WorldWideScience

Sample records for exchange interactions

  1. Fragmentary model of exchange interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kotov, V M

    2000-01-01

    This article makes attempt to refusal from using neutrino for explanation continuous distribution of beta particle energy by conversion to characteristic exchange interaction particles in nucleolus. It is taking formulation for nuclear position with many different fragments. It is computing half-value period of spontaneous fission of heavy nucleolus. (author)

  2. Exchange interactions in barium hexaferrite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Rusz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 18 (2005), 184433/1-184433/6 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010214 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : hexaferrites * exchange interaction * density functional theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.185, year: 2005

  3. Exchange interactions in Fe/Y multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkabil, R.; Elkaidi, I.; Annouar, F.; Lassri, H.; Hamdoun, A.; Bensassi, B.; Berrada, A.; Krishnan, R.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetization of Fe/Y multilayers has been measured as a function of temperature. A bulk-like T 3/2 temperature dependence of the magnetization is observed for all multilayers in the temperature range 5-300 K. The spin-wave constant B is found to decrease inversely with t Fe . A simple theoretical model with exchange interactions only, and with non-interacting magnons, has been used to explain the temperature dependence of the magnetization and the approximate values for the bulk exchange interaction J b , surface exchange interaction J s and the interlayer exchange interaction J I for various Fe layer thicknesses have been obtained

  4. Giant exchange interaction in mixed lanthanides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieru, Veacheslav; Iwahara, Naoya; Ungur, Liviu; Chibotaru, Liviu F.

    2016-01-01

    Combining strong magnetic anisotropy with strong exchange interaction is a long standing goal in the design of quantum magnets. The lanthanide complexes, while exhibiting a very strong ionic anisotropy, usually display a weak exchange coupling, amounting to only a few wavenumbers. Recently, an isostructural series of mixed (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) have been reported, in which the exchange splitting is estimated to reach hundreds wavenumbers. The microscopic mechanism governing the unusual exchange interaction in these compounds is revealed here by combining detailed modeling with density-functional theory and ab initio calculations. We find it to be basically kinetic and highly complex, involving non-negligible contributions up to seventh power of total angular momentum of each lanthanide site. The performed analysis also elucidates the origin of magnetization blocking in these compounds. Contrary to general expectations the latter is not always favored by strong exchange interaction. PMID:27087470

  5. Intersite Coulomb interaction and Heisenberg exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eder, R; van den Brink, J.; Sawatzky, G.A

    1996-01-01

    Based on exact diagonalization results for small clusters we discuss the effect of intersite Coulomb repulsion in Mott-Hubbard or charge transfers insulators. Whereas the exchange constant J for direct exchange is enhanced by intersite Coulomb interaction, that for superexchange is suppressed. The

  6. The Balescu kinetic equation with exchange interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, V V; Kukharenko, Yu A

    2009-01-01

    Starting with the quantum BBGKY hierarchy for the distribution functions, we have obtained the quantum kinetic equation including the dynamical screening of the interaction potential, which exactly takes into account the exchange scattering in the plasma. The collision integral is expressed in terms of the Green function of the linearized Hartree–Fock equation. The potential energy takes into account the polarization and exchange interaction too

  7. Magnon energies and exchange interactions in terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden

    1968-01-01

    The magnon density of states, and hence the magnetic contribution to the specific heat, and also the exchange interaction between ions in the same sublattice have been calculated for Tb at 90°K, using experimental results obtained by inelastic neutron scattering.......The magnon density of states, and hence the magnetic contribution to the specific heat, and also the exchange interaction between ions in the same sublattice have been calculated for Tb at 90°K, using experimental results obtained by inelastic neutron scattering....

  8. A two-particle exchange interaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubina, Julia; Mueller, Karl-Hartmut; Wolf, Manfred; Hannemann, Ullrich

    2010-01-01

    The magnetisation reversal of two interacting particles was investigated within a simple model describing exchange coupling of magnetically uniaxial single-domain particles. Depending on the interaction strength W, the reversal may be cooperative or non-cooperative. A non-collinear reversal mode is obtained even for two particles with parallel easy axes. The model yields different phenomena as observed in spring magnets such as recoil hysteresis in the second quadrant of the field-magnetisation-plane, caused by exchange bias, as well as the mentioned reversal-rotation mode. The Wohlfarth's remanence analysis performed on aggregations of such pairs of interacting particles shows that the deviation δM(H m ) usually being considered as a hallmark of magnetic interaction vanishes for all maximum applied fields H m not only at W=0, but also for sufficiently large values of W. Furthermore, this so-called δM-plot depends on whether the sample is ac-field or thermally demagnetised.

  9. A two-particle exchange interaction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubina, Julia, E-mail: j.lyubina@ifw-dresden.d [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270016, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Mueller, Karl-Hartmut; Wolf, Manfred; Hannemann, Ullrich [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270016, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    The magnetisation reversal of two interacting particles was investigated within a simple model describing exchange coupling of magnetically uniaxial single-domain particles. Depending on the interaction strength W, the reversal may be cooperative or non-cooperative. A non-collinear reversal mode is obtained even for two particles with parallel easy axes. The model yields different phenomena as observed in spring magnets such as recoil hysteresis in the second quadrant of the field-magnetisation-plane, caused by exchange bias, as well as the mentioned reversal-rotation mode. The Wohlfarth's remanence analysis performed on aggregations of such pairs of interacting particles shows that the deviation {delta}M(H{sub m}) usually being considered as a hallmark of magnetic interaction vanishes for all maximum applied fields H{sub m} not only at W=0, but also for sufficiently large values of W. Furthermore, this so-called {delta}M-plot depends on whether the sample is ac-field or thermally demagnetised.

  10. Triangular arbitrage as an interaction among foreign exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Yukihiro; Hatano, Naomichi; Takayasu, Hideki; Marumo, Kouhei; Shimizu, Tokiko

    2002-07-01

    We first show that there are in fact triangular arbitrage opportunities in the spot foreign exchange markets, analyzing the time dependence of the yen-dollar rate, the dollar-euro rate and the yen-euro rate. Next, we propose a model of foreign exchange rates with an interaction. The model includes effects of triangular arbitrage transactions as an interaction among three rates. The model explains the actual data of the multiple foreign exchange rates well.

  11. RKKY coupling in the gadolinium with shielded exchange interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aveline, A.

    1973-01-01

    The model of magnetic interation by indirect exchange mechanism (RKKY) is studied. The shielding effect is estimated and exchange integral J(K vector, K' vector) and magnetic interaction energy Jmn(r) analysis is made. The magnetic interaction energy is determinated in two approximations and compared to the Ruderman-Kittel formula. The free electrons model, to conduction electrons, and 4f wave functions, to localized electrons were utilized [pt

  12. Two-body interactions by tachyon exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccarrone, R.; Recami, E.

    1982-01-01

    Due to its relevance for the possible applications to particle physics and for causality problems, is analyzed in this paper the kinematic of (classical) tachyon-exchange between two bodies A, B, for all possible relative velocities. In particular, the two cases u.-vector V-vector c 2 are carefully investigated, V are the body B and tachyon speeds relative to A, respectively

  13. Giant spin torque in systems with anisotropic exchange interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, Vladimir L.

    2012-01-01

    Control of magnetic domain wall movement by the spin-polarized current looks promising for creation of a new generation of magnetic memory devices. A necessary condition for this is the domain wall shift by a low-density current. Here I show that a strongly anisotropic exchange interaction between mobile heavy holes and localized magnetic moments enormously increases the current-induced torque on the domain wall as compared to systems with isotropic exchange. This enables one to control the d...

  14. Spin and orbital exchange interactions from Dynamical Mean Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, A., E-mail: a.secchi@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lichtenstein, A.I., E-mail: alichten@physnet.uni-hamburg.de [Universitat Hamburg, Institut für Theoretische Physik, Jungiusstraße 9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Katsnelson, M.I., E-mail: m.katsnelson@science.ru.nl [Radboud University, Institute for Molecules and Materials, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    We derive a set of equations expressing the parameters of the magnetic interactions characterizing a strongly correlated electronic system in terms of single-electron Green's functions and self-energies. This allows to establish a mapping between the initial electronic system and a spin model including up to quadratic interactions between the effective spins, with a general interaction (exchange) tensor that accounts for anisotropic exchange, Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction and other symmetric terms such as dipole–dipole interaction. We present the formulas in a format that can be used for computations via Dynamical Mean Field Theory algorithms. - Highlights: • We give formulas for the exchange interaction tensor in strongly correlated systems. • Interactions are written in terms of electronic Green's functions and self-energies. • The method is suitable for a Dynamical Mean Field Theory implementation. • No quenching of the orbital magnetic moments is assumed. • Spin and orbital contributions to magnetism can be computed separately.

  15. Approximation of hadron interactions by Regge diagrams with multipomeron exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    A good agreement of hadron diffraction interaction total cross section and their elastic scattering at small angles calculated by summarizing Regge multipomeron exchange diagrams with experiment mentioned by a number of authors results from the fitting of a great variety of the parameters contained in the formulas. The agreement of the other hadron characteristcs with experiment is worse. Distribution of hadron interactions over the number of fragmenting quark-gluon strings calculated by utilizing Regge diagrams is discussed

  16. Renormalization of NN Interaction with Relativistic Chiral Two Pion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, R; Valderrama, M Pavon; Arriola, E Ruiz

    2007-06-14

    The renormalization of the NN interaction with the Chiral Two Pion Exchange Potential computed using relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory is considered. The short distance singularity reduces the number of counter-terms to about a half as those in the heavy-baryon expansion. Phase shifts and deuteron properties are evaluated and a general overall agreement is observed.

  17. Exchange interactions, spin waves, and transition temperatures in itinerant magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Bruno, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 59 (2003), s. 112-147 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0943; GA AV ČR IAA1010203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : exchange interactions * itinerant magnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://psi-k.dl.ac.uk/psi-k/newsletters.html

  18. Varying the exchange interaction between NiO nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Mørup, Steen

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate that exchange interactions between antiferromagnetic nanoparticles of 57Fe-doped NiO can be varied by simple macroscopic treatments. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of the superparamagnetic relaxation behaviour show that grinding or suspension in water of nanoparticles of NiO can...

  19. Incommensurate Spiral Order from Double-Exchange Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azhar, Maria; Mostovoy, Maxim

    2017-01-01

    The double-exchange model describing interactions of itinerant electrons with localized spins is usually used to explain ferromagnetism in metals. We show that for a variety of crystal lattices of different dimensionalities and for a wide range of model parameters, the ferromagnetic state is

  20. Solitary wave exchange potential and nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prema, K.; Raghavan, S.S.; Sekhar Raghavan

    1986-11-01

    Nucleon-nucleon interaction is studied using a phenomenological potential model called solitary wave exchange potential model. It is shown that this simple model reproduces the singlet and triplet scattering data and the deuteron parameters reasonably well. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  1. Orbital angular momentum exchange in post-collision interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Burgt, P.J.M.; van Eck, J.; Heideman, H.G.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors study the exchange of orbital angular mementum between the scattered and the ejected electron. The angular distribution of electrons ejected by the He (2s 2 ) 2 S autoionizing state after its excitation via the He (2s2p 2 ) 2 D resonance is measured. Taking into accout interference with electrons from the direct ionization of helium, the authors are able to show that the measured anisotropic angular distribution is the result of an orbital angular momentum exchange during the post-collision interaction

  2. Static and Covariant Meson-Exchange Interactions in Nuclear Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, B.V.; Hirata, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Dirac version of static meson exchange interactions provides a good description of low-energy NN scattering as well as very reasonable saturation properties in Dirac-Brueckner calculations of nuclear matter. We include retardation terms to make these interactions covariant and readjust the coupling constants so as to maintain a reasonable description of NN scattering. In this case, we find the Dirac-Brueckner approximation to nuclear matter to be extremely overbound. The Bonn meson-exchange interactions provide a good fit to low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering and the deuteron binding energy using a static interaction and the Thompson form of the reduced two-nucleon interaction. We have readjusted the coupling constants of the these interactions to obtain almost equivalent fits to the scattering data and deuteron binding energy with a static interaction and the Blankenbecler-Sugar form of the reduced two-nucleon propagator and using both forms of the propagator with a covariant interaction. Dirac-Brueckner calculations using the static interactions furnish saturation properties similar to those found for the Bonn interactions. The covariant interactions, on the contrary, yield extreme overbinding and do not show signs of saturation before our calculations diverge. One of the advantages claimed for Dirac mean field calculations over nonrelativistic ones has been the fact that they yield reasonable saturation properties without the necessity of a three-body interaction. This is usually credited to the three-body effects introduced by virtual scattering through the Dirac sea states. These are included, in part, through the Dirac form of the self-energy in our calculations. However, we have explicitly excluded their contribution to the Brueckner scattering kernel. Dirac-Brueckner calculations in which both the positive and negative energy states are included in the scattering kernel result in less binding than those that include only the positive-energy ones

  3. Exchange interactions in two-state systems: rare earth pyrochlores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnoe, S. H.

    2018-06-01

    The general form of the nearest neighbour exchange interaction for rare earth pyrochlores is derived based on symmetry. Generally, the rare earth angular momentum degeneracy is lifted by the crystal electric field (CEF) into singlets and doublets. When the CEF ground state is a doublet that is well-separated from the first excited state the CEF ground state doublet can be treated as a pseudo-spin of some kind. The general form of the nearest neighbour exchange interaction for pseudo-spins on the pyrochlore lattice is derived for three different types of pseudo-spins. The methodology presented in this paper can be applied to other two-state spin systems with a high space group symmetry.

  4. Anisotropic exchange interaction for magnetic ion pairs in insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passeggi, M.C.G.

    1975-12-01

    The sources of possible contributions to the magnetic anisotropy for a pair of orbitally non degenerate magnetic ions are investigated. The problem being formulated with the help of the operator form of perturbation theory and irreducible tensor operators. Apart from the usual dipole-dipole effective interaction, mainly induced by the electronic spin-spin dipole coupling corrected by covalency, other mechanisms mediated by the spin-orbit coupling appear. These are a consequence of an appropriate description of the spin-orbit operators for a system which allows for delocalization of the magnetic electrons. A process similar to that known as pseudodipolar appears from contributions in which spin orbit combined with the Coulomb repulsion and with one-electron interactions (acting analogously as for the ''kinetic exchange'') produce compensating effects in third and fourth order, respectively. However, this effect does not appear to be describable in terms of the phenomenological exchange, as is usually assumed. (Passeggi, M.C.G.)

  5. Exchange interaction in scattering on the bound state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, A.A.; Savrin, V.I.

    1975-01-01

    In the framework of the one-time formulation of three-body problem in quantum field theory, the problem of scattering on the bound state is considered for the case when one of the incident particles is identical to one of the particles of the target. It is shown that due to the identical nature of these particles the exchange interaction takes place which can be connected with the mechanism of scattering on the bound state with the rearrangement

  6. Manipulating molecule-substrate exchange interactions via graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Sumanta; Eriksson, Olle; Sanyal, Biplab

    2013-03-01

    Organometallic molecules with a 3d metal center carrying a spin offers many interesting properties, e.g., existence of multiple spin states. A recent interest has been in understanding the magnetic exchange interaction between these organometallic molecules and magnetic substrates both from experiments and theory. In this work, we will show by calculations based on density functional theory how the exchange interaction is mediated via graphene in a geometry containing iron porphyrin(FeP)/graphene/Ni(111). The exchange interaction varies from a ferromagnetic to an antiferromagnetic one depending on the lattice site and type of defect in the graphene lattice along with the switching of spin state of Fe in FeP between S=1 and S=2, which should be detectable by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments. This scenario of complex magnetic couplings with large magnetic moments may offer a unique spintronic logic device. We acknowledge financial support from the Swedish Research Council, KAW foundation and the ERC(project 247062 - ASD).

  7. Meson exchange current (MEC) models in neutrino interaction generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katori, Teppei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the so-called 2 particle-2 hole (2p-2h) effect is an urgent program in neutrino interaction physics for current and future oscillation experiments. Such processes are believed to be responsible for the event excesses observed by recent neutrino experiments. The 2p-2h effect is dominated by the meson exchange current (MEC), and is accompanied by a 2-nucleon emission from the primary vertex, instead of a single nucleon emission from the charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) interaction. Current and future high resolution experiments can potentially nail down this effect. For this reason, there are world wide efforts to model and implement this process in neutrino interaction simulations. In these proceedings, I would like to describe how this channel is modeled in neutrino interaction generators

  8. Tuning antiferromagnetic exchange interaction for spontaneous exchange bias in MnNiSnSi system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liyun; Shen, Jianlei; Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Xi; Ma, Li; Zhen, Congmian; Hou, Denglu; Liu, Enke; Wang, Wenhong; Wu, Guangheng

    2017-12-01

    Based on almost all the data from the literature on spontaneous exchange bias (SEB), it is expected that the system will show SEB if it meets two conditions simultaneously: (i) there are the coexistence and competition of antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) interactions and (ii) AFM interaction should dominate but not be too strong in this competition. In order to verify this view, a systematic study on SEB has been performed in this work. Mn50Ni40Sn10 with strong FM interaction and without SEB is chosen as the mother composition, and the negative chemical pressure is introduced by the substitution of Sn by Si to enhance AFM interaction. It is found that a long-range FM ordering window is closed, and a long-range AFM ordering window is opened. As a result, SEB is triggered and a continuous tuning of the spontaneous exchange bias field (HSEB) from 0 Oe to 1300 Oe has been realized in a Mn50Ni40Sn10-xSix system by the enhanced AFM interaction.

  9. Intergrain exchange interaction estimation from the remanence magnetization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolyachkin, Anton S.; Volegov, Aleksey S.; Kudrevatykh, Nikolay V.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of δm(H)=[M d (H)−M r (∞)+2M r (H)]/M r (∞) curves constructed from dc demagnetization and isothermal remanent magnetization (M d (H) and M r (H) respectively) is important for characterization of the interactions in ferromagnets. Up to now, it has been mainly used for qualitative deductions about them. In this work, the novel functional relation between the maximum of the δm(H) plot and the microscopic parameters of the weakly coupled Stoner–Wohlfarth ensemble with the isotropic distribution of easy magnetization axes was established using computer modeling. It allows quantitative analysis in the frame of the model to be performed. Finally, a new method of estimating the intergrain exchange interaction constant for nanostructured high anisotropy magnets could be formulated taking into account the results of the modeling. - Highlights: • Computer modelling of the weakly coupled Stoner–Wohlfarth like ensemble was performed. • The novel functional relation for maxima of the Kelly plots is established. • Method of the estimation of intergrain exchange interaction constant is formulated

  10. Monte Carlo study of double exchange interaction in manganese oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naa, Christian Fredy, E-mail: chris@cphys.fi.itb.ac.id [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Unité de Dynamique et Structure des Matérioux Moléculaires, Université Littoral Côte d’Opale, Maison de la Reserche Blaise Pascal 50, rue Ferdinand Buisson, Calais, France email (France); Suprijadi,, E-mail: supri@fi.itb.ac.id; Viridi, Sparisoma, E-mail: dudung@fi.itb.ac.id; Djamal, Mitra, E-mail: mitra@fi.itb.ac.id [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Fasquelle, Didier, E-mail: didier.fasquelle@univ-littoral.fr [Unité de Dynamique et Structure des Matérioux Moléculaires, Université Littoral Côte d’Opale, Maison de la Reserche Blaise Pascal 50, rue Ferdinand Buisson, Calais, France email (France)

    2015-09-30

    In this paper we study the magnetoresistance properties attributed by double exchange (DE) interaction in manganese oxide by Monte Carlo simulation. We construct a model based on mixed-valence Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} on the general system of Re{sub 2/3}Ae{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} in two dimensional system. The conduction mechanism is based on probability of e{sub g} electrons hopping from Mn{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 4+}. The resistivity dependence on temperature and the external magnetic field are presented and the validity with related experimental results are discussed. We use the resistivity power law to fit our data on metallic region and basic activated behavior on insulator region. On metallic region, we found our result agree well with the quantum theory of DE interaction. From general arguments, we found our simulation agree qualitatively with experimental results.

  11. Cation exchange interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chih-Jen [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhaohui, E-mail: li@uwp.edu [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin - Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Jiang, Wei-Teh, E-mail: atwtj@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chia-Chuan [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-15

    Exploring the interactions between antibiotics and soils/minerals is of great importance in resolving their fate, transport, and elimination in the environment due to their frequent detection in wastewater, river water, sewage sludge and soils. This study focused on determining the adsorption properties and mechanisms of interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite (SAz-1), a swelling dioctahedral mineral with Ca{sup 2+} as the main interlayer cation. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, a stoichiometric exchange between ciprofloxacin and interlayer cations yielded an adsorption capacity as high as 330 mg/g, corresponding to 1.0 mmol/g. When solution pH was above its pK{sub a2} (8.7), adsorption of ciprofloxacin was greatly reduced due to the net repulsion between the negatively charged clay surfaces and the ciprofloxacin anion. The uptake of ciprofloxacin expanded the basal spacing (d{sub 001}) of montmorillonite from 15.04 to 17.23 A near its adsorption capacity, confirming cation exchange within the interlayers in addition to surface adsorption. Fourier transform infrared results further suggested that the protonated amine group of ciprofloxacin in its cationic form was electrostatically attracted to negatively charged sites of clay surfaces, and that the carboxylic acid group was hydrogen bonded to the basal oxygen atoms of the silicate layers. The results indicate that montmorillonite is an effective sorbent to remove ciprofloxacin from water.

  12. Cation exchange interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chih-Jen; Li, Zhaohui; Jiang, Wei-Teh; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chia-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the interactions between antibiotics and soils/minerals is of great importance in resolving their fate, transport, and elimination in the environment due to their frequent detection in wastewater, river water, sewage sludge and soils. This study focused on determining the adsorption properties and mechanisms of interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite (SAz-1), a swelling dioctahedral mineral with Ca 2+ as the main interlayer cation. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, a stoichiometric exchange between ciprofloxacin and interlayer cations yielded an adsorption capacity as high as 330 mg/g, corresponding to 1.0 mmol/g. When solution pH was above its pK a2 (8.7), adsorption of ciprofloxacin was greatly reduced due to the net repulsion between the negatively charged clay surfaces and the ciprofloxacin anion. The uptake of ciprofloxacin expanded the basal spacing (d 001 ) of montmorillonite from 15.04 to 17.23 A near its adsorption capacity, confirming cation exchange within the interlayers in addition to surface adsorption. Fourier transform infrared results further suggested that the protonated amine group of ciprofloxacin in its cationic form was electrostatically attracted to negatively charged sites of clay surfaces, and that the carboxylic acid group was hydrogen bonded to the basal oxygen atoms of the silicate layers. The results indicate that montmorillonite is an effective sorbent to remove ciprofloxacin from water.

  13. Exchange coupling interactions in a Fe6 complex: A theoretical study using density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauchy, Thomas; Ruiz, Eliseo; Alvarez, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical methods based on density functional theory have been employed to analyze the exchange interactions in an Fe 6 complex. The calculated exchange coupling constants are consistent with an S=5 ground state and agree well with those reported previously for other Fe III polynuclear complexes. Ferromagnetic interactions may appear through exchange pathways formed by two bridging hydroxo or oxo ligands

  14. Exchange interaction in MnPt/FeCo sputtered multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, S.; Nawate, M.; Norikane, T.

    2000-01-01

    MnPt single-layer films have been prepared on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering for studying the composition dependencies of resistivity and crystalline structure. In the as-deposited state, the resistivity increases with Mn content and reaches the maximum at 69 at%. By annealing, the resistivity of the films having the Mn content around 51 at% increases, closely relating to the growth of the ordered CuAu FCT-type MnPt crystals. For the both film structures of the glass/Cu/FeCo/MnPt/Cu and the glass/MnPt/FeCo/Cu, which have been sputter-deposited on glass substrates, the exchange interaction between MnPt and FeCo layers, and the coercivity of the FeCo layer have been examined as functions of the Mn content, the layer thickness and the annealing temperature. In the as-deposited state, the exchange field (H ex ) is nearly zero up to 75 at% of Mn content, above which the value of H ex increases and shows the maximum at 85 at%, in which the blocking temperature is about 100 deg. C. By annealing, the value of H ex increases for the films of Mn content around 40-60 at%, exhibiting the higher blocking temperature than 360 deg. C. The temperature stability has also been examined using the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

  15. Configuration interaction in charge exchange spectra of tin and xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, R.; Morris, O.; Ohashi, H.; Suda, S.; Tanuma, H.; Fujioka, S.; Nishimura, H.; Nishihara, K.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, T.; Koike, F.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2011-06-01

    Charge-state-specific extreme ultraviolet spectra from both tin ions and xenon ions have been recorded at Tokyo Metropolitan University. The electron cyclotron resonance source spectra were produced from charge exchange collisions between the ions and rare gas target atoms. To identify unknown spectral lines of tin and xenon, atomic structure calculations were performed for Sn14+-Sn17+ and Xe16+-Xe20+ using the Hartree-Fock configuration interaction code of Cowan (1981 The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press)). The energies of the capture states involved in the single-electron process that occurs in these slow collisions were estimated using the classical over-barrier model.

  16. Thermal evolution of exchange interactions in lightly doped barium hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trukhanov, S.V., E-mail: truhanov@ifttp.bas-net.by [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninsky Prospekt, 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); SSPA “Scientific and practical materials research centre of NAS of Belarus”, P. Brovki Str., 19, 220072 Minsk, Belorussia (Belarus); Trukhanov, A.V. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninsky Prospekt, 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); SSPA “Scientific and practical materials research centre of NAS of Belarus”, P. Brovki Str., 19, 220072 Minsk, Belorussia (Belarus); Kostishyn, V.G.; Panina, L.V. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninsky Prospekt, 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Turchenko, V.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie Str., 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Donetsk Institute of Physics and Technology named after A.A. Galkin of the NAS of Ukraine, 72 R.Luxemburg Str., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Kazakevich, I.S. [SSPA “Scientific and practical materials research centre of NAS of Belarus”, P. Brovki Str., 19, 220072 Minsk, Belorussia (Belarus); Trukhanov, An.V. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninsky Prospekt, 4, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); SSPA “Scientific and practical materials research centre of NAS of Belarus”, P. Brovki Str., 19, 220072 Minsk, Belorussia (Belarus); Trukhanova, E.L.; Natarov, V.O. [SSPA “Scientific and practical materials research centre of NAS of Belarus”, P. Brovki Str., 19, 220072 Minsk, Belorussia (Belarus); Balagurov, A.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie Str., 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The lightly doped BaFe{sub 12−x}D{sub x}O{sub 19} (D=Al{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}; x=0.1 and 0.3) polycrystalline hexaferrite samples have been investigated by powder neutron diffractometry as well as by vibration sample magnetometry in a wide temperature range from 4 K up to 740 K and in magnetic field up to 14 T to establish the nature of Fe{sup 3+}(Al{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}) – O{sup 2-} - Fe{sup 3+}(Al{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}) indirect exchange interactions. The crystal structure features such as the ionic coordinates and lattice parameters have been defined and Rietveld refined. The Invar effect has been observed in low temperature range below 150 K. It was explained by the thermal oscillation anharmonicity of ions. It is established that the ferrimagnet-paramagnet phase transition is a standard second-order one. From the macroscopic magnetization measurement the Curie temperature and ordered magnetic moment per nominal iron ion are obtained. From the microscopic diffraction measurement the magnetic moments at all the nonequivalent ionic positions and total magnetic moment per iron ion have been obtained at different temperatures down to 4 K. The light diamagnetic doping mechanism and magnetic structure model are proposed. The effect of light diamagnetic doping on nature of Fe{sup 3+}(Al{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}) – O{sup 2-} - Fe{sup 3+}(Al{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}) indirect exchange interactions with temperature increase is discussed. - Highlights: • Crystal structure for lightly doped barium hexaferrites was investigated. • Atomic coordinates and lattice parameters were Rietveld refined. • Magnetic properties for lightly doped barium hexaferrites was investigated. • Magnetic structure for lightly doped barium hexaferrites was investigated. • Magnetic moments at different position and total moment per iron ion were defined.

  17. Nonlinear localized excitations in magnets with a weak exchange interaction as a soliton problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvozdikova, M.V.; Kovalev, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    The spin dynamics of soliton-like localized excitations in a discrete ferromagnet chain with an easy axis anisotropy and a weak exchange interaction is studied. The connection of these excitations with longwave magnetic solitons is discussed. The localized excitation frequency dependence on exchange interaction is found for a fixed number of spin deviation. It is shown that this dependence modifies essentially when the exchange interaction becomes comparable with an anisotropy value

  18. Weak interactions in deuterons: exchange currents and nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautry, F.; Rho, M.; Riska, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    While the meson-exchange electromagnetic current has been tested with an impressive success in the two-nucleon system, nothing much is known about the reliability of the exchange currents in weak interactions. This question is studied using muon absorption in the deuteron, μ - + d→n + n + γ. The meson-exchange current, previously derived in parallel to those of the electromagnetic interaction, is checked for consistency against the p-wave piece of the p + p→d + π + process near threshold and then tested with the total capture rate for which some (though not so accurate) data are available. The same Hamiltonian is then used to calculate the matrix elements for the solar neutrino processes p + p→d + e + + γ and p + p + e - → d + γ in the hope that they would be measured and help resolve the solar neutrino puzzle. Finally a detailed analysis is made of the differential capture rate dGAMMA/dEsub(n), Esub(n) being the kinematic energy in the c.m. of the two neutrons, in the expectation that it will be used to pin down the ever elusive n-n scattering length. (Auth.)

  19. Geometrical contributions to the exchange constants: Free electrons with spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimuth, Frank; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2017-05-01

    Using thermal quantum field theory, we derive an expression for the exchange constant that resembles Fukuyama's formula for orbital magnetic susceptibility (OMS). Guided by this formal analogy between the exchange constant and OMS, we identify a contribution to the exchange constant that arises from the geometrical properties of the band structure in mixed phase space. We compute the exchange constants for free electrons and show that the geometrical contribution is generally important. Our formalism allows us to study the exchange constants in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. Thereby, we find sizable differences between the exchange constants of helical and cycloidal spin spirals. Furthermore, we discuss how to calculate the exchange constants based on a gauge-field approach in the case of the Rashba model with an additional exchange splitting, and we show that the exchange constants obtained from this gauge-field approach are in perfect agreement with those obtained from the quantum field theoretical method.

  20. Influence of the Coulomb interaction on the exchange coupling in granular magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalov, O G; Beloborodov, I S

    2017-04-20

    We develop a theory of the exchange interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) metallic grains embedded into insulating matrix by taking into account the Coulomb blockade effects. For bulk ferromagnets separated by the insulating layer the exchange interaction strongly depends on the height and thickness of the tunneling barrier created by the insulator. We show that for FM grains embedded into insulating matrix the exchange coupling additionally depends on the dielectric properties of this matrix due to the Coulomb blockade effects. In particular, the FM coupling decreases with decreasing the dielectric permittivity of insulating matrix. We find that the change in the exchange interaction due to the Coulomb blockade effects can be a few tens of percent. Also, we study dependence of the intergrain exchange interaction on the grain size and other parameters of the system.

  1. Magnetization reversal processes of isotropic permanent magnets with various inter-grain exchange interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tsukahara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We performed a large-scale micromagnetics simulation on a supercomputing system to investigate the properties of isotropic nanocrystalline permanent magnets consisting of cubic grains. In the simulation, we solved the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation under a periodic boundary condition for accurate calculation of the magnetization dynamics inside the nanocrystalline isotropic magnet. We reduced the inter-grain exchange interaction perpendicular and parallel to the external field independently. Propagation of the magnetization reversal process is inhibited by reducing the inter-grain exchange interaction perpendicular to the external field, and the coercivity is enhanced by this restraint. In contrast, when we reduce the inter-grain exchange interaction parallel to the external field, the coercivity decreases because the magnetization reversal process propagates owing to dipole interaction. These behaviors show that the coercivity of an isotropic permanent magnet depends on the direction of the inter-grain exchange interaction.

  2. INTERACTIVE GLOBAL NETWORK FOR WEATHER DATA OBTAINING, EXCHANGE AND DISSEMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю.А. Авер’янова

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility to enhance the weather information provision of relevant customers is considered. It is based on the use of the complex global system for weather information obtaining, exchange and dissemination. The structural diagram of the system is proposed. The structural diagram is completed with addition connections that allow to pay strong attention on the most dangerous meteorological phenomena at the critical moment of flight. The proposed approach gives possibility to aircraft crew to select and use specified operative information and increase the probability for proper decision taking. The aircraft are used as the dynamic elements for data obtaining and exchange in the frame of the global system for weather information obtaining, exchange and dissemination.

  3. Simulation study on exchange interaction and unique magnetization near ferromagnetic morphotropic phase boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Songrui; Liao, Xiaoqi; Gao, Yipeng; Yang, Sen; Wang, Dong; Song, Xiaoping

    2017-11-08

    Extensive efforts have been made in searching enhanced functionalities near the so-called morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs) in both ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials. Due to the exchange anti-symmetry of the wave function of fermions, it is widely recognized that the exchange interaction plays a critical role in ferromagnetism. As a quantum effect, the exchange interaction is magnitudes larger than electric interaction, leading to a fundamental difference between ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism. In this paper, we establish an energetic model capturing the interplay among the anisotropy energy, magnetostatic energy and the exchange energy to investigate systematically the effects of the exchange energy on the behavior of the ferromagnetic MPB. For the first time, it is found that the exchange energy can narrow the width of MPB region in the composition temperature phase diagram for ferromagnetic MPB systems. As temperature increases, MPB region becomes wider because of the weakening of the exchange interaction. Our simulation results suggest that the exchange energy play a critical role on the unique behavior of ferromagnetic MPB, which is in contrast different from that of ferroelectric MPB.

  4. Collaborative design support : workshops to stimulate interaction and knowledge exchange between practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quanjel, E.M.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this research project is on the effectiveness of Collaborative Design activities of practitioners. More specifically, the research project focuses to interaction and knowledge exchange between two specific practitioners, Architects and Contractors, with a different educational

  5. Magnetic behavior of Van Vleck ions and an electron gas interacting by exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palermo, L.; Silva, X.A. da.

    1980-01-01

    The magnetic behavior of a model in which Van Vleck ions, under the action of a crystal field, interacting by exchange with an electron gas is investigated. The condition of onset of ferromagnetism and the behavior of the critical temperature, band and ionic magnetizations (and susceptibilities) versus temperature, as a function of the band width, exchange interaction and the crystal field splitting energy parameters are obtained within an approximation equivalent to a molecular field formulation. (Author) [pt

  6. Probing of the interfacial Heisenberg and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange interaction by magnon spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Khalil

    2017-01-11

    This Topical Review presents an overview of the recent experimental results on the quantitative determination of the magnetic exchange parameters in ultrathin magnetic films and multilayers grown on different substrates. The experimental approaches for probing both the symmetric Heisenberg and the antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange interaction in ultrathin magnetic films and at interfaces are discussed in detail. It is explained how the experimental spectrum of magnetic excitations can be used to quantify the strength of these interactions.

  7. Energy exchange in systems of particles with nonreciprocal interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaulina, O. S.; Lisina, I. I., E-mail: Irina.Lisina@mail.ru; Lisin, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    A model is proposed to describe the sources of additional kinetic energy and its redistribution in systems of particles with a nonreciprocal interaction. The proposed model is shown to explain the qualitative specific features of the dust particle dynamics in the sheath region of an RF discharge. Prominence is given to the systems of particles with a quasi-dipole–dipole interaction, which is similar to the interaction induced by the ion focusing effects that occur in experiments on a laboratory dusty plasma, and with the shadow interaction caused by thermophoretic forces and Le Sage’s forces.

  8. Buyer-Seller Interaction Patterns During Ongoing Service Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Valk (Wendy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on the ongoing interactions that take place between buyers and sellers of business services after the contract has been signed. This ongoing interaction is important since services are produced and consumed simultaneously; therefore, both buyer and seller have

  9. Electronic structure and exchange interactions in GdB{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranovskiy, A., E-mail: andriy.baranovskiy@gmail.com; Grechnev, A.

    2015-02-01

    The electronic structure of the antiferromagnetic Shastry–Sutherland compound GdB{sub 4} has been analyzed with density functional theory and the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented-plane wave (FP-LAPW) code. Different magnetic configurations, including the realistic dimer one, have been considered. The exchange interactions were found to be J{sub 1}/k{sub B}=−12K and J{sub 2}/k{sub B}=−2–0.8K, where, J{sub 1} and J{sub 2} are the diagonal exchange interaction and the exchange interaction along the edges of a square, respectively. - Highlights: • Electronic structure of AFM Shastry–Sutherland compound GB{sub 4} is calculated. • The mechanism of exchange parameters evaluation within Heisenberg model is proposed. • Calculated exchange parameters are found to be in agreement with experimental data. • Higher-order exchange interactions are important for dimer structure stabilizing.

  10. Manifestation of exchange effects in heavy-ion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igashov, S. Yu.; Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M.

    2011-01-01

    Three different approaches to taking into account exchange effects in heavy-ion collisions are studied. Within the first of them, the lowest eigenstates of the Hamiltonian are treated as forbidden states. In the second approach, the eigenstates of the normalization kernel of the resonating-group model that correspond to zero eigenvalues are treated as forbidden states. The third approach takes additionally into account semiforbidden states. The 16 O + 16 O system is considered. A hybrid approach that combines the methods of discrete and continuous mathematics is developed for calculating the widths of narrow resonance states. The resonance width calculated within the approach that takes into account semiforbidden states proves to be sharply different from the widths obtained within traditional approaches.

  11. Effective buyer-supplier interaction patterns in ongoing service exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der W.; Wynstra, J.Y.F.; Axelsson, B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop theory on effective buyer-seller interaction for different types of business services. A classification of business services which identifies four service types based on how they are used by the buying company is used. Design/methodology/approach –

  12. A facile way to realize exchange coupling interaction in hard/soft magnetic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongyun, E-mail: lidongyun@cjlu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang, Fan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Xia, Ailin, E-mail: alxia@126.com [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243032 (China); Zhang, Lijiao [School of Science, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018 (China); Li, Tingting; Jin, Chuangui; Liu, Xianguo [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243032 (China)

    2016-11-01

    SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}/Fe–B hard/soft magnetic composites were obtained by using powders synthesized via a hydrothermal and a molten salt method, respectively. The exchange coupling interaction was found to exist in the composites after a facile grinding according to the results of magnetic hysteresis loops and irreversible sloping recoil loops. It can be found that different grinding time affects their magnetic properties slightly. Our study proves that the conditions of realizing exchange coupling interaction may not be so stringent. - Highlights: • SrM/CFO and SrM/Fe–B with exchange coupling were obtained via a grinding way. • Different grinding time affects their magnetic properties slightly. • The conditions of realizing exchange coupling may not be so stringent.

  13. Experimental evidence for anisotropic double exchange interaction driven anisotropic transport in manganite heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Zhaoliang; Koster, Gertjan; Huijben, Mark; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    An anisotropic double exchange interaction driven giant transport anisotropy is demonstrated in a canonic double exchange system of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 ultrathin films epitaxially grown on NdGaO3 (110) substrates. The oxygen octahedral coupling at the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/NdGaO3 interface induces a planar

  14. Creation and Annihilation of Skyrmions in the Frustrated Magnets with Competing Exchange Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Chi, Xiaodan; Li, Xuesi; Liu, Yan; Du, An

    2017-11-22

    In triangular-lattice magnets, the coexistence of third-neighbor antiferromagnetic and nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic exchange interactions can induce rich magnetic phases including noncoplanar skyrmion crystals. Based on Monte Carlo simulation, we studied the dependence of magnetic phase transition on exchange interaction strength. Under the consideration of uniaxial anisotropy and magnetic field both perpendicular to the film plane, a large antiferromagnetic exchange interaction induces a high frustration. When the value of antiferromagnetic exchange interaction is one and a half times larger than the ferromagnetic one, a magnetic phase composed of canting spin stripes, never observed in the chiral magnets, forms. Interestingly, different canting spin stripes along three 120 degree propagation directions may coexist randomly in a magnetic phase, attesting that the canting spin stripes are three-fold degenerate states akin to helices and the multiple state of canting spin stripes is a circular configuration with zero skyrmion charge number. Moreover, skyrmions and antiskyrmions can be observed simultaneously in the configuration at the low temperature nearly close to 0 K, and their configuration and diameter properties are discussed. Finally, the mechanisms of skyrmion creation and annihilation are properly interpreted by comparing exchange and Zeeman energy terms.

  15. Theoretical modeling of the electronic structure and exchange interactions in Cu(II)Pc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Fisher, A. J.; Harrison, N. M.; Wang, Hai; Wu, Zhenlin; Gardener, Jules; Heutz, Sandrine; Jones, Tim; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2012-12-01

    We calculate the electronic structure and exchange interactions in a copper(II)phthalocyanine (Cu(II)Pc) crystal as a one-dimensional molecular chain using hybrid exchange density functional theory (DFT). In addition, the intermolecular exchange interactions are also calculated in a molecular dimer using Green's function perturbation theory (GFPT) to illustrate the underlying physics. We find that the exchange interactions depend strongly on the stacking angle, but weakly on the sliding angle (defined in the text). The hybrid DFT calculations also provide an insight into the electronic structure of the Cu(II)Pc molecular chain and demonstrate that on-site electron correlations have a significant effect on the nature of the ground state, the band gap and magnetic excitations. The exchange interactions predicted by our DFT calculations and GFPT calculations agree qualitatively with the recent experimental results on newly found η-Cu(II)Pc and the previous results for the α- and β-phases. This work provides a reliable theoretical basis for the further application of Cu(II)Pc to molecular spintronics and organic-based quantum information processing.

  16. Observation of two-orbital spin-exchange interactions with ultracold SU(N)-symmetric fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scazza, F.; Hofrichter, C.; Höfer, M.; de Groot, P. C.; Bloch, I.; Fölling, S.

    2014-10-01

    Spin-exchanging interactions govern the properties of strongly correlated electron systems such as many magnetic materials. When orbital degrees of freedom are present, spin exchange between different orbitals often dominates, leading to the Kondo effect, heavy fermion behaviour or magnetic ordering. Ultracold ytterbium or alkaline-earth ensembles have attracted much recent interest as model systems for these effects, with two (meta-) stable electronic configurations representing independent orbitals. We report the observation of spin-exchanging contact interactions in a two-orbital SU(N)-symmetric quantum gas realized with fermionic 173Yb. We find strong inter-orbital spin exchange by spectroscopic characterization of all interaction channels and demonstrate SU(N = 6) symmetry within our measurement precision. The spin-exchange process is also directly observed through the dynamic equilibration of spin imbalances between ensembles in separate orbitals. The realization of an SU(N)-symmetric two-orbital Hubbard Hamiltonian opens the route to quantum simulations with extended symmetries and with orbital magnetic interactions, such as the Kondo lattice model.

  17. Dynamic metabolic exchange governs a marine algal-bacterial interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Einat; Wyche, Thomas P; Kim, Ki Hyun; Petersen, Jörn; Ellebrandt, Claire; Vlamakis, Hera; Barteneva, Natasha; Paulson, Joseph N; Chai, Liraz; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto

    2016-11-18

    Emiliania huxleyi is a model coccolithophore micro-alga that generates vast blooms in the ocean. Bacteria are not considered among the major factors influencing coccolithophore physiology. Here we show through a laboratory model system that the bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens , a well-studied member of the Roseobacter group, intimately interacts with E. huxleyi. While attached to the algal cell, bacteria initially promote algal growth but ultimately kill their algal host. Both algal growth enhancement and algal death are driven by the bacterially-produced phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. Bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid and attachment to algae are significantly increased by tryptophan, which is exuded from the algal cell. Algal death triggered by bacteria involves activation of pathways unique to oxidative stress response and programmed cell death. Our observations suggest that bacteria greatly influence the physiology and metabolism of E. huxleyi. Coccolithophore-bacteria interactions should be further studied in the environment to determine whether they impact micro-algal population dynamics on a global scale.

  18. Three-quark forces and the role of meson exchanges in weak NN interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.; Shmatikov, M.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of weak three-quark forces involving meson exchanges to the longitudinal analyzing power A L in the low-energy pp-scattering is calculated. The nonrelativistic potential model is used for the desorption of strong quark interactions while their weak coupling is described by the Weinberg-Salam lagrangian. The dominant mechanism of parity violation in the NN system (provided the one-pion exchange is forbidden by selection rules) is the contact interaction of quarks. 17 refs.; 3 figs

  19. Static magnetic susceptibility, crystal field and exchange interactions in rare earth titanate pyrochlores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, B Z; Lummen, T T A; van Loosdrecht, P H M; Dhalenne, G; Zakirov, A R

    2010-07-14

    The experimental temperature dependence (T = 2-300 K) of single crystal bulk and site susceptibilities of rare earth titanate pyrochlores R(2)Ti(2)O(7) (R = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) is analyzed in the framework of crystal field theory and a mean field approximation. Analytical expressions for the site and bulk susceptibilities of the pyrochlore lattice are derived taking into account long range dipole-dipole interactions and anisotropic exchange interactions between the nearest neighbor rare earth ions. The sets of crystal field parameters and anisotropic exchange coupling constants have been determined and their variations along the lanthanide series are discussed.

  20. Knock-on type exchange and the density dependence of an effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeukenne, J.P.; Mahaux, C.

    1981-01-01

    We investigate the origin of the density-dependence of the strength of an effective interaction previously derived from a Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculation of the optical-model potential in nuclear matter. From the analysis of a model based on the Hartree-Fock approximation and on a Yukawa interaction with a Majorana exchange component, we study to what extent this dependence derives from the momentum-dependence of the exchange contribution of the knock-on type. The model is also used to discuss zero-range pseudopotential methods for including this knock-on contribution. (orig.)

  1. Exchange-Correlation Effects for Noncovalent Interactions in Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-de-la-Roza, A; DiLabio, Gino A; Johnson, Erin R

    2016-07-12

    In this article, we develop an understanding of how errors from exchange-correlation functionals affect the modeling of noncovalent interactions in dispersion-corrected density-functional theory. Computed CCSD(T) reference binding energies for a collection of small-molecule clusters are decomposed via a molecular many-body expansion and are used to benchmark density-functional approximations, including the effect of semilocal approximation, exact-exchange admixture, and range separation. Three sources of error are identified. Repulsion error arises from the choice of semilocal functional approximation. This error affects intermolecular repulsions and is present in all n-body exchange-repulsion energies with a sign that alternates with the order n of the interaction. Delocalization error is independent of the choice of semilocal functional but does depend on the exact exchange fraction. Delocalization error misrepresents the induction energies, leading to overbinding in all induction n-body terms, and underestimates the electrostatic contribution to the 2-body energies. Deformation error affects only monomer relaxation (deformation) energies and behaves similarly to bond-dissociation energy errors. Delocalization and deformation errors affect systems with significant intermolecular orbital interactions (e.g., hydrogen- and halogen-bonded systems), whereas repulsion error is ubiquitous. Many-body errors from the underlying exchange-correlation functional greatly exceed in general the magnitude of the many-body dispersion energy term. A functional built to accurately model noncovalent interactions must contain a dispersion correction, semilocal exchange, and correlation components that minimize the repulsion error independently and must also incorporate exact exchange in such a way that delocalization error is absent.

  2. Macromolecule exchange in Cuscuta-host plant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gunjune; Westwood, James H

    2015-08-01

    Cuscuta species (dodders) are parasitic plants that are able to grow on many different host plants and can be destructive to crops. The connections between Cuscuta and its hosts allow movement of not only water and small nutrients, but also macromolecules including mRNA, proteins and viruses. Recent studies show that RNAs move bidirectionally between hosts and parasites and involve a large number of different genes. Although the function of mobile mRNAs has not been demonstrated in this system, small RNAs are also transmitted and a silencing construct expressed in hosts is able to affect expression of the target gene in the parasite. High throughput sequencing of host-parasite associations has the potential to greatly accelerate understanding of this remarkable interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The study of flow and proton exchange interactions in the cylindrical solid oxide fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saievar-Iranizad, E.; Malekifar, A.

    2002-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell operates at high temperature of about 1000 deg C. In this temperature, some known materials such as Ni, ... which is abundant in the nature, can be used as a catalyst in the electrodes. The electrolytes of such cell solid oxide fuel cell can be made through non-porous solid ceramics such as Zircon's (ZrO 2 ). It can be stabilized using a doped Yttrium oxide. The importance of Yttria-stabilised Zirconia at high temperature belongs to the transport of oxygen ions through the electrolyte. Oxygen using in the hot cathode side causes a considerable reduction in the concentration of oxygen molecules. The oxygen ions exchange through the electrolyte relates to the molecular oxygen concentration gradient between the anode and cathode. Applying fuels such as hydrogen or natural gas in the anode and its chemical reaction with oxygen ions transfer from cathode through the electrolyte, produce electricity, water and heat. To study the ion exchange and its interaction into solid oxide fuel cell, a mathematical model had been considered in this article. This model simulates and illustrates the interaction, diffusion and oxygen ions exchange into fuel cell. The electrical power of fuel cell due to the ion exchange can be obtained using a simulation method. The ion exchange simulation, diffusion of molecules, their interactions and system development through the mathematical model has been discussed in this paper

  4. Magnetization reversal through soliton flip in biquadratic ferromagnet with varying exchange interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Daniel, M

    2002-01-01

    We study the phenomenon of magnetization reversal in the form of a soliton flip in a biquadratic ferromagnetic spin chain induced by varying bilinear and biquadratic exchange interactions. This is carried out by analysing the evolution of the velocity and amplitude of the soliton using a perturbation analysis.

  5. Researching Online Foreign Language Interaction and Exchange: Theories, Methods and Challenges. Telecollaboration in Education. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooly, Melinda; O'Dowd, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an accessible introduction to some of the methods and theoretical approaches for investigating foreign language (FL) interaction and exchange in online environments. Research approaches which can be applied to Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) are outlined, followed by discussion of the way in which tools and techniques for…

  6. The dilute spin-one Ising model with both bilinear and biquadratic exchange interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, M.

    1987-08-01

    The influence of bond and site dilution on the two-dimensional spin-one Ising model on a honeycomb lattice is investigated. Temperature-concentration phase diagrams for fixed values of the ratio of bilinear and biquadratic exchange interactions are determined. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs

  7. The exchange of correlated pions and kaons in the baryon-baryon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuber, A.G.

    1995-09-01

    The exchange of two correlated pions or kaons provides the main part of the intermediate-range attraction between two baryons. In this work, a dynamical model for correlated two-pion and two-kaon exchange in the baryon-baryon interaction is presented, both in the scalar-isoscalar (σ) and the vector-isovector (ρ) channel. The contribution of correlated ππ and K anti K exchange is derived from the amplitudes for the transition of a baryon-antibaryon state (B anti B') to a ππ or K anti K state in the pseudophysical region by applying dispersion theory and unitarity. For the B anti B'→ππ, K anti K amplitudes a microscopic model is constructed, which is based on the hadron-exchange picture. The Born terms include contributions from baryon-exchange as well as ρ-pole diagrams. The correlations between the two pseudoscalar mesons are taken into account exactly by means of ππ-K anti K amplitudes derived likewise from a meson-exchange model, which is in line with the empirical ππ data. The parameters of the B anti B'→ππ, K anti K model, which are related to each other by the assumption of SU(3) symmetry, are determined by the adjustment to the quasiempirical N anti N→ππ amplitudes in the pseudophysical region. It is found that correlated K anti K exchange being negligible in the NN interaction plays an important role in the σ-channel for baryon-baryon states with non-vanishing strangeness. The strength of correlated ππ plus K anti K exchange in the σ-channel decreases with the strangeness of the baryon-baryon system becoming more negative. Due to the admixture of baryon-exchange processes to the SU(3)-symmetric ρ-pole contributions the results for correlated ππ-exchange in the vector-isovector channel deviate from what is expected in the naive SU(3) picture for genuine ρ-exchange. (orig.)

  8. Membrane association of the Arabidopsis ARF exchange factor GNOM involves interaction of conserved domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anders, Nadine; Nielsen, Michael M.; Keicher, Jutta

    2008-01-01

    vesicle formation by activating ARF GTPases on specific membranes in animals, plants, and fungi. However, apart from the catalytic exchange activity of the SEC7 domain, the functional significance of other conserved domains is virtually unknown. Here, we show that a distinct N-terminal domain of GNOM......The GNOM protein plays a fundamental role in Arabidopsis thaliana development by regulating endosome-to-plasma membrane trafficking required for polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1. GNOM is a family member of large ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs), which regulate...... mediates dimerization and in addition interacts heterotypically with two other conserved domains in vivo. In contrast with N-terminal dimerization, the heterotypic interaction is essential for GNOM function, as mutations abolishing this interaction inactivate the GNOM protein and compromise its membrane...

  9. Anisotropic exchange interaction induced by a single photon in semiconductor microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, G.; Fernández-Rossier, J.; Louis, E.; Anda, E. V.

    2005-12-01

    We investigate coupling of localized spins in a semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a microcavity. The lowest cavity mode and the quantum dot exciton are coupled and close in energy, forming a polariton. The fermions forming the exciton interact with localized spins via exchange. Exact diagonalization of a Hamiltonian in which photons, spins, and excitons are treated quantum mechanically shows that a single polariton induces a sizable indirect anisotropic exchange interaction between spins. At sufficiently low temperatures strong ferromagnetic correlations show up without an appreciable increase in exciton population. In the case of a (Cd,Mn)Te quantum dot, Mn-Mn ferromagnetic coupling is still significant at 1 K : spin-spin correlation around 3 for exciton occupation smaller than 0.3. We find that the interaction mediated by photon-polaritons is 10 times stronger than the one induced by a classical field for equal Rabi splitting.

  10. Probability distributions in conservative energy exchange models of multiple interacting agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scafetta, Nicola; West, Bruce J

    2007-01-01

    Herein we study energy exchange models of multiple interacting agents that conserve energy in each interaction. The models differ regarding the rules that regulate the energy exchange and boundary effects. We find a variety of stochastic behaviours that manifest energy equilibrium probability distributions of different types and interaction rules that yield not only the exponential distributions such as the familiar Maxwell-Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution of an elastically colliding ideal particle gas, but also uniform distributions, truncated exponential distributions, Gaussian distributions, Gamma distributions, inverse power law distributions, mixed exponential and inverse power law distributions, and evolving distributions. This wide variety of distributions should be of value in determining the underlying mechanisms generating the statistical properties of complex phenomena including those to be found in complex chemical reactions

  11. Electric field effect on exchange interaction in ultrathin Co films with ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Mio; Yamada, Kihiro T.; Shiota, Yoichi; Ando, Fuyuki; Koyama, Tomohiro; Kakizakai, Haruka; Mizuno, Hayato; Miwa, Kazumoto; Ono, Shimpei; Moriyama, Takahiro; Chiba, Daichi; Ono, Teruo

    2018-06-01

    Electric-field modulations of magnetic properties have been extensively studied not only for practical applications but also for fundamental interest. In this study, we investigated the electric field effect on the exchange interaction in ultrathin Co films with ionic liquids. The exchange coupling J was characterized from the direct magnetization measurement as a function of temperature using Pt/ultrathin Co/MgO structures. The trend of the electric field effect on J is in good agreement with that of the theoretical prediction, and a large change in J by applying a gate voltage was observed by forming an electric double layer using ionic liquids.

  12. On the exchange term of the interacting boson-fermion hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelberg, A.

    1983-01-01

    The exchange term of the Interacting Boson Fermion Model is investigated by using I. Talmi's method based on the shell model. A quadrupole operator of a three-proton system is formed; the protons are quadrupole-coupled to the neutron-bosons. Seniority conserving and seniority non conserving terms are considered. The particle number dependence of the parameters is investigated for the single-j shell. The relation between exchange and direct, seniority non conserving terms is examined. Approximate formulas are given for the multi-j shell. (orig.)

  13. Giant spin torque in hybrids with anisotropic p-d exchange interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2014-03-01

    Control of magnetic domain wall movement by the spin-polarized current looks promising for creation of a new generation of magnetic memory devices. A necessary condition for this is the domain wall shift by a low-density current. Here, I show that a strongly anisotropic exchange interaction between mobile heavy holes and localized magnetic moments enormously increases the current-induced torque on the domain wall as compared to systems with isotropic exchange. This enables one to control the domain wall motion by current density 104 A/cm2 in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids. The experimental observation of the anisotropic torque will facilitate the integration of ferromagnetism into semiconductor electronics.

  14. Weak interactions and exchange currents in light nuclei. Theoretical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichon, P.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of meson exchange currents in the nuclear weak interaction is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The hypothesis of current algebra and partial conservation of axial current are used, through Adler-Dothan theorem, to derive the one pion exchange correction to the impulse approximation. Calculations are performed for partial transitions in the 1p-shell nuclei and in 16 O. The corrections are generally small except for the (0 + →0 - ) transition in 16 O where the large correction to the time component of the axial current can show up, due to selection rules. The measurement of the muon capture rate for this transition is described and an interpretation in term of exchange currents is proposed [fr

  15. Single-step controlled-NOT logic from any exchange interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiautdinov, Andrei

    2007-11-01

    A self-contained approach to studying the unitary evolution of coupled qubits is introduced, capable of addressing a variety of physical systems described by exchange Hamiltonians containing Rabi terms. The method automatically determines both the Weyl chamber steering trajectory and the accompanying local rotations. Particular attention is paid to the case of anisotropic exchange with tracking controls, which is solved analytically. It is shown that, if computational subspace is well isolated, any exchange interaction can always generate high fidelity, single-step controlled-NOT (CNOT) logic, provided that both qubits can be individually manipulated. The results are then applied to superconducting qubit architectures, for which several CNOT gate implementations are identified. The paper concludes with consideration of two CNOT gate designs having high efficiency and operating with no significant leakage to higher-lying noncomputational states.

  16. The exchange interaction effects on magnetic properties of the nanostructured CoPt particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komogortsev, S. V.; Iskhakov, R. S.; Zimin, A. A.; Filatov, E. Yu.; Korenev, S. V.; Shubin, Yu. V.; Chizhik, N. A.; Yurkin, G. Yu.; Eremin, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    Various manifestations of the exchange interaction effects in magnetization curves of the CoPt nanostructured particles are demonstrated and discussed. The inter-grain exchange constant A in the sponge-like agglomerates of crystallites is estimated as A=(7±1) pJ/m from the approach magnetization to saturation curves that is in good agreement with A=(6.6±0.5) pJ/m obtained from Bloch T 3/2 law. The fractal dimensionality of the exchange coupled crystallite system in the porous media of the disordered CoPt alloy d=(2.60±0.18) was estimated from the approach magnetization to saturation curve. Coercive force decreases with temperature as Hc T 3/2 which is assumed to be a consequence of the magnetic anisotropy energy reduction due to the thermal spin wave excitations in the investigated CoPt particles.

  17. Domain walls and exchange-interaction in Permalloy/Gd films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranchal, R; Aroca, C; Lopez, E

    2008-01-01

    In this work we study the exchange coupling in Permalloy (Py)/gadolinium (Gd) bilayers. The exchange-coupled Py/Gd system is very temperature dependent and moreover the magnetization process in the Py layer is mainly due to domain wall (DW) displacements which are strongly controlled by pinning effects. We propose that this pinning could be caused by magnetostatic and exchange interactions between Py DWs and the magnetostrictive Gd layer. These effects mask the antiferromagnetic coupling between layers and, depending on temperature and Py thicknesses, apparent ferromagnetic coupling occurs. The study has been performed in the 80-300 K temperature range for different Py layer thicknesses and different Py induced anisotropies

  18. Short range part of the NN interaction: Equivalent local potentials from quark exchange kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuk, Y.; Hecht, K.T.

    1983-01-01

    To focus on the nature of the short range part of the NN interaction, the intrinsically nonlocal interaction among the quark constituents of colorless nucleons is converted to an equivalent local potential using resonating group kernels which can be evaluated in analytic form. The WKB approximation based on the Wigner transform of the nonlocal kernels has been used to construct the equivalent potentials without recourse to the long range part of the NN interaction. The relative importance of the various components of the exchange kernels can be examined: The results indicate the importance of the color magnetic part of the exchange kernel for the repulsive part in the (ST) = (10), (01) channels, in particular since the energy dependence of the effective local potentials seems to be set by this term. Large cancellations of color Coulombic and quark confining contributions, together with the kinetic energy and norm exchange terms, indicate that the exact nature of the equivalent local potential may be sensitive to the details of the parametrization of the underlying quark-quark interaction. The equivalent local potentials show some of the characteristics of the phenomenological short range terms of the Paris potential

  19. Role of Subunit Exchange and Electrostatic Interactions on the Chaperone Activity of Mycobacterium leprae HSP18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sandip Kumar; Panda, Alok Kumar; Chakraborty, Ayon; Ray, Sougata Sinha; Biswas, Ashis

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae HSP18, a major immunodominant antigen of M. leprae pathogen, is a small heat shock protein. Previously, we reported that HSP18 is a molecular chaperone that prevents aggregation of different chemically and thermally stressed client proteins and assists refolding of denatured enzyme at normal temperature. We also demonstrated that it can efficiently prevent the thermal killing of E. coli at higher temperature. However, molecular mechanism behind the chaperone function of HSP18 is still unclear. Therefore, we studied the structure and chaperone function of HSP18 at normal temperature (25°C) as well as at higher temperatures (31–43°C). Our study revealed that the chaperone function of HSP18 is enhanced significantly with increasing temperature. Far- and near-UV CD experiments suggested that its secondary and tertiary structure remain intact in this temperature range (25–43°C). Besides, temperature has no effect on the static oligomeric size of this protein. Subunit exchange study demonstrated that subunits of HSP18 exchange at 25°C with a rate constant of 0.018 min-1. Both rate of subunit exchange and chaperone activity of HSP18 is found to increase with rise in temperature. However, the surface hydrophobicity of HSP18 decreases markedly upon heating and has no correlation with its chaperone function in this temperature range. Furthermore, we observed that HSP18 exhibits diminished chaperone function in the presence of NaCl at 25°C. At elevated temperatures, weakening of interactions between HSP18 and stressed client proteins in the presence of NaCl results in greater reduction of its chaperone function. The oligomeric size, rate of subunit exchange and structural stability of HSP18 were also found to decrease when electrostatic interactions were weakened. These results clearly indicated that subunit exchange and electrostatic interactions play a major role in the chaperone function of HSP18. PMID:26098662

  20. Role of Subunit Exchange and Electrostatic Interactions on the Chaperone Activity of Mycobacterium leprae HSP18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sandip Kumar; Panda, Alok Kumar; Chakraborty, Ayon; Sinha Ray, Sougata; Biswas, Ashis

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae HSP18, a major immunodominant antigen of M. leprae pathogen, is a small heat shock protein. Previously, we reported that HSP18 is a molecular chaperone that prevents aggregation of different chemically and thermally stressed client proteins and assists refolding of denatured enzyme at normal temperature. We also demonstrated that it can efficiently prevent the thermal killing of E. coli at higher temperature. However, molecular mechanism behind the chaperone function of HSP18 is still unclear. Therefore, we studied the structure and chaperone function of HSP18 at normal temperature (25°C) as well as at higher temperatures (31-43°C). Our study revealed that the chaperone function of HSP18 is enhanced significantly with increasing temperature. Far- and near-UV CD experiments suggested that its secondary and tertiary structure remain intact in this temperature range (25-43°C). Besides, temperature has no effect on the static oligomeric size of this protein. Subunit exchange study demonstrated that subunits of HSP18 exchange at 25°C with a rate constant of 0.018 min(-1). Both rate of subunit exchange and chaperone activity of HSP18 is found to increase with rise in temperature. However, the surface hydrophobicity of HSP18 decreases markedly upon heating and has no correlation with its chaperone function in this temperature range. Furthermore, we observed that HSP18 exhibits diminished chaperone function in the presence of NaCl at 25°C. At elevated temperatures, weakening of interactions between HSP18 and stressed client proteins in the presence of NaCl results in greater reduction of its chaperone function. The oligomeric size, rate of subunit exchange and structural stability of HSP18 were also found to decrease when electrostatic interactions were weakened. These results clearly indicated that subunit exchange and electrostatic interactions play a major role in the chaperone function of HSP18.

  1. The exchange interaction effects on magnetic properties of the nanostructured CoPt particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komogortsev, S.V., E-mail: komogor@iph.krasn.ru [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Iskhakov, R.S. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Zimin, A.A. [Siberian Federal University, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Filatov, E.Yu.; Korenev, S.V.; Shubin, Yu.V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Chizhik, N.A. [Siberian Federal University, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Yurkin, G.Yu.; Eremin, E.V. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    Various manifestations of the exchange interaction effects in magnetization curves of the CoPt nanostructured particles are demonstrated and discussed. The inter-grain exchange constant A in the sponge-like agglomerates of crystallites is estimated as A=(7±1) pJ/m from the approach magnetization to saturation curves that is in good agreement with A=(6.6±0.5) pJ/m obtained from Bloch T {sup 3/2} law. The fractal dimensionality of the exchange coupled crystallite system in the porous media of the disordered CoPt alloy d=(2.60±0.18) was estimated from the approach magnetization to saturation curve. Coercive force decreases with temperature as H{sub c}~T {sup 3/2} which is assumed to be a consequence of the magnetic anisotropy energy reduction due to the thermal spin wave excitations in the investigated CoPt particles. - Highlights: • Nanostructured CoPt particles were synthesized and then annealed in He atmosphere. • The structure of the material and magnetization curves were studied. • The maximum on reduced coercivity vs grain size dependence was observed. • The dimensionality d of exchange coupled crystallite system was estimated. • Exchange stiffness constant A was estimated.

  2. Exchange interaction in the heavy rare-earth metals calculated from energy bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgard, P.A.; Liu, S.H.

    1973-01-01

    The exchange interaction in the ordered phases was calculated and found to be significantly influenced by the magnetic perturbation of the conduction electron states. The exchange interaction is intrinsically temperature dependent and is anisotropic. The effect explains how it is possible to have a spiral phase of Tb, although spin wave measurements show no maximum in J/sub q/ for q not equal to 0. The energy difference between the ferromagnetic and spiral phases is of correct order of magnitude to be counterbalanced by the magnetoelastic energy. The wave vector dependent matrix element is found to be similar for Gd, Tb, Dy, and Er with a narrow central conduction electron contribution and a flat region. (U.S.)

  3. Charge exchange signatures in x-ray line emission accompanying plasma-wall interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Renner, Oldřich; Dalimier, E.; Liska, R.; Oks, E.; Šmíd, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 397, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-6 ISSN 1742-6588 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/0814; GA ČR GAP208/10/2302; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * particle jets generation * plasma-wall interaction * x-ray spectroscopy * charge exchange Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  4. Magnetic Exchange Interactions and Estimation of TN in CsNiF3 from first principles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Legut, Dominik; Rusz, Ján

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2008), s. 503-506 ISSN 0587-4246. [CSMAG'07. Košice, 09.07.2007-12.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : exchange interactions * magnetism * Heisenberg model * 1D ferromagnet * Neel temperature Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.321, year: 2008

  5. Analyses of crystal field and exchange interaction of Dy3Ga5O12 under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Qi Xin; Yue Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically investigates the effects of crystal field and exchange interaction field on magnetic properties in dysprosium gallium garnet under extreme conditions (low temperatures and high magnetic fields) based on quantum theory. Here, five sets of crystal field parameters are discussed and compared. It demonstrates that, only considering the crystal field effect, the experiments can not be successfully explained. Thus, referring to the molecular field theory, an effective exchange field associated with the Dy—Dy exchange interaction is further taken into account. Under special consideration of crystal field and the exchange interaction field, it obtains an excellent agreement between the theoretical results and experiments, and further confirms that the exchange interaction field between rare-earth ions has great importance to magnetic properties in paramagnetic rare-earth gallium garnets. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  6. Monte Carlo Planning Method Estimates Planning Horizons during Interactive Social Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hula, Andreas; Montague, P. Read; Dayan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent’s preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner’s appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner’s model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future. Providing a computationally precise account of the behaviour is an essential step towards understanding what underlies choices. A natural framework for this is that of an interactive partially observable Markov decision process (IPOMDP). However, the various complexities make IPOMDPs inordinately computationally challenging. Here, we show how to approximate the solution for the multi-round trust task using a variant of the Monte-Carlo tree search algorithm. We demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and effective, and therefore can be used to invert observations of behavioural choices. We use generated behaviour to elucidate the richness and sophistication of interactive inference. PMID:26053429

  7. Monte Carlo Planning Method Estimates Planning Horizons during Interactive Social Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hula, Andreas; Montague, P Read; Dayan, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent's preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner's appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner's model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future. Providing a computationally precise account of the behaviour is an essential step towards understanding what underlies choices. A natural framework for this is that of an interactive partially observable Markov decision process (IPOMDP). However, the various complexities make IPOMDPs inordinately computationally challenging. Here, we show how to approximate the solution for the multi-round trust task using a variant of the Monte-Carlo tree search algorithm. We demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and effective, and therefore can be used to invert observations of behavioural choices. We use generated behaviour to elucidate the richness and sophistication of interactive inference.

  8. The Mechanisms of Water Exchange: The Regulatory Roles of Multiple Interactions in Social Wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Devanshu; Karsai, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary benefits of task fidelity and improving information acquisition via multiple transfers of materials between individuals in a task partitioned system have been shown before, but in this paper we provide a mechanistic explanation of these phenomena. Using a simple mathematical model describing the individual interactions of the wasps, we explain the functioning of the common stomach, an information center, which governs construction behavior and task change. Our central hypothesis is a symmetry between foragers who deposit water and foragers who withdraw water into and out of the common stomach. We combine this with a trade-off between acceptance and resistance to water transfer. We ultimately derive a mathematical function that relates the number of interactions that foragers complete with common stomach wasps during a foraging cycle. We use field data and additional model assumptions to calculate values of our model parameters, and we use these to explain why the fullness of the common stomach stabilizes just below 50 percent, why the average number of successful interactions between foragers and the wasps forming the common stomach is between 5 and 7, and why there is a variation in this number of interactions over time. Our explanation is that our proposed water exchange mechanism places natural bounds on the number of successful interactions possible, water exchange is set to optimize mediation of water through the common stomach, and the chance that foragers abort their task prematurely is very low.

  9. Experimentally measuring a quantum state by the Heisenberg exchange interaction in a single apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xinhua; Du Jiangfeng; Suter, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum information processing requires the effective measurement of quantum states. An important method, called quantum state tomography, needs measuring a complete set of observables on the measured system to determine its unknown quantum state ρ. The measurement involves certain noncommuting observables as a result of Bohr's complementarity. Very recently, Allahverdyan et al. proposed a new method in which the unknown quantum state r is determined by measuring a set of commuting observables in the price of a controlled interaction with an auxiliary system. If both systems S and A are spins, their z components (σ z ) can be chosen to measure after some specific Heisenberg exchange interaction. We study in detail a general Heisenberg XYZ model for a two-qubit system and present two classes of special Heisenberg interactions which can serve as the controlled interaction in Allahverdyan's scheme when the state of the auxiliary system A is initially completely disordered. Using the nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, the measurement scheme in a single apparatus has been experimentally demonstrated by designing the quantum circuit to simulate the Heisenberg exchange interaction. (author)

  10. Spin-exchange interaction between transition metals and metalloids in soft-ferromagnetic metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Santanu; Choudhary, Kamal; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr; Choi Yim, Haein; Bandyopadhyay, Asis K.; Mukherjee, Sundeep

    2016-06-01

    High-performance magnetic materials have immense industrial and scientific importance in wide-ranging electronic, electromechanical, and medical device technologies. Metallic glasses with a fully amorphous structure are particularly suited for advanced soft-magnetic applications. However, fundamental scientific understanding is lacking for the spin-exchange interaction between metal and metalloid atoms, which typically constitute a metallic glass. Using an integrated experimental and molecular dynamics approach, we demonstrate the mechanism of electron interaction between transition metals and metalloids. Spin-exchange interactions were investigated for a Fe-Co metallic glass system of composition [(Co1-x Fe x )0.75B0.2Si0.05]96Cr4. The saturation magnetization increased with higher Fe concentration, but the trend significantly deviated from simple rule of mixtures. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation was used to identify the ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic interaction between the transition metals and metalloids. The overlapping band-structure and density of states represent ‘Stoner type’ magnetization for the amorphous alloys in contrast to ‘Heisenberg type’ in crystalline iron. The enhancement of magnetization by increasing iron was attributed to the interaction between Fe 3d and B 2p bands, which was further validated by valence-band study.

  11. The kaon-nucleon interaction in the meson-exchange picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettgen, R.

    1988-07-01

    In this thesis we dealt with the free kaon-nucleon interaction which was constructed analogously to the Bonn potential in the meson-exchange picture. Identical vertices in the NN and KN interaction are parametrized by equal coupling constants and cut-off masses. Under the assumption of a SU(3) invariant interactions relations between the coupling constants have been determined so that also the experimentally only roughly known coupling constants to the strange vertices are fixed. The remaining free cut-off masses in the kaon vertices are fitted to the empirical scattering data. On the base of one-particle exchange processes the contribution of higher-order diagrams (box potentials with intermediate NK * , ΔK * , and ΔK states) in scattering phases, cross sections, and polarizations was studied. In the partial waves P 13 and D 03 the two-meson exchange processes lead to an essential improvement in the description of the empirical scattering phases. In the comparison of the calculated KN observables with the experimentally determined values (especially for the polarization in the elastic K + n channel) also the positive influence of the box potentials is shown. In the last part of the thesis for the similarly structured πN system it was studied whether here also the inclusion of uncorrelated two-meson exchange processes can remove the characteristical difficulties in the description of the empirical πN data. It results that the existing discrepancies between theoretical and empirical scattering phases can in this case not be removed by these higher-order processes. (orig./HSI) [de

  12. Long-range p-d exchange interaction in a ferromagnet-semiconductor hybrid structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.; Salewski, M.; Akimov, I. A.; Sapega, V. F.; Langer, L.; Kalitukha, I. V.; Debus, J.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Müller, D.; Schröder, C.; Hövel, H.; Karczewski, G.; Wiater, M.; Wojtowicz, T.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.; Bayer, M.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid structures synthesized from different materials have attracted considerable attention because they may allow not only combination of the functionalities of the individual constituents but also mutual control of their properties. To obtain such a control an interaction between the components needs to be established. For coupling the magnetic properties, an exchange interaction has to be implemented which typically depends on wavefunction overlap and is therefore short-ranged, so that it may be compromised across the hybrid interface. Here we study a hybrid structure consisting of a ferromagnetic Co layer and a semiconducting CdTe quantum well, separated by a thin (Cd, Mg)Te barrier. In contrast to the expected p-d exchange that decreases exponentially with the wavefunction overlap of quantum well holes and magnetic atoms, we find a long-ranged, robust coupling that does not vary with barrier width up to more than 30 nm. We suggest that the resulting spin polarization of acceptor-bound holes is induced by an effective p-d exchange that is mediated by elliptically polarized phonons.

  13. Low-temperature, non-stoichiometric oxygen isotope exchange coupled to Fe(II)-goethite interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frierdich, Andrew J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Beard, Brian L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Rosso, Kevin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Scherer, Michelle M. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Spicuzza, Michael J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Valley, John W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Johnson, Clark M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The oxygen isotope composition of natural iron oxide minerals has been widely used as a paleoclimate proxy. Interpretation of their stable isotope compositions, however, requires accurate knowledge of isotopic fractionation factors and an understanding of their isotopic exchange kinetics, the latter of which informs us how diagenetic processes may alter their isotopic compositions. Prior work has demonstrated that crystalline iron oxides do not significantly exchange oxygen isotopes with pure water at low temperature, which has restricted studies of isotopic fractionation factors to precipitation experiments or theoretical calculations. Using a double three-isotope method (¹⁸O-¹⁷O-¹⁶O and ⁵⁷Fe-⁵⁶Fe-⁵⁴Fe) we compare O and Fe isotope exchange kinetics, and demonstrate, for the first time, that O isotope exchange between structural O in crystalline goethite and water occurs in the presence of aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq) at ambient temperature (i.e., 22–50 °C). The three-isotope method was used to extrapolate partial exchange results to infer the equilibrium, mass-dependent isotope fractionations between goethite and water. In addition, this was combined with a reversal approach to equilibrium by reacting goethite in two unique waters that vary in composition by about 16‰ in ¹⁸O/¹⁶O ratios. Our results show that interactions between Fe(II)aq and goethite catalyzes O isotope exchange between the mineral and bulk fluid; no exchange (within error) is observed when goethite is suspended in ¹⁷O-enriched water in the absence of Fe(II)aq. In contrast, Fe(II)-catalyzed O isotope exchange is accompanied by significant changes in ¹⁸O/¹⁶O ratios. Despite significant O exchange, however, we observed disproportionate amounts of Fe versus O exchange, where Fe isotope exchange in goethite was roughly three times that of O. This disparity provides novel insight into the reactivity of oxide minerals in aqueous

  14. Social exchange as a framework for client-nurse interaction during public health nursing maternal-child home visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Mary E

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to develop a nursing-focused use of social exchange theory within the context of maternal-child home visiting. The nature of social exchange theory, its application to client-nurse interaction, and its fit with an existing data set from a field research investigation were examined. Resources exchanged between the nurse and clients were categorized and compared across the patterns of home visiting, nursing strategies based on exchange notions were identified, and variations in exchange were linked with client outcomes. The nurse provided resources within the categories of information, status, service, and goods. Clients provided time, access to the home, space within the home to conduct the visit, opportunities to observe maternal-child interaction, access to the infant, and information. The ease and breadth of resource exchange varied across the patterns of home visiting. The social exchange perspective was useful in categorizing resources, specifying and uncovering new resource categories, understanding nursing strategies to initiate and maintain the client-nurse relationship, and linking client-nurse interactive phenomena with client outcomes. Social exchange theory is potentially useful for understanding client-nurse interaction in the context of maternal-child home visits.

  15. CONAN—The cruncher of local exchange coefficients for strongly interacting confined systems in one dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Niels Jakob Søe; Kristensen, Lasse Bjørn; Thomsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional system of particles with strong zero-range interactions. This system can be mapped onto a spin chain of the Heisenberg type with exchange coefficients that depend on the external trap. In this paper, we present an algorithm that can be used to compute these exchange...... coefficients. We introduce an open source code CONAN (Coefficients of One-dimensional N-Atom Networks) which is based on this algorithm. CONAN works with arbitrary external potentials and we have tested its reliability for system sizes up to around 35 particles. As illustrative examples, we consider a harmonic...... trap and a box trap with a superimposed asymmetric tilted potential. For these examples, the computation time typically scales with the number of particles as O(N3.5±0.4). Computation times are around 10 s for N=10 particles and less than 10 min for N=20 particles....

  16. Solar wind/local interstellar medium interaction including charge exchange with neural hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, H. Louis; Zank, Gary P.

    1995-01-01

    We present results from a hydrodynamic model of the interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium (LISM), self-consistently taking into account the effects of charge exchange between the plasma component and the interstellar neutrals. The simulation is fully time dependent, and is carried out in two or three dimensions, depending on whether the helio-latitudinal dependence of the solar wind speed and number density (both giving rise to three dimensional effects) are included. As a first approximation it is assumed that the neutral component of the flow can be described by a single, isotropic fluid. Clearly, this is not the actual situation, since charge exchange with the supersonic solar wind plasma in the region of the nose results in a 'second' neutral fluid propagating in the opposite direction as that of the LISM neutrals.

  17. Giant spin torque in hybrids with anisotropic p-d exchange interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2014-01-01

    Control of magnetic domain wall movement by the spin-polarized current looks promising for creation of a new generation of magnetic memory devices. A necessary condition for this is the domain wall shift by a low-density current. Here, I show that a strongly anisotropic exchange interaction between mobile heavy holes and localized magnetic moments enormously increases the current-induced torque on the domain wall as compared to systems with isotropic exchange. This enables one to control the domain wall motion by current density 10 4  A/cm 2 in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids. The experimental observation of the anisotropic torque will facilitate the integration of ferromagnetism into semiconductor electronics

  18. Giant spin torque in hybrids with anisotropic p-d exchange interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, V. L., E-mail: korenev@orient.ioffe.ru [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russia and Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universitat Dortmund, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany)

    2014-03-03

    Control of magnetic domain wall movement by the spin-polarized current looks promising for creation of a new generation of magnetic memory devices. A necessary condition for this is the domain wall shift by a low-density current. Here, I show that a strongly anisotropic exchange interaction between mobile heavy holes and localized magnetic moments enormously increases the current-induced torque on the domain wall as compared to systems with isotropic exchange. This enables one to control the domain wall motion by current density 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids. The experimental observation of the anisotropic torque will facilitate the integration of ferromagnetism into semiconductor electronics.

  19. Firm handling; the information exchange interaction by parents in paediatric care – An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Berterö

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information exchange is fundamental in the paediatric care encounter. Health care professionals need further background knowledge to encounter the parents/guardians from their perspective in their minors’ paediatric care. The parents’/guardians’ ability to manage the situation is dependent on their receiving optimal information, which is why it is important to study how information is exchanged.Aim: The aim of this study was to identify, describe and conceptualize how parents/guardians resolved their main concern ininformation exchange with health care professionals in paediatric care situations involving their minors.Methodology: Glaser’s grounded theory method was used and all data were analysed using constant comparative analysis. The observational study took place at three paediatric outpatient units at a university hospital and 24 parents/guardians participated. Data sources were field notes from 37 observations of paediatric care situations and five adherent excerpts from the minors’ medical records. Grounded theory is a method of conceptualising behaviour, which is why an observational study of parents’/guardians’ information exchange and social interaction in the context of nursing care is relevant as research design.Results: Firm handling was revealed as the way the parents/guardians resolved their main concerns when they were exchanging information about their minors’ paediatric care. Firm handling is built on five inter-related categories: representative advocating, collaborating, aim sharing, supportive resourcing and minor bypassing.Conclusions: This knowledge suggests possible ways for health care professionals to design paediatric care that supports, facilitates, strengthens and improves the parents’/guardians’ firm handling. The key issue is to find ways to support parents/guardians and minors so they can participate in health care encounters according to their preferences. Firm handling gives an

  20. Interactions among K+-Ca2+ exchange, sorption of m-dinitrobenzene, and smectite quasicrystal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ritushree; Laird, David A; Thompson, Michael L

    2008-12-15

    The fate of organic contaminants in soils and sediments is influenced by sorption of the compounds to surfaces of soil materials. We investigated the interaction among sorption of an organic compound, cation exchange reactions, and both the size and swelling of smectite quasicrystals. Two reference smectites that vary in location and amount of layer charge, SPV (a Wyoming bentonite) and SAz-1 were initially Ca- and K-saturated and then equilibrated with mixed 0.01 M KCl and 0.005 M CaCl2 salt solutions both with and without the presence of 200 mg L(-1) m-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). In general, sorption of m-DNB increased with the amount of K+ in the system for both clays, and the SPV sorbed more m-DNB than the SAz-1. Sorption of m-DNB increased the preference of Ca-SPV for K+ relative to Ca2+ but had little effect on K+-Ca2+ selectivity for K-SPV. Selectivity for K+ relative to Ca2+ was slightly higher for both K-SAz-1 and Ca-SAz-1 in the presence of m-DNB than in its absence. Distinct hysteresis loops were observed for the K+-Ca2+ cation exchange reactions for both clays, and the legacy of having been initially Ca- or K-saturated influenced sorption of m-DNB by SPV but had little effect for SAz-1. Suspension X-ray diffraction was used to measure changes in d-spacing and the relative thickness of smectite quasicrystals during the cation exchange and m-DNB sorption reactions. The results suggest that interactions among cation exchange and organic sorption reactions are controlled byan inherently hysteretic complex feedback process that is regulated by changes in the size and extent of swelling of smectite quasicrystals.

  1. Hyperon interaction in free space and nuclear matter within a SU(3) based meson exchange model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, Madhumita

    2016-06-15

    To establish the connection between free space and in-medium hyperon-nucleon interactions is the central issue of this thesis. The guiding principle is flavor SU(3) symmetry which is exploited at various levels. In first step hyperon-nucleon and hyperon- hyperon interaction boson exchange potential in free space are introduced. A new parameter set applicable for the complete baryon octet has been derived leading to an updated one-boson- exchange model, utilizing SU(3) flavor symmetry, optimizing the number of free parameters involved, and revising the set of mesons included. The scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector SU(3) meson octets are taken into account. T-matrices are calculated by solving numerically coupled linear systems of Lippmann-Schwinger equations obtained from a 3-D reduced Bethe-Salpeter equation. Coupling constants were determined by χ{sup 2} fits to the world set of scattering data. A good description of the few available data is achieved within the imposed SU(3) constraints. Having at hand a consistently derived vacuum interaction we extend the approach next to investigations of the in-medium properties of hyperon interaction, avoiding any further adjustments. Medium effect in infinite nuclear matter are treated microscopically by recalculating T-matrices by an medium-modified system of Lippmann-Schwinger equations. A particular important role is played by the Pauli projector accounting for the exclusion principle. The presence of a background medium induces a weakening of the vacuum interaction amplitudes. Especially coupled channel mixing is found to be affected sensitively by medium. Investigation on scattering lengths and effective range parameters are revealing the density dependence of the interaction on a quantitative level.

  2. Probing protein interactions with hydrogen/deuterium exchange and mass spectrometry—A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, Andrew J.; Rey, Martial; Burns, Kyle M.; Schriemer, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Protein chemistry generates mass shifts useful for structure–function studies. ► H/DX supports a powerful mass shift method for protein interaction analysis. ► H/DX mass shifts are useful for determining binding data (K d , off-rates). ► Improved H/DX–MS workflows can accommodate complex protein systems. - Abstract: Assessing the functional outcome of protein interactions in structural terms is a goal of structural biology, however most techniques have a limited capacity for making structure–function determinations with both high resolution and high throughput. Mass spectrometry can be applied as a reader of protein chemistries in order to fill this void, and enable methodologies whereby protein structure–function determinations may be made on a proteome-wide level. Protein hydrogen/deuterium exchange (H/DX) offers a chemical labeling strategy suitable for tracking changes in “dynamic topography” and thus represents a powerful means of monitoring protein structure–function relationships. This review presents the exchange method in the context of interaction analysis. Applications involving interface detection, quantitation of binding, and conformational responses to ligation are discussed, and commentary on recent analytical developments is provided.

  3. Construction of exchange-correlation functionals through interpolation between the non-interacting and the strong-correlation limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yongxi; Ernzerhof, Matthias; Bahmann, Hilke

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the adiabatic connection of density functional theory, exchange-correlation functionals of Kohn-Sham density functional theory are constructed which interpolate between the extreme limits of the electron-electron interaction strength. The first limit is the non-interacting one, where there is only exchange. The second limit is the strong correlated one, characterized as the minimum of the electron-electron repulsion energy. The exchange-correlation energy in the strong-correlation limit is approximated through a model for the exchange-correlation hole that is referred to as nonlocal-radius model [L. O. Wagner and P. Gori-Giorgi, Phys. Rev. A 90, 052512 (2014)]. Using the non-interacting and strong-correlated extremes, various interpolation schemes are presented that yield new approximations to the adiabatic connection and thus to the exchange-correlation energy. Some of them rely on empiricism while others do not. Several of the proposed approximations yield the exact exchange-correlation energy for one-electron systems where local and semi-local approximations often fail badly. Other proposed approximations generalize existing global hybrids by using a fraction of the exchange-correlation energy in the strong-correlation limit to replace an equal fraction of the semi-local approximation to the exchange-correlation energy in the strong-correlation limit. The performance of the proposed approximations is evaluated for molecular atomization energies, total atomic energies, and ionization potentials

  4. Influence of magnetic dipole and magnetoelastic interactions on the phase states of 2D non-Heisenberg ferromagnetic with complex exchange interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, Yu.A.; Matunin, D.A.; Klevets, Ph.N.; Kosmachev, O.A.

    2009-01-01

    The phase states of the 2D non-Heisenberg ferromagnetic with anisotropic bilinear and biquadratic exchange interactions are investigated. The limiting cases of the system under consideration are the two-dimensional XY-model with biquadratic exchange interaction and the isotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic. The account of the magnetic dipole interaction leads to the realization of spatially inhomogeneous quadrupolar phase. The stability regions of various phase transitions for different values of the material parameters are studied. The phase diagram is built. Besides, the temperature phase transitions are investigated. The influence of the magnetoelastic interaction on the formation of the long-range quadrupolar order is determined.

  5. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duangtum, Natapol [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Limjindaporn, Thawornchai, E-mail: limjindaporn@yahoo.com [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai, E-mail: grpye@mahidol.ac.th [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

  6. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). → The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. → The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. → A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. → KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of α-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange and the failure of proton (H + ) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney α-intercalated cells.

  7. Exchange Interactions on the Highest-Spin Reported Molecule: the Mixed-Valence Fe42 Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, Daniel; Venegas-Yazigi, Diego; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2016-04-01

    The finding of high-spin molecules that could behave as conventional magnets has been one of the main challenges in Molecular Magnetism. Here, the exchange interactions, present in the highest-spin molecule published in the literature, Fe42, have been analysed using theoretical methods based on Density Functional Theory. The system with a total spin value S = 45 is formed by 42 iron centres containing 18 high-spin FeIII ferromagnetically coupled and 24 diamagnetic low-spin FeII ions. The bridging ligands between the two paramagnetic centres are two cyanide ligands coordinated to the diamagnetic FeII cations. Calculations were performed using either small Fe4 or Fe3 models or the whole Fe42 complex, showing the presence of two different ferromagnetic couplings between the paramagnetic FeIII centres. Finally, Quantum Monte Carlo simulations for the whole system were carried out in order to compare the experimental and simulated magnetic susceptibility curves from the calculated exchange coupling constants with the experimental one. This comparison allows for the evaluation of the accuracy of different exchange-correlation functionals to reproduce such magnetic properties.

  8. Interaction between Na+/K+-pump and Na+/Ca2+-exchanger modulates intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchkov, Vladimir V; Gustafsson, Helena; Rahman, Awahan; Briggs Boedtkjer, Donna M; Gorintin, Sarah; Hansen, Anne Kirstine; Bouzinova, Elena V; Praetorius, Helle A; Aalkjaer, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2007-04-13

    Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na(+)/K(+)-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. Here we test the hypothesis that the communication between vascular smooth muscle cells is regulated through an interaction between the Na(+)/K(+)-pump and the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger leading to an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in discrete areas near the plasma membrane. [Ca(2+)](i) in smooth muscle cells was imaged in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cell pairs (A7r5) and in rat mesenteric small artery segments simultaneously with force. In A7r5 coupling between cells was estimated by measuring membrane capacitance. Smooth muscle cells were uncoupled when the Na(+)/K(+)-pump was inhibited either by a low concentration of ouabain, which also caused a localized increase of [Ca(2+)](i) near the membrane, or by ATP depletion. Reduction of Na(+)/K(+)-pump activity by removal of extracellular potassium ([K(+)](o)) also uncoupled cells, but only after inhibition of K(ATP) channels. Inhibition of the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchange activity by SEA0400 or by a reduction of the equilibrium potential (making it more negative) also uncoupled the cells. Depletion of intracellular Na(+) and clamping of [Ca(2+)](i) at low concentrations prevented the uncoupling. The experiments suggest that the Na(+)/K(+)-pump may affect gap junction conductivity via localized changes in [Ca(2+)](i) through modulation of Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activity.

  9. The effect of exchange interaction on quasiparticle Landau levels in narrow-gap quantum well heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishtopenko, S S; Gavrilenko, V I; Goiran, M

    2012-04-04

    Using the 'screened' Hartree-Fock approximation based on the eight-band k·p Hamiltonian, we have extended our previous work (Krishtopenko et al 2011 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23 385601) on exchange enhancement of the g-factor in narrow-gap quantum well heterostructures by calculating the exchange renormalization of quasiparticle energies, the density of states at the Fermi level and the quasiparticle g-factor for different Landau levels overlapping. We demonstrate that exchange interaction yields more pronounced Zeeman splitting of the density of states at the Fermi level and leads to the appearance of peak-shaped features in the dependence of the Landau level energies on the magnetic field at integer filling factors. We also find that the quasiparticle g-factor does not reach the maximum value at odd filling factors in the presence of large overlapping of spin-split Landau levels. We advance an argument that the behavior of the quasiparticle g-factor in weak magnetic fields is defined by a random potential of impurities in narrow-gap heterostructures. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd

  10. Influence of grain size and exchange interaction on the LLB modeling procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Christoph; Abert, Claas; Bruckner, Florian; Suess, Dieter; Praetorius, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    Reliably predicting bit-error rates in realistic heat-assisted magnetic recording simulations is a challenging task. Integrating the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch (LLB) equation, within a coarse graining approach, can reduce the computational effort to determine the magnetization dynamics in the vicinity of the Curie temperature, compared to solving the atomistic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. If the aim is that the dynamics of both approaches coincide, temperature dependent material functions, such as the zero-field equilibrium magnetization as well as the parallel and normal susceptibilities, must be modeled carefully in order to use them as input in the LLB equation. We present an extensive study on how these functions depend on grain size and exchange interactions. We show that, if the size or the exchange constant of a reference grain is modified, the material functions can be scaled, according to the changed Curie temperature, yielding negligible errors. This is shown to be valid for volume changes of up to ±40% and variations of the exchange constant of up to ±10%. Besides the temperature dependent material curves, computed switching probabilities also agree well with probabilities separately determined for each system. Our study suggests that there is no need to recalculate the required LLB input functions for each particle. Within the presented limits, it is sufficient to scale them to the Curie temperature of the altered system.

  11. Study of dipole interaction in micron-width NiFe/Cu/NiFe/NiO wire using exchange anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Itagaki, Yoshio; Wakaya, Fujio; Gamo, Kenji

    2001-01-01

    The dipole interaction between a NiFe layer pinned by a NiO and a free NiFe layer in a micron-wide NiFe/Cu/NiFe/NiO wire was studied by changing the direction of the exchange bias from the NiO layer. The effect of the dipole interaction when the exchange bias was perpendicular to the wire axis was larger than that when the exchange bias was parallel to the wire axis, and was consistently explained by the stray field caused by the magnetic charges of the pinned layer. It was demonstrated that this method, using exchange anisotropy, is useful for investigating the dipole interaction between ferromagnetic materials separated by a nonmagnetic material in small-scale magnetic multilayers. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  12. The effect of tube-support interaction on the dynamic response of heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    To avoid detrimental tube vibration in heat exchangers, resonant conditions and instabilitites must be avoided, and/or peak dynamic amplitudes must not exceed allowable limits. In attempting a theoretical analysis, questions arise as to the effects of tube/support interaction on tube vibrational characteristics (i.e. resonant frequencies, modes, damping) and response amplitude. As a part of ANL's Flow-Induced Vibration Program in support of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) steam generator design activity, tube/support interaction experiments are being performed not only to gain the insight into the dynamic behavior of CRBRP steam generator tubes, but also to provide the basis for developing design guidance. Test results were compared with anaytical results based on multispan tube with 'knife-edge' supports at the support locations. (Auth.)

  13. Dynamics of urokinase receptor interaction with Peptide antagonists studied by amide hydrogen exchange and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Danø, Keld

    2004-01-01

    Using amide hydrogen exchange combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we have in this study determined the number of amide hydrogens on several peptides that become solvent-inaccessible as a result of their high-affinity interaction with the urokinase-type plasminogen activator...... receptor (uPAR). These experiments reveal that at least six out of eight amide hydrogens in a synthetic nine-mer peptide antagonist (AE105) become sequestered upon engagement in uPAR binding. Various uPAR mutants with decreased affinity for this peptide antagonist gave similar results, thereby indicating...... that deletion of the favorable interactions involving the side chains of these residues in uPAR does not affect the number of hydrogen bonds established by the main chain of the peptide ligand. The isolated growth factor-like domain (GFD) of the cognate serine protease ligand for uPAR showed 11 protected amide...

  14. Study of X(3872) from effective field theory with pion-exchange interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Wang, X G

    2013-07-26

    We study DD[over ¯]* (D*D[over ¯]) scattering in the framework of unitarized heavy meson chiral perturbation theory with pion exchange and a contact interaction. 3S1-3D1 mixing effects are taken into account. A loosely bound state X(3872), with the pole position being Mpole}=(3871.70-i0.39)  MeV, is found. The result is not sensitive to the strength of the contact interaction. Our calculation provides a theoretical confirmation of the existence of the 1++ state X(3872). The light quark mass dependence of the pole position indicates it has a predominately DD[over ¯]* (D*D[over ¯]) molecular nature. When the π mass is larger than 142 MeV, the pole disappears, which makes impossible the lattice simulation of this state at large quark mass.

  15. Exchange splitting of the interaction energy and the multipole expansion of the wave function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gniewek, Piotr, E-mail: pgniewek@tiger.chem.uw.edu.pl; Jeziorski, Bogumił, E-mail: jeziorsk@chem.uw.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-10-21

    The exchange splitting J of the interaction energy of the hydrogen atom with a proton is calculated using the conventional surface-integral formula J{sub surf}[Φ], the volume-integral formula of the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory J{sub SAPT}[Φ], and a variational volume-integral formula J{sub var}[Φ]. The calculations are based on the multipole expansion of the wave function Φ, which is divergent for any internuclear distance R. Nevertheless, the resulting approximations to the leading coefficient j{sub 0} in the large-R asymptotic series J(R) = 2e{sup −R−1}R(j{sub 0} + j{sub 1}R{sup −1} + j{sub 2}R{sup −2} + ⋯) converge with the rate corresponding to the convergence radii equal to 4, 2, and 1 when the J{sub var}[Φ], J{sub surf}[Φ], and J{sub SAPT}[Φ] formulas are used, respectively. Additionally, we observe that also the higher j{sub k} coefficients are predicted correctly when the multipole expansion is used in the J{sub var}[Φ] and J{sub surf}[Φ] formulas. The symmetry adapted perturbation theory formula J{sub SAPT}[Φ] predicts correctly only the first two coefficients, j{sub 0} and j{sub 1}, gives a wrong value of j{sub 2}, and diverges for higher j{sub n}. Since the variational volume-integral formula can be easily generalized to many-electron systems and evaluated with standard basis-set techniques of quantum chemistry, it provides an alternative for the determination of the exchange splitting and the exchange contribution of the interaction potential in general.

  16. Dependence of magnetization on crystal fields and exchange interactions in magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouaissa, Mohamed, E-mail: m.ouaissa@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Génie Physique et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ibn Tofail, Campus Universitaire BP 133, Kénitra 14000 (Morocco); Benyoussef, Abdelilah [Laboratory of Magnetism and Physics of High Energy, Faculty of Science, Mohammed V-Agdal University, Rabat (Morocco); Abo, Gavin S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and MINT Center, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Ouaissa, Samia; Hafid, Mustapha [Laboratoire de Génie Physique et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ibn Tofail, Campus Universitaire BP 133, Kénitra 14000 (Morocco); Belaiche, Mohammed [Laboratoire de Magnétisme, Matériaux Magnétiques, Microonde et Céramique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, B.P. 9235, Océan, Rabat (Morocco)

    2015-11-15

    In this work, we study the magnetization of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) with different exchange interactions and crystal fields using variational method based on the Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy within the mean field theory. The magnetic behavior was investigated in the absence and presence of crystal fields. The investigations also revealed that the transition temperature depends on the crystal fields of the octahedral and tetrahedral sites. Magnetite exhibits ferrimagnetic phase with second order transition to paramagnetic phase at 850 K. This result is confirmed using the mean field theory within the Heisenberg model. Important factors that can affect the magnetic behavior of the system are exchange interactions and crystal field. Indeed, a new magnetic behavior was observed depending on these parameters. A first order phase transition from ferrimagnetic to ferromagnetic was found at low temperature, and a second order transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic was observed at high temperature. - Highlights: • Magnetization of magnetite versus temperature was studied by mean field theory. • The critical temperature of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) was approximately obtained. • Effect of sublattice crystal fields on the magnetization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated.

  17. Modified momentum exchange method for fluid-particle interactions in the lattice Boltzmann method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Li, Decai; Shu, Shi; Niu, Xiaodong

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a modified momentum exchange method for fluid-particle interactions is proposed based on the finite-volume lattice Boltzmann method. The idea of the improvement is to remove the restriction that the boundary points must be set as the midpoints of the grid lines or the intersection of the grid lines with the solid boundaries. The particle surface is represented by a set of arc (area) elements, and the interior fluid is used which the geometric conservation law is naturally satisfied. The interactions between fluid and arc (area) elements of particle boundary are considered using the momentum exchange method, and the mass of the fluid particles which collide with an arc (area) element is obtained by means of numerical integration in the control volume. The fluid field is corrected with the help of the smooth kernel function. Moreover, a generalized explicit time marching scheme is introduced to resolve the motion of particle in the problems with the ratio of particle density to fluid density is close to or less than 1. Finally, some numerical case studies of particle sedimentation are carried out to validate the present method. The corresponding results have a good agreement with the previous literature, which strongly demonstrates the capability of the improved method.

  18. Deciphering the Dynamic Interaction Profile of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein by NMR Exchange Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaforge, Elise; Kragelj, Jaka; Tengo, Laura; Palencia, Andrés; Milles, Sigrid; Bouvignies, Guillaume; Salvi, Nicola; Blackledge, Martin; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing

    2018-01-24

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) display a large number of interaction modes including folding-upon-binding, binding without major structural transitions, or binding through highly dynamic, so-called fuzzy, complexes. The vast majority of experimental information about IDP binding modes have been inferred from crystal structures of proteins in complex with short peptides of IDPs. However, crystal structures provide a mainly static view of the complexes and do not give information about the conformational dynamics experienced by the IDP in the bound state. Knowledge of the dynamics of IDP complexes is of fundamental importance to understand how IDPs engage in highly specific interactions without concomitantly high binding affinity. Here, we combine rotating-frame R 1ρ , Carr-Purcell-Meiboom Gill relaxation dispersion as well as chemical exchange saturation transfer to decipher the dynamic interaction profile of an IDP in complex with its partner. We apply the approach to the dynamic signaling complex formed between the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38α and the intrinsically disordered regulatory domain of the MAPK kinase MKK4. Our study demonstrates that MKK4 employs a subtle combination of interaction modes in order to bind to p38α, leading to a complex displaying significantly different dynamics across the bound regions.

  19. Competition of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya and Higher-Order Exchange Interactions in Rh /Fe Atomic Bilayers on Ir(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romming, Niklas; Pralow, Henning; Kubetzka, André; Hoffmann, Markus; von Malottki, Stephan; Meyer, Sebastian; Dupé, Bertrand; Wiesendanger, Roland; von Bergmann, Kirsten; Heinze, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    Using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory we demonstrate the occurrence of a novel type of noncollinear spin structure in Rh /Fe atomic bilayers on Ir(111). We find that higher-order exchange interactions depend sensitively on the stacking sequence. For fcc-Rh /Fe /Ir (111 ) , frustrated exchange interactions are dominant and lead to the formation of a spin spiral ground state with a period of about 1.5 nm. For hcp-Rh /Fe /Ir (111 ) , higher-order exchange interactions favor an up-up-down-down (↑↑↓↓) state. However, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction at the Fe /Ir interface leads to a small angle of about 4° between adjacent magnetic moments resulting in a canted ↑↑↓↓ ground state.

  20. Evaluation of the exchange interaction and crystal fields in a prototype Dy2 SMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Sarachik, Myriam; Baker, Michael; Chen, Yizhang; Kent, Andrew; Pineda, Eufemio; McInnes, Eric

    In order to gain an understanding of the INS and magnetization data obtained for Dy2, the simplest member of a newly synthesized family of dysprosium-based molecular magnets, we report on calculations of the magnetic behavior of a Dy2 cluster with the formula [hqH2][Dy2(hq)4(NO3)3].MeOH. The molecular complex contains one high symmetry Dy(III) ion and one low symmetry Dy(III) ion. Our calculations suggest that exchange coupling between the two ions controls the behavior of the magnetization at low temperature, while the crystal field of the low symmetry Dy(III) ion controls the behavior at higher temperature. A point charge electrostatic model, based on crystallographic coordinates, provides a starting point for the determination of the crystal field. Parameters in these calculations are adjusted to provide best fits to inelastic neutron scattering data (INS) and low temperature magnetometry: the INS measurements access crystal field energies and low temperature magnetization probes the Dy-Dy exchange interaction. Work supported by ARO W911NF-13-1-1025 (CCNY) and NSF-DMR-1309202 (NYU).

  1. The study of flow and proton exchange interactions in the cylindrical solid oxide fuel cell

    CERN Document Server

    Saievar-Iranizad, E

    2002-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell operates at high temperature of about 1000 deg C. In this temperature, some known materials such as Ni, ... which is abundant in the nature, can be used as a catalyst in the electrodes. The electrolytes of such cell solid oxide fuel cell can be made through non-porous solid ceramics such as Zircon's (ZrO sub 2). It can be stabilized using a doped Yttrium oxide. The importance of Yttria-stabilised Zirconia at high temperature belongs to the transport of oxygen ions through the electrolyte. Oxygen using in the hot cathode side causes a considerable reduction in the concentration of oxygen molecules. The oxygen ions exchange through the electrolyte relates to the molecular oxygen concentration gradient between the anode and cathode. Applying fuels such as hydrogen or natural gas in the anode and its chemical reaction with oxygen ions transfer from cathode through the electrolyte, produce electricity, water and heat. To study the ion exchange and its interaction into solid oxide fuel cel...

  2. Magnon dispersion relation and exchange interactions in MnF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikotin, O.; Lindgård, Per-Anker; Dietrich, O. W.

    1969-01-01

    The magnon dispersion relation for MnF2 at 4·2 °K has been measured by means of the triple-axis neutron scattering technique along the symmetry lines in the (010) plane of the Brillouin zone. Using an exact dipole model, the three nearest-neighbour exchange constants were found to be J1 = 0·028 ± 0......·001 mev, J2 = -0·152 ± 0·001 mev and J3 = -0·004 ± 0·001 mev. The second moment was also calculated with this model. The density of magnon states was evaluated by applying a six-parameter simulation of the dispersion surface. The critical points in the density of states agree well with those obtained...... by optical double-magnon experiments, whereas the detailed shape of the density of states differs significantly, indicating that the effect of magnon-magnon interactions rather than that of distant-neighbour exchange is of primary importance in the optical measurements....

  3. Neutron fragmentation and inclusive charge exchange in pd and π+d interactions at 195 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, Y.; Haber, B.; Hochman, D.; Koller, E.; Ronat, E.E.; Shapira, A.; Yaari, R.; Yekutieli, G.; Braun, H.; Etienne, F.; Fridman, A.; Gerber, J.P.; Jegham, E.; Juillot, P.; Maurer, G.; Voltolini, C.

    1977-01-01

    An excess of negative particles and depletion of positive particles in the backward hemisphere (c.m. system) is observed in π + and p interactions on neutron target. dsigma - /dy is compared with pp interactions and the difference is related to the slow-proton spectrum produced in the pn interactions. A neutron fragmentation component is observed, and the inclusive charge-exchange probability at the nucleon vertex is found to be about 0.4

  4. Neutron fragmentation and inclusive charge exchange in pd and π+d interactions at 195 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, Y.; Haber, B.; Hochman, D.; Koller, E.; Ronat, E.E.; Shapira, A.; Yaari, R.; Yekutieli, G.; Braun, H.; Etienne, F.; Fridman, A.; Gerber, J.P.; Jegham, E.; Juillot, P.; Maurer, G.; Voltolini, C.

    1976-01-01

    An excess of negative particles and depletion of positives in the cms backward hemisphere is observed in π + and p interactions on neutron target. dΣ - /dy is compared with pp interactions and the difference is related to the slow proton spectrum produced in the pn interactions. A neutron fragmentation component is observed and the inclusive charge exchange probability at the nucleon vertex is found to be about 0.4. (author)

  5. Establishing a Sense of Community, Interaction, and Knowledge Exchange Among Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    an academic and social sense of community among the students, through encouraging interaction and knowledge exchange. Studies show that students prefer to use Facebook for academic and social purposes. Consequently, teachers have limited insight into the academic challenges facing students, which...... is problematic when trying to create and support an academic community. Moreover, it is problematic that the institutional system Moodle primarily is used by the teachers to push information in the direction of the students. Thus, we wanted to design a third space that would fit in-between Facebook and Moodle......, and which would allow the students to experience the benefits of participating in an online community with fellow students and teachers. The study shows that teachers are crucial in developing and maintaining the online community. Nevertheless, there was also evidence that some of the online activities...

  6. Inter-Wire Antiferromagnetic Exchange Interaction in Ni/Si-Ferromagnetic/Semiconductor Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitzer, P.; Rumpf, K.; Hofmayer, M.; Krenn, H.; Pölt, P.; Reichmann, A.; Hofer, F.

    2007-04-01

    A matrix of mesoporous silicon offering an array of quasi 1-dimensional oriented pores of high aspect ratio perpendicular to the sample surface has been produced. This porous silicon (PS) skeleton is filled with Ni in a further process-step to achieve ferromagnetic metallic nanostructures within the channels. This produced silicon based nanocomposite is compatible with state-of-the-art silicon technology. Beside the vertical magnetic surface anisotropy of this Ni-filled composite the nearly monodisperse distribution of pore diameters and its regular arrangement in a quasi 2-dimensional lattice provides novel magnetic phenomena like a depression of the magnetization curve at magnetic fields beyond 2T, which can be interpreted as a field induced antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between Ni-wires which is strongly influenced by magnetostrictive stresses at the Ni/Si-interface. 2007 American Institute of Physics

  7. Influence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange interaction on quantum phase interference of spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Stamatatos, T. C.; Christou, G.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetization measurements of a Mn12mda wheel single-molecule magnet (SMM) with a spin ground state of S = 7 show resonant tunneling and quantum phase interference, which are established by studying the tunnel rates as a function of a transverse field applied along the hard magnetization axis. We show how the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) exchange interaction can affect the tunneling transitions and quantum phase interference of a SMM. Of particular novelty and importance is the phase-shift observed in the tunnel probabilities of some transitions as a function of the DM vector orientation. Such observations are of importance to potential applications of SMMs that hope to take advantage of the tunneling processes that such molecules can undergo. Ref.: W. Wernsdorfer, T.C. Stamatatos, G. Christou, Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, (28 Nov. 2008).

  8. π-exchange NN interaction model with overlapping nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoud, X.

    1986-01-01

    The nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction model includes a π-exchange and takes into account the first excited state Δ(1232) of the nucleon. It is supplemented by a short-range repulsion which has been derived from the nucleon form factor (rms radius b/sub f/) combined with the three-quark wave function (rms radius b/sub q/). The optimization of the model on empirical scattering phase shifts below 300 MeV gives, for a minimum chi 2 , the root-mean-square radii b/sub f/ = b/sub q/ = 0.51 fm and a coupling constant G/sub π/ 2 /4π = 13

  9. The influence of magnetostatic interactions in exchange-coupled composite particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vokoun, D.; Beleggia, Marco; De Graef, M.

    2010-01-01

    Exchange-coupled composite (ECC) particles are the basic constituents of ECC magnetic recording media. We examine and compare two types of ECC particles: (i) core-shell structures, consisting of a hard-magnetic core and a coaxial soft-magnetic shell and (ii) conventional ECC particles, with a hard-magnetic...... core topped by a soft cylindrical element. The model we present describes the magnetic response of the two ECC particle types, taking into account all significant magnetic contributions to the energy landscape. Special emphasis is given to the magnetostatic (dipolar) interaction energy. We find...... that both the switching fields and the zero-field energy barrier depend strongly on the particle geometry. A comparison between the two types reveals that core-shell ECC particles are more effective in switching field reduction, while conventional ECC particles maintain a larger overall figure of merit....

  10. Exchange and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions in bulk FeGe: Effects of atomic vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, G. C.; Gan, C. K.

    2017-05-01

    We examine the effects of atomic vacancies on the (1) spin interaction, and (2) electronic character in the cubic B20 chiral magnet FeGe. For the former, Heisenberg exchange and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions are studied. The latter is done via a particular Wannier flavor of the Hamiltonian in the form of maximally-localized Wannier functions (MLWFs). Using first-principles calculations based on full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW)-based density functional theory (DFT), the spin order of bulk FeGe, in its pristine form, and with a Fe (Fe75%Ge100%) or Ge vacancy (Fe100%Ge75%) is investigated. Despite the presence of vacancies, the ground state of FeGe remains helimagnetic, i.e. spin spirals in FeGe are fairly robust. The energetic stability of FeGe increases in the presence of the vacancies. The spiral size is increased by approximately 40%, suggesting that vacancies can be introduced to manipulate the chiral order. The vacancies lift the band degeneracy in the valence manifold of the Wannier-interpolated band structures. Only the spin-down Fermi surfaces are substantially different between the pristine and defective FeGe; it is electron-like in the pristine case, but largely hole-like in the defective ones. The Ge vacancy splits the Fermi surface more than the Fe vacancy. The Heisenberg exchange between nearest Fe pairs is ferromagnetic in pristine FeGe. This Fe-Fe interaction remains ferromagnetic, albeit a slight decrease in strength, in the presence of a Fe vacancy. In contrast, a Ge vacancy in FeGe induces anti-ferromagnetism between nearest Fe pairs. By including spin-orbit coupling effects, we find that the DM interaction of defective FeGe is reversed in sign, and it is more uniform in strength along the three highly symmetric directions, relative to that in pristine FeGe. All in all, the versatility of FeGe makes it an excellent functional material, especially in data storage and spintronics applications.

  11. Theoretical modeling of the electronic structure and exchange interactions in a Cu(II)Pc one-dimensional chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Fisher, A. J.; Harrison, N. M.

    2011-07-01

    We calculate the electronic structure and exchange interactions in a copper(II)phthalocyanine [Cu(II)Pc] crystal as a one-dimensional molecular chain using hybrid exchange density functional theory (DFT). In addition, the intermolecular exchange interactions are also calculated in a molecular dimer using Green’s function perturbation theory (GFPT) to illustrate the underlying physics. We find that the exchange interactions depend strongly on the stacking angle, but weakly on the sliding angle (defined in the text). The hybrid DFT calculations also provide an insight into the electronic structure of the Cu(II)Pc molecular chain and demonstrate that on-site electron correlations have a significant effect on the nature of the ground state, the band gap, and magnetic excitations. The exchange interactions predicted by our DFT calculations and GFPT calculations agree qualitatively with the recent experimental results on newly found η-Cu(II)Pc and the previous results for the α and β phases. This work provides a reliable theoretical basis for the further application of Cu(II)Pc to molecular spintronics and organic-based quantum information processing.

  12. Pion-pion and pion-kaon interaction in the meson exchange picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, D.

    1989-10-01

    Following the general line of the Bonn NN-interaction, a model for pseudoscalar-pseudoscalar meson interaction has been constructed and applied consistently to ππ and Kπ scattering. The phases can be reproduced with vector meson t- and s-channel exchange up to 1 GeV. The bare masses of the vector mesons turn out to be in the range of 1.1 GeV, depending on the form factor. We use a coupled channel formalism, which is crucial to explain the S * (975) resonance as a bound anti KK state. Beyond 1 GeV the data require a pseudoscalar-pseudoscalar coupling to a scalar octet (J P =0 + ) to fit the s-wave phases in the isospin-0 π and isospin-1/2 Kπ channels. We apply both scalar coupling and derivative coupling. The latter avoids introducing additional degrees of freedom and produces an acceptable fit to the J=0 phase shift data. (orig.) [de

  13. Interactive Data Visualization for HIV Cohorts: Leveraging Data Exchange Standards to Share and Reuse Research Tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meridith Blevins

    Full Text Available To develop and disseminate tools for interactive visualization of HIV cohort data.If a picture is worth a thousand words, then an interactive video, composed of a long string of pictures, can produce an even richer presentation of HIV population dynamics. We developed an HIV cohort data visualization tool using open-source software (R statistical language. The tool requires that the data structure conform to the HIV Cohort Data Exchange Protocol (HICDEP, and our implementation utilized Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet data.This tool currently presents patient-level data in three classes of plots: (1 Longitudinal plots showing changes in measurements viewed alongside event probability curves allowing for simultaneous inspection of outcomes by relevant patient classes. (2 Bubble plots showing changes in indicators over time allowing for observation of group level dynamics. (3 Heat maps of levels of indicators changing over time allowing for observation of spatial-temporal dynamics. Examples of each class of plot are given using CCASAnet data investigating trends in CD4 count and AIDS at antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation, CD4 trajectories after ART initiation, and mortality.We invite researchers interested in this data visualization effort to use these tools and to suggest new classes of data visualization. We aim to contribute additional shareable tools in the spirit of open scientific collaboration and hope that these tools further the participation in open data standards like HICDEP by the HIV research community.

  14. Magnetism of one-dimensional strongly repulsive spin-1 bosons with antiferromagnetic spin-exchange interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Guan, X. W.; Batchelor, M. T.; Lee, C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate magnetism and quantum phase transitions in a one-dimensional system of integrable spin-1 bosons with strongly repulsive density-density interaction and antiferromagnetic spin-exchange interaction via the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz method. At zero temperature, the system exhibits three quantum phases: (i) a singlet phase of boson pairs when the external magnetic field H is less than the lower critical field H c1 ; (ii) a ferromagnetic phase of atoms in the hyperfine state |F=1, m F =1> when the external magnetic field exceeds the upper critical field H c2 ; and (iii) a mixed phase of singlet pairs and unpaired atoms in the intermediate region H c1 c2 . At finite temperatures, the spin fluctuations affect the thermodynamics of the model through coupling the spin bound states to the dressed energy for the unpaired m F =1 bosons. However, such spin dynamics is suppressed by a sufficiently strong external field at low temperatures. Thus the singlet pairs and unpaired bosons may form a two-component Luttinger liquid in the strong coupling regime.

  15. Turkish Straits System and Southern Black Sea: Exchange. Mixing and Shelf / Canyon Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Emin; Gürses, Özgür; Tutsak, Ersin

    2015-04-01

    Based largely on an experiment employing high-resolution measurements carried out in June-July 2013 and re-interpretation of past experiments, the oceanographic variability of the exchange through the Turkish Straits System (TSS) and the interactions with the southern Black Sea are revealed through CTD, ADCP, oxygen and light transmission measurements. The exchange flow is primarily governed by the complex topography spanning two narrow straits, wide continental shelf regions, steep slopes and numerous canyons connecting deep basins. Water properties and currents in the high energy environment depends on the mosaic of fine-scale processes and pathways. The TSS, often approximated as a two-layer system has a hydraulically controlled, upper ocean and straits intensified regime, leading to surface jets and bottom plumes participating in mixing and renewal processes. The exit of the 'Mediterranean effluent' onto the Black Sea past a sill overflow from the Bosphorus passes through two subsequent hydraulic jumps and proceeds along a narrow canyon that veers to the west clear of the greater Bosphorus Canyon finally cascading down the few small canyons. A diffusive spread from the bottom vein of salty water reforms to the east and spills down the Bosphorus Canyon. The suspended particulate signature of the cascade, as well as its influence in hydrography is traced over the shelf and slope waters and through the numerous canyons into deep water where the reformed flow is found to sustain signatures of the past evolution of intrusive waters. An evaluation of the processes is given with reference to model development carried out in parallel to the analyses of the measurements.

  16. Evolution of magnetic properties and exchange interactions in Ru doped YbCrO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalal, Biswajit; Sarkar, Babusona; De, S K; Dev Ashok, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic properties of YbCr 1−x Ru x O 3 as a function of temperature and magnetic field have been investigated to explore the intriguing magnetic phenomena in rare-earth orthochromites. A quantitative analysis of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the mixed valence state (Yb 3+  and Yb 2+ ) of Yb ions for the highest doped sample. Field-cooled magnetization reveals a broad peak around 75 K and then becomes zero at about 20–24 K, due to the antiparallel coupling between Cr 3+ and Yb 3+ moments. An increase of the Ru 4+ ion concentration leads to a slight increase of compensation temperature T comp from 20 to 24 K, but the Néel temperature remains constant. A larger value of the magnetic moment of Yb ions gives rise to negative magnetization at low temperature. An external magnetic field significantly modifies the temperature dependent magnetization. Simulation of temperature dependent magnetization data, below T N , based on the three (two) magnetic sub-lattice model predicts stronger intra-sublattice exchange interaction than that of inter-sublattice. Thermal hysteresis and Arrot plots suggest first order magnetic phase transition. Random substitution of Ru 4+ ion reduces the magnetic relaxation time. Weak ferromagnetic component in canted antiferromagnetic system and negative internal magnetic field cause zero-field-cooled exchange bias effect. Large magnetocrystalline anisotropy associated with Ru creates high coercivity in the Ru doped sample. A maximum value of magnetocaloric effect is found around the antiferromagnetic ordering of Yb 3+ ions. Antiferromagnetic transition at about 120 K and temperature induced magnetization reversal lead to normal and inverse magnetocaloric effects in the same material. (paper)

  17. 3d-4f magnetic interaction with density functional theory plus u approach: local Coulomb correlation and exchange pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yachao; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Hong

    2013-12-12

    The 3d-4f exchange interaction plays an important role in many lanthanide based molecular magnetic materials such as single-molecule magnets and magnetic refrigerants. In this work, we study the 3d-4f magnetic exchange interactions in a series of Cu(II)-Gd(III) (3d(9)-4f(7)) dinuclear complexes based on the numerical atomic basis-norm-conserving pseudopotential method and density functional theory plus the Hubbard U correction approach (DFT+U). We obtain improved description of the 4f electrons by including the semicore 5s5p states in the valence part of the Gd-pseudopotential. The Hubbard U correction is employed to treat the strongly correlated Cu-3d and Gd-4f electrons, which significantly improve the agreement of the predicted exchange constants, J, with experiment, indicating the importance of accurate description of the local Coulomb correlation. The high efficiency of the DFT+U approach enables us to perform calculations with molecular crystals, which in general improve the agreement between theory and experiment, achieving a mean absolute error smaller than 2 cm(-1). In addition, through analyzing the physical effects of U, we identify two magnetic exchange pathways. One is ferromagnetic and involves an interaction between the Cu-3d, O-2p (bridge ligand), and the majority-spin Gd-5d orbitals. The other one is antiferromagnetic and involves Cu-3d, O-2p, and the empty minority-spin Gd-4f orbitals, which is suppressed by the planar Cu-O-O-Gd structure. This study demonstrates the accuracy of the DFT+U method for evaluating the 3d-4f exchange interactions, provides a better understanding of the exchange mechanism in the Cu(II)-Gd(III) complexes, and paves the way for exploiting the magnetic properties of the 3d-4f compounds containing lanthanides other than Gd.

  18. Magnetic exchange interactions in Mn doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} chalcopyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhani-Benziane, H.; Sahnoun, O. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), University of Mascara (Algeria); Sahnoun, M., E-mail: sahnoun_cum@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), University of Mascara (Algeria); Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg (Switzerland); Driz, M. [Laboratoire de Sciences des Matériaux (LSM), University of Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria); Daul, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    Accurate ab initio full-potential augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) electronic calculations within generalized gradient approximation have been performed for Mn doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} chalcopyrites, focusing on their electronic and magnetic properties as a function of the geometry related to low Mn-impurity concentration and the spin magnetic alignment (i.e., ferromagnetic vs antiferromagnetic). As expected, Mn is found to be a source of holes and localized magnetic moments of about 4 µ{sub B} per Mn atom are calculated which are sufficiently large. The defect calculations are firstly performed by replacing a single cation (namely Zn and Sn) with a single Mn atom in the pure chalcopyrite ZnSnAs{sub 2} supercell, and their corresponding formation energies show that the substitution of a Sn atom (rather than Zn) by Mn is strongly favored. Thereafter, a comparison of total energy differences between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) are given. Surprisingly, the exchange interaction between a Mn pairs is found to oscillate with the distance between them. Consequently, the AFM alignment is energetically favored in Mn-doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} compounds, except for low impurity concentration associated with lower distances between neighboring Mn impurities, in this case the stabilization of FM increases. Moreover, the ferromagnetic alignment in the Mn-doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} systems behaves half-metallic; the valence band for majority spin orientation is partially filled while there is a gap in the density of states for the minority spin orientation. This semiconducting gap of ~1 eV opened up in the minority channel and is due to the large bonding–antibonding splitting from the p–d hybridization. Our findings suggest that the Mn-doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} chalcopyrites could be a different class of ferromagnetic semiconductors. - Highlights: • ab initio calculations were performed on Mn doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} chalcopyrite. • Substitution of a Sn atom (rather than Zn) by Mn

  19. A pion and gluon exchange model of the non-annihilation part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of quark antisymmetrization on the one-pion and one-gluon exchange between nucleons and antinucleons is explicitly calculated within the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. We found an effective short range part of the N-anti N interaction which is repulsive in all the spin-isospin channels. (Author)

  20. Baryon exchange in 12 GeV/c. pi. /sup -/p interactions. [Differential cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenton, M W; Bacino, W J; Hauptman, J M; Rudnick, F D; Shepard, P F; Slater, W E; Stork, D H; Ticho, H K [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA)

    1978-08-14

    Final states produced by charged baryon exchange in ..pi../sup -/p interactions at 12 GeV/c laboratory momentum have been studied. Forward neutrons with momenta determined by a calorimeter to be greater than 8.5 +- 1.4 GeV/c triggered the SLAC 40-inch hydrogen bubble chamber which operated at a 10 Hz expansion rate. Data on the reactions ..pi../sup -/p..-->..n..pi../sup -/..pi../sup +/, ..pi../sup -/p..-->..n..pi../sup -/..pi../sup +/..pi../sup 0/, and ..pi../sup -/p..-->..n..pi../sup -/..pi../sup -/..pi../sup +/..pi../sup +/are reported. In ..pi../sup -/p..-->..n..pi../sup -/..pi../sup +/ production of rho and f mesons is observed. Differential cross sections are derived and compared with data at lower incident momentum and with theoretical models. In ..pi../sup -/p..-->..n..pi../sup -/..pi../sup +/..pi../sup 0/, ..omega.. production is observed with a differential cross section having a deep dip near u' = 0.2 (GeV/c)/sup 2/. In ..pi../sup -/p..-->..n..pi../sup -/..pi../sup -/..pi../sup +/..pi../sup +/, ..delta../sup -/, rho and f production is observed. The observed mass distributions appear to indicate the production of wide resonances decaying into rho..pi pi... Some evidence for rho-..omega.. interference is also observed.

  1. Correlation of the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction with Heisenberg exchange and orbital asphericity

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Sanghoon

    2018-04-19

    Chiral spin textures of a ferromagnetic layer in contact to a heavy non-magnetic metal, such as Néel-type domain walls and skyrmions, have been studied intensively because of their potential for future nanomagnetic devices. The Dyzaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) is an essential phenomenon for the formation of such chiral spin textures. In spite of recent theoretical progress aiming at understanding the microscopic origin of the DMI, an experimental investigation unravelling the physics at stake is still required. Here we experimentally demonstrate the close correlation of the DMI with the anisotropy of the orbital magnetic moment and with the magnetic dipole moment of the ferromagnetic metal in addition to Heisenberg exchange. The density functional theory and the tight-binding model calculations reveal that inversion symmetry breaking with spin–orbit coupling gives rise to the orbital-related correlation. Our study provides the experimental connection between the orbital physics and the spin–orbit-related phenomena, such as DMI.

  2. Low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of systems frustrated by competing exchange interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Beas

    This doctoral thesis emphasizes on the study of frustrated systems which form a very interesting class of compounds in physics. The technique used for the investigation of the magnetic properties of the frustrated materials is Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). NMR is a very novel tool for the microscopic study of the spin systems. NMR enables us to investigate the local magnetic properties of any system exclusively. The NMR experiments on the different systems yield us knowledge of the static as well as the dynamic behavior of the electronic spins. Frustrated systems bear great possibilities of revelation of new physics through the new ground states they exhibit. The vandates AA'VO(PO4)2 [AA' ≡ Zn2 and BaCd] are great prototypes of the J1-J2 model which consists of magnetic ions sitting on the corners of a square lattice. Frustration is caused by the competing nearest-neighbor (NN) and next-nearest neighbor (NNN) exchange interactions. The NMR investigation concludes a columnar antiferromagnetic (AFM) state for both the compounds from the sharp peak of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1) and a sudden broadening of the 31P-NMR spectrum. The important conclusion from our study is the establishment of the first H-P-T phase diagram of BaCdVO(PO4)2. Application of high pressure reduces the saturation field (HS) in BaCdVO(PO4)2 and decreases the ratio J2/J1, pushing the system more towards a questionable boundary (a disordered ground state) between the columnar AFM and a ferromagnetic ground state. A pressure up to 2.4 GPa will completely suppress HS. The Fe ions in the `122' iron-arsenide superconductors also sit on a square lattice thus closely resembling the J1-J2 model. The 75As-NMR and Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) experiments are conducted in the compound CaFe2As2 prepared by two different heat treatment methods (`as-grown' and `annealed'). Interestingly the two samples show two different ground states. While the ground state of the `as

  3. Covalent magnetism, exchange interactions and anisotropy of the high temperature layered antiferromagnet MnB₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmelevskyi, S; Mohn, P

    2012-01-11

    The investigation of the electronic structure and magnetism for the compound MnB(2) with crystal structure type AlB(2) has been revisited to resolve contradictions between various experimental and theoretical results present in the literature. We find that MnB(2) exhibits an interesting example of a Kübler's covalent magnetism (Williams et al 1981 J. Appl. Phys. 52 2069). The covalent magnetism also appears to be the source of some disagreement between the calculated values of the magnetic moments and those given by neutron diffraction experiments. We show that this shortcoming is due to the atomic sphere approximation applied in earlier calculations. The application of the disordered local moment approach and the calculation of the inter-atomic exchange interactions within the Liechtenstein formalism reveal strong local moment antiferromagnetism with a high Néel temperature predicted from Monte Carlo simulations. A fully relativistic band structure calculation and then the application of the torque method yields a strong in-plane anisotropy of the Mn magnetic moments. The agreement of these results with neutron diffraction studies rules out any possible weak itinerant electron magnetism scenarios as proposed earlier for MnB(2).

  4. A DFT-D study of the interaction of methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen with cation-exchanged SAPO-34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Michael [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Kristallographie; University College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Bell, Robert G. [University College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-07-01

    Density-functional theory calculations including a semi-empirical dispersion correction (DFT-D) are employed to study the interaction of small guest molecules (CH{sub 4}, CO, N{sub 2}) with the cation sites in the silicoaluminophosphate SAPO-34. Eight different cations from three different groups (alkali cations, alkaline earth cations, transition metals) are included in the study. For each case, the total interaction energy as well as the non-dispersive contribution to the interaction are analysed. Electron density difference plots are used to investigate the nature of this non-dispersive contribution in more detail. Despite a non-negligible contribution of polarisation interactions, the total interaction remains moderate in systems containing main group cations. In SAPOs exchanged with transition metals, orbital interactions between the cations and CO and N{sub 2} lead to a very strong interaction, which makes these systems attractive as adsorbents for the selective adsorption of these species. A critical comparison with experimental heats of adsorption shows reasonable quantitative agreement for CO and N{sub 2}, but a pronounced overestimation of the interaction strength for methane. While this does not affect the conclusions regarding the suitability of TM-exchanged SAPO-34 materials for gas separations, more elaborate computational approaches may be needed to improve the quantitative accuracy for this guest molecule.

  5. A DFT-D study of the interaction of methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen with cation-exchanged SAPO-34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Michael; University College London; Bell, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Density-functional theory calculations including a semi-empirical dispersion correction (DFT-D) are employed to study the interaction of small guest molecules (CH 4 , CO, N 2 ) with the cation sites in the silicoaluminophosphate SAPO-34. Eight different cations from three different groups (alkali cations, alkaline earth cations, transition metals) are included in the study. For each case, the total interaction energy as well as the non-dispersive contribution to the interaction are analysed. Electron density difference plots are used to investigate the nature of this non-dispersive contribution in more detail. Despite a non-negligible contribution of polarisation interactions, the total interaction remains moderate in systems containing main group cations. In SAPOs exchanged with transition metals, orbital interactions between the cations and CO and N 2 lead to a very strong interaction, which makes these systems attractive as adsorbents for the selective adsorption of these species. A critical comparison with experimental heats of adsorption shows reasonable quantitative agreement for CO and N 2 , but a pronounced overestimation of the interaction strength for methane. While this does not affect the conclusions regarding the suitability of TM-exchanged SAPO-34 materials for gas separations, more elaborate computational approaches may be needed to improve the quantitative accuracy for this guest molecule.

  6. DOE-EPSCoR. Exchange interactions in epitaxial intermetallic layered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeClair, Patrick R. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Gary, Mankey J. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2015-05-25

    The goal of this research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the exchange interactions in epitaxial intermetallic alloy thin films and multilayers, including films and multilayers of Fe-Pt, Co-Pt and Fe-P-Rh alloys deposited on MgO and Al2O3 substrates. Our prior results have revealed that these materials have a rich variety of ferromagnetic, paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases which are sensitive functions of composition, substrate symmetry and layer thickness. Epitaxial antiferromagnetic films of FePt alloys exhibit a different phase diagram than bulk alloys. The antiferromagnetism of these materials has both spin ordering transitions and spin orienting transitions. The objectives include the study of exchange-inversion materials and the interface of these materials with ferromagnets. Our aim is to formulate a complete understanding of the magnetic ordering in these materials, as well as developing an understanding of how the spin structure is modified through contact with a ferromagnetic material at the interface. The ultimate goal is to develop the ability to tune the phase diagram of the materials to produce layered structures with tunable magnetic properties. The alloy systems that we will study have a degree of complexity and richness of magnetic phases that requires the use of the advanced tools offered by the DOE-operated national laboratory facilities, such as neutron and x-ray scattering to measure spin ordering, spin orientations, and element-specific magnetic moments. We plan to contribute to DOE’s mission of producing “Materials by Design” with properties determined by alloy composition and crystal structure. We have developed the methods for fabricating and have performed neutron diffraction experiments on some of the most interesting phases, and our work will serve to answer questions raised about the element-specific magnetizations using the magnetic x-ray dichroism techniques and interface magnetism in layered structures

  7. Incorporating water-release and lateral protein interactions in modeling equilibrium adsorption for ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, Marvin E; Pinto, Neville G

    2006-09-08

    The equilibrium adsorption of two albumin proteins on a commercial ion exchanger has been studied using a colloidal model. The model accounts for electrostatic and van der Waals forces between proteins and the ion exchanger surface, the energy of interaction between adsorbed proteins, and the contribution of entropy from water-release accompanying protein adsorption. Protein-surface interactions were calculated using methods previously reported in the literature. Lateral interactions between adsorbed proteins were experimentally measured with microcalorimetry. Water-release was estimated by applying the preferential interaction approach to chromatographic retention data. The adsorption of ovalbumin and bovine serum albumin on an anion exchanger at solution pH>pI of protein was measured. The experimental isotherms have been modeled from the linear region to saturation, and the influence of three modulating alkali chlorides on capacity has been evaluated. The heat of adsorption is endothermic for all cases studied, despite the fact that the net charge on the protein is opposite that of the adsorbing surface. Strong repulsive forces between adsorbed proteins underlie the endothermic heat of adsorption, and these forces intensify with protein loading. It was found that the driving force for adsorption is the entropy increase due to the release of water from the protein and adsorbent surfaces. It is shown that the colloidal model predicts protein adsorption capacity in both the linear and non-linear isotherm regions, and can account for the effects of modulating salt.

  8. Exchange Enhancement of the Electron-Phonon Interaction: The Case of Weakly Doped Two-Dimensional Multivalley Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamuk, Betül; Zoccante, Paolo; Baima, Jacopo; Mauri, Francesco; Calandra, Matteo

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the exchange interaction on the vibrational properties and on the electron-phonon coupling were investigated in several recent works. In most of the cases, exchange tends to enhance the electron-phonon interaction, although the motivations for such behaviour are not completely understood. Here we consider the class of weakly doped two-dimensional multivalley semiconductors and we demonstrate that a more global picture emerges. In particular we show that in these systems, at low enough doping, even a moderate electron-electron interaction enhances the response to any perturbation inducing a valley polarization. If the valley polarization is due to the electron-phonon coupling, the electron-electron interaction results in an enhancement of the superconducting critical temperature. We demonstrate the applicability of the theory by performing random phase approximation and first principles calculations in transition metal chloronitrides. We find that exchange is responsible for the enhancement of the superconducting critical temperature in LixZrNCl and that much larger Tcs could be obtained in intercalated HfNCl if the synthesis of cleaner samples could remove the Anderson insulating state competing with superconductivity.

  9. Simulation and Design of Vehicle Exhaust Power Generation Systems: The Interaction Between the Heat Exchanger and the Thermoelectric Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Cong; Chen, Gang; Mu, Yu; Liu, Lisheng; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2015-06-01

    Vehicle exhaust power generation systems (VEPGS), mainly consisting of a heat exchanger, cooling system, thermoelectric modules (TEMs), and clamping device, have attracted wide interest and attention for power generation from waste heat. In this work, systematical research was conducted to investigate the thermal performance, power output, and thermal stress of a VEPGS by using the multifield coupling method. Different from previous research, this work simulates a model that integrates the heat exchanger and TEMs, focusing on the effect of the TEMs on the thermal performance of the heat exchanger. It is found that the TEMs have a significant effect on the thermal performance of the heat exchanger. When not considering the effects of the TEMs, the hot-end temperature of the TEMs would be seriously underestimated, which would result in underestimation of the power output of the VEPGS and the level of thermal stress of the TEMs. Meanwhile, when considering the effect of the TEMs, the hot-end temperature distribution exhibits significant changes, and its temperature uniformity is significantly improved. The results suggest that, in VEPGS design and optimization, the interaction between the heat exchanger and TEMs should be considered. This study also contributes to a more accurate assessment method for VEPGS design and simulation.

  10. Investigating the Interaction between the Neonatal Fc Receptor and Monoclonal Antibody Variants by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Larraillet, Vincent; Schlothauer, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    The recycling of immunoglobulins by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is of crucial importance in the maintenance of antibody levels in plasma and is responsible for the long half-lives of endogenous and recombinant monoclonal antibodies. From a therapeutic point of view there is great interest...... in understanding and modulating the IgG-FcRn interaction to optimize antibody pharmacokinetics and ultimately improve efficacy and safety. Here we studied the interaction between a full-length human IgG1 and human FcRn via hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and targeted electron transfer dissociation...... to map sites perturbed by binding on both partners of the IgG-FcRn complex. Several regions in the antibody Fc region and the FcRn were protected from exchange upon complex formation, in good agreement with previous crystallographic studies of FcRn in complex with the Fc fragment. Interestingly, we found...

  11. Spin-wave dynamics and exchange interactions in multiferroic NdFe3(BO3)4 explored by inelastic neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosovsky, I. V.; Ovsyanikov, A. K.; Aristov, D. N.; Matveeva, P. G.; Mukhin, A. A.; Boehm, M.; Regnault, L.-P.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic excitations and exchange interactions in multiferroic NdFe3(BO3)4 were studied by inelastic neutron scattering in the phase with commensurate antiferromagnetic structure. The observed spectra were analyzed in the frame of the linear spin-wave theory. It was shown that only the model, which includes the exchange interactions within eight coordination spheres, describes satisfactorily all observed dispersion curves. The calculation showed that the spin-wave dynamics is governed by the strongest antiferromagnetic intra-chain interaction and three almost the same inter-chain interactions. Other interactions, including ferromagnetic exchange, appeared to be insignificant. The overall energy balance of the antiferromagnetic inter-chain exchange interactions, which couple the moments from the adjacent ferromagnetic layers as well as within a layer, stabilizes ferromagnetic arrangement in the latter. It demonstrates that the pathway geometry plays a crucial role in forming of the magnetic structure.

  12. Interactional Features of Repair Negotiation in NS-NNS Interaction on Two Task Types: Information Gap and Personal Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Ryu

    2013-01-01

    The studies in task-based approaches in second language acquisition claim that controlled and goal convergent tasks such as information gap tasks surpass open-ended conversations such as personal information exchange tasks for the development of the learner's interlanguage, in that the formers promote more repair negotiation. And yet, few studies…

  13. Quenching points of dimeric single-molecule magnets: Exchange interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florez, J.M.; Nunez, Alvaro S.; Vargas, P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the quenched energy-splitting (Δ E ) of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) conformed by two exchange coupled giant-spins. An assessment of two nontrivial characteristics of this quenching is presented: (i) The quenching-points of a strongly exchange-coupled dimer differ from the ones of their respective giant-spin modeled SMM and such a difference can be well described by using the Solari-Kochetov extra phase; (ii) the dependence on the exchange coupling of the magnetic field values at the quenching-points when Δ E passes from monomeric to dimeric behavior. The physics behind these exchange-modified points, their relation with the Δ E -oscillations experimentally obtained by the Landau-Zener method and with the diabolical-plane of a SMM, is discussed.

  14. Quenching points of dimeric single-molecule magnets: Exchange interaction effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florez, J.M., E-mail: juanmanuel.florez@alumnos.usm.c [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, P.O. Box 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Nunez, Alvaro S., E-mail: alnunez@dfi.uchile.c [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago (Chile); Vargas, P., E-mail: patricio.vargas@usm.c [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, P.O. Box 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2010-11-15

    We study the quenched energy-splitting ({Delta}{sub E}) of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) conformed by two exchange coupled giant-spins. An assessment of two nontrivial characteristics of this quenching is presented: (i) The quenching-points of a strongly exchange-coupled dimer differ from the ones of their respective giant-spin modeled SMM and such a difference can be well described by using the Solari-Kochetov extra phase; (ii) the dependence on the exchange coupling of the magnetic field values at the quenching-points when {Delta}{sub E} passes from monomeric to dimeric behavior. The physics behind these exchange-modified points, their relation with the {Delta}{sub E}-oscillations experimentally obtained by the Landau-Zener method and with the diabolical-plane of a SMM, is discussed.

  15. The dynamic interaction of order flows and the CAD/USD exchange rate

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Gradojevic; Christopher J. Neely

    2008-01-01

    We explore the relationship between disaggregated order flow, the Canada/U.S. dollar (CAD/USD) market and U.S. macroeconomic announcements. Three types of CAD order flow and the CAD/USD are cointegrated. Financial order flow appears to contemporaneously drive the CAD/USD while commercial order flow seems to contemporaneously respond to exchange rate movements. Past order flow and lagged exchange rates strongly explain most types of order flow. Despite this predictability and the contemporaneo...

  16. Numerical analysis on interactions between fluid flow and structure deformation in plate-fin heat exchanger by Galerkin method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-cheng; Wei, Xiu-ting; Zhou, Zhi-yong; Wei, Zhen-wen

    2018-03-01

    The fluid-structure interaction performance of plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHE) with serrated fins in large scale air-separation equipment was investigated in this paper. The stress and deformation of fins were analyzed, besides, the interaction equations were deduced by Galerkin method. The governing equations of fluid flow and heat transfer in PFHE were deduced by finite volume method (FVM). The distribution of strain and stress were calculated in large scale air separation equipment and the coupling situation of serrated fins under laminar situation was analyzed. The results indicated that the interactions between fins and fluid flow in the exchanger have significant impacts on heat transfer enhancement, meanwhile, the strain and stress of fins includes dynamic pressure of the sealing head and flow impact with the increase of flow velocity. The impacts are especially significant at the conjunction of two fins because of the non-alignment fins. It can be concluded that the soldering process and channel width led to structure deformation of fins in the exchanger, and degraded heat transfer efficiency.

  17. Third-order particle-hole ring diagrams with contact-interactions and one-pion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, N. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department T39, Garching (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    The third-order particle-hole ring diagrams are evaluated for a NN-contact interaction of the Skyrme type. The pertinent four-loop coefficients in the energy per particle anti E(k{sub f}) ∝ k{sub f}{sup 5+2n} are reduced to double integrals over cubic expressions in Euclidean polarization functions. Dimensional regularization of divergent integrals is performed by subtracting power divergences and the validity of this method is checked against the known analytical results at second order. The complete O(p{sup 2}) NN-contact interaction is obtained by adding two tensor terms and their third-order ring contributions are also calculated in detail. The third-order ring energy arising from long-range 1π-exchange is computed and it is found that direct and exchange contributions are all attractive. The very large size of the three-ring energy due to point-like 1π-exchange, anti E(k{sub f0}) ≅ -92 MeV at saturation density, is however in no way representative for that of realistic chiral NN-potentials. Moreover, the third-order (particle-particle and hole-hole) ladder diagrams are evaluated with the full O(p{sup 2}) contact interaction, and the simplest three-ring contributions to the isospin-asymmetry energy A(k{sub f}) ∝ k{sub f}{sup 5} are studied. (orig.)

  18. Type 2 Diabetes Education and Support in a Virtual Environment: A Secondary Analysis of Synchronously Exchanged Social Interaction and Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Allison A; Anderson, Ruth A; Vorderstrasse, Allison A; Fisher, Edwin B; Pan, Wei; Johnson, Constance M

    2018-02-21

    Virtual environments (VEs) facilitate interaction and support among individuals with chronic illness, yet the characteristics of these VE interactions remain unknown. The objective of this study was to describe social interaction and support among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who interacted in a VE. Data included VE-mediated synchronous conversations and text-chat and asynchronous emails and discussion board posts from a study that facilitated interaction among individuals with T2D and diabetes educators (N=24) in 2 types of sessions: education and support. VE interactions consisted of communication techniques (how individuals interact in the VE), expressions of self-management (T2D-related topics), depth (personalization of topics), and breadth (number of topics discussed). Individuals exchanged support more often in the education (723/1170, 61.79%) than in the support (406/1170, 34.70%) sessions or outside session time (41/1170, 3.50%). Of all support exchanges, 535/1170 (45.73%) were informational, 377/1170 (32.22%) were emotional, 217/1170 (18.55%) were appraisal, and 41/1170 (3.50%) were instrumental. When comparing session types, education sessions predominately provided informational support (357/723, 49.4%), and the support sessions predominately provided emotional (159/406, 39.2%) and informational (159/406, 39.2%) support. VE-mediated interactions resemble those in face-to-face environments, as individuals in VEs engage in bidirectional exchanges with others to obtain self-management education and support. Similar to face-to-face environments, individuals in the VE revealed personal information, sought information, and exchanged support during the moderated education sessions and unstructured support sessions. With this versatility, VEs are able to contribute substantially to support for those with diabetes and, very likely, other chronic diseases. ©Allison A Lewinski, Ruth A Anderson, Allison A Vorderstrasse, Edwin B Fisher, Wei Pan, Constance

  19. Testing complex networks of interaction at the onset of the Near Eastern Neolithic using modelling of obsidian exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Juan José; Ortega, David; Campos, Daniel; Khalidi, Lamya; Méndez, Vicenç

    2015-06-06

    In this paper, we explore the conditions that led to the origins and development of the Near Eastern Neolithic using mathematical modelling of obsidian exchange. The analysis presented expands on previous research, which established that the down-the-line model could not explain long-distance obsidian distribution across the Near East during this period. Drawing from outcomes of new simulations and their comparison with archaeological data, we provide results that illuminate the presence of complex networks of interaction among the earliest farming societies. We explore a network prototype of obsidian exchange with distant links which replicates the long-distance movement of ideas, goods and people during the Early Neolithic. Our results support the idea that during the first (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and second (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) phases of the Early Neolithic, the complexity of obsidian exchange networks gradually increased. We propose then a refined model (the optimized distant link model) whereby long-distance exchange was largely operated by certain interconnected villages, resulting in the appearance of a relatively homogeneous Neolithic cultural sphere. We hypothesize that the appearance of complex interaction and exchange networks reduced risks of isolation caused by restricted mobility as groups settled and argue that these networks partially triggered and were crucial for the success of the Neolithic Revolution. Communities became highly dynamic through the sharing of experiences and objects, while the networks that developed acted as a repository of innovations, limiting the risk of involution. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrafast Magnetism of Multi-component Ferromagnets and Ferrimagnets on the Time Scale of the Exchange Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Ilie

    2012-02-01

    Revealing the ultimate speed limit at which magnetic order can be controlled, is a fundamental challenge of modern magnetism having far reaching implications for the magnetic recording industry [1]. Exchange interaction is the strongest force in magnetism, being ultimately responsible for ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic spin order. How do spins react after being optically excited on a timescale of or even faster than the exchange interaction? Here, we demonstrate that femtosecond (fs) measurements of ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic alloys using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism provide revolutionary new insights into the problem of ultrafast magnetism on timescales pertinent to the exchange interaction. In particular, we show that upon fs optical excitation the ultrafast spin reversal of GdFeCo - a material with antiferromagnetic coupling of spins - occurs via a transient ferromagnetic state [2]. The latter emerges due to different dynamics of the Gd and Fe magnetic moments: Gd switches within 1.5 ps while it takes only 300 fs for Fe. Thus, by using a single fs laser pulse one can force the spin system to evolve via an energetically unfavorable way and temporarily switch from an antiferromagnetic to a ferromagnetic type of ordering. In order to understand whether the observation of this temporarily decoupled and element-specific dynamics is a general phenomenon or just something strictly related to the case of ferrimagnetic GdFeCo, we have investigated the demagnetization of the archetypal ferromagnetic NiFe alloys. Essentially, we observe the same distinct magnetization dynamics of the constituent magnetic moments: Ni demagnetizes within ˜300 fs being much faster than the demagnetization of Fe of ˜800 fs. This distinct demagnetization behavior leads to an apparent decoupling of the Fe and Ni magnetic moments on a few hundreds of fs time scale, despite the strong exchange interaction of 260meV (˜16 fs) that couples them. These observations supported by

  1. Protein Kinase A (PKA) Type I Interacts with P-Rex1, a Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Vargas, Lydia; Adame-García, Sendi Rafael; Cervantes-Villagrana, Rodolfo Daniel; Castillo-Kauil, Alejandro; Bruystens, Jessica G. H.; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Taylor, Susan S.; Mochizuki, Naoki; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Vázquez-Prado, José

    2016-01-01

    Morphology of migrating cells is regulated by Rho GTPases and fine-tuned by protein interactions and phosphorylation. PKA affects cell migration potentially through spatiotemporal interactions with regulators of Rho GTPases. Here we show that the endogenous regulatory (R) subunit of type I PKA interacts with P-Rex1, a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor that integrates chemotactic signals. Type I PKA holoenzyme interacts with P-Rex1 PDZ domains via the CNB B domain of RIα, which when expressed by itself facilitates endothelial cell migration. P-Rex1 activation localizes PKA to the cell periphery, whereas stimulation of PKA phosphorylates P-Rex1 and prevents its activation in cells responding to SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor 1). The P-Rex1 DEP1 domain is phosphorylated at Ser-436, which inhibits the DH-PH catalytic cassette by direct interaction. In addition, the P-Rex1 C terminus is indirectly targeted by PKA, promoting inhibitory interactions independently of the DEP1-PDZ2 region. A P-Rex1 S436A mutant construct shows increased RacGEF activity and prevents the inhibitory effect of forskolin on sphingosine 1-phosphate-dependent endothelial cell migration. Altogether, these results support the idea that P-Rex1 contributes to the spatiotemporal localization of type I PKA, which tightly regulates this guanine exchange factor by a multistep mechanism, initiated by interaction with the PDZ domains of P-Rex1 followed by direct phosphorylation at the first DEP domain and putatively indirect regulation of the C terminus, thus promoting inhibitory intramolecular interactions. This reciprocal regulation between PKA and P-Rex1 might represent a key node of integration by which chemotactic signaling is fine-tuned by PKA. PMID:26797121

  2. Simulation of the interaction of a solar domestic hot water tank system with a compact plate heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizami, D.J.; Lightstone, M.F. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Harrison, S.; Cruickshank, C. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    2008-08-15

    An external natural convection heat exchanger (NCHE) was used as an alternative to forced convection for transferring energy from solar collector loops to a hot water storage tank. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was used to predict interactions between the natural convection-driven side-arm heat exchanger and a hot water storage tank. A solar domestic hot water tank with a vertical compact plate natural convection heat exchanger was modelled. In addition, the heat exchanger was modelled as a section of pipe with high flow resistance and a volumetric energy source. Transient analyses were conducted and the CFD model was then compared with data obtained from laboratory experiments. Simulations were conducted on the fluid domain in order to investigate the influence of the flow on the thermal stratification in the tank, the heat transfer inside the tank, and the natural convection in the tank loop. Buoyancy for an incompressible fluid with constant fluid properties was modelled using a Boussinesq approximation. Temperature distributions were measured as a function of time. Results of the study indicated that assuming a constant thermal expansion coefficient in evaluation buoyancy forces for a wide range of operating temperatures did not result in accurate predictions. Future studies will model natural convection with a full buoyancy model. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Role of rho exchange in isobar contributions to the NN interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoud, X.; Holinde, K.; Machleidt, R.

    1984-01-01

    The fourth-order noniterative diagrams of πrho exchange involving nucleon-isobar intermediate states are evaluated in momentum space in the framework of noncovariant perturbation theory. It is shown that the sum of all time orderings (iterative plus noniterative) can be reasonably well approximated by twice the isoscalar piece of the iterative ones (which are much simpler to evaluate). The same approximation is used in order to describe the sum of all time orderings for the corresponding diagrams involving double-isobar intermediate states. The role of these contributions is studied in NN scattering. Especially, it is investigated whether such contributions can quantitatively replace part of the ω-exchange contribution used in one-boson-exchange models

  4. Exchange interactions in a dinuclear manganese (II) complex with cyanopyridine-N-oxide bridging ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markosyan, A.S. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University (United States); Gaidukova, I.Yu.; Ruchkin, A.V. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Anokhin, A.O. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division of the Russian, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Irkhin, V.Yu., E-mail: valentin.irkhin@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division of the Russian, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ryazanov, M.V.; Kuz’mina, N.P. [Faculty of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikiforov, V.N. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic properties of dinuclear manganese(II) complex [Mn(hfa){sub 2}cpo]{sub 2} (where hfa is hexafluoroacetylacetonate anion and cpo is 4-cyanopyridine-N-oxide) are presented. The non-monotonous dependence of magnetic susceptibility is explained in terms of the hierarchy of exchange parameters by using exact diagonalization. The thermodynamic behavior of pure cpo and [Mn(hfa){sub 2}(cpo)]{sub 2} is simulated numerically by an extrapolation to spin S=5/2. The Mn–Mn exchange integral is evaluated.

  5. Comprehensive analysis of pharmaceutical products using simultaneous mixed-mode (ion-exchange/reversed-phase) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Soisungnoen, Phimpha; Burakham, Rodjana; Srijaranai, Supalax; Paull, Brett

    2014-08-01

    Liquid chromatographic assays were developed using a mixed-mode column coupled in sequence with a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column to allow the simultaneous comprehensive analysis of inorganic/organic anions and cations, active pharmaceutical ingredients, and excipients (carbohydrates). The approach utilized dual sample injection and valve-mediated column switching and was based upon a single high-performance liquid chromatography gradient pump. The separation consisted of three distinct sequential separation mechanisms, namely, (i) ion-exchange, (ii) mixed-mode interactions under an applied dual gradient (reversed-phase/ion-exchange), and (iii) hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Upon first injection, the Scherzo SS C18 column (Imtakt) provided resolution of inorganic anions and cations under isocratic conditions, followed by a dual organic/salt gradient to elute active pharmaceutical ingredients and their respective organic counterions and potential degradants. At the top of the mixed-mode gradient (high acetonitrile content), the mobile phase flow was switched to a preconditioned hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column, and the standard/sample was reinjected for the separation of hydrophilic carbohydrates, some of which are commonly known excipients in drug formulations. The approach afforded reproducible separation and resolution of up to 23 chemically diverse solutes in a single run. The method was applied to investigate the composition of commercial cough syrups (Robitussin®), allowing resolution and determination of inorganic ions, active pharmaceutical ingredients, excipients, and numerous well-resolved unknown peaks. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Computation of many-particle quantum trajectories with exchange interaction: application to the simulation of nanoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcón, A; Yaro, S; Cartoixà, X; Oriols, X

    2013-01-01

    Following Oriols (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 066803), an algorithm to deal with the exchange interaction in non-separable quantum systems is presented. The algorithm can be applied to fermions or bosons and, by construction, it exactly ensures that any observable is totally independent of the interchange of particles. It is based on the use of conditional Bohmian wave functions which are solutions of single-particle pseudo-Schrödinger equations. The exchange symmetry is directly defined by demanding symmetry properties of the quantum trajectories in the configuration space with a universal algorithm, rather than through a particular exchange–correlation functional introduced into the single-particle pseudo-Schrödinger equation. It requires the computation of N 2 conditional wave functions to deal with N identical particles. For separable Hamiltonians, the algorithm reduces to the standard Slater determinant for fermions (or permanent for bosons). A numerical test for a two-particle system, where exact solutions for non-separable Hamiltonians are computationally accessible, is presented. The numerical viability of the algorithm for quantum electron transport (in a far-from-equilibrium time-dependent open system) is demonstrated by computing the current and fluctuations in a nano-resistor, with exchange and Coulomb interactions among electrons. (paper)

  7. sp-d Exchange Interactions in Wave Function Engineered Colloidal CdSe/Mn:CdS Hetero-Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckel, Franziska; Delikanli, Savas; Hernández-Martínez, Pedro Ludwig; Priesner, Tamara; Lorenz, Severin; Ackermann, Julia; Sharma, Manoj; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Bacher, Gerd

    2018-03-14

    In two-dimensional (2D) colloidal semiconductor nanoplatelets, which are atomically flat nanocrystals, the precise control of thickness and composition on the atomic scale allows for the synthesis of heterostructures with well-defined electron and hole wave function distributions. Introducing transition metal dopants with a monolayer precision enables tailored magnetic exchange interactions between dopants and band states. Here, we use the absorption based technique of magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) to directly prove the exchange coupling of magnetic dopants with the band charge carriers in hetero-nanoplatelets with CdSe core and manganese-doped CdS shell (CdSe/Mn:CdS). We show that the strength of both the electron as well as the hole exchange interactions with the dopants can be tuned by varying the nanoplatelets architecture with monolayer accuracy. As MCD is highly sensitive for excitonic resonances, excited level spectroscopy allows us to resolve and identify, in combination with wave function calculations, several excited state transitions including spin-orbit split-off excitonic contributions. Thus, our study not only demonstrates the possibility to expand the extraordinary physical properties of colloidal nanoplatelets toward magneto-optical functionality by transition metal doping but also provides an insight into the excited state electronic structure in this novel two-dimensional material.

  8. Charge exchange probes of nuclear structure and interactions with emphasis on (p,n)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    New results from (p,n) studies at IUCF show that it is possible to observe Gamow-Teller (GT) strength and extract GT matrix elements from (p,n) measurements. The charge exchange reactions ( 6 Li, 6 He) and (π + ,π 0 ) involve different projectile quantum numbers, and the relationships of these reactions to (p,n) is discussed

  9. Interactions Between Suspended Kaolinite Deposition and Hyporheic Exchange Flux Under Losing and Gaining Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Aryeh; Packman, Aaron I.; Boano, Fulvio; Phillips, Colin B.; Arnon, Shai

    2018-05-01

    Fine particle deposition and streambed clogging affect many ecological and biogeochemical processes, but little is known about the effects of groundwater flow into and out of rivers on clogging. We evaluated the effects of losing and gaining flow on the deposition of suspended kaolinite clay particles in a sand streambed and the resulting changes in rates and patterns of hyporheic exchange flux (HEF). Observations of clay deposition from the water column, clay accumulation in the streambed sediments, and water exchange with the bed demonstrated that clay deposition in the bed substantially reduced both HEF and the size of the hyporheic zone. Clay deposition and HEF were strongly coupled, leading to rapid clogging in areas of water and clay influx into the bed. Local clogging diverted exchanged water laterally, producing clay deposit layers that reduced vertical hyporheic flow and favored horizontal flow. Under gaining conditions, HEF was spatially constrained by upwelling water, which focused clay deposition in a small region on the upstream side of each bed form. Because the area of inflow into the bed was smallest under gaining conditions, local clogging required less clay mass under gaining conditions than neutral or losing conditions. These results indicate that losing and gaining flow conditions need to be considered in assessments of hyporheic exchange, fine particle dynamics in streams, and streambed clogging and restoration.

  10. Fe magnetic moment formation and exchange interaction in Fe{sub 2}P: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.B., E-mail: liuxubo@uta.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ping Liu, J.; Zhang, Qiming [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Altounian, Z. [Center for the Physics of Materials and Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2013-03-15

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 2}P have been studied by a first-principles density functional theory calculation. The ground state is ferromagnetic and the calculated magnetic moments for Fe{sub 1} (3f) and Fe{sub 2} (3g) are 0.83 and 2.30μ{sub B}, respectively. The nearest neighbor inter-site magnetic exchange coupling parameter at the Fe{sub 1} layer (0.02 mRy) is much smaller than that at the Fe{sub 2} layer (1.29 mRy). The Fe moment at the 3f site is metastable and sensitive to the inter-site exchange interaction with its magnetic neighbors, which is responsible for the first order magnetic transition and large magneto-caloric effect around T{sub C}.

  11. Collision-induced absorption with exchange effects and anisotropic interactions: theory and application to H2 - H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karman, Tijs; van der Avoird, Ad; Groenenboom, Gerrit C

    2015-02-28

    We discuss three quantum mechanical formalisms for calculating collision-induced absorption spectra. First, we revisit the established theory of collision-induced absorption, assuming distinguishable molecules which interact isotropically. Then, the theory is rederived incorporating exchange effects between indistinguishable molecules. It is shown that the spectrum can no longer be written as an incoherent sum of the contributions of the different spherical components of the dipole moment. Finally, we derive an efficient method to include the effects of anisotropic interactions in the computation of the absorption spectrum. This method calculates the dipole coupling on-the-fly, which allows for the uncoupled treatment of the initial and final states without the explicit reconstruction of the many-component wave functions. The three formalisms are applied to the collision-induced rotation-translation spectra of hydrogen molecules in the far-infrared. Good agreement with experimental data is obtained. Significant effects of anisotropic interactions are observed in the far wing.

  12. Screened exchange hybrid density functional for accurate and efficient structures and interaction energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Caldeweyher, Eike; Grimme, Stefan

    2016-06-21

    We extend the recently introduced PBEh-3c global hybrid density functional [S. Grimme et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2015, 143, 054107] by a screened Fock exchange variant based on the Henderson-Janesko-Scuseria exchange hole model. While the excellent performance of the global hybrid is maintained for small covalently bound molecules, its performance for computed condensed phase mass densities is further improved. Most importantly, a speed up of 30 to 50% can be achieved and especially for small orbital energy gap cases, the method is numerically much more robust. The latter point is important for many applications, e.g., for metal-organic frameworks, organic semiconductors, or protein structures. This enables an accurate density functional based electronic structure calculation of a full DNA helix structure on a single core desktop computer which is presented as an example in addition to comprehensive benchmark results.

  13. Effect of tube-support interaction on the dynamic responses of heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Operating heat exchangers have experienced tube damages due to excessive flow-induced vibration. The relatively small inherent tube-to-baffle hole clearances associated with manufacturing tolerances in heat exchangers affect the tube vibrational characteristics. In attempting a theoretical analysis, questions arise as to the effects of tube-baffle impacting on dynamic responses. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of tube-baffle impacting in vertical/horizontal tube orientation, and in air/water medium on the vibrational characteristics (resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) and displacement response amplitudes of a seven-span tube model. The tube and support conditions were prototypic, and overall length approximately one-third that of a straight tube segment of the steam generator designed for the CRBR. The test results were compared with the analytical results based on the multispan beam with ''knife-edge'' supports

  14. Interactions through the network - understanding the myths to create new ways of information exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of open data networks in the former Soviet Union, even concerning nuclear matters, collided with Soviet myths of, for example, nuclear secrets, information prohibition and dangers of international communication. Moreover, it was considered very complicated. These myths share many of the features with perception of radiation risk, such as dread, fear and misunderstanding. The new opportunities for information exchange, created by modern telecommunications and computer networks, can dispel these myths and perceptions concerning radiation risk, provided proper consideration of the myths' origins is taken. New ways of information exchange, such as creating extensive, international information infrastructures, based on Internet, can create new conditions for presenting the social conditions related to radiation risk. (author)

  15. Relativistic one-boson-exchange model for the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.; Van Orden, J.W.; Holinde, K.

    1992-01-01

    Nucleon-nucleon data below 300-MeV laboratory energy are described by a manifestly covariant wave equation in which one of the intermediate nucleons is restricted to its mass shell. Antisymmetrization of the kernel yields an equation in which the two nucleons are treated in an exactly symmetric manner, and in which all amplitudes satisfy the Pauli principle exactly. The kernel is modeled by the sum of one boson exchanges, and four models, all of which fit the data very well (χ 2 congruent 3 per data point) are discussed. Two models require the exchange of only the π, σ, ρ, and ω, but also require an admixture of γ 5 coupling for the pion, while two other models restrict the pion coupling to pure γ 5 γ μ , but require the exchange of six mesons, including the η, and a light scalar-isovector meson referred to as σ 1 . Deuteron wave functions resulting from these models are obtained. The singularities and relativistic effects which are a part of this approach are discussed, and a complete development of the theory is presented

  16. Exchange interactions and Curie temperature in Ni.sub.2-x./sub.MnSb alloys:First-principles study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusz, J.; Bergqvist, L.; Kudrnovský, Josef; Turek, Ilja

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 21 (2006), 214412/1-214412/10 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100616; GA ČR GA202/04/0583 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : exchange interactions, classical Heisenberg Hamiltonian, RPA , multisublattice system, disordered system * classical Heisenberg Hamiltonian * RPA * multisublattice system * disordered system Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.107, year: 2006

  17. Exchange electron-hole interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons under the influence of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalenko, S.A.; Podlesny, I.V.; Lelyakov, I.A.; Novikov, B.V.; Kiselyova, E.S.; Gherciu, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) in the case of two-dimensional (2D) electrons and holes in a strong perpendicular magnetic field was studied. The spinor-type wave functions are characterized by different numbers of Landau levels in different spin projections. For electrons they differ by 1 as was established earlier by Rashba, whereas for holes they differ by 3. Two lowest electron states and four lowest hole states of Landau quantization give rise to eight 2D magnetoexciton states. The exchange electron-hole interaction in the frame of these states is investigated.

  18. Strong Metal Support Interaction of Pt and Ru Nanoparticles Deposited on HOPG Probed by the H-D Exchange Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiordaliso, Elisabetta M.; Dahl, Søren; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between metals and support is investigated in the case of 50 Å Pt and 50 Å Ru films deposited on a HOPG substrate. The films are prepared by electron beam physical vapor deposition and annealed in UHV to temperatures up to 700 °C. The equilibrium hydrogen exchange rate between...... adsorbed and gas phase at 1 bar is measured before and after annealing. The rate is measured in the temperature range of 40–200 °C at 1 bar, by utilization of the H-D exchange reaction. Experiments are performed on fresh cleaved and sputtered HOPG, which give similar results. We find that annealing...... the films from 150 up to 700 °C increases the amount of carbon present in the films up to 95%, as derived by surface analysis, indicating the formation of a carbon layer on top of the metal films. The exchange rate decreases dramatically with increasing carbon content on the films for both metals, pointing...

  19. Enolate Stabilization by Anion-π Interactions: Deuterium Exchange in Malonate Dilactones on π-Acidic Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miros, François N; Zhao, Yingjie; Sargsyan, Gevorg; Pupier, Marion; Besnard, Céline; Beuchat, César; Mareda, Jiri; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2016-02-18

    Of central importance in chemistry and biology, enolate chemistry is an attractive topic to elaborate on possible contributions of anion-π interactions to catalysis. To demonstrate the existence of such contributions, experimental evidence for the stabilization of not only anions but also anionic intermediates and transition states on π-acidic aromatic surfaces is decisive. To tackle this challenge for enolate chemistry with maximal precision and minimal uncertainty, malonate dilactones are covalently positioned on the π-acidic surface of naphthalenediimides (NDIs). Their presence is directly visible in the upfield shifts of the α-protons in the (1) H NMR spectra. The reactivity of these protons on π-acidic surfaces is measured by hydrogen-deuterium (H-D) exchange for 11 different examples, excluding controls. The velocity of H-D exchange increases with π acidity (NDI core substituents: SO2 R>SOR>H>OR>OR/NR2 >SR>NR2 ). The H-D exchange kinetics vary with the structure of the enolate (malonates>methylmalonates, dilactones>dithiolactones). Moreover, they depend on the distance to the π surface (bridge length: 11-13 atoms). Most importantly, H-D exchange depends strongly on the chirality of the π surface (chiral sulfoxides as core substituents; the crystal structure of the enantiopure (R,R,P)-macrocycle is reported). For maximal π acidity, transition-state stabilizations up to -18.8 kJ mol(-1) are obtained for H-D exchange. The Brønsted acidity of the enols increases strongly with π acidity of the aromatic surface, the lowest measured pKa =10.9 calculates to a ΔpKa =-5.5. Corresponding to the deprotonation of arginine residues in neutral water, considered as "impossible" in biology, the found enolate-π interactions are very important. The strong dependence of enolate stabilization on the unprecedented seven-component π-acidity gradient over almost 1 eV demonstrates quantitatively that such important anion-π activities can be expected only from

  20. Study of nuclear medium effects on the effective interaction based on the one-boson exchange model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, K.

    1985-02-01

    In this work, starting from a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction based on the one-boson exchange model for the nuclear force, we attempted a microscopic derivation of the effective interaction which may be appropriate for nuclear structure as well as for nucleon-nucleus scattering problems. Short-range correlations and medium polarization as well as relativistic effects on both particle-hole and Δ-hole interactions have been investigated. For the nucleon-nucleon case short-range correlations are basically restricted to S-states and affect mainly the central components of the effective interaction. In contrast, the Δ-nucleon interaction is essentially unaffected by short-range correlations due to the Pauli principle restrictions and the momentum mismatch between the central components of the correlation operator and the tensor component of the bare transition potential. Based on these analyses it is shown that short-range correlation effects can be summarized in a very simple correlation operator. (orig./HSI)

  1. Towards hot electron mediated charge exchange in hyperthermal energy ion-surface interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, M. P.; Lake, R. E.; Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar

    2010-01-01

    shows that the primary energy loss mechanism is the atomic displacement of Au atoms in the thin film of the metal–oxide–semiconductor device. We propose that neutral particle detection of the scattered flux from a biased device could be a route to hot electron mediated charge exchange.......We have made Na + and He + ions incident on the surface of solid state tunnel junctions and measured the energy loss due to atomic displacement and electronic excitations. Each tunnel junction consists of an ultrathin film metal–oxide–semiconductor device which can be biased to create a band of hot...

  2. Haldane to Dimer Phase Transition in the Spin-1 Haldane System with Bond-Alternating Nearest-Neighbor and Uniform Next-Nearest-Neighbor Exchange Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi, Tonegawa; Makoto, Kaburagi; Takeshi, Nakao; Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kobe University; Faculty of Cross-Cultural Studies, Kobe University; Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kobe University

    1995-01-01

    The Haldane to dimer phase transition is studied in the spin-1 Haldane system with bond-alternating nearest-neighbor and uniform next-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions, where both interactions are antiferromagnetic and thus compete with each other. By using a method of exact diagonalization, the ground-state phase diagram on the ratio of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction constant to the nearest-neighbor one versus the bond-alternation parameter of the nearest-neighbor interactions is...

  3. Effects of Website Interactivity on e-Loyalty: A Social Exchange Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Jang Jih; Su-Fang Lee; Yuan-Cheng Tsai

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of major considerations of commercial website design and management, website interactivity, the important performance factor, and customer loyalty. Meaningful interactions with existing and potential customers allow e-commerce firms to enhance customer loyalty by providing satisfactory customer experience. Customer loyalty is a composite construct, yet consists of multiple dimensions that do not necessarily contribute to repeat purchase in the same manner. Guide...

  4. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in the framework of the boson exchange model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niephaus, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the description of the nucleon-nucleon interaction in a microscopically founded model. For this the description of the 2-nucleon problem by an interacting 2-nucleon-pion system was presented. The starting point of our description was a relativistic eigenvalue equation for the system of mesons and two baryons. The interaction of the baryons with the mesons was described by interaction Hamiltonians. By the elimination of antinucleon states by means of a unitary tansformation (Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation) the interaction Hamiltonians for nucleons could be generated for the field-theoretical Lagrangian densities. The Hamiltonians for resonant baryon states were obtained by means of a simplified procedure from the corresponding Lagrangian densities. Because the determination of Lagrangian densities is not unique, for the pion-nucleon coupling two alternative Lagrangian densities were allowed. For the interaction of positive-energy nucleonic states these two coupling yield nearly equal results; the production or annihilation of negative-energy nucleon states (antiparticles) the predictions however are very different. (orig./HSI) [de

  5. Enhancement of exchange coupling interaction of NdFeB/MnBi hybrid magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong Xuan; Nguyen, Khanh Van; Nguyen, Vuong Van

    2018-03-01

    MnBi ribbons were fabricated by melt - spinning with subsequent annealing. The MnBi ribbons were ground and mixed with NdFeB commercial Magnequench powders (MQA). The hybrid powder mixtures were subjected thrice to the annealing and ball-milling route. The hybrid magnets (100 - x)NdFeB/xMnBi, x=0, 30, 40, 50 and 100 wt% were in-mold aligned in an 18 kOe magnetic field and warm compacted at 290 °C by 2000 psi uniaxial pressure for 10 min. An enhancement of the exchange coupling of NdFeB/MnBi hybrid magnets was obtained by optimizing the magnets' microstructures via annealing and ball-milling processes. The magnetic properties of prepared NdFeB/MnBi hybrid magnets were studied and discussed in details.

  6. Sexual economics: sex as female resource for social exchange in heterosexual interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2004-01-01

    A heterosexual community can be analyzed as a marketplace in which men seek to acquire sex from women by offering other resources in exchange. Societies will therefore define gender roles as if women are sellers and men buyers of sex. Societies will endow female sexuality, but not male sexuality, with value (as in virginity, fidelity, chastity). The sexual activities of different couples are loosely interrelated by a marketplace, instead of being fully separate or private, and each couple's decisions may be influenced by market conditions. Economic principles suggest that the price of sex will depend on supply and demand, competition among sellers, variations in product, collusion among sellers, and other factors. Research findings show gender asymmetries (reflecting the complementary economic roles) in prostitution, courtship, infidelity and divorce, female competition, the sexual revolution and changing norms, unequal status between partners, cultural suppression of female sexuality, abusive relationships, rape, and sexual attitudes.

  7. Effect of hydrostatic and chemical pressure on the exchange interaction in magnetic borocarbide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michor, H.; El-Hagary, M.; Naber, L.; Bauer, E.; Hilscher, G.

    2000-03-01

    The investigation of pair-breaking effects in magnetic rare-earth nickel borocarbide superconductors reveals a considerable increase of the magnetic exchange integral Jsf by hydrostatic as well as chemical pressure. In both, Jsf is governed by the R-C distance (or lattice constant a) and is described quantitatively by a simple phenomenological model. Thereby, just two parameters Jsf0=31 meV and ΔJsf/Δa=165 meV/Å explain well the influence of chemical pressure upon the initial depression rates of Tc in solid solutions R'1-xRxNi2B2C with R=Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho and R'=Y and Lu.

  8. The effect of higher order different meson exchange nucleon-nucleon interactions on the three-nucleon binding energy coupling problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.; Ramadan, S.

    1989-01-01

    Faddeev equations of bound three-nucleon system are presented as a set of integral equations. To solve them, a sutable form of the nucleon-nucleon interactions is used: with the exchange of a scalar meson, a pseudoscalar meson and a massless vector meson. Higher orders of these different meson exchanges in the nucleon-nucleon interactions have been taken into account. With these nuclear forces and nucleon-nucleon interactions, the three-nucleon binding energy is calculated by solving the Faddeev integral equations. The obtained value of the three-nucleon binding energy is 8.441 MeV. The inclusion of the higher order terms of the different meson exchange in the nuclear nucleon-nucleon interaction is found to affect the three-nucleon binding by about 3.92%. 3 figs., 16 refs

  9. Nucleon-nucleon interaction with quark exchange and prediction of the color van der Waals potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1988-01-01

    The nucleon-nucleon interaction is considered by including the color nucleon clusters. The nucleon-nucleon system is treated as a six-quark system. The obtained local potentials reduce the short-range repulsion. The resulting nucleon-nucleon potential, using a quark-quark potential, agress well with the central-force potentials. The phase shifts calculated by using these local potentials are in good agreement with those obtained from other methods. Introducing the quark-quark potential in the nucleon-nucleon interaction leads to a color van der Waals potential much stronger than that implied by experiments

  10. Nucleon-nucleon interaction with quark exchanges and prediction to colour van der Waals potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1985-11-01

    The nucleon-nucleon interaction is considered by including the colour nucleon clusters. The nucleon-nucleon system is treated as a six-quark system. The obtained local potentials reduce the short-range repulsion. The resulted nucleon-nucleon potential by using a quark-quark potential well agrees with the central-force potentials. The phase shifts calculated by using these local potentials are in good agreement with those obtained from other methods. Introducing the quark-quark potential in the nucleon-nucleon interaction, leads to a colour van der Waals potential very strong compared with that predicted by experiments. (author)

  11. Parental Interactions with Children with and without Mental Retardation: Behavior Management, Coerciveness, and Positive Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Frank J.; Phillippe, Kent A.

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of in-home interactions of mothers and fathers with their school-age children found that parents in 53 families having children with mental retardation were more controlling and less playful with their child than were parents of nonretarded children but they did effectively employ behavior management practices without resorting to…

  12. The influence of magnetostatic interactions in exchange-coupled composite particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, M.; De Graef, M.; Hou, H.C.; Lai, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2010), s. 275001-275007 ISSN 0022-3727 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic recording materials * magnetic multilayers * magnetic thin film * magnetostac interaction * magnetic anisotropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.105, year: 2010 http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/43/27/275001/

  13. Molecular magnetism of a linear Fe(III)-Mn(II)-Fe(III) complex. Influence of long-range exchange interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengen, M.; Chaudhuri, P.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic properties of [L-Fe(III)-dmg 3 Mn(II)-Fe(III)-L] (ClO 4 ) 2 have been characterized by magnetic susceptibility, EPR, and Moessbauer studies. L represents 1,4,7-trimethyl-,1,4,7-triazacyclononane and dmg represents dimethylglyoxime. X-ray diffraction measurements yield that the arrangement of the three metal centers is strictly linear with atomic distances d Fe-Mn 0.35 nm and d Fe-Fe = 0.7 nm. Magnetic susceptibility measurements (3-295 K) were analyzed in the framework of the spin-Hamiltonian formalism considering Heisenberg exchange and Zeeman interaction: H = J Fe-Mn (S Fe1 + S Fe2 )S Mn + J Fe-Fe S Fe1 S Fe2 + gμ B S total B. The spins S Fe1 = S Fe2 = S Mn = 5/2 of the complex are antiferromagnetically coupled, yielding a total spin of S total = 5/2 with exchange coupling constants F Fe-Mn = 13.4 cm -1 and J Fe-Fe = 4.5 cm -1 . Magnetically split Moessbauer spectra were recorded at 1.5 K under various applied fields (20 mT, 170 mT, 4 T). The spin-Hamiltonian analysis of these spectra yields isotropic magnetic hyperfine coupling with A total /(g N μ N ) = -18.5 T. The corresponding local component A Fe is related to A total via spin-projection: A total = (6/7)A Fe . The resulting A Fe /(g N μ N ) -21.6 T is in agreement with standard values of ferric high-spin complexes. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters as obtained from Moessbauer studies and exchange coupling constants as derived from susceptibility measurements are corroborated by temperature-dependent EPR studies. (orig.)

  14. Two-body hypercharge-exchange reactions in K-p and π+p interactions at 10 and 16 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girtler, P.; Otter, G.; Sliwa, K.; Barnham, K.W.J.; Eason, R.M.; Newham, P.; Pollock, B.; Wells, J.; Mandl, F.; Markytan, M.

    1979-01-01

    Cross section values or upper limits are presented for twenty-five two-body hypercharge-exchange reactions in K - p and π + p interactions at 10 and 16 GeV/c. The 16 GeV/c results are compared with some predictions of line-reversal plus exchange-degenerate Regge poles, of SU(3) and of the additive quark model. Agreement is found in all cases. (author)

  15. Numerical Simulation of Flow Features and Energy Exchange Physics in Near-Wall Region with Fluid-Structure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixiang; Wang, Wenquan; Guo, Yakun

    Large eddy simulation is used to explore flow features and energy exchange physics between turbulent flow and structure vibration in the near-wall region with fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The statistical turbulence characteristics in the near-wall region of a vibrating wall, such as the skin frictional coefficient, velocity, pressure, vortices, and the coherent structures have been studied for an aerofoil blade passage of a true three-dimensional hydroturbine. The results show that (i) FSI greatly strengthens the turbulence in the inner region of y+ < 25; and (ii) the energy exchange mechanism between the flow and the vibration depends strongly on the vibration-induced vorticity in the inner region. The structural vibration provokes a frequent action between the low- and high-speed streaks to balance the energy deficit caused by the vibration. The velocity profile in the inner layer near the vibrating wall has a significant distinctness, and the viscosity effect of the fluid in the inner region decreases due to the vibration. The flow features in the inner layer are altered by a suitable wall vibration.

  16. Gate-Tunable Spin Exchange Interactions and Inversion of Magnetoresistance in Single Ferromagnetic ZnO Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modepalli, Vijayakumar; Jin, Mi-Jin; Park, Jungmin; Jo, Junhyeon; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Baik, Jeong Min; Seo, Changwon; Kim, Jeongyong; Yoo, Jung-Woo

    2016-04-26

    Electrical control of ferromagnetism in semiconductor nanostructures offers the promise of nonvolatile functionality in future semiconductor spintronics. Here, we demonstrate a dramatic gate-induced change of ferromagnetism in ZnO nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs). Ferromagnetism in our ZnO NWs arose from oxygen vacancies, which constitute deep levels hosting unpaired electron spins. The magnetic transition temperature of the studied ZnO NWs was estimated to be well above room temperature. The in situ UV confocal photoluminescence (PL) study confirmed oxygen vacancy mediated ferromagnetism in the studied ZnO NW FET devices. Both the estimated carrier concentration and temperature-dependent conductivity reveal the studied ZnO NWs are at the crossover of the metal-insulator transition. In particular, gate-induced modulation of the carrier concentration in the ZnO NW FET significantly alters carrier-mediated exchange interactions, which causes even inversion of magnetoresistance (MR) from negative to positive values. Upon sweeping the gate bias from -40 to +50 V, the MRs estimated at 2 K and 2 T were changed from -11.3% to +4.1%. Detailed analysis on the gate-dependent MR behavior clearly showed enhanced spin splitting energy with increasing carrier concentration. Gate-voltage-dependent PL spectra of an individual NW device confirmed the localization of oxygen vacancy-induced spins, indicating that gate-tunable indirect exchange coupling between localized magnetic moments played an important role in the remarkable change of the MR.

  17. Spin dynamics and exchange interactions in CuO measured by neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, H.; Gaw, S. M.; Princep, A. J.; Hamilton, E.; Tóth, S.; Ewings, R. A.; Enderle, M.; Wheeler, E. M. Hétroy; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.

    2018-04-01

    The magnetic properties of CuO encompass several contemporary themes in condensed-matter physics, including quantum magnetism, magnetic frustration, magnetically-induced ferroelectricity, and orbital currents. Here we report polarized and unpolarized neutron inelastic scattering measurements which provide a comprehensive map of the cooperative spin dynamics in the low-temperature antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase of CuO throughout much of the Brillouin zone. At high energies (E ≳100 meV ), the spectrum displays continuum features consistent with the des Cloizeax-Pearson dispersion for an ideal S =1/2 Heisenberg AFM chain. At lower energies, the spectrum becomes more three dimensional, and we find that a linear spin-wave model for a Heisenberg AFM provides a very good description of the data, allowing for an accurate determination of the relevant exchange constants in an effective spin Hamiltonian for CuO. In the high-temperature helicoidal phase, there are features in the measured low-energy spectrum that we could not reproduce with a spin-only model. We discuss how these might be associated with the magnetically-induced multiferroic behavior observed in this phase.

  18. Speciation and surface interactions of actinides on aged ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.E.; Buscher, C.T.; Donohoe, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy is presently faced with the stabilization and safe disposition of hundreds of metric tons of residue materials resulting from 50+ years of nuclear weapons production activities. These residues encompass a broad range of substrates and radionuclides and include both solid and liquid materials. Combustible residues constitute a significant fraction of the total residue inventory, and an important constituent within the combustible category is spent anion ion-exchange resins. These resins are typically utilized for the separation of plutonium from other radionuclides under strongly acidic nitric or hydrochloric acid solution conditions which favor the formation and partitioning of anionic Pu(IV) nitrato or chloride species. The spent resins are usually rinsed prior to storage as residues to reduce both acid and radionuclide concentrations, but significant radionuclide concentrations remain in these resins, and the long-term effects of concentrated acid and radiolysis on the resin integrity are relatively unexplored. Thus, new research is needed to assess the stability of these resin residues and address the need for further treatment to ensure stability prior to long-term disposal

  19. Contribution to the theoretical study of metallic systems containing rare earths: hyperfine interactions and exchange coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troper, A.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical study involving rare earth impurities, which were embedded in transition metals (s-p or noble), from the point of view of the hyperfine interactions is presented. A model was created to describe a d-resonance (Anderson-Moriya) acting on a s-p conduction band which was strongly perturbed by a slater-koster potential, used to describe the rare earths which were diluted in matrices of transition elements. (author)

  20. Effective interactions for valence-hole nuclei with modern meson-exchange potential models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjort-Jensen, M.; Osnes, E.; Kuo, E.

    1991-10-01

    Within the framework of the folded-diagram theory, the authors have studied the effective interaction appropriate for hole-hole nuclei in the mass regions of 16 O and 40 Ca, using the Bonn and Paris potential models. To sum up the folded diagrams the renormalization procedure of Lee and Suzuki has been employed, using a so-called Q-box in which were included all one-body and two-body irreducible valence-linked diagrams through third order in perturbation theory. Discrepancies for the mass dependence of the effective interaction for several JT configurations with respect to empirically deduced mass dependencies is reported. The role of core polarization processes through third order were found to be one of the mechanisms behind these discrepancies. Compared to the results obtained with the Paris potential, more attraction is introduced by the Bonn potential for all matrix elements of concerns, a result which agrees well with previous findings for the particle-particle interaction in the same mass regions. A qualitative agreements with experimental data is obtained. 31 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  1. Local moments, exchange interactions, and magnetic order in Mn-doped LaFe2Si2 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turek, I.; Divis, M.; Niznansky, D.; Vejpravova, J.

    2007-01-01

    Formation of local magnetic moments in the intermetallic compound LaFe 2 Si 2 due to doping by a few at% of Mn has been investigated by theoretical and experimental tools. While a number of low-temperature experiments prove appearance of non-zero magnetic moments due to the Mn doping, the measured 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra rule out sizable local moments of Fe atoms. This conclusion is in agreement with results of first-principles electronic structure calculations that yield non-vanishing moments only on Mn atoms. The calculated Mn-Mn exchange interactions are of both signs which indicate a magnetically frustrated ground state, probably with a spin-glass-like arrangement of the Mn moments

  2. Δ effects in pion-nucleon scattering and the strength of the two-pion-exchange three-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandharipande, V.R.; Phillips, D.R.; Kolck, U. van

    2005-01-01

    We consider the relationship between p-wave πN scattering and the strength of the p-wave two-pion-exchange three-nucleon interaction (TPE3NI). We explain why effective theories that do not contain the Delta resonance as an explicit degree of freedom tend to overestimate the strength of the TPE3NI. The overestimation can be remedied by higher-order terms in these 'Delta-less' theories, but such terms are not yet included in state-of-the-art chiral effective field theory calculations of the nuclear force. This suggests that these calculations can predict the strength of the TPE3NI only to an accuracy of ±25%

  3. Magnetic excitations and exchange interactions in the spin-gap system TlCuCl sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Oosawa, A; Kato, T; Kakurai, K; Müller, M; Mikeska, H J

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic excitations from the gapped ground state in TlCuCl sub 3 have been investigated by means of inelastic neutron scattering experiments. The excitation data were collected along four different directions in the a sup * -c sup * plane. A well-defined single magnetic excitation mode was observed. The lowest excitation occurs at Q=(h,0,l) with integer h and odd l, as observed in KCuCl sub 3. The dispersion relations were analyzed by the cluster-series expansion up to the sixth order, so that the individual exchange interactions were evaluated. It was demonstrated that TlCuCl sub 3 is a strongly coupled spin-dimer system. (orig.)

  4. Modeling of the interaction between chemical and mechanical behavior of ion exchange resins encapsulated into a cement-based matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neji, Mejdi

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange resins (IER) are widely used in the nuclear industry to purge non directly storable infected effluents. IER then become a solid waste which could be stored as any classical nuclear waste. One way of conditioning consists in embedding it into a cement paste matrix. This process raises some concerns regarding the cohesiveness of the composite. Once embedded, the IER might indeed interact with the cement paste which would lead, in some cases, to the swelling of the composite. This thesis has been set up to address this potential issue, with the aim to develop a numerical tool able to predict the mechanical behavior of this kind of material. This work only focuses on the long term behavior and more specifically on the potential degradations of the cement paste/IER composite due to cationic IER. (author)

  5. Critical phenomena and exchange interactions of an amorphous ferromagnet: gadolinium--gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, S.J.; Durand, J.

    1976-07-01

    Magnetization was measured between 4 and 290 0 K in fields up to 70 kOe on liquid-quenched Gd 80 Au 20 amorphous alloys. The Curie temperature and critical exponents β, γ and delta are found to be 149.45 0 K, 0.439, 1.294 and 3.948 respectively. These values are compared with the Heisenberg and molecular field values. The data are fitted to an equation of state previously derived for second order phase transition in fluid systems. The results illustrate clearly a second order phase transition in the amorphous state. A discussion in terms of the Heisenberg model is presented. The effective magnetic moment in the paramagnetic state has a value of 9.37 μ/sub B/ per gadolinium atom. The saturation moment extrapolated to 0 0 K is 7.0 μ/sub B/ per gadolinium atom. The low temperature saturation magnetization observes the T/sup 3 / 2 / law from 0.13 T/sub c/ to 0.80 T/sub c/. The effective exchange integrals J/sub n/ determined from the Rushbrooke--Wood formula and spin-wave theory are found to be 2.28 and 1.34 0 K respectively. The differences in J/sub n/ and that between the effective moment and saturation moment are attributed to the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic couplings below T/sub c/. Possible effects of structural disorder on the magnetic properties of Gd in the amorphous state are discussed

  6. Fragility of ferromagnetic double exchange interactions and pressure tuning of magnetism in 3 d -5 d double perovskite Sr2FeOsO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, L. S. I.; Fabbris, G.; van Veenendaal, M.; Souza-Neto, N. M.; Feng, H. L.; Yamaura, K.; Haskel, D.

    2015-06-01

    The ability to tune exchange (magnetic) interactions between 3 d transition metals in perovskite structures has proven to be a powerful route to discovery of novel properties. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of 3 d -5 d exchange pathways in double perovskites enables additional tunability, a result of the large spatial extent of 5 d wave functions. Using x-ray probes of magnetism and structure at high pressure, we show that compression of Sr2FeOsO6 drives an unexpected continuous change in the sign of Fe-Os exchange interactions and a transition from antiferromagnetic to ferrimagnetic order. We analyze the relevant electron-electron interactions, shedding light into fundamental differences with the more thoroughly studied 3 d -3 d systems.

  7. Phase transitions and thermal entanglement of the distorted Ising-Heisenberg spin chain: topology of multiple-spin exchange interactions in spin ladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arian Zad, Hamid; Ananikian, Nerses

    2017-11-01

    We consider a symmetric spin-1/2 Ising-XXZ double sawtooth spin ladder obtained from distorting a spin chain, with the XXZ interaction between the interstitial Heisenberg dimers (which are connected to the spins based on the legs via an Ising-type interaction), the Ising coupling between nearest-neighbor spins of the legs and rungs spins, respectively, and additional cyclic four-spin exchange (ring exchange) in the square plaquette of each block. The presented analysis supplemented by results of the exact solution of the model with infinite periodic boundary implies a rich ground state phase diagram. As well as the quantum phase transitions, the characteristics of some of the thermodynamic parameters such as heat capacity, magnetization and magnetic susceptibility are investigated. We prove here that among the considered thermodynamic and thermal parameters, solely heat capacity is sensitive versus the changes of the cyclic four-spin exchange interaction. By using the heat capacity function, we obtain a singularity relation between the cyclic four-spin exchange interaction and the exchange coupling between pair spins on each rung of the spin ladder. All thermal and thermodynamic quantities under consideration should be investigated by regarding those points which satisfy the singularity relation. The thermal entanglement within the Heisenberg spin dimers is investigated by using the concurrence, which is calculated from a relevant reduced density operator in the thermodynamic limit.

  8. Dynamical effects of exchange symmetry breaking in mixtures of interacting bosons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichy, Malte C.; Sherson, Jacob; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    of two distinguishable species with identical physical properties, that is, which are governed by an isospecific interaction and external potential. In the mean-field limit, the spatial population imbalance of the mixture can be described by the dynamics of a single species in an effective potential...... approximates the full counting statistics well also outside the realm of spin-coherent states. The method is extended to general Bose-Hubbard systems and to their classical mean-field limits, which suggests an effective single-species description of multicomponent Bose gases with weakly an...... with modified properties or, equivalently, with an effective total particle number. The oscillation behavior can be tuned by populating the second species while maintaining the spatial population imbalance and all other parameters constant. In the corresponding many-body approach, the single-species description...

  9. Interaction patterns of nurturant support exchanged in online health social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Katherine Y; Yang, Christopher C

    2012-05-03

    Expressing emotion in online support communities is an important aspect of enabling e-patients to connect with each other and expand their social resources. Indirectly it increases the amount of support for coping with health issues. Exploring the supportive interaction patterns in online health social networking would help us better understand how technology features impacts user behavior in this context. To build on previous research that identified different types of social support in online support communities by delving into patterns of supportive behavior across multiple computer-mediated communication formats. Each format combines different architectural elements, affecting the resulting social spaces. Our research question compared communication across different formats of text-based computer-mediated communication provided on the MedHelp.org health social networking environment. We identified messages with nurturant support (emotional, esteem, and network) across three different computer-mediated communication formats (forums, journals, and notes) of an online support community for alcoholism using content analysis. Our sample consisted of 493 forum messages, 423 journal messages, and 1180 notes. Nurturant support types occurred frequently among messages offering support (forum comments: 276/412 messages, 67.0%; journal posts: 65/88 messages, 74%; journal comments: 275/335 messages, 82.1%; and notes: 1002/1180 messages, 84.92%), but less often among messages requesting support. Of all the nurturing supports, emotional (ie, encouragement) appeared most frequently, with network and esteem support appearing in patterns of varying combinations. Members of the Alcoholism Community appeared to adapt some traditional face-to-face forms of support to their needs in becoming sober, such as provision of encouragement, understanding, and empathy to one another. The computer-mediated communication format may have the greatest influence on the supportive interactions

  10. A computational study of magnetic exchange interactions of 3d and 4f electrons in Ti-Ce co-doped AlN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Abdul, E-mail: abdulmajid40@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Department of Adaptive Machine Systems, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Azmat, Mian [Department of Physics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Rana, Usman Ali; Khan, Salah Ud-Din [Sustainable Energy Technologies Center, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO-Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Alzahrani, Eman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, 888 Taif (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-08-15

    To investigate the nature of 3d-4f exchange interactions in III-Nitride semiconductors, Ti-Ce co-doped AlN were studied using first principles calculations. The calculations were performed using supercell approach with varying dopant concentration and different inter-dopant separation. The configuration with dopant located as nearest neighbor distance and diluted concentration of 3.125% was found most stable. The results exhibited prominent evidence of 3d-4f-5d strong hybridization suggesting 3d-4f direct exchange interactions which may play valuable role to exploit the system as high Curie temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors for use in spintronics. Moreover, metal to metal charge transfer was also observed in the materials which may be exploited for their use in electrochemical applications. The 4f-5d and 3d-5d hybridizations were observed that predicts excellent luminescence phenomena in the materials. The presence of impurity related deep intermediate bands suggest applications of the materials in opto-electronic and spintronics devices. - Highlights: • Double exchange interaction in Ti:AlN. • Impurity induced narrowing of band gap. • Superexchange interaction in Ce:AlN. • 3d-4f exchange interaction between Ti-3d and Ce-4f states. • High Curie temperature n-type ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  11. A computational study of magnetic exchange interactions of 3d and 4f electrons in Ti-Ce co-doped AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, Abdul; Azmat, Mian; Rana, Usman Ali; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Alzahrani, Eman

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the nature of 3d-4f exchange interactions in III-Nitride semiconductors, Ti-Ce co-doped AlN were studied using first principles calculations. The calculations were performed using supercell approach with varying dopant concentration and different inter-dopant separation. The configuration with dopant located as nearest neighbor distance and diluted concentration of 3.125% was found most stable. The results exhibited prominent evidence of 3d-4f-5d strong hybridization suggesting 3d-4f direct exchange interactions which may play valuable role to exploit the system as high Curie temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors for use in spintronics. Moreover, metal to metal charge transfer was also observed in the materials which may be exploited for their use in electrochemical applications. The 4f-5d and 3d-5d hybridizations were observed that predicts excellent luminescence phenomena in the materials. The presence of impurity related deep intermediate bands suggest applications of the materials in opto-electronic and spintronics devices. - Highlights: • Double exchange interaction in Ti:AlN. • Impurity induced narrowing of band gap. • Superexchange interaction in Ce:AlN. • 3d-4f exchange interaction between Ti-3d and Ce-4f states. • High Curie temperature n-type ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  12. Neutron spectroscopic investigations on crystalline-electric-field and exchange interactions on high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, U.

    1993-05-01

    It is well known that in the high temperature superconductors of the type RBa 2 Cu 3 O x (123), with R=Y and most of the rare earths, superconductivity is believed to be controlled by the density of mobile charges in the copper oxide (CuO 2 ) planes. In particular, the charge transfer process from the chains to the planes seems to play an important role. In the 123, RBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 (1248) and the Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1-x Ho x Cu 2 O 8+δ (Bi2212) systems, the R ions are sandwiched between the CuO 2 planes, thus the crystalline electric field (CEF) interaction at the R sites constitutes an ideal probe of the local symmetry and the charge distribution of the superconducting planes. The (2J+1)-fold degeneracy of the ground-state J-multiplet of the rare earth ions will be partially lifted under the action of the CEF potential. By means of inelastic neutron scattering experiments it is possible to observe directly the transitions between the CEF states. Therefrom we obtain useful information on both the structure and the charge distribution in the vicinity of the R ion. In order to quantify the charge transfer process from the chains to the planes, we performed a detailed analysis of the CEF of Ho 3+ in the 123, 1248 and Bi2212 systems. In addition, we present some experiments on a Cl doped 123 sample and some external pressure experiments on the 123 system. In nearly all high-T c compounds RBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconductivity and magnetic ordering of the R ion sublattice coexist at low temperatures. In order to understand the interplay of magnetism and superconductivity in these systems, information on both the electronic ground state of the R 3+ ions and the coupling mechanisms between the R 3+ ions is highly desirable. (author) figs., tabs., 73 refs

  13. Dynamics of Inter-heavy Chain Interactions in Human Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Subclasses Studied by Kinetic Fab Arm Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, Theo; Davies, Anna M.; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni; Absalah, Samira; Bende, Onno; Sutton, Brian J.; Vidarsson, Gestur; Aalberse, Rob C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fab arm exchange requires weak interactions between CH3 domains, such as in human IgG4. Results: CH3-CH3 interactions differ >1,000,000-fold between human subclasses and allotypes due to variations Lys/Asn-392, Val/Met-397, and Lys/Arg-409. Conclusion: For IgG2 and IgG3, but not IgG1,

  14. Effects of the competition between the exchange and dipolar interactions in the spin-wave spectrum of two-dimensional circularly magnetized nanodots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamica, S; Krawczyk, M; Lévy, J-C S

    2014-01-01

    We use a microscopic theory taking into account the dipolar and nearest-neighbour exchange interactions for exploring spin-wave excitations in two-dimensional magnetic dots in the vortex state. Normal modes of different profiles are observed: azimuthal and radial modes, as well as fundamental (quasiuniform) and highly localized modes. We examine the dependence of the frequencies and profiles of these modes on the dipolar-to-exchange interaction ratio and the size of the dot. Special attention is paid to some particular modes, including the lowest mode in the spectrum and the evolution of its profile, and the fundamental mode, the frequency of which proves almost independent of the dipolar-to-exchange interaction ratio. We also provide a selective overview of the experimental, analytical and numerical results from the literature, where different profiles of the lowest mode are reported. We attribute this diversity to the competition between the dipolar and exchange interactions. Finally, we study the hybridization of the modes, show the multi-mode hybridization and explain the selection rules. (paper)

  15. Roles of Bridging Ligand Topology and Conformation in Controlling Exchange Interactions between Paramagnetic Molybdenum Fragments in Dinuclear and Trinuclear Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung VÂ, V&acaron;n Ân; Cargill Thompson, Alexander M. W.; Bardwell, David A.; Gatteschi, Dante; Jeffery, John C.; McCleverty, Jon A.; Totti, Federico; Ward, Michael D.

    1997-07-30

    The magnetic properties of two series of dinuclear complexes, and one trinuclear complex, have been examined as a function of the bridging pathway between the metal centers. The first series of dinuclear complexes is [{Mo(V)(O)(Tp)Cl}(2)(&mgr;-OO)], where "OO" is [1,4-O(C(6)H(4))(n)O](2)(-) (n = 1, 1; n = 2, 3), [4,4'-O(C(6)H(3)-2-Me)(2)O](2)(-) (4), or [1,3-OC(6)H(4)O](2)(-) (2) [Tp = tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)hydroborate]. The second series of dinuclear complexes is [{Mo(I)(NO)(Tp)Cl}(2)(&mgr;-NN)], where "NN" is 4,4'-bipyridyl (5), 3,3'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridine (6), 3,8-phenanthroline (7), or 2,7-diazapyrene (8). The trinuclear complex is [{Mo(V)(O)(Tp)Cl}(3)(1,3,5-C(6)H(3)O(3))] (9), whose crystal structure was determined [9.5CH(2)Cl(2): C(56)H(81)B(3)Cl(13)Mo(3)N(18)O(6); monoclinic, P2(1)/n; a = 13.443, b = 41.46(2), c = 14.314(6) Å; beta = 93.21(3) degrees; V = 7995(5) Å(3); Z = 4; R(1) = 0.106]. In these complexes, the sign and magnitude of the exchange coupling constant J is clearly related to both the topology and the conformation of the bridging ligand [where J is derived from H = -JS(1)().S(2)() for 1-8 and H = -J(S(1)().S(2)() + S(2)().S(3)() + S(1)().S(3)()) for 9]. The values are as follows: 1, -80 cm(-)(1); 2, +9.8 cm(-)(1); 3, -13.2 cm(-)(1); 4, -2.8 cm(-)(1); 5, -33 cm(-)(1); 6, -3.5 cm(-)(1); 7, -35.6 cm(-)(1); 8, -35.0 cm(-)(1); 9, +14.4 cm(-)(1). In particular the following holds: (1) J is negative (antiferromagnetic exchange) across the para-substituted bridges ligands of 1 and 3-8 but positive (ferromagnetic exchange) across the meta-substituted bridging ligands of 2 and 9. (2) J decreases in magnitude dramatically as the bridging ligand conformation changes from planar to twisted (compare 3 and 4, or 6 and 8). These observations are consistent with a spin-polarization mechanism for the exchange interaction, propagated across the pi-system of the bridging ligand by via overlap of bridging ligand p(pi) orbitals with the d(pi) magnetic

  16. Preparation of a novel dual-function strong cation exchange/hydrophobic interaction chromatography stationary phase for protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kailou; Yang, Li; Wang, Xuejiao; Bai, Quan; Yang, Fan; Wang, Fei

    2012-08-30

    We have explored a novel dual-function stationary phase which combines both strong cation exchange (SCX) and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) characteristics. The novel dual-function stationary phase is based on porous and spherical silica gel functionalized with ligand containing sulfonic and benzyl groups capable of electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction functionalities, which displays HIC character in a high salt concentration, and IEC character in a low salt concentration in mobile phase employed. As a result, it can be employed to separate proteins with SCX and HIC modes, respectively. The resolution and selectivity of the dual-function stationary phase were evaluated under both HIC and SCX modes with standard proteins and can be comparable to that of conventional IEC and HIC columns. More than 96% of mass and bioactivity recoveries of proteins can be achieved in both HIC and SCX modes, respectively. The results indicated that the novel dual-function column could replace two individual SCX and HIC columns for protein separation. Mixed retention mechanism of proteins on this dual-function column based on stoichiometric displacement theory (SDT) in LC was investigated to find the optimal balance of the magnitude of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between protein and the ligand on the silica surface in order to obtain high resolution and selectivity for protein separation. In addition, the effects of the hydrophobicity of the ligand of the dual-function packings and pH of the mobile phase used on protein separation were also investigated in detail. The results show that the ligand with suitable hydrophobicity to match the electrostatic interaction is very important to prepare the dual-function stationary phase, and a better resolution and selectivity can be obtained at pH 6.5 in SCX mode. Therefore, the dual-function column can replace two individual SCX and HIC columns for protein separation and be used to set up two-dimensional liquid

  17. On the role of exchange of power and information signals in control and stability of the human-robot interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerooni, H.

    1991-01-01

    A human's ability to perform physical tasks is limited, not only by his intelligence, but by his physical strength. If, in an appropriate environment, a machine's mechanical power is closely integrated with a human arm's mechanical power under the control of the human intellect, the resulting system will be superior to a loosely integrated combination of a human and a fully automated robot. Therefore, we must develop a fundamental solution to the problem of 'extending' human mechanical power. The work presented here defines 'extenders' as a class of robot manipulators worn by humans to increase human mechanical strength, while the wearer's intellect remains the central control system for manipulating the extender. The human, in physical contact with the extender, exchanges power and information signals with the extender. The aim is to determine the fundamental building blocks of an intelligent controller, a controller which allows interaction between humans and a broad class of computer-controlled machines via simultaneous exchange of both power and information signals. The prevalent trend in automation has been to physically separate the human from the machine so the human must always send information signals via an intermediary device (e.g., joystick, pushbutton, light switch). Extenders, however are perfect examples of self-powered machines that are built and controlled for the optimal exchange of power and information signals with humans. The human wearing the extender is in physical contact with the machine, so power transfer is unavoidable and information signals from the human help to control the machine. Commands are transferred to the extender via the contact forces and the EMG signals between the wearer and the extender. The extender augments human motor ability without accepting any explicit commands: it accepts the EMG signals and the contact force between the person's arm and the extender, and the extender 'translates' them into a desired position. In

  18. Preparation and evaluation of a hydrophilic interaction and cation-exchange chromatography stationary phase modified with 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Caifeng; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Zhiying; Wang, Siyao; Yuan, Chenchen; Wang, Lili

    2018-04-20

    In this work, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) was used as a ligand to prepare a novel mixed-mode chromatography (MMC) stationary phase by the thiol-ene click reaction onto silica (MPC-silica). It was found that this MPC-silica showed the retention characteristics of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and weak cation exchange chromatography (WCX) under suitable mobile phase conditions. In detail, acidic and basic hydrophilic compounds and puerarin from pueraria were separated quickly with HILIC mode. Meanwhile, six standard proteins were allowed to reach baseline separation in WCX mode, and protein separation from egg white was also achieved with this mode. In addition, reduced/denatured lysozyme could be refolded with the MPC-silica column. In the meantime, the MPC-silica has been applied for refolding with simultaneous purification of recombinant human Delta-like1-RGD (rhDll1-RGD) expressed in Escherichia coli. The results show that the mass recovery and purity of rhDll1-RGD could reach 63.4% and 97% by one step, respectively. Furthermore, the reporter assay results demonstrated that refolded with simultaneously purified rhDll1-RGD could efficiently activate the signalling pathway in a dose-dependent manner. In general, this MPC-silica has good resolution and selectivity in the separation of polar compounds and protein samples in different high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) modes, and it successfully achieved refolding with simultaneous purification of denatured protein. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling of the interaction between chemical and mechanical behaviour of ion exchange resins incorporated into a cement-based matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Bescop P.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a predictive model, based on experimental data, to determine the macroscopic mechanical behavior of a material made up of ion exchange resins solidified into a CEM III cement paste. Some observations have shown that in some cases, a significant macroscopic expansion of this composite material may be expected, due to internal pressures generated in the resin. To build the model, we made the choice to break down the problem in two scale’s studies. The first deals with the mechanical behavior of the different heterogeneities of the composite, i.e. the resin and the cement paste. The second upscales the information from the heterogeneities to the Representative Elementary Volume (REV of the composite. The heterogeneities effects are taken into account in the REV by applying a homogenization method derived from the Eshelby theory combined with an interaction coefficient drawn from the poroelasticity theory. At the first scale, from the second thermodynamic law, a formulation is developed to estimate the resin microscopic swelling. The model response is illustrated on a simple example showing the impact of the calculated internal pressure, on the macroscopic strain.

  20. Density-functional approach to the three-body dispersion interaction based on the exchange dipole moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proynov, Emil; Wang, Matthew; Kong, Jing, E-mail: jing.kong@mtsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Center for Computational Sciences, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37132 (United States); Liu, Fenglai [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Gan, Zhengting [Q-Chem Inc., 5001 Baum Boulevard, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2015-08-28

    We implement and compute the density functional nonadditive three-body dispersion interaction using a combination of Tang-Karplus formalism and the exchange-dipole moment model of Becke and Johnson. The computation of the C{sub 9} dispersion coefficients is done in a non-empirical fashion. The obtained C{sub 9} values of a series of noble atom triplets agree well with highly accurate values in the literature. We also calculate the C{sub 9} values for a series of benzene trimers and find a good agreement with high-level ab initio values reported recently in the literature. For the question of damping of the three-body dispersion at short distances, we propose two damping schemes and optimize them based on the benzene trimers data, and the fitted analytic potentials of He{sub 3} and Ar{sub 3} trimers fitted to the results of high-level wavefunction theories available from the literature. Both damping schemes respond well to the optimization of two parameters.

  1. Systems of Interaction between the First Sedentary Villages in the Near East Exposed Using Agent-Based Modelling of Obsidian Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ortega

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Near East, nomadic hunter-gatherer societies became sedentary farmers for the first time during the transition into the Neolithic. Sedentary life presented a risk of isolation for Neolithic groups. As fluid intergroup interactions are crucial for the sharing of information, resources and genes, Neolithic villages developed a network of contacts. In this paper we study obsidian exchange between Neolithic villages in order to characterize this network of interaction. Using agent-based modelling and elements taken from complex network theory, we model obsidian exchange and compare results with archaeological data. We demonstrate that complex networks of interaction were established at the outset of the Neolithic and hypothesize that the existence of these complex networks was a necessary condition for the success and spread of a new way of living.

  2. Modeling coupled interactions of carbon, water, and ozone exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. I: Model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, Ned; Zeller, Karl F.

    2003-01-01

    A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to link ozone deposition with carbon and water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. - A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to study the simultaneous exchange of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water vapor between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The model mechanistically couples all major processes controlling ecosystem flows trace gases and water implementing recent concepts in plant eco-physiology, micrometeorology, and soil hydrology. FORFLUX consists of four interconnected modules-a leaf photosynthesis model, a canopy flux model, a soil heat-, water- and CO 2 - transport model, and a snow pack model. Photosynthesis, water-vapor flux and ozone uptake at the leaf level are computed by the LEAFC3 sub-model. The canopy module scales leaf responses to a stand level by numerical integration of the LEAFC3 model over canopy leaf area index (LAI). The integration takes into account (1) radiative transfer inside the canopy, (2) variation of foliage photosynthetic capacity with canopy depth, (3) wind speed attenuation throughout the canopy, and (4) rainfall interception by foliage elements. The soil module uses principles of the diffusion theory to predict temperature and moisture dynamics within the soil column, evaporation, and CO 2 efflux from soil. The effect of soil heterogeneity on field-scale fluxes is simulated employing the Bresler-Dagan stochastic concept. The accumulation and melt of snow on the ground is predicted using an explicit energy balance approach. Ozone deposition is modeled as a sum of three fluxes- ozone uptake via plant stomata, deposition to non-transpiring plant surfaces, and ozone flux into the ground. All biophysical interactions are computed hourly while model projections are made at either hourly or daily time step. FORFLUX represents a comprehensive approach to studying ozone deposition and its link to carbon and water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems

  3. Monitoring Ras Interactions with the Nucleotide Exchange Factor Son of Sevenless (Sos) Using Site-specific NMR Reporter Signals and Intrinsic Fluorescence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Flavell, Liz; Bobby, Romel; Breeze, Alexander L.; Embrey, Kevin J.; Golovanov, Alexander P.

    2016-01-01

    The activity of Ras is controlled by the interconversion between GTP- and GDP-bound forms partly regulated by the binding of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (Sos). The details of Sos binding, leading to nucleotide exchange and subsequent dissociation of the complex, are not completely understood. Here, we used uniformly 15N-labeled Ras as well as [13C]methyl-Met,Ile-labeled Sos for observing site-specific details of Ras-Sos interactions in solution. Binding of various forms of Ras (loaded with GDP and mimics of GTP or nucleotide-free) at the allosteric and catalytic sites of Sos was comprehensively characterized by monitoring signal perturbations in the NMR spectra. The overall affinity of binding between these protein variants as well as their selected functional mutants was also investigated using intrinsic fluorescence. The data support a positive feedback activation of Sos by Ras·GTP with Ras·GTP binding as a substrate for the catalytic site of activated Sos more weakly than Ras·GDP, suggesting that Sos should actively promote unidirectional GDP → GTP exchange on Ras in preference of passive homonucleotide exchange. Ras·GDP weakly binds to the catalytic but not to the allosteric site of Sos. This confirms that Ras·GDP cannot properly activate Sos at the allosteric site. The novel site-specific assay described may be useful for design of drugs aimed at perturbing Ras-Sos interactions. PMID:26565026

  4. Exchange bias properties of 140 nm-sized dipolarly interacting circular dots with ultrafine IrMn and NiFe layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spizzo, F., E-mail: spizzo@fe.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra and CNISM, Università di Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Tamisari, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra and CNISM, Università di Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia and CNISM, Università di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Chinni, F.; Bonfiglioli, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra and CNISM, Università di Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Gerardino, A. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR, I-00156 Roma (Italy); Barucca, G. [Dipartimento SIMAU, Università Politecnica delle Marche, I-60131 Ancona (Italy); Bisero, D.; Fin, S.; Del Bianco, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra and CNISM, Università di Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    We studied the exchange bias effect in an array of IrMn(3 nm)/NiFe(3 nm) circular dots (size ~140 nm and center-to-center distance ~200 nm, as revealed by microscopy analyses), prepared on a large area (3×3 mm{sup 2}) by electron beam lithography and lift-off, using dc sputtering deposition. Hysteresis loops were measured by SQUID magnetometer at increasing values of temperature T (in the 5–300 K range) after cooling from 300 K down to 5 K in zero field (ZFC mode) and in a saturating magnetic field (FC mode). The exchange bias effect disappears above T~200 K and, at each temperature, the exchange field H{sub EX} measured in ZFC is substantially lower than the FC one. Micromagnetic calculations indicate that, at room temperature, each dot is in high-remanence ground state, but magnetic dipolar interactions establish a low-remanence configuration of the array as a whole. Hence, at low temperature, following the ZFC procedure, the exchange anisotropy in the dot array is averaged out, tending to zero. However, even the FC values of H{sub EX} and of the coercivity H{sub C} are definitely smaller compared to those measured in a reference continuous film with the same stack configuration (at T=5 K, H{sub EX}~90 Oe and H{sub C}~180 Oe in the dots and H{sub EX}~1270 Oe and H{sub C}~860 Oe in the film). Our explanation is based on the proven glassy magnetic nature of the ultrathin IrMn layer, implying the existence of magnetic correlations among the spins, culminating in a collective freezing below T~100 K. We propose, also by the light of micromagnetic simulations, that the small dot size imposes a spatial constraint on the magnetic correlation length among the IrMn spins so that, even at the lowest temperature, their thermal stability, especially at the dot border, is compromised. - Highlights: • Exchange bias in 140 nm-sized IrMn(3 nm)/NiFe(3 nm) dots much weaker than in a film. • Glassy magnetic nature of the IrMn phase and collective spin freezing at T<100 K

  5. Exchange bias properties of 140 nm-sized dipolarly interacting circular dots with ultrafine IrMn and NiFe layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spizzo, F.; Tamisari, M.; Chinni, F.; Bonfiglioli, E.; Gerardino, A.; Barucca, G.; Bisero, D.; Fin, S.; Del Bianco, L.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the exchange bias effect in an array of IrMn(3 nm)/NiFe(3 nm) circular dots (size ~140 nm and center-to-center distance ~200 nm, as revealed by microscopy analyses), prepared on a large area (3×3 mm"2) by electron beam lithography and lift-off, using dc sputtering deposition. Hysteresis loops were measured by SQUID magnetometer at increasing values of temperature T (in the 5–300 K range) after cooling from 300 K down to 5 K in zero field (ZFC mode) and in a saturating magnetic field (FC mode). The exchange bias effect disappears above T~200 K and, at each temperature, the exchange field H_E_X measured in ZFC is substantially lower than the FC one. Micromagnetic calculations indicate that, at room temperature, each dot is in high-remanence ground state, but magnetic dipolar interactions establish a low-remanence configuration of the array as a whole. Hence, at low temperature, following the ZFC procedure, the exchange anisotropy in the dot array is averaged out, tending to zero. However, even the FC values of H_E_X and of the coercivity H_C are definitely smaller compared to those measured in a reference continuous film with the same stack configuration (at T=5 K, H_E_X~90 Oe and H_C~180 Oe in the dots and H_E_X~1270 Oe and H_C~860 Oe in the film). Our explanation is based on the proven glassy magnetic nature of the ultrathin IrMn layer, implying the existence of magnetic correlations among the spins, culminating in a collective freezing below T~100 K. We propose, also by the light of micromagnetic simulations, that the small dot size imposes a spatial constraint on the magnetic correlation length among the IrMn spins so that, even at the lowest temperature, their thermal stability, especially at the dot border, is compromised. - Highlights: • Exchange bias in 140 nm-sized IrMn(3 nm)/NiFe(3 nm) dots much weaker than in a film. • Glassy magnetic nature of the IrMn phase and collective spin freezing at T<100 K • Confinement of IrMn magnetic

  6. Effects of 3d-4f magnetic exchange interactions on the dynamics of the magnetization of Dy(III)-M(II)-Dy(III) trinuclear clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointillart, Fabrice; Bernot, Kevin; Sessoli, Roberta; Gatteschi, Dante

    2007-01-01

    [{Dy(hfac)(3)}(2){Fe(bpca)(2)}] x CHCl(3) ([Dy(2)Fe]) and [{Dy(hfac)(3)}(2){Ni(bpca)(2)}]CHCl(3) ([Dy(2)Ni]) (in which hfac(-)=1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoroacetylacetonate and bpca(-)=bis(2-pyridylcarbonyl)amine anion) were synthesized and characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction shows that [Dy(2)Fe] and [Dy(2)Ni] are linear trinuclear complexes. Static magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal a weak ferromagnetic exchange interaction between Ni(II) and Dy(III) ions in [Dy(2)Ni], whereas the use of the diamagnetic Fe(II) ion leads to the absence of magnetic exchange interaction in [Dy(2)Fe]. Dynamic susceptibility measurements show a thermally activated behavior with the energy barrier of 9.7 and 4.9 K for the [Dy(2)Fe] and [Dy(2)Ni] complexes, respectively. A surprising negative effect of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction has been found and has been attributed to the structural conformation of these trinuclear complexes.

  7. Protein Kinase A (PKA) Type I Interacts with P-Rex1, a Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor: EFFECT ON PKA LOCALIZATION AND P-Rex1 SIGNALING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Vargas, Lydia; Adame-García, Sendi Rafael; Cervantes-Villagrana, Rodolfo Daniel; Castillo-Kauil, Alejandro; Bruystens, Jessica G H; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Taylor, Susan S; Mochizuki, Naoki; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Vázquez-Prado, José

    2016-03-18

    Morphology of migrating cells is regulated by Rho GTPases and fine-tuned by protein interactions and phosphorylation. PKA affects cell migration potentially through spatiotemporal interactions with regulators of Rho GTPases. Here we show that the endogenous regulatory (R) subunit of type I PKA interacts with P-Rex1, a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor that integrates chemotactic signals. Type I PKA holoenzyme interacts with P-Rex1 PDZ domains via the CNB B domain of RIα, which when expressed by itself facilitates endothelial cell migration. P-Rex1 activation localizes PKA to the cell periphery, whereas stimulation of PKA phosphorylates P-Rex1 and prevents its activation in cells responding to SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor 1). The P-Rex1 DEP1 domain is phosphorylated at Ser-436, which inhibits the DH-PH catalytic cassette by direct interaction. In addition, the P-Rex1 C terminus is indirectly targeted by PKA, promoting inhibitory interactions independently of the DEP1-PDZ2 region. A P-Rex1 S436A mutant construct shows increased RacGEF activity and prevents the inhibitory effect of forskolin on sphingosine 1-phosphate-dependent endothelial cell migration. Altogether, these results support the idea that P-Rex1 contributes to the spatiotemporal localization of type I PKA, which tightly regulates this guanine exchange factor by a multistep mechanism, initiated by interaction with the PDZ domains of P-Rex1 followed by direct phosphorylation at the first DEP domain and putatively indirect regulation of the C terminus, thus promoting inhibitory intramolecular interactions. This reciprocal regulation between PKA and P-Rex1 might represent a key node of integration by which chemotactic signaling is fine-tuned by PKA. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. The role of nonmagnetic d{sup 0} vs. d{sup 10}B-type cations on the magnetic exchange interactions in osmium double perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Hai L., E-mail: Hai.Feng@cpfs.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden 01187 (Germany); Yamaura, Kazunari [Research Center for Functional Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Tjeng, Liu Hao [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden 01187 (Germany); Jansen, Martin, E-mail: M.Jansen@fkf.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden 01187 (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart 70569 (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Polycrystalline samples of double perovskites Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6} (B=Sc, Y, In) were synthesized by solid state reactions. They adopt the cubic double perovskite structures (space group, Fm-3m) with ordered B and Os arrangements. Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6} (B=Sc, Y, In) show antiferromagnetic transitions at 93 K, 69 K, and 28 K, respectively. The Weiss-temperatures are −590 K for Ba{sub 2}ScOsO{sub 6}, −571 K for Ba{sub 2}YOsO{sub 6}, and −155 K for Ba{sub 2}InOsO{sub 6}. Sc{sup 3+} and Y{sup 3+} have the open-shell d{sup 0} electronic configuration, while In{sup 3+} has the closed-shell d{sup 10}. This indicates that a d{sup 0} B-type cation induces stronger overall magnetic exchange interactions in comparison to a d{sup 10}. Comparison of Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6} (B=Sc, Y, In) to their Sr and Ca analogues shows that the structural distortions weaken the overall magnetic exchange interactions. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic properties of osmium double perovskites Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6} (B=Sc, Y, In) were studied. Comparison of Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6}indicates that a d{sup 0} B-type cation induces stronger overall magnetic exchange interactions in comparison to a d{sup 10}. - Highlights: • Magnetic properties of double perovskites Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6} (B=Sc, Y, In) were studied. • A d{sup 0}B-type cation induces stronger magnetic interactions than a d{sup 10}. • Structural distortions weaken the overall Os{sup 5+}-Os{sup 5+} magnetic interactions.

  9. Dynamic studies of H-Ras•GTPγS interactions with nucleotide exchange factor Sos reveal a transient ternary complex formation in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Embrey, Kevin J; Golovanov, Alexander P

    2016-07-14

    The cycling between GDP- and GTP- bound forms of the Ras protein is partly regulated by the binding of Sos. The structural/dynamic behavior of the complex formed between activated Sos and Ras at the point of the functional cycle where the nucleotide exchange is completed has not been described to date. Here we show that solution NMR spectra of H-Ras∙GTPγS mixed with a functional fragment of Sos (Sos(Cat)) at a 2:1 ratio are consistent with the formation of a rather dynamic assembly. H-Ras∙GTPγS binding was in fast exchange on the NMR timescale and retained a significant degree of molecular tumbling independent of Sos(Cat), while Sos(Cat) also tumbled largely independently of H-Ras. Estimates of apparent molecular weight from both NMR data and SEC-MALS revealed that, at most, only one H-Ras∙GTPγS molecule appears stably bound to Sos. The weak transient interaction between Sos and the second H-Ras∙GTPγS may provide a necessary mechanism for complex dissociation upon the completion of the native GDP → GTP exchange reaction, but also explains measurable GTP → GTP exchange activity of Sos routinely observed in in vitro assays that use fluorescently-labelled analogs of GTP. Overall, the data presents the first dynamic snapshot of Ras functional cycle as controlled by Sos.

  10. Electronic structure and exchange interactions in diluted semimagnetic semiconductors (Zn,Co)Se and (Zn,Mn)Se

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašek, J.

    1991-05-01

    A comparative study of the electronic structure of (Zn,Co)Se and (Zn,Mn)Se is done by using a tight-binding version of the coherent potential approximation. The densities of states, relevant for a photoemission experiment, are calculated for a magnetically disordered phase. The exchange constant Jpd is obtained from the splitting of the valence band top in the ferromagnetic phase of the mixed crystal; Jdd is estimated from the energy of a spin reversal. We explain the large exchange constant in the Co-based systems as a result of efficient hybridization of the d-states with the valence band.

  11. Anisotropy of the neodymium-copper exchange interaction in Nd.sub.2./sub.CuO.sub.4./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nugroho, A. A.; Nekvasil, Vladimír; Veltruský, Ivan; Jandl, S.; Richard, P.; Menovsky, A. A.; Boer, de F. R.; Franse, J. J. M.

    226-230, - (2001), s. 973-975 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A02/98:Z1-010-914 Keywords : exchange coupling * high Tc superconductivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.329, year: 2001

  12. Graviton exchange effects on dijet production in pp-interactions at √s = 14 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usubov, Z.U.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the virtual graviton exchange on the dijet production in proton-proton collisions at the ATLAS detector at the LHC are considered. The high E T cross section and the angular distribution for dijet production are examined. A sensitivity of the LHC to a parameter of the model with extra dimensions is estimated

  13. Monitoring Ras Interactions with the Nucleotide Exchange Factor Son of Sevenless (Sos) Using Site-specific NMR Reporter Signals and Intrinsic Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Flavell, Liz; Bobby, Romel; Breeze, Alexander L; Embrey, Kevin J; Golovanov, Alexander P

    2016-01-22

    The activity of Ras is controlled by the interconversion between GTP- and GDP-bound forms partly regulated by the binding of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (Sos). The details of Sos binding, leading to nucleotide exchange and subsequent dissociation of the complex, are not completely understood. Here, we used uniformly (15)N-labeled Ras as well as [(13)C]methyl-Met,Ile-labeled Sos for observing site-specific details of Ras-Sos interactions in solution. Binding of various forms of Ras (loaded with GDP and mimics of GTP or nucleotide-free) at the allosteric and catalytic sites of Sos was comprehensively characterized by monitoring signal perturbations in the NMR spectra. The overall affinity of binding between these protein variants as well as their selected functional mutants was also investigated using intrinsic fluorescence. The data support a positive feedback activation of Sos by Ras·GTP with Ras·GTP binding as a substrate for the catalytic site of activated Sos more weakly than Ras·GDP, suggesting that Sos should actively promote unidirectional GDP → GTP exchange on Ras in preference of passive homonucleotide exchange. Ras·GDP weakly binds to the catalytic but not to the allosteric site of Sos. This confirms that Ras·GDP cannot properly activate Sos at the allosteric site. The novel site-specific assay described may be useful for design of drugs aimed at perturbing Ras-Sos interactions. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. The interaction between lipid exchange and thyroid status in the conditions of prolonged influence of small doses of radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Sokolenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the interaction between the indicators of lipid exchange and thyroid status among the inhabitants of radiation contaminated territories under additional psycho-emotional load. We observed 170 students aged between 18–24 and divided them into a control group of students who were from areas unaffected by radiation (70 people and the main experimental group of students from territories of increased radio-ecological load (IV radiation zone, 100 people. We determined the content of thyrotropic hormone (TTH, triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxin (T4, total cholesterin (TC, triglycerides (TG, cholesterin of lipoproteins of high density (Ch-LPHD and cholesterin of lipoproteins of low density (Ch-LPLD. We found that people who had lived since birth in territories which were contaminated with radionuclides and were affected by prolonged influence of small doses of ionizing radiation had significant fluctuations of indicators of concentrations of TTH, T3 and T4, forming manifestations of hypothyroidism and hyperthyrosis among some of those tested. Independently from hyperthyrosis, the effect was accompanied by growth in the level of TH, TG, Ch-LPHD and Ch-LPLD. Persons with manifestations of hypothyroidism had the content of TH above the upper limit of the homeostatic norm and the level of Ch-LPLD was higher than the norm in sub-groups with features of hypo- and hyperthyrosis. All those tested from the main group showed a significant positive correlation connection between the level of TTH and levels of TH and Ch-LPLD. The subgroup with manifestations of hyperthyrosis had a positive correlation between the levels of TTH and TG, the subgroups with manifestations of euthyroidism and hyperthyrosis had a negative correlation between the levels of TTH and Ch-LPHD. The hyperthyrosis subgroup had a significant positive correlation connection between T3 and TH and Ch-LPLD. The euthyroidism and hypothyroidism subgroups had a significant negative correlation

  15. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita; Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga; Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. → Adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. → The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. → AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. → AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl - ) and bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney α-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H + ) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 μ1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1 trafficking of kidney α-intercalated cells.

  16. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Immunology and Graduate Program in Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Limjindaporn, Thawornchai [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn [Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University at Salaya Campus, Nakorn Pathom 73170 (Thailand); Noisakran, Sansanee [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai, E-mail: grpye@mahidol.ac.th [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. {yields} Adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. {yields} The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. {yields} AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. {yields} AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl{sup -}) and bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1

  17. Spin reorientation in α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles induced by interparticle exchange interactions in alpha-Fe2O3/NiO nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Cathrine; Lefmann, Kim; Lebech, Bente

    2011-01-01

    We report that the spin structure of alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles rotates coherently out of the basal (001) plane at low temperatures when interacting with thin plate-shaped NiO nanoparticles. The observed spin reorientation (up to similar to 70 degrees) in alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles has, in appearan......, similarities to the Morin transition in bulk alpha-Fe2O3, but its origin is different-it is caused by exchange coupling between aggregated nanoparticles of alpha-Fe2O3 and NiO with different directions of easy axes of magnetization.......We report that the spin structure of alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles rotates coherently out of the basal (001) plane at low temperatures when interacting with thin plate-shaped NiO nanoparticles. The observed spin reorientation (up to similar to 70 degrees) in alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles has, in appearance...

  18. A spin exchange model for singlet fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yago, Tomoaki; Wakasa, Masanobu

    2018-03-01

    Singlet fission has been analyzed with the Dexter model in which electron exchange occurs between chromophores, conserving the spin for each electron. In the present study, we propose a spin exchange model for singlet fission. In the spin exchange model, spins are exchanged by the exchange interaction between two electrons. Our analysis with simple spin functions demonstrates that singlet fission is possible by spin exchange. A necessary condition for spin exchange is a variation in exchange interactions. We also adapt the spin exchange model to triplet fusion and triplet energy transfer, which often occur after singlet fission in organic solids.

  19. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and computational modeling reveal a discontinuous epitope of an antibody/TL1A Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Richard Y-C; Krystek, Stanley R; Felix, Nathan; Graziano, Robert F; Srinivasan, Mohan; Pashine, Achal; Chen, Guodong

    2018-01-01

    TL1A, a tumor necrosis factor-like cytokine, is a ligand for the death domain receptor DR3. TL1A, upon binding to DR3, can stimulate lymphocytes and trigger secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, blockade of TL1A/DR3 interaction may be a potential therapeutic strategy for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Recently, the anti-TL1A monoclonal antibody 1 (mAb1) with a strong potency in blocking the TL1A/DR3 interaction was identified. Here, we report on the use of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to obtain molecular-level details of mAb1's binding epitope on TL1A. HDX coupled with electron-transfer dissociation MS provided residue-level epitope information. The HDX dataset, in combination with solvent accessible surface area (SASA) analysis and computational modeling, revealed a discontinuous epitope within the predicted interaction interface of TL1A and DR3. The epitope regions span a distance within the approximate size of the variable domains of mAb1's heavy and light chains, indicating it uses a unique mechanism of action to block the TL1A/DR3 interaction.

  20. Electric-field-induced modification of the magnon energy, exchange interaction, and curie temperature of transition-metal thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, M; Nakamura, K; Akiyama, T; Ito, T; Weinert, M; Freeman, A J

    2015-03-13

    The electric-field-induced modification in the Curie temperature of prototypical transition-metal thin films with the perpendicular magnetic easy axis, a freestanding Fe(001) monolayer and a Co monolayer on Pt(111), is investigated by first-principles calculations of spin-spiral structures in an external electric field (E field). An applied E field is found to modify the magnon (spin-spiral formation) energy; the change arises from the E-field-induced screening charge density in the spin-spiral states due to p-d hybridizations. The Heisenberg exchange parameters obtained from the magnon energy suggest an E-field-induced modification of the Curie temperature, which is demonstrated via Monte Carlo simulations that take the magnetocrystalline anisotropy into account.

  1. Reactive transport modelling of groundwater-bentonite interaction: Effects on exchangeable cations in an alternative buffer material in-situ test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, I.; Idiart, A.; Dohrmann, R.; Post, V.

    2016-01-01

    Bentonite clays are regarded a promising material for engineered barrier systems for the encapsulation of hazardous wastes because of their low hydraulic permeability, swelling potential, ability to self-seal cracks in contact with water and their high sorption potential. SKB (Svensk Kärnbränslehantering) has been conducting long term field scale experiments on potential buffer materials at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory for radioactive waste disposal in Sweden. The Alternative Buffer Material (ABM) test examined buffer properties of eleven different clay materials under the influence of groundwater and at temperatures reaching up to 135 °C, replicating the heat pulse after waste emplacement. Clay materials were emplaced into holes drilled in fractured granite as compacted rings around a central heater element and subsequently brought into contact with groundwater for 880 days. After test termination, and against expectations, all clay materials were found to have undergone large scale alterations in the cation exchange population. A reactive-diffusive transport model was developed to aid the interpretation of the observed large-scale porewater chemistry changes. It was found, that the interaction between Äspö groundwater and the clay blocks, together with the geochemical nature of the clays (Na vs Ca-dominated clays) exerted the strongest control on the porewater chemistry. A pronounced exchange of Na by Ca was observed and simulated, driven by large Ca concentrations in the contacting groundwater. The model was able to link the porewater alterations to the fracture network in the deposition hole. The speed of alterations was in turn linked to high diffusion coefficients under the applied temperatures, which facilitated the propagation of hydrochemical changes into the clays. With diffusion coefficients increased by up to one order of magnitude at the maximum temperatures, the study was able to demonstrate the importance of considering temperature

  2. Exchange Coupling Interactions from the Density Matrix Renormalization Group and N-Electron Valence Perturbation Theory: Application to a Biomimetic Mixed-Valence Manganese Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemelt, Michael; Krewald, Vera; Pantazis, Dimitrios A

    2018-01-09

    The accurate description of magnetic level energetics in oligonuclear exchange-coupled transition-metal complexes remains a formidable challenge for quantum chemistry. The density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) brings such systems for the first time easily within reach of multireference wave function methods by enabling the use of unprecedentedly large active spaces. But does this guarantee systematic improvement in predictive ability and, if so, under which conditions? We identify operational parameters in the use of DMRG using as a test system an experimentally characterized mixed-valence bis-μ-oxo/μ-acetato Mn(III,IV) dimer, a model for the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II. A complete active space of all metal 3d and bridge 2p orbitals proved to be the smallest meaningful starting point; this is readily accessible with DMRG and greatly improves on the unrealistic metal-only configuration interaction or complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) values. Orbital optimization is critical for stabilizing the antiferromagnetic state, while a state-averaged approach over all spin states involved is required to avoid artificial deviations from isotropic behavior that are associated with state-specific calculations. Selective inclusion of localized orbital subspaces enables probing the relative contributions of different ligands and distinct superexchange pathways. Overall, however, full-valence DMRG-CASSCF calculations fall short of providing a quantitative description of the exchange coupling owing to insufficient recovery of dynamic correlation. Quantitatively accurate results can be achieved through a DMRG implementation of second order N-electron valence perturbation theory (NEVPT2) in conjunction with a full-valence metal and ligand active space. Perspectives for future applications of DMRG-CASSCF/NEVPT2 to exchange coupling in oligonuclear clusters are discussed.

  3. Driving factors of interactions between the exchange rate market and the commodity market: A wavelet-based complex network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shaobo; An, Haizhong; Chen, Zhihua; Liu, Xueyong

    2017-08-01

    In traditional econometrics, a time series must be in a stationary sequence. However, it usually shows time-varying fluctuations, and it remains a challenge to execute a multiscale analysis of the data and discover the topological characteristics of conduction in different scales. Wavelet analysis and complex networks in physical statistics have special advantages in solving these problems. We select the exchange rate variable from the Chinese market and the commodity price index variable from the world market as the time series of our study. We explore the driving factors behind the behavior of the two markets and their topological characteristics in three steps. First, we use the Kalman filter to find the optimal estimation of the relationship between the two markets. Second, wavelet analysis is used to extract the scales of the relationship that are driven by different frequency wavelets. Meanwhile, we search for the actual economic variables corresponding to different frequency wavelets. Finally, a complex network is used to search for the transfer characteristics of the combination of states driven by different frequency wavelets. The results show that statistical physics have a unique advantage over traditional econometrics. The Chinese market has time-varying impacts on the world market: it has greater influence when the world economy is stable and less influence in times of turmoil. The process of forming the state combination is random. Transitions between state combinations have a clustering feature. Based on these characteristics, we can effectively reduce the information burden on investors and correctly respond to the government's policy mix.

  4. Field scale interaction and nutrient exchange between surface water and shallow groundwater in the Baiyang Lake region, North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauns, Bentje; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Song, Xianfang

    2016-01-01

    in Hebei Province, China, was undertaken. The study showed a high influence of low-quality surface water on the shallow aquifer. Major inflowing pollutants into the aquifer were ammonium and nitrate via inflow from the adjacent Fu River (up to 29.8mg/L NH4-N and 6.8mg/L NO3-N), as well as nitrate via...... vertical transport from the field surface (up to 134.8mg/L NO3-N in soil water). Results from a conceptual model show an excess nitrogen input of about 320kg/ha/a. Nevertheless, both nitrogen species were only detected at low concentrations in shallow groundwater, averaging at 3.6mg/L NH4-N and 1.8mg/L NO3......-N. Measurement results supported by PHREEQC-modeling indicated cation exchange, denitrification, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled with partial denitrification as major nitrogen removal pathways. Despite the current removal capacity, the excessive nitrogen fertilization may pose a future...

  5. Experimental evidence for importance of Hund's exchange interaction for incoherence of charge carriers in iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, J.; Rienks, E. D. L.; Thirupathaiah, S.; Nayak, J.; van Roekeghem, A.; Biermann, S.; Wolf, T.; Adelmann, P.; Jeevan, H. S.; Gegenwart, P.; Wurmehl, S.; Felser, C.; Büchner, B.

    2017-04-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy is used to study the scattering rates of charge carriers from the hole pockets near Γ in the iron-based high-Tc hole-doped superconductors KxBa1 -xFe2As2 , x =0.4 , and KxEu1 -xFe2As2 , x =0.55 , and the electron-doped compound Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 , x =0.075 . The scattering rate for any given band is found to depend linearly on the energy, indicating a non-Fermi-liquid regime. The scattering rates in the hole-doped compound are considerably higher than those in the electron-doped compounds. In the hole-doped systems the scattering rate of the charge carriers of the inner hole pocket is about three times higher than the binding energy, indicating that the spectral weight is heavily incoherent. The strength of the scattering rates and the difference between electron- and hole-doped compounds signals the importance of Hund's exchange coupling for correlation effects in these iron-based high-Tc superconductors. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations in the framework of combined density functional dynamical mean-field theory.

  6. XMCD for monitoring exchange interactions. The role of the Gd 4f and 5d orbitals in metal-nitronyl nitroxide magnetic chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Guillaume; Lalioti, Nikolia; Tangoulis, Vassilis; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Sainctavit, Philippe; Villain, Françoise; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Giorgetti, Christine; Baudelet, François; Verdaguer, Michel; Cartier dit Moulin, Christophe

    2003-07-09

    We report here the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) study at the Gd M(4,5)- and L(2,3)-edges of two linear magnetic chains involving Gd(III) cations bridged by nitronyl nitroxide radicals. This spectroscopy directly probes the magnetic moments of the 4f and 5d orbitals of the gadolinium ions. We compare macroscopic magnetic measurements and local XMCD signals. The M(4,5)-edges results are in agreement with the J values extracted from the fits of the SQUID magnetic measurements. The L(2,3)-edges signals show that the electronic density in the Gd 5d orbitals depends on the neighbors of the gadolinium cations. Nevertheless, the 5d orbitals do not seem to play any role in the superexchange pathway between radicals through the metal ion proposed to explain the particular magnetic exchange interactions between the radicals in these chains.

  7. Leader-member exchange and work-family interactions: the mediating role of self-reported challenge- and hindrance-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Satoris S; Huffman, Ann H; Alden-Anderson, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among 4 components of the leader-member exchange (LMX) relationship (i.e., contribution, affect, loyalty, and professional respect) and the level of work-family conflict and work-family facilitation that an employee experiences. Further, the authors examined the mediating role of challenge- and hindrance-related self-reported stress on relations. In doing this, the authors linked positive and negative aspects of LMX, stressors, work-family conflict, and work-family facilitation. Data from a sample of full-time employed individuals support some hypothesized relations between components of LMX and work-family interactions. Also, results support the mediating role of hindrance-related stress in the relation between (a) the affect and loyalty components of LMX and (b) work-family conflict. The authors discuss the implications and limitations of their findings.

  8. Recovery of infective virus particles in ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction monolith chromatography is influenced by particle charge and total-to-infective particle ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviben, Dora; Forcic, Dubravko; Ivancic-Jelecki, Jelena; Halassy, Beata; Brgles, Marija

    2017-06-01

    Viral particles are used in medical applications as vaccines or gene therapy vectors. In order to obtain product of high purity, potency and safety for medical use purification of virus particles is a prerequisite, and chromatography is gaining increased attention to meet this aim. Here, we report on the use of ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on monolithic columns for purification of mumps virus (MuV) and measles virus (MeV). Efficiency of the process was monitored by quantification of infective virus particles (by 50% cell culture infective dose assay) and total virus particles, and monitoring of their size (by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis). Ion-exchange chromatography was shown to be inefficient for MuV and best results for MeV were obtained on QA column with recovery around 17%. Purification of MuV and MeV by hydrophobic interaction chromatography resulted in recoveries around 60%. Results showed that columns with small channels (d=1.4μm) are not suitable for MuV and MeV, although their size is below 400nm, whereas columns with large channels (6μm) showed to be efficient and recoveries independent on the flow rate up to 10mL/min. Heterogeneity of the virus suspension and its interday variability mostly regarding total-to-infective particle ratio was observed. Interestingly, a trend in recovery depending on the day of the harvest was also observed for both viruses, and it correlated with the total-to-infective particle ratio, indicating influence of the virus sample composition on the chromatography results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Soft mode characteristics of up-up-down-down spin chains: The role of exchange interactions on lattice dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y. J. [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Second Normal University, Nanjing 210013 (China); Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gao, Y. J.; Ge, C. N [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Jiangsu Second Normal University, Nanjing 210013 (China); Guo, Y. Y. [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M., E-mail: liujm@nju.edu.cn [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-05-07

    In this work, the dynamics of a diatomic chain is investigated with ↑↑↓↓ spin order in which the dispersion relation characterizes the effect of magnetic interactions on the lattice dynamics. The optical or acoustic mode softening in the center or boundary of the Brillouin zone can be observed, indicating the transitions of ferroelectric state, antiferromagnetic state, or ferroelastic state. The coexistence of the multiferroic orders related to the ↑↑↓↓ spin order represents a type of intrinsic multiferroic with strong ferroelectric order and different microscopic mechanisms.

  10. Exchange pattern of gaseous elemental mercury in landfill: mercury deposition under vegetation coverage and interactive effects of multiple meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhengkai; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Meng; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-12-01

    Landfill is known as a potential source of atmospheric Hg and an important component of the local or regional atmospheric Hg budget. This study investigated the gaseous elemental Hg surface-air fluxes under differing conditions at a typical municipal solid waste landfill site, highlighting the interactive effects of plant coverage and meteorological conditions. The results indicated that Hg fluxes exhibited a feature represented by diel variation. In particular, Hg deposition was observed under a condition of Kochia sieversiana coverage, whereas emission that occurred after K. sieversiana was removed. Hg emission was the dominant mode under conditions of Setaria viridis coverage and its removal; however, the average Hg emission flux with the S. viridis coverage was nearly four times lower than after its removal. These findings verified that the plant coverage should be a key factor influencing the Hg emission from landfills. In addition, Hg fluxes were correlated positively with solar radiation and air/soil temperature and correlated inversely with relative humidity under all conditions, except K. sieversiana coverage. This suggested that the interactive effects of meteorological conditions and plant coverage played a jointly significant role in the Hg emission from landfills. It was established that K. sieversiana can inhibit Hg emission efficiently, and therefore, it could potentially be suitable for use as a plant-based method to control Hg pollution from landfills.

  11. Role of Magnetic Exchange Interactions in the Magnetization Relaxation of {3d-4f} Single-Molecule Magnets: A Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Beg, Mohammad Faizan; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2016-01-11

    Combined density functional and ab initio calculations are performed on two isomorphous tetranuclear {Ni3 (III) Ln(III) } star-type complexes [Ln=Gd (1), Dy (2)] to shed light on the mechanism of magnetic exchange in 1 and the origin of the slow magnetization relaxation in complex 2. DFT calculations correctly reproduce the sign and magnitude of the J values compared to the experiments for complex 1. Acute ∢Ni-O-Gd bond angles present in 1 instigate a significant interaction between the 4fxyz orbital of the Gd(III) ion and 3d${{_{x{^{2}}- y{^{2}}}}}$ orbital of the Ni(II) ions, leading to rare and strong antiferromagnetic Ni⋅⋅⋅Gd interactions. Calculations reveal the presence of a strong next-nearest-neighbour Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni antiferromagnetic interaction in complex 1 leading to spin frustration behavior. CASSCF+RASSI-SO calculations performed on complex 2 suggest that the octahedral environment around the Dy(III) ion is neither strong enough to stabilize the mJ |±15/2〉 as the ground state nor able to achieve a large ground-state-first-excited-state gap. The ground-state Kramers doublet for the Dy(III) ion is found to be the mJ |±13/2〉 state with a significant transverse anisotropy, leading to very strong quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). Using the POLY_ANISO program, we have extracted the JNiDy interaction as -1.45 cm(-1) . The strong Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and next-nearest-neighbour Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions are found to quench the QTM to a certain extent, resulting in zero-field SMM behavior for complex 2. The absence of any ac signals at zero field for the structurally similar [Dy(AlMe4 )3 ] highlights the importance of both the Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and the Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions in the magnetization relaxation of complex 2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the roles of both the Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions in magnetization relaxation of a {3d-4f} molecular magnet have been established. © 2016

  12. Slotted rotatable target assembly and systematic error analysis for a search for long range spin dependent interactions from exotic vector boson exchange using neutron spin rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, C.; Crawford, B.; Fox, W.; Francis, I.; Holley, A.; Magers, S.; Sarsour, M.; Snow, W. M.; Vanderwerp, J.

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the design and construction of a novel target array of nonmagnetic test masses used in a neutron polarimetry measurement made in search for new possible exotic spin dependent neutron-atominteractions of Nature at sub-mm length scales. This target was designed to accept and efficiently transmit a transversely polarized slow neutron beam through a series of long open parallel slots bounded by flat rectangular plates. These openings possessed equal atom density gradients normal to the slots from the flat test masses with dimensions optimized to achieve maximum sensitivity to an exotic spin-dependent interaction from vector boson exchanges with ranges in the mm - μm regime. The parallel slots were oriented differently in four quadrants that can be rotated about the neutron beam axis in discrete 90°increments using a Geneva drive. The spin rotation signals from the 4 quadrants were measured using a segmented neutron ion chamber to suppress possible systematic errors from stray magnetic fields in the target region. We discuss the per-neutron sensitivity of the target to the exotic interaction, the design constraints, the potential sources of systematic errors which could be present in this design, and our estimate of the achievable sensitivity using this method.

  13. Interaction of Fe(II) with Polyacrylic Acid as a Simplification of Humic Acid: Comparison of Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Setiawan

    2007-01-01

    To estimate the safety assessment around the disposal facility, the interaction behavior of radionuclides/metal ions into organic material (such as humic acids) exist in natural water becomes an important study. To avoid the effect of heterogeneous composition of humic acid, polyacrylic acids (abbrev. APA) was used as are representative of homogeneous polymeric weak acid. The experiments have been carried out by solvent extraction and ion exchange methods to find out the suitable method for the study of complex formation of Fe(II) with humic acid(AH) and APA. The solvent extraction experiment has been done by using diphenylthiocarbazone (dithizone) in CCl 4 and C Fe(II) were 10 -8 M to 10 -5 M, pH around 5 and I=0.1M NaCI. In ionic exchange experiment, C Fe(II) were 10 -8 to 10 -4 M, pH from 4.8 to 5.5 in I=0.1M NaCl. The apparent complex formation constant is defined as β α = [ML]/([M][R]), where [M] and [ML] are concentration of free and bound of Fe(II) and [R] is the concentration of dissociated carboxylic group in macromolecules of PAA. The results shown that, for solvent extraction experiments, variable concentration of Fe(II) had no appreciable influence on the distribution ratio of Fe(II)-polyacrylate at the tracer concentration with the log D to be 1.32 ± 0.03 (pcH 5.25). At macro concentration, the distribution ratio of Fe(II) becomes smaller due to oxidation and obtained log D value to be 1.04 ± 0.07 (pcH 5.34). An interest kind was observed at higher PAA concentration, the distribution ratio curve becomes higher presumably due to the problem on redox sensitive characteristic of Fe(II) and/or coagulation of Fe(II)-polyacrylate at the interface of aqueous-organic phases. In case of ionic exchange method, the plot of I/Kd versus [R] gives a straight line result indicating this method is appropriate and more superior compare than solvent extraction method to determine the complex formation constant. (author)

  14. Atomistic Tight-Binding Theory of Electron-Hole Exchange Interaction in Morphological Evolution of CdSe/ZnS Core/Shell Nanodisk to CdSe/ZnS Core/Shell Nanorod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worasak Sukkabot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the atomistic tight-binding theory (TB and a configuration interaction (CI description, the electron-hole exchange interaction in the morphological transformation of CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanodisk to CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanorod is described with the aim of understanding the impact of the structural shapes on the change of the electron-hole exchange interaction. Normally, the ground hole states confined in typical CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals are of heavy hole-like character. However, the atomistic tight-binding theory shows that a transition of the ground hole states from heavy hole-like to light hole-like contribution with the increasing aspect ratios of the CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanostructures is recognized. According to the change in the ground-state hole characters, the electron-hole exchange interaction is also significantly altered. To do so, optical band gaps, ground-state electron character, ground-state hole character, oscillation strengths, ground-state coulomb energies, ground-state exchange energies, and dark-bright (DB excitonic splitting (stoke shift are numerically demonstrated. These atomistic computations obviously show the sensitivity with the aspect ratios. Finally, the alteration in the hole character has a prominent effect on dark-bright (DB excitonic splitting.

  15. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  16. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostatni, A.W.; Dostatni, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    In the main patent, a description was given of a heat exchanger with an exchange surface in preformed sheet metal designed for the high pressure and temperature service particularly encountered in nuclear pressurized water reactors and which is characterised by the fact that it is composed of at least one exchanger bundle sealed in a containment, the said bundle or bundles being composed of numerous juxtaposed individual compartments whose exchange faces are built of preformed sheet metal. The present addendun certificate concerns shapes of bundles and their positioning methods in the exchanger containment enabling its compactness to be increased [fr

  17. Ion beam induced modification of exchange interaction and spin-orbit coupling in the Co2FeSi Heusler compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrle, J; Blomeier, S; Gaier, O; Hillebrands, B; Schneider, H; Jakob, G; Reuscher, B; Brodyanski, A; Kopnarski, M; Postava, K; Felser, C

    2007-01-01

    A Co 2 FeSi (CFS) film with L2 1 structure was irradiated with different fluences of 30 keV Ga + ions. Structural modifications were subsequently studied using the longitudinal (LMOKE) and quadratic (QMOKE) magneto-optical Kerr effect. Both the coercivity and the LMOKE amplitude were found to show a similar behaviour upon irradiation: they are nearly constant up to ion fluences of ∼6 x 10 15 ion cm -2 , while they decrease with further increasing fluences and finally vanish at a fluence of ∼9 x 10 16 ion cm -2 , when the sample becomes paramagnetic. However, contrary to this behaviour, the QMOKE signal nearly vanishes even for the smallest applied fluence of 3 x 10 14 ion cm -2 . We attribute this reduction of the QMOKE signal to an irradiation-induced degeneration of second or higher order spin-orbit coupling, which already happens at small fluences of 30 keV Ga + ions. On the other hand, the reduction of coercivity and LMOKE signal with high ion fluences is probably caused by a reduction of the exchange interaction within the film material

  18. Effect of Coulomb interactions and Hartree-Fock exchange on structural, elastic, optoelectronic and magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}MnSi Heusler: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantri, T. [Laboratory of Technology and Solid’s Properties, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, BP 227, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria); Bentata, S., E-mail: sam_bentata@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Technology and Solid’s Properties, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, BP 227, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria); Bouadjemi, B.; Benstaali, W. [Laboratory of Technology and Solid’s Properties, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, BP 227, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria); Bouhafs, B. [Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science Laboratory, Djillali Liabès University of Sidi Bel-Abbès, 22000 Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Abbad, A. [Laboratory of Technology and Solid’s Properties, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, BP 227, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria); Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science Laboratory, Djillali Liabès University of Sidi Bel-Abbès, 22000 Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Zitouni, A. [Laboratory of Technology and Solid’s Properties, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, BP 227, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria)

    2016-12-01

    Using the first-principle calculations, we have investigated the structural, elastic, optoelectronic and magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}MnSi Heusler alloy. Based on the density functional theory (DFT) and hiring the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method, we have used five approaches: the Hybrid on-site exact exchange, the Local Spin Density Approximation (LSDA), the LSDA+U, the Generalized Gradient Approximation GGA and GGA+U; where the Hubbard on-site Coulomb interaction correction U is calculated by constraint local density approximation for Co and Mn atoms. Our results show that the highly-ordered Co{sub 2}MnSi alloy is a ductile, stiff and anisotropic material. It has a half-metallic ferromagnetic character with an integer magnetic moment of 5 µB which is in good agreement with the Slater-Pauling rule. - Highlights: • Each approach gives a half magnetic compound. • EECE gives the largest gap. • Elastic properties show a stiff, ductile and anisotropic material. • Electronic properties are similar for the five approaches. • Total magnetic moment is the same for the five approaches (5 µB).

  19. ‘Borderless’ Southeast Asia historiography: New scholarship on the interactions and exchanges between Southeast Asia and its South Asian and Chinese neighbours in the pre-1500 era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Hall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Nola Cooke, Li Tana and James A. Anderson (eds, The Tongking Gulf through history. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011, x + 223 pp. [Encounters with Asia Series.] ISBN 9780812243369. Price: USD 59.95 (hardback.Derek Heng, Sino-Malay trade and diplomacy from the tenth through the fourteenth century. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2009, xiii + 286 pp. [Research in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series 121.] ISBN 9780896802711. Price: USD 28.00 (paperback.Hermann Kulke, K. Kesavapany and Vijay Sakhuja (eds, Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa: Reflections on the Chola naval expeditions to Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2009, xxv + 337 pp. [Nalanda-Sriwijaya Series.] ISBN 9789812509365, price: USD 39.90 (hardback; 9789812309372, USD 59.90 (paperback.Pierre-Yves Manguin, A. Mani and Geoff Wade (eds, Early interactions between South and Southeast Asia: Reflections on cross-cultural exchange. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011, xxxi + 514 pp. [Nalanda-Sriwijaya Series.] ISBN 9789814345101, price USD 49.90 (paperback; 9789814311168, USD 59.90 (hardback. [India Hardcover Edition co-published with Manohar Publishers and Distributors, India.]Geoff Wade and Sun Laichen (eds, Southeast Asia in the fifteenth century: The China factor. Singapore: NUS Press; Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010, xii + 508 pp. ISBN 9789971694487. Price: USD 32.00.

  20. Inner-shell spectroscopy and exchange interaction of Rydberg electrons bound by singly and doubly charged Kr and Xe atoms in small clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Masanari; Hatsui, Takaki; Setoyama, Hiroyuki; Ruehl, Eckart; Kosugi, Nobuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Surface-site resolved Kr 3d 5/2 -1 5p and 3d 5/2 -1 6p and Xe 4d 5/2 -1 6p and 4d 5/2 -1 7p Rydberg excited states in small van der Waals Kr and Xe clusters with a mean size of = 15 are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, surface-site resolved Kr 4s -2 5p, 4s -2 6p, and 4s -1 4p -1 5p shakeup-like Rydberg states in small Kr clusters are investigated by resonant Auger electron spectroscopy. The exchange interaction of the Rydberg electron with the surrounding atoms and the induced polarization of the surrounding atoms in the singly and doubly ionized atoms are deduced from the experimental spectra to analyze different surface-site contributions in small clusters, assuming that the corner, edge, face, and bulk sites have 3, 5-6, 8, and 12 nearest neighbor atoms. These energies are almost proportional to the number of the nearest neighbor atoms. The present analysis indicates that small Kr and Xe clusters with = 15 have an average or mixture structure between the fcc-like cubic and icosahedron-like spherical structures.

  1. Electron paramagnetic resonance line shifts and line shape changes due to heisenberg spin exchange and dipole-dipole interactions of nitroxide free radicals in liquids 8. Further experimental and theoretical efforts to separate the effects of the two interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric, Mirna; Bales, Barney L; Peric, Miroslav

    2012-03-22

    The work in part 6 of this series (J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 4930), addressing the task of separating the effects of Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) and dipole-dipole interactions (DD) on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of nitroxide spin probes in solution, is extended experimentally and theoretically. Comprehensive measurements of perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (pDT) in squalane, a viscous alkane, paying special attention to lower temperatures and lower concentrations, were carried out in an attempt to focus on DD, the lesser understood of the two interactions. Theoretically, the analysis has been extended to include the recent comprehensive treatment by Salikhov (Appl. Magn. Reson. 2010, 38, 237). In dilute solutions, both interactions (1) introduce a dispersion component, (2) broaden the lines, and (3) shift the lines. DD introduces a dispersion component proportional to the concentration and of opposite sign to that of HSE. Equations relating the EPR spectral parameters to the rate constants due to HSE and DD have been derived. By employing nonlinear least-squares fitting of theoretical spectra to a simple analytical function and the proposed equations, the contributions of the two interactions to items 1-3 may be quantified and compared with the same parameters obtained by fitting experimental spectra. This comparison supports the theory in its broad predictions; however, at low temperatures, the DD contribution to the experimental dispersion amplitude does not increase linearly with concentration. We are unable to deduce whether this discrepancy is due to inadequate analysis of the experimental data or an incomplete theory. A new key aspect of the more comprehensive theory is that there is enough information in the experimental spectra to find items 1-3 due to both interactions; however, in principle, appeal must be made to a model of molecular diffusion to separate the two. The permanent diffusion model is used to

  2. INTERACTION OF SILVER MOLECULAR CLUSTERS, INTRODUCED BY LOW-TEMPERATURE ION EXCHANGE METHOD, WITH NANOPARTICLES OF CdS IN FLUORINE PHOSPHATE GLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Grazhdanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Glasses with metallic and semi-conductive nano-particles appear to be perspective non-linear and luminescent materials of photonics. It was shown in theory that composite optical materials containing semi-conductive CdS-core with Ag shell (or vice versa are optimal for enhancement of non-linear Kerr effect. Interaction of such an ensemble of particles leads to the forming of Ag island structures on the CdS particle, and formation of acanthite Ag2S on the two phases border (CdS-Ag is minimal. In glasses synthesis of CdS quantum dots occurred due to thermal treatment close to glass transition temperature; introduction of silver was realized by low-temperature ion exchange (LIE. The main object of this work is investigation of Ag+ -LIE effect on the growth of CdS nano-particles. Two glasses were explored in this work: without CdS (glass 1 and with CdS (glass 2, processed by LIE at the temperature of 320°С for 10, 20 and 30 minutes and subsequent heat treatment at temperatures of 410°С and 420°С. In case of glass 1, intensive luminescence appears as a result of LIE, and subsequent heat treatment results in surface resonance at λ=410 nm. In case of glass 2, absorbance spectra change appears that is specific for formation of acanthite and weak luminescence shifting to long-wavelength region (from 550 to 700 nm as a result of applying LIE and heat treatment. It indicates the growth of CdS quantum dots. Experiment has shown that quantum efficiency increases to 70% for glass 2 containing CdS quantum dots without LIE, while glass that contains silver shows steep decrease of quantum efficiency to 0%. That decrease is caused by formation of acanthite Ag2S on the surface of CdS quantum dot.

  3. Density-functional approaches to noncovalent interactions: a comparison of dispersion corrections (DFT-D), exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM) theory, and specialized functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lori A; Vázquez-Mayagoitia, Alvaro; Sumpter, Bobby G; Sherrill, C David

    2011-02-28

    A systematic study of techniques for treating noncovalent interactions within the computationally efficient density functional theory (DFT) framework is presented through comparison to benchmark-quality evaluations of binding strength compiled for molecular complexes of diverse size and nature. In particular, the efficacy of functionals deliberately crafted to encompass long-range forces, a posteriori DFT+dispersion corrections (DFT-D2 and DFT-D3), and exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM) theory is assessed against a large collection (469 energy points) of reference interaction energies at the CCSD(T) level of theory extrapolated to the estimated complete basis set limit. The established S22 [revised in J. Chem. Phys. 132, 144104 (2010)] and JSCH test sets of minimum-energy structures, as well as collections of dispersion-bound (NBC10) and hydrogen-bonded (HBC6) dissociation curves and a pairwise decomposition of a protein-ligand reaction site (HSG), comprise the chemical systems for this work. From evaluations of accuracy, consistency, and efficiency for PBE-D, BP86-D, B97-D, PBE0-D, B3LYP-D, B970-D, M05-2X, M06-2X, ωB97X-D, B2PLYP-D, XYG3, and B3LYP-XDM methodologies, it is concluded that distinct, often contrasting, groups of these elicit the best performance within the accessible double-ζ or robust triple-ζ basis set regimes and among hydrogen-bonded or dispersion-dominated complexes. For overall results, M05-2X, B97-D3, and B970-D2 yield superior values in conjunction with aug-cc-pVDZ, for a mean absolute deviation of 0.41 - 0.49 kcal/mol, and B3LYP-D3, B97-D3, ωB97X-D, and B2PLYP-D3 dominate with aug-cc-pVTZ, affording, together with XYG3/6-311+G(3df,2p), a mean absolute deviation of 0.33 - 0.38 kcal/mol.

  4. Mapping the influence of molecular structure on rates of electron transfer using direct measurements of the electron spin-spin exchange interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Aaron S; Bushard, Patrick J; Weiss, Emily A; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2003-04-02

    The spin-spin exchange interaction, 2J, in a radical ion pair produced by a photoinduced electron transfer reaction can provide a direct measure of the electronic coupling matrix element, V, for the subsequent charge recombination reaction. We have developed a series of dyad and triad donor-acceptor molecules in which 2J is measured directly as a function of incremental changes in their structures. In the dyads the chromophoric electron donors 4-(N-pyrrolidinyl)- and 4-(N-piperidinyl)naphthalene-1,8-dicarboximide, 5ANI and 6ANI, respectively, and a naphthalene-1,8:4,5-bis(dicarboximide) (NI) acceptor are linked to the meta positions of a phenyl spacer to yield 5ANI-Ph-NI and 6ANI-Ph-NI. In the triads the same structure is used, except that the piperidine in 6ANI is replaced by a piperazine in which a para-X-phenyl, where X = H, F, Cl, MeO, and Me(2)N, is attached to the N' nitrogen to form a para-X-aniline (XAn) donor to give XAn-6ANI-Ph-NI. Photoexcitation yields the respective 5ANI(+)-Ph-NI(-), 6ANI(+)-Ph-NI(-), and XAn(+)-6ANI-Ph-NI(-) singlet radical ion pair states, which undergo subsequent radical pair intersystem crossing followed by charge recombination to yield (3)NI. The radical ion pair distances within the dyads are about 11-12 A, whereas those in the triads are about approximately 16-19 A. The degree of delocalization of charge (and spin) density onto the aniline, and therefore the average distance between the radical ion pairs, is modulated by the para substituent. The (3)NI yields monitored spectroscopically exhibit resonances as a function of magnetic field, which directly yield 2J for the radical ion pairs. A plot of ln 2J versus r(DA), the distance between the centroids of the spin distributions of the two radicals that comprise the pair, yields a slope of -0.5 +/- 0.1. Since both 2J and k(CR), the rate of radical ion pair recombination, are directly proportional to V(2), the observed distance dependence of 2J shows directly that the recombination

  5. Exchange effects in Relativistic Schroedinger Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigg, T.; Sorg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Relativistic Schroedinger Theory predicts the occurrence of exchange and overlap effects in many-particle systems. For a 2-particle system, the interaction energy of the two particles consists of two contributions: Coulomb energy and exchange energy, where the first one is revealed to be the same as in standard quantum theory. However the exchange energy is mediated by an exchange potential, contrary to the kinematical origin of the exchange term in the standard theory

  6. First-order exchange coefficient coupling for simulating surface water-groundwater interactions: Parameter sensitivity and consistency with a physics-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, B.A.; Mirus, B.B.; Heppner, C.S.; VanderKwaak, J.E.; Loague, K.

    2009-01-01

    Distributed hydrologic models capable of simulating fully-coupled surface water and groundwater flow are increasingly used to examine problems in the hydrologic sciences. Several techniques are currently available to couple the surface and subsurface; the two most frequently employed approaches are first-order exchange coefficients (a.k.a., the surface conductance method) and enforced continuity of pressure and flux at the surface-subsurface boundary condition. The effort reported here examines the parameter sensitivity of simulated hydrologic response for the first-order exchange coefficients at a well-characterized field site using the fully coupled Integrated Hydrology Model (InHM). This investigation demonstrates that the first-order exchange coefficients can be selected such that the simulated hydrologic response is insensitive to the parameter choice, while simulation time is considerably reduced. Alternatively, the ability to choose a first-order exchange coefficient that intentionally decouples the surface and subsurface facilitates concept-development simulations to examine real-world situations where the surface-subsurface exchange is impaired. While the parameters comprising the first-order exchange coefficient cannot be directly estimated or measured, the insensitivity of the simulated flow system to these parameters (when chosen appropriately) combined with the ability to mimic actual physical processes suggests that the first-order exchange coefficient approach can be consistent with a physics-based framework. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Towards automatic exchange of information

    OpenAIRE

    Oberson, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the various steps that led towards automatic exchange of information as the global standard and the issues that remain to be solved. First, the various competing models of exchange information, such as Double Tax Treaty (DTT), TIEA's, FATCA or UE Directives are described with a view to show how they interact between themselves. Second, the so-called Rubik Strategy is summarized and compared with an automatic exchange of information (AEOI). The third part then describes ...

  8. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  9. Infrared Zeeman study of the Nd.sup.3+./sup.-Cu.sup.2+./sup. anisotropic exchange interaction in Nd.sub.2./sub.CuO.sub.4./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richard, P.; Jandl, S.; Poirier, M.; Furnier, P.; Nekvasil, Vladimír; Sadowski, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2005), 014506/1-014506/10 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : cuprate superconductors * Nd 2 CuO 4 * Zeeman and Stark splitting * anisotropic exchange interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.185, year: 2005

  10. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...

  11. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  12. Exchange functional by a range-separated exchange hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Masayuki; Ozaki, Taisuke

    2011-01-01

    An approximation to the exchange-hole density is proposed for the evaluation of the exact exchange energy in electronic structure calculations within the density-functional theory and the Kohn-Sham scheme. Based on the localized nature of density matrix, the exchange hole is divided into the short-range (SR) and long-range (LR) parts by using an adequate filter function, where the LR part is deduced by matching of moments with the exactly calculated SR counterpart, ensuring the correct asymptotic -1/r behavior of the exchange potential. With this division, the time-consuming integration is truncated at a certain interaction range, largely reducing the computation cost. The total energies, exchange energies, exchange potentials, and eigenvalues of the highest-occupied orbitals are calculated for the noble-gas atoms. The close agreement of the results with the exact values suggests the validity of the approximation.

  13. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  14. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  15. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  16. Heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof

  17. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  18. Exchange rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Bev

    2003-09-01

    IN MAY this year, I was lucky enough to go to Larissa in northern Greece as part of Hope Exchange 2003, an annual study tour organised by the European Union's hospital committee and administered by the Institute of Healthcare Management (IHM).

  19. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  20. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type is described in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration

  1. Investigations on the micro-scale surface interactions at the tool and workpiece interface in micro-manufacturing of bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Mevlut Fatih

    Micro-forming studies have been more attractive in recent years because of miniaturization trend. One of the promising metal forming processes, micro-stamping, provides durability, strength, surface finish, and low cost for metal products. Hence, it is considered a prominent method for fabricating bipolar plates (BPP) with micro-channel arrays on large metallic surfaces to be used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC). Major concerns in micro-stamping of high volume BPPs are surface interactions between micro-stamping dies and blank metal plates, and tribological changes. These concerns play a critical role in determining the surface quality, channel formation, and dimensional precision of bipolar plates. The surface quality of BPP is highly dependent on the micro-stamping die surface, and process conditions due to large ratios of surface area to volume (size effect) that cause an increased level of friction and wear issues at the contact interface. Due to the high volume and fast production rates, BPP surface characteristics such as surface roughness, hardness, and stiffness may change because of repeated interactions between tool (micro-forming die) and workpiece (sheet blank of interest). Since the surface characteristics of BPPs have a strong effect on corrosion and contact resistance of bipolar plates, and consequently overall fuel cell performance, evolution of surface characteristics at the tool and workpiece should be monitored, controlled, and kept in acceptable ranges throughout the long production cycles to maintain the surface quality. Compared to macro-forming operations, tribological changes in micro-forming process are bigger challenges due to their dominance and criticality. Therefore, tribological size effect should be considered for better understanding of tribological changes in micro-scale. The integrity of process simulation to the experiments, on the other hand, is essential. This study describes an approach that aims to investigate

  2. Comparison of 18O Isotopic Exchange After and During the Interaction of N2O, NO and NO2 with Fe Ions in Ferrierites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Jana; Sobalík, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 89, 3/4 (2003), s. 243-247 ISSN 1011-372X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4040016; GA MŠk OC D15.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : Fe-ferrierite * N oxides * 18O2 exchange Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.581, year: 2003

  3. Analysis of radiation-natural convection interactions in 1-G and low-G environments using the discrete exchange factor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassemi, M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a new numerical method is presented for the analysis of combined natural convection and radiation heat transfer which has application in many engineering situations such as materials processing, combustion and fire research. Because of the recent interest in the performance of these engineering processes in the low-gravity environment of space, attention is devoted to both 1-g and low-g applications. The numerical study is based on a two-dimensional mathematical model represented by a set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy and the integro-differential equations which describe radiative heat transfer. Radiative exchange is formulated using the discrete exchange factor method (DEF). This method considers point to point exchange and provides accurate results over a wide range of radiation parameters. The desirable features of DEF are briefly described. Our numerical results show that radiation significantly influences the flow and heat transfer in the enclosure. In both low-g and 1-g applications, radiation modifies the temperature profiles and enhances the convective heat transfer at the cold wall. In a low-g environment, convection is weak, and radiation can easily become the dominant heat transfer mode. It is also shown that in the top-heated enclosure, volumetric heating by radiation gives rise to an intricate cell pattern in the cavity

  4. Intermolecular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.G.; Rodimova, O.B.; AN SSSR, Tomsk. Inst. Optiki Atmosfery)

    1978-01-01

    The present state of the intermolecular interaction theory is described. The general physical picture of the molecular interactions is given, the relative contributions of interactions of different types are analyzed (electrostatic, resonance, induction, dispersion, relativistic, magnetostatic and exchange), and the main ones in each range of separations are picked out. The methods of the potential curve calculations are considered, specific for definite separations between the interacting systems. The special attention is paid to the analysis of approximations used in different theoretical calculation methods

  5. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  6. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A heat exchanger such as forms, for example, part of a power steam boiler is made up of a number of tubes that may be arranged in many different ways, and it is necessary that the tubes be properly supported. The means by which the tubes are secured must be as simple as possible so as to facilitate construction and must be able to continue to function effectively under the varying operating conditions to which the heat exchanger is subject. The arrangement described is designed to meet these requirements, in an improved way. The tubes are secured to a member extending past several tubes and abutment means are provided. At least some of the abutment means comprise two abutment pieces and a wedge secured to the supporting member, that acts on these pieces to maintain the engagement. (U.K.)

  7. Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1976-04-01

    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  8. Earth heat exchangers - function and interaction with the geologic underground. Erdwaermesonden - Funktionsweise und Wechselwirkung mit dem geologischen Untergrund; Feldmessungen und Modellsimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eugster, W J

    1991-01-01

    Since 1980 almost 4'000 space heating systems using vertical earth heat exchangers (VHE's) have been commissioned in Switzerland, the majority for private houses. Probe lengths vary between 30 and 150 m. A VHE extracts heat from the ground, supplying a heat pump, which then provides energy to the heating system at an appropriate temperature. For the study reported in this thesis a commercially supplied plant in Elgg in the canton of Zurich equipped with a single 103 m long VHE has been investigated in detail. The temperatures in the ground at 10 different depths and 2 different radial distances from the VHE have been measured at 30 minute intervals over a five year period. In addition, the atmospheric temperature and all parameters relevant to the operation of the entire system have also been monitored. In the selection of equipment, special attention was given to ensuring high absolute precision temperature measurement over the extended period of study. The platinum resistance sensors were carefully pre-aged and individually calibrated. The resulting accuracy of measurement in the field has been better than [+-]0.1[sup o]C. The development of the software for data acquisition and processing has formed part of this work. Measured data were used to calibrate a two-dimensional, cylindrical coordinate numerical computer model. This model was selected because of the coaxial construction of the VHE. The model treats conduction in the ground formation, advection in the heat exchanger tubes and heat exchange between ground and atmosphere. Measurements and computations both indicate the development of a permanent, cusp-like distribution of temperature deficit around the VHE during the first two years of operation. (author) figs., tabs., 45 refs.

  9. First-principles study of mechanical, exchange interactions and the robustness in Co{sub 2}MnSi full Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akriche, A., E-mail: akricheahmed@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Microscope Electronique et Sciences des Matériaux, Université d’Oran des Sciences et de la Technologie-USTO, Mohamed Boudiaf, Faculté de physique, Département de Génie Physique, Oran (Algeria); Bouafia, H. [Laboratoire de Génie Physique, Université Ibn-Khaldoun, Tiaret 14000 (Algeria); Hiadsi, S. [Laboratoire de Microscope Electronique et Sciences des Matériaux, Université d’Oran des Sciences et de la Technologie-USTO, Mohamed Boudiaf, Faculté de physique, Département de Génie Physique, Oran (Algeria); Abidri, B. [Laboratoire des Matériaux Magnétiques, Université Djillali Liabés, Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Sahli, B. [Laboratoire de Génie Physique, Université Ibn-Khaldoun, Tiaret 14000 (Algeria); Elchikh, M.; Timaoui, M.A.; Djebour, B. [Laboratoire de Microscope Electronique et Sciences des Matériaux, Université d’Oran des Sciences et de la Technologie-USTO, Mohamed Boudiaf, Faculté de physique, Département de Génie Physique, Oran (Algeria)

    2017-01-15

    In this work we report the results of ab-initio studies of structural, mechanical, electronic and magnetic properties of Co based Co{sub 2}MnSi Heusler compound in stoichiometric composition. All of which are accurately calculated by the full-potential (FP-LMTO) program combined with the spin polarized generalized gradient approximation in the density functional formalism (DFT). The total energy calculations clearly favor the ferromagnetic ground state. The lattice parameter, elastic constants and their related parameters were also evaluated and compared to experimental and theoretical values whenever possible. In this paper, the electronic properties are treated with GGA+U approach. The magnetic exchange constants temperature has been calculated using a mean field-approximation (MFA). The half-metal to metal transition was observed around 40 GPa. Increasing pressure has no impact on the total magnetic moment or the overall shape of the band structure that indicates the robustness of the electronic structure of this system. - Highlights: • In this work, we have studied some physical properties of Co{sub 2}MnSi Heusler compound. • The exchange-correlation energy is treated within GGA and (GGA+U) approximation. • The electronic band structure shows that Co{sub 2}MnSi is a half-metallic compound.

  10. An inelastic neutron scattering determination of the temperature dependence of the 3d-4f exchange interaction in Sm2Fe17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodovnikov, Anton; Loewenhaupt, Michael; Moze, Oscar; Kuz'min, Michael D.; Bewley, Robert

    2002-01-01

    High energy transfer inelastic neutron scattering has been used to investigate the temperature dependence in the range from 20 to 450 K of the intermultiplet transition E inter in the intermetallic compound Sm 2 Fe 17 . The peak due to this transition, observed in the inelastic neutron spectrum, shifts to lower energies with increasing temperature. From the temperature dependence of E inter , the temperature dependence of the exchange field B ex acting on the Sm ion has been established experimentally, as the energy of the intermultiplet transition provides a direct value for the exchange field. At the highest measured temperature T=450 K, which is above the Curie point of 389 K for this compound, the transition energy is situated just above the bare spin-orbit splitting for Sm 3+ . The method utilized in the present investigation offers a rather easy and direct way to determine B ex in a large range of Sm intermetallics, which form an interesting class of hard magnetic materials

  11. Characterization of protein/ligand interactions by 1H/3H exchange: application to the hAsf1/ histone H3 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, G.

    2007-05-01

    In the first chapter will be exposed the main current methods of identification to high debit of the interactions protein-protein. Then the methods allowing to characterize the surfaces of interaction or to determine the structures of the complexes will be listed by discussing the main advantages and the inconveniences. Our approach of characterization of the zones of interaction protein-protein is a method of 'foot-printing' 1, based on the identification and radicals' quantification formed on the residues of proteins accessible to the water. The second chapter will so discuss the development of this method of radical identification using the atom of tritium as radioactive label. Our approach will finally be validated in the third chapter by applying it to the characterization of amino acids involved in the interaction enter the human protein anti silencing factor 1 (hAsf11-156) and a fragment of the histone H 3 . (N.C.)

  12. Exchanging information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The Agency has a statutory mandate to foster 'the exchange of scientific and technical information on the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. The prime responsibility for this work within the Agency lies with the Division of Scientific and Technical Information, a part of the Department of Technical Operations. The Division accomplishes its task by holding conferences and symposia (Scientific Conferences Section), through the Agency Library, by publishing scientific journals, and through the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The Computer Section of the Division, which offers services to the Agency as a whole, provides resources for the automation of data storage and retrieval. (author)

  13. Matchmaker Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreira, Nara L M; Arachchi, Harindra; Buske, Orion J; Chong, Jessica X; Hutton, Ben; Foreman, Julia; Schiettecatte, François; Groza, Tudor; Jacobsen, Julius O B; Haendel, Melissa A; Boycott, Kym M; Hamosh, Ada; Rehm, Heidi L

    2017-10-18

    In well over half of the individuals with rare disease who undergo clinical or research next-generation sequencing, the responsible gene cannot be determined. Some reasons for this relatively low yield include unappreciated phenotypic heterogeneity; locus heterogeneity; somatic and germline mosaicism; variants of uncertain functional significance; technically inaccessible areas of the genome; incorrect mode of inheritance investigated; and inadequate communication between clinicians and basic scientists with knowledge of particular genes, proteins, or biological systems. To facilitate such communication and improve the search for patients or model organisms with similar phenotypes and variants in specific candidate genes, we have developed the Matchmaker Exchange (MME). MME was created to establish a federated network connecting databases of genomic and phenotypic data using a common application programming interface (API). To date, seven databases can exchange data using the API (GeneMatcher, PhenomeCentral, DECIPHER, MyGene2, matchbox, Australian Genomics Health Alliance Patient Archive, and Monarch Initiative; the latter included for model organism matching). This article guides usage of the MME for rare disease gene discovery. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  14. Heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, F; Yanagida, T; Fujie, K; Futawatari, H

    1975-04-30

    The purpose of this construction is the improvement of heat transfer in finned tube heat exchangers, and therefore the improvement of its efficiency or its output per unit volume. This is achieved by preventing the formation of flow boundary layers in gaseous fluid. This effect always occurs on flow of smooth adjacent laminae, and especially if these have pipes carrying liquid passing through them; it worsens the heat transfer of such a boundary layer considerably compared to that in the turbulent range. The fins, which have several rows of heat exchange tubes passing through them, are fixed at a small spacing on theses tubes. The fins have slots cut in them by pressing or punching, where the pressed-out material remains as a web, which runs parallel to the level of the fin and at a small distance from it. These webs and slots are arranged radially around every tube hole, e.g. 6 in number. For a suitable small tube spacing, two adjacent tubes opposite each other have one common slot. Many variants of such slot arrangements are illustrated.

  15. Gas-particle interactions above a Dutch heathland: I. Surface exchange fluxes of NH3, SO2, HNO3 and HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nemitz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A field measurement campaign was carried out over a Dutch heathland to investigate the effect of gas-to-particle conversion and ammonium aerosol evaporation on surface/atmosphere fluxes of ammonia and related species. Continuous micrometeorological measurements of the surface exchange of NH3, SO2, HNO3 and HCl were made and are analyzed here with regard to average fluxes, deposition velocities (Vd, canopy resistances (Rc and canopy compensation point for NH3. Gradients of SO2, HNO3 and HCl were measured with a novel wet-denuder system with online anion chromatography. Measurements of HNO3 and HCl indicate an Rc of 100 to 200 s m-1 during warm daytime periods, probably at least partly due to non-zero acid partial pressures above NH4NO3 and NH4Cl on the leaf surfaces. Although it is likely that this observation is exacerbated by the effect of the evaporation of airborne NH4+ on the gradient measurements, the findings nevertheless add to the growing evidence that HNO3 and HCl are not always deposited at the maximum rate. Ammonia (NH3 fluxes show mainly deposition, with some periods of significant daytime emission. The net exchange could be reproduced both with an Rc model (deposition fluxes only using resistance parameterizations from former measurements, as well as with the canopy compensation point model, using parameterizations derived from the measurements. The apoplastic ratio of ammonium and hydrogen concentration (Γs=[NH4+]/[H+] of 1200 estimated from the measurements is large for semi-natural vegetation, but smaller than indicated by previous measurements at this site.

  16. Gas-particle interactions above a Dutch heathland: I. Surface exchange fluxes of NH3, SO2, HNO3 and HCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.; Wyers, G. P.; Jongejan, P. A. C.

    2004-07-01

    A field measurement campaign was carried out over a Dutch heathland to investigate the effect of gas-to-particle conversion and ammonium aerosol evaporation on surface/atmosphere fluxes of ammonia and related species. Continuous micrometeorological measurements of the surface exchange of NH3, SO2, HNO3 and HCl were made and are analyzed here with regard to average fluxes, deposition velocities (Vd), canopy resistances (Rc) and canopy compensation point for NH3. Gradients of SO2, HNO3 and HCl were measured with a novel wet-denuder system with online anion chromatography. Measurements of HNO3 and HCl indicate an Rc of 100 to 200 s m-1 during warm daytime periods, probably at least partly due to non-zero acid partial pressures above NH4NO3 and NH4Cl on the leaf surfaces. Although it is likely that this observation is exacerbated by the effect of the evaporation of airborne NH4+ on the gradient measurements, the findings nevertheless add to the growing evidence that HNO3 and HCl are not always deposited at the maximum rate. Ammonia (NH3) fluxes show mainly deposition, with some periods of significant daytime emission. The net exchange could be reproduced both with an Rc model (deposition fluxes only) using resistance parameterizations from former measurements, as well as with the canopy compensation point model, using parameterizations derived from the measurements. The apoplastic ratio of ammonium and hydrogen concentration (Γs=[NH4+]/[H+]) of 1200 estimated from the measurements is large for semi-natural vegetation, but smaller than indicated by previous measurements at this site.

  17. Exchanging information

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Christine

    1991-01-01

    This is part of a series of books, which gives training in key business communication skills. Emphasis is placed on building awareness of language appropriateness and fluency in typical business interactions. This new edition is in full colour.

  18. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  19. Beyond bridging the know-do gap: a qualitative study of systemic interaction to foster knowledge exchange in the public health sector in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Driessen Mareeuw, Francine; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Klerkx, Laurens; Naaldenberg, Jenneken; Koelen, Maria

    2015-09-19

    Despite considerable attention currently being given to facilitating the use of research results in public health practice, several concerns remain, resulting in the so-called know-do gap. This article aims to identify the key tensions causing the know-do gap from a broad perspective by using a systemic approach and considering the public health sector as an innovation system. An exploratory qualitative design including in-depth semi-structured interviews was used, with 33 interviewees from different actor categories in the Dutch public health innovation system. The analyses employed an innovation system matrix to highlight the principal tensions causing the know-do gap. Seven key tensions were identified, including: research priorities determined by powerful players; no consensus about criteria for knowledge quality; different perceptions about the knowledge broker role; competition engendering fragmentation; thematic funding engendering fragmentation; predominance of passive knowledge sharing; and lack of capacity among users to use and influence research. The identified tensions indicate that bridging the know-do gap requires much more than linking research to practice or translating knowledge. An innovation system perspective is crucial in providing information on the total picture of knowledge exchange within the Dutch public health sector. Such a system includes broader stakeholder involvement as well as the creation of social, economic, and contextual conditions (achieving shared visions, building networks, institutional change, removing financial and infrastructural barriers), as these create conducive factors at several system levels and induce knowledge co-creation and innovation.

  20. Crystal-field and Nd-Mn exchange interaction in Nd{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beznosov, A; Fertman, E; Desnenko, V; Loginov, A [B Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, NASU, 47 Lenin Ave., 61103 Kharkov (Ukraine); Feher, A; Kajnakova, M, E-mail: fertman@ilt.kharkov.u [Centre of Low Temperature Physics of the Faculty of Science of P.J. Safarik University and IEP SAS, Park Angelinum 9, SK-04154 Kotice (Slovakia)

    2010-01-01

    A study of the low field magnetization and specific heat in magnetic fields up to 9 T of Nd{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} perovskite in the 2-30 K temperature range has been done. All the specific heat data show broadened Schottky-like anomaly below 20 K. We suppose that such a behavior originates from the Nd magnetic ordering caused by the splitting of the Nd{sup 3+} ions ground-state doublet (GSD) in the effective molecular field H{sub ex} of Mn spin system supplemented by an applied external magnetic field. The zero field GSD splitting is an evidence of a strong exchange coupling between Nd and Mn magnetic subsystems. The Nd-ions magnetic ordering introduces an additional contribution to the ferromagnetic moment producing anomalies of the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetizations of the system below 28 K. The broadened Schottky-like anomalies found are fitted for every field by a set of three Schottky functions. Applied magnetic field extends the anomaly region and shifts it to the higher temperatures. Splitting of the higher crystal field Kramers doublets gives an additional contribution to the heat capacity under magnetic fields. The GSD g-factors g{sub ||} and g{sub p}erpendicular was estimated as 3.4 and 2.2, respectively, and H{sub ex} as 9 T.

  1. An orientation sensitive approach in biomolecule interaction quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling and its application in ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelmann, Jörg; Lang, Katharina M H; Ottens, Marcel; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2017-01-27

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling for prediction of biomolecule parameters has become an established technique in chromatographic purification process design. Unfortunately available descriptor sets fail to describe the orientation of biomolecules and the effects of ionic strength in the mobile phase on the interaction with the stationary phase. The literature describes several special descriptors used for chromatographic retention modeling, all of these do not describe the screening of electrostatic potential by the mobile phase in use. In this work we introduce two new approaches of descriptor calculations, namely surface patches and plane projection, which capture an oriented binding to charged surfaces and steric hindrance of the interaction with chromatographic ligands with regard to electrostatic potential screening by mobile phase ions. We present the use of the developed descriptor sets for predictive modeling of Langmuir isotherms for proteins at different pH values between pH 5 and 10 and varying ionic strength in the range of 10-100mM. The resulting model has a high correlation of calculated descriptors and experimental results, with a coefficient of determination of 0.82 and a predictive coefficient of determination of 0.92 for unknown molecular structures and conditions. The agreement of calculated molecular interaction orientations with both, experimental results as well as molecular dynamic simulations from literature is shown. The developed descriptors provide the means for improved QSAR models of chromatographic processes, as they reflect the complex interactions of biomolecules with chromatographic phases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanism of cis- and trans-substrate interactions at the tetraethylammonium/H+ exchanger of rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, S.H.; Wunz, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    The kinetic basis for trans-effects of intravesicular substrates on the uptake of the organic cation, tetraethylammonium (TEA), into rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) was studied. Preloading BBMV with 1, 2, or 4 mM TEA stimulated the initial rate of uptake and the total net accumulation of 0.1 mM [ 3 H]TEA. The stimulatory effect of intravesicular TEA on the initial rate of uptake was a saturable function of the trans-TEA concentration, with a half-maximal effect noted at an intravesicular concentration of 0.28 mM. A 1 mM trans-concentration of TEA increased the Jmax of [ 3 H]TEA uptake (from 4.3 to 6.8 nmol.mg-1.min-1) without affecting the apparent Kt. An outwardly directed H+ gradient also increased Jmax (to 10.7 nmol.mg-1.min-1), although the addition of an outwardly directed TEA gradient did not produce further increases in the rate of TEA uptake. External H+ acted as a competitive inhibitor of TEA uptake, and an increase in external [H+] (from 32 nM to 100 nM) produced an increase in the apparent Kt for TEA transport (from 0.12 to 0.26 mM) without affecting the Jmax. The results suggested that TEA and H+ compete for a common site or set of mutually exclusive sites on the cytoplasmic and luminal aspects of TEA/H+ exchanger in the renal brush border, and that these sites have a similar affinity for TEA

  3. The interaction of soil phototrophs and fungi with pH and their impact on soil CO2, CO18O and OCS exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauze, Joana; Ogée, Jérôme; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Crouzet, Olivier; Nowak, Virginie; Wohl, Steven; Kaisermann, Aurore; Jones, Sam P; Wingate, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    The stable oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO 2 and the mixing ratio of carbonyl sulphide (OCS) are potential tracers of biospheric CO 2 fluxes at large scales. However, the use of these tracers hinges on our ability to understand and better predict the activity of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) in different soil microbial groups, including phototrophs. Because different classes of the CA family (α, β and γ) may have different affinities to CO 2 and OCS and their expression should also vary between different microbial groups, differences in the community structure could impact the 'community-integrated' CA activity differently for CO 2 and OCS. Four soils of different pH were incubated in the dark or with a diurnal cycle for forty days to vary the abundance of native phototrophs. Fluxes of CO 2 , CO 18 O and OCS were measured to estimate CA activity alongside the abundance of bacteria, fungi and phototrophs. The abundance of soil phototrophs increased most at higher soil pH. In the light, the strength of the soil CO 2 sink and the CA-driven CO 2 -H 2 O isotopic exchange rates correlated with phototrophs abundance. OCS uptake rates were attributed to fungi whose abundance was positively enhanced in alkaline soils but only in the presence of increased phototrophs. Our findings demonstrate that soil-atmosphere CO 2 , OCS and CO 18 O fluxes are strongly regulated by the microbial community structure in response to changes in soil pH and light availability and supports the idea that different members of the microbial community express different classes of CA, with different affinities to CO 2 and OCS.

  4. Experimental study on the influence of charge exchange on the stopping power in the interaction of chlorine with a gas and a deuterium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nectoux, Marie

    1998-01-01

    This thesis is placed in the context of the physics of energy deposition of a multicharged heavy ion beam in matter at intermediate energies. The experiment gave measurements of energy loss as a function of final charge state for chlorine ions at 1.7 MeV/u in deuterium gas or plasma. In this way, we explore the influence of charge state evolution, depending on experimentally measured capture and ionization cross sections and the electron density of the target, on energy loss. The target is cylindrical and enclosed by two fast valves. The plasma is created in the gas by a discharge, which induces a magnetic perturbation of the beam (lens effect). This effect induces a divergent and misaligned outgoing beam. A simulation including charge state and velocity evolution of the projectile in flight in the magnetic field has been made in order to optimize beam analysis, to reach a precision better than 10 -3 in energy measurement. This study led to removal of the target to the 'Split Pole', a refocusing magnetic spectrometer. The first results obtained clearly show the dependence of energy loss on exit charge and especially on its evolution in the target. This is explained in terms of the lengths covered by the projectile in its successive charge states in the target, which depends on target electron density and the medium considered. In plasma, we observed an energy distribution with exit charge twice that observed in gas, because of a strong decrease of charge exchange. A comparison of data obtained in gas with stopping power calculated from Bethe-Bloch-Barkas theory leads to the necessity of including spatial extension of the projectile charge in the theory. (author)

  5. Magnetic interactions and magnetic anisotropy in exchange coupled 4f-3d systems: a case study of a heterodinuclear Ce3+-Fe3+ cyanide-bridged complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace, Lorenzo; Sangregorio, Claudio; Figuerola, Albert; Benelli, Cristiano; Gatteschi, Dante

    2009-01-01

    We report here a detailed single-crystal EPR and magnetic study of a homologous series of complexes of the type Ln-M (Ln = La(III), Ce(III); M = Fe(III), Co(III)). We were able to obtain a detailed picture of the low-lying levels of Ce(III) and Fe(III) centres through the combined use of single-crystal EPR and magnetic susceptibility data. We show that classical ligand field theory can be of great help in rationalising the energies of the low-lying levels of both the transition-metal and rare-earth ions. The combined analysis of single-crystal EPR and magnetic data of the coupled system Ce-Fe confirmed the great complexity of the interactions involving rare-earth elements. With little uncertainty, it turned out clearly that the description of the interaction involving the lowest lying spin levels requires the introduction of the isotropic, anisotropic and antisymmetric terms.

  6. Theoretical study of the magnetic exchange interaction in catena-μ-Tris[oxalato(2-)-O1,O2;O3,O4]-dicopper complex with interlocked helical chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negodaev, Igor; Queralt, Nuria; Caballol, Rosa; Graaf, Coen de

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: From electronic structure calculations on fragments to the magnetic susceptibility after resolving the magnetic topology. Research highlights: → Estimates of magnetic couplings in an extended structure with Cu bridged by oxalato. → Determination of the magnetic structure based on the calculated magnetic couplings. → Calculation of the magnetic susceptibility curve from the local magnetic couplings. - Abstract: The coupling of the spin moments has been studied in an oxalato-based 3D extended structure with Cu(II) ions as magnetic sites. The ab initio calculations reveal that two of the three different magnetic interaction paths are characterized by a strong coupling, while the third one presents weaker interaction. Based on these calculated values, the magnetic topology of the material is determined as an alternating chain with weak interchain coupling. A theoretical estimate of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is derived from the diagonalization of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian for a multi-center magnetic model with boundary conditions. The theoretical procedure can serve as guide in an experimental determination of the magnetic coupling parameters in 3D extended structure with oxalato-bridges as found in the hexagonal layers of the bifunctional materials.

  7. Study of ion exchange equilibrium and determination of heat of ion exchange by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kailu; Yang Wenying

    1996-01-01

    Ion chromatography using pellicularia ion exchange resins and dilute solution can be devoted to the study of ion exchange thermodynamics and kinetics. Ion exchange equilibrium equation was obtained, and examined by the experiments. Based on ion exchange equilibrium, the influence of eluent concentration and resin capacity on adjusted retention volumes was examined. The effect of temperature on adjusted retention volumes was investigated and heats of ion exchange of seven anions were determined by ion chromatography. The interaction between anions and skeleton structure of resins were observed

  8. The Picture Exchange Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, A; Frost, L

    2001-10-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an alternative/augmentative communication system that was developed to teach functional communication to children with limited speech. The approach is unique in that it teaches children to initiate communicative interactions within a social framework. This article describes the advantages to implementing PECS over traditional approaches. The PECS training protocol is described wherein children are taught to exchange a single picture for a desired item and eventually to construct picture-based sentences and use a variety of attributes in their requests. The relationship of PECS's implementation to the development of speech in previously nonvocal students is reviewed.

  9. Density functional studies on the exchange interaction of a dinuclear Gd(iii)-Cu(ii) complex: method assessment, magnetic coupling mechanism and magneto-structural correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, Gopalan; Totti, Federico; Bencini, Alessandro; Caneschi, Andrea; Sessoli, Roberta; Gatteschi, Dante

    2009-05-07

    Density functional calculations have been performed on a [Gd(iii)Cu(ii)] complex [L(1)CuGd(O(2)CCF(3))(3)(C(2)H(5)OH)(2)] () (where L(1) is N,N'-bis(3-ethoxy-salicylidene)-1,2-diamino-2-methylpropanato) with an aim of assessing a suitable functional within the DFT formalism to understand the mechanism of magnetic coupling and also to develop magneto-structural correlations. Encouraging results have been obtained in our studies where the application of B3LYP on the crystal structure of yields a ferromagnetic J value of -5.8 cm(-1) which is in excellent agreement with the experimental value of -4.42 cm(-1) (H = JS(Gd).S(Cu)). After testing varieties of functional for the method assessment we recommend the use of B3LYP with a combination of an effective core potential basis set. For all electron basis sets the relativistic effects should be incorporated either via the Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) or zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) methods. A breakdown approach has been adopted where the calculations on several model complexes of have been performed. Their wave functions have been analysed thereafter (MO and NBO analysis) in order to gain some insight into the coupling mechanism. The results suggest, unambiguously, that the empty Gd(iii) 5d orbitals have a prominent role on the magnetic coupling. These 5d orbitals gain partial occupancy via Cu(ii) charge transfer as well as from the Gd(iii) 4f orbitals. A competing 4f-3d interaction associated with the symmetry of the complex has also been observed. The general mechanism hence incorporates both contributions and sets forth rather a prevailing mechanism for the 3d-4f coupling. The magneto-structural correlations reveal that there is no unique parameter which the J values are strongly correlated with, but an exponential relation to the J value found for the O-Cu-O-Gd dihedral angle parameter is the most credible correlation.

  10. Exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Currencies can be under severe pressure in the foreign exchange market, but in a fixed (or managed) exchange rate regime that is not fully visible via the change in the exchange rate. Exchange market pressure (EMP) is a concept developed to nevertheless measure the pressure in such cases. This

  11. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  12. The Nd-Mn exchange interaction, low temperature specific heat and magnetism of Nd{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beznosov, Anatoly [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NASU, 47 Lenin Avenue, Kharkov 61103 (Ukraine); Fertman, Elena, E-mail: fertman@ilt.kharkov.ua [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NASU, 47 Lenin Avenue, Kharkov 61103 (Ukraine); Desnenko, Vladimir [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering NASU, 47 Lenin Avenue, Kharkov 61103 (Ukraine); Kajnakova, Marcela; Feher, Alexander [Centre of Low Temperature Physics of the Faculty of Science UPJS and IEP SAS, Park Angelinum 9, 04154 Kosice (Slovakia)

    2011-10-15

    The low temperature specific heat and magnetic characteristics of Nd{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} perovskite are studied in a wide range of magnetic fields (up to 9 T). Temperature dependent specific heat data show a broadened Schottky-like anomaly below 20 K caused by splitting of the Nd{sup 3+} ions ground-state doublet in the effective molecular field H{sub ex}, determined by exchange interaction between Nd and Mn spin systems supplemented by an applied external magnetic field. Existence of the splitting at zero magnetic field and expressed field dependence is the evidence of a strong exchange coupling between Nd and Mn magnetic subsystems. The Nd-ions magnetic ordering leads to an additional contribution to the magnetic moment of the system below 30 K, producing anomalies of the magnetic loss and field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetizations. The observed broadened Schottky-like anomalies are fitted for each applied magnetic field by the sum of three Schottky functions. Applied magnetic field extends the anomaly region and shifts it to higher temperatures. Splitting of the higher crystal field Kramers doublets gives an additional contribution to the heat capacity in magnetic fields. The ground state doublet g-factors g{sub ||} and g{sub perpendicular} were estimated to be 3.4 and 2.2, respectively, and H{sub ex} was estimated to be 9 T. The Nd{sup 3+} ions magnetic moment estimated from the magnetization data agrees with the value obtained from the specific heat data. - Highlights: > Low temperature specific heat of Nd{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} has been measured in magnetic fields up to 9 T. > Schottky-like anomalies are fitted for each magnetic field by a sum of three Schottky functions. > An effective magnetic field of the Mn spin system on Nd ion has been estimated as H{sub ex}=9 T. > Nd{sup 3+} ground-state g-factors have been estimated as g{sub ||}=3.4 and g{sub perpendicular} =2.2. > Magnetic ordering of the Nd subsystem has been revealed below

  13. Air-sea interactions and exchanges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A

    To support the idea that the Arabian Sea makes a significant contribution to biogeochemical ocean-atmosphere transfer processes, quantification of parameters such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia and dimethylsulphide was carried...

  14. Social Exchange in the Natural Helping Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Karen S.; Kenkel, Mary Beth

    1989-01-01

    Examines rewards and costs to "natural helpers," service-providers separate from any established group. Survey of 19 rural helpers identifies lack of appreciation, time and energy loss, and emotional-spiritual fatigue as costs of helping. Suggests mental health professionals collaborate with helpers. Recommends ways of enlisting helpers'…

  15. Isotopically exchangeable phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, N.O.

    1984-01-01

    A critique revision of isotope dilution is presented. The concepts and use of exchangeable phosphorus, the phosphate adsorption, the kinetics of isotopic exchange and the equilibrium time in soils are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. NCHRP peer exchange 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Peer exchanges for state department of transportation (DOT) research programs originated with : the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). That federal legislation : required the states to conduct periodic peer exchanges to...

  17. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  18. Fundamentals of ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the fundamentals of ion exchange mechanisms and their thermodynamics are described. A range of ion exchange materials is considered and problems of communication and technology transfer between scientists working in the field are discussed. (UK)

  19. A quantum mechanical study of water adsorption on the (110) surfaces of rutile SnO₂ and TiO₂: investigating the effects of intermolecular interactions using hybrid-exchange density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M; Sanches, F F; Mallia, G; Harrison, N M

    2014-10-21

    Periodic hybrid-exchange density functional theory calculations are used to explore the first layer of water at model oxide surfaces, which is an important step for understanding the photocatalytic reactions involved in solar water splitting. By comparing the structure and properties of SnO2(110) and TiO2(110) surfaces in contact with water, the effects of structural and electronic differences on the water chemistry are examined. The dissociative adsorption mode at low coverage (1/7 ML) up to monolayer coverage (1 ML) on both SnO2 and TiO2(110) surfaces is analysed. To investigate further the intermolecular interactions between adjacent adsorbates, monolayer adsorption on each surface is explored in terms of binding energies and bond lengths. Analysis of the water adsorption geometry and energetics shows that the relative stability of water adsorption on SnO2(110) is governed largely by the strength of the chemisorption and hydrogen bonds at the surface of the adsorbate-substrate system. However on TiO2(110), a more complicated scenario of the first layer of water on its surface arises in which there is an interplay between chemisorption, hydrogen bonding and adsorbate-induced atomic displacements in the surface. Furthermore the projected density of states of each surface in contact with a mixture of adsorbed water molecules and adsorbed hydroxyls is presented and sheds some light on the nature of the crystalline chemical bonds as well as on why adsorbed water has often been reported to be unstable on rutile SnO2(110).

  20. Exchange rate policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plačkov Slađana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small oscillations of exchange rate certainly affect the loss of confidence in the currency (Serbian dinar, CSD and because of the shallow market even the smallest change in the supply and demand leads to a shift in exchange rate and brings uncertainty. Some economists suggest that the course should be linked to inflation and thus ensure predictable and stable exchange rates. Real exchange rate or slightly depressed exchange rate will encourage the competitiveness of exporters and perhaps ensure the development of new production lines which, in terms of overvalued exchange rate, had no economic justification. Fixed exchange rate will bring lower interest rates, lower risk and lower business uncertainty (uncertainty avoidance, but Serbia will also reduce foreign exchange reserves by following this trend. On the other hand, a completely free exchange rate, would lead to a (real fall of Serbian currency, which in a certain period would lead to a significant increase in exports, but the consequences for businessmen and citizens with loans pegged to the euro exchange rate, would be disastrous. We will pay special attention to the depreciation of the exchange rate, as it is generally favorable to the export competitiveness of Serbia and, on the other hand, it leads to an increase in debt servicing costs of the government as well as of the private sector. Oscillations of the dinar exchange rate, appreciation and depreciation, sometimes have disastrous consequences on the economy, investors, imports and exports. In subsequent work, we will observe the movement of the dinar exchange rate in Serbia, in the time interval 2009-2012, in order to strike a balance and maintain economic equilibrium. A movement of foreign currencies against the local currency is controlled in the foreign exchange market, so in case economic interests require, The National Bank of Serbia (NBS, on the basis of arbitrary criteria, can intervene in the market.

  1. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed

  2. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Radioecology Exchange (www.radioecology-exchange.org) was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (www.er-alliance.org/), the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites www.star-radioecology.org and www.comet-radioecology.org. This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed dose estimations for

  3. Groundwater–Surface Water Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin

    The exchange of groundwater-surface water has been invetigated in the western part of Denmark. Holtum AA provides the framework for all the performed investigations. Several methods are used, primarily eld based measurements ombined with numerical models to achieve insight to the governing...... processes of interaction between groundwater and surface water. By using heat as a tracer it has been possible to use temperature directly as calibrationtargets in a groundwater and heat transport model. Thus, it is possible to use heat investigate the change in groundwater discharge in dynamic conditions...... by using simple temperature devices along a stream to delineate the areas of interest in regard to GW{SW exchange. Thus, at several locations in a stream a temperature data logger was placed in the water column and right at the streambed-water interface. By looking at the correlation of streambed...

  4. Automated exchange transfusion and exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funato, M; Shimada, S; Tamai, H; Taki, H; Yoshioka, Y

    1989-10-01

    An automated blood exchange transfusion (BET) with a two-site technique has been devised by Goldmann et al and by us, using an infusion pump. With this method, we successfully performed exchange transfusions 189 times in the past four years on 110 infants with birth weights ranging from 530 g to 4,000 g. The exchange rate by the automated method was compared with the rate by Diamond's method. Serum bilirubin (SB) levels before and after BET and the maximal SB rebound within 24 hours after BET were: 21.6 +/- 2.4, 11.5 +/- 2.2, and 15.0 +/- 1.5 mg/dl in the automated method, and 22.0 +/- 2.9, 11.2 +/- 2.5, and 17.7 +/- 3.2 mg/dl in Diamond's method, respectively. The result showed that the maximal rebound of the SB level within 24 hours after BET was significantly lower in the automated method than in Diamond's method (p less than 0.01), though SB levels before and after BET were not significantly different between the two methods. The exchange rate was also measured by means of staining the fetal red cells (F cells) both in the automated method and in Diamond's method, and comparing them. The exchange rate of F cells in Diamond's method went down along the theoretical exchange curve proposed by Diamond, while the rate in the automated method was significantly better than in Diamond's, especially in the early stage of BET (p less than 0.01). We believe that the use of this automated method may give better results than Diamond's method in the rate of exchange, because this method is performed with a two-site technique using a peripheral artery and vein.

  5. Knowledge exchange between agents in real-time environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter; Møller, Gert Lykke

    2005-01-01

    To obtain unpredictable social interaction between autonomous agents in real-time environments, we present a simple method for logic-based knowledge exchange. A method which is able to form new knowledge rather than do simple exchange of particular rules found in predetermined rule sets. The appl......To obtain unpredictable social interaction between autonomous agents in real-time environments, we present a simple method for logic-based knowledge exchange. A method which is able to form new knowledge rather than do simple exchange of particular rules found in predetermined rule sets...

  6. Local density approximations for relativistic exchange energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The use of local density approximations to approximate exchange interactions in relativistic electron systems is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the physical content of these exchange energies by discussing results for the uniform relativistic electron gas from a new point of view. Work on applying these local density approximations in atoms and solids is reviewed and it is concluded that good accuracy is usually possible provided self-interaction corrections are applied. The local density approximations necessary for spin-polarized relativistic systems are discussed and some new results are presented

  7. Biquadratic Exchange in CsMnxMg1-xBr3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, U.; Furrer, A.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1984-01-01

    The importance of higher-order exchange interaction in localized S-state systems is discussed. The equation of motion is solved for a one-dimensional antiferromagnet with bilinear and biquadratic exchange coupling. It is shown that the biquadratic exchange interaction usually cannot be derived from...

  8. Outlook for ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunin, R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the history and theory of ion exchange technology and discusses the usefulness of ion exchange resins which found broad applications in chemical operations. It is demonstrated that the theory of ion exchange technology seems to be moving away from the physical chemist back to the polymer chemist where it started originally. This but confronted the polymer chemists with some knotty problems. It is pointed out that one has still to learn how to use ion exchange materials as efficiently as possible in terms of the waste load that is being pumped into the environment. It is interesting to note that, whereas ion exchange is used for abating pollution, it is also a polluter. One must learn how to use ion exchange as an antipollution device, and at the same time minimize its polluting properties

  9. Charge exchange in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liyi; Mao, Junjie; de Plaa, Jelle; Raassen, A. J. J.; Shah, Chintan; Kaastra, Jelle S.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Though theoretically expected, the charge exchange emission from galaxy clusters has never been confidently detected. Accumulating hints were reported recently, including a rather marginal detection with the Hitomi data of the Perseus cluster. As previously suggested, a detection of charge exchange line emission from galaxy clusters would not only impact the interpretation of the newly discovered 3.5 keV line, but also open up a new research topic on the interaction between hot and cold matter in clusters. Aim. We aim to perform the most systematic search for the O VIII charge exchange line in cluster spectra using the RGS on board XMM-Newton. Methods: We introduce a sample of 21 clusters observed with the RGS. In order to search for O VIII charge exchange, the sample selection criterion is a >35σ detection of the O VIII Lyα line in the archival RGS spectra. The dominating thermal plasma emission is modeled and subtracted with a two-temperature thermal component, and the residuals are stacked for the line search. The systematic uncertainties in the fits are quantified by refitting the spectra with a varying continuum and line broadening. Results: By the residual stacking, we do find a hint of a line-like feature at 14.82 Å, the characteristic wavelength expected for oxygen charge exchange. This feature has a marginal significance of 2.8σ, and the average equivalent width is 2.5 × 10-4 keV. We further demonstrate that the putative feature can be barely affected by the systematic errors from continuum modeling and instrumental effects, or the atomic uncertainties of the neighboring thermal lines. Conclusions: Assuming a realistic temperature and abundance pattern, the physical model implied by the possible oxygen line agrees well with the theoretical model proposed previously to explain the reported 3.5 keV line. If the charge exchange source indeed exists, we expect that the oxygen abundance could have been overestimated by 8-22% in previous X

  10. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  11. Heat capacity of RFe{sub x}Mn{sub 12-x} (R = Gd, Tb and Dy) compounds: wiping out a cooperative 4f-4f exchange interaction by breaking the 3d-4f magnetic symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pique, C; Blanco, J A; Abad, E [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus de Viesques, E-33204 Gijon (Spain); Burriel, R; Artigas, M [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza), E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Fernandez-RodrIguez, J [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)], E-mail: pique@uniovi.es

    2008-08-27

    Using adiabatic calorimetry the heat capacity of a series of RFe{sub x}Mn{sub 12-x} (R = Gd, Tb and Dy) compounds has been measured from 3 to 350 K. The substitution of Fe for Mn in RFe{sub x}Mn{sub 12-x} influences both the magnetic interactions on the 3d sublattice and the magnetism of R (the Neel temperature doubles on going from x = 0 to 6 and the compounds become ferromagnetic for x = 8 with Curie temperatures of around 300 K). In pure TbMn{sub 12} the heat-capacity data shows a {lambda}-type anomaly associated with the independent cooperative magnetic ordering of the R sublattice ({approx}5 K), while the anomaly related to the Mn magnetic ordering ({approx}100 K) is rather smooth, as observed in other itinerant magnetic systems such as YMn{sub 12}. In contrast, the substitution of Fe for Mn leads, on the one hand, to a more localized magnetic behaviour of the 3d sublattice, and, on the other, to magnetic polarization effects between the 3d and 4f sublattices, together with the disappearance of the cooperative magnetic ordering of the R sublattice due to the breaking of the antiferromagnetic symmetry in the 3d sublattice. This is reflected in the heat-capacity curve through a smooth Schottky-like anomaly. In the case of Gd compounds the magnitude of the exchange molecular-field parameter has been deduced by fitting the magnetic contribution to the heat capacity within a simple mean-field model. From this analysis we found that this molecular field acting on the rare-earth site increases with the iron concentration, reaching values as large as 48 T for the concentration x = 6. A similar analysis of the heat capacity in the ordered phase on the Tb compounds also leads to an enhancement of the molecular field with increasing Fe content. These results allow checking the possible crystal-field parameters for these RFe{sub x}Mn{sub 12-x} compounds.

  12. Reactor fuel exchanging facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Shin-ichi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable operation of an emergency manual operating mechanism for a fuel exchanger with all operatorless trucks and remote operation of a manipulator even if the exchanger fails during the fuel exchanging operation. Constitution: When a fuel exchanging system fails while connected to a pressure tube of a nuclear reactor during a fuel exchanging operation, a stand-by self-travelling truck automatically runs along a guide line to the position corresponding to the stopping position at that time of the fuel exchanger based on a command from a central control chamber. At this time the truck is switched to manual operation, and approaches the exchanger while being monitored through a television camera and then stops. Then, a manipurator is connected to the emergency manual operating mechanism of the exchanger, and is operated through necessary emergency steps by driving the snout, the magazine, the grab or the like in the exchanger in response to the problem, and necessary operations for the emergency treatment are thus performed. (Sekiya, K.)

  13. Domain wall engineering through exchange bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albisetti, E.; Petti, D.

    2016-01-01

    The control of the structure and position of magnetic domain walls is at the basis of the development of different magnetic devices and architectures. Several nanofabrication techniques have been proposed to geometrically confine and shape domain wall structures; however, a fine tuning of the position and micromagnetic configuration is hardly achieved, especially in continuous films. This work shows that, by controlling the unidirectional anisotropy of a continuous ferromagnetic film through exchange bias, domain walls whose spin arrangement is generally not favored by dipolar and exchange interactions can be created. Micromagnetic simulations reveal that the domain wall width, position and profile can be tuned by establishing an abrupt change in the direction and magnitude of the exchange bias field set in the system. - Highlights: • Micromagnetic simulations study domain walls in exchange biased thin films. • Novel domain wall configurations can be stabilized via exchange bias. • Domain walls nucleate at the boundary of regions with different exchange bias. • Domain wall width and spin profile are controlled by tuning the exchange bias.

  14. EPR of exchange coupled systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bencini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    From chemistry to solid state physics to biology, the applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) are relevant to many areas. This unified treatment is based on the spin Hamiltonian approach and makes extensive use of irreducible tensor techniques to analyze systems in which two or more spins are magnetically coupled. This edition contains a new Introduction by coauthor Dante Gatteschi, a pioneer and scholar of molecular magnetism.The first two chapters review the foundations of exchange interactions, followed by examinations of the spectra of pairs and clusters, relaxation in oligon

  15. Towards a multi-agent system for regulated information exchange in crime investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieter; Prakken, H.; Vey Mestdagh, C.N.J. de

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines a multi-agent architecture for regulated information exchange of crime investigation data between police forces. Interactions between police officers about information exchange are analysed as negotiation dialogues with embedded persuasion dialogues. An architecture is then

  16. GRUNDTVIG in transnational exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg.......Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg....

  17. Building Relationships through Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Angi; Hall, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    From the moment of birth, children form and develop relationships with others in their world based on exchange. Children recognize that engaging in such encounters offers them the opportunity to enter into a relationship with another individual and to nurture that relationship through the exchange of messages and gifts, items and ideas. At Boulder…

  18. Exotic baryonium exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolescu, B.

    1978-05-01

    The prominent effects supposed to be associated with the exchange of exotic baryonium Regge trajectories are reviewed. The experimental presence of all expected effects leads to suggest that the baryonium exchange mechanism is a correct phenomenological picture and that mesons with isospin 2 or 3/2 or with strangeness 2, strongly coupled to the baryon-antibaryon channels, must be observed

  19. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catton, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics (pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger design.

  20. Standardizing exchange formats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An international network of co-operating data centres is described who maintain identical data bases which are simultaneously updated by an agreed data exchange procedure. The agreement covers ''data exchange formats'' which are compatible to the centres' internal data storage and retrieval systems which remain different, optimized at each centre to the available computer facilities and to the needs of the data users. Essential condition for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data compilation, including critical data analysis and validation. The systems described (''EXFOR'', ''ENDF'', ''CINDA'') are used for ''nuclear reaction data'', but the principles used for data compilation and exchange should be valid also for other data types. (author). 24 refs, 4 figs

  1. The hyperon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidenbauer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Results of two recent hyperon-nucleon interaction potentials, both developed by the Bonn-Juelich group, are presented that are derived either in the conventional meson-exchange picture or within leading order chiral effective field theory. The chiral potential consists of one-pseudoscalar-meson exchanges and non-derivative four-baryon contact terms. The most salient feature of the new meson-exchange hyperon-nucleon model is that the contributions in the scalar-isoscalar (σ) and vector-isovector (ρ) exchange channels are constrained by a microscopic model of correlated ππ and KK-bar exchange

  2. Developing Sociolinguistic Competence through Intercultural Online Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Mathy

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate whether computer-mediated communication (CMC) intercultural exchange offers the conditions necessary for the development of the sociolinguistic competence of second language learners. Non-native speakers (NNS) of French in British Columbia interacted through CMC with native speakers (NS) of French in…

  3. Can positive social exchanges buffer the detrimental effects of negative social exchanges? Age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Katherine L; Windsor, Tim D; Pearson, Elissa L; Crisp, Dimity A

    2013-01-01

    Findings from existing research exploring whether positive social exchanges can help to offset (or 'buffer' against) the harmful effects of negative social exchanges on mental health have been inconsistent. This could be because the existing research is characterized by different approaches to studying various contexts of 'cross-domain' and 'within-domain' buffering, and/or because the nature of buffering effects varies according to sociodemographic characteristics that underlie different aspects of social network structure and function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the buffering effects of global perceptions of positive exchanges on the link between global negative exchanges and mental health varied as a function of age and gender. We used a series of regressions in a sample of 556 Australian older adults (ages 55-94) to test for three-way interactions among gender, positive social exchanges, and negative social exchanges, as well as age and positive and negative social exchanges, in predicting mental health, controlling for years of education, partner status, and physical functioning. We found that positive exchanges buffered against negative exchanges for younger old adults, but not for older old adults, and for women, but not for men. Our findings are interpreted in light of research on individual differences in coping responses and interpersonal goals among late middle-aged and older adults. Our findings are in line with gerontological theories (e.g., socioemotional selectivity theory), and imply that an intervention aimed at using positive social exchanges as a means of coping with negative social exchanges might be more successful among particular populations (i.e., women, 'younger' old adults). Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Pion double charge exchange in the Δ33 resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirzba, A.; Toki, H.; Siciliano, E.R.; Johnson, M.B.; Gilman, R.

    1989-01-01

    We examine the model dependence and nuclear-structure sensitivity of several Δ 33 -dominated processes contributing to pion double charge exchange on nuclei in the region of the Δ 33 resonance. These processes include the Δ 33 -nucleon interaction V NΔ and sequential scattering, in which the pion undergoes single charge exchange on two different nucleons. In all cases, the scattering takes place through the exchange of an intermediate π and ρ meson. Sequential-mediated double charge exchange is found to be only moderately sensitive to short-range correlations, meson-nucleon form factors, and the rho meson, whereas V NΔ -mediated double charge exchange is very sensitive to all these effects. Results are given for double charge exchange on 18 O (double isobaric analog transitions) and 16 O (nonanalog transitions). Sequential double charge exchange is shown to favor non-spin-flip matrix elements of the transition operator whereas V NΔ -mediated double charge exchange favors spin-flip matrix elements. The energy dependence of the zero-degree cross sections for V NΔ and sequential scattering are also different: Sequential tends to increase monotonically from 100 to 300 MeV, whereas V NΔ peaks at about 150 MeV. The delta-nucleon interaction is found likely to dominate over sequential scattering in nonanalog double charge exchange. The V NΔ is also large in analog double charge exchange, but it does not enable us to explain the anomalous behavior of the 18 O differential cross sections

  5. Dipole-induced exchange bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Felipe; Morales, Rafael; Schuller, Ivan K; Kiwi, Miguel

    2017-11-09

    The discovery of dipole-induced exchange bias (EB), switching from negative to positive sign, is reported in systems where the antiferromagnet and the ferromagnet are separated by a paramagnetic spacer (AFM-PM-FM). The magnitude and sign of the EB is determined by the cooling field strength and the PM thickness. The same cooling field yields negative EB for thin spacers, and positive EB for thicker ones. The EB decay profile as a function of the spacer thickness, and the change of sign, are attributed to long-ranged dipole coupling. Our model, which accounts quantitatively for the experimental results, ignores the short range interfacial exchange interactions of the usual EB theories. Instead, it retains solely the long range dipole field that allows for the coupling of the FM and AFM across the PM spacer. The experiments allow for novel switching capabilities of long range EB systems, while the theory allows description of the structures where the FM and AFM are not in atomic contact. The results provide a new approach to design novel interacting heterostructures.

  6. Social Representation of Intercultural Exchange in an International University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an interpretive investigation into the social representation of intercultural exchange at one of the newly established international universities in Japan. The author conducted quasi-structured interviews with 5 staff members and 22 students to gain insight into their perceptions of intercultural exchange and interactions. The…

  7. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  8. Pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The pion double charge exchange data on the oxygen isotopes is reviewed and new data on 9 Be, 12 C, 24 Mg, and 28 Si are presented. Where theoretical calculations exist, they are compared to the data. 9 references

  9. Research peer exchange, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The WSDOT Research Peer Exchange was held in Olympia, Washington on May 13 and 14, 2014 and addressed Research Program and Project Management as described in the following paragraphs: Program Management There are numerous funding programs, standing c...

  10. Cation Exchange Water Softeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  11. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  12. HUD Exchange Grantee Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  13. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  14. Floating Exchange Rate Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Quader, Syed Manzur

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many developing countries having a history of high inflation, unfavorable balance of payment situation and a high level of foreign currencies denominated debt, have switched or are in the process of switching to a more flexible exchange rate regime. Therefore, the stability of the exchange rate and the dynamics of its volatility are more crucial than before to prevent financial crises and macroeconomic disturbances. This paper is designed to find out the reasons behind Bangla...

  15. Heat exchange apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, G.C.; McDaniels, J.D.; Gertsch, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention relates to heat exchangers used for transferring heat from the gas cooled core of a nuclear reactor to a secondary medium during standby and emergency conditions. The construction of the heat exchanger described is such that there is a minimum of welds exposed to the reactor coolant, the parasitic heat loss during normal operation of the reactor is minimized and the welds and heat transfer tubes are easily inspectable. (UK)

  16. Hibernation and gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, William K; Jackson, Donald C

    2011-01-01

    Hibernation in endotherms and ectotherms is characterized by an energy-conserving metabolic depression due to low body temperatures and poorly understood temperature-independent mechanisms. Rates of gas exchange are correspondly reduced. In hibernating mammals, ventilation falls even more than metabolic rate leading to a relative respiratory acidosis that may contribute to metabolic depression. Breathing in some mammals becomes episodic and in some small mammals significant apneic gas exchange may occur by passive diffusion via airways or skin. In ectothermic vertebrates, extrapulmonary gas exchange predominates and in reptiles and amphibians hibernating underwater accounts for all gas exchange. In aerated water diffusive exchange permits amphibians and many species of turtles to remain fully aerobic, but hypoxic conditions can challenge many of these animals. Oxygen uptake into blood in both endotherms and ectotherms is enhanced by increased affinity of hemoglobin for O₂ at low temperature. Regulation of gas exchange in hibernating mammals is predominately linked to CO₂/pH, and in episodic breathers, control is principally directed at the duration of the apneic period. Control in submerged hibernating ectotherms is poorly understood, although skin-diffusing capacity may increase under hypoxic conditions. In aerated water blood pH of frogs and turtles either adheres to alphastat regulation (pH ∼8.0) or may even exhibit respiratory alkalosis. Arousal in hibernating mammals leads to restoration of euthermic temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange and occurs periodically even as ambient temperatures remain low, whereas body temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange of hibernating ectotherms are tightly linked to ambient temperature. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  17. Real exchange rate misalignments

    OpenAIRE

    Terra, Maria Cristina T.; Valladares, Frederico Estrella Carneiro

    2003-01-01

    This paper characterizes episodes of real appreciations and depreciations for a sample of 85 countries, approximately from 1960 to 1998. First, the equilibrium real exchange rate series are constructed for each country using Goldfajn and Valdes (1999) methodology (cointegration with fundamentals). Then, departures from equilibrium real exchange rate (misalignments) are obtained, and a Markov Switching Model is used to characterize the misalignments series as stochastic autor...

  18. Heat exchanger cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatewood, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A survey covers the various types of heat-exchange equipment that is cleaned routinely in fossil-fired generating plants, the hydrocarbon-processing industry, pulp and paper mills, and other industries; the various types, sources, and adverse effects of deposits in heat-exchange equipment; some details of the actual procedures for high-pressure water jetting and chemical cleaning of some specific pieces of equipment, including nuclear steam generators. (DN)

  19. Exchange interactions and the state of iron atoms in Bi{sub 3}Nb{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 7−δ}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chezhina, N.V., E-mail: chezhina@nc2490.spb.edu [St. Petersburg State University, 7/9 Universitetskaya Nab., 199034 (Russian Federation); Korolev, D.A. [St. Petersburg State University, 7/9 Universitetskaya Nab., 199034 (Russian Federation); Zhuk, N.A. [Syktyvkar State University (Russian Federation); Lutoev, V.P.; Makeev, B.A. [Institute of Geology Komi Scientific Center of Ural branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    On the basis of the results of magnetic susceptibility and ESR studies of the Bi{sub 3}Nb{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 7−δ} solid solutions iron atoms in the solid solutions of cubic modification of bismuth niobate were found to exist as Fe(III) monomers and exchange bound Fe(III)-O-Fe(III) dimers with antiferro- and ferromagnetic type of superexchange. The exchange parameters and the distribution of monomers and dimers in the solid solutions were calculated as a function of paramagnetic atom content. - Graphical abstract: The study of the Bi{sub 3}Nb{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 7−δ} solid solutions showed that the introduction of iron atoms into the structure of Bi{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} stabilizes the cubic structure of bismuth niobate making the phase transition tetragonal ↔ cubic structure irreversible. In the Bi{sub 3}Nb{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 7−δ} solid solutions we observe the formation of dimers with antiferro- and ferromagnetic exchange. Such clusters are partially retained even at the infinite dilution of the solid solution, which testifies for their rigidity. A sufficiently high parameter of ferromagnetic exchange in a dimer (+53 cm{sup −1}) seems to result from iron atoms being located in the vicinity of oxygen vacancy. - Highlights: • The reversible transition cubic – tetragonal modifications in Bi{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} becomes irreversible. • Only cubic modification of Bi{sub 3}Nb{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 7-δ} is stable due to clusters of Fe atoms. • These clusters are sufficiently strong and retained even at the infinite dilution. • The calculations of magnetic susceptibility give the distribution of the clusters and single atoms.

  20. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  1. Radial flow heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Javier

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  2. Multivariable nonlinear analysis of foreign exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoya; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Suzuki, Masuo

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the multivariable time series of foreign exchange rates. These are price movements that have often been analyzed, and dealing time intervals and spreads between bid and ask prices. Considering dealing time intervals as event timing such as neurons’ firings, we use raster plots (RPs) and peri-stimulus time histograms (PSTHs) which are popular methods in the field of neurophysiology. Introducing special processings to obtaining RPs and PSTHs time histograms for analyzing exchange rates time series, we discover that there exists dynamical interaction among three variables. We also find that adopting multivariables leads to improvements of prediction accuracy.

  3. Preasymptotical corrections to the pomeron exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovitskij, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    IN the frame of quark-gluon model for strong interactions, based on the topological expansion and string model, the planar diagrams are connected with Regge poles and the cylinder diagrams correspond to the pomeron. In earlier works it was shown that in this approach strong exchange degeneracy has to take place. This fact in the case of the pomeron with intercept αsub(D)(O)>1 is in disagreement with experiment. In the present paper the preasymptotical corrections to the pomeron exchange are calculated. It is shown that these corrections remove the dissagreement

  4. Tensor exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, M.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor (A 2 ) exchange amplitudes in K +- N charge exchange (CEX) are constructed from the K +- N CEX data supplemented by information on the vector (rho) exchange amplitudes from πN sca tering. We observed new features in the t-structure of A 2 exchange amplitudes which contradict the t-de pendence anticipated by most of the Regge models. The results also provide evidence for violation of weak exchange degeneracy

  5. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As

  6. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Building on focusing and

  7. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Bulding on focusing and

  8. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summary herein

  9. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4kA was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized herein

  10. Heat exchanger restart evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.M.; Hirst, C.W.; Lentz, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    On December 24, 1991, the K-Reactor was in the shutdown mode with full AC process water flow and full cooling water flow. Safety rod testing was being performed as part of the power ascension testing program. The results of cooling water samples indicated tritium concentrations higher than allowable. Further sampling and testing confirmed a Process Water System to Cooling Water System leak in heat exchanger 4A (HX 4A). The heat exchanger was isolated and the plant shutdown. Heat exchanger 4A was removed from the plant and moved to C-Area prior to performing examinations and diagnostic testing. This included locating and identifying the leaking tube or tubes, eddy current examination of the leaking tube and a number of adjacent tubes, visually inspecting the leaking tube from both the inside as well as the area surrounding the identified tube. The leaking tube was removed and examined metallurgically to determine the failure mechanism. In addition ten other tubes that either exhibited eddy current indications or would represent a baseline condition were removed from heat exchanger 4A for metallurgical examination. Additional analysis and review of heat exchanger leakage history was performed to determine if there are any patterns which can be used for predictive purposes. Compensatory actions have been taken to improve the sensitivity and response time to any future events of this type. The results of these actions are summarized

  11. Gluon exchange in elastic hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkovszky, L.L.; Paccanoni, F.; Chikovani, Z.E.

    1991-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the Pomeron, which determines the long-range component of the strong interaction, corresponds to exchange of gluons with the corresponding quantum numbers (the minimum number of such gluons is two). The C-odd partner of the Pomeron, the odderon, corresponds to exchange of an odd number of gluons (three or more). By means of a model of the nonperturbative gluon propagator, restrictions are obtained on the parameters of two-gluon (Pomeron) and three-gluon (odderon) exchange in hadron scattering. In the framework of this model an interpretation is proposed for the various asymptotic regimes in the behavior of the total cross section and of the differential cross section of elastic scattering at high energies

  12. Update heat exchanger designing principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipets, A.U.; Yampol'skij, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Update heat exchanger design principles are analysed. Different coolant pattern in a heat exchanger are considered. It is suggested to rationally organize flow rates irregularity in it. Applying on heat exchanger designing measures on using really existing temperature and flow rate irregularities will permit to improve heat exchanger efficiency. It is expedient in some cases to artificially produce irregularities. In this connection some heat exchanger design principles must be reviewed now

  13. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Bulding on focusing and framing research we predict that defection is omnipresent in exchange dilemmas, which is corroborated in to very different experiments. Our results suggest that the fundamental problem of cooperation in...

  14. 78 FR 54338 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed..., Interactive Data Online Properties, Inc. (collectively ``IDC''), whereby the Exchange will make available... the Private Labeled Products and who first subscribe as a result of the Exchange's marketing...

  15. Psychological contract breach and work performance: Is social exchange a buffer or an intensifier?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Chiaburu, D.S.; Jansen, P.G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how social exchanges modify the relationship between psychological contract breach and work performance. It aims to present two concurrent hypotheses, based on theoretical interaction effects of social exchanges (conceptualized as social exchange

  16. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  17. Sorption by cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.

    1994-04-01

    A procedure for introducing exchange into geochemical/surface complexation codes is described. Beginning with selectivity coefficients, K c , defined in terms of equivalent fractional ion occupancies, a general expression for the molar based exchange code input parameters, K ex , is derived. In natural systems the uptake of nuclides onto complex sorbents often occurs by more than one mechanism. The incorporation of cation exchange and surface complexation into a geochemical code therefore enables sorption by both mechanisms to be calculated simultaneously. The code and model concepts are tested against sets of experimental data from widely different sorption studies. A proposal is made to set up a data base of selectivity coefficients. Such a data base would form part of a more general one consisting of sorption mechanism specific parameters to be used in conjunction with geochemical/sorption codes to model and predict sorption. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 26 refs

  18. Tubular heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Owen; Willby, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a heat exchanger of which the tubes, placed in a long casing, cross the casing cover in a sealed manner. These tubes are fixed to the tube plate forming this cover or to the branch tubes it comprises by means of compression joints. These joints make it possible to do away with welds that are sources of defects and to improve the operational safety of the apparatus. An advantageous form of the heat exchanger under the invention includes a manifold for each thermal exchange fluid, and one end of each tube is connected to this manifold by a pipe that is itself connected to the tube by a threaded connection. The latter provides for easy disconnection of the pipe in order to introduce a probe for inspecting the state of the tubes [fr

  19. Magnetic interactions between nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2010-01-01

    We present a short overview of the influence of inter-particle interactions on the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. Strong magnetic dipole interactions between ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles, that would be superparamagnetic if isolated, can result in a collective state...... of nanoparticles. This collective state has many similarities to spin-glasses. In samples of aggregated magnetic nanoparticles, exchange interactions are often important and this can also lead to a strong suppression of superparamagnetic relaxation. The temperature dependence of the order parameter in samples...... of strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles or goethite grains is well described by a simple mean field model. Exchange interactions between nanoparticles with different orientations of the easy axes can also result in a rotation of the sub-lattice magnetization directions....

  20. Quark exchange and nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moniz, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives a qualitative understanding of hadronic phenomena in terms of quark degrees of freedom. The basic model which incorporates saturating confining interactions and the study of hadron-hadron scattering has been carried through in collaboration with F. Lenz, J.T. Londergan, R. Rosenfelder, M. Stingl and K. Yazaki. It is shown that minimal confining dynamics together with exchange symmetry indeed leads to a remarkable range of phenomena at both the nuclear and particle energy scales. Most observables are well described by an effective hadron theory, the quark momentum distribution being the major exception. These features emerge even in the simplest model, namely, U(1) color and hadrons composed of two quarks (anti qq or qq). The author concentrates here on this model. In the concluding section, he remarks on the SU(N) results, particularly on the extent to which the color-hidden dynamics are constrained by examining the systematics of nuclear and hadronic phenomena. (Auth.)

  1. Magnetic interactions through fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Sigrist, Marc; Weihe, Høgni

    2014-01-01

    support the parameter values and resolve |E| ≈ 0.04 cm(-1). The exchange coupling constant (J) is 1 order of magnitude smaller than that found in comparable systems with linear oxide bridging but comparable to typical magnitudes through cyanide, thus underlining the potential of fluoride complexes......The nature of the magnetic interaction through fluoride in a simple, dinuclear manganese(III) complex (1), bridged by a single fluoride ion in a perfectly linear fashion, is established by experiment and density functional theory. The magnitude of the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction...

  2. Classification of exchange currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    After expansion of the vector and axial vector currents in powers of (v/c), a heretofore unremarked regularity results. Meson exchange currents can be classified into types I and II, according to the way they satisfy the constraints of special relativity. The archetypes of these two categories are the impulse approximation to the vector and axial vector currents. After a brief discussion of these constraints, the (rhoπγ) and (ωsigmaγ) exchange currents are constructed and classified, and used to illustrate a number of important points which are often overlooked

  3. Alert Exchange Process Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America (NASA), and the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), acknowledging that NASA, ESA and JAXA have a mutual interest in exchanging Alerts and Alert Status Lists to enhance the information base for each system participant while fortifying the general level of cooperation between the policy agreement subscribers, and each Party will exchange Alert listings on regular basis and detailed Alert information on a need to know basis to the extent permitted by law.

  4. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    , and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  5. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  6. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  7. Gas exchange in avian embryos and hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, Jacopo P

    2009-08-01

    The avian egg has been proven to be an excellent model for the study of the physical principles and the physiological characteristics of embryonic gas exchange. In recent years, it has become a model for the studies of the prenatal development of pulmonary ventilation, its chemical control and its interaction with extra-pulmonary gas exchange. Differently from mammals, in birds the initiation of pulmonary ventilation and the transition from diffusive to convective gas exchange are gradual and slow-occurring events amenable to detailed investigations. The absence of the placenta and of the mother permits the study of the mechanisms of embryonic adaptation to prenatal perturbations in a way that would be impossible with mammalian preparations. First, this review summarises the general aspects of the natural history of the avian egg that are pertinent to embryonic metabolism, growth and gas exchange and the characteristics of the structures participating in gas exchange. Then, the review focuses on the embryonic development of pulmonary ventilation, its regulation in relation to the embryo's environment and metabolic state, the effects that acute or sustained changes in embryonic temperature or oxygenation can have on growth, metabolism and ventilatory control.

  8. Innovative heat exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Scholl, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This accessible book presents unconventional technologies in heat exchanger design that have the capacity to provide solutions to major concerns within the process and power-generating industries. Demonstrating the advantages and limits of these innovative heat exchangers, it also discusses micro- and nanostructure surfaces and micro-scale equipment, and introduces pillow-plate, helical and expanded metal baffle concepts. It offers step-by-step worked examples, which provide instructions for developing an initial configuration and are supported by clear, detailed drawings and pictures. Various types of heat exchangers are available, and they are widely used in all fields of industry for cooling or heating purposes, including in combustion engines. The market in 2012 was estimated to be U$ 42.7 billion and the global demand for heat exchangers is experiencing an annual growth of about 7.8 %. The market value is expected to reach U$ 57.9 billion in 2016, and approach U$ 78.16 billion in 2020. Providing a valua...

  9. Organizing Equity Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Torsten

    In the last years equity exchanges have diversified their operations into business areas such as derivatives trading, post-trading services, and software sales. Securities trading and post-trading are subject to economies of scale and scope. The integration of these functions into one institution ensures efficiency by economizing on transactions costs.

  10. Resonance charge exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duman, E.L.; Evseev, A.V.; Eletskij, A.V.; Radtsig, A.A.; Smirnov, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The calculation results for the resonance charge exchange cross sections for positive and negative atomic and molecular ions are given. The calculations are performed on the basis of the asymptotic theory. The factors affecting the calculation accuracy are analysed. The calculation data for 28 systems are compared with the experiment

  11. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  12. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  13. Method for exchanging data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for exchanging data between at least two servers with use of a gateway. Preferably the method is applied to healthcare systems. Each server holds a unique federated identifier, which identifier identifies a single patient (P). Thus, it is possible for the

  14. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  15. Exchangers man the pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2008-01-01

    Tonoplast-localised proton-coupled Ca2+ transporters encoded by cation/H+ exchanger (CAX) genes play a critical role in sequestering Ca2+ into the vacuole. These transporters may function in coordination with Ca2+ release channels, to shape stimulus-induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevations. Recent analysis of Arabidopsis CAX knockout mutants, particularly cax1 and cax3, identified a variety of phenotypes including sensitivity to abiotic stresses, which indicated that these transporters might play a role in mediating the plant's stress response. A common feature of these mutants was the perturbation of H+-ATPase activity at both the tonoplast and the plasma membrane, suggesting a tight interplay between the Ca2+/H+ exchangers and H+ pumps. We speculate that indirect regulation of proton flux by the exchangers may be as important as the direct regulation of Ca2+ flux. These results suggest cautious interpretation of mutant Ca2+/H+ exchanger phenotypes that may be due to either perturbed Ca2+ or H+ transport. PMID:19841670

  16. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at Standard.Telephone@cern.ch.

  17. Heat exchanger vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, D.J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration

  18. Application of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markhol, M.

    1985-01-01

    Existing methods of multi-element separation for radiochemical analysis are considered. The majority of existing methods is noted to be based on application of organic and inorganic ion exchangers. Distillation, coprecipitation, extraction as well as combination of the above methods are also used. Concrete flowsheets of multi-element separation are presented

  19. Fuel exchanger control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurabayashi, Masaharu.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the stability and the operationability of the fuel exchanging work by checking the validity of the data before the initiation of the work. Constitution: A floppy disc stores the initial charging state data showing the arrangement of fuel assemblies in the reactor core pool, data showing the working procedures for the fuel exchange and a final charged state data upon completion of the work. The initial data and the procedure data are read from the disk and stored once into a memory. Then, the initial data are sequentially performed on the memory in accordance with the procedure data and, thereafter, they were compared with the final data read from the disk. After confirming that there are no errors in the working data, the procedure data are orderly instructed to the fuel exchanger for performing fuel replacement. Accordingly, since the data are checked before the initiation of the work, the fuel exchange can be performed automatically thereby improving the operationability thereof. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. Upright heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoch, J.; Kugler, V.; Krizek, V.; Strmiska, F.

    1988-01-01

    The claimed heat exchanger is characteristic by the condensate level being maintained directly in the exchanger while preserving the so-called ''dry'' tube plate. This makes it unnecessary to build another pressure vessel into the circuit. The design of the heat exchanger allows access to both tube plates, which facilitates any repair. Another advantage is the possibility of accelerating the indication of leakage from the space of the second operating medium which is given by opening the drainage pipes of the lower bundle into the collar space and from there through to the indication pipe. The exchanger is especially suitable for deployment in the circuits of nuclear power plants where the second operating medium will be hot water of considerably lower purity than is that of the condensate. A rapid display of leakage can prevent any long-term penetration of this water into the condensate, which would result in worsening water quality in the entire secondary circuit of the nuclear power plant. (J.B.). 1 fig

  1. Heat exchanger vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, D J.W. [CERL, CEGB, Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1977-12-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration.

  2. New Trends in Magnetic Exchange Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Alexandra; Mangin, Stéphane; Bobo, Jean-Francois; Loidl, Alois

    2005-05-01

    The study of layered magnetic structures is one of the hottest topics in magnetism due to the growing attraction of applications in magnetic sensors and magnetic storage media, such as random access memory. For almost half a century, new discoveries have driven researchers to re-investigate magnetism in thin film structures. Phenomena such as giant magnetoresistance, tunneling magnetoresistance, exchange bias and interlayer exchange coupling led to new ideas to construct devices, based not only on semiconductors but on a variety of magnetic materials Upon cooling fine cobalt particles in a magnetic field through the Néel temperature of their outer antiferromagnetic oxide layer, Meiklejohn and Bean discovered exchange bias in 1956. The exchange bias effect through which an antiferromagnetic AF layer can cause an adjacent ferromagnetic F layer to develop a preferred direction of magnetization, is widely used in magnetoelectronics technology to pin the magnetization of a device reference layer in a desired direction. However, the origin and effects due to exchange interaction across the interface between antiferromagneic and ferromagnetic layers are still debated after about fifty years of research, due to the extreme difficulty associated with the determination of the magnetic interfacial structure in F/AF bilayers. Indeed, in an AF/F bilayer system, the AF layer acts as “the invisible man” during conventional magnetic measurements and the presence of the exchange coupling is evidenced indirectly through the unusual behavior of the adjacent F layer. Basically, the coercive field of the F layer increases in contact with the AF and, in some cases, its hysteresis loop is shifted by an amount called exchange bias field. Thus, AF/F exchange coupling generates a new source of anisotropy in the F layer. This induced anisotropy strongly depends on basic features such as the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, crystallographic and spin structures, defects, domain patterns etc

  3. The determination of capital controls: Which role do exchange rate regimes play?

    OpenAIRE

    von Hagen, Jürgen; Zhou, Jizhong

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of exchange rate regime choices in the determination of capital controls in transition economies. We first use a simultaneous equations model to allow direct interactions between decisions on capital controls and on exchange rate regimes. We find that exchange rate regime choices strongly influence the imposition or removal of capital controls, but the feed-back effect is weak. We further estimate a single equation model for capital controls with exchange rate...

  4. Chemical exchange effects in spectral line shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, M.A.; Veguillas, J.

    1990-01-01

    A theory of spectral-line shapes has been extended to the case in which relaxation broadening may be influenced by reactive interactions. This extension is valid for gaseous systems in the same way it is valid for condensed media, and particularly, for such chemical mechanisms as isomerizations. The dependence of the spectral rate on the chemical exchange rate is clarified. Finally, a discussion concerning the above aspects and their applications has been included. (author)

  5. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  6. The relationship between the forward– and the realized spot exchange rate in South Africa / Petrus Marthinus Stephanus van Heerden

    OpenAIRE

    Van Heerden, Petrus Marthinus Stephanus

    2010-01-01

    The inability to effectively hedge against unfavourable exchange rate movements, using the current forward exchange rate as the only guideline, is a key inhibiting factor of international trade. Market participants use the current forward exchange rate quoted in the market to make decisions regarding future exchange rate changes. However, the current forward exchange rate is not solely determined by the interaction of demand and supply, but is also a mechanistic estimation, whi...

  7. Horizontal Curve Virtual Peer Exchange : an RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the Horizontal Curve Virtual Peer Exchange sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safetys Roadway Safety Professional Capacity Building Program on June 17, 2014. This virtual peer exchange was the f...

  8. Socio-technical HCI for Ethical Value Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelnour-Nocera, José; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2018-01-01

    interaction design (HWID) to meet the challenges of designing for ethical value exchange. We present three cases of service design, and suggest how to add a fourth similar case using the HWID approach during a field trip and workshop at the INTERACT 2017 conference in Mumbai. We conclude that applying...

  9. The Metaphysics of Economic Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massin Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What are economic exchanges? The received view has it that exchanges are mutual transfers of goods motivated by inverse valuations thereof. As a corollary, the standard approach treats exchanges of services as a subspecies of exchanges of goods. We raise two objections against this standard approach. First, it is incomplete, as it fails to take into account, among other things, the offers and acceptances that lie at the core of even the simplest cases of exchanges. Second, it ultimately fails to generalize to exchanges of services, in which neither inverse preferences nor mutual transfers hold true. We propose an alternative definition of exchanges, which treats exchanges of goods as a special case of exchanges of services and which builds in offers and acceptances. According to this theory: (i The valuations motivating exchanges are propositional and convergent rather than objectual and inverse; (ii All exchanges of goods involve exchanges of services/actions, but not the reverse; (iii Offers and acceptances, together with the contractual obligations and claims they bring about, lie at the heart of all cases of exchange.

  10. Minimizing Back Exchange in the Hydrogen Exchange-Mass Spectrometry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Benjamin T.; Ricciuti, Alec; Mayne, Leland; Englander, S. Walter

    2012-12-01

    The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to the hydrogen exchange (HX) proteolytic fragmentation experiment extends powerful HX methodology to the study of large biologically important proteins. A persistent problem is the degradation of HX information due to back exchange of deuterium label during the fragmentation-separation process needed to prepare samples for MS measurement. This paper reports a systematic analysis of the factors that influence back exchange (solution pH, ionic strength, desolvation temperature, LC column interaction, flow rates, system volume). The many peptides exhibit a range of back exchange due to intrinsic amino acid HX rate differences. Accordingly, large back exchange leads to large variability in D-recovery from one residue to another as well as one peptide to another that cannot be corrected for by reference to any single peptide-level measurement. The usual effort to limit back exchange by limiting LC time provides little gain. Shortening the LC elution gradient by 3-fold only reduced back exchange by ~2 %, while sacrificing S/N and peptide count. An unexpected dependence of back exchange on ionic strength as well as pH suggests a strategy in which solution conditions are changed during sample preparation. Higher salt should be used in the first stage of sample preparation (proteolysis and trapping) and lower salt (<20 mM) and pH in the second stage before electrospray injection. Adjustment of these and other factors together with recent advances in peptide fragment detection yields hundreds of peptide fragments with D-label recovery of 90 % ± 5 %.

  11. Minimizing back exchange in the hydrogen exchange-mass spectrometry experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Benjamin T; Ricciuti, Alec; Mayne, Leland; Englander, S Walter

    2012-12-01

    The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) analysis to the hydrogen exchange (HX) proteolytic fragmentation experiment extends powerful HX methodology to the study of large biologically important proteins. A persistent problem is the degradation of HX information due to back exchange of deuterium label during the fragmentation-separation process needed to prepare samples for MS measurement. This paper reports a systematic analysis of the factors that influence back exchange (solution pH, ionic strength, desolvation temperature, LC column interaction, flow rates, system volume). The many peptides exhibit a range of back exchange due to intrinsic amino acid HX rate differences. Accordingly, large back exchange leads to large variability in D-recovery from one residue to another as well as one peptide to another that cannot be corrected for by reference to any single peptide-level measurement. The usual effort to limit back exchange by limiting LC time provides little gain. Shortening the LC elution gradient by 3-fold only reduced back exchange by ~2%, while sacrificing S/N and peptide count. An unexpected dependence of back exchange on ionic strength as well as pH suggests a strategy in which solution conditions are changed during sample preparation. Higher salt should be used in the first stage of sample preparation (proteolysis and trapping) and lower salt (<20 mM) and pH in the second stage before electrospray injection. Adjustment of these and other factors together with recent advances in peptide fragment detection yields hundreds of peptide fragments with D-label recovery of 90% ± 5%.

  12. Data Exchange Inventory (DEXI) System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEXI is an intranet application used by SSA users to track all incoming and outgoing data exchanges between SSA and our data exchange partners. Information such as...

  13. Interaction quality: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ultes, Stefan; Minker, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Automatically deriving the quality of a Spoken Dialogue System is an important task for both assessing dialogue systems and improving them. Work on automatic quality estimation for each system-user-exchange further holds the opportunity of using this quality information for online-adaption of the dialogues. The Interaction Quality paradigm is the first metric holding those features. Hence, this contribution gives an overview over the Interaction Quality paradigm and reviews recent estimation ...

  14. Automatic fuel exchanging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to designate the identification number of a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel thereby surely exchanging the designated assembly within a short time. Constitution: Identification number (or letter) pressed on a grip of a fuel assembly is to be detected by a two-dimensional ultrasonic probe of a pull-up mechanism. When the detected number corresponds with the designated number, a control signal is outputted, whereby the pull-up drive control mechanism or pull-up mechanism responds to pull-up and exchange the fuel assembly of the identified number. With such a constitution, the fuel assembly can rapidly and surely be recognized even if pressed letters deviate to the left or right of the probe, and further, the hinge portion and the signal processing portion can be simplified. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Manufacture of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.E.; Tombs, R.W.T.

    1980-01-01

    A tube bundle for use in a heat exchanger has a series of spaced parallel tubes supported by tube plates and is manufactured by depositing welding material around the end of each tube, machining the deposited material to form an annular flange around the end of the tube and welding the flange into apertures in the tube plate. Preferably the tubes have a length which is slightly less than the distance between the outer surfaces of the tube plates and the deposited material is deposited so that it overlaps and protects the end surfaces of the tubes. A plug may be inserted in the bore of the tubes during the welding material deposition which, as described, is effected by manual metal arc welding. One use of heat exchangers incorporating a tube bundle manufactured as above is in apparatus for reducing the volume of, and recovering nitric acid from, radioactive effluents from a nuclear reprocessing plant. (author)

  16. Compact cryocooler heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, J.; Frederking, T.H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Compact heat exchangers are subject to different constraints as a room temperature gas is cooled down by a cold stream returning from a JT valve (or a similar cryoprocess component). In particular, the optimization of exchangers for liquid helium systems has to cover a wide range in temperature and density of the fluid. In the present work we address the following thermodynamic questions: 1. The optimization of intermediate temperatures which optimize stage operation (a stage is assumed to have a constant cross section); 2. The optimum temperature difference available for best overall economic performance values. The results are viewed in the context of porous media concepts applied to rather low speeds of fluid flow in narrow passages. In this paper examples of fluid/solid constraints imposed in this non-classical low temperature area are presented

  17. Exchange currents in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truglik, Eh.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from Adler's low-energy theorem for the soft pion production amplitudes the predictions of the meson exchange currents theory for the nuclear physics are discussed. The results are reformulated in terms of phenomenological lagrangians. This method allows one to pass naturally to the more realistic case of hard mesons. The predictions are critically compared with the existing experimental data. The main processes in which vector isovector exchange currents, vector isoscalar exchange currents and axial exchange currents take place are pointed out

  18. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Leland

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data. PMID:26791986

  19. Exchange rate rebounds after foreign exchange market interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the rebounds in the exchange rate after foreign exchange intervention. When intervention is strongly effective, the exchange rate rebounds at next day. The effect of intervention is reduced slightly by the rebound after the intervention. The exchange rate might have been 67.12-77.47 yen to a US dollar without yen-selling/dollar-purchasing intervention of 74,691,100 million yen implemented by the Japanese government since 1991, in comparison to the actual exchange rate was 103.19 yen to the US dollar at the end of March 2014.

  20. Heat exchanger tube tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugel, G.

    1976-01-01

    Certain types of heat-exchangers have tubes opening through a tube sheet to a manifold having an access opening offset from alignment with the tube ends. A tool for inserting a device, such as for inspection or repair, is provided for use in such instances. The tool is formed by a flexible guide tube insertable through the access opening and having an inner end provided with a connector for connection with the opening of the tube in which the device is to be inserted, and an outer end which remains outside of the chamber, the guide tube having adequate length for this arrangement. A flexible transport hose for internally transporting the device slides inside of the guide tube. This hose is long enough to slide through the guide tube, into the heat-exchanger tube, and through the latter to the extent required for the use of the device. The guide tube must be bent to reach the end of the heat-exchanger tube and the latter may be constructed with a bend, the hose carrying anit-friction elements at interspaced locations along its length to make it possible for the hose to negotiate such bends while sliding to the location where the use of the device is required

  1. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  2. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  3. Social exchange: Relations and networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, I review the literature on social exchange networks, with specific attention to theoretical and experimental research. I indicate how social exchange theory is rooted in general social theory and mention a few of its main links to social network analysis and empirical network research. The paper provides an accessible entry into the literature on social exchange.

  4. O3 and NOx Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubet, B.; Castell, J.F.; Laville, P.; Personne, E.; Tuzet, A.; Ammann, C.; Emberson, L.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kowalski, A.S.; Merbold, L.; Stella, P.; Tuovinen, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This discussion was based on the background document “Review on modelling atmosphere-biosphere exchange of Ozone and Nitrogen oxides”, which reviews the processes contributing to biosphere-atmosphere exchange of O3 and NOx, including stomatal and non-stomatal exchange of O3 and NO, NO2.

  5. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...

  6. Single-ion anisotropy and exchange interactions in the cyano-bridged trimers MnIII2MIII(CN)6 (MIII = Co, Cr, Fe) species incorporating [Mn(5-Brsalen)]+ units: an inelastic neutron scattering and magnetic susceptibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Sheptyakov, Denis; Keller, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    expectations based on the unquenched orbital angular momentum of the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) anion, giving rise to an M(s) approximately +/-9/2 ground state, isolated by approximately 11.5 cm(-1) from the higher-lying levels. The reported INS and magnetic data should now serve as a benchmark against which theoretical...... interactions that define the low-lying states of the Mn-M(III)-Mn trimeric units. Despite the presence of an antiferromagnetic intertrimer interaction, the experimental evidence supports the classification of both the Cr(III) and Fe(III) compounds as single-molecule magnets. The value of 17(2) cm(-1...

  7. Money and exchange in an economy with spatially differentiated agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolova, Petia; Lai Tong, Charles; Deissenberg, Christophe

    2003-06-01

    The impact of money supply on the real variables and on utility is an important question in monetary economics. Most previous works study this impact in representative agent economies, often under perfect foresight. With such a framework, however, the use of fiat money as a medium of exchange cannot be endogenously explained. This paper, by contrast, considers an economy where fiat money is intrinsically necessary for exchange, due to the local structure of interaction among agents. It investigates the transitory and permanent impact of local or global injections of money on the dynamics of exchanged quantities, prices, and individual welfares, and the mechanisms that explain this evolution.

  8. The empirical relationship between energy futures prices and exchange rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the interaction between energy futures prices and exchange rates. Results are presented to show that futures prices for crude oil, heating oil and unleaded gasoline are co-integrated with a trade-weighted index of exchange rates. This is important because it means that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between these four variables. Granger causality results for both the long- and short-run are presented. Evidence is also presented that suggests exchange rates transmit exogenous shocks to energy futures prices. 22 refs

  9. Parameters of an indirect exchange in gadolinium and iron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, A.K.; Nikitin, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of the theory of an indirect exchange and experimental values of hyperfine fields, Curie point and electric resistance, the constants of sd and sf exchange are determined as well as the effective carrier mass for the Gdsub(x)Ysub(1-x)Fesub(3) type compounds. It is shown that the agreement with experiment can be improved on assumption that exchange interactions in the given compounds are realized not only through conductivity electrons but also through collectivized d-type electrons [ru

  10. Microscopic theory of cation exchange in CdSe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Florian D; Spiegel, Leo L; Norris, David J; Erwin, Steven C

    2014-10-10

    Although poorly understood, cation-exchange reactions are increasingly used to dope or transform colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots). We use density-functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to develop a microscopic theory that explains structural, optical, and electronic changes observed experimentally in Ag-cation-exchanged CdSe nanocrystals. We find that Coulomb interactions, both between ionized impurities and with the polarized nanocrystal surface, play a key role in cation exchange. Our theory also resolves several experimental puzzles related to photoluminescence and electrical behavior in CdSe nanocrystals doped with Ag.

  11. Exchange scattering of quasiparticles by positive ion in He3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehdel'shtejn, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    The difference in the mobility of negative and positive ions in normal 3 He at low temperatures is discussed. The mobility mechanisms for the ions of different sign are qualitatively different since the positive ion can exchange quasiparticles with the helium atoms from the ice-like shell surrounding the ion. A study of the mobility in a magnetic field may yield quantitative information on the magnitude of the exchange interaction. A calculation for the exchange scattering model is carried out and it is shown that a logarithmic contribution to the positive ion mobility μsub(+)(T) appears which is analogous to the Kondo effect

  12. Ligand Exchange Kinetics of Environmentally Relevant Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasci, Adele Frances [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The interactions of ground water with minerals and contaminants are of broad interest for geochemists but are not well understood. Experiments on the molecular scale can determine reaction parameters (i.e. rates of ligand exchange, activation entropy, activation entropy, and activation volume) that can be used in computations to gain insight into reactions that occur in natural groundwaters. Experiments to determine the rate of isotopic ligand exchange for three environmentally relevant metals, rhodium (Rh), iron (Fe), and neptunium (Np), are described. Many environmental transformations of metals (e.g. reduction) in soil occur at trivalent centers, Fe(III) in particular. Contaminant ions absorb to mineral surfaces via ligand exchange, and the reversal of this reaction can be dangerous, releasing contaminants into the environment. Ferric iron is difficult to study spectroscopically because most of its complexes are paramagnetic and are generally reactive toward ligand exchange; therefore, Rh(III), which is diamagnetic and less reactive, was used to study substitution reactions that are analogous to those that occur on mineral oxide surfaces. Studies on both Np(V) and Np(VI) are important in their own right, as 237Np is a radioactive transuranic element with a half-life of 2 million years.

  13. Exchange stiffness of Ca-doped YIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgin, I.; Huber, D. L.

    1994-05-01

    An effective medium theory for the zero-temperature exchange stiffness of uncompensated Ca-doped YIG is presented. The theory is based on the assumption that the effect of the Ca impurities is to produce strong, random ferromagnetic interactions between spins on the a and d sublattices. In the simplest version of the theory, a fraction, x, of the ad exchange integrals are large and positive, x being related to the Ca concentration. The stiffness is calculated as function of x for arbitrary perturbed ad exchange integral, Jxad. For Jxad≳(1/5)‖8Jaa+3Jdd‖, with Jaa and Jdd denoting the aa and dd exchange integrals, respectively, there is a critical concentration, Xc, such that when x≳Xc, the stiffness is complex. It is suggested that Xc delineates the region where there are significant departures from colinearity in the ground state of the Fe spins. Extension of the theory to a model where the Ca doping is assumed to generate Fe4+ ions on the tetrahedral sites is discussed. Possible experimental tests of the theory are mentioned.

  14. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    McBee, Jim

    2010-01-01

    A top-selling guide to Exchange Server-now fully updated for Exchange Server 2010. Keep your Microsoft messaging system up to date and protected with the very newest version, Exchange Server 2010, and this comprehensive guide. Whether you're upgrading from Exchange Server 2007 SP1 or earlier, installing for the first time, or migrating from another system, this step-by-step guide provides the hands-on instruction, practical application, and real-world advice you need.: Explains Microsoft Exchange Server 2010, the latest release of Microsoft's messaging system that protects against spam and vir

  15. Progress in liquid ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Genkichi

    1974-01-01

    Review is made on the extraction with anion exchangers and the extraction with liquid cation exchangers. On the former, explanation is made on the extraction of acids, the relation between anion exchange and the extraction of metals, the composition of the metallic complexes that are extracted, and the application of the extraction with anion exchangers to analytical chemistry. On the latter, explanation is made on the extraction of metals and its application to analytical chemistry. The extraction with liquid ion exchangers is suitable for the operation in chromatography, because the distribution of extracting agents into aqueous phase is small, and extraction equilibrium is quickly reached, usually within 1 to several minutes. The separation by means of anion exchangers is usually made from hydrochloric acid solution. For example, Brinkman et al. determined Rf values for more than 50 elements by thin layer chromatography. Tables are given for showing the structure of the liquid ion exchangers and the polymerized state of various amines. (Mori, K.)

  16. Sigma exchange in the nuclear force and effective field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, John F.

    2006-01-01

    In the phenomenological description of the nuclear interaction an important role is traditionally played by the exchange of a scalar I=0 meson, the sigma, of mass 500-600 MeV, which however is not seen clearly in the particle spectrum and which has a very ambiguous status in QCD. I show that a remarkably simple and reasonably controlled combination of ingredients can reproduce the features of this part of the nuclear force. The use of chiral perturbation theory calculations for two pion exchange supplemented by the Omnes function for pion rescattering suffices to reproduce the magnitude and shape of the exchange of a supposed σ particle. I also attempt to relate this description to the contact interaction that enters more modern descriptions of the internucleon interaction

  17. Information exchange in virtual communities: a typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Burnett

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available While there is wide agreement that virtual communities - and other phenomena utilizing CMC technologies - have the capability to provide both interpersonal and informational interactions, the degree to which they can be seen as specifically information-oriented social spaces has been open to some question. Drawing upon theoretical and empirical work that emphasizes an environmental model of human information behaviour, a foundation is developed for a model of information exchange in virtual communities, and a typology of the varieties of information behaviour to be found in virtual communities is proposed. This typology will provide a mechanism for assessing the characteristics of virtual communities in terms of their support for information exchange, and has the potential to enhance our understanding of virtual communities as information environments.

  18. Probing two-photon exchange with OLYMPUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, M.

    2014-01-01

    Two-photon exchange is believed to be responsible for the discrepancies in the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio found with the Rosenbluth and polarization transfer methods. If this explanation is correct, one expects significant differences in the lepton-proton cross sections between positrons and electrons. The OLYMPUS experiment at DESY in Hamburg, Germany was designed to measure the ratio of unpolarized positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections over a wide kinematic range with high precision, in order to quantify the effect of two-photon exchange. The experiment used intense beams of electrons and positrons stored in the DORIS ring at 2.0 GeV interacting with an internal windowless hydrogen gas target. The current status of OLYMPUS will be discussed. (authors)

  19. Exchange and fellowship programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    By February 1959, the IAEA had received and considered nearly 300 nominations from 31 countries for nuclear science fellowships. More than 200 of the candidates - from 29 countries - had been selected for placement in centres of training in 21 countries. The programme covers three types of training: 1. General techniques training: to develop skills in the use of some fundamental techniques in the field of nuclear energy; 2. Specialist training: to prepare specialists in the theoretical and experimental aspects of the science and technology of nuclear energy; 3. Research training: to provide advanced training, including active participation in research work; this is for persons potentially qualified to develop and carry out research programmes in the basic sciences and engineering. The duration of training varies from some weeks to five or six years. The long-duration training is given at universities or educational establishments of university level, and is of special interest to Member States lacking personnel with the requisite university education. Under its 1959 exchange and fellowship programme, the Agency will be in a position to award over 400 fellowships. Some of these will be paid out of the Agency's operating fund, while 130 fellowships have been offered directly to IAEA by Member States for training at their universities or institutes. There are two new features in the Agency's 1959 programme. One provides for fellowships for scientific research work, the other is the exchange of specialists

  20. Fuel exchanging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Takahiko; Sato, Hideo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a centripetal device, which has an initial spring force greater than a frictional force in an oscillating direction of a telescope mast, on a mast fixing device mounted on a body of fuel exchanging apparatus so that the telescope mast may be secured quickly returning to a predetermined initial position. Structure: When the body of fuel exchanging apparatus is stopped at a predetermined position, a tension spring, which has an initial spring force greater than a frictional force in an oscillating direction of the telescope mast, causes a lug to be forced by means of a push rod to position a sliding base plate to its original position. At the same time, a device of similar structure causes an operating arm to be positioned to the original position, and a lock pin urged by a cylinder is inserted into a through hole in the sliding base plate and operating arm so that the telescope mast may be fixed and retained. (Hanada, M.)

  1. Ion-exchange behaviour of hydrous zirconia in mixed solvents: capacity and kinetics of exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, N.Z.; Ghoneimy, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    The capacity of the Li + form of hydrous zirconia for Na + and Cs + increases in the presence of methanol. This may be due to the greater stability of Li + in methanol/water than in pure water and to dehydration of Na + and Cs + and their stronger interaction with the exchange sites, which may facilitate their replacing Li + . The ion-exchange capacity of zirconia for NO 3 - , Cl - and Br - is almost the same in aqueous solution and is not affected by addition of up to 90% (v/v) methanol, which probably shows that these anions are electrostatically bound in zirconia without specific interactions. The internal diffusion coefficients of the Na + /H + and Cl - /OH - systems decrease in the presence of alcohol: the decrease is highest with methanol and similar for ethanol and propan-2-ol. This is discussed in the light of ion solvation and alcohol penetration inside zirconia. (author)

  2. Evaluating Predictive Uncertainty of Hyporheic Exchange Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, R.; Bennett, J.; Dugge, J.; Wöhling, T.; Nowak, W.

    2017-12-01

    Hyporheic exchange is the interaction of water between rivers and groundwater, and is difficult to predict. One of the largest contributions to predictive uncertainty for hyporheic fluxes have been attributed to the representation of heterogeneous subsurface properties. This research aims to evaluate which aspect of the subsurface representation - the spatial distribution of hydrofacies or the model for local-scale (within-facies) heterogeneity - most influences the predictive uncertainty. Also, we seek to identify data types that help reduce this uncertainty best. For this investigation, we conduct a modelling study of the Steinlach River meander, in Southwest Germany. The Steinlach River meander is an experimental site established in 2010 to monitor hyporheic exchange at the meander scale. We use HydroGeoSphere, a fully integrated surface water-groundwater model, to model hyporheic exchange and to assess the predictive uncertainty of hyporheic exchange transit times (HETT). A highly parameterized complex model is built and treated as `virtual reality', which is in turn modelled with simpler subsurface parameterization schemes (Figure). Then, we conduct Monte-Carlo simulations with these models to estimate the predictive uncertainty. Results indicate that: Uncertainty in HETT is relatively small for early times and increases with transit times. Uncertainty from local-scale heterogeneity is negligible compared to uncertainty in the hydrofacies distribution. Introducing more data to a poor model structure may reduce predictive variance, but does not reduce predictive bias. Hydraulic head observations alone cannot constrain the uncertainty of HETT, however an estimate of hyporheic exchange flux proves to be more effective at reducing this uncertainty. Figure: Approach for evaluating predictive model uncertainty. A conceptual model is first developed from the field investigations. A complex model (`virtual reality') is then developed based on that conceptual model

  3. Ecological Controls on Land-Atmosphere Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulden, M. L.; Litvak, M. E.; Winston, G.; Miller, S. D.; Read, E.; Elliot, R.

    2002-12-01

    We have been using long-term eddy covariance to investigate the patterns of energy and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and a freshwater marsh in California, and also between the atmosphere and a series of boreal forest stands in Manitoba, Canada. Most researchers believe that ecological phenomenon, such as plant herbivore interactions and interspecific differences in plant life-history strategy, are relatively unimportant in determining the interannual and landscape patterns of Land-Atmosphere exchange. However, we have found that interactions between plants and herbivores exert a large control on the interannual patterns of energy and CO2 exchange in the freshwater marsh, and that interspecific differences in plant strategy are critical for understanding the landscape scale patterns of energy and CO2 exchange in the boreal forest. Despite a relatively constant climate and flooding regime at the California marsh, annual Carbon balance varied by 6 tC ha-1 or more from year to year. These deviations were caused in part by variation in herbivory by rodents and insects. Likewise, peak CO2 uptake by boreal forest stands recovering from fire differed less than expected, with a 4-year-old stand assimilating CO2 at rates comparable to that by middle aged stands, and faster than that by old stands. These patterns reflect differences in the life history strategies of the dominant plants, with the youngest stands dominated by fast growing ruderals, the middle aged stands dominated by fast growing competitive species, and the old stands dominated by slow growing stress tolerant species.

  4. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhn, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team

  5. The Life Science Exchange: a case study of a sectoral and sub-sectoral knowledge exchange programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Brian Lee; Garlick, Rob; Wren, Jodie; Smart, Jon; Kennedy, Julie; Stephens, Phil; Tudor, Gwyn; Bisson, Jonathan; Ford, David V

    2016-04-27

    Local and national governments have implemented sector-specific policies to support economic development through innovation, entrepreneurship and knowledge exchange. Supported by the Welsh Government through the European Regional Development Fund, The Life Science Exchange® project was created with the aim to increase interaction between stakeholders, to develop more effective knowledge exchange mechanisms, and to stimulate the formation and maintenance of long-term collaborative relationships within the Welsh life sciences ecosystem. The Life Science Exchange allowed participants to interact with other stakeholder communities (clinical, academic, business, governmental), exchange perspectives and discover new opportunities. Six sub-sector focus groups comprising over 200 senior stakeholders from academia, industry, the Welsh Government and National Health Service were established. Over 18 months, each focus group provided input to inform healthcare innovation policy and knowledge mapping exercises of their respective sub-sectors. Collaborative projects identified during the focus groups and stakeholder engagement were further developed through sandpit events and bespoke support. Each sub-sector focus group produced a report outlining the significant strengths and opportunities in their respective areas of focus, made recommendations to overcome any 'system failures', and identified the stakeholder groups which needed to take action. A second outcome was a stakeholder-driven knowledge mapping exercise for each area of focus. Finally, the sandpit events and bespoke support resulted in participants generating more than £1.66 million in grant funding and inward investment. This article outlines four separate outcomes from the Life Science Exchange programme. The Life Science Exchange process has resulted in a multitude of collaborations, projects, inward investment opportunities and special interest group formations, in addition to securing over ten times its own

  6. Data Exchange Protocol in Repsail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucma Maciej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents implantation and theoretical considerations of data exchange protocol developed for the RepSail project, where main objective was design and building innovative hybrid yacht. One of problems during the design process was improper functioning of data exchange protocols that were available in the commercially available devices to mention navigation purpose NMEA183 or 2000 as well as automation dedicated ones (CAN and similar. Author shows the basis of the dedicated format of exchange for in board devices.

  7. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  8. Can Exchange Rates Be Predicted?

    OpenAIRE

    Siriwutiset, Trin

    2007-01-01

    Foreign exchange rates produce significant impacts on both the macroeconomic and microeconomic scale. Countries� government and multinational companies have been seeking ways to stabilize the exchange rates for a few decades. However, there is no perfect consensus on methods to control and stabilize the exchange rates. In fact, there are several occasions in history where turbulence movements caused crisis in the economies. There are several factors that are identified by economis...

  9. Exchange rate smoothing in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Karádi, Péter

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a structural empirical model capable of examining exchange rate smoothing in the small, open economy of Hungary. The framework assumes the existence of an unobserved and changing implicit exchange rate target. The central bank is assumed to use interest rate policy to obtain this preferred rate in the medium term, while market participants are assumed to form rational expectations about this target and influence exchange rates accordingly. The paper applies unobserved varia...

  10. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Elfassy, David

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling guide to Exchange Server, fully updated for the newest version Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 is touted as a solution for lowering the total cost of ownership, whether deployed on-premises or in the cloud. Like the earlier editions, this comprehensive guide covers every aspect of installing, configuring, and managing this multifaceted collaboration system. It offers Windows systems administrators and consultants a complete tutorial and reference, ideal for anyone installing Exchange Server for the first time or those migrating from an earlier Exchange Server version.Microsoft

  11. Exchange bias theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwi, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    Research on the exchange bias (EB) phenomenon has witnessed a flurry of activity during recent years, which stems from its use in magnetic sensors and as stabilizers in magnetic reading heads. EB was discovered in 1956 but it attracted only limited attention until these applications, closely related to giant magnetoresistance, were developed during the last decade. In this review, I initially give a short introduction, listing the most salient experimental results and what is required from an EB theory. Next, I indicate some of the obstacles in the road towards a satisfactory understanding of the phenomenon. The main body of the text reviews and critically discusses the activity that has flourished, mainly during the last 5 years, in the theoretical front. Finally, an evaluation of the progress made, and a critical assessment as to where we stand nowadays along the road to a satisfactory theory, is presented

  12. Catalysed hydrogen isotope exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A method is described for enhancing the rate of exchange of hydrogen atoms in organic compounds or moieties with deuterium or tritium atoms. It comprises reacting the organic compound or moiety and a compound which is the source of deuterium or tritium in the presence of a catalyst consisting of a non-metallic, metallic or organometallic halide of Lewis acid character and which is reactive towards water, hydrogen halides or similar protonic acids. The catalyst is a halide or organometallic halide of: (i) zinc or another element of Group IIb; (ii) boron, aluminium or another element of Group III; (iii) tin, lead, antimony or another element of Groups IV to VI; or (iv) a transition metal, lanthanide or stable actinide; or a halohalide. (author)

  13. Heat transfer analysis of short helical borehole heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrella, Angelo; De Carli, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vertical ground heat exchanger with a helical shaped pipe is analyzed. ► The model considers the interaction between the ground and the environment. ► The results of the model are in good agreement with the experimental values. ► The weather conditions considerably affect the fluid heat carrier temperature. ► The pitch between the turns does not affect the behaviour of the heat exchanger. -- Abstract: In this paper a numerical model to analyze the thermal behaviour of vertical ground heat exchangers with a helical shaped pipe is presented. This type of configuration can be a suitable alternative to conventional ground heat exchangers, especially when the heating and cooling loads of the building are very low. The model describes the heat transfer problem by means of a network of interconnected thermal resistances and capacitances. Moreover, as the investigated ground heat exchanger is usually installed in shallow depth, the model takes into account the interaction between the ground and the ambient environment which affects the fluid heat carrier temperature into the heat exchanger and, as a consequence, the energy efficiency of the heat pump. After a sensitivity analysis on the mesh parameters, the presented model is compared with experimental data and the simulation results show good agreement with the measurements. Finally, analyses to investigate the influence of the weather conditions, of the axial heat transfer and of the pitch between the turns of the helical pipe for two types of ground are carried out.

  14. Exchange Processes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Over Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Serafin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of heat, momentum, and mass in the atmosphere over mountainous terrain is controlled by synoptic-scale dynamics, thermally driven mesoscale circulations, and turbulence. This article reviews the key challenges relevant to the understanding of exchange processes in the mountain boundary layer and outlines possible research priorities for the future. The review describes the limitations of the experimental study of turbulent exchange over complex terrain, the impact of slope and valley breezes on the structure of the convective boundary layer, and the role of intermittent mixing and wave–turbulence interaction in the stable boundary layer. The interplay between exchange processes at different spatial scales is discussed in depth, emphasizing the role of elevated and ground-based stable layers in controlling multi-scale interactions in the atmosphere over and near mountains. Implications of the current understanding of exchange processes over mountains towards the improvement of numerical weather prediction and climate models are discussed, considering in particular the representation of surface boundary conditions, the parameterization of sub-grid-scale exchange, and the development of stochastic perturbation schemes.

  15. Barrier versus tilt exchange gate operations in spin-based quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yun-Pil; Tahan, Charles

    2018-04-01

    We present a theory for understanding the exchange interaction between electron spins in neighboring quantum dots, either by changing the detuning of the two quantum dots or independently tuning the tunneling barrier between quantum dots. The Hubbard model and a more realistic confining-potential model are used to investigate how the tilting and barrier control affect the effective exchange coupling and thus the gate fidelity in both the detuning and symmetric regimes. We show that the exchange coupling is less sensitive to the charge noise through tunnel barrier control (while allowing for exchange coupling operations on a sweet spot where the exchange interaction has zero derivative with respect to the detuning). Both GaAs and Si quantum dots are considered, and we compare our results with experimental data showing qualitative agreements. Our results answer the open question of why barrier gates are preferable to tilt gates for exchange-based gate operations.

  16. Nucleon-nucleus inelastic scattering using a relativistic impulse approximation with exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rost, E.; Shepard, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    We formulate a microscopic relativistic treatment of nucleon-nucleus inelastic scattering in a distorted wave impulse approximation. The interaction is taken from a Lorentz invariant formulation with explicit direct and exchange terms constrained by fitting to experimental NN amplitudes. This procedure allows us to apply the theory in the lower range of intermediate energies (100--400 MeV) where exchange effects are likely to be important. Application to inelastic scattering uses this interaction for both the distorting potentials and the transition interaction. Effects of explicit exchange are studied and a preliminary analysis of /sup 12/C(p,p') data is presented

  17. Effective transfer entropy approach to information flow between exchange rates and stock markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensoy, Ahmet; Sobaci, Cihat; Sensoy, Sadri; Alali, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the strength and direction of information flow between exchange rates and stock prices in several emerging countries by the novel concept of effective transfer entropy (an alternative non-linear causality measure) with symbolic encoding methodology. Analysis shows that before the 2008 crisis, only low level interaction exists between these two variables and exchange rates dominate stock prices in general. During crisis, strong bidirectional interaction arises. In the post-crisis period, the strong interaction continues to exist and in general stock prices dominate exchange rates

  18. New type fuel exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshii, Toshio; Maita, Yasushi; Hirota, Koichi; Kamishima, Yoshio.

    1988-01-01

    When the reduction of the construction cost of FBRs is considered from the standpoint of the machinery and equipment, to make the size small and to heighten the efficiency are the assigned mission. In order to make a reactor vessel small, it is indispensable to decrease the size of the equipment for fuel exchange installed on the upper part of a core. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. carried out the research on the development of a new type fuel exchange system. As for the fuel exchange system for FBRs, it is necessary to change the mode of fuel exchange from that of LWRs, such as handling in the presence of chemically active sodium and inert argon atmosphere covering it and handling under heavy shielding against high radiation. The fuel exchange system for FBRs is composed of a fuel exchanger which inserts, pulls out and transfers fuel and rotary plugs. The mechanism adopted for the new type fuel exchange system that Mitsubishi is developing is explained. The feasibility of the mechanism on the upper part of a core was investigated by water flow test, vibration test and buckling test. The design of the mechanism on the upper part of the core of a demonstration FBR was examined, and the new type fuel exchange system was sufficiently applicable. (Kako, I.)

  19. Tube in shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, O.; Willby, C.R.; Sheward, G.E.; Ormrod, D.T.; Firth, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    An improved tube-in-shell heat exchanger to be used between liquid metal and water is described for use in the liquid metal coolant system of fast breeder reactors. It is stated that this design is less prone to failures which could result in sodium water reactions than previous exchangers. (UK)

  20. Social exchange : Relations and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, I review the literature on social exchange networks, with specific attention to theoretical and experimental research. I indicate how social exchange theory is rooted in general social theory and mention a few of its main links to social network analysis and empirical network

  1. Ion exchange : principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bank, Nader; Majumdar, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a brief state-of-the-art review of the basic principles underlying the unit operation of ion exchange and its numerous and diverse commercial applications. A selective bibliography is provided for the benefit of the reader interested in pursuing any specific aspect of ion exchange. (author)

  2. Educators Exchange: A Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, William B.

    The Educators Exchange Program (EEP) was established under a training and educational exchange agreement reached by California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In the program, the District provided a 4-week technological training program to faculty at Centros de Capacitacion Tecnologica Industrial…

  3. Nonlinear electron-phonon heat exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, L.M.; Mahan, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    A calculation of the energy exchange between phonons and electrons is done for a metal at very low temperatures. We consider the energy exchange due to two-phonon processes. Second-order processes are expected to be important at temperatures less than 1 K. We include two different second-order processes: (i) the Compton-like scattering of phonons, and (ii) the electron-dual-phonon scattering from the second-order electron-phonon interaction. It is found that the Compton-like process contains a singular energy denominator. The singularity is removed by introducing quasiparticle damping. For pure metals we find that the energy exchange depends upon the lifetime of the electrons and it is proportional to the temperature of the lattice as T L 8 . The same calculation is performed for the electron-dual-phonon scattering and it is found that the temperature dependence is T L 9 . The results can be applied to quantum dot refrigerators. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  4. Charge exchange of muons in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.; Senba, M.

    1983-06-01

    The effects of the charge exchange process on muon spin dynamics have been investigated using a density operator formalism with special interest placed upon the diamagnetic muon and paramagnetic muonium signals observed after thermalization. In the charge exchange region the dynamics of the spin density operator is assumed to be determined by the muonium hyperfine interaction and by electron capture and loss processes for muons. Analytical expressions are obtained for the amplitudes and phases of the diamagnetic muon and paramagnetic muonium signals as a function of the duration of the charge exchange region, tsub(c), which is inversely proportional to the number density of the moderating gas. The theoretical signals exhibit three features which have, as yet, to be experimentally observed, namely: i) that the amplitudes associated with the muonium Larmor frequency and with the hyperfine frequency are not, in general, equal, ii) that all the amplitudes are, in general, damped oscillatory functions of tsub(c) (temperature/pressure) and iii) that phase jumps occur when an amplitude decreases to zero and then increases with falling pressure. Fits to the experimental argon data are discussed in light of the above points

  5. Transendothelial lipoprotein exchange and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Jensen, Kurt Svarre

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria associates with increased risk of atherosclerosis in individuals without diabetes. We hypothesized that transendothelial lipoprotein exchange is elevated among such individuals, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein accumulation and thus atherosclerosis....... METHODS: Using an in vivo isotope technique, transendothelial exchange of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured in 77 non-diabetic individuals. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL was reinjected intravenously, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was calculated as index of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS......: There was no difference in transendothelial LDL exchange between subjects with microalbuminuria versus normoalbuminuria (mean (95% confidence interval) 3.8%/h (3.3-4.3%/h) versus 4.2%/h (3.7-4.7%/h); P=0.33). In contrast, there was a positive correlation between transendothelial LDL exchange and (logarithmically...

  6. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  7. Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ohadi, Michael; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Cetegen, Edvin

    2013-01-01

    In Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, the authors’ focus on the new generation highly efficient heat exchangers and presentation of novel data and technical expertise not available in the open literature.  Next generation micro channels offer record high heat transfer coefficients with pressure drops much less than conventional micro channel heat exchangers. These inherent features promise fast penetration into many mew markets, including high heat flux cooling of electronics, waste heat recovery and energy efficiency enhancement applications, alternative energy systems, as well as applications in mass exchangers and chemical reactor systems. The combination of up to the minute research findings and technical know-how make this book very timely as the search for high performance heat and mass exchangers that can cut costs in materials consumption intensifies.

  8. Heat exchanger performance monitoring guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, N.; Closser, W. Jr.; Mollerus, F.J.

    1991-12-01

    Fouling can occur in many heat exchanger applications in a way that impedes heat transfer and fluid flow and reduces the heat transfer or performance capability of the heat exchanger. Fouling may be significant for heat exchanger surfaces and flow paths in contact with plant service water. This report presents guidelines for performance monitoring of heat exchangers subject to fouling. Guidelines include selection of heat exchangers to monitor based on system function, safety function and system configuration. Five monitoring methods are discussed: the heat transfer, temperature monitoring, temperature effectiveness, delta P and periodic maintenance methods. Guidelines are included for selecting the appropriate monitoring methods and for implementing the selected methods. The report also includes a bibliography, example calculations, and technical notes applicable to the heat transfer method

  9. Knowledge Exchange Trials: Pilot Programme Bridging the Academic-Policy Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Fieldhouse, E; Widdop, P; Bunglawala, Z

    2015-01-01

    The ESRC supported Manchester and Cambridge Universities to undertake pilot knowledge exchange projects in 2013-2014 to extend understanding of the issues facing social scientists seeking to interact with non academic communities and to increase knowledge of effective knowledge exchange (that helps non academics apply social science to their work for positive social and economic benefit). This is a brief summary of University of Manchester’s pilot knowledge exchange project.

  10. Psychological contract breach and work performance:Is social exchange a buffer or an intensifier?

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Chiaburu, Dan S.; Jansen, Paul G. W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how social exchanges modify the relationship between psychological contract breach and work performance. It aims to present two concurrent hypotheses, based on theoretical interaction effects of social exchanges (conceptualized as social exchange relationships, POS, and trust). Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from a sample of 266 employees in a service sector company in the USA. Regression analysis was used to explore the moder...

  11. Helium-air exchange flows through partitioned opening and two-opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, T. I.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes experimental investigations of helium-air exchange flows through partitioned opening and two-opening. Such exchange flows may occur following rupture accident of stand pipe in high temperature engineering test reactor. A test vessel with the two types of small opening on top of test cylinder is used for experiments. An estimation method of mass increment is developed to measure the exchange flow rate. Upward flow of the helium and downward flow of the air in partitioned opening system interact out of entrance and exit of the opening. Therefore, an experiment with two-opening system is made to investigate effect of the fluids interaction of partitioned opening system. As a result of comparison of the exchange flow rates between two types of the opening system, it is demonstrated that the exchange flow rate of the two-opening system is larger than that of the partitioned opening system because of absence of the effect of fluids interaction. (author)

  12. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  13. Humanitarianism and Unequal Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Swamy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between humanitarian aid and ecologically unequal exchange in the context of post-disaster reconstruction. I assess the manner in which humanitarian aid became a central part of the reconstruction process in India's Tamil Nadu state following the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. This article focuses on how the humanitarian “gift” of housing became a central plank of the state's efforts to push fishers inland while opening up coastal lands for various economic development projects such as ports, infrastructure, industries, and tourism. As part of the state and multilateral agency financed reconstruction process, the humanitarian aid regime provided “free” houses as gifts to recipients while expecting in return the formal abandonment of all claims to the coast. The humanitarian “gift” therefore helped depoliticize critical issues of land and resources, location and livelihood, which prior to the tsunami were subjects of long-standing political conflicts between local fisher populations and the state. The gift economy in effect played into an ongoing conflict over land and resources and effectively sought to ease the alienation of fishers from their coastal commons and near shore marine resource base. I argue that humanitarian aid, despite its associations with benevolence and generosity, presents a troubling and disempowering set of options for political struggles over land, resources, and social entitlements such as housing, thereby intensifying existing ecological and economic inequalities.

  14. Heat exchanger design

    OpenAIRE

    Vítek, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce řeší návrh výměníku tepla pro teplovodní kotel se zplyňovací komorou pro předehřev spalovacího vzduchu odpadním teplem spalin. Hodnoty pro výpočet byly experimentálně naměřeny. Práce obsahuje stručný popis trubkového výměníku tepla, stechiometrický vypočet spalování, návrh geometrických rozměrů výměníku, výpočet tlakových ztrát a výpočet výkonu. Její součástí je také výkresová dokumentace navrženého výměníku. This bachelor thesis solves design of a heat exchanger for ...

  15. Effects of Externalities on Patterns of Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    Many real−life examples of exchanges with externalities exist. Externalities of exchange are defined as direct consequences of exchanges for the payoff of actors who are not involved in the exchange. This paper focuses on how externalities influence the partner choice in exchange networks. In an

  16. Magneto-structural correlations in exchange coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, R.D.; Gatteschi, D.; Kahn, O.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Optical Spectroscophy; The Basis of Spin-Hamiltonian Theory; Inelastic Neutorn Scattering From Clusters; Magneto-structural Correlations in Bioinorganic Chemistry; and Magnetic Exchange Interactions Propagated by Multi-Atom Bridges

  17. Charge exchange emission from solar wind helium ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, D; Hoekstra, R; Seredyuk, B; McCullough, RW; Jones, GH; Tielens, AGGM

    2006-01-01

    Charge exchange X-ray and far-ultraviolet (FUV) aurorae can provide detailed insight into the interaction between solar system plasmas. Using the two complementary experimental techniques of photon emission spectroscopy and translation energy spectroscopy, we have studied state-selective charge

  18. DNA strand exchange catalyzed by molecular crowding in PEG solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Bobo; Frykholm, Karolin; Nordé n, Bengt; Westerlund, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    DNA strand exchange is catalyzed by molecular crowding and hydrophobic interactions in concentrated aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol, a discovery of relevance for understanding the function of recombination enzymes and with potential applications to DNA nanotechnology. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Hydration shells exchange charge with their protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Lindgård, Per-Anker; Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    . In our experiments, the amplitude of an ultrasonic pressure wave is gradually increased (0–20 atm) while we simultaneously measure the Raman spectra from the hydrated protein (β-lactoglobulin and lysozyme). We detected two types of spectral changes: first, up to 70% increase in the intensity......Investigation of the interaction between a protein and its hydration shells is an experimental and theoretical challenge. Here, we used ultrasonic pressure waves in aqueous solutions of a protein to explore the conformational states of the protein and its interaction with its hydration shells...... the presence of an ultrasonic pressure, a protein and its hydration shells are in thermodynamic and charge equilibrium, i.e. a protein and its hydration shells exchange charges. The ultrasonic wave disrupts these equilibria which are regained within 30–45 min after the ultrasonic pressure is shut off....

  20. Charge exchange with ion excitation: asymptotic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivakin, I.A.; Karbovanets, M.I.; Ostrovskii, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    There is developed an asymptotic (with respect to the large internuclear separation R) theory for computing the matrix element of the exchange interaction between states of quasimolecules, which is responsible for charge transfer with ion excitation: B + +A→B+A + *. A semiclassical approximation is used, which enables one to apply the theory to processes with the participation of multiply charged ions. The case of s--s transitions for excitation of the ion A + →A + *, where it is appropriate to take into account the distortion of the wave functions of the ion A + by the particle B, is treated separately. Calculations of cross sections and comparison with the results of experiments for He + --Cd and Ne + --Mg collisions at thermal energies are given. It is shown that it is impossible to explain the experimental data by the interaction of terms of the quasimolecules at large R only, and a possible mechanism for populating at small R is proposed

  1. Exact exchange-correlation potential and approximate exchange potential in terms of density matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holas, A.; March, N.H.

    1995-01-01

    An exact expression in terms of density matrices (DM) is derived for δF[n]/δn(r), the functional derivative of the Hohenberg-Kohn functional. The derivation starts from the differential form of the virial theorem, obtained here for an electron system with arbitrary interactions, and leads to an expression taking the form of an integral over a path that can be chosen arbitrarily. After applying this approach to the equivalent system of noninteracting electrons (Slater-Kohn-Sham scheme) and combining the corresponding result with the previous one, an exact expression for the exchange-correlation potential v xc (r) is obtained which is analogous in character to that for δF[n]/δn(r), but involving, besides the interacting-system DMs, also the noninteracitng DMs. Equating the former DMs to the latter ones, we reduce the result for the exact v xc (r) to that for an approximate exchange-only potential v x (r). This leads naturally to the Harbola-Sahni exchange-only potential

  2. Investigating the effects of heat exchanger on flame transfer function in a simplified boiler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, N.; Kornilov, V.N.; Teerling, O. J.; Lopez Arteaga, I.; de Goey, Ph.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present work is to investigate the effects the heat exchanger can have on the acoustic response of the flames(flame transfer function) in a boiler. In compact condensing boilers the distance between the burner and heat exchanger is small enough to cause intense interactions. That is

  3. Nanoscale Control of Exchange Bias with BiFeO3 Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Lane W.; Chu, Ying-Hao; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Huijben, Mark; Yu, Pu; Han, Shu-Jen; Lee, Donkoun; Wang, Shan X.; Ramesh, R.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a direct correlation between the domain structure of multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films and exchange bias of Co0.9Fe0.1/BiFeO3 heterostructures. Two distinct types of interactions − an enhancement of the coercive field (exchange enhancement) and an enhancement of the coercive field

  4. The Usage of Informational Gateways for Data Exchange between Personal Data Systems of Different Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Goncharov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available When personal data exchange between informational systems takes place, one must guarantee the systems are not integrating but just interacting. This task can not be accomplished by using traditional tools such as firewalls, cryptography and so on. To solve the problem we suggest deploying of informational gateway in personal data exchange process.

  5. Models of information exchange between radio interfaces of Wi-Fi group of standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinskaya, O. S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper offers models of information exchange between radio interfaces of the Wi-Fi group of standards by the example of a real facility management system for the oil and gas industry. Interaction between the MU-MIMO and MIMO technologies is analyzed. An optimal variant of information exchange is proposed.

  6. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.

  7. Relational and XML Data Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Arenas, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Data exchange is the problem of finding an instance of a target schema, given an instance of a source schema and a specification of the relationship between the source and the target. Such a target instance should correctly represent information from the source instance under the constraints imposed by the target schema, and it should allow one to evaluate queries on the target instance in a way that is semantically consistent with the source data. Data exchange is an old problem that re-emerged as an active research topic recently, due to the increased need for exchange of data in various for

  8. Corrosion protected reversing heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawierucha, R.

    1984-01-01

    A reversing heat exchanger of the plate and fin type having multiple aluminum parting sheets in a stacked arrangement with corrugated fins separating the sheets to form multiple flow paths, means for closing the ends of the sheets, an input manifold arrangement of headers for the warm end of of the exchanger and an output manifold arrangement for the cold end of the exchanger with the input air feed stream header and the waste gas exhaust header having an alloy of zinc and aluminum coated on the inside surface for providing corrosion protection to the stack

  9. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  10. Organic decontamination by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    This study has successfully identified ion exchanger media suitable for decontaminating the 5500-gallon organic layer in Tank 241-C-103. Decontamination of radionuclides is necessary to meet shipping, incinerator site storage, and incineration feed requirements. The exchanger media were identified through a literature search and experiments at the Russian Institute for Physical Chemistry. The principal radionuclides addressed are Cs-137 and Sr-90. Recommendations for an experimental program plan conclude the discussion. The experimental program would provide the data necessary for plant design specifications for a column and for ion exchange media to be used in decontaminating the organic layer

  11. Monte Carlo study of the double and super-exchange model with lattice distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, J R; Vallejo, E; Navarro, O [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-360, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Avignon, M, E-mail: jrsuarez@iim.unam.m [Institut Neel, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2009-05-01

    In this work a magneto-elastic phase transition was obtained in a linear chain due to the interplay between magnetism and lattice distortion in a double and super-exchange model. It is considered a linear chain consisting of localized classical spins interacting with itinerant electrons. Due to the double exchange interaction, localized spins tend to align ferromagnetically. This ferromagnetic tendency is expected to be frustrated by anti-ferromagnetic super-exchange interactions between neighbor localized spins. Additionally, lattice parameter is allowed to have small changes, which contributes harmonically to the energy of the system. Phase diagram is obtained as a function of the electron density and the super-exchange interaction using a Monte Carlo minimization. At low super-exchange interaction energy phase transition between electron-full ferromagnetic distorted and electron-empty anti-ferromagnetic undistorted phases occurs. In this case all electrons and lattice distortions were found within the ferromagnetic domain. For high super-exchange interaction energy, phase transition between two site distorted periodic arrangement of independent magnetic polarons ordered anti-ferromagnetically and the electron-empty anti-ferromagnetic undistorted phase was found. For this high interaction energy, Wigner crystallization, lattice distortion and charge distribution inside two-site polarons were obtained.

  12. Direct-Bandgap InAs Quantum-Dots Have Long-Range Electron--Hole Exchange Whereas Indirect Gap Si Dots Have Short-Range Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juo, J.W.; Franceschetti, A.; Zunger, A.

    2009-01-01

    Excitons in quantum dots manifest a lower-energy spin-forbidden 'dark' state below a spin-allowed 'bright' state; this splitting originates from electron-hole (e-h) exchange interactions, which are strongly enhanced by quantum confinement. The e-h exchange interaction may have both a short-range and a long-range component. Calculating numerically the e-h exchange energies from atomistic pseudopotential wave functions, we show here that in direct-gap quantum dots (such as InAs) the e-h exchange interaction is dominated by the long-range component, whereas in indirect-gap quantum dots (such as Si) only the short-range component survives. As a result, the exciton dark/bright splitting scales as 1/R 2 in InAs dots and 1/R 3 in Si dots, where R is the quantum-dot radius.

  13. Characterization of protein/ligand interactions by {sup 1}H/{sup 3}H exchange: application to the hAsf{sup 1}/ histone H{sup 3} complex; Caracterisation des interactions proteine / ligand par echange {sup 1}H/{sup 3}H: application au complexe entre la proteine hAsf{sup 1} et l'histone H{sup 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, G

    2007-05-15

    In the first chapter will be exposed the main current methods of identification to high debit of the interactions protein-protein. Then the methods allowing to characterize the surfaces of interaction or to determine the structures of the complexes will be listed by discussing the main advantages and the inconveniences. Our approach of characterization of the zones of interaction protein-protein is a method of 'foot-printing' 1, based on the identification and radicals' quantification formed on the residues of proteins accessible to the water. The second chapter will so discuss the development of this method of radical identification using the atom of tritium as radioactive label. Our approach will finally be validated in the third chapter by applying it to the characterization of amino acids involved in the interaction enter the human protein anti silencing factor 1 (hAsf11-156) and a fragment of the histone H{sup 3}. (N.C.)

  14. Marriage exchanges, seed exchanges, and the dynamics of manioc diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delêtre, Marc; McKey, Doyle B; Hodkinson, Trevor R

    2011-11-08

    The conservation of crop genetic resources requires understanding the different variables-cultural, social, and economic-that impinge on crop diversity. In small-scale farming systems, seed exchanges represent a key mechanism in the dynamics of crop genetic diversity, and analyzing the rules that structure social networks of seed exchange between farmer communities can help decipher patterns of crop genetic diversity. Using a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches, we investigated the relationships between regional patterns of manioc genetic diversity in Gabon and local networks of seed exchange. Spatially explicit Bayesian clustering methods showed that geographical discontinuities of manioc genetic diversity mirror major ethnolinguistic boundaries, with a southern matrilineal domain characterized by high levels of varietal diversity and a northern patrilineal domain characterized by low varietal diversity. Borrowing concepts from anthropology--kinship, bridewealth, and filiation--we analyzed the relationships between marriage exchanges and seed exchange networks in patrilineal and matrilineal societies. We demonstrate that, by defining marriage prohibitions, kinship systems structure social networks of exchange between farmer communities and influence the movement of seeds in metapopulations, shaping crop diversity at local and regional levels.

  15. Ferromagnetism and interlayer exchange coupling in thin metallic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienert, Jochen

    2008-07-15

    This thesis is concerned with the ferromagnetic Kondo lattice (s-d,s-f) model for film geometry. The spin-fermion interaction of this model refers to substances in which localized spins interact with mobile charge carriers like in (dilute) magnetic semiconductors, manganites, or rare-earth compounds. The carrier-mediated, indirect interaction between the localized spins comprises the long-range, oscillatory RKKY exchange interaction in the weak-coupling case and the short-range doubleexchange interaction for strong spin-fermion coupling. Both limits are recovered in this work by mapping the problem onto an effective Heisenberg model. The influence of reduced translational symmetry on the effective exchange interaction and on the magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic Kondo lattice model is investigated. Curie temperatures are obtained for different parameter constellations. The consequences of charge transfer and of lattice relaxation on the magnetic stability at the surface are considered. Since the effective exchange integrals are closely related to the electronic structure in terms of the density of states and of the kinetic energy, the discussion is based on the modifications of these quantities in the dimensionally-reduced case. The important role of spin waves for thin film and surface magnetism is demonstrated. Interlayer exchange coupling represents a particularly interesting and important manifestation of the indirect interaction among localized magnetic moments. The coupling between monatomic layers in thin films is studied in the framework of an RKKY approach. It is decisively determined by the type of in-plane and perpendicular dispersion of the charge carriers and is strongly suppressed above a critical value of the Fermi energy. Finally, the temperature-dependent magnetic stability of thin interlayer-coupled films is addressed and the conditions for a temperature-driven magnetic reorientation transition are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Theory and design of heat exchanger : Double pipe and heat exchanger in abnormal condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Ui Dong

    1996-02-01

    This book introduces theory and design of heat exchanger, which includes HTRI program, multiple tube heat exchanger external heating, theory of heat transfer, basis of design of heat exchanger, two-phase flow, condensation, boiling, material of heat exchanger, double pipe heat exchanger like hand calculation, heat exchanger in abnormal condition such as Jackets Vessel, and Coiled Vessel, design and summary of steam tracing.

  17. Water on BN doped benzene: A hard test for exchange-correlation functionals and the impact of exact exchange on weak binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamdani, Yasmine S.; Michaelides, Angelos; Alfè, Dario; Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) studies of weakly interacting complexes have recently focused on the importance of van der Waals dispersion forces, whereas the role of exchange has received far less attention. Here, by exploiting the subtle binding between water and a boron and nitrogen doped benzene derivative (1,2-azaborine) we show how exact exchange can alter the binding conformation within a complex. Benchmark values have been calculated for three orientations of the water monomer on 1,2-azaborine from explicitly correlated quantum chemical methods, and we have also used diffusion quantum Monte Carlo. For a host of popular DFT exchange-correlation functionals we show that the lack of exact exchange leads to the wrong lowest energy orientation of water on 1,2-azaborine. As such, we suggest that a high proportion of exact exchange and the associated improvement in the electronic structure could be needed for the accurate prediction of physisorption sites on doped surfaces and in complex organic molecules. Meanwhile to predict correct absolute interaction energies an accurate description of exchange needs to be augmented by dispersion inclusive functionals, and certain non-local van der Waals functionals (optB88- and optB86b-vdW) perform very well for absolute interaction energies. Through a comparison with water on benzene and borazine (B 3 N 3 H 6 ) we show that these results could have implications for the interaction of water with doped graphene surfaces, and suggest a possible way of tuning the interaction energy

  18. Exchange of Information in Tax Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Szwajdler

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present issues related to exchange of tax information. The author focuses on models of exchange of information and boundaries of obligations in reference to above-mentioned problems. Automatic exchange of information, spontaneous exchange of information and exchange of information on request are analysed in this work on the base of OECD Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters, Council Directive 2011/16 and OECD Model Agreement on Exchange...

  19. Magnon Interactions in Terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Mackintosh, Allan

    1970-01-01

    Magnon energies and lifetimes have been studied in Tb and Tb-10% Ho single crystals by inelastic neutron scattering. The lifetimes of magnons propagating in the c-direction have been measured in the ferromagnetic phase of Tb, and are found to decrease with increasing temperature and wave......-vector, probably principally due to magnon-magnon interactions. The interaction of magnons with phonons has also been observed and the effect of Ho impurities on this interaction studied. In addition, excitations which are ascribed to local modes associated with the Ho ions have been observed. The dependence...... of the indirect exchange interaction on temperature in the alloy gives information on the mechanisms responsible for the transition from the helical to ferromagnetic structures. The dependence of the magnon energies on magnetic field at low temperatures gives detailed information on the role of magnetoelastic...

  20. Social identity and social exchange: Identification, support, and withdrawal from the job

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); R. van Dick (Rolf); S. Tavares (Susanna)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIntegrating insights from the social exchange perspective and the social identity perspective, we propose that evaluations of support received from the organization and its representatives and organizational identification interact to predict withdrawal from the job. The relationship of