5 kW. The PEM fuel cell stack provides about 1 kW electrical power. In the following paper experimental results of measurements of the single components PEM fuel cell and fuel processor as well as results of the coupling of both to form a process chain are presented.

  13. Preparation of anion exchange membrane using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for alkaline water electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Gab-Jin; Bong, Soo-Yeon; Ryu, Cheol-Hwi [Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Soo-Gon [Energy and Machinery Korea Co., Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ho-Sang [Kyungil University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    An anion exchange membrane was prepared by the chloromethylation and the amination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), as the base polymer. The membrane properties of the prepared anion exchange membrane, including ionic conductivity, ion exchange capacity, and water content were measured. The ionic conductivity of the prepared anion exchange membrane was in the range of 0.098x10{sup -2} -7.0x10{sup -2}S cm{sup -1}. The ranges of ion exchange capacity and water content were 1.9-3.7meq./g-dry-membrane and 35.1-63.1%, respectively. The chemical stability of the prepared anion exchange membrane was tested by soaking in 30 wt% KOH solution to determine its availability as a separator in the alkaline water electrolysis. The ionic conductivity during the chemical stability test largely did not change.

  14. Durability study and lifetime prediction of baseline proton exchange membrane fuel cell under severe operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrony, M.; Quenet, S.; Aslanides, A. [European Institute for Energy Research, Emmy-Noether Strasse 11, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Barrera, R.; Ginocchio, S.; Montelatici, L. [Edison, Via Giorgio La Pira 2, 10028 Trofarello (Italy)

    2008-08-01

    Comparative studies of mechanical and electrochemical properties of Nafion{sup registered} - and sulfonated polyetheretherketone polymer-type membranes are carried out under severe fuel cell conditions required by industrials, within stationary and cycling electric load profiles. These membranes are proposed to be used in PEM between 70 and 90 C as fluorinated or non-fluorinated baseline membranes, respectively. Thus, though the performance of both membranes remains suitable, Nafion{sup registered} backbone brought better mechanical properties and higher electrochemical stabilities than sulfonated polyetheretherketone backbone. The performance stability and the mechanical strength of the membrane-electrode assembly were shown to be influenced by several intrinsic properties of the membrane (e.g., thermal pre-treatment, thickness) and external conditions (fuel cell operating temperature, relative humidity). Finally, a lifetime prediction for membranes under stationary conditions is proposed depending on the operation temperature. At equivalent thicknesses (i.e. 50 {mu}m), Nafion{sup registered} membranes were estimated able to operate into the 80-90 C range while sulfonated polyetheretherketone would be limited into the 70-80 C range. This approach brings baseline information about the capability of these types of polymer electrolyte membrane under fuel cell critical operations. Finally, it is revealed as a potential tool for the selection of the most promising advanced polymers for the ensuing research phase. (author)

  15. Modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell with variable distance gas flow in anode and cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Shahbudin Masdar; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Jaafar Sahari

    2006-01-01

    A number of fundamental studies have been directed towards increasing our understanding of PEM fuel cell and their performance. Mathematical modeling is one of the way and very essential component in the development of this fuel cell. Model validation is presented, the validated model is then used to investigate the behavior of mole fraction of gases, current density, and the performances of stack using polarization curve depending on distance gases flow in channel. The model incorporates a complete cell with both the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and the serpentine gas distributor channel. Finally, the parametric studies in single stack design are illustrated

  16. Protonic conductors for proton exchange membrane fuel cells: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurado Ramon Jose

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, Nation, which is a perfluorinated polymer, is one of the few materials that deliver the set of chemical and mechanical properties required to perform as a good electrolyte in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs. However, Nation presents some disadvantages, such as limiting the operational temperature of the fuel system (So°C, because of its inability to retain water at higher temperatures and also suffers chemical crossover. In addition to these restrictions, Nation membranes are very expensive. Reducing costs and using environmentally friendly materials are good reasons to make a research effort in this field in order to achieve similar or even better fuel-cell performances. Glass materials of the ternary system SiO2-ZrO2-P2O5, hybrid materials based on Nation, and nanopore ceramic membranes based on SiO2 TiO2, Al2O3, etc. are considered at present, as promising candidates to replace Nation as the electrolyte in PEMFCs. These types of materials are generally prepared by sol-gel processes in order to tailor their channel-porous structure and pore size. In this communication, the possible candidates in the near future as electrolytes (including other polymers different than Nation in PEMFCs are briefly reviewed. Their preparation methods, their electrical transport properties and conduction mechanisms are considered. The advantages and disadvantages of these materials with respect to Nation are also discussed.

  17. Experimental Study and Comparison of Various Designs of Gas Flow Fields to PEM Fuel Cells and Cell Stack Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hong; Li, Peiwen; Juarez-Robles, Daniel; Wang, Kai; Hernandez-Guerrero, Abel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a significant number of experimental tests to proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells were conducted to investigate the effect of gas flow fields on fuel cell performance. Graphite plates with various flow field or flow channel designs, from literature survey and also novel designs by the authors, were used for the PEM fuel cell assembly. The fabricated fuel cells have an effective membrane area of 23.5 cm 2 . The results showed that the serpentine flow channel design is still favorable, giving the best single fuel cell performance amongst all the studied flow channel designs. A novel symmetric serpentine flow field was proposed for a relatively large sized fuel cell application. Four fuel cell stacks each including four cells were assembled using different designs of serpentine flow channels. The output power performances of fuel cell stacks were compared and the novel symmetric serpentine flow field design is recommended for its very good performance.

  18. Synthesis and characterisation of alkaline anionic-exchange membranes for direct alcohol fuel cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonjola, P

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available , but the most important being proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), which uses an acidic membrane like Nafion (sulfonated fluorocarbon polymers) as an electrolyte. The use of polymer electrolytes represents an interesting path to pursue...

  19. Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications through the Fundamental Understanding of Membrane and MEA Degradation Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Randal L. [DuPont

    2013-10-31

    The Project focused on mitigation of degradation processes on membrane electrode assemblies. The approach was to develop a model to improve understanding of the mechanisms, and to use it to focus mitigation strategies. The detailed effects of various accelerated stress tests (ASTs) were evaluated to determine the best subset to use in model development. A combination of ASTs developed by the Fuel Cell Commercialization Conference of Japan and the Fuel Cell Tech Team were selected for use. The ASTs were compared by measuring effects on performance, running in-situ diagnostics, and performing microscopic analyses of the membrane electrode assemblies after the stress tests were complete. Nissan ran FCCJ AST protocols and performed in situ and ex-situ electrochemical testing. DuPont ran FCTT and USFCC AST protocols, performed scanning and transmission electron microscopy and ran in-situ electrochemical tests. Other ex-situ testing was performed by IIT, along with much of the data analysis and model development. These tests were then modified to generate time-dependent data of the degradation mechanisms. Three different catalyst types and four membrane variants were then used to generate data for a theoretically-based degradation model. An important part of the approach was to use commercially available materials in the electrodes and membranes made in scalable semiworks processes rather than lab-based materials. This constraint ensured all materials would be practicable for full-scale testing. The initial model for the electrode layer was tested for internal consistency and agreement with the data. A Java-based computer application was developed to analyze the time-dependent AST data using polarization curves with four different cathode gas feeds and generate model parameters. Data showed very good reproducibility and good consistency as cathode catalyst loadings were varied. At the point of termination of the project, a basic electrode model was in hand with several

  20. An efficient mathematical model for air-breathing PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.S.; Ingham, D.B.; Hughes, K.J.; Ma, L.; Pourkashanian, M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The effects of the ambient humidity on the performance of air-breathing PEM fuel cells become more pronounced as the ambient temperature increases. The polarisation curves have been generated using the in-house developed MATLAB® application, Polarisation Curve Generator, which is available in the supplementary data. - Highlights: • An efficient mathematical model has been developed for an air-breathing PEM fuel cell. • The fuel cell performance is significantly over-predicted if the Joule and entropic heats are neglected. • The fuel cell performance is highly sensitive to the state of water at the thermodynamic equilibrium. • The cell potential dictates the favourable ambient conditions for the fuel cell. - Abstract: A simple and efficient mathematical model for air-breathing proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells has been built. One of the major objectives of this study is to investigate the effects of the Joule and entropic heat sources, which are often neglected, on the performance of air-breathing PEM fuel cells. It is found that the fuel cell performance is significantly over-predicted if one or both of these heat sources is not incorporated into the model. Also, it is found that the performance of the fuel cell is highly sensitive to the state of the water at the thermodynamic equilibrium magnitude as both the entropic heat and the Nernst potential considerably increase if water is assumed to be produced in liquid form rather than in vapour form. Further, the heat of condensation is shown to be small and therefore, under single-phase modelling, has a negligible effect on the performance of the fuel cell. Finally, the favourable ambient conditions depend on the operating cell potential. At intermediate cell potentials, a mild ambient temperature and low humidity are favoured to maintain high membrane conductivity and mitigate water flooding. At low cell potentials, low ambient temperature and high humidity are favoured to

  1. Removal of 125I from radioactive experimental waste with an anion exchange paper membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroyoshi; Kagoshima, Mayumi

    2000-01-01

    The behavior of radioactive iodide and chloride ions through an anion exchange paper membrane to remove 125 I from radioactive experimental waste has been studied with nonequilibrium thermodynamic analyses. Anion exchange paper membrane was found to be electroconductively more permeable to iodide ion than to chloride ion. The iodide ion bound more strongly to the anion exchange site within a membrane phase than the chloride ion by more than twice. The results suggested that an anion exchange paper membrane was appropriate for the filtration removal system

  2. Ionic Resistance and Permselectivity Tradeoffs in Anion Exchange Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2013-10-23

    Salinity gradient energy technologies, such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) and capacitive mixing based on Donnan potential (Capmix CDP), could help address the global need for noncarbon-based energy. Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are a key component in these systems, and improved AEMs are needed in order to optimize and extend salinity gradient energy technologies. We measured ionic resistance and permselectivity properties of quaternary ammonium-functionalized AEMs based on poly(sulfone) and poly(phenylene oxide) polymer backbones and developed structure-property relationships between the transport properties and the water content and fixed charge concentration of the membranes. Ion transport and ion exclusion properties depend on the volume fraction of water in the polymer membrane, and the chemical nature of the polymer itself can influence fine-tuning of the transport properties to obtain membranes with other useful properties, such as chemical and dimensional stability. The ionic resistance of the AEMs considered in this study decreased by more than 3 orders of magnitude (i.e., from 3900 to 1.6 Ω m) and the permselectivity decreased by 6% (i.e., from 0.91 to 0.85) as the volume fraction of water in the polymer was varied by a factor of 3.8 (i.e., from 0.1 to 0.38). Water content was used to rationalize a tradeoff relationship between the permselectivity and ionic resistance of these AEMs whereby polymers with higher water content tend to have lower ionic resistance and lower permselectivity. The correlation of ion transport properties with water volume fraction and fixed charge concentration is discussed with emphasis on the importance of considering water volume fraction when interpreting ion transport data. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Electrical Resistance and Transport Numbers of Ion-Exchange Membranes Used in Electrodialytic Soil Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    1999-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a recently developed method to decontaminate heavy metal polluted soil using ion-exchange membranes. In this method one side of the ion-exchange membrane is in direct contact with the polluted soil. It is of great importance to know if this contact with the soil...... different electrodialytic soil remediation experiments. The experiments showed that after the use in electrodialytic soil remediation, the ion-exchange membranes had transport numbers in the same magnitude as new membranes. The electrical resistance for six membranes did not differ from that of new...

  4. Design and experimental characterization of a 350 W High Temperature PEM fuel cell stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Zuliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (HT PEM fuel cell based on polybenzimidazole (PBI polymer and phosphoric acid, can be operated at temperature between 120 °C and 180 °C. Reactants humidification is not required and CO content up to 2% in the fuel can be tolerated, affecting only marginally performance. This is what makes HT PEM very attractive, as low quality reformed hydrogen can be used and water management problems are avoided. Till nowadays, from experimental point of view, only few studies relate to the development and characterization of high temperature stacks. The aim of this work is to present the main design features and the performance curves of a 25 cells HT PEM stack based on PBI and phosphoric acid membranes. Performance curves refer to the stack operating with two type of fuels: pure hydrogen and a gas mixture simulating a typical steam reformer output. The stack voltage distribution analysis and the stack temperature distribution analysis suggest that cathode air could be used as coolant leading to a better thermal management. This could simplify stack design and system BOP, thus increasing system performance.

  5. Analysis of the control structures for an integrated ethanol processor for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biset, S; Nieto Deglioumini, L; Basualdo, M [GIAIP-CIFASIS (UTN-FRRo-CONICET-UPCAM-UNR), BV. 27 de Febrero 210 Bis, S2000EZP Rosario (Argentina); Garcia, V M; Serra, M [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, C. Llorens i Artigas 4-6, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate which would be a good preliminary plantwide control structure for the process of Hydrogen production from bioethanol to be used in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) accounting only steady-state information. The objective is to keep the process under optimal operation point, that is doing energy integration to achieve the maximum efficiency. Ethanol, produced from renewable feedstocks, feeds a fuel processor investigated for steam reforming, followed by high- and low-temperature shift reactors and preferential oxidation, which are coupled to a polymeric fuel cell. Applying steady-state simulation techniques and using thermodynamic models the performance of the complete system with two different control structures have been evaluated for the most typical perturbations. A sensitivity analysis for the key process variables together with the rigorous operability requirements for the fuel cell are taking into account for defining acceptable plantwide control structure. This is the first work showing an alternative control structure applied to this kind of process. (author)

  6. Modeling the performance of hydrogen-oxygen unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane fuel cells for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Massimo; Alotto, Piergiorgio; Moro, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Thanks to the independent sizing of power and energy, hydrogen-based energy storage is one of the very few technologies capable of providing long operational times in addition to the other advantages offered by electrochemical energy storage, for example scalability, site versatility, and mobile service. The typical design consists of an electrolyzer in charge mode and a separate fuel cell in discharge mode. Instead, a unitized regenerative fuel cell (URFC) is a single device performing both energy conversions, achieving a higher compactness and power-to-weight ratio. This paper presents a performance model of a URFC based on a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyte and working on hydrogen and oxygen, which can provide high energy and power densities (>0.7 W cm-2). It provides voltage, power, and efficiency at varying load conditions as functions of the controlling physical quantities: temperature, pressure, concentration, and humidification. The model constitutes a tool for designing the interface and control sub-system as well as for exploring optimized cell/stack designs and operational conditions. To date, only a few of such analyses have been carried out and more research is needed in order to explore the true potential of URFCs.

  7. Experimental diagnostics and modeling of inductive phenomena at low frequencies in impedance spectra of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivac, Ivan; Šimić, Boris; Barbir, Frano

    2017-10-01

    Representation of fuel cell processes by equivalent circuit models, involving resistance and capacitance elements representing activation losses on both anode and cathode in series with resistance representing ohmic losses, cannot capture and explain the inductive loop that may show up at low frequencies in Nyquist diagram representation of the electrochemical impedance spectra. In an attempt to explain the cause of the low-frequency inductive loop and correlate it with the processes within the fuel cell electrodes, a novel equivalent circuit model of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been proposed and experimentally verified here in detail. The model takes into account both the anode and the cathode, and has an additional resonant loop on each side, comprising of a resistance, capacitance and inductance in parallel representing the processes within the catalyst layer. Using these additional circuit elements, more accurate and better fits to experimental impedance data in the wide frequency range at different current densities, cell temperatures, humidity of gases, air flow stoichiometries and backpressures were obtained.

  8. Influence of cathode flow pulsation on performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell with interdigitated gas distributors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiar, A.; Mahmoudi, A.H.; Esmaili, Q.; Abdollahzadeh, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical study is conducted in order to investigate the effect of pulsation of air flow at the cathode side of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell with interdigitated flow field. A two dimensional, isothermal, two-phase, unsteady multi-component transport model is used in order to simulate the transport phenomena. The obtained results are discussed in terms of the influence of flow pulsation on water management and cell performance. The results prove the effectiveness of flow pulsation on improving water removal from cell, enhancing reactants transports to the reaction sites, and increasing the cell performance expressed by increment in the cell limiting current density and maximum output power. The effects of pulsation frequency (f), amplitude (Amp), and mean inlet pressure (P_i_n) on the performance and the output power of the cell, are also investigated. The performance of the cell has no dependency on the frequency range considered in this study. However, as the pulsation amplitude increases the increment in the cell performance is more obvious. Moreover, applying flow pulsation at low flow rates leads to higher efficiency in water removal and performance enhancement. - Highlights: • Mechanism of water and oxygen transport under flow pulsation are discussed. • Pulsating cathode flow increases the limiting current density and output power. • The performance of cell has no significant dependency on pulsation frequency. • The performance and output power increase with the pulsation amplitude. • Using pulsating flow at lower average pressures leads to higher water removal rate.

  9. Composite polymer membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures and reduced humidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) are the leading candidate in the fuel cell technology due to the high power density, solid electrolyte, and low operational temperature. However, PEMFCs operating in the normal temperature range (60-80°C) face problems including poor carbon monoxide tolerance and heat rejection. The poisoning effect can be significantly relieved by operating the fuel cell at elevated temperature, which also improves the heat rejection and electrochemical kinetics. Low relative humidity (RH) operation is also desirable to simplify the reactant humidification system. However, at elevated temperatures, reduced RH PEMFC performance is seriously impaired due to irreversible water loss from presently employed state-of-the-art polymer membrane, Nafion. This thesis focuses on developing polymer electrolyte membranes with high water retention ability for operation in elevated temperature (110-150°C), reduced humidity (˜50%RH) PEMFCs. One approach is to alter Nafion by adding inorganic particles such as TiO2, SiO2, Zr(HPO 4)2, etc. While the presence of these materials in Nafion has proven beneficial, a reduction or no improvement in the PEMFC performance of Nafion/TiO2 and Nafion/Zr(HPO4)2 membranes is observed with reduced particle sizes or increased particle loadings in Nafion. It is concluded that the PEMFC performance enhancement associated with addition of these inorganic particles was not due to the particle hydrophilicity. Rather, the particle, partially located in the hydrophobic region of the membrane, benefits the cell performance by altering the membrane structure. Water transport properties of some Nafion composite membranes were investigated by NMR methods including pulsed field gradient spin echo diffusion, spin-lattice relaxation, and spectral measurements. Compared to unmodified Nafion, composite membranes materials exhibit longer longitudinal relaxation time constant T1. In addition to the Nafion material, sulfonated styrene

  10. Analysis performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubin, A. N. A.; Bahrom, M. H.; Azri, M.; Ibrahim, Z.; Rahim, N. A.; Raihan, S. R. S.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has gained much attention to the technology of renewable energy due to its mechanically ideal and zero emission power source. PEMFC performance reflects from the surroundings such as temperature and pressure. This paper presents an analysis of the performance of the PEMFC by developing the mathematical thermodynamic modelling using Matlab/Simulink. Apart from that, the differential equation of the thermodynamic model of the PEMFC is used to explain the contribution of heat to the performance of the output voltage of the PEMFC. On the other hand, the partial pressure equation of the hydrogen is included in the PEMFC mathematical modeling to study the PEMFC voltage behaviour related to the input variable input hydrogen pressure. The efficiency of the model is 33.8% which calculated by applying the energy conversion device equations on the thermal efficiency. PEMFC’s voltage output performance is increased by increasing the hydrogen input pressure and temperature.

  11. Fundamental characteristics study of anion-exchange PVDF-SiO(2) membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xingtao; Shi, Wenxin; Yu, Shuili; He, Jiajie

    2012-01-01

    A new type of poly(vinylidene fluoride)(PVDF)-SiO(2) hybrid anion-exchange membrane was prepared by blending method. The anion-exchange groups were introduced by the reaction of epoxy groups with trimethylamine (TMA). Contact angle between water and the membrane surface was measured to characterize the hydrophilicity change of the membrane surface. The effects of nano-sized SiO(2) particles in the membrane-forming materials on the membrane mechanical properties and conductivity were also investigated. The experimental results indicated that PVDF-SiO(2) anion-exchange membranes exhibited better water content, ion-exchange capacity, conductivity and mechanic properties, and so may find potential applications in alkaline membrane fuel cells and water treatment processes.

  12. Modeling two-phase flow in PEM fuel cell channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yun; Basu, Suman; Wang, Chao-Yang [Electrochemical Engine Center (ECEC), and Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2008-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the simultaneous flow of liquid water and gaseous reactants in mini-channels of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Envisaging the mini-channels as structured and ordered porous media, we develop a continuum model of two-phase channel flow based on two-phase Darcy's law and the M{sup 2} formalism, which allow estimate of the parameters key to fuel cell operation such as overall pressure drop and liquid saturation profiles along the axial flow direction. Analytical solutions of liquid water saturation and species concentrations along the channel are derived to explore the dependences of these physical variables vital to cell performance on operating parameters such as flow stoichiometric ratio and relative humility. The two-phase channel model is further implemented for three-dimensional numerical simulations of two-phase, multi-component transport in a single fuel-cell channel. Three issues critical to optimizing channel design and mitigating channel flooding in PEM fuel cells are fully discussed: liquid water buildup towards the fuel cell outlet, saturation spike in the vicinity of flow cross-sectional heterogeneity, and two-phase pressure drop. Both the two-phase model and analytical solutions presented in this paper may be applicable to more general two-phase flow phenomena through mini- and micro-channels. (author)

  13. An Open-Source Toolbox for PEM Fuel Cell Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Kone

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an open-source toolbox that can be used to accurately predict the distribution of the major physical quantities that are transported within a proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell is presented. The toolbox has been developed using the Open Source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM platform, which is an open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD code. The base case results for the distribution of velocity, pressure, chemical species, Nernst potential, current density, and temperature are as expected. The plotted polarization curve was compared to the results from a numerical model and experimental data taken from the literature. The conducted simulations have generated a significant amount of data and information about the transport processes that are involved in the operation of a PEM fuel cell. The key role played by the concentration constant in shaping the cell polarization curve has been explored. The development of the present toolbox is in line with the objectives outlined in the International Energy Agency (IEA, Paris, France Advanced Fuel Cell Annex 37 that is devoted to developing open-source computational tools to facilitate fuel cell technologies. The work therefore serves as a basis for devising additional features that are not always feasible with a commercial code.

  14. Optimization Design of Bipolar Plate Flow Field in PEM Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; He, Kanghao; Li, Peilong; Yang, Lei; Deng, Li; Jiang, Fei; Yao, Yong

    2017-12-01

    A new design of bipolar plate flow field in proton exchange membrane (PEM) stack was presented to develop a high-performance transfer efficiency of the two-phase flow. Two different flow fields were studied by using numerical simulations and the performance of the flow fields was presented. the hydrodynamic properties include pressure gap between inlet and outlet, the Reynold’s number of the two types were compared based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Computer aided optimization software was implemented in the design of experiments of the preferable flow field. The design of experiments (DOE) for the favorable concept was carried out to study the hydrodynamic properties when changing the design parameters of the bipolar plate.

  15. A portable power system using PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, E. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Ball has developed a proof-of-concept, small, lightweight, portable power system. The power system uses a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, stored hydrogen, and atmospheric oxygen as the oxidant to generate electrical power. Electronics monitor the system performance to control cooling air and oxidant flow, and automatically do corrective measures to maintain performance. With the controller monitoring the system health, the system can operate in an ambient environment from 0 C to +50 C. The paper describes system testing, including load testing, thermal and humidity testing, vibration and shock testing, field testing, destructive testing of high-pressure gas tanks, and test results on the fuel cell power system, metal hydride hydrogen storage, high-pressure hydrogen gas storage, and chemical hydride hydrogen storage.

  16. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  17. Morphologically Aligned Cation-Exchange Membranes by a Pulsed Electric Field for Reverse Electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Young; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Hyuk; Kim, Seok; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2015-07-21

    A low-resistance ion-exchange membrane is essential to achieve the high-performance energy conversion or storage systems. The formation methods for low-resistance membranes are various; one of the methods is the ion channel alignment of an ion-exchange membrane under a direct current (DC) electric field. In this study, we suggest a more effective alignment method than the process with the DC electric field. First, an ion-exchange membrane was prepared under a pulsed electric field [alternating current (AC) mode] to enhance the effectiveness of the alignment. The membrane properties and the performance in reverse electrodialysis (RED) were then examined to assess the membrane resistance and ion selectivity. The results show that the membrane electrical resistance (MER) had a lower value of 0.86 Ω cm(2) for the AC membrane than 2.13 Ω cm(2) observed for the DC membrane and 4.30 Ω cm(2) observed for the pristine membrane. Furthermore, RED achieved 1.34 W/m(2) of maximum power density for the AC membrane, whereas that for the DC membrane was found to be 1.14 W/m(2) [a RED stack assembled with CMX, used as a commercial cation-exchange membrane (CEM), showed 1.07 W/m(2)]. Thereby, the novel preparation process for a remarkable low-resistance membrane with high ion selectivity was demonstrated.

  18. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven [ 35 S]-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (IC 50 , ∼40 μM). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation

  19. Novel Blend Membranes Based on Acid-Base Interactions for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhu Fu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells hold great promise for wide applications in portable, residential, and large-scale power supplies. For low temperature fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs, proton-exchange membranes (PEMs are a key component determining the fuel cells performance. PEMs with high proton conductivity under anhydrous conditions can allow PEMFCs to be operated above 100 °C, enabling use of hydrogen fuels with high-CO contents and improving the electrocatalytic activity. PEMs with high proton conductivity and low methanol crossover are critical for lowering catalyst loadings at the cathode and improving the performance and long-term stability of DMFCs. This review provides a summary of a number of novel acid-base blend membranes consisting of an acidic polymer and a basic compound containing N-heterocycle groups, which are promising for PEMFCs and DMFCs.

  20. Multi-layer membrane model for mass transport in a direct ethanol fuel cell using an alkaline anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Hafez; Faghri, Amir

    2012-11-01

    A one-dimensional, isothermal, single-phase model is presented to investigate the mass transport in a direct ethanol fuel cell incorporating an alkaline anion exchange membrane. The electrochemistry is analytically solved and the closed-form solution is provided for two limiting cases assuming Tafel expressions for both oxygen reduction and ethanol oxidation. A multi-layer membrane model is proposed to properly account for the diffusive and electroosmotic transport of ethanol through the membrane. The fundamental differences in fuel crossover for positive and negative electroosmotic drag coefficients are discussed. It is found that ethanol crossover is significantly reduced upon using an alkaline anion exchange membrane instead of a proton exchange membrane, especially at current densities higher than 500 A m

  1. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  2. Polymeric membranes obtained from S-PEEK for application in PEM fuel cells; Caracterizacao de membranas polimericas obtidas a partir dos S-PEEK para aplicacao em celulas combustiveis do tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Ednardo G.; Fiuza, Raildo A.; Catao, Ronei S.; Jose, Nadia M.; Boaventura, Jaime S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: ednardobarreto@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: raildofiuza@gmail.com, e-mail: roneicatao@ig.com.br, e-mail: nadia@ufba.br, e-mail: bventura@ufba.br; Pepe, Yuri [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2007-07-01

    This work had the objective to develop and to characterize S-PEEK membranes (sulfonated poly ether ether ketone) through chemical and electrochemical analyses. Conductivity test in function of the frequency and tension had been carried through; as well as, the open circuit tension of a fuel cell using the S-PEEK as electrolyte. Additional tests included TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis), water absorption test, DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), as tools to characterize conducting, thermal and mechanical proprieties of polymeric membrane. (author)

  3. Performance of single chamber biocatalyzed electrolysis with different types of ion exchange membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Molenkamp, R.J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper hydrogen production through biocatalyzed electrolysis was studied for the first time in a single chamber configuration. Single chamber biocatalyzed electrolysis was tested in two configurations: (i) with a cation exchange membrane (CEM) and (ii) with an anion exchange membrane (AEM).

  4. Development of Preparation Methods for Alkaline Anion Exchange Membranes by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jun Hwa; Nho, Young Chang; Sohn, Joon Yong

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is to contribute to the environmentally friendly fuel cell system by developing a radiation grafting method for the preparation of anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell and finally to the radiation technology industry. In this project, the preparation methods for the VBC-grafted fluoropolymer films using radiation have been developed and anion exchange membranes have been prepared via the reaction between the VBC-grafted fluoropolymer films and amines. The prepared anion exchange membranes were characterized and the performance of the membranes were evaluated

  5. A novel anion exchange membrane from polystyrene (ethylene butylene) polystyrene: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinodh, Rajangam; Ilakkiya, Arjunan; Elamathi, Swaminathan; Sangeetha, Dharmalingam

    2010-01-01

    We look forward for an eco-friendly hydrocarbon polymer with higher molecular weight for the preparation of an anion exchange membrane. Polystyrene ethylene butylene polystyrene (PSEBS) was chosen as the polymer matrix. The anion exchange membrane was prepared from PSEBS tri-block co-polymer and then the properties were characterized for alkaline fuel cell application. The preparation of anion exchange polymer involved two steps namely chloromethylation and quaternization. The anion exchange membrane with high conductivity has been prepared by introducing quaternary ammonium groups in to the polymer. Finally, the membrane was prepared using solution casting method. The solution casting method yields highly hydrophilic membranes with uniform structure that were suitable for electrochemical applications. The efficiency of the entrapment was monitored by swelling ratio, chemical stability and ion exchange measurement. The characteristic structural properties of the membrane were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the membrane was characterized by TGA, DSC and DMA (dynamic mechanical analysis). The prepared uniform electrolyte membrane in this study has high thermal and chemical stability. The surface morphology and elemental composition of the quaternized PSEBS was determined by SEM-EDXA techniques, respectively. The measured hydroxyl ion conductivity of the synthesized alkaline PSEBS polymer electrolyte membrane showed ionic conductivity in the range of 10 -3 S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. It was found that the substitution provided a flexible, chemically and thermally stable membrane. Hence, the membrane will have potential application in the alkaline fuel cell.

  6. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of hybrid membrane Nafion-SiO2 for application as polymer electrolyte in PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresch, Mauro Andre

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the effect of sol-gel synthesis parameters on the preparation and polarization response of Nafion-SiO 2 hybrids as electrolytes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) operating at high temperatures (130 degree C) was evaluated. The inorganic phase was incorporated in a Nafion matrix with the following purposes: to improve the Nafion water uptake at high temperatures (> 100 degree C); to increase the mechanical strength of Nafion and; to accelerate the electrode reactions. The hybrids were prepared by an in-situ incorporation of silica into commercial Nafion membranes using an acid-catalyzed sol-gel route. The effects of synthesis parameters, such as catalyst concentration, sol-gel solvent, temperature and time of both hydrolysis and condensation reactions, and silicon precursor concentration (Tetraethyl orthosilicate - TEOS), were evaluated as a function on the incorporation degree and polarization response. Nafion-SiO 2 hybrids were characterized by gravimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy and X-ray dispersive energy (SEM-EDS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and X-ray small angle scattering (SAXS). The hybrids were tested as electrolyte in single H 2 /O 2 fuel cells in the temperature range of 80 - 130 degree C and at 130 degree C and reduced relative humidity (75% and 50%). Summarily, the hybrid performance showed to be strongly dependent on the synthesis parameters, mainly, the type of alcohol and the TEOS concentration. (author)

  7. Synthesis and characterization of Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane for proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Young; Cho, Sung Yong

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the syntheses and characterizations of Nafion/TiO2 membranes for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) were investigated. Porous TiO2 powders were synthesized using the sol-gel method; with Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membranes prepared using the casting method. An X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the synthesized TiO2 had an anatase structure. The specific surface areas of the TiO2 and Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane were found to be 115.97 and 33.91 m2/g using a nitrogen adsorption analyzer. The energy dispersive spectra analysis indicated that the TiO2 particles were uniformly distributed in the nanocomposite membrane. The membrane electrode assembly prepared from the Nafion/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane gave the best PEMFC performance compared to the Nafion/P-25 and Nafion membranes.

  8. Hybrid capacitive deionization with anion-exchange membranes for lithium extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Siekierka Anna; Bryjak Marek

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is considered to be a critical material for various industrial fields. We present our studies on extraction lithium from diluted aqueous solution by novel hybrid system based on a membrane capacitive deionization and batteries desalination. Hybrid CDI is comprised by a lithium selective adsorbent, activated carbon electrode and anion-exchange membranes. Here, we demonstrated implication of various type of anion-exchange membranes and influence their properties on effective capacity an...

  9. Multicomponent ion transport in a mono and bilayer cation-exchange membrane at high current density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshtari Khah, S.; Oppers, N.A.W.; de Groot, M.T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Schouten, J.C.; van der Schaaf, J.

    2017-01-01

    This work describes a model for bilayer cation-exchange membranes used in the chlor-alkali process. The ion transport inside the membrane is modeled with the Nernst–Planck equation. A logistic function is used at the boundary between the two layers of the bilayer membrane to describe the change in

  10. An investigation into the efficiency of ion-exchange membranes in simulated PWR coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clune, T.

    1980-11-01

    This report describes an investigation of the retention efficiency of cation-exchange membranes for magnesium, calcium and nickel ions in PWR-coolant type solutions containing 2 ppm lithium (as lithium hydroxide) and 1000 ppm boron (as boric acid). By analysis of the membranes themselves or of the effluent, the retention characteristics of the membranes in various experimental conditions have been examined. (author)

  11. A Pd/C-CeO2 Anode Catalyst for High-Performance Platinum-Free Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hamish A; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Vizza, Francesco; Marelli, Marcello; Di Benedetto, Francesco; D'Acapito, Francesco; Paska, Yair; Page, Miles; Dekel, Dario R

    2016-05-10

    One of the biggest obstacles to the dissemination of fuel cells is their cost, a large part of which is due to platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts. Complete removal of Pt is a difficult if not impossible task for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEM-FCs). The anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEM-FC) has long been proposed as a solution as non-Pt metals may be employed. Despite this, few examples of Pt-free AEM-FCs have been demonstrated with modest power output. The main obstacle preventing the realization of a high power density Pt-free AEM-FC is sluggish hydrogen oxidation (HOR) kinetics of the anode catalyst. Here we describe a Pt-free AEM-FC that employs a mixed carbon-CeO2 supported palladium (Pd) anode catalyst that exhibits enhanced kinetics for the HOR. AEM-FC tests run on dry H2 and pure air show peak power densities of more than 500 mW cm(-2) . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Development of a membrane electrode assembly process for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, Wilians Roberto

    2003-01-01

    In this work, a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) producing process was developed, involving simple steps, aiming cost reduction and good reproducibility for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) commercial applications. The electrodes were produced by spraying ink into both sides of the polymeric membrane, building the catalytic layers, followed by hot pressing of Gas Diffusion Layers (GDL), forming the MEA. This new producing method was called 'Spray and hot pressing hybrid method'. Concerning that all the parameters of spray and hot pressing methods are interdependent, a statistical procedure were used in order to study the mutual variables influences and to optimize the method. This study was earned out in two distinct steps: the first one, where seven variables were considered for the analysis and the second one, where only the variables that interfered in the process performance in the first step were considered for analysis. The results showed that the developed process was adequate, including only simple steps, reaching MEA's performance of 651 m A cm -2 at a potential of 600 mV for catalysts loading of 0,4 mg cm -2 Pt at the anode and 0,6 mg cm -2 Pt at the cathode. This result is compared to available commercial MEA's, with the same fuel cell operations conditions. (author)

  13. Coupling a PEM fuel cell and the hydrogen generation from aluminum waste cans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Susana Silva; Albanil Sanchez, Loyda; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. CP 62210 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad, UPCH, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    High purity hydrogen was generated from the chemical reaction of aluminum and sodium hydroxide. The aluminum used in this study was obtained from empty soft drink cans and treated with concentrated sulfuric acid to remove the paint and plastic film. One gram of aluminum was reacted with a solution of 2moldm{sup -3} of sodium hydroxide to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen produced from aluminum cans and oxygen obtained from a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer or air, was fed to a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell to produce electricity. Yields of 44 mmol of hydrogen contained in a volume of 1.760dm{sup 3} were produced from one gram of aluminum in a time period of 20 min. (author)

  14. Molecular simulations of hydrated proton exchange membranes. The structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcharnd, Gabriel [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Chemie; Bordeaux Univ., Talence (France). Dept. of Chemistry; Bopp, Philippe A. [Bordeaux Univ., Talence (France). Dept. of Chemistry; Spohr, Eckhard [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Chemie

    2013-01-15

    The structure of two hydrated proton exchange membranes for fuel cells (PEMFC), Nafion {sup registered} (Dupont) and Hyflon {sup registered} (Solvay), is studied by all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Since the characteristic times of these systems are long compared to the times for which they can be simulated, several different, but equivalent, initial configurations with a large degree of randomness are generated for different water contents and then equilibrated and simulated in parallel. A more constrained structure, analog to the newest model proposed in the literature based on scattering experiments, is investigated in the same way. One might speculate that a limited degree of entanglement of the polymer chains is a key feature of the structures showing the best agreement with experiment. Nevertheless, the overall conclusion remains that the scattering experiments cannot distinguish between the several, in our view equally plausible, structural models. We thus find that the characteristic features of experimental scattering curves are, after equilibration, fairly well reproduced by all systems prepared with our method. We thus study in more detail some structural details. We attempt to characterize the spatial and size distribution of the water rich domains, which is where the proton diffusion mostly takes place, using several clustering algorithms. (orig.)

  15. Modelling and validation of Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Basran, N.; Khan, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is the outcome of a small scale fuel cell project. Fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts energy from chemical reaction to electrical work. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the different types of fuel cell, which is more efficient, having low operational temperature and fast start up capability results in high energy density. In this study, a mathematical model of 1.2 W PEMFC is developed and simulated using MATLAB software. This model describes the PEMFC behaviour under steady-state condition. This mathematical modeling of PEMFC determines the polarization curve, power generated, and the efficiency of the fuel cell. Simulation results were validated by comparing with experimental results obtained from the test of a single PEMFC with a 3 V motor. The performance of experimental PEMFC is little lower compared to simulated PEMFC, however both results were found in good agreement. Experiments on hydrogen flow rate also been conducted to obtain the amount of hydrogen consumed to produce electrical work on PEMFC.

  16. Highly conductive side chain block copolymer anion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhu; Hickner, Michael A

    2016-06-28

    Block copolymers based on poly(styrene) having pendent trimethyl styrenylbutyl ammonium (with four carbon ring-ionic group alkyl linkers) or benzyltrimethyl ammonium groups with a methylene bridge between the ring and ionic group were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation radical (RAFT) polymerization as anion exchange membranes (AEMs). The C4 side chain polymer showed a 17% increase in Cl(-) conductivity of 33.7 mS cm(-1) compared to the benzyltrimethyl ammonium sample (28.9 mS cm(-1)) under the same conditions (IEC = 3.20 meq. g(-1), hydration number, λ = ∼7.0, cast from DMF/1-propanol (v/v = 3 : 1), relative humidity = 95%). As confirmed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the side chain block copolymers with tethered ammonium cations showed well-defined lamellar morphologies and a significant reduction in interdomain spacing compared to benzyltrimethyl ammonium containing block copolymers. The chemical stabilities of the block copolymers were evaluated under severe, accelerated conditions, and degradation was observed by (1)H NMR. The block copolymer with C4 side chain trimethyl styrenylbutyl ammonium motifs displayed slightly improved stability compared to that of a benzyltrimethyl ammonium-based AEM at 80 °C in 1 M NaOD aqueous solution for 30 days.

  17. Steam and partial oxidation reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousri M.A. Welaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM generates electrical power from air and from hydrogen or hydrogen rich gas mixtures. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in converting current hydrocarbon based marine fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable to the PEM fuel cells on board ships. Using chemical flow sheeting software, the total system efficiency has been calculated. Natural gas appears to be the best fuel for hydrogen rich gas production due to its favorable composition of lower molecular weight compounds. This paper presents a study for a 250 kW net electrical power PEM fuel cell system utilizing a partial oxidation in one case study and steam reformers in the second. This study has shown that steam-reforming process is the most competitive fuel processing option in terms of fuel processing efficiency. Partial oxidation process has proved to posses the lowest fuel processing efficiency. Among the options studied, the highest fuel processing efficiency is achieved with natural gas steam reforming system.

  18. Analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a micro PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize the micro fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a micro proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a micro PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.

  19. Method of detecting defects in ion exchange membranes of electrochemical cells by chemochromic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Robert Paul; Mohajeri, Nahid

    2016-01-05

    A method of detecting defects in membranes such as ion exchange membranes of electrochemical cells. The electrochemical cell includes an assembly having an anode side and a cathode side with the ion exchange membrane in between. In a configuration step a chemochromic sensor is placed above the cathode and flow isolation hardware lateral to the ion exchange membrane which prevents a flow of hydrogen (H.sub.2) between the cathode and anode side. The anode side is exposed to a first reactant fluid including hydrogen. The chemochromic sensor is examined after the exposing for a color change. A color change evidences the ion exchange membrane has at least one defect that permits H.sub.2 transmission therethrough.

  20. Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. McGrath

    2005-10-26

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 °C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and

  1. Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. McGrath; Donald G. Baird; Michael von Spakovsky

    2005-10-26

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 degrees C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic

  2. Influence of glucose and urea on 125I transport across an anion exchange paper membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroyoshi

    2001-01-01

    In order to study the influence of glucose and urea on the 125 I transport across an anion exchange paper membrane, the transmembrane potential, the fluxes, and the concentrations of 125 I, glucose and urea within the membrane were measured in the Na 125 I concentration-cell system containing glucose or urea. Glucose and urea increased the membrane/solution distribution of the iodide ion, but scarcely affected the diffusion process of iodide ion within the membrane

  3. Preparation of the vulcan XC-72R-supported Pt nanoparticles for the hydrogen evolution reaction in PEM water electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Huy Du; Nguyen, T Thuy Luyen; Nguyen, Khac Manh; Ha, Thuc Huy; Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2015-01-01

    Pt nanoparticles on vulcan XC-72R support (Pt/vulcan XC-72R) were prepared by the impregnation–reduction method. The Pt content, the morphological properties and the electrochemical catalysis of the Pt/vulcan XC 72R materials have been investigated by ICP-OES analysis, FESEM, TEM, and cyclic voltammetry. These materials were then used as catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction at the cathode of proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysers. The best catalyst was Pt/vulcan XC-72R prepared by the impregnation–reduction method which is conducted in two reducing steps with the reductants of sodium borohydride and ethylene glycol, respectively. The current density of PEM water electrolysers reached 1.0 A cm"−"2 when applying a voltage of 2.0 V at 25 °C. (paper)

  4. Integrated high-efficiency Pt/carbon nanotube arrays for PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weimin; Minett, Andrew I.; Zhao, Jie; Razal, Joselito M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Romeo, Tony; Chen, Jun [Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, AIIM Facility, Innovation Campus, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Gao, Mei [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, CSIRO, Bayview Ave, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    A facile strategy to deposit Pt nanoparticles with various metal-loading densities on vertically aligned carbon nanotube (ACNT) arrays as electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is described. The deposition is achieved by electrostatic adsorption of the Pt precursor on the positively charged polyelectrolyte functionalized ACNT arrays and subsequent reduction by L-ascorbic acid. The application of the aligned electrocatalysts in fuel cells is realized by transferring from a quartz substrate to nafion membrane using a hot-press procedure to fabricate the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). It is shown that the MEA with vertically aligned structured electrocatalysts provides better Pt utilization than that with Pt on conventional carbon nanotubes or carbon black, resulting in higher fuel cell performance. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. High-Flux Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Membranes for Propylene/Propane Separation by Postsynthetic Linker Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon Joo; Kwon, Hyuk Taek; Jeong, Hae-Kwon

    2018-01-02

    While zeolitic imidazolate framework, ZIF-8, membranes show impressive propylene/propane separation, their throughput needs to be greatly improved for practical applications. A method is described that drastically reduces the effective thickness of ZIF-8 membranes, thereby substantially improving their propylene permeance (that is, flux). The new strategy is based on a controlled single-crystal to single-crystal linker exchange of 2-methylimidazole in ZIF-8 membrane grains with 2-imidazolecarboxaldehyde (ZIF-90 linker), thereby enlarging the effective aperture size of ZIF-8. The linker-exchanged ZIF-8 membranes showed a drastic increase in propylene permeance by about four times, with a negligible loss in propylene/propane separation factor when compared to as-prepared membranes. The linker-exchange effect depends on the membrane synthesis method. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Na+/H+ Exchange Activity in the Plasma Membrane of Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Quan-Sheng; Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Schumaker, Karen S.

    2003-01-01

    In plants, Na+/H+ exchangers in the plasma membrane are critical for growth in high levels of salt, removing toxic Na+ from the cytoplasm by transport out of the cell. The molecular identity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger in Arabidopsis (SOS1) has recently been determined. In this study, immunological analysis provided evidence that SOS1 localizes to the plasma membrane of leaves and roots. To characterize the transport activity of this protein, purified plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from leaves of Arabidopsis. Na+/H+ exchange activity, monitored as the ability of Na to dissipate an established pH gradient, was absent in plants grown without salt. However, exchange activity was induced when plants were grown in 250 mm NaCl and increased with prolonged salt exposure up to 8 d. H+-coupled exchange was specific for Na, because chloride salts of other monovalent cations did not dissipate the pH gradient. Na+/H+ exchange activity was dependent on Na (substrate) concentration, and kinetic analysis indicated that the affinity (apparent Km) of the transporter for Na+ is 22.8 mm. Data from two experimental approaches supports electroneutral exchange (one Na+ exchanged for one proton): (a) no change in membrane potential was measured during the exchange reaction, and (b) Na+/H+ exchange was unaffected by the presence or absence of a membrane potential. Results from this research provide a framework for future studies into the regulation of the plant plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger and its relative contribution to the maintenance of cellular Na+ homeostasis during plant growth in salt. PMID:12805632

  7. Na+/H+ exchange activity in the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Quan-Sheng; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Schumaker, Karen S

    2003-06-01

    In plants, Na+/H+ exchangers in the plasma membrane are critical for growth in high levels of salt, removing toxic Na+ from the cytoplasm by transport out of the cell. The molecular identity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger in Arabidopsis (SOS1) has recently been determined. In this study, immunological analysis provided evidence that SOS1 localizes to the plasma membrane of leaves and roots. To characterize the transport activity of this protein, purified plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from leaves of Arabidopsis. Na+/H+ exchange activity, monitored as the ability of Na to dissipate an established pH gradient, was absent in plants grown without salt. However, exchange activity was induced when plants were grown in 250 mm NaCl and increased with prolonged salt exposure up to 8 d. H+-coupled exchange was specific for Na, because chloride salts of other monovalent cations did not dissipate the pH gradient. Na+/H+ exchange activity was dependent on Na (substrate) concentration, and kinetic analysis indicated that the affinity (apparent Km) of the transporter for Na+ is 22.8 mm. Data from two experimental approaches supports electroneutral exchange (one Na+ exchanged for one proton): (a) no change in membrane potential was measured during the exchange reaction, and (b) Na+/H+ exchange was unaffected by the presence or absence of a membrane potential. Results from this research provide a framework for future studies into the regulation of the plant plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger and its relative contribution to the maintenance of cellular Na+ homeostasis during plant growth in salt.

  8. Electrical equivalent circuit of an ion-exchange membrane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikonenko, Victor V., E-mail: v_nikonenko@mail.r [Membrane Institute, Kuban State University, Krasnodar (Russian Federation); Kozmai, Anton E. [Membrane Institute, Kuban State University, Krasnodar (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-01

    Usually, the current flowing through an electrochemical cell is divided into the faradaic current going to an electrochemical interface reaction, and the current charging electric double layer (EDL). This division leads to the Randles-Ershler equivalent circuit with an EDL capacitance in one branch, and the faradaic impedance in the other, specific for each particular system. However, the physics of the separation of the impedance into faradaic and capacitive components for different electrochemical systems is not sufficiently clear. The most of derivations resulting in the formal construction of the Randles-Ershler or similar equivalent circuits are based on the a priori separation of the electroneutral and the double-layer regions. In this paper, we derive an equation for the impedance of a three-layer system consisted of an ion-exchange membrane and two adjoining diffusion boundary layers (DBL) starting from the Poisson equation. The system is polarized by a constant electric current over which a small sinusoidal signal is applied. The equation shows that the impedance of the considered system can be formally interpreted via an equivalent circuit with a frequency dependent capacitance in one branch and a finite-length Warburg-type impedance in the other. To take into account this dependence, the impedance of the system may be presented as a series connection of five circuits. Three of them are consisted of a geometric capacitance connected in parallel with an ohmic resistance, respectively, for both diffusion layers and for the membrane bulk; the two others being the double-layer capacitance in parallel with the finite-length Warburg impedance for the left and the right interfaces, respectively. The comparison of the impedance spectra calculated within our analytical approach with those obtained by the full numerical solution of the Nernst-Planck-Poisson (NPP) equations shows a good agreement. Different possible situations, which might arise in real systems

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE - IMIDAZOLIUM FUNCTIONALIZED POLYSULFONE BLEND ANION EXCHANGE MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VELU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anion exchange membrane (AEM is one of the core components of an alkaline fuel cell influencing the fuel cell’s performance, durability and stability. Out of the many anion exchange membranes reported so far, imidazolium functionalized polysulfone (PSf-ImOH membrane has been identified to have high hydroxide ionic conductivity, reaching up to 50 mS cm-1 at 20oC. However, at high levels of ion exchange capacity, the membrane’s water uptake and swelling ratio increases significantly with temperature thus destabilizing it and making it unfit for potential use in high temperature alkaline fuel cells. This limitation of PSf-ImOH membranes has been overcome by blending it with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF polymer, which is a thermally stable and highly hydrophobic polymer. PSf-ImOH membrane with a high degree of chloromethylation (180% was synthesized and blended with PVDF at different weight ratios (PVDF / PSf-ImOH: 30/70, 50/50 and 70/30 to create a series of novel anion exchange membranes. The prepared membranes were characterized to study their structure, water uptake, swelling ratio, solubility in low boiling water soluble solvents, thermal stability, ion exchange capacity (IEC and ionic conductivity (IC at different temperatures. The 70% PVDF blend membrane demonstrated the better performance in terms of IEC, IC and water uptake properties compared to other membranes. Comparative studies on the water uptake and IC variation between the 70% PVDF blend membrane and pure PSfImOH membrane (having the same IEC as that of the blend membrane, clearly indicated the superiority and the promising use of the blend membrane in alkaline fuel cell especially for high temperature working condition.

  10. Effect of assembly error of bipolar plate on the contact pressure distribution and stress failure of membrane electrode assembly in proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dong' an; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-07-01

    In practice, the assembly error of the bipolar plate (BPP) in a PEM fuel cell stack is unavoidable based on the current assembly process. However its effect on the performance of the PEM fuel cell stack is not reported yet. In this study, a methodology based on FEA model, ''least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM)'' simulation and statistical analysis is developed to investigate the effect of the assembly error of the BPP on the pressure distribution and stress failure of membrane electrode assembly (MEA). At first, a parameterized FEA model of a metallic BPP/MEA assembly is established. Then, the LS-SVM simulation process is conducted based on the FEA model, and datasets for the pressure distribution and Von Mises stress of MEA are obtained, respectively for each assembly error. At last, the effect of the assembly error is obtained by applying the statistical analysis to the LS-SVM results. A regression equation between the stress failure and the assembly error is also built, and the allowed maximum assembly error is calculated based on the equation. The methodology in this study is beneficial to understand the mechanism of the assembly error and can be applied to guide the assembly process for the PEM fuel cell stack. (author)

  11. Low stoichiometry operation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell employing the interdigitated flow field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    A multiphase fuel cell model based on computational fluid dynamics is used to investigate the possibility of operating a proton exchange membrane fuel cell at low stoichiometric flow ratios (ξ gases. A case study...

  12. Hydrogen production by a PEM electrolyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragón-González, G; León-Galicia, A; Camacho, J M Rivera; Uribe-Salazar, M; González-Huerta, R

    2015-01-01

    A PEM electrolyser for hydrogen production was evaluated. It was fed with water and a 400 mA, 3.5 V cc electrical power source. The electrolyser was built with two acrylic plates to form the anode and the cathode, two meshes to distribute the current, two seals, two gas diffusers and an assembly membrane-electrode. A small commercial neoprene sheet 1.7 mm thin was used to provide for the water deposit in order to avoid the machining of the structure. For the assembly of the proton interchange membrane a thin square 50 mm layer of Nafion 115 was used

  13. A Comparison of Flow-Through Versus Non-Flow-Through Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems for NASA's Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) under the auspices of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), NASA is developing both primary fuel cell power systems and regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage systems within the fuel cell portion of the Energy Storage Project. This effort is being led by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in partnership with the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and industrial partners. The development goals are to improve fuel cell and electrolysis stack electrical performance, reduce system mass, volume, and parasitic power requirements, and increase system life and reliability. A major focus of this effort has been the parallel development of both flow-through and non-flow-through proton exchange membrane (PEM) primary fuel cell power systems. The plan has been, at the appropriate time, to select a single primary fuel cell technology for eventual flight hardware development. Ideally, that appropriate time would occur after both technologies have achieved a technology readiness level (TRL) of six, which represents an engineering model fidelity PEM fuel cell system being successfully tested in a relevant environment. Budget constraints in fiscal year 2009 and beyond have prevented NASA from continuing to pursue the parallel development of both primary fuel cell options. Because very limited data exists for either system, a toplevel, qualitative assessment based on engineering judgement was performed expeditiously to provide guidance for a selection. At that time, the non-flow-through technology was selected for continued development because of potentially major advantages in terms of weight, volume, parasitic power, reliability, and life. This author believes that the advantages are significant enough, and the potential benefits great enough, to offset the higher state of technology readiness of flow-through technology. This paper

  14. Nafion-based nanocomposite membranes for fuel cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cele, NP

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available . Zhang, J. Wang and F. Sheu, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 577 (2005) 295 J. James, T.Z. McMaster, J.M. Newton, M.J. Miles, Polymer 41 (2000) 4223 M. Ludvigsson, J. Lindgren, J. Tegenfeldt, Electrochim. Acta (2000) 2267 Shoibal Banerjee..., Dennis E. Curtin Journal of Fluorine Chemistry 125 (2004) 1211–1216 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. CPO-0023 By incorporating multi walled carbon nanotubes onto proton exchange membranes (PEM), its thermal stability is increased, making PEM fuel cells ideal...

  15. Dendronized Polymer Architectures for Fuel Cell Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Takamuku, S.

    2013-01-01

    Multi‐step synthetic pathways to low‐ion exchange capacity (IEC) polysulfone (PSU) with sulfonic acid functionalized aliphatic dendrons and sulfonated comb‐type PSU structures are developed and investigated in a comparative study as non‐fluorinated proton exchange membrane (PEM) candidates. In each...... case the side chains are synthesized and introduced in their sulfonated form onto an azide‐functionalized PSU via click chemistry. Three degrees of substitution of each architecture were prepared in order to evaluate the dependence on number of sulfonated side chains. Solution cast membranes were...... evaluated as PEMs for use in fuel cells by proton conductivity measurements, and in the case of dendronized architectures: thermal stability. The proposed synthetic strategy facilitates exploration of a non‐fluorous system with various flexible side chains where IEC is tunable by the degree of substitution....

  16. Investigation of Electrochemical and Morphological Properties of Mixed Matrix Polysulfone-Silica Anion Exchange Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiruddin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed matrix anion exchange membranes (AEMs were synthesized using dry-wet phase inversion. The casting solutions were prepared by dispersing finely ground anion-exchange resin particles in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc solutions of polysulfone (PSf. Subsequently, nanosilica particles were introduced into the membranes. The results show that evaporation time (tev and solution composition contributed to membrane properties formation. A longer tev produces membranes with reduced void fraction inside the membranes, thus the amount of water adsorbed and membrane conductivity are reduced. Meanwhile, the permselectivity was improved by increasing tev, since a longer tev produces membranes with a narrower channel for ion migration and more effective Donnan exclusion. The incorporation of 0.5 %-wt nanosilica particles into the polymer matrix led to conductivity improvement (from 2.27 to 3.41 mS.cm-1. This may be associated with additional pathway formation by hydroxyl groups on the silica surface that entraps water and assists ion migration. However, at further silica loading (1.0 and 1.5 %-wt, these properties decreased (to 1.9 and 1.4 mS.cm-1 respectively, which attributed to inaccessibility of ion-exchange functional groups due to membrane compactness. It was found from the results that nanosilica contributes to membrane formation (increases casting solution viscosity then reduces void fraction and membrane functional group addition (provides hydroxyl groups.

  17. A novel anion exchange membrane from polystyrene (ethylene butylene) polystyrene: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinodh, Rajangam; Ilakkiya, Arjunan; Elamathi, Swaminathan [Department of Chemistry, Anna University Chennai, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India); Sangeetha, Dharmalingam, E-mail: sangeetha@annauniv.ed [Department of Chemistry, Anna University Chennai, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-02-25

    We look forward for an eco-friendly hydrocarbon polymer with higher molecular weight for the preparation of an anion exchange membrane. Polystyrene ethylene butylene polystyrene (PSEBS) was chosen as the polymer matrix. The anion exchange membrane was prepared from PSEBS tri-block co-polymer and then the properties were characterized for alkaline fuel cell application. The preparation of anion exchange polymer involved two steps namely chloromethylation and quaternization. The anion exchange membrane with high conductivity has been prepared by introducing quaternary ammonium groups in to the polymer. Finally, the membrane was prepared using solution casting method. The solution casting method yields highly hydrophilic membranes with uniform structure that were suitable for electrochemical applications. The efficiency of the entrapment was monitored by swelling ratio, chemical stability and ion exchange measurement. The characteristic structural properties of the membrane were investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the membrane was characterized by TGA, DSC and DMA (dynamic mechanical analysis). The prepared uniform electrolyte membrane in this study has high thermal and chemical stability. The surface morphology and elemental composition of the quaternized PSEBS was determined by SEM-EDXA techniques, respectively. The measured hydroxyl ion conductivity of the synthesized alkaline PSEBS polymer electrolyte membrane showed ionic conductivity in the range of 10{sup -3} S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. It was found that the substitution provided a flexible, chemically and thermally stable membrane. Hence, the membrane will have potential application in the alkaline fuel cell.

  18. Electrochemical acidification of Kraft black liquor by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane: Ion exchange membrane fouling identification and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Maryam; Mikhaylin, Sergey; Bazinet, Laurent; Savadogo, Oumarou; Paris, Jean

    2017-02-15

    Integrated forest biorefinery offers promising pathways to sustainably diversify the revenue of pulp and paper industry. In this context, lignin can be extracted from a residual stream of Kraft pulping process, called black liquor, and subsequently converted into a wide spectrum of bio-based products. Electrochemical acidification of Kraft black liquor by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane results in lignin extraction and caustic soda production. Even though the implementation of this method requires less chemicals than the chemical acidification process, fouling of the ion exchange membranes and especially bipolar membrane impairs its productivity. Membrane thickness and ash content measurements along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) analysis were performed to identify the nature and mechanisms of the membrane fouling. The results revealed that the fouling layer mostly consisted of organic components and particularly lignin. Based on our proposed fouling mechanisms, throughout the electrodialysis process the pH of the black liquor gradually decreased and as a result more proton ions were available to trigger protonation reaction of lignin phenolic groups and decrease the lignin solubility. Due to the abundance of the proton ions on the surface of the cation exchange layers of the bipolar membrane, destabilized lignin macro-molecules started to self-aggregate and formed lignin clusters on its surface. Over the time, these lignin clusters covered the entire surface of the bipolar membrane and the spaces between the membranes and, eventually, attached to the surface of the cation exchange membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlation between morphology, water uptake, and proton conductivity in radiation-grafted proton-exchange membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balog, Sandor; Gasser, Urs; Mortensen, Kell

    2010-01-01

    An SANS investigation of hydrated proton exchange membranes is presented. Our membranes were synthesized by radiation-induced grafting of ETFE with styrene in the presence of a crosslinker, followed by sulfonation of the styrene. The contrast variation method was used to understand the relationship...

  20. 2D fluorescence spectroscopy for monitoring ion-exchange membrane based technologies - Reverse electrodialysis (RED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Sylwin; Galinha, Claudia F; Crespo, João G; Velizarov, Svetlozar

    2016-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is one of the emerging, membrane-based technologies for harvesting salinity gradient energy. In RED process, fouling is an undesirable operation constraint since it leads to a decrease of the obtainable net power density due to increasing stack electric resistance and pressure drop. Therefore, early fouling detection is one of the main challenges for successful RED technology implementation. In the present study, two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence spectroscopy was used, for the first time, as a tool for fouling monitoring in RED. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of ion-exchange membrane surfaces and of natural aqueous streams were acquired during one month of a RED stack operation. Fouling evolvement on the ion-exchange membrane surfaces was successfully followed by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy and quantified using principal components analysis (PCA). Additionally, the efficiency of cleaning strategy was assessed by measuring the membrane fluorescence emission intensity before and after cleaning. The anion-exchange membrane (AEM) surface in contact with river water showed to be significantly affected due to fouling by humic compounds, which were found to cross through the membrane from the lower salinity (river water) to higher salinity (sea water) stream. The results obtained show that the combined approach of using 2D fluorescence spectroscopy and PCA has a high potential for studying fouling development and membrane cleaning efficiency in ion exchange membrane processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of activation of heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes on their electrochemical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožová, Libuše; Křivčík, J.; Neděla, D.; Kysela, V.; Žitka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 12 (2015), s. 3228-3232 ISSN 1944-3994. [International Conference on Membrane and Electromembrane Processes - MELPRO 2014. Prague, 18.05.2014-21.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes * electrochemical properties * activation Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing Impact factor: 1.272, year: 2015

  2. Production and application of cation/anion exchange membranes of high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhili; Tan Chunhong; Yang Xiangmin

    1995-01-01

    A third affiliated factory of our university has been established for the production in batches of cation/anion exchange membranes of high performance, trade marks of which are HF-1 and HF-2. Membrane products have been applied in various fields (including industries and research institutions) with great success

  3. Mass and Heat Transfer in Ion-Exchange Membranes Applicable to Solid Polymer Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otteroey, M

    1996-04-01

    In this doctoral thesis, an improved emf method for determination of transference numbers of two counter ions in ion-exchange membranes is presented. Transference numbers were obtained as a continuous function of the composition. The method avoids problems with diffusion by using a stack of membranes. Water transference coefficients in ion-exchange membranes is discussed and reversible and irreversible water transfer is studied by emf methods. Efforts were made to get data relevant to the solid polymer fuel cell. The results support the findings of other researchers that the reversible water transfer is lower than earlier predicted. A chapter on the conductivity of ion-exchange membranes establishes a method to separate the very thin liquid layers surrounding the membranes in a stack. Using the method it was found that the conductivity is obtained with high accuracy and that the liquid layer in a membrane stack can contribute significantly to the total measured resistance. A four point impedance method was tested to measure the conductivity of membranes under fuel cell conditions. Finally, there is a discussion of reversible heat effects and heat transfer in ion-exchange membranes. 155 refs., 45 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Development and testing of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) for stationary generation; Desenvolvimento e ensaios de uma celula a combustivel de polimero solido (PEMFC) para geracao estacionaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellern, Mara; Boccuzzi, Cyro Vicente [ELETROPAULO, Sao Caetano, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mara.ellern@aes.com; Ett, Gerhard; Saiki, Gerson Yukio; Janolio, Gilberto [ELECTROCELL, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jardini, Jose Antonio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell uses a simple chemical reaction to combine hydrogen and oxygen into water, producing electric current in the process. It works something like reversed electrolysis: at the anode, hydrogen molecules give up electrons, forming hydrogen ions (this process is made possible by the platinum catalyst). The proton exchange membrane allows protons to flow through, but not electrons. As a result, the hydrogen ions flow directly through the proton exchange membrane to the cathode, while the electrons flow through an external circuit. As they travel to the cathode through the external circuit, the electrons produce electrical current. At the cathode, the electrons and hydrogen ions combine with oxygen to form water. In a fuel cell, hydrogen's natural tendency to oxidize and form water produces electricity and useful work. No pollution is produced and the only byproducts are water and heat. The huge advance on materials development combined with the growth demand of lower impact on environment is placing the fuel cells on the top of the most promising technologies world-wide. They are becoming in medium term feasible alternatives for energy generators up to energy plants of few MW. (author)

  5. Patterned ion exchange membranes for improved power production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jia

    2014-12-01

    Power production in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells (MRCs) can be limited by the internal resistance of the reverse electrodialysis stack. Typical MRC stacks use non-conductive spacers that block ion transport by the so-called spacer shadow effect. These spacers can be relatively thick compared to the membrane, and thus they increase internal stack resistance due to high solution (ohmic) resistance associated with a thick spacer. New types of patterned anion and cation exchange membranes were developed by casting membranes to create hemispherical protrusions on the membranes, enabling fluid flow between the membranes without the need for a non-conductive spacer. The use of the patterned membrane decreased the MRC stack resistance by ∼22 Ω, resulting in a 38% increase in power density from 2.50 ± 0.04 W m-2 (non-patterned membrane with a non-conductive spacer) to 3.44 ± 0.02 W m-2 (patterned membrane). The COD removal rate, coulombic efficiency, and energy efficiency of the MRC also increased using the patterned membranes compared to the non-patterned membranes. These results demonstrate that these patterned ion exchange membranes can be used to improve performance of an MRC. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Porous polybenzimidazole membranes doped with phosphoric acid: Preparation and application in high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jin; Li, Xiaojin; Yu, Shuchun; Hao, Jinkai; Lu, Wangting; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous polybenzimidazole membrane was prepared with glucose as porogen. • Phosphoric acid content was as high as 15.7 mol H 3 PO 4 per PBI repeat unit. • 200 h Constant current density test was carried out at 150 °C. • Degradation was due to the gap between membrane and catalyst layer. - Abstract: In this paper, the preparation and characterization of porous polybenzimidazole membranes doped with phosphoric acid were reported. For the preparation of porous polybenzimidazole membranes, glucose and saccharose were selected as porogen and added into PBI resin solution before solvent casting. The prepared porous PBI membranes had high proton conductivity and high content of acid doping at room temperature with 15.7 mol H 3 PO 4 per PBI repeat unit, much higher than pure PBI membrane at the same condition. Further, the performance and stability of the porous PBI membrane in high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells was tested. It was found that the cell performance remained stable during 200 h stability test under a constant current discharge of 0.5 A cm −2 except for the last fifty hours. The decay in the last fifty hours was ascribed to the delamination between the catalyst layer and membrane increasing the charge-transfer resistance

  7. On the mechanism of boron transfer through the cation-exchange membrane MK-40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilipenko, A.T.; Varvaruk, L.A.; Grebenyuk, V.D.; Trachevskij, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    Proceses of boron electromigration in solutions with different pH values are investigated. It is shown, that boron transfer through ion-exchange membranes is determined by pH of solution. Phenomenon of boron transfer (existing in the solution in the form of boric acid) through cation-exchange membrane MK-40 has been detected and described for the first time. The process of boron (3) complexing with sulfate groups of the membrane by means of competing reversible substitution of hydroxoligands is the basis of the phenomenon

  8. Hybrid capacitive deionization with anion-exchange membranes for lithium extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siekierka Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is considered to be a critical material for various industrial fields. We present our studies on extraction lithium from diluted aqueous solution by novel hybrid system based on a membrane capacitive deionization and batteries desalination. Hybrid CDI is comprised by a lithium selective adsorbent, activated carbon electrode and anion-exchange membranes. Here, we demonstrated implication of various type of anion-exchange membranes and influence their properties on effective capacity and energy requirements in charge/discharge steps. We described a configuration with anion-exchange membrane characterized by adsorption capacity of 35 mg/g of Li+ with 0.08Wh/g and removal efficiency of 60 % of lithium ions, using novel selective desalination technique.

  9. Hybrid capacitive deionization with anion-exchange membranes for lithium extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekierka, Anna; Bryjak, Marek

    2017-11-01

    Lithium is considered to be a critical material for various industrial fields. We present our studies on extraction lithium from diluted aqueous solution by novel hybrid system based on a membrane capacitive deionization and batteries desalination. Hybrid CDI is comprised by a lithium selective adsorbent, activated carbon electrode and anion-exchange membranes. Here, we demonstrated implication of various type of anion-exchange membranes and influence their properties on effective capacity and energy requirements in charge/discharge steps. We described a configuration with anion-exchange membrane characterized by adsorption capacity of 35 mg/g of Li+ with 0.08Wh/g and removal efficiency of 60 % of lithium ions, using novel selective desalination technique.

  10. Electrodialytic separation of alkali-element ions with the aid of ion-exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurskii, V.S.; Moskvin, L.N.

    1988-01-01

    Electrodialytic separation of ions bearing charges of the same sign with the aid of ion-exchange membranes has been examined in the literature in relation to the so-called ideal membranes, which do not exhibit selectivity with respect to one ion type in ion exchange. It has been shown that separation on such membranes is effective only for counterions differing in size of charge. A matter of greater importance from the practical standpoint is the possibility of using electrodialysis for separating ions bearing like charges and having similar properties, including ionic forms of isotopes of the same element. In this paper they report a comparative study of ion separation, with reference to the Cs-Na pair, by electrodialysis through various types of cation-exchange membranes. Changes of the solution concentration in the cathode compartment were monitored by measurement of 22 Na and 137 Cs activities

  11. Design of Anion Exchange Membranes and Electrodialysis Studies for Water Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Khan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anion exchange membranes are highly versatile and nowadays have many applications, ranging from water treatment to sensing materials. The preparation of anion exchange membranes (AEMs from brominated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,6-phenylene oxide (BPPO and methyl(diphenylphosphine (MDPP for electrodialysis was performed. The physiochemical properties and electrochemical performance of fabricated membranes can be measured by changing MDPP contents in the membrane matrix. The influence of a quaternary phosphonium group associated with the removal of NaCl from water is discussed. The prepared membranes have ion exchange capacities (IEC 1.09–1.52 mmol/g, water uptake (WR 17.14%–21.77%, linear expansion ratio (LER 7.96%–11.86%, tensile strength (TS 16.66–23.97 MPa and elongation at break (Eb 485.57%–647.98%. The prepared anion exchange membranes were employed for the electrodialytic removal of 0.1 M NaCl aqueous solution at a constant applied voltage. It is found that the reported membranes could be the promising candidate for NaCl removal via electrodialysis.

  12. Impact of the water symmetry factor on humidification and cooling strategies for PEM fuel cell stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picot, D; Metkemeijer, R; Bezian, J J; Rouveyre, L [Centre d` Energetique, Ecole des Mines de Paris, 06 - Sophia Antipolis (France)

    1998-10-01

    In this paper, experimental water and thermal balances with three proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are proposed. On the test facility of Ecole des Mines de Paris, three De Nora SPA fuel cell stacks have been successfully studied: An 1 kW{sub e} prototype using Nafion {sup trademark} 117, a 5 and 10 kW{sub e} module using Nafion {sup trademark} 115. The averaged water symmetry factor determines strategies to avoid drying membrane. So, we propose analytical solutions to find compromises between humidification and cooling conditions, which determines outlet temperatures of gases. For transport applications, the space occupied by the power module must be reduced. One of the main efforts consists in decreasing the operative pressure. Thus, if adequate cooling power is applied, we show experimentally and theoretically the possibility to use De Nora PEM fuel cells with low pressure, without specific external humidification. (orig.)

  13. Membrane heat exchanger in HVAC energy recovery systems, systems energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasif, M. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Opus International Consultants (New Zealand); AL-Waked, R. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University (PMU), P.O. Box 1614, AlKhobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia); Morrison, G. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Behnia, M. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    The thermal performance of an enthalpy/membrane heat exchanger is experimentally investigated. The heat exchanger utilizes a 60gsm Kraft paper as the heat and moisture transfer surface for HVAC energy recovery. The heat exchanger sensible, latent and total effectiveness have been determined through temperature and moisture content measurements. The annual energy consumption of an air conditioner coupled with an enthalpy/membrane heat exchanger is also studied and compared with a conventional air conditioning cycle using in-house modified HPRate software. The heat exchanger effectiveness are used as thermal performance indicators and incorporated in the modified software. Energy analysis showed that an air conditioning system coupled with a membrane heat exchanger consumes less energy than a conventional air conditioning system in hot and humid climates where the latent load is high. It has been shown that in humid climate a saving of up to 8% in annual energy consumption can be achieved when membrane heat exchanger is used instead of a conventional HVAC system. (author)

  14. Ionic Resistance and Permselectivity Tradeoffs in Anion Exchange Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    (sulfone) and poly(phenylene oxide) polymer backbones and developed structure-property relationships between the transport properties and the water content and fixed charge concentration of the membranes. Ion transport and ion exclusion properties depend

  15. Surface modification of cation exchange membranes by graft polymerization of PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemati, Mahsa; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Bagheripour, Ehsan; Madaeni, Sayed Siavash

    2016-01-01

    Surface modification of polyvinylchloride based heterogeneous cation exchange membrane was performed by graft polymerization of PAA and PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles. The ion exchange membranes were prepared by solution casting technique. Spectra analysis confirmed graft polymerization clearly. SEM images illustrated that graft polymerization covers the membranes by simple gel network entanglement. The membrane water content was decreased by graft polymerization of PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles on membrane surface. Membrane transport number and selectivity declined initially by PAA graft polymerization and then began to increase by utilizing of composite nanoparticles in modifier solution. The sodium and barium flux was improved sharply by PAA and PAAco- 0.01%wt PANI/MWCNTs graft polymerization on membrane surface and then decreased again by more increase of PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles content ratio in modifier solution. The electrodialysis experiment results in laboratory scale showed higher dialytic rate in heavy metals removal for grafted-PAA and grafted-PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs modified membrane compared to pristine one. Membrane areal electrical resistance was also decreased by introducing graft polymerization of PAA and PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs NPs on membrane surface.

  16. Influence of cholesterol and ceramide VI on the structure of multilamellar lipid membranes at water exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabova, N. Yu.; Kiselev, M. A.; Balagurov, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The structural changes in the multilamellar lipid membranes of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/cholesterol and DPPC/ceramide VI binary systems during hydration and dehydration have been studied by neutron diffraction. The effect of cholesterol and ceramide on the kinetics of water exchange in DPPC membranes is characterized. Compared to pure DPPC, membranes of binary systems swell faster during hydration (with a characteristic time of ∼30 min). Both compounds, ceramide VI and cholesterol, similarly affect the hydration of DPPC membranes, increasing the repeat distance due to the bilayer growth. However, in contrast to cholesterol, ceramide significantly reduces the thickness of the membrane water layer. The introduction of cholesterol into a DPPC membrane slows down the change in the parameters of the bilayer internal structure during dehydration. In the DPPC/ceramide VI/cholesterol ternary system (with a molar cholesterol concentration of 40%), cholesterol is partially released from the lamellar membrane structure into the crystalline phase.

  17. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-11-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl-/SO42- separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl-/SO42- permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later.

  18. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-01-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl−/SO42− separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl−/SO42− permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later. PMID:27853255

  19. Anion- or Cation-Exchange Membranes for NaBH4/H2O2 Fuel Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sljukić, Biljana; Morais, Ana L; Santos, Diogo M F; Sequeira, César A C

    2012-07-19

    Direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFC), which operate on sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as the fuel, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the oxidant, are receiving increasing attention. This is due to their promising use as power sources for space and underwater applications, where air is not available and gas storage poses obvious problems. One key factor to improve the performance of DBFCs concerns the type of separator used. Both anion- and cation-exchange membranes may be considered as potential separators for DBFC. In the present paper, the effect of the membrane type on the performance of laboratory NaBH4/H2O2 fuel cells using Pt electrodes is studied at room temperature. Two commercial ion-exchange membranes from Membranes International Inc., an anion-exchange membrane (AMI-7001S) and a cation-exchange membrane (CMI-7000S), are tested as ionic separators for the DBFC. The membranes are compared directly by the observation and analysis of the corresponding DBFC's performance. Cell polarization, power density, stability, and durability tests are used in the membranes' evaluation. Energy densities and specific capacities are estimated. Most tests conducted, clearly indicate a superior performance of the cation-exchange membranes over the anion-exchange membrane. The two membranes are also compared with several other previously tested commercial membranes. For long term cell operation, these membranes seem to outperform the stability of the benchmark Nafion membranes but further studies are still required to improve their instantaneous power load.

  20. Nafion/Silicon Oxide Composite Membrane for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membranes were produced via in situ sol-gel reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) in Nafion membranes. The physicochemical properties of the membranes were studied by FT-IR, TG-DSC and tensile strength. The results show that the silicon oxide is compatible with the Nafion membrane and the thermo stability of Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membrane is higher than that of Nafion membrane. Furthermore, the tensile strength of Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membrane is similar to that of the Nafion membrane. The proton conductivity of Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membrane is higher than that of Nafion membrane. When the Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membrane was employed as an electrolyte in H2/O2 PEMFC, a higher current density value (1 000 mA/cm2 at 0.38 V) than that of the Nafion 1135 membrane (100 mA/cm2 at 0.04 V) was obtained at 110 ℃.

  1. On the resistances of membrane, diffusion boundary layer and double layer in ion exchange membrane transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Długołȩcki, P.; Ogonowski, P.; Metz, S.J.; Saakes, M.; Nijmeijer, K.; Wessling, M.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane resistances are often measured under direct current conditions using a standard 0.5 M NaCl characterization solution, although several electro-membrane processes (e.g. reverse electrodialysis, electrodialysis, fuel cells, microbial fuel cells and membrane capacitive deionization) operate in

  2. 400 W High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    This work demonstrates the operation of a 30 cell high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. This prototype stack has been developed at the Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, as a proof-of-concept for a low pressure cathode air cooled HTPEM stack. The membranes used are Celtec...

  3. Advanced proton-exchange materials for energy efficient fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Hickner, Michael A.; Cornelius, Christopher James; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2005-12-01

    The ''Advanced Proton-Exchange Materials for Energy Efficient Fuel Cells'' Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project began in October 2002 and ended in September 2005. This LDRD was funded by the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy strategic business unit. The purpose of this LDRD was to initiate the fundamental research necessary for the development of a novel proton-exchange membranes (PEM) to overcome the material and performance limitations of the ''state of the art'' Nafion that is used in both hydrogen and methanol fuel cells. An atomistic modeling effort was added to this LDRD in order to establish a frame work between predicted morphology and observed PEM morphology in order to relate it to fuel cell performance. Significant progress was made in the area of PEM material design, development, and demonstration during this LDRD. A fundamental understanding involving the role of the structure of the PEM material as a function of sulfonic acid content, polymer topology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and electrode electrolyte ink development was demonstrated during this LDRD. PEM materials based upon random and block polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes were created and evaluated for improvements in proton conductivity, reduced swelling, reduced O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} permeability, and increased thermal stability. Results from this work reveal that the family of polyphenylenes potentially solves several technical challenges associated with obtaining a high temperature PEM membrane. Fuel cell relevant properties such as high proton conductivity (>120 mS/cm), good thermal stability, and mechanical robustness were demonstrated during this LDRD. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and results of this LDRD.

  4. Ultrathin Sicopion Composite Cation-Exchange Membranes: Characteristics and Electrodialytic Performance following a Conditioning Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ayala-Bribiesca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the properties of Sicopion membranes: an ultrathin (≈20 μm composite cation-exchange membrane (CEM made from sulphonated poly(ether-ether-ketone (SPEEK containing different levels of sulphonic-functionalized silica particles (SFSPs. Sicopion membranes were conditioned according to the French Normalization Association procedure, consisting in a series of acid and alkaline washes, and their electrodialytic characteristics were compared to an existent commercial food-grade membrane (CMX-SB. Electrical conductivity of Sicopion membranes was higher than that of CMX-SB membranes (9.92 versus 6.98 mS/cm, as well as their water content (34.0 versus 27.6%. As the SFSP level was reduced, the ion-exchange capacity (IEC of Sicopion membranes increased. Concerning their electrodialytic performances, Sicopion membranes presented a lower demineralization rate than CMX-SB membranes (35.9 versus 45.5%, due to an OH− leakage through the pores created by dislodging the SFSP particles during the conditioning procedure.

  5. Carbonate and Bicarbonate Ion Transport in Alkaline Anion Exchange Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    comparable assumptions, a similar equation can be derived starting with the Nernst -Planck equation . σ = ∑ σi = ∑ F2z2i RT (ε− ε0)q D0i 1 + δi Ci [1] Using Eq...an appropriate ion-membrane diffusion coefficient. Finally, an equation derived from the dusty fluid model can be used to calculate the ionic...Finally, an equation derived from the dusty fluid model can be used to calculate the ionic conductivity of the membrane in different counter ion forms

  6. Radiation induced graft copolymerization for preparation of cation exchange membranes: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Mahmoud Nasef; Hamdani Saidi; Hussin Mohd Nor

    1999-01-01

    Cation exchange membranes are regarded as the ideal solid polymer electrolyte materials for the development of various electrochemical energy conversion applications where significant improvements in the current density are required. Such membranes require special polymers and preparation techniques to maintain high chemical , mechanical and thermal stability in addition to high ionic conductivity and low resistance. A lot of different techniques have been proposed in the past to prepare such membranes. Radiation-induced graft copolymerization provides an attractive ft method for modification of chemical and physical properties of polymeric materials and is of particular interest in achieving specially desired cation exchange membranes as well as excellent membrane properties. This is due to the ability to control the membrane compositions as well as properties by proper selection of grafting conditions. Therefore numerous parameters have to be investigated to properly select the right polymeric materials, radiation grafting technique and the grafting conditions to be employed. In this paper a state-of-the-art of radiation-induced graft copolymerization for preparation of cation exchange membranes and their applications are briefly reviewed. (Author)

  7. Uncertainties of Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Measurements Using KCl-Coated Denuders, Cation-Exchange Membranes, and Nylon Membranes: Humidity Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2015-05-19

    Quantifying the concentration of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and identifying the chemical compounds in the atmosphere are important for developing accurate local, regional, and global biogeochemical cycles. The major hypothesis driving this work was that relative humidity affects collection of GOM on KCl-coated denuders and nylon membranes, both currently being applied to measure GOM. Using a laboratory manifold system and ambient air, GOM capture efficiency on 3 different collection surfaces, including KCl-coated denuders, nylon membranes, and cation-exchange membranes, was investigated at relative humidity ranging from 25 to 75%. Recovery of permeated HgBr2 on KCl-coated denuders declined by 4-60% during spikes of relative humidity (25 to 75%). When spikes were turned off GOM recoveries returned to 60 ± 19% of permeated levels. In some cases, KCl-coated denuders were gradually passivated over time after additional humidity was applied. In this study, GOM recovery on nylon membranes decreased with high humidity and ozone concentrations. However, additional humidity enhanced GOM recovery on cation-exchange membranes. In addition, reduction and oxidation of elemental mercury during experiments was observed. The findings in this study can help to explain field observations in previous studies.

  8. Desalination by electrodialysis with ion-exchange membrane prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seong-Ho; Jeong, Young Han; Ryoo, Jae Jeong; Lee, Kwang-Pill [Department of Chemistry Graduate School, Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    Ion-exchange membranes modified with triethylamine [-N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] and phosphoric acid (-PO{sub 3}H) groups were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polyolefin nonwavon fabric (PNF) and subsequent chemical modification of poly (GMA) graft chains. The physical and chemical properties of the GMA-grafted PNF and the PNF modified with ion-exchange groups were investigated by SEM and XPS. The ion-exchange capacities of the cation- and anion-exchange membrane were 0.20 and 1.24mmol/g, respectively. The content of cation- and anion exchange group increased with increasing grafting yield (d.g.=100%). Electrical resistance of PNF modified with TEA and -PO{sub 3}H group decreased with increasing ion-exchange group capacities. Application of the graft-type ion-exchange membranes as separators for electrodialysis enabled use to reduce the time required to achieve 85.5% desalination of the 0.5M NaCl solution. (author)

  9. Sulfonated polyimides containing triphenylphosphine oxide for proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Arun Kumar; Bera, Debaditya; Banerjee, Susanta, E-mail: susanta@matsc.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2016-09-15

    A series of sulfonated co-polyimides (co-SPI) were prepared by one pot polycondensation reaction of a combination of diamines namely; 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DSDSA) and prepared non-sulfonated diamine (DATPPO) containing triphenylphosphine oxide with 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA). All these soluble co-SPI gave flexible membranes with high thermal stability and showed good mechanical property. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed the microphase separated morphology with well-dispersed hydrophilic (cluster size in the range of 5–55 nm) domains. The co-SPI membranes showed high oxidative and hydrolytic stability with higher proton conductivity. All these co-SPI membranes exhibited low water uptake and swelling ratio. The co-SPI membrane TPPO-60 (60% degree of sulfonation) with IEC{sub W} = 1.84 mequiv g{sup −1} showed high proton conductivity (99 mS cm{sup −1} at 80 °C and 107 mS cm{sup −1} at 90 °C) in water with high oxidative (20 h) and hydrolytic stability (only 5% degradation in 24 h). - Highlights: • Triphenylphosphine oxide containing sulfonated polyimides (SPIs) was synthesized. • The SPIs showed good oxidative and hydrolytic stability and high proton conductivity. • TEM analysis revealed well separated morphology of the SPIs.

  10. A CFD analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a tubular-shaped PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Al-Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    A fuel cell is most interesting new power source because it solves not only the environment problem but also natural resource exhaustion problem. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a tubular-shaped proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a tubular-shaped PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.

  11. Grafting of glycidyl methacrylate/styrene onto polyvinyldine fluoride membranes for proton exchange fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hady, E.E.; El-Toony, M.M.; Abdel-Hamed, M.O.

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous gamma irradiation was used effectively for grafting facilitation of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and styrene (Sty) onto polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF). Grafting percent was 122 when monomers ratio are 30% Sty and 70% GMA at 20 KGy gamma irradiation dose. Characterization of the membrane was performed using FT-IR, ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake. Mechanical behavior such as tensile strength was studied while morphological structure of the membrane was carried out by scan electron microscope (SEM). The membrane with degree of grafting 122% showed higher IEC (1.2 m mol/cm) than those of Nafion membrane with corresponding proton conductivity of 5.7 × 10 −2 S/cm similar to it. Operating the fuel cell unit showed higher voltage of the prepared membranes than that of Nafion 211. The prepared membranes stability for 300 h work approved their applicability from the cost benefit point of view

  12. Liquid Water Transport in the Reactant Channels of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupak

    Water management has been identified as a critical issue in the development of PEM fuel cells for automotive applications. Water is present inside the PEM fuel cell in three phases, i.e. liquid phase, vapor phase and mist phase. Liquid water in the reactant channels causes flooding of the cell and blocks the transport of reactants to the reaction sites at the catalyst layer. Understanding the behavior of liquid water in the reactant channels would allow us to devise improved strategies for removing liquid water from the reactant channels. In situ fuel cell tests have been performed to identify and diagnose operating conditions which result in the flooding of the fuel cell. A relationship has been identified between the liquid water present in the reactant channels and the cell performance. A novel diagnostic technique has been established which utilizes the pressure drop multiplier in the reactant channels to predict the flooding of the cell or the drying-out of the membrane. An ex-situ study has been undertaken to quantify the liquid water present in the reactant channels. A new parameter, the Area Coverage Ratio (ACR), has been defined to identify the interfacial area of the reactant channel which is blocked for reactant transport by the presence of liquid water. A parametric study has been conducted to study the effect of changing temperature and the inlet relative humidity on the ACR. The ACR decreases with increase in current density as the gas flow rates increase, removing water more efficiently. With increase in temperature, the ACR decreases rapidly, such that by 60°C, there is no significant ACR to be reported. Inlet relative humidity of the gases does change the saturation of the gases in the channel, but did not show any significant effect on the ACR. Automotive powertrains, which is the target for this work, are continuously faced with transient changes. Water management under transient operating conditions is significantly more challenging and has not

  13. Electro-activity of cobalt and nickel complexes for the reduction of protons into di-hydrogen. Application to PEM water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantani, O.; Anxolabehere, E.; Aukauloo, A.; Millet, P.

    2006-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis is a safe and efficient way to perform water splitting into di-hydrogen and di-oxygen. In a PEM water electrolyser, platinum is commonly used as electro-catalyst on the cathodic side of the cells, mostly because of its efficiency for hydrogen evolution. But for cost considerations, there is a need to find alternative low-cost electrocatalysts. Molecular chemistry offers the possibility of synthesizing new compounds for this purpose, such as transition metal complexes. Results obtained with nickel- and cobalt-oximes compounds are presented in this paper. They have been chemically (1H NMR, EPR) and electrochemically (voltametry, spectro-electrochemistry) characterized. Their ability to electrochemically reduce protons into di-hydrogen when they are either dissolved in solution or immobilized at the surface of a solid electrode is discussed. (authors)

  14. A numerical study of the gas-liquid, two-phase flow maldistribution in the anode of a high pressure PEM water electrolysis cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian; Rømer, Carsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the use of a circular-planar, interdigitated flow field for the anode of a high pressure proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis cell is investigated in a numerical study. While PEM fuel cells have separated flow fields for reactant transport and coolant, it is possible...... causes maldistribution, if land areas of equal width are applied. Moreover, below a water stoichiometry of 350, and at a current density of 1 A/cm2, flow and temperature maldistribution is adversely affected by the presence of the gas phase; particularly gas hold-up near outlet channels can cause......-phase flow model for establishing the effect of geometry and a two-phase flow model for studying the effect of dispersed gas bubbles. Both models account for turbulence and heat transport. By means of the developed models, it is elucidated that the circular-planar shape of the interdigitated flow field...

  15. Mercury removal from water streams through the ion exchange membrane bioreactor concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmen, Adrian; Vergel, Dario; Fradinho, Joana; Reis, Maria A M; Crespo, João G; Velizarov, Svetlozar

    2014-01-15

    Mercury is a highly toxic heavy metal that causes human health problems and environmental contamination. In this study, an ion exchange membrane bioreactor (IEMB) process was developed to achieve Hg(II) removal from drinking water and industrial effluents. Hg(II) transport through a cation exchange membrane was coupled with its bioreduction to Hg(0) in order to achieve Hg removal from concentrated streams, with minimal production of contaminated by-products observed. This study involves (1) membrane selection, (2) demonstration of process effectiveness for removing Hg from drinking water to below the 1ppb recommended limit, and (3) process application for treatment of concentrated water streams, where >98% of the Hg was removed, and the throughput of contaminated water was optimised through membrane pre-treatment. The IEMB process represents a novel mercury treatment technology with minimal generation of contaminated waste, thereby reducing the overall environmental impact of the process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on properties of cation-exchange membranes containing sulfonate groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu Jianhua; Wu Minghong; Qiu Shilong; Yao Side; Ye Yin

    2004-01-01

    Strong acid cation-exchange membranes were obtained by irradiation grafting of acrylic acid (AA) and sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) onto high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Thermal and chemical stability of the cation-exchange membranes was investigated. The effectiveness of sulfonate-containing films was conformed in inducing high resistance to oxidative degradation. Thermal stability of the grafted HDPE was weaker than HDPE as detected by TGA analyzing technique. Char residue by TGA of the grafted HDPE is greater than that of HDPE. It shows that the branch chains including -SO 3 Na and -COOH was grafted onto the backbone of HDPE, and thus give a catalytic impetus to the charing. Crystallinity of the grafted membranes decreased with increasing grafting yield of the membrane samples. It is supposed that the decreased crystallinity is due to collective effects of the inherent crystallinity dilution by the amorphous grafted chains and disruption of spherulitic crystallites of the HDPE component

  17. Modeling the ion transfer and polarization of ion exchange membranes in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnisch, Falk; Warmbier, Robert; Schneider, Ralf; Schröder, Uwe

    2009-06-01

    An explicit numerical model for the charge balancing ion transfer across monopolar ion exchange membranes under conditions of bioelectrochemical systems is presented. Diffusion and migration equations have been solved according to the Nernst-Planck Equation and the resulting ion concentrations, pH values and the resistance values of the membrane for different conditions were computed. The modeling results underline the principle limitations of the application of ion exchange membranes in biological fuel cells and electrolyzers, caused by the inherent occurrence of a pH-gradient between anode and cathode compartment, and an increased ohmic membrane resistance at decreasing electrolyte concentrations. Finally, the physical and numerical limitations of the model are discussed.

  18. Ph responsive permeability and Ion- exchange characteristics of (PE/EPDM)-g-PMAA membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El- Awady, M.M.; El-Awady, N.I.; Eissa, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical grafting of methacrylic acid (MAA) on low density exchange membranes for recovery of different cations from their solutions was investigated. When the dialysis permeability of two solutes (glucose + urea) through the membrane were tested at different ph values and compared, glucose was found to be less efficient than urea for permeation through the membrane. The permeability response of such solute was noticed only at higher ph value (ph 8). The grafted film (membrane) with graft yield of 185% is experimentally adequate to permeate all molecules with radius of lower than 4.3 x 10 polyethylene blended with EPDM with a ratio (90/10) films was carried out using sodium bisulphite as initiator. Factors affecting grafting and the properties of the grafted films were studied in details and showed improved hydrophilic properties, good thermal stability and nearly unaffected strength properties which make them acceptable for practical uses.In the present work, the possibility of practical uses of such grafted films as ph-responsive membranes in a dialysis process and as ion--7 mm. Grafted membranes in different forms (COOH-form), (Na-methacrylate form) and (K methacrylate- form) were prepared to evaluate the membranes uptake selectivity to different mono, di-and trivalent cations from their solutions. The results obtained showed very good efficiency of the prepared membranes as compared with the values obtained for the commercial cation exchange resin (Dowex)

  19. Preparation of new proton exchange membranes using sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) modified by octylamine (SPESOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabrouk, W.; Ogier, L.; Matoussi, F.; Sollogoub, C.; Vidal, S.; Dachraoui, M.; Fauvarque, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → New, simple and cheap way to synthesize a membrane. → The membranes combine good proton conductivities with good mechanical properties. → The membrane performances in a fuel cell are similar to the Nafion 117. - Abstract: Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPES) has received considerable attention in membrane preparation for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). But such membranes are brittle and difficult to handle in operation. We investigated new membranes using SPES grafted with various degrees of octylamine. Five new materials made from sulfonated polyethersulfone sulfonamide (SPESOS) were synthetized with different grades of grafting. They were made from SPES, with initially an ionic exchange capacity (IEC) of 2.4 meq g -1 (1.3 H + per monomer unit). Pristine SPES with that IEC is water swelling and becomes soluble at 80 deg. C, its proton conductivity is in the range of 0.1 S cm -1 at room temperature in aqueous H 2 SO 4 1 M, similar to that of Nafion. After grafting with various amounts of octylamine, the material is water insoluble; membranes are less brittle and show sufficient ionic conductivity. Proton transport numbers were measured close to 1.

  20. Novel fluoropolymer anion exchange membranes for alkaline direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanmei; Fang, Jun; Wu, Yongbin; Xu, Hankun; Chi, Xianjun; Li, Wei; Yang, Yixu; Yan, Ge; Zhuang, Yongze

    2012-09-01

    A series of novel fluoropolymer anion exchange membranes based on the copolymer of vinylbenzyl chloride, butyl methacrylate, and hexafluorobutyl methacrylate has been prepared. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis techniques are used to study the chemical structure and chemical composition of the membranes. The water uptake, ion-exchange capacity (IEC), conductivity, methanol permeability, and chemical stability of the membranes are also determined. The membranes exhibit high anionic conductivity in deionized water at 65 °C ranging from 3.86×10(-2) S cm(-1) to 4.36×10(-2) S cm(-1). The methanol permeability coefficients of the membranes are in the range of 4.21-5.80×10(-8) cm(2) s(-1) at 65 °C. The novel membranes also show good chemical and thermal stability. An open-circuit voltage of 0.7 V and a maximum power density of 53.2 mW cm(-2) of alkaline direct methanol fuel cell (ADMFC) with the membrane C, 1 M methanol, 1 M NaOH, and humidified oxygen are achieved at 65 °C. Therefore, these membranes have great potential for applications in fuel cell systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nanofiber Ion-Exchange Membranes for the Rapid Uptake and Recovery of Heavy Metals from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithinart Chitpong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the performance of polyelectrolyte-modified nanofiber membranes was undertaken to determine their efficacy in the rapid uptake and recovery of heavy metals from impaired waters. The membranes were prepared by grafting poly(acrylic acid (PAA and poly(itaconic acid (PIA to cellulose nanofiber mats. Performance measurements quantified the dynamic ion-exchange capacity for cadmium (Cd, productivity, and recovery of Cd(II from the membranes by regeneration. The dynamic binding capacities of Cd(II on both types of nanofiber membrane were independent of the linear flow velocity, with a residence time of as low as 2 s. Analysis of breakthrough curves indicated that the mass flow rate increased rapidly at constant applied pressure after membranes approached equilibrium load capacity for Cd(II, apparently due to a collapse of the polymer chains on the membrane surface, leading to an increased porosity. This mechanism is supported by hydrodynamic radius (Rh measurements for PAA and PIA obtained from dynamic light scattering, which show that Rh values decrease upon Cd(II binding. Volumetric productivity was high for the nanofiber membranes, and reached 0.55 mg Cd/g/min. The use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as regeneration reagent was effective in fully recovering Cd(II from the membranes. Ion-exchange capacities were constant over five cycles of binding-regeneration.

  2. A cost-effective nanoporous ultrathin film electrode based on nanoporous gold/IrO2 composite for proton exchange membrane water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yachao; Guo, Xiaoqian; Shao, Zhigang; Yu, Hongmei; Song, Wei; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Hongjie; Yi, Baolian

    2017-02-01

    A cost-effective nanoporous ultrathin film (NPUF) electrode based on nanoporous gold (NPG)/IrO2 composite has been constructed for proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis. The electrode was fabricated by integrating IrO2 nanoparticles into NPG through a facile dealloying and thermal decomposition method. The NPUF electrode is featured in its 3D interconnected nanoporosity and ultrathin thickness. The nanoporous ultrathin architecture is binder-free and beneficial for improving electrochemical active surface area, enhancing mass transport and facilitating releasing of oxygen produced during water electrolysis. Serving as anode, a single cell performance of 1.728 V (@ 2 A cm-2) has been achieved by NPUF electrode with a loading of IrO2 and Au at 86.43 and 100.0 μg cm-2 respectively, the electrolysis voltage is 58 mV lower than that of conventional electrode with an Ir loading an order of magnitude higher. The electrolysis voltage kept relatively constant up to 300 h (@250 mA cm-2) during the course of durability test, manifesting that NPUF electrode is promising for gas evolution.

  3. A novel approach to determine the in-plane thermal conductivity of gas diffusion layers in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, E.; Djilali, N.; Bahrami, M.

    Heat transfer through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) is a key process in the design and operation of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The analysis of this process requires determination of the effective thermal conductivity. This transport property differs significantly in the through-plane and in-plane directions due to the anisotropic micro-structure of the GDL. A novel test bed that allows separation of in-plane effective thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance in GDLs is described in this paper. Measurements are performed using Toray carbon paper TGP-H-120 samples with varying polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) content at a mean temperature of 65-70 °C. The measurements are complemented by a compact analytical model that achieves good agreement with experimental data. The in-plane effective thermal conductivity is found to remain approximately constant, k ≈ 17.5 W m -1 K -1, over a wide range of PTFE content, and its value is about 12 times higher than that for through-plane conductivity.

  4. Steel reinforced composite silicone membranes and its integration to microfluidic oxygenators for high performance gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharoo, Harpreet; Dabaghi, Mohammadhossein; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Gerhard; Saraei, Neda; Tauhiduzzaman, Mohammed; Veldhuis, Stephen; Brash, John; Fusch, Christoph; Selvaganapathy, P Ravi

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is one of the main causes of fatality in newborn infants, particularly in neonates with low birth-weight. Commercial extracorporeal oxygenators have been used for low-birth-weight neonates in neonatal intensive care units. However, these oxygenators require high blood volumes to prime. In the last decade, microfluidics oxygenators using enriched oxygen have been developed for this purpose. Some of these oxygenators use thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes to facilitate gas exchange between the blood flowing in the microchannels and the ambient air outside. However, PDMS is elastic and the thin membranes exhibit significant deformation and delamination under pressure which alters the architecture of the devices causing poor oxygenation or device failure. Therefore, an alternate membrane with high stability, low deformation under pressure, and high gas exchange was desired. In this paper, we present a novel composite membrane consisting of an ultra-thin stainless-steel mesh embedded in PDMS, designed specifically for a microfluidic single oxygenator unit (SOU). In comparison to homogeneous PDMS membranes, this composite membrane demonstrated high stability, low deformation under pressure, and high gas exchange. In addition, a new design for oxygenator with sloping profile and tapered inlet configuration has been introduced to achieve the same gas exchange at lower pressure drops. SOUs were tested by bovine blood to evaluate gas exchange properties. Among all tested SOUs, the flat design SOU with composite membrane has the highest oxygen exchange of 40.32 ml/min m 2 . The superior performance of the new device with composite membrane was demonstrated by constructing a lung assist device (LAD) with a low priming volume of 10 ml. The LAD was achieved by the oxygen uptake of 0.48-0.90 ml/min and the CO 2 release of 1.05-2.27 ml/min at blood flow rates ranging between 8 and 48 ml/min. This LAD was shown to increase the

  5. Radiation deterioration of ion-exchange Nafion N117CS membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Hiroki, Akihiro; Tamada, Masao; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2010-01-01

    The cation-exchange Nafion N117 membranes swelling in electrolyte solution were irradiated with γ-rays or electron beams at various doses up to 1500 kGy in the temperature range from room temperature to 343 K to obtain detailed information on the effect of ion-exchange on the radiation deterioration in mechanical properties and ion-exchange capacity. Considerable deterioration in mechanical properties was observed when the Nafion membranes swelling in electrolyte solution were irradiated. A reason is the promotion of degradation with oxygen molecules produced by the irradiation of electrolyte solution. The concentration of electrolyte solution influenced strongly the radiation deterioration in mechanical properties. Keeping the concentration of metal ions to be negligible is important when electrolyzed highly radioactive solution in the light of the durability of polyperfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membrane. A sort of cation in electrolyte solution negligibly influenced radiation deterioration in mechanical properties. A sort of anion in electrolyte solution had negligible effect on radiation deterioration in mechanical properties and ion-exchange capacity. The discrepancy in the radiation deterioration in mechanical properties of Nafion membranes swelling in NaCl solution was observed between the specimens irradiated with γ-rays and electron beams. This discrepancy can be explained from the low diffusivity of oxygen from bulk into the membrane.

  6. Reducing nitrogen crossover in microbial reverse-electrodialysis cells by using adjacent anion exchange membranes and anion exchange resin

    KAUST Repository

    Wallack, Maxwell J.; Geise, Geoffrey M.; Hatzell, Marta C.; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial reverse electrodialysis cells (MRECs) combine power generation from salinity gradient energy using reverse electrodialysis (RED), with power generation from organic matter using a microbial fuel cell. Waste heat can be used to distill ammonium bicarbonate into high (HC) and low salt concentration (LC) solutions for use in the RED stack, but nitrogen crossover into the anode chamber must be minimized to avoid ammonia loses, and foster a healthy microbial community. To reduce nitrogen crossover, an additional low concentration (LC) chamber was inserted before the anode using an additional anion exchange membrane (AEM) next to another AEM, and filled with different amounts of anion or cation ion exchange resins. Addition of the extra AEM increased the ohmic resistance of the test RED stack from 103 Ω cm2 (1 AEM) to 295 Ω cm2 (2 AEMs). However, the use of the anion exchange resin decreased the solution resistance of the LC chamber by 74% (637 Ω cm2, no resin; 166 Ω cm2 with resin). Nitrogen crossover into the anode chamber was reduced by up to 97% using 50% of the chamber filled with an anion exchange resin compared to the control (no additional chamber). The added resistance contributed by the use of the additional LC chamber could be compensated for by using additional LC and HC membrane pairs in the RED stack.

  7. Analysis of heterogeneous oxygen exchange and fuel oxidation on the catalytic surface of perovskite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2013-10-01

    The catalytic kinetics of oxygen surface exchange and fuel oxidation for a perovskite membrane is investigated in terms of the thermodynamic state in the immediate vicinity of or on the membrane surface. Perovskite membranes have been shown to exhibit both oxygen perm-selectivity and catalytic activity for hydrocarbon conversion. A fundamental description of their catalytic surface reactions is needed. In this study, we infer the kinetic parameters for heterogeneous oxygen surface exchange and catalytic fuel conversion reactions, based on permeation rate measurements and a spatially resolved physical model that incorporates detailed chemical kinetics and transport in the gas-phase. The conservation equations for surface and bulk species are coupled with those of the gas-phase species through the species production rates from surface reactions. It is shown that oxygen surface exchange is limited by dissociative/associative adsorption/desorption of oxygen molecules onto/from the membrane surface. On the sweep side, while the catalytic conversion of methane to methyl radical governs the overall surface reactions at high temperature, carbon monoxide oxidation on the membrane surface is dominant at low temperature. Given the sweep side conditions considered in ITM reactor experiments, gas-phase reactions also play an important role, indicating the significance of investigating both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemistry and their coupling when examining the results. We show that the local thermodynamic state at the membrane surface should be considered when constructing and examining models of oxygen permeation and heterogeneous chemistry. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Preparation and characterization of self-crosslinked organic/inorganic proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuangling; Cui, Xuejun; Dou, Sen; Liu, Wencong

    A series of silicon-containing sulfonated polystyrene/acrylate (Si-sPS/A) nanoparticles are successfully synthesized via simple emulsion polymerization method. The Si-sPS/A latexes show good film-forming capability and the self-crosslinked organic/inorganic proton exchange membranes are prepared by pouring the Si-sPS/A nanoparticle latexes into glass plates and drying at 60 °C for 10 h and 120 °C for 2 h. The potential of the membranes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is characterized preliminarily by studying their thermal stability, ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, methanol diffusion coefficient, proton conductivity and selectivity (proton conductivity/methanol diffusion coefficient). The results indicate that these membranes possess excellent thermal stability and methanol barrier due to the existence of self-crosslinked silica network. In addition, the proton conductivity of the membranes is in the range of 10 -3-10 -2 S cm -1 and all the membranes show much higher selectivity in comparison with Nafion ® 117. These results suggest that the self-crosslinked organic/inorganic proton exchange membranes are particularly promising in DMFC applications.

  9. Analysis of heterogeneous oxygen exchange and fuel oxidation on the catalytic surface of perovskite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup; Kirchen, Patrick; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic kinetics of oxygen surface exchange and fuel oxidation for a perovskite membrane is investigated in terms of the thermodynamic state in the immediate vicinity of or on the membrane surface. Perovskite membranes have been shown to exhibit both oxygen perm-selectivity and catalytic activity for hydrocarbon conversion. A fundamental description of their catalytic surface reactions is needed. In this study, we infer the kinetic parameters for heterogeneous oxygen surface exchange and catalytic fuel conversion reactions, based on permeation rate measurements and a spatially resolved physical model that incorporates detailed chemical kinetics and transport in the gas-phase. The conservation equations for surface and bulk species are coupled with those of the gas-phase species through the species production rates from surface reactions. It is shown that oxygen surface exchange is limited by dissociative/associative adsorption/desorption of oxygen molecules onto/from the membrane surface. On the sweep side, while the catalytic conversion of methane to methyl radical governs the overall surface reactions at high temperature, carbon monoxide oxidation on the membrane surface is dominant at low temperature. Given the sweep side conditions considered in ITM reactor experiments, gas-phase reactions also play an important role, indicating the significance of investigating both homogeneous and heterogeneous chemistry and their coupling when examining the results. We show that the local thermodynamic state at the membrane surface should be considered when constructing and examining models of oxygen permeation and heterogeneous chemistry. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Solar fuel production in a novel polymeric electrolyte membrane photoelectrochemical (PEM-PEC) cell with a web of titania nanotube arrays as photoanode and gaseous reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoll, T.; Zafeiropoulos, G.; Tsampas, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    A novel photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell design is proposed and investigated for H-2 production with gaseous reactants. The core of the cell is a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that consists of a TiO2 nanotube arrays photoanode, a Pt/C cathode, a Pt/C reference electrode and a proton conducting

  11. Preparation of Two-Layer Anion-Exchange Poly(ethersulfone Based Membrane: Effect of Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Zarybnicka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the surface modification of a commercial microfiltration poly(ethersulfone membrane by graft polymerization technique. Poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene-co-4-vinylbenzylchloride surface layer was covalently attached onto the poly(ethersulfone support layer to improve the membrane electrochemical properties. Followed by amination, a two-layer anion-exchange membrane was prepared. The effect of surface layer treatment using the extraction in various solvents on membrane morphological and electrochemical characteristics was studied. The membranes were tested from the point of view of water content, ion-exchange capacity, specific resistance, permselectivity, FT-IR spectroscopy, and SEM analysis. It was found that the two-layer anion-exchange membranes after the extraction using tetrahydrofuran or toluene exhibited smooth and porous surface layer, which resulted in improved ion-exchange capacity, electrical resistance, and permselectivity of the membranes.

  12. Ion-Exchange Membranes Based on Polynorbornenes with Fluorinated Imide Side Chain Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette A. Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical characteristics of cation-exchange membranes based on polynorbornenes with fluorinated and sulfonated dicarboximide side chain groups were reported. This study was extended to a block copolymer containing structural units with phenyl and 4-oxybenzenesulfonic acid, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl moieties replacing the hydrogen atom of the dicarboximide group. A thorough study on the electrochemical characteristics of the membranes involving electromotive forces of concentration cells and proton conductivity is reported. The proton permselectivity of the membranes is also discussed.

  13. Nano-Pervaporation Membrane with Heat Exchanger Generates Medical-Grade Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Yi; Alexander, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    A nanoporous membrane is used for the pervaporation process in which potable water is maintained, at atmospheric pressure, on the feed side of the membrane. The water enters the non-pervaporation (NPV) membrane device where it is separated into two streams -- retentate water and permeated water. The permeated pure water is removed by applying low vapor pressure on the permeate side to create water vapor before condensation. This permeated water vapor is subsequently condensed by coming in contact with the cool surface of a heat exchanger with heat being recovered through transfer to the feed water stream.

  14. Selective preconcentration of iodide in presence of iodate using a plasticized anion-exchange membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagat, Preeti; Rajurkar, N.S.; Acharya, R.; Pandey, A.K.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the hydrophobic anion-exchange membranes were prepared by physical immobilization of Aliquat-336 (AL) in the cellulose triacetate (CTA) matrix plasticized with dioctyl phthalate (DOP). The uptake of I - in this membrane was examined in aqueous sample in the presence of IO 3 - ions in varying concentrations. In order to provide better discrimination between I - and IO 3 - ions, the uptake studies were carried out using three different counterions (CL - , Br - and NO 3 - ) in the membrane. The results of these studies are described in this paper

  15. Optimizing the Heat Exchanger Network of a Steam Reforming System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Korsgaard, Anders Risum; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) based combined heat and power production systems are highly integrated energy systems. They may include a hydrogen production system and fuel cell stacks along with post combustion units optionally coupled with gas turbines. The considered system is based on a natural...... stationary numerical system model was used and process integration techniques for optimizing the heat exchanger network for the reforming unit are proposed. Objective is to minimize the system cost. Keywords: Fuel cells; Steam Reforming; Heat Exchanger Network (HEN) Synthesis; MINLP....... gas steam reformer along with gas purification reactors to generate clean hydrogen suited for a PEM stack. The temperatures in the various reactors in the fuel processing system vary from around 1000°C to the stack temperature at 80°C. Furthermore, external heating must be supplied to the endothermic...

  16. Investigation of interactions between water and ion exchanger perfluorinated membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Said, Chakir

    1983-01-01

    In this research thesis, the author, by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), shows the privileged situation of the first absorbed water molecules which come and fix about cations and fill up the first hydration sphere. He reports the study of Nafion membranes provided by DuPont de Nemours: chemical definition (chemical structure, properties, and microstructure), interest of the use of NMR, results and discussion (influence of water content, of temperature, of thermal cycling), and other results obtained by using different techniques (electronic paramagnetic resonance or EPR, differential calorimetry and thermo-porometry, mechanical measurements) [fr

  17. Benzimidazole grafted polybenzimidazoles for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Aili, David; Li, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    High molecular weight polybenzimidazole (PBI) was synthesized and grafted with benzimidazole pendant groups. The high molecular weight of PBI resulted in good film-forming properties and superior tensile strength. With a phosphoric acid doping level (ADL) of 13.1, a tensile strength of 16 MPa...... was achieved at room temperature. Grafting of benzimidazole moieties onto the PBI macromolecular chain introduced additional basic sites which allowed the membrane to achieve higher phosphoric acid uptakes. A molar acid conductivity, defined as the specific conductivity of each mole of doping acid...

  18. Anion-exchange membranes derived from quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wan; Liang, Na; Peng, Pai; Qu, Rong; Chen, Dongzhi; Zhang, Hongwei, E-mail: hanqiujiang@163.com

    2017-02-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are prepared by controlling urea assisted homogeneous precipitation conditions. Morphology and crystallinity of LDHs are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. After LDHs are incorporated into quaternized polysulfone membranes, transmission electron microscope is used to observe the exfoliated morphology of LDH sheets in the membranes. The properties of the nanocomposite membranes, including water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical property and ionic conductivity are investigated. The nanocomposite membrane containing 5% LDH sheets shows more balanced performances, exhibiting an ionic conductivity of 2.36×10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at 60 °C. - Graphical abstract: Anion-exchange membrane based on quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide is optically transparent and has good ionic properties.

  19. The use of PEM united regenerative fuel cells in solar- hydrogen systems for remote area power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun K Doddathimmaiah; John Andrews

    2006-01-01

    Remote area power supply (RAPS) is a potential early market for renewable energy - hydrogen systems because of the relatively high costs of conventional energy sources in remote regions. Solar hydrogen RAPS systems commonly employ photovoltaic panels, a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolyser, a storage for hydrogen gas, and a PEM fuel cell. Currently such systems are more costly than conventional RAPS systems employing diesel generator back up or battery storage. Unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs) have the potential to lower the costs of solar hydrogen RAPS systems since a URFC employs the same hardware for both the electrolyser and fuel cell functions. The need to buy a separate electrolyser and a separate fuel cell, both expensive items, is thus avoided. URFCs are in principle particularly suited for use in RAPS applications since the electrolyser function and fuel cell function are never required simultaneously. The present paper reports experimental findings on the performance of a URFC compared to that of a dedicated PEM electrolyser and a dedicated fuel cell. A design for a single-cell PEM URFC for use in experiments is described. The experimental data give a good quantitative description of the performance characteristics of all the devices. It is found that the performance of the URFC in the electrolyser mode is closely similar to that of the stand-alone electrolyser. In the fuel cell mode the URFC performance is, however, lower than that of the stand-alone fuel cell. The wider implications of these findings for the economics of future solar-hydrogen RAPS systems are discussed, and a design target of URFCs for renewable-energy RAPS applications proposed. (authors)

  20. Fabrication of electrospun polyacrylonitrile ion-exchange membranes for application in lysozyme adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ion exchange (IEX chromatography is commonly used in separation and purification systems. However, micropore blockage within its resin structure can easily lead to a reduction in the effectiveness of purification. To tackle this problem, we adopted the concept of membrane separation by combining electrospinning techniques with rapid alkaline hydrolysis to prepare a weak acid IEX nanofibrous membrane (AEA-COOH, consisting of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET meltblown fabric as a supporting layer, with upper and lower IEX layers consisting of polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofibrous membranes. To determine the characteristics of the AEA-COOH membrane, we used the commercial product Sartobind© C IEX membrane as the standard of comparison. Results showed that the base weight and thickness of AEACOOH were 33 and 64%, relative to Sartobind© C membrane. The thermo-degradable temperature of AEA-COOH membrane (320°C was far higher than that of Sartobind© C (115°C, indicating high thermal stability. Finally, comparisons between the lysozyme adsorption rates and capacity of various IEX membranes confirmed that AEA-COOH was lighter, thinner, faster, possessing higher protein adsorption efficiency than Sartobind© C membrane.

  1. Influence of Silica/Sulfonated Polyether-Ether Ketone as Polymer Electrolyte Membrane for Hydrogen Fueled Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Handayani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of non-humidified condition of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC using composite sPEEK-silica membrane is reported. Sulfonated membrane of PEEK is known as hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membrane for PEMFC and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The state of the art of fuel cells is based on the perluorosulfonic acid membrane (Nafion. Nafion has been the most used in both PEMFC and DMFC due to good performance although in low humidified condition showed poor current density. Here we reported the effect of silica in hydrocarbon sPEEK membrane that contributes for a better water management system inside the cell, and showed 0.16 W/cm2 of power density which is 78% higher than that of non-silica modified [Keywords: composite membrane, polyether-ether ketone, silica, proton exchange membrane fuel cell].

  2. Review of low pressure plasma processing of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrocatalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Brault , Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Review article; International audience; The present review is describing recent advances in plasma deposition and treatment of low temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells electrocatalysts. Interest of plasma processing for growth of platinum based, non-precious and metal free electrocatalysts is highlighted. Electrocatalysts properties are tentatively correlated to plasma parameters.

  3. The importance of OH − transport through anion exchange membrane in microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ye, Yaoli; Logan, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    In two-chamber microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) with anion exchange membranes (AEMs), a phosphate buffer solution (PBS) is typically used to avoid increases in catholyte pH as Nernst equation calculations indicate that high pHs adversely impact

  4. Determination of the ion-exchange capacity of anion-selective membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karas, F.; Hnát, J.; Paidar, M.; Schauer, Jan; Bouzek, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 10 (2014), s. 5054-5062 ISSN 0360-3199 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : ion-exchange capacity * anion-selective membranes * titration Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.313, year: 2014

  5. Silver-coated ion exchange membrane electrode applied to electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Y.; Ito, H.; Okano, K.; Nagasu, K.; Sato, S.

    2003-01-01

    Silver-coated ion exchange membrane electrodes (solid polymer electrolyte, SPE) were prepared by electroless deposition of silver onto ion exchange membranes. The SPE electrodes were used for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reduction with 0.2 M K 2 SO 4 as the electrolyte with a platinum plate (Pt) for the counterelectrode. In an SPE electrode system prepared from a cation exchange membrane (CEM), the surface of the SPE was partly ruptured during CO 2 reduction, and the reaction was rapidly suppressed. SPE electrodes made of an anion exchange membrane (SPE/AEM) sustained reduction of CO 2 to CO for more than 2 h, whereas, the electrode potential shifted negatively during the electrolysis. The reaction is controlled by the diffusion of CO 2 through the metal layer of the SPE electrode at high current density. Ultrasonic radiation, applied to the preparation of SPE/AEM, was effective to improve the electrode properties, enhancing the electrolysis current of CO 2 reduction. Observation by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the electrode metal layer became more porous by the ultrasonic radiation treatment. The partial current density of CO 2 reduction by SPE/AEM amounted to 60 mA cm -2 , i.e. three times the upper limit of the conventional electrolysis by a plate electrode. Application of SPE device may contribute to an advancement of CO 2 fixation at ambient temperature and pressure

  6. Multiphase Simulations and Design of Validation Experiments for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells directly convert into electricity the chemical energy of hydrogen and oxygen from air. The by-products are just water and waste heat. Depending on the operating conditions the water may be in the liquid or gas phase, and liquid water can hence plug the porous m...

  7. Heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes based on sulfonated poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Jan; Kůdela, Vlastimil; Richau, K.; Mohr, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 198, 1-3 (2006), s. 256-264 ISSN 0011-9164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0080 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide) sulfonated * ion-exchange membrane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2006

  8. Model-based fault detection for proton exchange membrane fuel cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, an intelligent model-based fault detection (FD) is developed for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) dynamic systems using an independent radial basis function (RBF) networks. The novelty is that this RBF networks is used to model the PEMFC dynamic systems and residuals are generated based ...

  9. Carbon nanofiber growth on carbon paper for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celebi, S.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Schaaf, van der J.; Bruijn, de F.A.; Schouten, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneous deposition precipitation (HDP) of nickel has been investigated for the growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on carbon paper for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells as a gas diffusion layer. Selective CNF growth on only one side of carbon paper is required to transfer the generated

  10. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.; Cassady, Harrison J.; Paul, Donald R.; Logan, Bruce E.; Hickner, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    -ions also appeared to influence permselectivity leading to ion-specific effects; co-ions that are charge dense and have low polarizability tended to result in high membrane permselectivity. This journal is

  11. Preparation and performance evaluation of novel alkaline stable anion exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Bakangura, Erigene; Afsar, Noor Ul; Hossain, Md. Masem; Ran, Jin; Xu, Tongwen

    2017-07-01

    Novel alkaline stable anion exchange membranes are prepared from various amounts of N-methyl dipicolylamine (MDPA) and brominated poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO). The dipicolylamine and MDPA are synthesized through condensation reaction and confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The morphologies of prepared membranes are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H NMR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical and physical properties of AEMs are tested comprising water uptake (WU), ion exchange capacity (IEC), alkaline stability, linear expansion ratio (LER), thermal stability and mechanical stability. The obtained hydroxide conductivity of MDPA-4 is 66.5 mS/cm at 80 °C. The MDPA-4 membrane shows good alkaline stability, high hydroxide conductivity, low methanol permeability (3.43 × 10-7 cm2/s), higher selectivity (8.26 × 107 mS s/cm3), less water uptake (41.1%) and lower linear expansion (11.1%) despite of high IEC value (1.62 mmol/g). The results prove that MDPA membranes have great potential application in anion exchange membrane fuel cell.

  12. Preparation of poly(ether ether ketone)-based polymer electrolytes for fuel cell membranes using grafting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Shin; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Maekawa, Yasunari

    2008-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK)-based polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) was successfully prepared by radiation grafting of a styrene monomer into PEEK films and the consequent selective sulfonation of the grafting chains in the film state. Using milder sulfonation, the sulfonation reactions proceeded at the grafted chains in preference to the phenylene rings of PEEK main chains; as a result, the grafted films could successfully transform to a PEM with conductivity of more than 0.1 S/cm. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) and conductivity of the grafted PEEK electrolyte membranes were controlled to the ranges of 1.2-2.9 mmol/g and 0.03-0.18 S/cm by changing the grafting degree. It should be noted that this is the first example of directly transforming super-engineering plastic films into a PEM using radiation grafting

  13. Performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, Jin-Cherng; Hsueh, Kan-Lin; Tsau, Fanghei

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → At 1 atm, cell has best performance (∼1300 mA/cm at 0.6 V) at 100 deg. C and RH = 100%. → The A value in Eq. increased with increases in the back pressure and RH. →R i dramatically decreased at back pressure of 1 atm. → At each RH, R i decreased and then increased as cell temperature increased at 1 atm. - Abstract: The polarization curves of a single PEMFC having a Nafion membrane fed with H 2 /O 2 with relative humidity (RH) of 35%, 70% and 100% were measured at cell temperatures ranging from 65 deg. C to 120 deg. C at back pressures of 0 atm and 1 atm, respectively. Measured results showed that the best cell performance at 0.6 V operated within 65-120 deg. C at zero back pressure was 1000 mA cm -2 at 65 deg. C and RH = 100%, while the best cell performance at 1 atm back pressure was 1300 mA cm -2 at 100 deg. C and RH = 100%. Based on the analysis of impedance data measured at anode and cathode humidification temperatures of 90 deg. C and cell temperature of 100 deg. C at back pressures of 0 and 1 atm (90-100p0 and 90-100p1), it could be found that the membrane resistance was reduced and the catalyst became more active as the back pressure increases. The present results showed that increasing back pressure was able to dramatically improve cell performance and the effect of the back pressure surpassed that of humidification in the internal resistance of cell.

  14. Facilitated transport in hydroxide-exchange membranes for post-combustion CO2 separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Laj; Gu, Shuang; Jensen, Kurt O; Yan, Yushan S

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxide-exchange membranes are developed for facilitated transport CO2 in post-combustion flue-gas feed. First, a correlation between the basicity of fixed-site functional groups and CO2 -separation performance is discovered. This relationship is used to identify phosphonium as a promising candidate to achieve high CO2 -separation performance. Consequently, quaternary phosphonium-based hydroxide-exchange membranes are demonstrated to have a separation performance that is above the Robeson upper bound. Specifically, a CO2 permeability as high as 1090 Barrer and a CO2 /N2 selectivity as high as 275 is achieved. The high performance observed in the membranes can be attributed to the quaternary phosphonium moiety. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Membrane association of the Arabidopsis ARF exchange factor GNOM involves interaction of conserved domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anders, Nadine; Nielsen, Michael M.; Keicher, Jutta

    2008-01-01

    vesicle formation by activating ARF GTPases on specific membranes in animals, plants, and fungi. However, apart from the catalytic exchange activity of the SEC7 domain, the functional significance of other conserved domains is virtually unknown. Here, we show that a distinct N-terminal domain of GNOM......The GNOM protein plays a fundamental role in Arabidopsis thaliana development by regulating endosome-to-plasma membrane trafficking required for polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1. GNOM is a family member of large ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs), which regulate...... mediates dimerization and in addition interacts heterotypically with two other conserved domains in vivo. In contrast with N-terminal dimerization, the heterotypic interaction is essential for GNOM function, as mutations abolishing this interaction inactivate the GNOM protein and compromise its membrane...

  16. Removal of Congo Red from Aqueous Solution by Anion Exchange Membrane (EBTAC): Adsorption Kinetics and Themodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Akhtar, Shahbaz; Zafar, Shagufta; Shaheen, Aqeela; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Luque, Rafael; ur Rehman, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of anionic dye congo red (CR) from aqueous solutions using an anion exchange membrane (EBTAC) has been investigated at room temperature. The effect of several factors including contact time, membrane dosage, ionic strength and temperature were studied. Kinetic models, namely pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order, liquid film diffusion and Elovich models as well as Bangham and modified freundlich Equations, were employed to evaluate the experimental results. Parameters such as adsorption capacities, rate constant and related correlation coefficients for every model were calculated and discussed. The adsorption of CR on anion exchange membranes followed pseudo-second-order Kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters, namely changes in Gibbs free energy (∆G°), enthalpy (∆H°) and entropy (∆S°) were calculated for the adsorption of congo red, indicating an exothermic process. PMID:28793430

  17. Modelling the transport of carbonic acid anions through anion-exchange membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonenko, V.; Lebedev, K.; Manzanares, J.A.; Pourcelly, G.

    2003-01-01

    Electrodiffusion of carbonate and bicarbonate anions through anion-exchange membranes (AEM) is described on the basis of the Nernst-Planck equations taking into account coupled hydrolysis reactions in the external diffusion boundary layers (DBLs) and internal pore solution. The model supposes local electroneutrality as well as chemical and thermodynamic equilibrium. The transport is considered in three layers being an anion exchange membrane and two adjoining diffusion layers. A mechanism of competitive transport of HCO 3 - and CO 3 2- anions through the membrane which takes into account Donnan exclusion of H + ions is proposed. It is predicted that the pH of the depleting solution decreases and that of the concentrating solution increases during electrodialysis (ED). Eventual deviations from local electroneutrality and local chemical equilibrium are discussed

  18. A practical method for measuring the ion exchange capacity decrease of hydroxide exchange membranes during intrinsic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter; Jannasch, Patric

    2018-01-01

    In this work we present a practical thermogravimetric method for quantifying the IEC (ion exchange capacity) decrease of hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) during intrinsic degradation mainly occurring through nucleophilic attack of the anion exchanging group by hydroxide ions. The method involves measuring weight changes under controlled temperature and relative humidity. These conditions are close to these in a fuel cell, i.e. the measured degradation rate includes all effects originating from the polymeric structure, the consumption of hydroxide ions and the release of water. In particular, this approach involves no added solvents or base, thereby avoiding inaccuracies that may arise in other methods due to the presence of solvents (other than water) or co-ions (such as Na+ or K+). We demonstrate the method by characterizing the decomposition of membranes consisting of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) functionalized with trimethyl-pentyl-ammonium side chains. The decomposition rate is found to depend on temperature, relative humidity RH (controlling the hydration number λ) and the total water content (controlled by the actual IEC and RH).

  19. PEM Water Electrolysis: Preliminary Investigations Using Neutron Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Frikkie; van der Merwe, Jan-Hendrik; Bessarabov, Dmitri

    The quasi-dynamic water distribution and performance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer at both a small fuel cell's anode and cathode was observed and quantitatively measured in the in-plane imaging geometry direction(neutron beam parallel to membrane and with channels parallel to the beam) by applying the neutron radiography principle at the neutron imaging facility (NIF) of NIST, Gaithersburg, USA. The test section had 6 parallel channels with an active area of 5 cm2 and in-situ neutron radiography observation entails the liquid water content along the total length of each of the channels. The acquisition was made with a neutron cMOS-camera system with performance of 10 sec per frame to achieve a relatively good pixel dynamic range and at a pixel resolution of 10 x 10 μm2. A relatively high S/N ratio was achieved in the radiographs to observe in quasi real time the water management as well as quantification of water / gas within the channels. The water management has been observed at increased steps (0.2A/cm2) of current densities until 2V potential has been achieved. These observations were made at 2 different water flow rates, at 3 temperatures for each flow rate and repeated for both the vertical and horizontal electrolyzer orientation geometries. It is observed that there is water crossover from the anode through the membrane to the cathode. A first order quantification (neutron scattering correction not included) shows that the physical vertical and horizontal orientation of the fuel cell as well as the temperature of the system up to 80 °C has no significant influence on the percentage water (∼18%) that crossed over into the cathode. Additionally, a higher water content was observed in the Gas Diffusion Layer at the position of the channels with respect to the lands.

  20. Composite polymer electrolyte containing ionic liquid and functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes for anhydrous PEM applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subianto, Surya; Mistry, Mayur K; Choudhury, Namita Roy; Dutta, Naba K; Knott, Robert

    2009-06-01

    A new type of supported liquid membrane was made by combining an ionic liquid (IL) with a Nafion membrane reinforced with multifunctional polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSSs) using a layer-by-layer strategy for anhydrous proton-exchange membrane (PEM) application. The POSS was functionalized by direct sulfonation, and the sulfonated POSS (S-POSS) was incorporated into Nafion 117 membranes by the infiltration method. The resultant hybrid membrane shows strong ionic interaction between the Nafion matrix and the multifunctional POSS, resulting in increased glass transition temperature and thermal stability at very low loadings of S-POSS (1%). The presence of S-POSS has also improved the proton conductivity especially at low humidities, where it shows a marked increase due to its confinement in the ionic domains and promotes water uptake by capillary condensation. In order to achieve anhydrous conductivity, the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMI-BTSI) was incorporated into these membranes to provide proton conduction in the absence of water. Although the incorporation of an IL shows a plasticizing effect on the Nafion membrane, the S-POSS composite membrane with an IL shows a higher modulus at high temperatures compared to Nafion 117 and a Nafion-IL membrane, with significantly higher proton conductivity (5 mS/cm at 150 degrees C with 20% IL). This shows the ability of the multifunctional POSS and IL to work symbiotically to achieve the desirable proton conductivity and mechanical properties of such membranes by enhancing the ionic interaction within the material.

  1. Sliding-Mode Control of PEM Fuel Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Kunusch, Cristian; Mayosky, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in catalysis technologies and new materials make fuel cells an economically appealing and clean energy source with massive market potential in portable devices, home power generation and the automotive industry. Among the more promising fuel-cell technologies are proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Sliding-Mode Control of PEM Fuel Cells demonstrates the application of higher-order sliding-mode control to PEMFC dynamics. Fuel-cell dynamics are often highly nonlinear and the text shows the advantages of sliding modes in terms of robustness to external disturbance, modelling error and system-parametric disturbance using higher-order control to reduce chattering. Divided into two parts, the book first introduces the theory of fuel cells and sliding-mode control. It begins by contextualising PEMFCs both in terms of their development and within the hydrogen economy and today’s energy production situation as a whole. The reader is then guided through a discussion of fuel-cell operation pr...

  2. A PEM fuel cell for in situ XAS studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, Richard J.K.; King, Colin R.; Rose, Abigail; Wells, Peter P.; Hogarth, Martin P.; Thompsett, David; Russell, Andrea E.

    2005-01-01

    A miniature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been designed to enable in situ XAS investigations of the anode catalyst using fluorescence detection. The development of the cell is described, in particular the modifications required for elevated temperature operation and humidification of the feed gasses. The impact of the operating conditions is observed as an increase in the catalyst utilisation, which is evident in the EXAFS collected at the Pt L III and Ru K edges for a PtRu/C catalyst. The Pt component of the catalyst was found to be readily reduced by hydrogen in the fuel, while the Ru was only fully reduced under conditions of good gas flow and electrochemical contact. Under such conditions no evidence of O neighbours were found at the Ru edge. The results are interpreted in relation to the lack of surface sensitivity of the EXAFS method and indicate that the equilibrium coverage of O species on the Ru surface sites is too low to be observed using EXAFS

  3. Imidazolium-Based Polymeric Materials as Alkaline Anion-Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Reddy, Prakash V.; Nair, Nanditha

    2012-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes that conduct hydroxide ions have potential use in fuel cells. A variety of polystyrene-based quaternary ammonium hydroxides have been reported as anion exchange fuel cell membranes. However, the hydrolytic stability and conductivity of the commercially available membranes are not adequate to meet the requirements of fuel cell applications. When compared with commercially available membranes, polystyrene-imidazolium alkaline membrane electrolytes are more stable and more highly conducting. At the time of this reporting, this has been the first such usage for imidazolium-based polymeric materials for fuel cells. Imidazolium salts are known to be electrochemically stable over wide potential ranges. By controlling the relative ratio of imidazolium groups in polystyrene-imidazolium salts, their physiochemical properties could be modulated. Alkaline anion exchange membranes based on polystyrene-imidazolium hydroxide materials have been developed. The first step was to synthesize the poly(styrene-co-(1-((4-vinyl)methyl)-3- methylimidazolium) chloride through a free-radical polymerization. Casting of this material followed by in situ treatment of the membranes with sodium hydroxide solutions provided the corresponding hydroxide salts. Various ratios of the monomers 4-chloromoethylvinylbenzine (CMVB) and vinylbenzine (VB) provided various compositions of the polymer. The preferred material, due to the relative ease of casting the film, and its relatively low hygroscopic nature, was a 2:1 ratio of CMVB to VB. Testing confirmed that at room temperature, the new membranes outperformed commercially available membranes by a large margin. With fuel cells now in use at NASA and in transportation, and with defense potential, any improvement to fuel cell efficiency is a significant development.

  4. Quantum-beam technology: A versatile tool for developing polymer electrolyte fuel-cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaki, Tetsuya [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    This paper describes the versatile application of quantum beam-based technology to the development of proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for fuel-cell applications. The {gamma}-ray or electron-beam induced radiation grafting offers a way to prepare PEMs; typically, the radical-initiated polymerization of a styrene or styrene-derivative monomer on a base polymer is followed by a sulfonation step. Novel PEMs were previously obtained using radiation-crosslinked fluoropolymers as the base material. Interestingly, combining this radiation-crosslinking process with the well-known chemical crosslinker method enabled one to obtain the ''multiply''-crosslinked PEMs, in which both the main and grafted chains have covalently bridged structures leading to a high durability. The bombardment of heavy ions accelerated to MeV or higher energies produces a continuous trail of excited and ionized molecules in polymers, which is known as a latent track. The approach using this ion-track technology is based on the chemical etching and/or modification of each track with diameters of tens to hundreds of nanometers. The resulting ''nano-structure controlled'' PEM was found to have perfect one-dimensional proton-conductive pathways parallel to its thickness direction, while, in contrast, other existing PEMs mostly exhibited proton transport in the three-dimensional random media. The hierarchical structures of the PEMs, ranging from nanometers to micrometers, were revealed by small-angle neutron scattering experiments using a cold or thermal neutron beam. The information in such a wide length scale led to a deep insight into the dynamic properties inside the PEM from a molecular to macroscopic level, which can provide feedback for the reconsideration and optimization of the preparation procedure. As demonstrated above in the author's studies, it is important to understand that every quantum beam is different, thereby making the right beam choice

  5. Use of Novel Reinforced Cation Exchange Membranes for Microbial Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaraj, Sathish-Kumar; Romano, Sergio Mollá; Moreno, Vicente Compañ; Poggi-Varaldo, H.M.; Solorza-Feria, O.

    2015-01-01

    This work has been focused on the synthesis and characterization of different blended membranes SPEEK-35PVA (Water), SPEEK-35PVA (DMAc) prepared by casting and nanofiber-reinforced proton exchange membranes Nafion-PVA-15, Nafion-PVA-23 and SPEEK/PVA-PVB. The two first reinforced membranes were made up of Nafion® polymer deposited between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers. The last composite membrane is considered because the PVA is a hydrophilic polymer which forms homogeneous blends with SPEEK suitable to obtain high proton conductivity, while the hydrophobic PVB can produce blends in a phase separation morphology in which very low water uptake can be found. The synthesized membranes showed an outstanding stability, high proton conductivity, and enhanced mechanical and barrier properties. The membranes were characterized in single chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs) using electrochemically enriched high sodic saline hybrid H-inocula (Geobacter metallireducen, Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus, and Marinobacter adhaerens) as biocatalyst. The best performance was obtained with Nafion-PVA-15 membrane, which achieved a maximum power density of 1053 mW/m 3 at a cell voltage of 340 mV and displayed the lowest total internal resistance (Rint ≈ 522 Ω). This result is in agreement with the low oxygen permeability and the moderate conductivity found in this kind of membranes. These results are encouraging towards obtaining high concentrated sodic saline model wastewater exploiting MFCs

  6. Current density distribution mapping in PEM fuel cells as an instrument for operational measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geske, M.; Heuer, M.; Heideck, G.; Styczynski, Z. A. [Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Chair Electric Power Networks and Renewable Energy Sources, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A newly developed measurement system for current density distribution mapping has enabled a new approach for operational measurements in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Taking into account previously constructed measurement systems, a method based on a multi layer printed circuit board was chosen for the development of the new system. This type of system consists of a sensor, a special electronic device and the control and visualization PC. For the acquisition of the current density distribution values, a sensor device was designed and installed within a multilayer printed circuit board with integrated shunt resistors. Varying shunt values can be taken into consideration with a newly developed and evaluated calibration method. The sensor device was integrated in a PEM fuel cell stack to prove the functionality of the whole measurement system. A software application was implemented to visualize and save the measurement values. Its functionality was verified by operational measurements within a PEMFC system. Measurement accuracy and possible negative reactions of the sensor device during PEMFC operation are discussed in detail in this paper. The developed system enables operational measurements for different operating phases of PEM fuel cells. Additionally, this can be seen as a basis for new opportunities of optimization for fuel cell design and operation modes. (author)

  7. Current Density Distribution Mapping in PEM Fuel Cells as An Instrument for Operational Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Geske

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A newly developed measurement system for current density distribution mapping has enabled a new approach for operational measurements in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC. Taking into account previously constructed measurement systems, a method based on a multi layer printed circuit board was chosen for the development of the new system. This type of system consists of a sensor, a special electronic device and the control and visualization PC. For the acquisition of the current density distribution values, a sensor device was designed and installed within a multilayer printed circuit board with integrated shunt resistors. Varying shunt values can be taken into consideration with a newly developed and evaluated calibration method. The sensor device was integrated in a PEM fuel cell stack to prove the functionality of the whole measurement system. A software application was implemented to visualize and save the measurement values. Its functionality was verified by operational measurements within a PEMFC system. Measurement accuracy and possible negative reactions of the sensor device during PEMFC operation are discussed in detail in this paper. The developed system enables operational measurements for different operating phases of PEM fuel cells. Additionally, this can be seen as a basis for new opportunities of optimization for fuel cell design and operation modes.

  8. Test system design for Hardware-in-Loop evaluation of PEM fuel cells and auxiliaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolf, Guenter; Moore, Robert M. [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2006-07-14

    In order to evaluate the dynamic behavior of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and their auxiliaries, the dynamic capability of the test system must exceed the dynamics of the fastest component within the fuel cell or auxiliary component under test. This criterion is even more critical when a simulated component of the fuel cell system (e.g., the fuel cell stack) is replaced by hardware and Hardware-in-Loop (HiL) methodology is employed. This paper describes the design of a very fast dynamic test system for fuel cell transient research and HiL evaluation. The integration of the real time target (which runs the simulation), the test stand PC (that controls the operation of the test stand), and the programmable logic controller (PLC), for safety and low-level control tasks, into one single integrated unit is successfully completed. (author)

  9. Distribution of the Current Density in Electrolyte of the Pem Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Kurgan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper water management in proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell is considered. Firt mass convervation law for water is applied. Next proton transport is described by the Nernst-Planck equation and liqid water convection velocity is eliminated by the Schlogl equation. Electro-osmotic drag coefficient is related to hydrogen index and experimentally determined swelling coefficient. Three partial differential equations for molar water concentration Cw, electric potential ϕ and water pressure Pw are formulated. Current density vector i is derived from proton flux expression. These equations together with adequate boundary conditions were solved using finite element method. The distribution of electric potential and current density in function of geometrical parametres is investigated. At the end some illustrative example is given.

  10. A Central Composite Face-Centered Design for Parameters Estimation of PEM Fuel Cell Electrochemical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled MAMMAR

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach based on Experimental of design methodology (DoE is used to estimate the optimal of unknown model parameters proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. This proposed approach combines the central composite face-centered (CCF and numerical PEMFC electrochemical. Simulation results obtained using electrochemical model help to predict the cell voltage in terms of inlet partial pressures of hydrogen and oxygen, stack temperature, and operating current. The value of the previous model and (CCF design methodology is used for parametric analysis of electrochemical model. Thus it is possible to evaluate the relative importance of each parameter to the simulation accuracy. However this methodology is able to define the exact values of the parameters from the manufacture data. It was tested for the BCS 500-W stack PEM Generator, a stack rated at 500 W, manufactured by American Company BCS Technologies FC.

  11. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Harris, Aaron P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A barge-mounted hydrogen-fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system has the potential to reduce emissions and fossil fuel use of maritime vessels in and around ports. This study determines the technical feasibility of this concept and examines specific options on the U.S. West Coast for deployment practicality and potential for commercialization.The conceptual design of the system is found to be straightforward and technically feasible in several configurations corresponding to various power levels and run times.The most technically viable and commercially attractive deployment options were found to be powering container ships at berth at the Port of Tacoma and/or Seattle, powering tugs at anchorage near the Port of Oakland, and powering refrigerated containers on-board Hawaiian inter-island transport barges. Other attractive demonstration options were found at the Port of Seattle, the Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, the California Maritime Academy, and an excursion vessel on the Ohio River.

  12. Numerical investigation of flow field configuration and contact resistance for PEM fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Mohammad Hadi; Rismanchi, Behzad [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-51154 (Iran)

    2008-08-15

    A steady-state three-dimensional non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is presented. Conservation of mass, momentum, species, energy, and charge, as well as electrochemical kinetics are considered. In this model, the effect of interfacial contact resistance is also included. The numerical solution is based on a finite-volume method. In this study the effects of flow channel dimensions on the cell performance are investigated. Simulation results indicate that increasing the channel width will improve the limiting current density. However, it is observed that an optimum shoulder size of the flow channels exists for which the cell performance is the highest. Polarization curves are obtained for different operating conditions which, in general, compare favorably with the corresponding experimental data. Such a CFD model can be used as a tool in the development and optimization of PEM fuel cells. (author)

  13. Testing of low pressure proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettoni, M; Naso, V; Lucentini, M; Rubini, L

    1998-07-01

    One of the main issues concerning PEMFC is the choice of operating pressure, for both stationary and automotive applications. This is because the air compressor may absorb a significant amount--up to 25%--of the power output of the fuel cells stack. A comparison has been made between the performance of various stacks of different dimensions, tested in the De Nora Laboratories operated at high (4 bar) and low (1.5 bar) pressures, considering power output reduced by the compressor power absorption. Differences of performance and efficiency between high and low pressure stacks have been noticed in the range of 10%. In operating at low pressure, higher efficiency is obtainable, but the maximum power of the stack is less; this means less fuel consumption, but requires a greater reacting surface and larger dimension of the stack. Consequently low pressures make the system simpler (a blower can be used instead of a compressor), and safer (there is practically no risk of breaking the membrane).

  14. Desalination by electrodialysis with the ion-exchange membrane prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seong-Ho; Han Jeong, Young; Jeong Ryoo, Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pill E-mail: kplee@kyungpook.ac.kr

    2001-07-01

    Ion-exchange membranes modified with the triethylamine [-N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] and phosphoric acid (-PO{sub 3} H) groups were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto the polyolefin nonwavon fabric (PNF) and subsequent chemical modification of poly(GMA) graft chains. The physical and chemical properties of the GMA-grafted PNF and the PNF modified with ion-exchange groups were investigated by SEM, XPS, TGA, and DSC. Furthermore, electrochemical properties such as specific electric resistance, transport number of K{sup +}, and desalination were examined. The grafting yield increased with increasing reaction time and reaction temperature. The maximum grafting yield was obtained with 40% (vol.%) monomer concentration in dioxane at 60 deg. C. The content of the cation- and anion-exchange group increased with increasing grafting yield. Electrical resistance of the PNF modified with TEA and -PO{sub 3} H group decreased, while the water uptake (%) increased with increasing ion-exchange group capacities. Transport number of the PNF modified with ion-exchange group were the range of ca. 0.82-0.92. The graft-type ion-exchange membranes prepared by radiation-induced graft copolymerization were successfully applied as separators for electrodialysis. (author)

  15. Design and construction of an electrolyte PEM test; Diseno y construccion de un electrolizador PEM de prueba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Huerta, R. G.; Santillan-Aragon, G. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: rosgonzalez_h@yahoo.com.mx; Solorza-Feria, O. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The use of hydrogen as a fuel is directly linked to its efficient and clean production. One of the most promising methods is water electrolysis, which coupled with a renewable energy source prevents the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. If a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is used, a highly pure hydrogen is produced, ready to be used in a fuel battery. Many studies and investigations in this area concentrate on finding different stable and selective electrocatalysts for the cathode reaction (production of hydrogen) and anode reaction (production of oxygen). To conduct these studies, equipment is needed to perform electrochemical studies and determine the stability and performance of different electrocatalysts. This work presents the design and construction of an a PEM electrolysis test to determine the performance of different anode electrocatalysts. Its active area is 4 cm{sup 2}, its structure is graphite and the current distribution mesh is made of stainless steel. Its performance was determined using as electrocatalysts 10% Pt/C E-tek® anodes and a 50%-50%, 25%-75% and 75%-25% combination of RuO{sub 2}-IrO{sub 2}. The authors wish to thank the ICYTDF (PICS08-37) for financial support and IPN (SIP-20090433) and architect Nestor Romero for the electrolysis machining. [Spanish] La utilizacion del hidrogeno como combustible esta ligado directamente a su produccion eficiente y limpia, uno de los metodos mas prometedores es la electrolisis del agua, ya que acoplado con una fuente de energia renovable se evita la emision de contaminantes a la atmosfera. Si se utiliza un electrolizador de membrana de intercambio protonico (Tipo PEM), el hidrogeno que se produce es de alta pureza, listo para ser utilizado en una pila de combustible. Muchos estudios e investigaciones en esta area se concentran en encontrar distintos electrocatalizadores estables y selectivos para la reaccion catodica (produccion de hidrogeno) y anodica (produccion de oxigeno). Para

  16. Oxidative degradation of polybenzimidazole membranes as electrolytes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, J.H.; Li, Qingfeng; Rudbeck, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    the oxidative degradation of the polymer membrane was studied under the Fenton test conditions by the weight loss, intrinsic viscosity, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. During the Fenton test, significant weight losses depending...... on the initial molecular weight of the polymer were observed. At the same time, viscosity and SEC measurements revealed a steady decrease in molecular weight. The degradation of acid doped PBI membranes under Fenton test conditions is proposed to start by the attack of hydroxyl radicals at the carbon atom......Polybenzimidazole membranes imbibed with acid are emerging as a suitable electrolyte material for high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The oxidative stability of polybenzimidazole has been identified as an important issue for the long-term durability of such cells. In this paper...

  17. First report of vertically aligned (Sn,Ir)O2:F solid solution nanotubes: Highly efficient and robust oxygen evolution electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane based water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadge, Shrinath Dattatray; Patel, Prasad P.; Datta, Moni K.; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Shanthi, Pavithra M.; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2018-07-01

    One dimensional (1D) vertically aligned nanotubes (VANTs) of (Sn0.8Ir0.2)O2:10F are synthesized for the first time by a sacrificial template assisted approach. The aim is to enhance the electrocatalytic activity of F doped (Sn,Ir)O2 solid solution electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis by generating (Sn0.8Ir0.2)O2:10F nanotubes (NTs). The 1D vertical channels and the high electrochemically active surface area (ECSA ∼38.46 m2g-1) provide for facile electron transport. This results in low surface charge transfer resistance (4.2 Ω cm2), low Tafel slope (58.8 mV dec-1) and excellent electrochemical OER performance with ∼2.3 and ∼2.6 fold higher electrocatalytic activity than 2D thin films of (Sn0.8Ir0.2)O2:10F and benchmark IrO2 electrocatalysts, respectively. Furthermore, (Sn0.8Ir0.2)O2:10F NTs exhibit excellent mass activity (21.67 A g-1), specific activity (0.0056 mAcm-2) and TOF (0.016 s-1), which is ∼2-2.6 fold higher than thin film electrocatalysts at an overpotential of 270 mV, with a total mass loading of 0.3 mg cm-2. In addition, (Sn0.8Ir0.2)O2:10F NTs demonstrate remarkable electrochemical durability - comparable to thin films of (Sn0.8Ir0.2)O2:10F and pure IrO2, operated under identical testing conditions in PEM water electrolysis. These results therefore indicate promise of (Sn0.8Ir0.2)O2:10F NTs as OER electrocatalysts for efficient and sustainable hydrogen production.

  18. Analysis and optimization of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell using modeling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre Valdés, Ing. Raciel de la; García Parra, MSc. Lázaro Roger; González Rodríguez, MSc. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional, non-isothermal and steady-state model of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell using Computational Fluid Dynamic techniques, specifically ANSYS FLUENT 14.5. It's considered multicomponent diffusion and two-phasic flow. The model was compared with experimental published data and with another model. The operation parameters: reactants pressure and temperature, gases flow direction, gas diffusion layer and catalyst layer porosity, reactants humidification and oxygen concentration are analyzed. The model allows the fuel cell design optimization taking in consideration the channels dimensions, the channels length and the membrane thickness. Furthermore, fuel cell performance is analyzed working with SPEEK membrane, an alternative electrolyte to Nafion. In order to carry on membrane material study, it's necessary to modify the expression that describes the electrolyte ionic conductivity. It's found that the device performance has got a great sensibility to pressure, temperature, reactant humidification and oxygen concentration variations. (author)

  19. Preparation and characterization of Nafion - TiO{sub 2} composite electrolytes for application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells; Preparacao e caracterizacao de eletrolitos compositos Nafion - TiO{sub 2} para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel de membrana de troca protonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Bruno Ribeiro de

    2008-11-06

    The fabrication and characterization of Nafion - TiO{sub 2} composites, and the use of such electrolytes in PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell operating at high temperature (130 deg C) were studied. The operation of a PEM fuel cell at such high temperature is considered as an effective way to promote fast electrode reaction kinetics, high diffusional transport, and high tolerance to the carbon monoxide fuel contaminant. The polymer Nafion{sup R} is the most used electrolyte in PEM fuel cells due to its high proton conductivity. However, the proton transport in Nafion is dependent on the water content in the polymeric membrane. The need of absorbed water in the polymer structure limits the operation of the fuel cell to temperatures close to 100 deg C, above which Nafion exhibits a fast decrease of the ionic conductivity. In order to increase the performance of the electrolyte operating at high temperatures, Nafion-TiO{sub 2} composites have been prepared by casting. The addition of titania hygroscopic particles to the polymeric matrix aims at the enhancement of the humidification of the electrolyte at temperatures above 100 deg C. Three types of titania particles with different specific surface area and morphology have been investigated. Nafion-based composites with the addition of titania nanoparticles, in the 2.5-15 wt.% range, with nearly spherical shape and specific surface area up to approx. 115 m{sup 2}g{sup -1} were found to have higher glass transition temperature than the polymer. Such an increase improves the stability of the electrolyte during the fuel cell operation at high temperatures. The addition of titania-derived nanotubes results in a pronounced increase of the performance of PEM fuel cell operating at 130 deg C. In this composite, the high specific surface area and the tubular shape of the inorganic phase are responsible for the measured increase of both the absorption and retention of water of the composite electrolyte. Nonetheless, the

  20. Phosphoric acid distribution in the membrane electrode assembly of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kyungjung; Park, Jung Ock; Yoo, Duck Young; Yi, Jung S.

    2009-01-01

    The ionomer content in electrode is one of the most important parameters for the high performance of fuel cells. The high temperature PEMFC based on phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polymer membrane with unhumidified reactant gases has a difficulty in controlling the liquid state PA ionomer content in electrode. To evaluate the PA content in electrode, the three techniques of cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and acid-base titration (ABT) are carried out in situ or ex situ. The properties of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) such as electrochemical surface area (ESA), ohmic resistance, charge transfer resistance, double layer capacitance and the amount of PA in MEA components (anode, cathode and membrane) are extracted by each technique. Ex situ CV with the usage of dry gases has a limitation in assessing the reliable ESA of unhumidified PEMFC. While in situ EIS presents some informative values of resistance and capacitance for understanding the PA distribution in MEA, its sensitivity to the PA content in MEA components needs to be higher for detecting a subtle change in PA distribution. Ex situ ABT supplies a clear PA distribution in MEA at room temperature but does not seem to reflect the operating state well at high temperatures. However, it can be used as a detection tool for the loss of the initial acid content in membrane during a long-term MEA durability study.

  1. Phosphoric acid distribution in the membrane electrode assembly of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kyungjung [Fuel Cell Group, Energy Lab, SAIT, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., San 14-1, Nongseo-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kfromberk@gmail.com; Park, Jung Ock; Yoo, Duck Young; Yi, Jung S. [Fuel Cell Group, Energy Lab, SAIT, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., San 14-1, Nongseo-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-01

    The ionomer content in electrode is one of the most important parameters for the high performance of fuel cells. The high temperature PEMFC based on phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polymer membrane with unhumidified reactant gases has a difficulty in controlling the liquid state PA ionomer content in electrode. To evaluate the PA content in electrode, the three techniques of cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and acid-base titration (ABT) are carried out in situ or ex situ. The properties of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) such as electrochemical surface area (ESA), ohmic resistance, charge transfer resistance, double layer capacitance and the amount of PA in MEA components (anode, cathode and membrane) are extracted by each technique. Ex situ CV with the usage of dry gases has a limitation in assessing the reliable ESA of unhumidified PEMFC. While in situ EIS presents some informative values of resistance and capacitance for understanding the PA distribution in MEA, its sensitivity to the PA content in MEA components needs to be higher for detecting a subtle change in PA distribution. Ex situ ABT supplies a clear PA distribution in MEA at room temperature but does not seem to reflect the operating state well at high temperatures. However, it can be used as a detection tool for the loss of the initial acid content in membrane during a long-term MEA durability study.

  2. Estimation of membrane hydration status for standby proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems by impedance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidoggia, Benoit; Rugholt, Mark; Nielsen, Morten Busk

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells are getting growing interest in both backup systems and electric vehicles. Although these systems are characterized by long periods of inactivity, they must be able to start at any instant in the shortest time. However, the membrane of which PEMFCs are made tends to dry out when...

  3. Plasma-polymerized alkaline anion-exchange membrane: Synthesis and structure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jue; Meng Yuedong; Zhang Chengxu; Fang Shidong

    2011-01-01

    After-glow discharge plasma polymerization was developed for alkaline anion-exchange membranes synthesis using vinylbenzyl chloride as monomer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the chemical structure properties of plasma-polymerized membranes. Ion-exchange capacities of quaternized poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (QPVBC) membranes were measured to evaluate their capability of hydroxyl ion transport. A mechanism of plasma polymerization using VBC as monomer that accounts for the competitive effects of free radicals polymerization and plasma ablation in the plasma polymerization process was proposed. Our results indicate that plasma discharge power influences the contents of functional groups and the structure of the plasma polymer membranes, which attribute to the coactions of polymerization and ablation. The properties of uniform morphology, good adhesion to the substrate, high thermal stability and satisfying anion conduction level suggest the potential application of QPVBC membrane deposited at discharge power of 20 W in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells.

  4. Novel membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cell operation above 120°C. Final report for period October 1, 1998 to December 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Supramaniam [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Lee, Seung-Jae [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Costamagna, Paola [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Yang, Christopher [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Adjemian, Kevork [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Bocarsly, Andrew [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Ogden, Joan M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Benziger, Jay [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2000-05-01

    In this project we investigated the experimental performance of three new classes of membranes, composites of perfluorosulfonic acid polymers with heteropolyacides, hydrated oxides and fast proton conducting glasses, which are promising candidates as electrolytes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), capable of operation at temperatures above 120°C. The motivations for PEMFC's operation at this temperature are to: 1) minimize the CO poisoning problem (adsorption of CO onto the platinum catalyst is greatly reduced at these temperatures), 2) find better solutions for the water and thermal management problems in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, 3) find potentially lower cost materials for proton exchange membranes. We prepared and characterized a variety of novel membrane materials. The most promising of these have been evaluated for performance in a single, small area (5cm2) fuel cell run on hydrogen and oxygen. Our results establish the technical feasibility of PEMFC operation above 120°C.

  5. Theoretical model with experimental validation of a regenerative blower for hydrogen recirculation in a PEM fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badami, M.; Mura, M. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    A theoretical model of a regenerative blower used for the hydrogen recirculation of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) for automotive applications has been implemented and validated by means of experimental data. A momentum exchange theory was used to determine the head-flow rate curves, whereas the circulatory flow rate was determined through a theory based on the consideration of the centrifugal force field in the side channel and in the impeller vane grooves. The model allows a good forecast to be made of the blower behaviour, and only needs its main geometrical characteristics and some fluid-dynamic data as input. For this reason, the model could be very interesting, especially during the first sizing and the design activity of the blower. (author)

  6. Charge transport in the electrospun nanofiber composite membrane's three-dimensional fibrous structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGostin, Matthew B.; Peracchio, Aldo A.; Myles, Timothy D.; Cassenti, Brice N.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a Fiber Network (FN) ion transport model is developed to simulate the three-dimensional fibrous microstructural morphology that results from the electrospinning membrane fabrication process. This model is able to approximate fiber layering within a membrane as well as membrane swelling due to water uptake. The discrete random fiber networks representing membranes are converted to resistor networks and solved for current flow and ionic conductivity. Model predictions are validated by comparison with experimental conductivity data from electrospun anion exchange membranes (AEM) and proton exchange membranes (PEM) for fuel cells as well as existing theories. The model is capable of predicting in-plane and thru-plane conductivity and takes into account detailed membrane characteristics, such as volume fraction, fiber diameter, fiber conductivity, and membrane layering, and as such may be used as a tool for advanced electrode design.

  7. Fuel starvation. Irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Carmen M.; Silva, R.A.; Travassos, M.A.; Paiva, T.I.; Fernandes, V.R. [LNEG, National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisboa (Portugal). UPCH Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit

    2010-07-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods used for in-situ and ex-situ analysis of PEM fuel cells are selected in order to better categorize irreversible changes of the cell. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is found instrumental in the identification of fuel cell flooding conditions and membrane dehydration associated to mass transport limitations / reactant starvation and protonic conductivity decrease, respectively. Furthermore, it indicates that water electrolysis might happen at the anode. Cross sections of the membrane catalyst and gas diffusion layers examined by scanning electron microscopy indicate electrode thickness reduction as a result of reactions taking place during hydrogen starvation. Catalyst particles are found to migrate outwards and located on carbon backings. Membrane degradation in fuel cell environment is analyzed in terms of the mechanism for fluoride release which is considered an early predictor of membrane degradation. (orig.)

  8. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Functional Membrane-bound Chemotaxis Receptor Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Seena S.; Eyles, Stephen J.; Weis, Robert M.; Thompson, Lynmarie K.

    2014-01-01

    The transmembrane signaling mechanism of bacterial chemotaxis receptors is thought to involve changes in receptor conformation and dynamics. The receptors function in ternary complexes with two other proteins, CheA and CheW, that form extended membrane-bound arrays. Previous studies have shown that attractant binding induces a small (~2 Å) piston displacement of one helix of the periplasmic and transmembrane domains towards the cytoplasm, but it is not clear how this signal propagates through the cytoplasmic domain to control the kinase activity of the CheA bound at the membrane-distal tip, nearly 200 Å away. The cytoplasmic domain has been shown to be highly dynamic, which raises the question of how a small piston motion could propagate through a dynamic domain to control CheA kinase activity. To address this, we have developed a method for measuring dynamics of the receptor cytoplasmic fragment (CF) in functional complexes with CheA and CheW. Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) measurements of global exchange of CF demonstrate that CF exhibits significantly slower exchange in functional complexes than in solution. Since the exchange rates in functional complexes are comparable to that of other proteins of similar structure, the CF appears to be a well-structured protein within these complexes, which is compatible with its role in propagating a signal that appears to be a tiny conformational change in the periplasmic and transmembrane domains of the receptor. We also demonstrate the feasibility of this protocol for local exchange measurements, by incorporating a pepsin digest step to produce peptides with 87% sequence coverage and only 20% back exchange. This method extends HDX-MS to membrane-bound functional complexes without detergents that may perturb the stability or structure of the system. PMID:24274333

  9. Application of proton exchange membrane fuel cells for the monitoring and direct usage of biohydrogen produced by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oncel, S.; Vardar-Sukan, F. [Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-01-01

    Photo-biologically produced hydrogen by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is integrated with a proton exchange (PEM) fuel cell for online electricity generation. To investigate the fuel cell efficiency, the effect of hydrogen production on the open circuit fuel cell voltage is monitored during 27 days of batch culture. Values of volumetric hydrogen production, monitored by the help of the calibrated water columns, are related with the open circuit voltage changes of the fuel cell. From the analysis of this relation a dead end configuration is selected to use the fuel cell in its best potential. After the open circuit experiments external loads are tested for their effects on the fuel cell voltage and current generation. According to the results two external loads are selected for the direct usage of the fuel cell incorporating with the photobioreactors (PBR). Experiments with the PEM fuel cell generate a current density of 1.81 mA cm{sup -2} for about 50 h with 10 {omega} load and 0.23 mA cm{sup -2} for about 80 h with 100 {omega} load. (author)

  10. The mass balance of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloud, S.; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Wan Ramli Wan Daud

    2006-01-01

    A Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), operating at low temperature uses a simple chemical process to combine hydrogen and oxygen into water, producing electric current and heat during the electrochemical reaction. This work concern on the theoretical consideration of the mass balance has been evaluated to predict the mass flow rate of the both gases (hydrogen/oxygen), the water mass balance, and the heat transfer in order to design a single cell PEMFC stack with a better flow field distributor on the performance of Polymer Electrolyte membrane fuel cells

  11. Double cross-linked polyetheretherketone proton exchange membrane for fuel cell

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luo, H

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available and separating the fuel from oxidant. A polyperfluorosulfonic acid ionomer Nafion? (developed by Dupont) is the mostly used proton exchange membrane in PEMFCs, because of its high proton conductivity and excellent chemical stability [3, 4]. However, the high...-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone. After the solution was homogenized by stirring, the polymer solution was cast on a glass Petri dish. The solvent was then removed in a vacuum oven at 130 ?C. The membrane was peeled off from the Petri dish. Thereafter...

  12. Doping phosphoric acid in polybenzimidazole membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Ronghuan; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2007-01-01

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes were doped in phosphoric acid solutions of different concentrations at room temperature. The doping chemistry was studied using the Scatchard method. The energy distribution of the acid complexation in polymer membranes is heterogeneous, that is, there are two...... different types of sites in PBI for the acid doping. The protonation constants of PBI by phosphoric acid are found to be 12.7 L mol(-1) (K-1) for acid complexing sites with higher affinity, and 0.19 L mol(-1) (K-2) for the sites with lower affinity. The dissociation constants for the complexing acid onto...... these two types of PBI sites are found to be 5.4 X 10(-4) and 3.6 X 10(-2), respectively, that is, about 10 times smaller than that of aqueous phosphoric acid in the first case but 5 times higher in the second. The proton conducting mechanism is also discussed....

  13. Preparation of catalyst coated membrane by modified decal transfer method for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyati; Irmawati, Y.; Prihandoko, B.

    2017-07-01

    A new catalyst coated membrane (CCM) was prepared by modified decal transfer method. A structure of ionomer/catalyst/carbon/substrate was used to facilitate the transfer of catalyst layer from decal substrate to the membrane at quite low hot-pressing temperature (120 °C) for 8 min. Several decal substrates were tested to select a proper substrate, namely PTFE cloth, PTFE film, aluminium foil, and OHP transparent sheet. The transfer degree of catalyst layer was estimated. Elemental analysis and SEM-mapping were performed to evaluate the residue, whereas contact angle measurement was conducted to characterize the hydrophobicity of decal substrates. The results showed that PTFE cloth and PFTE film transferred approximately 90% of catalyst layer onto the membrane, while the other two substrates were around 70%. Furthermore, the elemental analysis of the residue on the substrate revealed that it was mainly composed of carbon and fluorine for PTFE cloth and PTFE film. This result supports other findings that PTFE cloth and PTFE film are suitable as decal substrate at low temperature hot pressing for fabricating CCM.

  14. Novel high-performance nanocomposite proton exchange membranes based on poly (ether sulfone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Ghaffarian, Seyed Reza [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Hasani Sadrabadi, Mohammad Hossein [Faculty of Social and Economics Science, Alzahra University, Tehran (Iran); Heidari, Mahdi [Graduate School of Management and Economics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Moaddel, Homayoun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    In the present research, proton exchange membranes based on partially sulfonated poly (ether sulfone) (S-PES) with various degrees of sulfonation were synthesized. It was found that the increasing of sulfonation degree up to 40% results in the enhancement of water uptake, ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity properties of the prepared membranes to 28.1%, 1.59 meq g{sup -1}, and 0.145 S cm{sup -1}, respectively. Afterwards, nanocomposite membranes based on S-PES (at the predetermined optimum sulfonation degree) containing various loading weights of organically treated montmorillonite (OMMT) were prepared via the solution intercalation technique. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the exfoliated structure of OMMT in the macromolecular matrices. The S-PES nanocomposite membrane with 3.0 wt% of OMMT content showed the maximum selectivity parameter of about 520,000 S s cm{sup -3} which is related to the high conductivity of 0.051 S cm{sup -1} and low methanol permeability of 9.8 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. Furthermore, single cell DMFC fuel cell performance test with 4 molar methanol concentration showed a high power density (131 mW cm{sup -2}) of the nanocomposite membrane at the optimum composition (40% of sulfonation and 3.0 wt% of OMMT loading) compared to the Nafion {sup registered} 117 membrane (114 mW cm{sup -2}). Manufactured nanocomposite membranes thanks to their high selectivity, ease of preparation and low cost could be suggested as the ideal candidate for the direct methanol fuel cell applications. (author)

  15. Enhancing the Chemical and Mechanical Durability of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Andrew M.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are energy conversion devices which generate electricity from the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen. Currently, widespread adoption of PEM fuel cell technology is hindered by low component durability and high costs. In this work, strategies were investigated to improve the mechanical and chemical durability of the ion conducting polymer, or ionomer, which comprises the PEM, in order to directly address these limitations. Owing to their exceptional mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated for mechanical reinforcement of the PEM. Because of their electronic conductivity, which diminishes cell performance, two strategies were developed to enable the use of CNTs as PEM reinforcement. These systems result in enhanced mechanical properties without sacrificing performance of the PEM during operation. Further, when coated with ceria (CeO2), which scavenges radicals that are generated during operation and cause PEM chemical degradation by attacking vulnerable chemical groups in the ionomer, MWCNTs further improved PEM chemical durability. During cell fabrication, conditioning, and discharge, Ce rapidly migrates between the PEM and catalyst layers (CLs), which reduces catalyst efficiency and leaves areas of the cell defenseless against radical attacks. Therefore, in order to stabilize Ce and localize it to areas of highest radical generation, it is critical to understand and identify the relative influences of different migration mechanisms. Using a novel elemental analysis technique, Ce migration was characterized due to potential and concentration gradients, water flux, and degradation of Ce-exchanged sulfonic acid groups within the PEM. Additionally, Zr-doped ceria was employed to resist migration due to ionomer degradation which improved cell durability, without reducing performance, resulting in PEM Ce stabilization near its initial concentrations after > 1,400 hours of testing. Ce was

  16. Laser Ablation Increases PEM/Catalyst Interfacial Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, Jay; Yalisove, Steve

    2009-01-01

    An investigational method of improving the performance of a fuel cell that contains a polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) is based on the concept of roughening the surface of the PEM, prior to deposition of a thin layer of catalyst, in order to increase the PEM/catalyst interfacial area and thereby increase the degree of utilization of the catalyst. The roughening is done by means of laser ablation under carefully controlled conditions. Next, the roughened membrane surface is coated with the thin layer of catalyst (which is typically platinum), then sandwiched between two electrode/catalyst structures to form a membrane/ele c t - rode assembly. The feasibility of the roughening technique was demonstrated in experiments in which proton-conducting membranes made of a perfluorosulfonic acid-based hydrophilic, protonconducting polymer were ablated by use of femtosecond laser pulses. It was found that when proper combinations of the pulse intensity, pulse-repetition rate, and number of repetitions was chosen, the initially flat, smooth membrane surfaces became roughened to such an extent as to be converted to networks of nodules interconnected by filaments (see Figure 1). In further experiments, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was performed on a pristine (smooth) membrane and on two laser-roughened membranes after the membranes were coated with platinum on both sides. Some preliminary EIS data were interpreted as showing that notwithstanding the potential for laser-induced damage, the bulk conductivities of the membranes were not diminished in the roughening process. Other preliminary EIS data (see Figure 2) were interpreted as signifying that the surface areas of the laser-roughened membranes were significantly greater than those of the smooth membrane. Moreover, elemental analyses showed that the sulfur-containing molecular groups necessary for proton conduction remained intact, even near the laser-roughened surfaces. These preliminary results can be taken

  17. Estimation of Membrane Hydration Status for Standby Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems by Impedance Measurement: First Results on Variable Temperature Stack Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidoggia, Benoit; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    Fuel cells are getting growing interest in both backup systems and electric vehicles. Although these systems are characterized by periods of standby, they must be able to start at any instant in the shortest possible time. However, the membranes of which proton exchange membrane fuel cells are made...

  18. Investigation on degradation mechanism of ion exchange membrane immersed in highly concentrated tritiated water under the Broader Approach Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yasunori, E-mail: iwai.yasunori@jaea.go.jp; Sato, Katsumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed into 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water has been demonstrated. • The formation of free hydrophobic free products by reactions between radicals on the membrane and oxygen caused the decrease in ionic conductivity. • From the {sup 19}F NMR spectrum, no distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was measured. - Abstract: The ion exchange membrane is a key material for electrolysis cells of the water detritiation system. Durability of ion exchange membrane has been demonstrated under the Broader Approach Activities. Long-term exposure of Nafion{sup ®} ion exchange membrane in 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of tritiated water was conducted at room temperature for up to 2 years. The ionic conductivity of Nafion{sup ®} membrane after immersed in tritiated water was changed. The change in color of membrane from colorless to yellowish was caused by reactions of radicals on the polymer and oxygen molecules in air. Infrared Fourier transform spectrum of a yellowish membrane revealed a small peak for bending vibration of C-H situated at 1437 cm{sup −1}, demonstrating the formation of hydrophobic functional group in the membrane. The hydrophilic network in Nafion{sup ®} membrane was partially obstructed by the hydrophobic free products. This caused the decrease in ionic conductivity. The peak for bending vibration was clearly eliminated in the spectrum of the membrane after treatment by acid for removal of free products. The high-resolution solid state {sup 19}F NMR spectrum of a membrane after immersed in tritiated water was similar to that of a membrane irradiated with gamma-rays. From the {sup 19}F NMR spectrum, no distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was measured.

  19. Investigation on degradation mechanism of ion exchange membrane immersed in highly concentrated tritiated water under the Broader Approach Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Sato, Katsumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed into 1.38 × 10 12 Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water has been demonstrated. • The formation of free hydrophobic free products by reactions between radicals on the membrane and oxygen caused the decrease in ionic conductivity. • From the 19 F NMR spectrum, no distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was measured. - Abstract: The ion exchange membrane is a key material for electrolysis cells of the water detritiation system. Durability of ion exchange membrane has been demonstrated under the Broader Approach Activities. Long-term exposure of Nafion ® ion exchange membrane in 1.38 × 10 12 Bq/kg of tritiated water was conducted at room temperature for up to 2 years. The ionic conductivity of Nafion ® membrane after immersed in tritiated water was changed. The change in color of membrane from colorless to yellowish was caused by reactions of radicals on the polymer and oxygen molecules in air. Infrared Fourier transform spectrum of a yellowish membrane revealed a small peak for bending vibration of C-H situated at 1437 cm −1 , demonstrating the formation of hydrophobic functional group in the membrane. The hydrophilic network in Nafion ® membrane was partially obstructed by the hydrophobic free products. This caused the decrease in ionic conductivity. The peak for bending vibration was clearly eliminated in the spectrum of the membrane after treatment by acid for removal of free products. The high-resolution solid state 19 F NMR spectrum of a membrane after immersed in tritiated water was similar to that of a membrane irradiated with gamma-rays. From the 19 F NMR spectrum, no distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was measured

  20. Investigation of water distribution in proton exchange membrane fuel cells via Terahertz imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamboon, P.; Buaphad, P.; Thongbai, C.; Saisud, J.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Rhodes, M.W.; Vilaithong, T.

    2011-01-01

    Coherent transition radiation in a THz regime generated from a femtosecond electron bunch is explored for its potential use in imaging applications. Due to water sensitivity, the THz imaging experiment is performed on a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) to assess the ability to quantify water in the flow field of the cell. In this investigation, the PEMFC design and the experimental setup for the THz imaging is described. The results of the THz images in the flow field are also discussed.

  1. Dynamic Model of the High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system co...... elements for start-up, heat conduction through stack insulation, cathode air convection, and heating of the inlet gases in the manifold. Various measurements are presented to validate the model predictions of the stack temperatures....

  2. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell operation and degradation in short-circuit.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva , R.E.; Harel , F.; Jemei , S.; Gouriveau , Rafael; Hissel , Daniel; Boulon , L.; Agbossou , K.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Hybridization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and ultra capacitors (UC) are considered as an alternative way to implement high autonomy, high dynamic, and reversible energy sources. PEMFC allow high efficiency and high autonomy, however their dynamic response is limited and this source does not allow recovering energy. UC appears to be a complementary source to fuel cell systems (FCS) due to their high power density, fast dynamics, and reversibility. A d...

  3. Helium Ion Microscopy of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrode structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiriaev, Serguei; Dam Madsen, Nis; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2017-01-01

    electrode interface structure dependence on ionomer content, systematically studied by Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM). A special focus was on acquiring high resolution images of the electrode structure and avoiding interface damage from irradiation and tedious sample preparation. HIM demonstrated its....... In the hot-pressed electrodes, we found more closed contact between the electrode components, reduced particle size, polymer coalescence and formation of nano-sized polymer fiber architecture between the particles. Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs); Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM...

  4. Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2013-09-17

    Many salinity gradient energy technologies such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) rely on highly selective anion transport through polymeric anion exchange membranes. While there is considerable interest in using thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) in RED processes for closed-loop conversion of heat energy to electricity, little is known about membrane performance in this electrolyte. The resistances of two commercially available cation exchange membranes in AmB were lower than their resistances in NaCl. However, the resistances of commercially available anion exchange membranes (AEMs) were much larger in AmB than in NaCl, which would adversely affect energy recovery. The properties of a series of quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(phenylene oxide) and Radel-based AEMs were therefore examined to understand the reasons for increased resistance in AmB to overcome this performance penalty due to the lower mobility of bicarbonate, 4.59 × 10-4 cm2/(V s), compared to chloride, 7.90 × 10-4 cm2/(V s) (the dilute aqueous solution mobility ratio of HCO3 - to Cl- is 0.58). Most membrane resistances were generally consistent with the dilute solution mobilities of the anions. For a few key samples, however, increased water uptake in AmB solution reduced the ionic resistance of the polymer compared to its resistance in NaCl solution. This increased water uptake was attributed to the greater hydration of the bicarbonate ion compared to the chloride ion. The increased resistance due to the use of bicarbonate as opposed to chloride ions in AEMs can therefore be mitigated by designing polymers that swell more in AmB compared to NaCl solutions, enabling more efficient energy recovery using AmB thermolytic solutions in RED. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Many salinity gradient energy technologies such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) rely on highly selective anion transport through polymeric anion exchange membranes. While there is considerable interest in using thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) in RED processes for closed-loop conversion of heat energy to electricity, little is known about membrane performance in this electrolyte. The resistances of two commercially available cation exchange membranes in AmB were lower than their resistances in NaCl. However, the resistances of commercially available anion exchange membranes (AEMs) were much larger in AmB than in NaCl, which would adversely affect energy recovery. The properties of a series of quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(phenylene oxide) and Radel-based AEMs were therefore examined to understand the reasons for increased resistance in AmB to overcome this performance penalty due to the lower mobility of bicarbonate, 4.59 × 10-4 cm2/(V s), compared to chloride, 7.90 × 10-4 cm2/(V s) (the dilute aqueous solution mobility ratio of HCO3 - to Cl- is 0.58). Most membrane resistances were generally consistent with the dilute solution mobilities of the anions. For a few key samples, however, increased water uptake in AmB solution reduced the ionic resistance of the polymer compared to its resistance in NaCl solution. This increased water uptake was attributed to the greater hydration of the bicarbonate ion compared to the chloride ion. The increased resistance due to the use of bicarbonate as opposed to chloride ions in AEMs can therefore be mitigated by designing polymers that swell more in AmB compared to NaCl solutions, enabling more efficient energy recovery using AmB thermolytic solutions in RED. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. Smart coating process of proton-exchange membrane for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leu, Hoang-Jyh; Chiu, Kuo-Feng; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using oxygen plasma and smart coating technique for membrane modification. ► Oxygen plasma treatment can increase the reaction area of the membrane. ► AFM, SEM, FT-IR, XPS, EIS spectra can prove the surface treatment process. ► Nafion membrane modification can reduce Rct and enhance current density. - Abstract: The interfaces of electrolyte|catalyst|electrode play an important role in the performance of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Increasing the interface effective area and lowering the charge transfer resistance of the interface are significant issues to promote the cell performance. In this study, oxygen plasma treatment was used to increase the surface roughness of Nafion®117 membrane, and then a smart coating process was applied to fabricate the initial Pt/C catalyst layer, which served to reduce the charge transfer resistance of the interface. The morphology and surface characteristics of membranes have been qualified by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These results show that the plasma treatments and smart coating processes were effective in reducing the interface charge transfer resistance. At optimal condition, the interface charge transfer resistance was 0.45 Ω/cm 2 which was 1–2 order less than the untreated ones

  7. Bias-Exchange Metadynamics Simulation of Membrane Permeation of 20 Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zanxia; Bian, Yunqiang; Hu, Guodong; Zhao, Liling; Kong, Zhenzhen; Yang, Yuedong; Wang, Jihua; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2018-03-16

    Thermodynamics of the permeation of amino acids from water to lipid bilayers is an important first step for understanding the mechanism of cell-permeating peptides and the thermodynamics of membrane protein structure and stability. In this work, we employed bias-exchange metadynamics simulations to simulate the membrane permeation of all 20 amino acids from water to the center of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membrane (consists of 256 lipids) by using both directional and torsion angles for conformational sampling. The overall accuracy for the free energy profiles obtained is supported by significant correlation coefficients (correlation coefficient at 0.5-0.6) between our results and previous experimental or computational studies. The free energy profiles indicated that (1) polar amino acids have larger free energy barriers than nonpolar amino acids; (2) negatively charged amino acids are the most difficult to enter into the membrane; and (3) conformational transitions for many amino acids during membrane crossing is the key for reduced free energy barriers. These results represent the first set of simulated free energy profiles of membrane crossing for all 20 amino acids.

  8. Bias-Exchange Metadynamics Simulation of Membrane Permeation of 20 Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanxia Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamics of the permeation of amino acids from water to lipid bilayers is an important first step for understanding the mechanism of cell-permeating peptides and the thermodynamics of membrane protein structure and stability. In this work, we employed bias-exchange metadynamics simulations to simulate the membrane permeation of all 20 amino acids from water to the center of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC membrane (consists of 256 lipids by using both directional and torsion angles for conformational sampling. The overall accuracy for the free energy profiles obtained is supported by significant correlation coefficients (correlation coefficient at 0.5–0.6 between our results and previous experimental or computational studies. The free energy profiles indicated that (1 polar amino acids have larger free energy barriers than nonpolar amino acids; (2 negatively charged amino acids are the most difficult to enter into the membrane; and (3 conformational transitions for many amino acids during membrane crossing is the key for reduced free energy barriers. These results represent the first set of simulated free energy profiles of membrane crossing for all 20 amino acids.

  9. Durability Issues of High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Acid Doped Polybenzimidazole Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . As a critical concern, issues of long term durability of PBI based fuel cells are addressed in this talk, including oxidative degradation of the polymer, mechanical failures of the membrane, acid leaching out, corrosion of carbon support and sintering of catalysts particles. Excellent polymer durability has...... or ionically cross-linking and structure modification With load, thermal or startup-shutdown cycling, the performance loss was found to be much bigger, about 300 µV per cycle or 40 µV per operating hour, due to the increased acid loss and catalyst support corrosion, particularly under open circuit voltage...... operation. Further efforts are outlined to the future work....

  10. Haemocompatibility and ion exchange capability of nanocellulose polypyrrole membranes intended for blood purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Natalia; Carlsson, Daniel O.; Hong, Jaan; Larsson, Rolf; Fellström, Bengt; Nyholm, Leif; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Composites of nanocellulose and the conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) are presented as candidates for a new generation of haemodialysis membranes. The composites may combine active ion exchange with passive ultrafiltration, and the large surface area (about 80 m2 g−1) could potentially provide compact dialysers. Herein, the haemocompatibility of the novel membranes and the feasibility of effectively removing small uraemic toxins by potential-controlled ion exchange were studied. The thrombogenic properties of the composites were improved by applying a stable heparin coating. In terms of platelet adhesion and thrombin generation, the composites were comparable with haemocompatible polymer polysulphone, and regarding complement activation, the composites were more biocompatible than commercially available membranes. It was possible to extract phosphate and oxalate ions from solutions with physiological pH and the same tonicity as that of the blood. The exchange capacity of the materials was found to be 600 ± 26 and 706 ± 31 μmol g−1 in a 0.1 M solution (pH 7.4) and in an isotonic solution of phosphate, respectively. The corresponding values with oxalate were 523 ± 5 in a 0.1 M solution (pH 7.4) and 610 ± 1 μmol g−1 in an isotonic solution. The heparinized PPy–cellulose composite is consequently a promising haemodialysis material, with respect to both potential-controlled extraction of small uraemic toxins and haemocompatibility. PMID:22298813

  11. Two-dimensional analytical model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jia Xing; Guo, Hang; Ye, Fang; Ma, Chong Fang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a two-dimensional full cell analytical model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is developed. The analytical model describes electrochemical reactions on the anode and cathode catalyst layer, reactants diffusion in the gas diffusion layer, and gases flow in the gas channel, etc. The analytical solution is derived according to the basic physical equations. The performance predicted by the model is in good agreement with the experimental data. The results show that the polarization mainly occurs in the cathode side of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell. The anodic overpotential cannot be neglected. The hydrogen and oxygen concentrations decrease along the channel flow direction. The hydrogen and oxygen concentrations in the catalyst layer decrease with the current density. As predicted by the model, concentration polarization mainly occurs in the cathode side. - Highlights: • A 2D full cell analytical model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is developed. • The analytical solution is deduced according to the basic equations. • The anode overpotential is not so small that it cannot be neglected. • Species concentration distributions in the fuel cell is obtained and analyzed.

  12. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  13. Heterogeneous structure and its effect on properties and electrochemical behavior of ion-exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariono, D.; Khoiruddin; Subagjo; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-02-01

    Generally, commercially available ion-exchange membrane (IEM) can be classified into homogeneous and heterogeneous membranes. The classification is based on degree of heterogeneity in membrane structure. It is well known that the heterogeneity greatly affects the properties of IEM, such as conductivity, permselectivity, chemical and mechanical stability. The heterogeneity also influences ionic and electrical current transfer behavior of IEM-based processes during their operation. Therefore, understanding the role of heterogeneity in IEM properties is important to provide preliminary information on their operability and applicability. In this paper, the heterogeneity and its effect on IEM properties are reviewed. Some models for describing the heterogeneity of IEM and methods for characterizing the degree of heterogeneity are discussed. In addition, the influence of heterogeneity on the performance of IEM-based processes and their electrochemical behavior are described.

  14. Investigations of the temperature distribution in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chi-Young; Shim, Hyo-Sub; Koo, Sang-Man; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Yi, Sung-Chul

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional, non-isothermal model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell was implemented to elucidate heat balance through the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). To take local utilization of platinum catalyst into account, the model was presented by considering the formation of agglomerated catalyst structure in the electrodes. To estimate energy balance through the MEA, various modes of heat generation and depletion by reversible/irreversible heat release, ohmic heating and phase change of water were included in the present model. In addition, dual-pathway kinetics, that is a combination of Heyrovsky–Volmer and Tafel–Volmer kinetics, were employed to precisely describe the hydrogen oxidation reaction. The proposed model was validated with experimental cell polarization, resulting in excellent fit. The temperature distribution inside the MEA was analyzed by the model. Consequently, a thorough investigation was made of the relation between membrane thickness and the temperature distribution inside the MEA.

  15. Effect of Divalent Cations on RED Performance and Cation Exchange Membrane Selection to Enhance Power Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnaarts, Timon; Huerta, Elisa; van Baak, Willem; Nijmeijer, Kitty

    2017-11-07

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a membrane-based renewable energy technology that can harvest energy from salinity gradients. The anticipated feed streams are natural river and seawater, both of which contain not only monovalent ions but also divalent ions. However, RED using feed streams containing divalent ions experiences lower power densities because of both uphill transport and increased membrane resistance. In this study, we investigate the effects of divalent cations (Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ) on RED and demonstrate the mitigation of those effects using both novel and existing commercial cation exchange membranes (CEMs). Monovalent-selective Neosepta CMS is known to block divalent cations transport and can therefore mitigate reductions in stack voltage. The new multivalent-permeable Fuji T1 is able to transport divalent cations without a major increase in resistance. Both strategies significantly improve power densities compared to standard-grade CEMs when performing RED using streams containing divalent cations.

  16. Fluorinated poly(ether sulfone) ionomers with disulfonated naphthyl pendants for proton exchange membrane applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaoxia; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Xulve; Yan, Xiaobo; Li, Na; Chen, Shouwen

    2018-06-01

    Proton exchange membranes based on fluorinated poly(ether sulfone)s with disulfonated naphthyl pendants (sSPFES) have been successfully prepared by post functionalization through polymeric SNAr reaction. Copolymer structure was confirmed by H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the physico-chemical properties of the sSPFES membranes were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis, gel permeation chromatography, electro-chemical impedance spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fenton, water-swelling and fuel cell test. The pendant grafting degree was controlled by varying the feeding amount of the disulfonaphthols, resulting in the ion exchange capacity about 1.28-1.73 mmol/g. The obtained sSPFES membranes were thermal stable, mechanical ductile, and exhibited dimensional change less than 17%, water uptake below 70%, and proton conductivity as high as 0.17-0.28 S/cm at 90°C in water. In a single H2/O2 fuel cell test at 80°C, the sSPFES-B-3.2 membrane (1.61 mmol/g) showed the maximum power output of 593-658 mW/cm2 at 60%-80% relative humidity, indicating their rather promising potential for fuel cell applications.

  17. Experimental investigation of dynamic performance and transient responses of a kW-class PEM fuel cell stack under various load changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yong; Yuan Wei; Pan Minqiang; Li Zongtao; Chen Guoqing; Li Yong

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic performance is a very important evaluation index of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used for real application, which is mostly related with water, heat and gas management. A commercial PEM fuel cell system of Nexa module is employed to experimentally investigate the dynamic behavior and transient response of a PEM fuel cell stack and reveal involved influential factors. Five groups of dynamic tests are conducted and divided into different stage such as start-up, shut-down, step-up load, regular load variation and irregular load variation. It is observed that the external load changes the current output proportionally and reverses stack voltage accordingly. The purge operation benefits performance recovery and enhancement during a constant load and its time strongly depends on the operational current level. Overshoot and undershoot behaviors are observed during transience. But the current undershoot does not appear due to charge double-layer effect. Additionally, magnitudes of the peaks of the voltage overshoot and undershoot vary at different current levels. The operating temperature responds fast to current load but changes slowly showing an arc-like profile without any overshoot and undershoot events. The air flow rate changes directly following the dynamic load demand. But the increased amount of air flow rate during different step-change is not identical, which depends on the requirement of internal reaction and flooding intensity. The results can be utilized for validation of dynamic fuel cell models, and regarded as reference for effective control and management strategies.

  18. Ion-Exchanged SAPO-34 Membranes for Krypton-Xenon Separation: Control of Permeation Properties and Fabrication of Hollow Fiber Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yeon Hye; Min, Byunghyun; Yang, Shaowei; Koh, Dong-Yeun; Bhave, Ramesh R; Nair, Sankar

    2018-02-21

    Separation of radioisotope 85 Kr from 136 Xe is of importance in used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Membrane separation based on zeolite molecular sieves such as chabazite SAPO-34 is an attractive alternative to energy-intensive cryogenic distillation. We report the synthesis of SAPO-34 membranes with considerably enhanced performance via thickness reduction based upon control of a steam-assisted vapor-solid conversion technique followed by ion exchange with alkali metal cations. The reduction of membrane thickness leads to a large increase in Kr permeance from 7.5 to 26.3 gas permeation units (GPU) with ideal Kr/Xe selectivities >20 at 298 K. Cation-exchanged membranes show large (>50%) increases in selectivity at ambient or slight subambient conditions. The adsorption, diffusion, and permeation characteristics of ion-exchanged SAPO-34 materials and membranes are investigated in detail, with potassium-exchanged SAPO-34 membranes showing particularly attractive performance. We then demonstrate the fabrication of selective SAPO-34 membranes on α-alumina hollow fibers.

  19. Efficiency measurement and uncertainty discussion of an electric engine powered by a ``self-breathing'' and ``self-humidified'' proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavetti, Pierluigi; Del Prete, Zaccaria

    2007-08-01

    The efficiency of an automotive engine based on a "self-breathing" and "self-humidified" proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack (PEM FC) connected to a dc brushless electrical motor was measured under variable power load conditions. Experiments have been carried out on a small scale 150W engine model. After determining the fuel cell static polarization curve and the time response to power steps, the system was driven to copy on the test bench a "standard urban load cycle" and its instantaneous efficiencies were measured at an acquisition rate of 5Hz. The integral system efficiency over the entire urban load cycle, comprising the losses of the unavoidable auxiliary components of the engine, was then calculated. The fuel cell stack was operated mainly in "partial" dead-end mode, with a periodic anode flow channel purging, and one test was carried out in "pure" dead-end mode, with no anode channel purging. An uncertainty analysis of the efficiencies was carried out, taking into account either type A and type B evaluation methods, strengthening the discussion about the outcomes obtained for a system based on this novel simplified FC type. For our small scale engine we measured over the standard urban cycle, on the basis of the H2 high heating value (HHV), a tank-to-wheel integral efficiency of (18.2±0.8)%, when the fuel cell was operated with periodic flow channel purging, and of (21.5±1.3)% in complete dead-end operation mode.

  20. Recyclable cross-linked anion exchange membrane for alkaline fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianqiu; Liu, Yazhi; Ge, Qianqian; Yang, Zhengjin; Wu, Liang; Xu, Tongwen

    2018-01-01

    Cross-linking can effectively solve the conductivity-swelling dilemma in anion exchange membranes (AEMs) but will generate solid wastes. To address this, we developed an AEM cross-linked via disulfide bonds, bearing quaternary ammonium groups, which can be easily recycled. The membrane (RC-QPPO) with IEC of 1.78 mmol g-1, when cross-linked, showed enhanced mechanical properties and good hydroxide conductivity (24.6 mS cm-1 at 30 °C). Even at higher IEC value (2.13 mmol g-1), it still has low water uptake, low swelling ratio and delivers a peak power density of 150 mW cm-2 at 65 °C. Exploiting the formation of disulfide bonds from -SH groups, the membrane can be readily cross-linked in alkaline condition and recycled by reversibly breaking disulfide bonds with dithiothreitol (DTT). The recycled membrane solution can be directly utilized to cast a brand-new AEM. By washing away the residual DTT with water and exposure to air, it can be cross-linked again and this process is repeatable. During the recycling and cross-linking processes, the membrane showed a slight IEC decrease of 5% due to functional group degradation. The strategy presented here is promising in enhancing AEM properties and reducing the impact of artificial polymers on the environment.

  1. A series of poly(butylimidazolium) ionic liquid functionalized copolymers for anion exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadah, Amina; Xu, Hulin; Luo, Tianwei; Gao, Shuitao; Wang, Xing; Fang, Zhou; Jing, Chaojun; Zhu, Changjin

    2017-12-01

    A new series of ionic liquid functionalized copolymers for anion exchange membranes (AEM) is prepared. Poly(butylvinylimidazolium)(b-VIB) is copolymerized with para-methyl styrene (p-MS) by the radical polymerization formed block copolymers b-VIB/p-MS, which is crosslinked with poly(diphenylether bibenzimidazole) (DPEBI) providing the desired materials b-VIB/p-MS/DPEBI. Structures are characterized via H1NMR, FTIR spectra and elemental analysis. The b-VIB blocks offer the anion conduction function while DPEBI moieties contribute to enhancing other properties. The prepared membranes display chloride conductivity as high as 19.5 mS/cm at 25 °C and 69.2 mS/cm at 100 °C-higher than that of the commercial membrane tokuyuama A201-. Their hydroxide conductivity reaches 35.7 Scm-1 at 25 °C and 73.1 Scm-1 at 100 °C. The membranes showed a linear Arrhenius behavior in the anion conduction, low activation energies and distinguished nanophase separation of hydrophilic/hydrophobic regions by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Thermal investigations using TGA and DSC confirm that the membranes are stable up to 250 °C. Particularly, drastically alkaline stability due to no decrease in the hydroxide conductivity after 168 h of treatment with 2M KOH.

  2. Controlling fuel crossover and hydration in ultrathin proton exchange membrane-based fuel cells using Pt-nanosheet catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Rujie; Zhang, Wenjing (Angela); He, Gaohong

    2014-01-01

    and provided in situ hydration inside Nafion membranes to maintain their proton conductivity level. Furthermore, LDH nanosheets reinforced the Nafion membranes, with 181% improvement in tensile modulus and 166% improvement in yield strength. In a hydrogen fuel cell running with dry fuel, the membrane......An ultra-thin proton exchange membrane with Pt-nanosheet catalysts was designed for a self-humidifying fuel cell running on H2 and O2. In this design, an ultra-thin Nafion membrane was used to reduce ohmic resistance. Pt nanocatalysts were uniformly anchored on exfoliated, layered double hydroxide...

  3. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) flow field plate: design, materials and characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, P.J.; Pollet, B.G. [PEM Fuel Cell Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    This review describes some recent developments in the area of flow field plates (FFPs) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The function, parameters and design of FFPs in PEM fuel cells are outlined and considered in light of their performance. FFP materials and manufacturing methods are discussed and current in situ and ex situ characterisation techniques are described. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Towards neat methanol operation of direct methanol fuel cells: a novel self-assembled proton exchange membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Cai, Weiwei; Ma, Liying; Zhang, Yunfeng; Chen, Zhangxian; Cheng, Hansong

    2015-04-18

    We report here a novel proton exchange membrane with remarkably high methanol-permeation resistivity and excellent proton conductivity enabled by carefully designed self-assembled ionic conductive channels. A direct methanol fuel cell utilizing the membrane performs well with a 20 M methanol solution, very close to the concentration of neat methanol.

  5. Influence of cholesterol and ceramide-VI on structure of the multilamellar lipid membrane at water exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabova, N.Yu.; Kiselev, M.A.; Balagurov, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The results of neutron diffraction investigation of structure changes in multilamellar lipid membranes DPPC/cholesterol and DPPC/ceramide-VI (DPPC - dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) during the processes of hydration and dehydration are presented. The influence of cholesterol and ceramide-VI on kinetics of water exchange in DPPC membrane is characterized

  6. Sulfonation of cPTFE Film grafted Styrene for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Yohan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonation of γ-ray iradiated and styrene-grafted crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene film (cPTFE-g-S film have been done. The aim of the research is to make hydropyl membrane as proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Sulfonation was prepared with chlorosulfonic acid in chloroethane under various conditions. The impact of the percent of grafting, the concentration of chlorosulfonic acid, the reaction time,and the reaction temperature on the properties of sulfonated film is examinated. The results show that sulfonation of surface-grafted films is incomplete at room  temperature. The increasing of concentration of chlorosulfonic acid and reaction temperature accelerates the reaction but they also add favor side reactions. These will lead to decreasing of the ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, and proton conductivity but increasing the resistance to oxidation in a perhidrol solution. The cPTFE-g-SS membrane which is resulted has stability in a H2O2 30% solution for 20 hours.

  7. The next generation fuel cells: anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauqir, A.; Zahoor, S.

    2013-01-01

    Many environmentally friendly alternatives (solar, wind, hydroelectric, and geothermal power) can only be used in particular environments. In contrast, fuel cells can have near-zero emissions, are quiet and efficient, and can work in any environment where the temperature is lower than the cell's operating temperature. Among various types of fuel cells, the AEMFC is the most recent one and has advantages such as excellent performance compared to other candidate fuel cells due to its active O/sub 2/ electrode kinetics and flexibility to use a wide range of electro-catalysts such as silver and nickels contrary to expensive one (Platinum) required for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Anion exchange membrane (AEM) is a crucial part in AEMFC, determining durability and electrochemical performances of membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The role of an AEM is to conduct hydroxyl ions from cathode to anode. If this conduction is not sufficiently high and selective, the corresponding fuel cell will not find any practical application. One of the major problems associated with AEMFC is much lower conductivities of anion compare to proton conductivity in PEMFCs, even upon similar working condition. Thus AEMs is only practical, if it is chemically and mechanically stable against severe basic operation conditions and highly hydroxyl ions conductive. The conventional AEMs based on animated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon or even fluorinated polymers tend to be attacked by hydroxyl ions, causing the degradation during operation is strongly basic conditions. (author)

  8. Quantify and improve PEM fuel cell durability. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahl-Madsen, L.; Odgaard, M.; Munksgaard Nielsen, R. (IRD Fuel Cell A/S, Svendborg (Denmark)); Li, Q.; Jensen, Jens Oluf (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Chemistry, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Andersen, Shuang Ma; Speder, J.; Skou, E. (Syddansk Univ. (SDU), Odense (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present project is to systematically quantify and improve the durability of the PEM FC including the following three PEM FC variants: LT PEM FC, DMFC, and HT PEM FC. Different factors influencing dissolution properties of noble metal catalyst platinum and platinum-ruthenium alloy has been studied. The dissolution was found to increase by increasing the CV cycle upper potential limit, number of potential cycles, solution acidity, oxygen partial pressure, involvement of chloride, and temperature. Ruthenium was found to deteriorate ten (10) times faster than platinum catalyst; and carbon supported catalyst (Pt: 20%, Ru: up to 100%) deteriorate ten (10) times faster than non-supported catalyst (Pt: 2%, Ru: 30%) at the same condition. Loss of sulphonic acid groups and fluoride from perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane was confirmed by different techniques, which locally leads to loss of acidity, and consequently enhances dissolution of noble metal catalyst. Degradation of Nafion ionomer in the electrode was enhanced by noble metal catalyst and the thermal decomposition properties has synergetic effect with carbon degradation. Hydrophobicity of GDL and electrode on GDL were found to degrade e.g. radical attack, oxidation, and physical wear out. The very top micro surface structure turned out to be responsible for wetting property after chemical ageing. Optimal catalyst and ionomer ratio is also reflected in contact angle value, which can be understood in terms of catalyst/carbon - ionomer affinity and layered structure. Long-term tested and 'virgin' LT PEM MEAs have been characterised with respect to SEM, TEM, EDS, and XRD. Both failed and well-functioning MEAs have been characterised. The Post Mortem analysis has shown and quantified degradation mechanisms like catalyst growth and carbon corrosion. Furthermore, the effect of fuel starvation was shown by pronounced Ru-catalyst band within the membrane. The catalyst coarsening observed after

  9. Development and Study of Tantalum and Niobium Carbides as Electrocatalyst Supports for the Oxygen Electrode for PEM Water Electrolysis at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Prag, Carsten Brorson

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) water electrolysis is a prospective method of producing hydrogen. We focused on one of its issues – the lack of a suitable support material for the anode electrocatalyst. TaC and NbC were studied as possible electrocatalyst supports for the PEM water electrolysis...

  10. Membrane electrode assembly with doped polyaniline interlayer for proton exchange membrane fuel cells under low relative humidity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cindrella, L. [Fuel Cell Research Lab, Engineering Technology Department, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu 620015 (India); Kannan, A.M. [Fuel Cell Research Lab, Engineering Technology Department, Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States)

    2009-09-05

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was designed by incorporating an interlayer between the catalyst layer and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) to improve the low relative humidity (RH) performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). On the top of the micro-porous layer of the GDL, a thin layer of doped polyaniline (PANI) was deposited to retain moisture content in order to maintain the electrolyte moist, especially when the fuel cell is working at lower RH conditions, which is typical for automotive applications. The surface morphology and wetting angle characteristics of the GDLs coated with doped PANI samples were examined using FESEM and Goniometer, respectively. The surface modified GDLs fabricated into MEAs were evaluated in single cell PEMFC between 50 and 100% RH conditions using H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} as reactants at ambient pressure. It was observed that the MEA with camphor sulfonic acid doped PANI interlayer showed an excellent fuel cell performance at all RH conditions including that at 50% at 80 C using H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. (author)

  11. A reversible electrolyzer-fuel cell system based on PEM technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, S.A.; Millet, P.; Fateev, V.N.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': A reversible electrolyzer-fuel cell is an electrochemical system which can be alternatively operated in water electrolysis or H 2 /O 2 (air) fuel cell modes. Whereas proton-exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis and PEM fuel cell technologies are individually well-established, it is still a very challenging task to develop efficient reversible systems which can maintain interesting electrochemical performances during a significant number of cycles. Results reported in this communication are related to R and D on bi-functional catalysts, electrocatalytic layers, gas diffusion layers/current collectors and reversible PEM stack design. Electrodes which do not change their redox status when the operation mode of the cell is switched from electrolysis to fuel cell are more specifically considered. In particular, it is shown that, when the anode is composed of Pt-Ir layers (ca. 0.5/0.5 wt. ratio), best electrochemical performances are obtained (for both for water and hydrogen oxidation reactions) when an Ir layer is placed face-to-face with the membrane. Cathodic electrocatalytic layers made of Pt/C were prepared and optimized by adding PTFE to obtain the required hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties for effective oxygen and protons electro-reduction. Gas diffusion electrodes made of porous carbon materials and bi-porous titanium sheets with appropriate water management properties have also been developed. A two-cell stack with 250 cm 2 active area electrodes has been assembled using the optimized components and successfully tested. Results are rather close to those obtained for individual water electrolysis and H 2 /O 2 fuel cells with the same noble metal loadings and similar operating conditions. For instance, at a current density of 0.2 A/cm 2 , typical cell voltages of ca. 1.55 and 0.70 V were respectively obtained during water electrolysis and H 2 /O 2 fuel cell operation, using Nafion-1135 as solid polymer electrolyte and noble metal loadings 2

  12. Electrochemical characterization of a polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane unit cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk; Schaltz, Erik; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    This work constitutes detailed EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) measurements on a PBIbased HT-PEM unit cell. By means of EIS the fuel cell is characterized in several modes of operation by varying the current density, temperature and the stoichiometry of the reactant gases. Using...

  13. Photosynthetic solar cell using nanostructured proton exchange membrane for microbial biofilm prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hyun; Oh, Hwa Jin; Bai, Seoung Jae; Song, Young Seok

    2014-06-24

    Unwanted biofilm formation has a detrimental effect on bioelectrical energy harvesting in microbial cells. This issue still needs to be solved for higher power and longer durability and could be resolved with the help of nanoengineering in designing and manufacturing. Here, we demonstrate a photosynthetic solar cell (PSC) that contains a nanostructure to prevent the formation of biofilm by micro-organisms. Nanostructures were fabricated using nanoimprint lithography, where a film heater array system was introduced to precisely control the local wall temperature. To understand the heat and mass transfer phenomena behind the manufacturing and energy harvesting processes of PSC, we carried out a numerical simulation and experimental measurements. It revealed that the nanostructures developed on the proton exchange membrane enable PSC to produce enhanced output power due to the retarded microbial attachment on the Nafion membrane. We anticipate that this strategy can provide a pathway where PSC can ensure more renewable, sustainable, and efficient energy harvesting performance.

  14. Modeling electrochemical performance in large scale proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J H [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lalk, T R [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Appleby, A J [Center for Electrochemical Studies and Hydrogen Research, Texas Engineering Experimentation Station, Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The processes, losses, and electrical characteristics of a Membrane-Electrode Assembly (MEA) of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) are described. In addition, a technique for numerically modeling the electrochemical performance of a MEA, developed specifically to be implemented as part of a numerical model of a complete fuel cell stack, is presented. The technique of calculating electrochemical performance was demonstrated by modeling the MEA of a 350 cm{sup 2}, 125 cell PEMFC and combining it with a dynamic fuel cell stack model developed by the authors. Results from the demonstration that pertain to the MEA sub-model are given and described. These include plots of the temperature, pressure, humidity, and oxygen partial pressure distributions for the middle MEA of the modeled stack as well as the corresponding current produced by that MEA. The demonstration showed that models developed using this technique produce results that are reasonable when compared to established performance expectations and experimental results. (orig.)

  15. Ionic liquids in proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Efficient systems for energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilha, Janine C.; Basso, Juliana; da Trindade, Leticia G.; Martini, Emilse M.A.; de Souza, Michele O.; de Souza, Roberto F. [Institute of Chemistry, UFRGS, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970, P.O. Box 15003 (Brazil)

    2010-10-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are used in portable devices to generate electrical energy; however, the efficiency of the PEMFC is currently only 40%. This study demonstrates that the efficiency of a PEMFC can be increased to 61% when 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMI.BF{sub 4}) ionic liquid (IL) is used together with the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The results for ionic liquids (ILs) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMI.Cl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMI.BF{sub 4}) in aqueous solutions are better than those obtained with pure water. The current and the power densities with IL are at least 50 times higher than those obtained for the PEMFC wetted with pure water. This increase in PEMFC performance can greatly facilitate the use of renewable energy sources. (author)

  16. Highly porous polytriazole ion exchange membranes cast from solutions in non-toxic cosolvents

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan

    2017-04-04

    The development of highly functionalized porous materials for protein separation is important for biotech processes. We report the preparation of highly porous polytriazole with sulfonic acid functionalization. The resulting ion exchange membranes are selective for protein adsorption. The starting material was a hydroxyl-functionalized polytriazole, which is an advantageous platform for further modification. The polymer was dissolved in a mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC), which can be both considered green solvents. The polymer solubilization was only possible due to an interesting effect of cosolvency, which is discussed, based in phase diagrams. Membranes were prepared by solution casting, followed by immersion in a non-solvent bath. We then grafted sulfone groups on the membranes, by reacting the hydroxyl groups with 1,3-propane sultone and 1,4-butane sultone. Lysozyme adsorption was successfully evaluated. Membranes modified with 1,4-butane sultone adsorbed more protein than those with 1,3-propane sultone.