Sample records for exchange interactions

  1. Intersite Coulomb interaction and Heisenberg exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eder, R; van den Brink, J.; Sawatzky, G.A


    Based on exact diagonalization results for small clusters we discuss the effect of intersite Coulomb repulsion in Mott-Hubbard or charge transfers insulators. Whereas the exchange constant J for direct exchange is enhanced by intersite Coulomb interaction, that for superexchange is suppressed. The

  2. A meson exchange model for the YN interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Haidenbauer; W. Melnitchouk; J. Speth


    We present a new model for the hyperon-nucleon (Lambda N, Sigma N) interaction, derived within the meson exchange framework. The model incorporates the standard one boson exchange contributions of the lowest pseudoscalar and vector meson multiplets with coupling constants fixed by SU(6) symmetry relations. In addition - as the main feature of the new model - the exchange of two correlated pions or kaons, both in the scalar-isoscalar (sigma) and vector-isovector (rho) channels, is included.

  3. Electrical and thermal control of magnetic exchange interactions. (United States)

    Fransson, Jonas; Ren, Jie; Zhu, Jian-Xin


    We investigate the far-from-equilibrium nature of magnetic anisotropy and exchange interactions between molecular magnets embedded in a tunnel junction. By mapping to an effective spin model, these magnetic interactions can be divided into three types: isotropic Heisenberg, anisotropic Ising, and anisotropic Dzyaloshinski-Moriya contributions, which are attributed to the background nonequilibrium electronic structures. We further demonstrate that both the magnetic self- and exchange interactions can be controlled either electrically by gating and tuning the voltage bias, or thermally by adjusting the temperature bias. We show that the Heisenberg and Ising interactions scale linearly, while the Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction scales quadratically, with the molecule-lead coupling strength. The interactions scale linearly with the effective spin polarizations of the leads and the molecular coherence. Our results pave a way for smart control of magnetic exchange interactions at atomic and molecular levels.

  4. Triangular Arbitrage as an Interaction in Foreign Exchange Markets (United States)

    Aiba, Yukihiro; Hatano, Naomichi

    Analyzing correlation in financial time series is a topic of considerable interest [1]-[17]. In the foreign exchange market, a correlation among the exchange rates can be generated by a triangular arbitrage transaction. The purpose of this article is to review our recent study [18]-[23] on modeling the interaction generated by the triangular arbitrage.

  5. Renormalization of NN Interaction with Relativistic Chiral Two Pion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, R; Valderrama, M Pavon; Arriola, E Ruiz


    The renormalization of the NN interaction with the Chiral Two Pion Exchange Potential computed using relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory is considered. The short distance singularity reduces the number of counter-terms to about a half as those in the heavy-baryon expansion. Phase shifts and deuteron properties are evaluated and a general overall agreement is observed.

  6. Notes on exchange interactions in holographic p-adic CFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Dutta


    Full Text Available There is a renewed interest in conformal field theories (CFT on ultrametric spaces (p-adic field and its algebraic extensions in view of their natural adaptability to the holographic setting. We compute the contributions from the exchange interactions arising from bulk trivalent vertices to the four-point correlator of the CFT using Witten diagrams with three-scalar interaction vertex. Together with the contributions from the bulk four-point interaction, i.e. the contact term, computed earlier, these provide a complete answer. We remark on the singularity structure in Mellin space, and argue that all these models are analogues of adS2/CFT1.

  7. Varying the exchange interaction between NiO nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Mørup, Steen


    We demonstrate that exchange interactions between antiferromagnetic nanoparticles of 57Fe-doped NiO can be varied by simple macroscopic treatments. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of the superparamagnetic relaxation behaviour show that grinding or suspension in water of nanoparticles of NiO can si...... significantly reduce interparticle interactions. Slow drying of aqueous suspensions of NiO nanoparticles did not lead to enhanced interparticle interactions. This is opposite to the behaviour of α-Fe2O3 (hematite) nanoparticles....

  8. Thermal evolution of exchange interactions in lightly doped barium hexaferrites (United States)

    Trukhanov, S. V.; Trukhanov, A. V.; Kostishyn, V. G.; Panina, L. V.; Turchenko, V. A.; Kazakevich, I. S.; Trukhanov, An. V.; Trukhanova, E. L.; Natarov, V. O.; Balagurov, A. M.


    The lightly doped BaFe12-xDxO19 (D=Al3+, In3+; x=0.1 and 0.3) polycrystalline hexaferrite samples have been investigated by powder neutron diffractometry as well as by vibration sample magnetometry in a wide temperature range from 4 K up to 740 K and in magnetic field up to 14 T to establish the nature of Fe3+(Al3+, In3+) - O2- - Fe3+(Al3+, In3+) indirect exchange interactions. The crystal structure features such as the ionic coordinates and lattice parameters have been defined and Rietveld refined. The Invar effect has been observed in low temperature range below 150 K. It was explained by the thermal oscillation anharmonicity of ions. It is established that the ferrimagnet-paramagnet phase transition is a standard second-order one. From the macroscopic magnetization measurement the Curie temperature and ordered magnetic moment per nominal iron ion are obtained. From the microscopic diffraction measurement the magnetic moments at all the nonequivalent ionic positions and total magnetic moment per iron ion have been obtained at different temperatures down to 4 K. The light diamagnetic doping mechanism and magnetic structure model are proposed. The effect of light diamagnetic doping on nature of Fe3+(Al3+, In3+) - O2- - Fe3+(Al3+, In3+) indirect exchange interactions with temperature increase is discussed.

  9. Phospholemman regulates cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger by interacting with the exchanger's proximal linker domain. (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Qian; Wang, Jufang; Carl, Lois L; Song, Jianliang; Ahlers, Belinda A; Cheung, Joseph Y


    Phospholemman (PLM) belongs to the FXYD family of small ion transport regulators. When phosphorylated at Ser(68), PLM inhibits cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1). We previously demonstrated that the cytoplasmic tail of PLM interacts with the proximal intracellular loop (residues 218-358), but not the transmembrane (residues 1-217 and 765-938) or Ca(2+)-binding (residues 371-508) domains, of NCX1. In this study, we used intact Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger with various deletions in the intracellular loop to map the interaction sites with PLM. We first demonstrated by Western blotting and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy that wild-type (WT) NCX1 and its deletion mutants were expressed in transfected HEK-293 cells. Cotransfection with PLM and NCX1 (or its deletion mutants) in HEK-293 cells did not decrease expression of NCX1 (or its deletion mutants). Coexpression of PLM with WT NCX1 inhibited NCX1 current (I(NaCa)). Deletion of residues 240-679, 265-373, 250-300, or 300-373 from WT NCX1 resulted in loss of inhibition of I(NaCa) by PLM. Inhibition of I(NaCa) by PLM was preserved when residues 229-237, 270-300, 328-330, or 330-373 were deleted from the intracellular loop of NCX1. These results suggest that PLM mediated inhibition of I(NaCa) by interacting with two distinct regions (residues 238-270 and 300-328) of NCX1. Indeed, I(NaCa) measured in mutants lacking residues 238-270, 300-328, or 238-270 + 300-328 was not affected by PLM. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays confirmed that PLM bound to fragments corresponding to residues 218-371, 218-320, 218-270, 238-371, and 300-373, but not to fragments encompassing residues 250-300 and 371-508 of NCX1, indicating that residues 218-270 and 300-373 physically associated with PLM. Finally, acute regulation of I(NaCa) by PLM phosphorylation observed with WT NCX1 was absent in 250-300 deletion mutant but preserved in 229-237 deletion mutant. We conclude that PLM mediates its inhibition of NCX1 by interacting with

  10. Geometrical contributions to the exchange constants: Free electrons with spin-orbit interaction (United States)

    Freimuth, Frank; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy


    Using thermal quantum field theory, we derive an expression for the exchange constant that resembles Fukuyama's formula for orbital magnetic susceptibility (OMS). Guided by this formal analogy between the exchange constant and OMS, we identify a contribution to the exchange constant that arises from the geometrical properties of the band structure in mixed phase space. We compute the exchange constants for free electrons and show that the geometrical contribution is generally important. Our formalism allows us to study the exchange constants in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. Thereby, we find sizable differences between the exchange constants of helical and cycloidal spin spirals. Furthermore, we discuss how to calculate the exchange constants based on a gauge-field approach in the case of the Rashba model with an additional exchange splitting, and we show that the exchange constants obtained from this gauge-field approach are in perfect agreement with those obtained from the quantum field theoretical method.

  11. EMU, Monetary Policy Interactions and Exchange Rate Stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.D. Cavelaars


    textabstractThis memorandum discusses the possible impact of a monetary union in Europe on transatlantic exchange rate stability. EMU leads to the elimination of coordination failures within the euro area. Whether this translates into more stable exchange rates, depends on the origin of the shock.

  12. Magnetization reversal processes of isotropic permanent magnets with various inter-grain exchange interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tsukahara


    Full Text Available We performed a large-scale micromagnetics simulation on a supercomputing system to investigate the properties of isotropic nanocrystalline permanent magnets consisting of cubic grains. In the simulation, we solved the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation under a periodic boundary condition for accurate calculation of the magnetization dynamics inside the nanocrystalline isotropic magnet. We reduced the inter-grain exchange interaction perpendicular and parallel to the external field independently. Propagation of the magnetization reversal process is inhibited by reducing the inter-grain exchange interaction perpendicular to the external field, and the coercivity is enhanced by this restraint. In contrast, when we reduce the inter-grain exchange interaction parallel to the external field, the coercivity decreases because the magnetization reversal process propagates owing to dipole interaction. These behaviors show that the coercivity of an isotropic permanent magnet depends on the direction of the inter-grain exchange interaction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю.А. Авер’янова


    Full Text Available  The possibility to enhance the weather information provision of relevant customers is considered. It is based on the use of the complex global system for weather information obtaining, exchange and dissemination. The structural diagram of the system is proposed. The structural diagram is completed with addition connections that allow to pay strong attention on the most dangerous meteorological phenomena at the critical moment of flight. The proposed approach gives possibility to aircraft crew to select and use specified operative information and increase the probability for proper decision taking. The aircraft are used as the dynamic elements for data obtaining and exchange in the frame of the global system for weather information obtaining, exchange and dissemination.

  14. Simulation study on exchange interaction and unique magnetization near ferromagnetic morphotropic phase boundary (United States)

    Wei, Songrui; Liao, Xiaoqi; Gao, Yipeng; Yang, Sen; Wang, Dong; Song, Xiaoping


    Extensive efforts have been made in searching enhanced functionalities near the so-called morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs) in both ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials. Due to the exchange anti-symmetry of the wave function of fermions, it is widely recognized that the exchange interaction plays a critical role in ferromagnetism. As a quantum effect, the exchange interaction is magnitudes larger than electric interaction, leading to a fundamental difference between ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism. In this paper, we establish an energetic model capturing the interplay among the anisotropy energy, magnetostatic energy and the exchange energy to investigate systematically the effects of the exchange energy on the behavior of the ferromagnetic MPB. For the first time, it is found that the exchange energy can narrow the width of MPB region in the composition temperature phase diagram for ferromagnetic MPB systems. As temperature increases, MPB region becomes wider because of the weakening of the exchange interaction. Our simulation results suggest that the exchange energy play a critical role on the unique behavior of ferromagnetic MPB, which is in contrast different from that of ferroelectric MPB.

  15. Teaching Interactions between Foreign Exchange Markets and Balance-of-Payments Flows: An Alternative Graphical Approach. (United States)

    Gaske, Dan


    Provides a graphical framework for presenting interactions among current account flows, capital account flows, and exchange rates. Suggests that the two type of flows must be considered separately in discussions of foreign exchange equilibrium and balance of payments flows. Supplies sample graphs and instructions for applying the framework to real…

  16. Intensification of heat exchange by method of interacting flows (United States)

    Agishev, B. Y.; Varava, A. N.; Dedov, A. V.; Zakharenkov, A. V.; Komov, A. T.


    The effectiveness of the heat exchange intensifier “rib-twisted wire” is considered in this paper. The main goal was to study the influence of the wire coiling step t on heat transfer and hydraulic resistance for different values \\dot{H} of the dimensionless height of the edge \\dot{H}, as well as some results on heat exchange during bubbly boiling in an annular channel. Given: • a brief description and an image of the heat exchange intensifier “rib-twisted wire” • generalized results of studies of heat exchange and hydraulic resistance in the annular channel in the single-phase convection with different geometric characteristics of the intensifier • empirical correlations of the generalized experimental results that allow to calculate the coefficient of hydraulic resistance and heat transfer in the range of regime parameters in the single-phase convection that is being studied. • some results of experiments in bubbly boiling regimes and near-critical thermal loads.

  17. Energy exchange in systems of particles with nonreciprocal interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaulina, O. S.; Lisina, I. I., E-mail:; Lisin, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)


    A model is proposed to describe the sources of additional kinetic energy and its redistribution in systems of particles with a nonreciprocal interaction. The proposed model is shown to explain the qualitative specific features of the dust particle dynamics in the sheath region of an RF discharge. Prominence is given to the systems of particles with a quasi-dipole–dipole interaction, which is similar to the interaction induced by the ion focusing effects that occur in experiments on a laboratory dusty plasma, and with the shadow interaction caused by thermophoretic forces and Le Sage’s forces.

  18. Buyer-Seller Interaction Patterns During Ongoing Service Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Valk (Wendy)


    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on the ongoing interactions that take place between buyers and sellers of business services after the contract has been signed. This ongoing interaction is important since services are produced and consumed simultaneously; therefore, both buyer and seller have

  19. Analysis of Exchange Interaction and Electron Delocalization as Intramolecular Determinants of Intermolecular Electron-Transfer Kinetics. (United States)

    Bominaar, E. L.; Achim, C.; Borshch, S. A.; Girerd, J.-J.; Münck, E.


    During the past decades, spectroscopic characterization of exchange interactions and electron delocalization has developed into a powerful tool for the recognition of metal clusters in metalloproteins. By contrast, the biological relevance of these interactions has received little attention thus far. This paper presents a theoretical study in which this problem is addressed. The rate constant for intermolecular electron-transfer reactions which are essential in many biological processes is investigated. An expression is derived for the dependence of the rate constant for self-exchange on the delocalization degree of the mixed-valence species. This result allows us to rationalize published kinetic data. In the simplest case of electron transfer from an exchange-coupled binuclear mixed-valence donor to a diamagnetic acceptor, the rate constant is evaluated, taking into account spin factors and exchange energies in the initial and final state. The theoretical analysis indicates that intramolecular spin-dependent electron delocalization (double exchange) and Heisenberg-Dirac-van Vleck (HDvV) exchange have an important impact on the rate constant for intermolecular electron transfer. This correlation reveals a novel relationship between magnetochemistry and electrochemistry. Contributions to the electron transfer from the ground and excited states of the exchange-coupled dimer have been evaluated. For clusters in which these states have different degrees of delocalization, the excited-state contributions to electron transfer may become dominant at potentials which are less reductive than the potential at which the rate constant for the transfer from the ground state is maximum. The rate constant shows a steep dependence on HDvV exchange, which suggests that an exchange-coupled cluster can act as a molecular switch for exchange-controlled electron gating. The relevance of this result is discussed in the context of substrate specificity of electron-transfer reactions in

  20. Experimental evidence for anisotropic double exchange interaction driven anisotropic transport in manganite heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Zhaoliang; Koster, Gertjan; Huijben, Mark; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.


    An anisotropic double exchange interaction driven giant transport anisotropy is demonstrated in a canonic double exchange system of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 ultrathin films epitaxially grown on NdGaO3 (110) substrates. The oxygen octahedral coupling at the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/NdGaO3 interface induces a planar

  1. Interaction Analysis Gives Insight into Student-Teacher Exchanges. (United States)

    Moskowitz, Gertrude


    A method providing objective analysis of teacher and student interaction is described in this article. Feedback derived from a matrix of the teacher's classroom behavior (prepared by a professional observer) provides objective information in 10 separate categories. The categories, characteristic of any teacher's classroom behavior and teaching…

  2. Creation and Annihilation of Skyrmions in the Frustrated Magnets with Competing Exchange Interactions. (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Chi, Xiaodan; Li, Xuesi; Liu, Yan; Du, An


    In triangular-lattice magnets, the coexistence of third-neighbor antiferromagnetic and nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic exchange interactions can induce rich magnetic phases including noncoplanar skyrmion crystals. Based on Monte Carlo simulation, we studied the dependence of magnetic phase transition on exchange interaction strength. Under the consideration of uniaxial anisotropy and magnetic field both perpendicular to the film plane, a large antiferromagnetic exchange interaction induces a high frustration. When the value of antiferromagnetic exchange interaction is one and a half times larger than the ferromagnetic one, a magnetic phase composed of canting spin stripes, never observed in the chiral magnets, forms. Interestingly, different canting spin stripes along three 120 degree propagation directions may coexist randomly in a magnetic phase, attesting that the canting spin stripes are three-fold degenerate states akin to helices and the multiple state of canting spin stripes is a circular configuration with zero skyrmion charge number. Moreover, skyrmions and antiskyrmions can be observed simultaneously in the configuration at the low temperature nearly close to 0 K, and their configuration and diameter properties are discussed. Finally, the mechanisms of skyrmion creation and annihilation are properly interpreted by comparing exchange and Zeeman energy terms.

  3. Static magnetic susceptibility, crystal field and exchange interactions in rare earth titanate pyrochlores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkin, B Z; Zakirov, A R [Kazan State University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Lummen, T T A; Van Loosdrecht, P H M [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Dhalenne, G, E-mail: boris.malkin@ksu.r [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de L' Etat Solide, ICMMO, UMR 8182, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)


    The experimental temperature dependence (T = 2-300 K) of single crystal bulk and site susceptibilities of rare earth titanate pyrochlores R{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} (R = Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) is analyzed in the framework of crystal field theory and a mean field approximation. Analytical expressions for the site and bulk susceptibilities of the pyrochlore lattice are derived taking into account long range dipole-dipole interactions and anisotropic exchange interactions between the nearest neighbor rare earth ions. The sets of crystal field parameters and anisotropic exchange coupling constants have been determined and their variations along the lanthanide series are discussed.

  4. Establishing a Sense of Community, Interaction, and Knowledge Exchange Among Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob


    In this chapter, we share experiences from a project at Aalborg University (AAU), in which the authors designed a course using Google+ Communities for the first semester of the Communication and Digital Media programme. The main pedagogical idea was to use Google+ Communities to foster both...... an academic and social sense of community among the students, through encouraging interaction and knowledge exchange. Studies show that students prefer to use Facebook for academic and social purposes. Consequently, teachers have limited insight into the academic challenges facing students, which...... encouraged students to interact and exchange knowledge which fostered a sense of community....

  5. Dynamic metabolic exchange governs a marine algal-bacterial interaction. (United States)

    Segev, Einat; Wyche, Thomas P; Kim, Ki Hyun; Petersen, Jörn; Ellebrandt, Claire; Vlamakis, Hera; Barteneva, Natasha; Paulson, Joseph N; Chai, Liraz; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto


    Emiliania huxleyi is a model coccolithophore micro-alga that generates vast blooms in the ocean. Bacteria are not considered among the major factors influencing coccolithophore physiology. Here we show through a laboratory model system that the bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens, a well-studied member of the Roseobacter group, intimately interacts with E. huxleyi. While attached to the algal cell, bacteria initially promote algal growth but ultimately kill their algal host. Both algal growth enhancement and algal death are driven by the bacterially-produced phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid. Bacterial production of indole-3-acetic acid and attachment to algae are significantly increased by tryptophan, which is exuded from the algal cell. Algal death triggered by bacteria involves activation of pathways unique to oxidative stress response and programmed cell death. Our observations suggest that bacteria greatly influence the physiology and metabolism of E. huxleyi. Coccolithophore-bacteria interactions should be further studied in the environment to determine whether they impact micro-algal population dynamics on a global scale.

  6. Measuring exchange interactions between atomic spins using electron spin resonance STM (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Paul, William; Natterer, Fabian; Choi, Taeyoung; Heinrich, Andreas; Lutz, Christopher

    Exchange interactions between neighboring atoms give rise to magnetic order in magnetic materials. As the size of the electronic device is miniaturized toward the limit of single atoms, magnetic nanostructures such as coupled atomic dimers and clusters are explored more as prototypes for possible data storage, spintronics as well as quantum computing applications. Characterizing inter-atom exchange interactions calls for increasing spatial resolution and higher energy sensitivity to better understand this fundamental interaction. Here, using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we studied a magnetically coupled atomic dimer consisting of two 3d transition metal atoms, with one adsorbed on an insulating layer (MgO) and the other attached to the STM tip. We demonstrate the ability to measure the short-range exchange interaction between the two atomic spins with orders-of-magnitude variation ranging from milli-eV all the way to micro-eV. This is realized by the successful combination of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) and electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques in STM implemented at different energy scales. We unambiguously confirm the exponential decay behavior of the direct exchange interaction.

  7. Origin of Biquadratic Exchange Interactions in a Mott Insulator as a Driving Force of Spin Nematic Order (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Yokoyama, Yuto; Hotta, Chisa


    We consider a series of Mott insulators in unit of two orbitals each hosting spin-1/2 electron, and by pairing two spin-1/2 into spin-1 triplet, derive the effective exchange interaction between the adjacent units via fourth order perturbation theory. It turns out that the biquadratic exchange interaction between spin-1, which is one of the origins of the nematic order, arises only in processes where the four different electrons exchange cyclically along the twisted loop, which we call "twisted ring exchange" processes. We show that the term becomes the same order with the Heisenberg exchange interactions when the on-orbital Coulomb interaction is not too large. Whereas, the inter-orbital Coulomb interactions give rise to additional processes that cancel the twisted ring exchange, and strongly suppresses the biquadratic term. The Mott insulator with two electrons on degenerate two orbitals is thus not an ideal platform to study such nematic orders.

  8. Magnetic spin moment reduction in photoexcited ferromagnets through exchange interaction quenching: beyond the rigid band approximation (United States)

    Zhang, G. P.; Si, M. S.; Bai, Y. H.; George, Thomas F.


    The exchange interaction among electrons is one of the most fundamental quantum mechanical interactions in nature and underlies any magnetic phenomena from ferromagnetic ordering to magnetic storage. The current technology is built upon a thermal or magnetic field, but a frontier is emerging to directly control magnetism using ultrashort laser pulses. However, little is known about the fate of the exchange interaction. Here we report unambiguously that photoexcitation is capable of quenching the exchange interaction in all three 3d ferromagnetic metals. The entire process starts with a small number of photoexcited electrons which build up a new and self-destructive potential that collapses the system into a new state with a reduced exchange splitting. The spin moment reduction follows a Bloch-like law as M_z(Δ E)=M_z(0)(1-Δ E}/{Δ E_0})\\frac{1{β} , where ΔE is the absorbed photon energy and β is a scaling exponent. A good agreement is found between the experimental and our theoretical results. Our findings may have a broader implication for dynamic electron correlation effects in laser-excited iron-based superconductors, iron borate, rare-earth orthoferrites, hematites and rare-earth transition metal alloys.

  9. The nature of three-body interactions in DFT: Exchange and polarization effects (United States)

    Hapka, Michał; Rajchel, Łukasz; Modrzejewski, Marcin; Schäffer, Rainer; Chałasiński, Grzegorz; Szcześniak, Małgorzata M.


    We propose a physically motivated decomposition of density functional theory (DFT) 3-body nonadditive interaction energies into the exchange and density-deformation (polarization) components. The exchange component represents the effect of the Pauli exclusion in the wave function of the trimer and is found to be challenging for density functional approximations (DFAs). The remaining density-deformation nonadditivity is less dependent upon the DFAs. Numerical demonstration is carried out for rare gas atom trimers, Ar2-HX (X = F, Cl) complexes, and small hydrogen-bonded and van der Waals molecular systems. None of the tested semilocal, hybrid, and range-separated DFAs properly accounts for the nonadditive exchange in dispersion-bonded trimers. By contrast, for hydrogen-bonded systems, range-separated DFAs achieve a qualitative agreement to within 20% of the reference exchange energy. A reliable performance for all systems is obtained only when the monomers interact through the Hartree-Fock potential in the dispersion-free Pauli blockade scheme. Additionally, we identify the nonadditive second-order exchange-dispersion energy as an important but overlooked contribution in force-field-like dispersion corrections. Our results suggest that range-separated functionals do not include this component, although semilocal and global hybrid DFAs appear to imitate it in the short range.

  10. Phononic Josephson oscillation and self-trapping with two-phonon exchange interaction (United States)

    Xu, Xun-Wei; Chen, Ai-Xi; Liu, Yu-xi


    We propose a bosonic Josephson junction (BJJ) in two nonlinear mechanical resonators coupled through two-phonon exchange interaction induced by quadratic optomechanical couplings. The nonlinear dynamical equations and effective Hamiltonian are derived to describe behaviors of the BJJ. We show that the BJJ can work in two different dynamical regimes: Josephson oscillation and macroscopic self-trapping. The system can transfer from one regime to the other one when the self-interaction and asymmetric parameters exceed their critical values. We show that the transition from Josephson oscillation to macroscopic self-trapping can be induced by the phonon damping of the asymmetric BJJ. Our results open up a way to demonstrate BJJ with two-phonon exchange interaction and might be applied to other systems.

  11. Dynamics of urokinase receptor interaction with Peptide antagonists studied by amide hydrogen exchange and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Danø, Keld


    on the peptide ligand. This yields bimodal isotope patterns from which dissociation rate constants can be determined. In addition, the distinct bimodal isotope distributions also allow investigation of the exchange kinetics of receptor-bound peptides providing information about the local structural motions......Using amide hydrogen exchange combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we have in this study determined the number of amide hydrogens on several peptides that become solvent-inaccessible as a result of their high-affinity interaction with the urokinase-type plasminogen activator...... hydrogens in the receptor complex. Interestingly, a naturally occurring O-linked fucose on Thr(18) confers protection of two additional amide hydrogens in GFD when it forms a complex with uPAR. Dissociation of the uPAR-peptide complexes is accompanied by a correlated exchange of nearly all amide hydrogens...

  12. Application of amide proton exchange mass spectrometry for the study of protein-protein interactions. (United States)

    Mandell, Jeffrey G; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel; Croy, Carrie H; Falick, Arnold M; Komives, Elizabeth A


    This protocol describes amide proton exchange experiments that probe for changes in solvent accessibility at protein-protein interfaces. The simplest version of the protocol, termed the "on-exchange" experiment, detects protein-protein interfaces by taking advantage of the fact that solvent deuterium oxide (D2O) molecules are excluded from the surface of a protein to which another protein is bound. A more complete version of the experiment can also be performed in which the rate of surface deuteration is initially measured separately for each of the proteins involved in the interaction, after which the deuterated proteins are allowed to complex and the rate of "off-exchange" (i.e., replacement of surface deuterons by protons from solvent H2O molecules) at the resulting protein-protein interface is measured. This version of the experiment yields additional kinetic information that can help to define the solvent-inaccessible "core" of the interface.

  13. The exchange interaction effects on magnetic properties of the nanostructured CoPt particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komogortsev, S.V., E-mail: [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Iskhakov, R.S. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Zimin, A.A. [Siberian Federal University, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Filatov, E.Yu.; Korenev, S.V.; Shubin, Yu.V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Chizhik, N.A. [Siberian Federal University, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Yurkin, G.Yu.; Eremin, E.V. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)


    Various manifestations of the exchange interaction effects in magnetization curves of the CoPt nanostructured particles are demonstrated and discussed. The inter-grain exchange constant A in the sponge-like agglomerates of crystallites is estimated as A=(7±1) pJ/m from the approach magnetization to saturation curves that is in good agreement with A=(6.6±0.5) pJ/m obtained from Bloch T {sup 3/2} law. The fractal dimensionality of the exchange coupled crystallite system in the porous media of the disordered CoPt alloy d=(2.60±0.18) was estimated from the approach magnetization to saturation curve. Coercive force decreases with temperature as H{sub c}~T {sup 3/2} which is assumed to be a consequence of the magnetic anisotropy energy reduction due to the thermal spin wave excitations in the investigated CoPt particles. - Highlights: • Nanostructured CoPt particles were synthesized and then annealed in He atmosphere. • The structure of the material and magnetization curves were studied. • The maximum on reduced coercivity vs grain size dependence was observed. • The dimensionality d of exchange coupled crystallite system was estimated. • Exchange stiffness constant A was estimated.

  14. HLA-DM mediates peptide exchange by interacting transiently and repeatedly with HLA-DR1. (United States)

    Narayan, Kedar; Su, Katherine W; Chou, Chih-Ling; Khoruzhenko, Stanislav; Sadegh-Nasseri, Scheherazade


    The peptide editor HLA-DM (DM) catalyzes the exchange of peptides bound to MHC class II molecules within antigen presenting cells by generating a "peptide-receptive" MHC class II conformation (MHC(receptive)) to which peptides readily bind and rapidly unbind. While recent work has uncovered the determinants of DM recognition and effector functions, the nature of MHC(receptive) and its interaction with DM remains unclear. Here, we show that DM induces but does not stabilize MHC(receptive) in the absence of peptides. We demonstrate that DM is out-competed by certain superantigens, and increasing solvent viscosity inhibits DM-induced peptide association. We suggest that DM mediates peptide exchange by interacting transiently and repeatedly with MHC class II molecules, continually generating MHC(receptive). The simultaneous presence of peptide and DM in the milieu is thus crucial for the efficient generation of specific peptide-MHC class II complexes over time.

  15. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry applied to IL-23 interaction characteristics: potential impact for therapeutics. (United States)

    Iacob, Roxana E; Krystek, Stanley R; Huang, Richard Y-C; Wei, Hui; Tao, Li; Lin, Zheng; Morin, Paul E; Doyle, Michael L; Tymiak, Adrienne A; Engen, John R; Chen, Guodong


    IL-23 is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Adnectins are targeted protein therapeutics that are derived from domain III of human fibronectin and have a similar protein scaffold to antibodies. Adnectin 2 was found to bind to IL-23 and compete with the IL-23/IL-23R interaction, posing a potential protein therapeutic. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and computational methods were applied to probe the binding interactions between IL-23 and Adnectin 2 and to determine the correlation between the two orthogonal methods. This review summarizes the current structural knowledge about IL-23 and focuses on the applicability of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to investigate the higher order structure of proteins, which plays an important role in the discovery of new and improved biotherapeutics.

  16. Effect of ligand substitution on the exchange interactions in {Mn12}-type single-molecule magnets


    Boukhvalov, D. W.; Dobrovitski, V. V.; Kögerler, P.; Al-Saqer, M.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Harmon, B. N.


    We investigate how the ligand substitution affects the intra-molecular spin exchange interactions, studying a prototypal family of single-molecule magnets comprising dodecanuclear cluster molecules [Mn12O12(COOR)16]. We identify a simple scheme based on accumulated Pauling electronegativity numbers (a.e.n.) of the carboxylate ligand groups (R). The redistribution of the electron density, controlled by a.e.n. of a ligand, changes the degree of hybridization between 3d electrons of manganese an...

  17. Monte Carlo Planning Method Estimates Planning Horizons during Interactive Social Exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hula


    Full Text Available Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent's preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner's appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner's model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future. Providing a computationally precise account of the behaviour is an essential step towards understanding what underlies choices. A natural framework for this is that of an interactive partially observable Markov decision process (IPOMDP. However, the various complexities make IPOMDPs inordinately computationally challenging. Here, we show how to approximate the solution for the multi-round trust task using a variant of the Monte-Carlo tree search algorithm. We demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and effective, and therefore can be used to invert observations of behavioural choices. We use generated behaviour to elucidate the richness and sophistication of interactive inference.

  18. Monte Carlo Planning Method Estimates Planning Horizons during Interactive Social Exchange. (United States)

    Hula, Andreas; Montague, P Read; Dayan, Peter


    Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent's preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner's appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner's model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future. Providing a computationally precise account of the behaviour is an essential step towards understanding what underlies choices. A natural framework for this is that of an interactive partially observable Markov decision process (IPOMDP). However, the various complexities make IPOMDPs inordinately computationally challenging. Here, we show how to approximate the solution for the multi-round trust task using a variant of the Monte-Carlo tree search algorithm. We demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and effective, and therefore can be used to invert observations of behavioural choices. We use generated behaviour to elucidate the richness and sophistication of interactive inference.

  19. Magnetic states and exchange interaction in hexagonal MnFeAs: A first principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.B. [Center for the Physics of Materials, Department of Physics, McGill University, Rutherford Physics Building, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)], E-mail:; Altounian, Z. [Center for the Physics of Materials, Department of Physics, McGill University, Rutherford Physics Building, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)


    The electronic structure and magnetic states for hexagonal-MnFeAs have been studied by a first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The ground state is ferromagnetic and the calculated magnetic moments for Fe and Mn are 1.1 and 3.1{mu}{sub B}, respectively, leading to a total magnetization of 4.1{mu}{sub B} per formula unit due to the small negative moments of As atoms. The exchange interaction between Fe and Mn layers (J{sub Mn-Fe}=0.66mRy) is positive and tends to form the ferromagnetic ordering. On the other hand, the exchange interaction at the Fe-As{sub 1} layer (J{sub Fe-Fe}=-0.44mRy) is negative while that at the Mn-As{sub 2} layer (J{sub Mn-Mn}=0.38mRy) is positive. The field induced first order magnetic transition at T{sub C} is related to the competed exchange interaction in the compound.

  20. The Mechanisms of Water Exchange: The Regulatory Roles of Multiple Interactions in Social Wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanshu Agrawal

    Full Text Available Evolutionary benefits of task fidelity and improving information acquisition via multiple transfers of materials between individuals in a task partitioned system have been shown before, but in this paper we provide a mechanistic explanation of these phenomena. Using a simple mathematical model describing the individual interactions of the wasps, we explain the functioning of the common stomach, an information center, which governs construction behavior and task change. Our central hypothesis is a symmetry between foragers who deposit water and foragers who withdraw water into and out of the common stomach. We combine this with a trade-off between acceptance and resistance to water transfer. We ultimately derive a mathematical function that relates the number of interactions that foragers complete with common stomach wasps during a foraging cycle. We use field data and additional model assumptions to calculate values of our model parameters, and we use these to explain why the fullness of the common stomach stabilizes just below 50 percent, why the average number of successful interactions between foragers and the wasps forming the common stomach is between 5 and 7, and why there is a variation in this number of interactions over time. Our explanation is that our proposed water exchange mechanism places natural bounds on the number of successful interactions possible, water exchange is set to optimize mediation of water through the common stomach, and the chance that foragers abort their task prematurely is very low.

  1. Modeling surf zone-inner shelf exchange: Interaction of rip currents and stratification (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Feddersen, F.


    Transient rip currents on alongshore uniform beaches develop from the coalescence of surf zone eddies, exchanging tracers between the surf zone and the potentially stratified inner shelf. The interaction of stratification and transient rip currents has not yet been investigated. Surf zone eddies responsible for transient rip currents are generated by short-crested wave breaking, a process included in wave-resolving (WR) Boussinesq models. However, WR models are depth-integrated and cannot account for stratification and vertically sheared flows. Wave-averaged (WA) models can simulate these processes, but cannot create surf zone eddies. A combination of WR and WA models is required to accurately simulate surf zone-inner shelf exchange. Here, WR depth-integrated Boussinessq model funwaveC is coupled to the stratification and depth-resolving WA Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. The surf zone eddy generation forcing is extracted from a funwaveC simulation of normally incident waves on a planar beach, and provided to COAWST as a depth-uniform surf zone force. COAWST model simulations resolving the surf zone to mid-shelf are conducted with surf zone eddy forcing, idealistic surface heating/cooling, stratification, and Coriolis effects. These simulations provide three-dimensional evolution of velocity and temperature, diagnosed to quantify the role of surf zone eddy forcing in surf zone-inner shelf exchange. The impact of stratification on rip currents and exchange is studied by varying the stratification. Funded by the Office of Naval Research.

  2. Enabling Data Exchange in Two-Agent Interactive Systems Under Privacy Constraints (United States)

    Belmega, E. Veronica; Sankar, Lalitha; Poor, H. Vincent


    Data collecting agents in large networks, such as the electric power system, need to share information (measurements) for estimating the system state in a distributed manner. However, privacy concerns may limit or prevent this exchange leading to a tradeoff between state estimation fidelity and privacy (referred to as competitive privacy). This paper builds upon a recent information-theoretic result (using mutual information to measure privacy and mean-squared error to measure fidelity) that quantifies the region of achievable distortion-leakage tuples in a two-agent network. The objective of this paper is to study centralized and decentralized mechanisms that can enable and sustain non-trivial data exchanges among the agents. A centralized mechanism determines the data sharing policies that optimize a network-wide objective function combining the fidelities and leakages at both agents. Using common-goal games and best-response analysis, the optimal policies allow for distributed implementation. In contrast, in the decentralized setting, repeated discounted games are shown to naturally enable data exchange without any central control nor economic incentives. The effect of repetition is modeled by a time-averaged payoff function at each agent which combines its fidelity and leakage at each interaction stage. For both approaches, it is shown that non-trivial data exchange can be sustained for specific fidelity ranges even when privacy is a limiting factor.

  3. The effect of the correlation and exchange interactions on the electronic and magnetic properties of the hexagonal NiS using the onsite exact exchange/hybrid functionals (United States)

    Reggad, A.; Lardjani, R.; Baghdad, R.; Bouhafs, B.


    We have performed ab initio calculations using the onsite exact exchange/hybrid functionals within the density functional theory to study the effect of the correlation and exchange interactions on the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of the hexagonal nickel sulphide (NiS) by varying the Fock exchange parameter value. The Perdew- Burke- Ernzerhof (PBE) calculation shows that the non magnetic state is the most stable, but the application of the onsite exact exchange/hybrid functionals for the correlated d electrons leads to get the anti-ferromagnetic AFM I state the most stable which is consistent with the experimental results. To get the semiconductor state we should use a α parameter value more than 0.05 which represents 5% of the Fock exchange. The α parameter has a big effect on the unit cell volume but there is a little effect on the c/a ratio. The magnetic moment and band gap are widely influenced by the exchange and correlation interactions. We have also investigated the effect of the lattice parameters on the magnetic and electronic properties.

  4. Spatial dependence of the super-exchange interactions for transition-metal trimers in graphene (United States)

    Crook, Charles B.; Houchins, Gregory; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Balatsky, Alexander V.; Constantin, Costel; Haraldsen, Jason T.


    This study examines the magnetic interactions between spatially variable manganese and chromium trimers substituted into a graphene superlattice. Using density functional theory, we calculate the electronic band structure and magnetic populations for the determination of the electronic and magnetic properties of the system. To explore the super-exchange coupling between the transition-metal atoms, we establish the magnetic ground states through a comparison of multiple magnetic and spatial configurations. Through an analysis of the electronic and magnetic properties, we conclude that the presence of transition-metal atoms can induce a distinct magnetic moment in the surrounding carbon atoms as well as produce a Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-like super-exchange coupling. It is hoped that these simulations can lead to the realization of spintronic applications in graphene through electronic control of the magnetic clusters.

  5. CONAN-The cruncher of local exchange coefficients for strongly interacting confined systems in one dimension (United States)

    Loft, N. J. S.; Kristensen, L. B.; Thomsen, A. E.; Volosniev, A. G.; Zinner, N. T.


    We consider a one-dimensional system of particles with strong zero-range interactions. This system can be mapped onto a spin chain of the Heisenberg type with exchange coefficients that depend on the external trap. In this paper, we present an algorithm that can be used to compute these exchange coefficients. We introduce an open source code CONAN (Coefficients of One-dimensional N-Atom Networks) which is based on this algorithm. CONAN works with arbitrary external potentials and we have tested its reliability for system sizes up to around 35 particles. As illustrative examples, we consider a harmonic trap and a box trap with a superimposed asymmetric tilted potential. For these examples, the computation time typically scales with the number of particles as O(N 3.5 ± 0.4) . Computation times are around 10 s for N = 10 particles and less than 10 min for N = 20 particles.

  6. On the Limiting Markov Process of Energy Exchanges in a Rarely Interacting Ball-Piston Gas (United States)

    Bálint, Péter; Gilbert, Thomas; Nándori, Péter; Szász, Domokos; Tóth, Imre Péter


    We analyse the process of energy exchanges generated by the elastic collisions between a point-particle, confined to a two-dimensional cell with convex boundaries, and a `piston', i.e. a line-segment, which moves back and forth along a one-dimensional interval partially intersecting the cell. This model can be considered as the elementary building block of a spatially extended high-dimensional billiard modeling heat transport in a class of hybrid materials exhibiting the kinetics of gases and spatial structure of solids. Using heuristic arguments and numerical analysis, we argue that, in a regime of rare interactions, the billiard process converges to a Markov jump process for the energy exchanges and obtain the expression of its generator.

  7. Simulation of charge exchange neutrals interactions with gaps in first wall cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnaev, V.A. [Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Kashirskoe sh. 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail:; Matveev, D.I. [Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Kashirskoe sh. 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Trifonov, N.N. [Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Kashirskoe sh. 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Angular distributions of particles impinging PFC in fusion devices with magnetic confinement are briefly discussed. It is shown that simulation of charge exchange neutrals interaction with the first wall should be made for inclined incidence of particles. Particle reflection coefficients and sputtering yields for gaps in Be, C and W first wall cladding are found with Monte Carlo computer simulations for hydrogen isotopes in the energy range {approx}5-5 x 10{sup 3} eV as well as for the flux integrated over the ITER charge exchange neutrals energy spectrum. Trapping of deuterons by the gap in the W wall increases two times (up to {approx}0.6) as compared with the flat surface, while trapping in the Be gap is close to unity. The influence of isotope mass on trapping and sputtering is shown to follow data for the flat surface. Roughness of gap sidewalls taken into account slightly contributes to calculated data.

  8. Firm handling; the information exchange interaction by parents in paediatric care – An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Berterö


    Full Text Available Background: Information exchange is fundamental in the paediatric care encounter. Health care professionals need further background knowledge to encounter the parents/guardians from their perspective in their minors’ paediatric care. The parents’/guardians’ ability to manage the situation is dependent on their receiving optimal information, which is why it is important to study how information is exchanged.Aim: The aim of this study was to identify, describe and conceptualize how parents/guardians resolved their main concern ininformation exchange with health care professionals in paediatric care situations involving their minors.Methodology: Glaser’s grounded theory method was used and all data were analysed using constant comparative analysis. The observational study took place at three paediatric outpatient units at a university hospital and 24 parents/guardians participated. Data sources were field notes from 37 observations of paediatric care situations and five adherent excerpts from the minors’ medical records. Grounded theory is a method of conceptualising behaviour, which is why an observational study of parents’/guardians’ information exchange and social interaction in the context of nursing care is relevant as research design.Results: Firm handling was revealed as the way the parents/guardians resolved their main concerns when they were exchanging information about their minors’ paediatric care. Firm handling is built on five inter-related categories: representative advocating, collaborating, aim sharing, supportive resourcing and minor bypassing.Conclusions: This knowledge suggests possible ways for health care professionals to design paediatric care that supports, facilitates, strengthens and improves the parents’/guardians’ firm handling. The key issue is to find ways to support parents/guardians and minors so they can participate in health care encounters according to their preferences. Firm handling gives an

  9. Hyperon interaction in free space and nuclear matter within a SU(3) based meson exchange model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhar, Madhumita


    To establish the connection between free space and in-medium hyperon-nucleon interactions is the central issue of this thesis. The guiding principle is flavor SU(3) symmetry which is exploited at various levels. In first step hyperon-nucleon and hyperon- hyperon interaction boson exchange potential in free space are introduced. A new parameter set applicable for the complete baryon octet has been derived leading to an updated one-boson- exchange model, utilizing SU(3) flavor symmetry, optimizing the number of free parameters involved, and revising the set of mesons included. The scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector SU(3) meson octets are taken into account. T-matrices are calculated by solving numerically coupled linear systems of Lippmann-Schwinger equations obtained from a 3-D reduced Bethe-Salpeter equation. Coupling constants were determined by χ{sup 2} fits to the world set of scattering data. A good description of the few available data is achieved within the imposed SU(3) constraints. Having at hand a consistently derived vacuum interaction we extend the approach next to investigations of the in-medium properties of hyperon interaction, avoiding any further adjustments. Medium effect in infinite nuclear matter are treated microscopically by recalculating T-matrices by an medium-modified system of Lippmann-Schwinger equations. A particular important role is played by the Pauli projector accounting for the exclusion principle. The presence of a background medium induces a weakening of the vacuum interaction amplitudes. Especially coupled channel mixing is found to be affected sensitively by medium. Investigation on scattering lengths and effective range parameters are revealing the density dependence of the interaction on a quantitative level.

  10. Probing protein interactions with hydrogen/deuterium exchange and mass spectrometry-A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percy, Andrew J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Rey, Martial; Burns, Kyle M. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Schriemer, David C., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein chemistry generates mass shifts useful for structure-function studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H/DX supports a powerful mass shift method for protein interaction analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H/DX mass shifts are useful for determining binding data (K{sub d}, off-rates). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved H/DX-MS workflows can accommodate complex protein systems. - Abstract: Assessing the functional outcome of protein interactions in structural terms is a goal of structural biology, however most techniques have a limited capacity for making structure-function determinations with both high resolution and high throughput. Mass spectrometry can be applied as a reader of protein chemistries in order to fill this void, and enable methodologies whereby protein structure-function determinations may be made on a proteome-wide level. Protein hydrogen/deuterium exchange (H/DX) offers a chemical labeling strategy suitable for tracking changes in 'dynamic topography' and thus represents a powerful means of monitoring protein structure-function relationships. This review presents the exchange method in the context of interaction analysis. Applications involving interface detection, quantitation of binding, and conformational responses to ligation are discussed, and commentary on recent analytical developments is provided.

  11. The influence of magnetostatic interactions in exchange-coupled composite particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vokoun, D.; Beleggia, Marco; De Graef, M.


    Exchange-coupled composite (ECC) particles are the basic constituents of ECC magnetic recording media. We examine and compare two types of ECC particles: (i) core-shell structures, consisting of a hard-magnetic core and a coaxial soft-magnetic shell and (ii) conventional ECC particles, with a hard......-magnetic core topped by a soft cylindrical element. The model we present describes the magnetic response of the two ECC particle types, taking into account all significant magnetic contributions to the energy landscape. Special emphasis is given to the magnetostatic (dipolar) interaction energy. We find...

  12. Lamb Shift in Radical-Ion Pairs is Physically Equivalent to a Spin-Exchange Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Vitalis, K M


    Radical-ion pairs, fundamental for understanding photosynthesis and the avian magnetic compass, were recently shown to be biological open quantum systems. We here show that the coupling of the radical-pair's spin degrees of freedom to its decohering vibrational reservoir leads to a shift of the radical-pair's magnetic energy levels. The Lamb shift Hamiltonian is diagonal in the singlet-triplet basis, and results in a singlet-triplet energy splitting physically indistinguishable from an exchange interaction. This could have profound implications for understanding photosynthetic reaction centers.

  13. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duangtum, Natapol [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Limjindaporn, Thawornchai, E-mail: [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai, E-mail: [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)


    Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

  14. Trends in exchange interactions for bcc Fe/TaW(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondracek, Martin; Kudrnovsky, Josef; Maca, Frantisek [Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Bengone, Olivier [University of Strasbourg, IPCM, Strasbourg (France); Turek, Ilja [Institute of Physics of Materials, ASCR, Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)


    A recent study of Ferriani et al. investigated the possibility of tuning the magnetic order of the Fe monolayer on the disordered bcc-Ta(x)W(1-x)[001] surface. We will further extend this study by constructing the effective two-dimensional Heisenberg Hamiltonian, which describes exchange interactions in the iron monolayer in detail. We investigate the behavior of exchange integrals as a function of the composition of the alloy substrate, but also as a function of distance (damping due to disorder) and the dependence on the crystallographic directions in the overlayer. The calculated exchange integrals allow us to estimate the spin stiffness and the corresponding critical temperatures. We also wish to investigate the crossover between the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic state from the point of view of the stability of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian with respect to magnon excitations. The present study will help us to deeper understand the character of magnetic phase transition of the Fe overlayer due to disorder in the alloy substrate.

  15. The effect of exchange interaction on quasiparticle Landau levels in narrow-gap quantum well heterostructures. (United States)

    Krishtopenko, S S; Gavrilenko, V I; Goiran, M


    Using the 'screened' Hartree-Fock approximation based on the eight-band k·p Hamiltonian, we have extended our previous work (Krishtopenko et al 2011 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23 385601) on exchange enhancement of the g-factor in narrow-gap quantum well heterostructures by calculating the exchange renormalization of quasiparticle energies, the density of states at the Fermi level and the quasiparticle g-factor for different Landau levels overlapping. We demonstrate that exchange interaction yields more pronounced Zeeman splitting of the density of states at the Fermi level and leads to the appearance of peak-shaped features in the dependence of the Landau level energies on the magnetic field at integer filling factors. We also find that the quasiparticle g-factor does not reach the maximum value at odd filling factors in the presence of large overlapping of spin-split Landau levels. We advance an argument that the behavior of the quasiparticle g-factor in weak magnetic fields is defined by a random potential of impurities in narrow-gap heterostructures. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd

  16. Electronic dynamics due to exchange interaction with holes in GaAs (United States)

    Schneider, Hans Christian; Krauß, Michael


    We present an investigation of electron-spin dynamics in p-doped bulk GaAs due to the electron-hole exchange interaction, aka the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism. We discuss under which conditions a spin relaxation times for this mechanism is, in principle, accessible to experimental techniques, in particular to 2-photon photoemission, but also Faraday/Kerr effect measurements. We give numerical results for the spin relaxation time for a range of p-doping densities and temperatures. We then go beyond the relaxation time approximation and calculate numerically the spin-dependent electron dynamics by including the spin-flip electron-hole exchange scattering and spin-conserving carrier Coulomb scattering at the level of Boltzmann scattering integrals. We show that the electronic dynamics deviates from the simple spin-relaxation dynamics for electrons excited at high energies where the thermalization does not take place faster than the spin relaxation time. We also present a derivation of the influence of screening on the electron-hole exchange scattering and conclude that it can be neglected for the case of GaAs, but may become important for narrow-gap semiconductors.

  17. Strong ferromagnetic exchange interaction under ambient pressure in BaFe2S3 (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Jin, S. J.; Yi, Ming; Song, Yu; Jiang, H. C.; Zhang, W. L.; Sun, H. L.; Luo, H. Q.; Christianson, A. D.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Lee, D. H.; Yao, Dao-Xin; Birgeneau, R. J.


    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements have been performed to investigate the spin waves of the quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnetic ladder compound BaFe2S3 , where a superconducting transition was observed under pressure [H. Takahashi et al., Nat. Mater. 14, 1008 (2015), 10.1038/nmat4351; T. Yamauchi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 246402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.246402]. By fitting the spherically averaged experimental data collected on a powder sample to a Heisenberg Hamiltonian, we find that the one-dimensional antiferromagnetic ladder exhibits a strong nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic exchange interaction (S JR=-71 ±4 meV) along the rung direction, an antiferromagnetic S JL=49 ±3 meV along the leg direction, and a ferromagnetic S J2=-15 ±2 meV along the diagonal direction. Our data demonstrate that the antiferromagnetic spin excitations are a common characteristic for the iron-based superconductors, while specific relative values for the exchange interactions do not appear to be unique for the parent states of the superconducting materials.

  18. Ab initio theory of exchange interactions and the Curie temperature of bulk Gd

    CERN Document Server

    Turek, I; Bihlmayer, G; Bluegel, S


    An ab initio approach to the magnetic properties of bulk hexagonal Gd is developed that is based on the local spin-density approximation with the 4f electrons treated as localized core electrons. The effective one-electron problem is solved using the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital method in the atomic-sphere approximation with the valence basis consisting of s-, p-and d-type orbitals. The approach leads to a correct description of the ground-state properties like the stability of the ferromagnetic structure, the magnetic moment and the equilibrium lattice constant. Application of a real-space Green-function formalism yields the exchange pair interactions between distant neighbours that are inevitable for quantitative studies of magnetic excitations. The distance dependence and anisotropy of the exchange pair interactions are presented and the Curie temperature in the mean-field approximation is evaluated. The obtained value of 334 K is in much better agreement with the experimental value of 293 K tha...

  19. The crystal-field and exchange interactions in UGa{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwanski, R.J. [Center for Solid State Physics, Sw. Filip 5, 31-150, Krakow (Poland)]|[Inst. of Physics and Informatics, Pedagogical University, 30-084, Krakow (Poland); Kim-Ngan, N.H. [Center for Solid State Physics, Sw. Filip 5, 31-150, Krakow (Poland)


    Magnetic and electronic properties of the hexagonal ferromagnet UGa{sub 2} have been analyzed within the CEF approach in combination with exchange interactions. The 5f{sup 3} configuration of U{sup 3+} ions reproduces all experimental observations known, particularly the magnetic moment of 2.7{mu}{sub B} and Curie temperature T{sub C} of 125 K. The derived electronic structure, with the set of CEF parameters B{sup 0}{sub 2}=+8.38 K, B{sup 0}{sub 4}=+36.25 mK, B{sup 0}{sub 6}=-0.5 mK and B{sup 6}{sub 6}=-52 mK, yields the state {Gamma}{sub 8} as the charge-formed ground state. Below T{sub C}, strong exchange interactions, relevant to an internal field of 108 T, produce a magnetic singlet ground state. These studies yield strong evidence for strongly localized 5f magnetism of the uranium ion in UGa{sub 2}. ((orig.)).

  20. Dependence of magnetization on crystal fields and exchange interactions in magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouaissa, Mohamed, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Génie Physique et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ibn Tofail, Campus Universitaire BP 133, Kénitra 14000 (Morocco); Benyoussef, Abdelilah [Laboratory of Magnetism and Physics of High Energy, Faculty of Science, Mohammed V-Agdal University, Rabat (Morocco); Abo, Gavin S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and MINT Center, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Ouaissa, Samia; Hafid, Mustapha [Laboratoire de Génie Physique et Environnement, Faculté des Sciences, Université Ibn Tofail, Campus Universitaire BP 133, Kénitra 14000 (Morocco); Belaiche, Mohammed [Laboratoire de Magnétisme, Matériaux Magnétiques, Microonde et Céramique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, B.P. 9235, Océan, Rabat (Morocco)


    In this work, we study the magnetization of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) with different exchange interactions and crystal fields using variational method based on the Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy within the mean field theory. The magnetic behavior was investigated in the absence and presence of crystal fields. The investigations also revealed that the transition temperature depends on the crystal fields of the octahedral and tetrahedral sites. Magnetite exhibits ferrimagnetic phase with second order transition to paramagnetic phase at 850 K. This result is confirmed using the mean field theory within the Heisenberg model. Important factors that can affect the magnetic behavior of the system are exchange interactions and crystal field. Indeed, a new magnetic behavior was observed depending on these parameters. A first order phase transition from ferrimagnetic to ferromagnetic was found at low temperature, and a second order transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic was observed at high temperature. - Highlights: • Magnetization of magnetite versus temperature was studied by mean field theory. • The critical temperature of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) was approximately obtained. • Effect of sublattice crystal fields on the magnetization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated.

  1. Intergenerational Support Activities and Well-Being among the Elderly: A Convergence of Exchange and Symbolic Interaction Perspectives. (United States)

    Mutran, Elizabeth; Reitzes, Donald C.


    Investigated the interaction between older adults and their adult children, focusing on the impact of social structure and subjective factors on family interaction and on the influence of family exchanges on self-feelings among the elderly. Found that older adults with families have a higher sense of well-being than others. (CMG)

  2. Investigating the Interaction between the Neonatal Fc Receptor and Monoclonal Antibody Variants by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Larraillet, Vincent; Schlothauer, Tilman


    in understanding and modulating the IgG-FcRn interaction to optimize antibody pharmacokinetics and ultimately improve efficacy and safety. Here we studied the interaction between a full-length human IgG1 and human FcRn via hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and targeted electron transfer dissociation......-type glycosylated IgG. Our results provide new molecular insight into the IgG-FcRn interaction and illustrate the capability of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to advance structural proteomics by providing detailed information on the conformation and dynamics of large protein complexes in solution....

  3. Construction of Exchange-Correlation Potentials for Strongly Interacting One-Dimensional Systems (United States)

    Silva, J. Wildon O.; Vieira, Daniel


    One-dimensional (1D) systems are useful laboratories aiming further improvement of electronic structure calculations. In order to simulate electron-electron interactions, two types of expressions are commonly considered: soft-Coulomb and exponential. For both cases, in the context of density-functional theory (DFT), 1D systems can be employed to gain insight into the ingredients accurate exchange-correlation (XC) density functionals must incorporate. A question of major interest is the treatment of strongly interacting situations, one of the main modern challenges for DFT. In this manuscript, we propose a generalization of preexisting XC potentials which can be applied to investigate the transition from weak to strong interactions. Specifically, we employ the intriguing behavior of electrons confined in one dimension: the spin-charge separation, for which spin and charge are decoupled to form two independent quasiparticles, spinons, and chargons. By means of Friedel oscillations, our results indicate it is possible to reproduce the weak-strong interaction transition by using a simple strategy we name, from previous works, spin-charge separation correction (SCSC). In addition, SCSC also yields good results in reproducing the constancy of the highest occupied Kohn-Sham eigenvalues upon fractional electron charges.

  4. Interactions between the Exchange Rates and the Differential of the Stock Returns between Romania and US during the Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The relation between the foreign exchange markets and the stock markets is still a controversial subject in the specialized literature. Recent studies revealed the changes that occur in this relation during the financial crisis. In this paper we approach the interactions between the exchange rates and the differentials of the stock returns between Romania and the US in the period of the global crisis. We find some significant differences in this relations during the main stages of the crisis.

  5. The study of flow and proton exchange interactions in the cylindrical solid oxide fuel cell

    CERN Document Server

    Saievar-Iranizad, E


    The solid oxide fuel cell operates at high temperature of about 1000 deg C. In this temperature, some known materials such as Ni, ... which is abundant in the nature, can be used as a catalyst in the electrodes. The electrolytes of such cell solid oxide fuel cell can be made through non-porous solid ceramics such as Zircon's (ZrO sub 2). It can be stabilized using a doped Yttrium oxide. The importance of Yttria-stabilised Zirconia at high temperature belongs to the transport of oxygen ions through the electrolyte. Oxygen using in the hot cathode side causes a considerable reduction in the concentration of oxygen molecules. The oxygen ions exchange through the electrolyte relates to the molecular oxygen concentration gradient between the anode and cathode. Applying fuels such as hydrogen or natural gas in the anode and its chemical reaction with oxygen ions transfer from cathode through the electrolyte, produce electricity, water and heat. To study the ion exchange and its interaction into solid oxide fuel cel...

  6. Exchangeable Colloidal AFM Probes for the Quantification of Irreversible and Long-Term Interactions (United States)

    Dörig, Pablo; Ossola, Dario; Truong, Anh Minh; Graf, Monika; Stauffer, Flurin; Vörös, János; Zambelli, Tomaso


    An original method is presented to study single-colloid interaction with a substrate in liquid environment. Colloids, either in solution or adsorbed on a surface, are fixed by suction against the aperture of a microchanneled atomic force microscopy cantilever. Their adhesion to the substrate is measured, followed by their release via a short overpressure surge. Such colloid exchange procedure allows for 1), the quick variation of differently functionalized colloids within the same experiment; 2), the investigation of long-term interactions by leaving the colloids on a surface for a defined time before detaching them; and 3), the inspection of irreversible interactions. After validation of the method by reproducing literature results obtained with traditional colloidal atomic force microscopy, the serial use of colloids with different surface functionalization was shown on a micropatterned surface. Finally, concanavalin A-coated colloids were allowed to adsorb on human embryonic kidney cells and then detached one by one. The adhesion between cells and colloids was up to 60 nN, whereas individual cells adhered with 20 nN to the glass substrate. A cellular elastic modulus of 0.8 kPa was determined using the attached colloid as indenter. PMID:23870267

  7. Magnetic exchange interaction in gadolinium(III) complex having aliphatic nitroxide radical TEMPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takeshi; Ishida, Takayuki, E-mail: [Department of Engineering Science, The University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan)


    We synthesized a new compound, [Gd(hfac){sub 3}(MeOH)(TEMPO)] (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl; Hhfac = 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dione) with the metal/radical ratio of 1/1. This compound has an advantage in the magnetic analysis, because the exchange coupling system is described with a unique coupling parameter J, when compared to the structure and magnetic properties of the previous TEMPO and related complexes. The X-ray crystal structure analysis of [Gd(hfac){sub 3}(MeOH)(TEMPO)] revealed the N-O and Gd-O(N) bond lengths are 1.299(9) and 2.307(5) Å, respectively, and the Gd-O-N angle is 149.4(5)°. The magnetic study clarified the Gd{sup 3+}-radical antiferromagnetic interaction of 2J/k{sub B} = −3.5(1) K.

  8. Geometrically frustrated Cairo pentagonal lattice stripe with Ising and Heisenberg exchange interactions (United States)

    Rodrigues, F. C.; de Souza, S. M.; Rojas, Onofre


    Motivated by the recent discoveries of some compounds such as the Bi2Fe4O9 which crystallizes in an orthorhombic crystal structure with the Fe3+ ions, and iron-based oxyfluoride Bi4Fe5O13 F compounds following the pattern of Cairo pentagonal structure, among some other compounds. We propose a model for one stripe of the Cairo pentagonal Ising-Heisenberg lattice, one of the edges of a pentagon is different, and this edge will be associated with a Heisenberg exchange interaction, while the Ising exchange interactions will associate the other edges. We study the phase transition at zero temperature, illustrating five phases: a ferromagnetic phase (FM), a dimer antiferromagnetic (DAF), a plaquette antiferromagnetic (PAF), a typical antiferromagnetic (AFM) and a peculiar frustrated phase (FRU) where two types of frustrated states with the same energy coexist. To obtain the partition function of this model, we use the transfer matrix approach and following the eight vertex model notation. Using this result we discuss the specific heat, internal energy and entropy as a function of the temperature, and we can observe some unexpected behavior in the low-temperature limit, such as anomalous double peak in specific heat due to the existence of three phase (FRU, PAF(AFM) and FM) transitions occurring in a close region to each other. Consequently, the low-lying energy thermal excitation generates this double anomalous peak, and we also discuss the internal energy at the low temperature limit, where this double peak curve occurs. Some properties of our result were compared with two dimensional Cairo pentagonal lattices, as well as orthogonal dimer plaquette Ising-Heisenberg chain.

  9. Exchange and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions in bulk FeGe: Effects of atomic vacancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Loh


    Full Text Available We examine the effects of atomic vacancies on the (1 spin interaction, and (2 electronic character in the cubic B20 chiral magnet FeGe. For the former, Heisenberg exchange and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM interactions are studied. The latter is done via a particular Wannier flavor of the Hamiltonian in the form of maximally-localized Wannier functions (MLWFs. Using first-principles calculations based on full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW-based density functional theory (DFT, the spin order of bulk FeGe, in its pristine form, and with a Fe (Fe75%Ge100% or Ge vacancy (Fe100%Ge75% is investigated. Despite the presence of vacancies, the ground state of FeGe remains helimagnetic, i.e. spin spirals in FeGe are fairly robust. The energetic stability of FeGe increases in the presence of the vacancies. The spiral size is increased by approximately 40%, suggesting that vacancies can be introduced to manipulate the chiral order. The vacancies lift the band degeneracy in the valence manifold of the Wannier-interpolated band structures. Only the spin-down Fermi surfaces are substantially different between the pristine and defective FeGe; it is electron-like in the pristine case, but largely hole-like in the defective ones. The Ge vacancy splits the Fermi surface more than the Fe vacancy. The Heisenberg exchange between nearest Fe pairs is ferromagnetic in pristine FeGe. This Fe-Fe interaction remains ferromagnetic, albeit a slight decrease in strength, in the presence of a Fe vacancy. In contrast, a Ge vacancy in FeGe induces anti-ferromagnetism between nearest Fe pairs. By including spin-orbit coupling effects, we find that the DM interaction of defective FeGe is reversed in sign, and it is more uniform in strength along the three highly symmetric directions, relative to that in pristine FeGe. All in all, the versatility of FeGe makes it an excellent functional material, especially in data storage and spintronics applications.

  10. Exchange and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions in bulk FeGe: Effects of atomic vacancies (United States)

    Loh, G. C.; Gan, C. K.


    We examine the effects of atomic vacancies on the (1) spin interaction, and (2) electronic character in the cubic B20 chiral magnet FeGe. For the former, Heisenberg exchange and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions are studied. The latter is done via a particular Wannier flavor of the Hamiltonian in the form of maximally-localized Wannier functions (MLWFs). Using first-principles calculations based on full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW)-based density functional theory (DFT), the spin order of bulk FeGe, in its pristine form, and with a Fe (Fe75%Ge100%) or Ge vacancy (Fe100%Ge75%) is investigated. Despite the presence of vacancies, the ground state of FeGe remains helimagnetic, i.e. spin spirals in FeGe are fairly robust. The energetic stability of FeGe increases in the presence of the vacancies. The spiral size is increased by approximately 40%, suggesting that vacancies can be introduced to manipulate the chiral order. The vacancies lift the band degeneracy in the valence manifold of the Wannier-interpolated band structures. Only the spin-down Fermi surfaces are substantially different between the pristine and defective FeGe; it is electron-like in the pristine case, but largely hole-like in the defective ones. The Ge vacancy splits the Fermi surface more than the Fe vacancy. The Heisenberg exchange between nearest Fe pairs is ferromagnetic in pristine FeGe. This Fe-Fe interaction remains ferromagnetic, albeit a slight decrease in strength, in the presence of a Fe vacancy. In contrast, a Ge vacancy in FeGe induces anti-ferromagnetism between nearest Fe pairs. By including spin-orbit coupling effects, we find that the DM interaction of defective FeGe is reversed in sign, and it is more uniform in strength along the three highly symmetric directions, relative to that in pristine FeGe. All in all, the versatility of FeGe makes it an excellent functional material, especially in data storage and spintronics applications.

  11. Many-body dispersion interactions from the exchange-hole dipole moment model. (United States)

    Otero-de-la-Roza, A; Johnson, Erin R


    In this article, we present the extension of the exchange-hole dipole moment model (XDM) of dispersion interactions to the calculation of two-body and three-body dispersion energy terms to any order, 2(l)-pole oscillator strengths, and polarizabilities. By using the newly-formulated coefficients, we study the relative importance of the higher-order two-body and the leading non-additive three-body (triple-dipole) interactions in gas-phase as well as in condensed systems. We show that the two-body terms up to R(-10), but not the terms of higher-order, are essential in the correct description of the dispersion energy, while there are a number of difficulties related to the choice of the damping function, which precludes the use three-body triple-dipole contributions in XDM. We conclude that further study is required before the three-body term can be used in production XDM density-functional calculations and point out the salient problems regarding its use.

  12. Interactive Data Visualization for HIV Cohorts: Leveraging Data Exchange Standards to Share and Reuse Research Tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meridith Blevins

    Full Text Available To develop and disseminate tools for interactive visualization of HIV cohort data.If a picture is worth a thousand words, then an interactive video, composed of a long string of pictures, can produce an even richer presentation of HIV population dynamics. We developed an HIV cohort data visualization tool using open-source software (R statistical language. The tool requires that the data structure conform to the HIV Cohort Data Exchange Protocol (HICDEP, and our implementation utilized Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet data.This tool currently presents patient-level data in three classes of plots: (1 Longitudinal plots showing changes in measurements viewed alongside event probability curves allowing for simultaneous inspection of outcomes by relevant patient classes. (2 Bubble plots showing changes in indicators over time allowing for observation of group level dynamics. (3 Heat maps of levels of indicators changing over time allowing for observation of spatial-temporal dynamics. Examples of each class of plot are given using CCASAnet data investigating trends in CD4 count and AIDS at antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation, CD4 trajectories after ART initiation, and mortality.We invite researchers interested in this data visualization effort to use these tools and to suggest new classes of data visualization. We aim to contribute additional shareable tools in the spirit of open scientific collaboration and hope that these tools further the participation in open data standards like HICDEP by the HIV research community.

  13. X-ray spectroscopic study of charge exchange phenomena in plasma-wall interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renner O.


    Full Text Available Jets of energetic ions launched at laser-burnt-through foils represent an efficient tool for investigation of plasma interaction with solid surfaces (plasma-wall interaction, PWI and for description of transient phenomena occurring close to the walls. Highly charged ions approaching the secondary target interpenetrate the near surface layer, collide with the counter-propagating matter and capture a large number of electrons. This results in a creation of atoms in highly excited Rydberg states or hollow ions with multiple inner vacancies; plasma jet and target ions may also undergo charge exchange (CE processes. We report PWI experiments with Al/Si(PMMA and Al/C targets irradiated at normal or oblique laser incidence. The distinct dip structures observed in red wings of Al Lyγ self-emission is interpreted in terms of CE between C6+ and Al12+ in the near-wall zone. The spectroscopic identification of CE phenomena is supported by results of analytical and numerical calculations.

  14. Influence of the biquadratic exchange interaction in the classical ground state magnetic response of the antiferromagnetic icosahedron (United States)

    Konstantinidis, N. P.


    The icosahedron has a ground state magnetization discontinuity in an external magnetic field when classical spins mounted on its vertices are coupled according to the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model. This is so even if there is no magnetic anisotropy in the Hamiltonian. The discontinuity is a consequence of the frustrated nature of the interactions, which originates in the topology of the cluster. Here it is found that the addition of the next order isotropic spin exchange interaction term in the Hamiltonian, the biquadratic exchange interaction, significantly enriches the classical ground state magnetic response. For relatively weak biquadratic interaction new discontinuities emerge, while for even stronger the number of discontinuities for this small molecule can go up to seven, accompanied by a susceptibility discontinuity. These results demonstrate the possibility of using a small entity like the icosahedron as a magnetic unit whose ground state spin configuration and magnetization can be tuned between many different non-overlapping regimes with the application of an external field.

  15. Type 2 Diabetes Education and Support in a Virtual Environment: A Secondary Analysis of Synchronously Exchanged Social Interaction and Support. (United States)

    Lewinski, Allison A; Anderson, Ruth A; Vorderstrasse, Allison A; Fisher, Edwin B; Pan, Wei; Johnson, Constance M


    Virtual environments (VEs) facilitate interaction and support among individuals with chronic illness, yet the characteristics of these VE interactions remain unknown. The objective of this study was to describe social interaction and support among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who interacted in a VE. Data included VE-mediated synchronous conversations and text-chat and asynchronous emails and discussion board posts from a study that facilitated interaction among individuals with T2D and diabetes educators (N=24) in 2 types of sessions: education and support. VE interactions consisted of communication techniques (how individuals interact in the VE), expressions of self-management (T2D-related topics), depth (personalization of topics), and breadth (number of topics discussed). Individuals exchanged support more often in the education (723/1170, 61.79%) than in the support (406/1170, 34.70%) sessions or outside session time (41/1170, 3.50%). Of all support exchanges, 535/1170 (45.73%) were informational, 377/1170 (32.22%) were emotional, 217/1170 (18.55%) were appraisal, and 41/1170 (3.50%) were instrumental. When comparing session types, education sessions predominately provided informational support (357/723, 49.4%), and the support sessions predominately provided emotional (159/406, 39.2%) and informational (159/406, 39.2%) support. VE-mediated interactions resemble those in face-to-face environments, as individuals in VEs engage in bidirectional exchanges with others to obtain self-management education and support. Similar to face-to-face environments, individuals in the VE revealed personal information, sought information, and exchanged support during the moderated education sessions and unstructured support sessions. With this versatility, VEs are able to contribute substantially to support for those with diabetes and, very likely, other chronic diseases.

  16. Magnetic exchange interactions in Mn doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} chalcopyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhani-Benziane, H.; Sahnoun, O. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), University of Mascara (Algeria); Sahnoun, M., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matière et Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), University of Mascara (Algeria); Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg (Switzerland); Driz, M. [Laboratoire de Sciences des Matériaux (LSM), University of Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria); Daul, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg (Switzerland)


    Accurate ab initio full-potential augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) electronic calculations within generalized gradient approximation have been performed for Mn doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} chalcopyrites, focusing on their electronic and magnetic properties as a function of the geometry related to low Mn-impurity concentration and the spin magnetic alignment (i.e., ferromagnetic vs antiferromagnetic). As expected, Mn is found to be a source of holes and localized magnetic moments of about 4 µ{sub B} per Mn atom are calculated which are sufficiently large. The defect calculations are firstly performed by replacing a single cation (namely Zn and Sn) with a single Mn atom in the pure chalcopyrite ZnSnAs{sub 2} supercell, and their corresponding formation energies show that the substitution of a Sn atom (rather than Zn) by Mn is strongly favored. Thereafter, a comparison of total energy differences between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) are given. Surprisingly, the exchange interaction between a Mn pairs is found to oscillate with the distance between them. Consequently, the AFM alignment is energetically favored in Mn-doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} compounds, except for low impurity concentration associated with lower distances between neighboring Mn impurities, in this case the stabilization of FM increases. Moreover, the ferromagnetic alignment in the Mn-doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} systems behaves half-metallic; the valence band for majority spin orientation is partially filled while there is a gap in the density of states for the minority spin orientation. This semiconducting gap of ~1 eV opened up in the minority channel and is due to the large bonding–antibonding splitting from the p–d hybridization. Our findings suggest that the Mn-doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} chalcopyrites could be a different class of ferromagnetic semiconductors. - Highlights: • ab initio calculations were performed on Mn doped ZnSnAs{sub 2} chalcopyrite. • Substitution of a Sn atom (rather than Zn) by Mn

  17. Using interactive workshops to prompt knowledge exchange: a realist evaluation of a knowledge to action initiative. (United States)

    Rushmer, R K; Hunter, D J; Steven, A


    Interactive workshops are often the default mechanism for sharing knowledge across professional and sector boundaries; yet we understand little about if, and how, they work. Between 2009 and 2011, the Research to Reality programme in North East England ran eight stand-alone facilitated multi-agency workshops focused on priority public health issues. Local authorities, the health service, and academe collaborated on the programme to share latest evidence and best practice A realist evaluation asked the overarching question 'what worked where, for whom, and under what conditions' regarding the knowledge exchange (KE) mechanisms underpinning any changes. Data were collected from fifty-one interviews, six observations, and analysis of programme documentation. 191 delegates attended (local authority 46%, NHS 24%, academia 22%, third sector 6%, other 2%). The programme theory was that awareness raising and critical discussion would facilitate ownership and evidence uptake. KE activity included: research digests, academic and senior practitioner presentations, and facilitated round-table discussions. Joint action planning was used to prompt informed follow-up action. Participants valued the digests, expert input, opportunities for discussion, networking and 'space to think'. However, within a few months, sustainability was lost. There was no evidence of direct changes to practice. Multiple barriers to research utilization emerged. The findings suggest that in pressured contexts exacerbated by structural reform providing evidence summaries, input from academic and practice experts, conversational spaces and personal action planning are necessary to create enthusiasm on the day, but are insufficient to prompt practice change in the medium term. The findings question makes assumptions about the instrumental, linear use of knowledge and of change focused on individuals as a driver for organizational change. Delegates' views of 'what would work' are shared. Mechanisms that

  18. Covalent magnetism, exchange interactions and anisotropy of the high temperature layered antiferromagnet MnB₂. (United States)

    Khmelevskyi, S; Mohn, P


    The investigation of the electronic structure and magnetism for the compound MnB(2) with crystal structure type AlB(2) has been revisited to resolve contradictions between various experimental and theoretical results present in the literature. We find that MnB(2) exhibits an interesting example of a Kübler's covalent magnetism (Williams et al 1981 J. Appl. Phys. 52 2069). The covalent magnetism also appears to be the source of some disagreement between the calculated values of the magnetic moments and those given by neutron diffraction experiments. We show that this shortcoming is due to the atomic sphere approximation applied in earlier calculations. The application of the disordered local moment approach and the calculation of the inter-atomic exchange interactions within the Liechtenstein formalism reveal strong local moment antiferromagnetism with a high Néel temperature predicted from Monte Carlo simulations. A fully relativistic band structure calculation and then the application of the torque method yields a strong in-plane anisotropy of the Mn magnetic moments. The agreement of these results with neutron diffraction studies rules out any possible weak itinerant electron magnetism scenarios as proposed earlier for MnB(2).

  19. DOE-EPSCoR. Exchange interactions in epitaxial intermetallic layered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeClair, Patrick R. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Gary, Mankey J. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)


    The goal of this research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the exchange interactions in epitaxial intermetallic alloy thin films and multilayers, including films and multilayers of Fe-Pt, Co-Pt and Fe-P-Rh alloys deposited on MgO and Al2O3 substrates. Our prior results have revealed that these materials have a rich variety of ferromagnetic, paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases which are sensitive functions of composition, substrate symmetry and layer thickness. Epitaxial antiferromagnetic films of FePt alloys exhibit a different phase diagram than bulk alloys. The antiferromagnetism of these materials has both spin ordering transitions and spin orienting transitions. The objectives include the study of exchange-inversion materials and the interface of these materials with ferromagnets. Our aim is to formulate a complete understanding of the magnetic ordering in these materials, as well as developing an understanding of how the spin structure is modified through contact with a ferromagnetic material at the interface. The ultimate goal is to develop the ability to tune the phase diagram of the materials to produce layered structures with tunable magnetic properties. The alloy systems that we will study have a degree of complexity and richness of magnetic phases that requires the use of the advanced tools offered by the DOE-operated national laboratory facilities, such as neutron and x-ray scattering to measure spin ordering, spin orientations, and element-specific magnetic moments. We plan to contribute to DOE’s mission of producing “Materials by Design” with properties determined by alloy composition and crystal structure. We have developed the methods for fabricating and have performed neutron diffraction experiments on some of the most interesting phases, and our work will serve to answer questions raised about the element-specific magnetizations using the magnetic x-ray dichroism techniques and interface magnetism in layered structures

  20. Learner Agency and the Use of Affordances in Language-Exchange Interactions (United States)

    Ahn, Tae youn


    Language exchange refers to a learning partnership between two learners with different native languages who collaborate to help each other improve their proficiency in the other's language. The purpose of this study is to examine the ways in which language-exchange participants activate learner agency to construct opportunities for learning in…

  1. Non-muscle myosin II regulates neuronal actin dynamics by interacting with guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-muscle myosin II (NM II regulates a wide range of cellular functions, including neuronal differentiation, which requires precise spatio-temporal activation of Rho GTPases. The molecular mechanism underlying the NM II-mediated activation of Rho GTPases is poorly understood. The present study explored the possibility that NM II regulates neuronal differentiation, particularly morphological changes in growth cones and the distal axon, through guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs of the Dbl family. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NM II colocalized with GEFs, such as βPIX, kalirin and intersectin, in growth cones. Inactivation of NM II by blebbistatin (BBS led to the increased formation of short and thick filopodial actin structures at the periphery of growth cones. In line with these observations, FRET analysis revealed enhanced Cdc42 activity in BBS-treated growth cones. BBS treatment also induced aberrant targeting of various GEFs to the distal axon where GEFs were seldom observed under physiological conditions. As a result, numerous protrusions and branches were generated on the shaft of the distal axon. The disruption of the NM II-GEF interactions by overexpression of the DH domains of βPIX or Tiam1, or by βPIX depletion with specific siRNAs inhibited growth cone formation and induced slender axons concomitant with multiple branches in cultured hippocampal neurons. Finally, stimulation with nerve growth factor induced transient dissociation of the NM II-GEF complex, which was closely correlated with the kinetics of Cdc42 and Rac1 activation. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that NM II maintains proper morphology of neuronal growth cones and the distal axon by regulating actin dynamics through the GEF-Rho GTPase signaling pathway.

  2. Interaction between Lung Mechanics and Gas Exchange by Low Volume High Frequency Pulmonary Ventilation in Patients with Respiratory Failure. (United States)


    Mechanics and Gas Exchange by Low Volume High Frequency Pulmonary Ventilation in Patients with Respiratory Failure 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Jeffrey M. Drazen...15 06 Mechanical Ventilation 06 11 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) The factors influencing both dynamic...LL II,,,~ 1111.2 HIIIH 111.- MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHARi 1 I., m P.’N I. AD-A193 073 g’ Fi AD _ _ _ Interaction between Lung Mechanics and Gas

  3. Interactional Features of Repair Negotiation in NS-NNS Interaction on Two Task Types: Information Gap and Personal Information Exchange (United States)

    Kitajima, Ryu


    The studies in task-based approaches in second language acquisition claim that controlled and goal convergent tasks such as information gap tasks surpass open-ended conversations such as personal information exchange tasks for the development of the learner's interlanguage, in that the formers promote more repair negotiation. And yet, few studies…

  4. Investigating the Interaction between the Neonatal Fc Receptor and Monoclonal Antibody Variants by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry* (United States)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Larraillet, Vincent; Schlothauer, Tilman; Kettenberger, Hubert; Hilger, Maximiliane; Rand, Kasper D.


    The recycling of immunoglobulins by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is of crucial importance in the maintenance of antibody levels in plasma and is responsible for the long half-lives of endogenous and recombinant monoclonal antibodies. From a therapeutic point of view there is great interest in understanding and modulating the IgG–FcRn interaction to optimize antibody pharmacokinetics and ultimately improve efficacy and safety. Here we studied the interaction between a full-length human IgG1 and human FcRn via hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and targeted electron transfer dissociation to map sites perturbed by binding on both partners of the IgG–FcRn complex. Several regions in the antibody Fc region and the FcRn were protected from exchange upon complex formation, in good agreement with previous crystallographic studies of FcRn in complex with the Fc fragment. Interestingly, we found that several regions in the IgG Fab region also showed reduced deuterium uptake. Our findings indicate the presence of hitherto unknown FcRn interaction sites in the Fab region or a possible conformational link between the IgG Fc and Fab regions upon FcRn binding. Further, we investigated the role of IgG glycosylation in the conformational response of the IgG–FcRn interaction. Removal of antibody glycans increased the flexibility of the FcRn binding site in the Fc region. Consequently, FcRn binding did not induce a similar conformational stabilization of deglycosylated IgG as observed for the wild-type glycosylated IgG. Our results provide new molecular insight into the IgG–FcRn interaction and illustrate the capability of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to advance structural proteomics by providing detailed information on the conformation and dynamics of large protein complexes in solution. PMID:25378534

  5. Investigating the interaction between the neonatal Fc receptor and monoclonal antibody variants by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Larraillet, Vincent; Schlothauer, Tilman; Kettenberger, Hubert; Hilger, Maximiliane; Rand, Kasper D


    The recycling of immunoglobulins by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is of crucial importance in the maintenance of antibody levels in plasma and is responsible for the long half-lives of endogenous and recombinant monoclonal antibodies. From a therapeutic point of view there is great interest in understanding and modulating the IgG-FcRn interaction to optimize antibody pharmacokinetics and ultimately improve efficacy and safety. Here we studied the interaction between a full-length human IgG(1) and human FcRn via hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and targeted electron transfer dissociation to map sites perturbed by binding on both partners of the IgG-FcRn complex. Several regions in the antibody Fc region and the FcRn were protected from exchange upon complex formation, in good agreement with previous crystallographic studies of FcRn in complex with the Fc fragment. Interestingly, we found that several regions in the IgG Fab region also showed reduced deuterium uptake. Our findings indicate the presence of hitherto unknown FcRn interaction sites in the Fab region or a possible conformational link between the IgG Fc and Fab regions upon FcRn binding. Further, we investigated the role of IgG glycosylation in the conformational response of the IgG-FcRn interaction. Removal of antibody glycans increased the flexibility of the FcRn binding site in the Fc region. Consequently, FcRn binding did not induce a similar conformational stabilization of deglycosylated IgG as observed for the wild-type glycosylated IgG. Our results provide new molecular insight into the IgG-FcRn interaction and illustrate the capability of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to advance structural proteomics by providing detailed information on the conformation and dynamics of large protein complexes in solution. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Exchange interactions in a dinuclear manganese (II) complex with cyanopyridine-N-oxide bridging ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markosyan, A.S. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University (United States); Gaidukova, I.Yu.; Ruchkin, A.V. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Anokhin, A.O. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division of the Russian, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Irkhin, V.Yu., E-mail: [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division of the Russian, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ryazanov, M.V.; Kuz’mina, N.P. [Faculty of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikiforov, V.N. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The magnetic properties of dinuclear manganese(II) complex [Mn(hfa){sub 2}cpo]{sub 2} (where hfa is hexafluoroacetylacetonate anion and cpo is 4-cyanopyridine-N-oxide) are presented. The non-monotonous dependence of magnetic susceptibility is explained in terms of the hierarchy of exchange parameters by using exact diagonalization. The thermodynamic behavior of pure cpo and [Mn(hfa){sub 2}(cpo)]{sub 2} is simulated numerically by an extrapolation to spin S=5/2. The Mn–Mn exchange integral is evaluated.

  7. Comprehensive analysis of pharmaceutical products using simultaneous mixed-mode (ion-exchange/reversed-phase) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Soisungnoen, Phimpha; Burakham, Rodjana; Srijaranai, Supalax; Paull, Brett


    Liquid chromatographic assays were developed using a mixed-mode column coupled in sequence with a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column to allow the simultaneous comprehensive analysis of inorganic/organic anions and cations, active pharmaceutical ingredients, and excipients (carbohydrates). The approach utilized dual sample injection and valve-mediated column switching and was based upon a single high-performance liquid chromatography gradient pump. The separation consisted of three distinct sequential separation mechanisms, namely, (i) ion-exchange, (ii) mixed-mode interactions under an applied dual gradient (reversed-phase/ion-exchange), and (iii) hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Upon first injection, the Scherzo SS C18 column (Imtakt) provided resolution of inorganic anions and cations under isocratic conditions, followed by a dual organic/salt gradient to elute active pharmaceutical ingredients and their respective organic counterions and potential degradants. At the top of the mixed-mode gradient (high acetonitrile content), the mobile phase flow was switched to a preconditioned hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column, and the standard/sample was reinjected for the separation of hydrophilic carbohydrates, some of which are commonly known excipients in drug formulations. The approach afforded reproducible separation and resolution of up to 23 chemically diverse solutes in a single run. The method was applied to investigate the composition of commercial cough syrups (Robitussin®), allowing resolution and determination of inorganic ions, active pharmaceutical ingredients, excipients, and numerous well-resolved unknown peaks. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Membrane association of the Arabidopsis ARF exchange factor GNOM involves interaction of conserved domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anders, Nadine; Nielsen, Michael M.; Keicher, Jutta


    The GNOM protein plays a fundamental role in Arabidopsis thaliana development by regulating endosome-to-plasma membrane trafficking required for polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1. GNOM is a family member of large ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs), which regulate...

  9. Modeling coupled interactions of carbon, water, and ozone exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere (United States)

    Ned Nikolova; Karl F. Zeller


    A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to study the simultaneous exchange of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water vapor between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The model mechanistically couples all major processes controlling ecosystem flows trace gases and water implementing recent concepts in plant eco-physiology, micrometeorology, and soil hydrology....

  10. Crystal growth, structure, magnetic properties and theoretical exchange interaction calculations of Cu2MnBO5 (United States)

    Sofronova, S.; Moshkina, E.; Nazarenko, I.; Seryotkin, Yu.; Nepijko, S. A.; Ksenofontov, V.; Medjanik, K.; Veligzhanin, A.; Bezmaternykh, L.


    Single crystals of ludwigite Cu2MnBO5 were synthesized by flux growth technique. The detailed structural and magnetic characterizations of the synthesized samples have been carried out. The cations composition of the studied crystal was determined using X-ray diffraction and EXAFS technique, the resulting composition differ from the content of the initial Mn2O3-CuO components of the flux. Magnetic susceptibility measurements and the calculations of the exchange integrals in frameworks of indirect coupling model revealed that monoclinic distortions strongly affect exchange interactions and appearance of magnetic ordering phase at the temperature T=93 K. The hypothesis of the existence of several magnetic subsystems was supposed.

  11. Trends in metal-biradical exchange interaction for first-row M(II)(nitronyl nitroxide-semiquinone) complexes. (United States)

    Shultz, David A; Vostrikova, Kira E; Bodnar, Scot H; Koo, Hyun-Joo; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Kirk, Martin L; Depperman, Ezra C; Kampf, Jeff W


    We report molecular structures and temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility data for several new metal complexes of heterospin triplet ground-state biradical ligands. The ligands are comprised of both nitronyl-nitroxide (NN) and semiquinone (SQ) spin carriers. Five compounds are five-coordinate M(II) complexes (M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn), and one is a six-coordinate Ni(II) complex. Five compounds were structurally characterized. During copper complex formation a reaction with methanol occurs to form a unique methoxy-substituted SQ ring. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility studies are consistent with strong intraligand (NN-SQ and NN-PhSQ) ferromagnetic exchange coupling. For the five-coordinate Mn, Co, and Ni complexes, the S = 1 ligand is antiferromagnetically coupled to the metal. For both the five-coordinate Cu complex and the six-coordinate Ni complex, the ligand is ferromagnetically coupled to the metal spins in accordance with orbital symmetry arguments. Despite the low molecular symmetries, the predicted trend in metal-ligand exchange interactions is supported by spin dimer analysis based on extended Hückel calculations. For (NN-SQ)NiTp(Cum,Me)() (Tp(Cum,Me)() = hydro-tris(3-cumenyl-5-methylpyrazolyl)borate), an antisymmetric exchange term was required for the best fit of the magnetic susceptibility data. Antisymmetric exchange was less important for the other complexes due to inherently smaller Deltag. Finally, it is shown that intraligand exchange coupling is of paramount importance in stabilizing high-spin states of mixed metal-biradical complexes.

  12. Preparation of a weak anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction dual-function mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase for protein separation using click chemistry. (United States)

    Zhao, Kailou; Yang, Fan; Xia, Hongjun; Wang, Fei; Song, Qingguo; Bai, Quan


    In this study, 3-diethylamino-1-propyne was covalently bonded to the azide-silica by a click reaction to obtain a novel dual-function mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase for protein separation with a ligand containing tertiary amine and two ethyl groups capable of electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction functionalities, which can display hydrophobic interaction chromatography character in a high-salt-concentration mobile phase and weak anion exchange character in a low-salt-concentration mobile phase employed for protein separation. As a result, it can be employed to separate proteins with weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction modes, respectively. The resolution and selectivity of the stationary phase were evaluated in both hydrophobic interaction and ion exchange modes with standard proteins, respectively, which can be comparable to that of conventional weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns. Therefore, the synthesized weak anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column can be used to replace two corresponding conventional weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns to separate proteins. Based on this mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase, a new off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography technology using only a single dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column was developed. Nine kinds of tested proteins can be separated completely using the developed method within 2.0 h. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Molecular interactions in the ionic liquid emim acetate and water binary mixtures probed via NMR spin relaxation and exchange spectroscopy. (United States)

    Allen, Jesse J; Bowser, Sage R; Damodaran, Krishnan


    Interactions of ionic liquids (ILs) with water are of great interest for many potential IL applications. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (emim) acetate, in particular, has shown interesting interactions with water including hydrogen bonding and even chemical exchange. Previous studies have shown the unusual behavior of emim acetate when in the presence of 0.43 mole fraction of water, and a combination of NMR techniques is used herein to investigate the emim acetate-water system and the unusual behavior at 0.43 mole fraction of water. NMR relaxometry techniques are used to describe the effects of water on the molecular motion and interactions of emim acetate with water. A discontinuity is seen in nuclear relaxation behavior at the concentration of 0.43 mole fraction of water, and this is attributed to the formation of a hydrogen bonded network. EXSY measurements are used to determine the exchange rates between the H2 emim proton and water, which show a complex dependence on the concentration of the mixture. The findings support and expand our previous results, which suggested the presence of an extended hydrogen bonding network in the emim acetate-water system at concentrations close to 0.50 mole fraction of H2O.

  14. Effect of tube-support interaction on the dynamic responses of heat exchanger tubes. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Y.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.


    Operating heat exchangers have experienced tube damages due to excessive flow-induced vibration. The relatively small inherent tube-to-baffle hole clearances associated with manufacturing tolerances in heat exchangers affect the tube vibrational characteristics. In attempting a theoretical analysis, questions arise as to the effects of tube-baffle impacting on dynamic responses. Experiments were performed to determine the effects of tube-baffle impacting in vertical/horizontal tube orientation, and in air/water medium on the vibrational characteristics (resonant frequencies, mode shapes, and damping) and displacement response amplitudes of a seven-span tube model. The tube and support conditions were prototypic, and overall length approximately one-third that of a straight tube segment of the steam generator designed for the CRBR. The test results were compared with the analytical results based on the multispan beam with ''knife-edge'' supports.

  15. Stock Prices and Exchange Rates in the EU and the USA: Evidence of their Mutual Interactions


    Stavarek, Daniel


    This paper investigates the nature of the causal relationships among stock prices and effective exchange rates in four old EU member countries (Austria, France, Germany, and the UK), four new EU member countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia), and in the United States. Both the long- and short-term causalities between these variables are explored using monthly data. The paper also endeavors to answer the question of whether the linkages between the analyzed economic variables...

  16. Electrochemical phase diagrams of Ni from ab initio simulations: role of exchange interactions on accuracy (United States)

    Huang, Liang-Feng; Rondinelli, James M.


    The stabilities of Ni metal and its derived compounds, including oxides, hydroxides, and oxyhydroxides under electrochemical conditions, can be readily predicted from the Ni Pourbaix diagram, where the formation free energies of the involved species are utilized to construct the phase stability map with respect to electrode potential and pH. We calculate and analyze the crystal structures, electronic structures, and thermodynamic energies of Ni metal and its compounds using different exchange-correlation functionals to density-functional-theory (DFT), including the semilocal LDA and GGA density functionals, the nonlocal metaGGA, and the hybrid density functionals. Next, we simulate the corresponding Ni Pourbaix diagrams to compare systematically the performance of the functional to each other and to experimental observations. We show that the structures and energies obtained from experimental databases may not be sufficiently accurate to describe direct electrochemical observations, and we explain how the electronic exchange within the density functionals plays a key role in determining the accuracy of the DFT calculated electronic, thermodynamic, and electrochemical properties. We find that only the hybrid density functional produces reliable results owing to the fractional contribution of exact Fock exchange included therein. Last, based on our accurate Ni Pourbaix diagram, we construct band-gap and magnetic electrochemical maps which can facilitate more experimental measurements and property assessments under variable potential and pH in the future.

  17. Strong Metal Support Interaction of Pt and Ru Nanoparticles Deposited on HOPG Probed by the H-D Exchange Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiordaliso, Elisabetta M.; Dahl, Søren; Chorkendorff, Ib


    adsorbed and gas phase at 1 bar is measured before and after annealing. The rate is measured in the temperature range of 40–200 °C at 1 bar, by utilization of the H-D exchange reaction. Experiments are performed on fresh cleaved and sputtered HOPG, which give similar results. We find that annealing......The interaction between metals and support is investigated in the case of 50 Å Pt and 50 Å Ru films deposited on a HOPG substrate. The films are prepared by electron beam physical vapor deposition and annealed in UHV to temperatures up to 700 °C. The equilibrium hydrogen exchange rate between...... the films from 150 up to 700 °C increases the amount of carbon present in the films up to 95%, as derived by surface analysis, indicating the formation of a carbon layer on top of the metal films. The exchange rate decreases dramatically with increasing carbon content on the films for both metals, pointing...

  18. Observation of Dipolar Spin-Exchange Interactions with Polar Molecules in a Lattice (United States)


    specific quantization axis (B-field). Negative values (blue) correspond to attractive interactions, and positive values (red) to repulsive interactions...superfluidity, and topological phases 9–13. Ultracold gases of polar molecules provide highly controllable, long-lived, and strongly interacting and have recently attracted intense scientific interest. Samples of fermionic 40K87Rb polar molecules, with an electric dipole moment of 0.57

  19. Magnetic exchange interaction between rare-earth and Mn ions in multiferroic hexagonal manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbayev, Diyar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trugman, Stuart A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Averitt, Richard D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Namjung, Hur [INHA UNIV; Andrew, Laforge D [UCSD; Dimitri, Basov N [UCSD


    The authors report a study of magnetic dynamics in multiferroic hexagonal manganite HoMnO{sub 3} by far-infrared spectroscopy. Low-temperature magnetic excitation spectrum of HoMnO{sub 3} consists of magnetic-dipole transitions of Ho ions within the crystal-field split J = 8 manifold and of the triangular antiferromagnetic resonance of Mn ions. They determine the effective spin Hamiltonian for the Ho ion ground state. The magnetic-field splitting of the Mn antiferromagnetic resonance allows us to measure the magnetic exchange coupling between the rare-earth and Mn ions.

  20. Towards hot electron mediated charge exchange in hyperthermal energy ion-surface interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, M. P.; Lake, R. E.; Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar


    We have made Na + and He + ions incident on the surface of solid state tunnel junctions and measured the energy loss due to atomic displacement and electronic excitations. Each tunnel junction consists of an ultrathin film metal–oxide–semiconductor device which can be biased to create a band of hot...... shows that the primary energy loss mechanism is the atomic displacement of Au atoms in the thin film of the metal–oxide–semiconductor device. We propose that neutral particle detection of the scattered flux from a biased device could be a route to hot electron mediated charge exchange....

  1. Protein-Ligand Binding Potential of Mean Force Calculations with Hamiltonian Replica Exchange on Alchemical Interaction Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Minh, David D L


    A binding potential of mean force (BPMF) is a free energy of noncovalent association in which one binding partner is flexible and the other is rigid. I have developed a method to calculate BPMFs for protein-ligand systems. The method is based on replica exchange sampling from multiple thermodynamic states at different temperatures and protein-ligand interaction strengths. Protein-ligand interactions are represented by interpolating precomputed electrostatic and van der Waals grids. Using a simple estimator for thermodynamic length, thermodynamic states are initialized at approximately equal intervals. The method is demonstrated on the Astex diverse set, a database of 85 protein-ligand complexes relevant to pharmacy or agriculture. Fifteen independent simulations of each complex were started using poses from crystallography, docking, or the lowest-energy pose observed in the other simulations. Benchmark simulations completed within three days on a single processor. Overall, protocols initialized using the ther...

  2. Indirect Exchange and Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) Interactions in Magnetically-Doped Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Power, Stephen; Ferreira, Mauro S.


    summarize the techniques used to calculate the interaction and present the key results obtained to date. The effects of more detailed parameterisations of the magnetic impurities and graphene host are considered, as are results obtained from ab initio calculations. Since the fast decay of the interaction...

  3. Interaction between the exchanged Mn2+ and Yb3+ ions confined in zeolite-Y and their luminescence behaviours (United States)

    Ye, Shi; Sun, Jiayi; Yi, Xiong; Wang, Yonggang; Zhang, Qinyuan


    Luminescent zeolites exchanged with two distinct and interacted emissive ions are vital but less-studied for the potential applications in white light emitting diodes, solar cells, optical codes, biomedicine and so on. Typical transition metal ion Mn2+ and lanthanide ion Yb3+ are adopted as a case study via their characteristic transitions and the interaction between them. The option is considered with that the former with d-d transition has a large gap between the first excited state 4T1 and the ground state 6A1 (normally >17,000 cm−1) while the latter with f-f transition has no metastable excited state above 10,000 cm−1, which requires the vicinity of these two ions for energy transfer. The results of various characterizations, including BET measurement, photoluminescence spectroscopy, solid-state NMR, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, etc., show that Yb3+ would preferably enter into the zeolite-Y pores and introduction of Mn2+ would cause aggregation of each other. Herein, cation-cation repulsion may play a significant role for the high valence of Mn2+ and Yb3+ when exchanging the original cations with +1 valence. Energy transfer phenomena between Mn2+ and Yb3+ occur only at elevated contents in the confined pores of zeolite. The research would benefit the design of zeolite composite opto-functional materials. PMID:28393920

  4. Interaction between the exchanged Mn2+ and Yb3+ ions confined in zeolite-Y and their luminescence behaviours (United States)

    Ye, Shi; Sun, Jiayi; Yi, Xiong; Wang, Yonggang; Zhang, Qinyuan


    Luminescent zeolites exchanged with two distinct and interacted emissive ions are vital but less-studied for the potential applications in white light emitting diodes, solar cells, optical codes, biomedicine and so on. Typical transition metal ion Mn2+ and lanthanide ion Yb3+ are adopted as a case study via their characteristic transitions and the interaction between them. The option is considered with that the former with d-d transition has a large gap between the first excited state 4T1 and the ground state 6A1 (normally >17,000 cm-1) while the latter with f-f transition has no metastable excited state above 10,000 cm-1, which requires the vicinity of these two ions for energy transfer. The results of various characterizations, including BET measurement, photoluminescence spectroscopy, solid-state NMR, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, etc., show that Yb3+ would preferably enter into the zeolite-Y pores and introduction of Mn2+ would cause aggregation of each other. Herein, cation-cation repulsion may play a significant role for the high valence of Mn2+ and Yb3+ when exchanging the original cations with +1 valence. Energy transfer phenomena between Mn2+ and Yb3+ occur only at elevated contents in the confined pores of zeolite. The research would benefit the design of zeolite composite opto-functional materials.

  5. Improved electronic structure and magnetic exchange interactions in transition metal oxides (United States)

    Gopal, Priya; De Gennaro, Riccardo; Silva dos Santos Gusmao, Marta; Orabi, Rabih Al Rahal Al; Wang, Haihang; Curtarolo, Stefano; Fornari, Marco; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco


    We discuss the application of the Agapito Curtarolo and Buongiorno Nardelli (ACBN0) pseudo-hybrid Hubbard density functional to several transition metal oxides. For simple binary metal oxides, ACBN0 is found to be a fast, reasonably accurate and parameter-free alternative to traditional DFT  +  U and hybrid exact exchange methods. In ACBN0, the Hubbard energy of DFT  +  U is calculated via the direct evaluation of the local Coulomb and exchange integrals in which the screening of the bare Coulomb potential is accounted for by a renormalization of the density matrix. We demonstrate the success of the ACBN0 approach for the electronic properties of a series technologically relevant mono-oxides (MnO, CoO, NiO, FeO, both at equilibrium and under pressure). We also present results on two mixed valence compounds, Co3O4 and Mn3O4. Our results for these binary oxides and all the materials we have investigated, obtained at the computational cost of a standard LDA/PBE calculation, are in excellent agreement with hybrid functionals, the GW approximation and experimental measurements.

  6. Effects of Website Interactivity on e-Loyalty: A Social Exchange Perspective


    Wen-Jang Jih; Su-Fang Lee; Yuan-Cheng Tsai


    This study examines the impact of major considerations of commercial website design and management, website interactivity, the important performance factor, and customer loyalty. Meaningful interactions with existing and potential customers allow e-commerce firms to enhance customer loyalty by providing satisfactory customer experience. Customer loyalty is a composite construct, yet consists of multiple dimensions that do not necessarily contribute to repeat purchase in the same manner. Guide...

  7. The interactive effect of leader-member exchange and communication frequency on performance ratings. (United States)

    Kacmar, K Michele; Witt, L A; Zivnuska, Suzanne; Gully, Stanley M


    The authors tested the hypothesis that communication frequency moderates the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) and job-performance ratings. In a study of 188 private sector workers, they found that LMX was more strongly related to job-performance ratings among individuals reporting frequent communication with the supervisor than among those reporting infrequent communication. At high levels of LMX, workers reporting frequent communication with the supervisor received more favorable job-performance ratings than did workers reporting infrequent communication. In contrast, at low levels of LMX, workers reporting frequent communication with the supervisor received less favorable job-performance ratings than workers reporting infrequent communication. The authors conducted a 2nd study of 153 public sector workers to provide a constructive replication and found similar results.

  8. Exchange interaction of strongly anisotropic tripodal erbium single-ion magnets with metallic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreiser, Jan; Wäckerlin, Christian; Ali, Md. Ehesan


    on a Ni thin film on Cu(100) single-crystalline surfaces. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements performed on Au(111) samples covered with molecular monolayers held at temperatures down to 4 K suggest that the easy axes of the strongly anisotropic molecules are randomly oriented......We present a comprehensive study of Er(trensal) single-ion magnets deposited in ultrahigh vacuum onto metallic surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the molecular structure is preserved after sublimation, and that the molecules are physisorbed on Au(111) while they are chemisorbed....... Furthermore XMCD indicates a weak antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the single-ion magnets and the ferromagnetic Ni/Cu(100) substrate. For the latter case, spin-Hamiltonian fits to the XMCD M(H) suggest a significant structural distortion of the molecules. Scanning tunneling microscopy reveals...

  9. Probing nucleic acid-ion interactions with buffer exchange-atomic emission spectroscopy. (United States)

    Greenfeld, Max; Herschlag, Daniel


    The ion atmosphere of nucleic acids directly affects measured biochemical and biophysical properties. However, study of the ion atmosphere is difficult due to its diffuse and dynamic nature. Standard techniques available have significant limitations in sensitivity, specificity, and directness of the assays. Buffer exchange-atomic emission spectroscopy (BE-AES) was developed to overcome many of the limitations of previously available techniques. This technique can provide a complete accounting of all ions constituting the ionic atmosphere of a nucleic acid at thermodynamic equilibrium. Although initially developed for the study of the ion atmosphere of nucleic acids, BE-AES has also been applied to study site-bound ions in RNA and protein. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular magnetism of a linear Fe(III)-Mn(II)-Fe(III) complex. Influence of long-range exchange interaction (United States)

    Lengen, M.; Bill, E.; Butzlaff, C.; Trautwein, A. X.; Winter, M.; Chaudhuri, P.


    The magnetic properties of [L-Fe(III)-dmg3Mn(II)-Fe(III)-L] (ClO4)2 have been characterized by magnetic susceptibility, EPR, and Mössbauer studies. L represents 1,4,7-trimethyl-, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane and dmg represents dimethylglyoxime. X-ray diffraction measurements yield that the arrangement of the three metal centers is strictly linear with atomic distances d Fe-Mn=0.35 nm and d Fe-Fe=0.7 nm. Magnetic susceptibility measurements (3 295 K) were analyzed in the framework of the spin-Hamiltonian formalism considering Heisenberg exchange and Zeeman interaction: Ĥ= J Fe-Mn( S Fe1+ S Fe2) S Mn + J Fe-Fe( S Fe1 S Fe2) +gΜB S total B. The spins S Fe1= S Fe2 = S Mn=5/2 of the complex are antiferromagnetically coupled, yielding a total spin of S total=5/2 with exchange coupling constants F Fe-Mn=13.4 cm-1 and J Fe-Fe= 4.5 cm-1. Magnetically split Mössbauer spectra were recorded at 1.5 K under various applied fields (20 m T, 170 mT, 4T). The spin-Hamiltonian analysis of these spectra yields isotropic magnetic hyperfine coupling with A total/( g N Μ N)=-18.5 T. The corresponding local component A Fe is related to A total via spin-projection: A total=(6/7)AFe. The resulting A Fe/( g NΜN)=-21.6 T is in agreement with standard values of ferric high-spin complexes. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters as obtained from Mössbauer studies and exchange coupling constants as derived from susceptibility measurements are corroborated by temperature-dependent EPR studies.

  11. Knowledge Exchange, Social Interactions, and Empowerment in an Intergenerational Technology Program at School (United States)

    Gamliel, Tova; Gabay, Nadav


    This is a sequel to previous theoretical papers (Gamliel, Reichental, & Eyal, 2007a, 2007b) that proposed a Model of Knowledge in Volume 33 of this journal. The study examines the effects of digital education on intergenerational empowerment and social interaction among participants in the Israeli Multigenerational Connection Program (MCP).…

  12. Interaction between Na+/K+-pump and Na+/Ca2+-exchanger modulates intercellular communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Gustafsson, Helena; Rahman, Awahan


    Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na(+)/K(+)-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. Here we test the hypothesis that the communication between vascular smooth muscle cells is regulated through an interaction between the Na(+)/K(+)-pump and the Na(+)/Ca(2...

  13. Non-covalent bonding interaction of surfactants with functionalized carbon nanotubes in proton exchange membranes for fuel cell applications. (United States)

    Sayeed, M Abu; Kim, Young Ho; Park, Younjin; Gopalan, A I; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Choi, Sang-June


    Dispersion of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in proton exchange membranes (PEMs) was conducted via non-covalent bonding between benzene rings of various surfactants and functionalized MWCNTs. In the solution casting method, dispersion of functionalized MWCNTs in PEMs such as Nafion membranes is a critical issue. In this study, 1 wt.% pristine MWCNTs (p-MWCNTs) and oxidized MWCNTs (ox-MWCNTs) were reinforced in Nafion membranes by adding 0.1-0.5 wt.% of a surfactant such as benzalkonium chloride (BKC) as a cationic surfactant with a benzene ring, Tween-80 as a nonanionic surfactant without a benzene ring, sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS) as an anionic surfactant without a benzene ring, or sodium dodecylben-zenesulfonate (SDBS) as an anionic surfactant with a benzene ring and their effects on the dispersion of nanocomposites were then observed. Among these surfactants, those with benzene rings such as BKC and SDBS produced enhanced dispersion via non-covalent bonding interaction between CNTs and surfactants. Specifically, the surfactants were adsorbed onto the surface of functionalized MWCNTs, where they prevented re-aggregation of MWCNTs in the nanocomposites. Furthermore, the prepared CNTs reinforced nanocomposite membranes showed reduced methanol uptake values while the ion exchange capacity values were maintained. The enhanced properties, including thermal property of the CNTs reinforced PEMs with surfactants, could be applicable to fuel cell applications.

  14. Crystal growth, structure, magnetic properties and theoretical exchange interaction calculations of Cu{sub 2}MnBO{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofronova, S. [L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Moshkina, E. [L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); M V Reshetnev Siberian State Aerospace University, 660014 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Nazarenko, I. [L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Seryotkin, Yu. [V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Nepijko, S.A. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Ksenofontov, V. [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Medjanik, K. [Lund University, MAX IV Laboratory, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Veligzhanin, A. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bezmaternykh, L. [L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)


    Single crystals of ludwigite Cu{sub 2}MnBO{sub 5} were synthesized by flux growth technique. The detailed structural and magnetic characterizations of the synthesized samples have been carried out. The cations composition of the studied crystal was determined using X-ray diffraction and EXAFS technique, the resulting composition differ from the content of the initial Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}–CuO components of the flux. Magnetic susceptibility measurements and the calculations of the exchange integrals in frameworks of indirect coupling model revealed that monoclinic distortions strongly affect exchange interactions and appearance of magnetic ordering phase at the temperature T=93 K. The hypothesis of the existence of several magnetic subsystems was supposed. - Highlights: • Single crystals of ludwigite Cu{sub 2}MnBO{sub 5} were synthesized. • Structural characterization was carried out by the X-ray diffraction and EXAFS technique. • Cations composition was determined by X-ray diffraction and EXAFS technique. • Cu{sub 2}MnBO{sub 5} magnetic behavior was analyzed in frameworks of indirect coupling model.

  15. Ab initio Potential-Energy Surfaces and Electron-Spin-Exchange Cross Sections for H-O2 Interactions (United States)

    Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene


    Accurate quartet- and doublet-state potential-energy surfaces for the interaction of a hydrogen atom and an oxygen molecule in their ground states have been determined from an ab initio calculation using large-basis sets and the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction method. These potential surfaces have been used to calculate the H-O2 electron-spin-exchange cross section; the square root of the cross section (in a(sub 0)), not taking into account inelastic effects, can be obtained approximately from the expressions 2.390E(sup -1/6) and 5.266-0.708 log10(E) at low and high collision energies E (in E(sub h)), respectively. These functional forms, as well as the oscillatory structure of the cross section found at high energies, are expected from the nature of the interaction energy. The mean cross section (the cross section averaged over a Maxwellian velocity distribution) agrees reasonably well with the results of measurements.

  16. Spin-orbital exchange of strongly interacting fermions in the p band of a two-dimensional optical lattice. (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenyu; Zhao, Erhai; Liu, W Vincent


    Mott insulators with both spin and orbital degeneracy are pertinent to a large number of transition metal oxides. The intertwined spin and orbital fluctuations can lead to rather exotic phases such as quantum spin-orbital liquids. Here, we consider two-component (spin 1/2) fermionic atoms with strong repulsive interactions on the p band of the optical square lattice. We derive the spin-orbital exchange for quarter filling of the p band when the density fluctuations are suppressed, and show that it frustrates the development of long-range spin order. Exact diagonalization indicates a spin-disordered ground state with ferro-orbital order. The system dynamically decouples into individual Heisenberg spin chains, each realizing a Luttinger liquid accessible at higher temperatures compared to atoms confined to the s band.

  17. Magnetic structure and analysis of the exchange interactions in BiMO(PO{sub 4}) (M = Co, Ni)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentre, O [UCCS, Equipe de Chimie du Solide, UMR CNRS 8181, ENSC Lille-UST Lille, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Bouree, F [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin - CEA-CNRS, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Rodriguez-Carvajal, J [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); El Jazouli, A [LCMS, UFR Sciences des Materiaux Solides, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik, Casablanca (Morocco); El Khayati, N [Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Avenue Ibn Batouta, BP 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Ketatni, El M [Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Analytique et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Universite Cadi Ayyad, BP 523, Beni Mellal (Morocco)], E-mail:


    The magnetic structures of the two bismuth oxy-phosphate compounds BiMPO{sub 5} (M{sup 2+} = Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}) have been determined by neutron powder diffraction using group theory analysis as a preliminary tool. Both compounds adopt a monoclinic crystal structure (S.G. P 2{sub 1}/n, a = 7.1642(2) A, b 11.2038(3) A, c = 5.1740(2) A and {beta} = 107.296(2){sup 0} for Ni{sup 2+} and a 7.2441(1) A, b = 11.2828(1) A, c = 5.2258(1) A and {beta} = 107.841(1){sup 0} for Co{sup 2+}). The refinement of the magnetic structures below T{sub N} = 17.5 and 15 K, respectively, for both compounds show that the magnetic structure is characterized by the propagation vector k = (-1/2, 0, 1/2), with components given with respect to the reciprocal lattice of the nuclear structure. This means a magnetic unit cell that is a multiple of the nuclear cell. The magnetic structure is constituted of ferromagnetic pairs of metal ions antiferromagnetically coupled within double chains. The relative strength of the intra and inter double chains exchange interactions has been examined by establishing a theoretical magnetic phase diagram. Most of the interactions come from M-O-O-M super-super-exchange paths. At its ground state, BiNiPO{sub 5} shows a nearly collinear arrangement of magnetic moments with m{sub 1.5K} 2.13(3) {mu}{sub B}/Ni. Due to the strong magnetic anisotropy of Co{sup 2+} (m{sub 1.5K} = 3.52(3) {mu}{sub B}/Co), the collinear character is largely lost while the magnetic structure remains analysable on the basis of the greatest isotropic component of the local moments.

  18. The individual and collective effects of exact exchange and dispersion interactions on the ab initio structure of liquid water. (United States)

    DiStasio, Robert A; Santra, Biswajit; Li, Zhaofeng; Wu, Xifan; Car, Roberto


    In this work, we report the results of a series of density functional theory (DFT) based ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of ambient liquid water using a hierarchy of exchange-correlation (XC) functionals to investigate the individual and collective effects of exact exchange (Exx), via the PBE0 hybrid functional, non-local van der Waals/dispersion (vdW) interactions, via a fully self-consistent density-dependent dispersion correction, and an approximate treatment of nuclear quantum effects, via a 30 K increase in the simulation temperature, on the microscopic structure of liquid water. Based on these AIMD simulations, we found that the collective inclusion of Exx and vdW as resulting from a large-scale AIMD simulation of (H2O)128 significantly softens the structure of ambient liquid water and yields an oxygen-oxygen structure factor, SOO(Q), and corresponding oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function, gOO(r), that are now in quantitative agreement with the best available experimental data. This level of agreement between simulation and experiment demonstrated herein originates from an increase in the relative population of water molecules in the interstitial region between the first and second coordination shells, a collective reorganization in the liquid phase which is facilitated by a weakening of the hydrogen bond strength by the use of a hybrid XC functional, coupled with a relative stabilization of the resultant disordered liquid water configurations by the inclusion of non-local vdW/dispersion interactions. This increasingly more accurate description of the underlying hydrogen bond network in liquid water also yields higher-order correlation functions, such as the oxygen-oxygen-oxygen triplet angular distribution, POOO(θ), and therefore the degree of local tetrahedrality, as well as electrostatic properties, such as the effective molecular dipole moment, that are in much better agreement with experiment.

  19. Human mesenchymal stroma/stem cells exchange membrane proteins and alter functionality during interaction with different tumor cell lines. (United States)

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Otte, Anna; Hass, Ralf


    To analyze effects of cellular interaction between human mesenchymal stroma/stem cells (MSC) and different cancer cells, direct co-cultures were performed and revealed significant growth stimulation of the tumor populations and a variety of protein exchanges. More than 90% of MCF-7 and primary human HBCEC699 breast cancer cells as well as NIH:OVCAR-3 ovarian adenocarcinoma cells acquired CD90 proteins during MSC co-culture, respectively. Furthermore, SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells progressively elevated CD105 and CD90 proteins in co-culture with MSC. Primary small cell hypercalcemic ovarian carcinoma cells (SCCOHT-1) demonstrated undetectable levels of CD73 and CD105; however, both proteins were significantly increased in the presence of MSC. This co-culture-mediated protein induction was also observed at transcriptional levels and changed functionality of SCCOHT-1 cells by an acquired capability to metabolize 5'cAMP. Moreover, exchange between tumor cells and MSC worked bidirectional, as undetectable expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in MSC significantly increased after co-culture with SK-OV-3 or NIH:OVCAR-3 cells. In addition, a small population of chimeric/hybrid cells appeared in each MSC/tumor cell co-culture by spontaneous cell fusion. Immune fluorescence demonstrated nanotube structures and exosomes between MSC and tumor cells, whereas cytochalasin-D partially abolished the intercellular protein transfer. More detailed functional analysis of FACS-separated MSC and NIH:OVCAR-3 cells after co-culture revealed the acquisition of epithelial cell-specific properties by MSC, including increased gene expression for cytokeratins and epithelial-like differentiation factors. Vice versa, a variety of transcriptional regulatory genes were down-modulated in NIH:OVCAR-3 cells after co-culture with MSC. Together, these mutual cellular interactions contributed to functional alterations in MSC and tumor cells.

  20. Phase transitions and thermal entanglement of the distorted Ising-Heisenberg spin chain: topology of multiple-spin exchange interactions in spin ladders. (United States)

    Arian Zad, Hamid; Ananikian, Nerses


    We consider a symmetric spin-1/2 Ising-XXZ double sawtooth spin ladder obtained from distorting a spin chain, with the XXZ interaction between the interstitial Heisenberg dimers (which are connected to the spins based on the legs via an Ising-type interaction), the Ising coupling between nearest-neighbor spins of the legs and rungs spins, respectively, and additional cyclic four-spin exchange (ring exchange) in the square plaquette of each block. The presented analysis supplemented by results of the exact solution of the model with infinite periodic boundary implies a rich ground state phase diagram. As well as the quantum phase transitions, the characteristics of some of the thermodynamic parameters such as heat capacity, magnetization and magnetic susceptibility are investigated. We prove here that among the considered thermodynamic and thermal parameters, solely heat capacity is sensitive versus the changes of the cyclic four-spin exchange interaction. By using the heat capacity function, we obtain a singularity relation between the cyclic four-spin exchange interaction and the exchange coupling between pair spins on each rung of the spin ladder. All thermal and thermodynamic quantities under consideration should be investigated by regarding those points which satisfy the singularity relation. The thermal entanglement within the Heisenberg spin dimers is investigated by using the concurrence, which is calculated from a relevant reduced density operator in the thermodynamic limit.

  1. Phase transitions and thermal entanglement of the distorted Ising–Heisenberg spin chain: topology of multiple-spin exchange interactions in spin ladders (United States)

    Arian Zad, Hamid; Ananikian, Nerses


    We consider a symmetric spin-1/2 Ising-XXZ double sawtooth spin ladder obtained from distorting a spin chain, with the XXZ interaction between the interstitial Heisenberg dimers (which are connected to the spins based on the legs via an Ising-type interaction), the Ising coupling between nearest-neighbor spins of the legs and rungs spins, respectively, and additional cyclic four-spin exchange (ring exchange) in the square plaquette of each block. The presented analysis supplemented by results of the exact solution of the model with infinite periodic boundary implies a rich ground state phase diagram. As well as the quantum phase transitions, the characteristics of some of the thermodynamic parameters such as heat capacity, magnetization and magnetic susceptibility are investigated. We prove here that among the considered thermodynamic and thermal parameters, solely heat capacity is sensitive versus the changes of the cyclic four-spin exchange interaction. By using the heat capacity function, we obtain a singularity relation between the cyclic four-spin exchange interaction and the exchange coupling between pair spins on each rung of the spin ladder. All thermal and thermodynamic quantities under consideration should be investigated by regarding those points which satisfy the singularity relation. The thermal entanglement within the Heisenberg spin dimers is investigated by using the concurrence, which is calculated from a relevant reduced density operator in the thermodynamic limit.

  2. Analyse de Researching Online Foreign Language Interaction and Exchange. Theories, Methods and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cappellini


    Full Text Available 1. Introduction Suite aux deux premières parutions de la collection "Telecollaboration in Education", la première portant sur les pratiques pédagogiques liées au web 2.0 et la deuxième sur les mondes synthétiques, ce troisième volume concerne les méthodes et techniques de recherche employées pour l'étude des interactions et des échanges en ligne. Les directeurs de la publication, également directeurs de la collection, soulignent que cet ouvrage s'adresse principalement à tout chercheur voulan...

  3. Interaction patterns of nurturant support exchanged in online health social networking. (United States)

    Chuang, Katherine Y; Yang, Christopher C


    Expressing emotion in online support communities is an important aspect of enabling e-patients to connect with each other and expand their social resources. Indirectly it increases the amount of support for coping with health issues. Exploring the supportive interaction patterns in online health social networking would help us better understand how technology features impacts user behavior in this context. To build on previous research that identified different types of social support in online support communities by delving into patterns of supportive behavior across multiple computer-mediated communication formats. Each format combines different architectural elements, affecting the resulting social spaces. Our research question compared communication across different formats of text-based computer-mediated communication provided on the health social networking environment. We identified messages with nurturant support (emotional, esteem, and network) across three different computer-mediated communication formats (forums, journals, and notes) of an online support community for alcoholism using content analysis. Our sample consisted of 493 forum messages, 423 journal messages, and 1180 notes. Nurturant support types occurred frequently among messages offering support (forum comments: 276/412 messages, 67.0%; journal posts: 65/88 messages, 74%; journal comments: 275/335 messages, 82.1%; and notes: 1002/1180 messages, 84.92%), but less often among messages requesting support. Of all the nurturing supports, emotional (ie, encouragement) appeared most frequently, with network and esteem support appearing in patterns of varying combinations. Members of the Alcoholism Community appeared to adapt some traditional face-to-face forms of support to their needs in becoming sober, such as provision of encouragement, understanding, and empathy to one another. The computer-mediated communication format may have the greatest influence on the supportive interactions

  4. Interaction Patterns of Nurturant Support Exchanged in Online Health Social Networking (United States)

    Yang, Christopher C


    Background Expressing emotion in online support communities is an important aspect of enabling e-patients to connect with each other and expand their social resources. Indirectly it increases the amount of support for coping with health issues. Exploring the supportive interaction patterns in online health social networking would help us better understand how technology features impacts user behavior in this context. Objective To build on previous research that identified different types of social support in online support communities by delving into patterns of supportive behavior across multiple computer-mediated communication formats. Each format combines different architectural elements, affecting the resulting social spaces. Our research question compared communication across different formats of text-based computer-mediated communication provided on the health social networking environment. Methods We identified messages with nurturant support (emotional, esteem, and network) across three different computer-mediated communication formats (forums, journals, and notes) of an online support community for alcoholism using content analysis. Our sample consisted of 493 forum messages, 423 journal messages, and 1180 notes. Results Nurturant support types occurred frequently among messages offering support (forum comments: 276/412 messages, 67.0%; journal posts: 65/88 messages, 74%; journal comments: 275/335 messages, 82.1%; and notes: 1002/1180 messages, 84.92%), but less often among messages requesting support. Of all the nurturing supports, emotional (ie, encouragement) appeared most frequently, with network and esteem support appearing in patterns of varying combinations. Members of the Alcoholism Community appeared to adapt some traditional face-to-face forms of support to their needs in becoming sober, such as provision of encouragement, understanding, and empathy to one another. Conclusions The computer-mediated communication format may have the

  5. Gas-particle interactions above a Dutch heathland: II. Concentrations and surface exchange fluxes of atmospheric particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nemitz


    Full Text Available Size-dependent particle number fluxes measured by eddy-covariance (EC and continuous fluxes of ammonium (NH4+ measured with the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM are reported for a Dutch heathland. Daytime deposition velocities (Vd by EC with peak values of 5 to 10 mm s-1 increased with particle diameter (dp over the range 0.1–0.5 µm, and are faster than predicted by current models. With a mean Vd of 2.0 mm s-1 (daytime: 2.7; night-time 0.8 mm s-1 NH4+ fluxes by AGM are overall in agreement with former measurements and NH4+-N dry deposition amounts to 20% of the dry input of NH3-N over the measurement period. These surface exchange fluxes are analyzed together with simultaneous gas-phase flux measurements for indications of gas-particle interactions. On warm afternoons the apparent fluxes of acids and aerosol above the heathland showed several coinciding anomalies, all of which are consistent with NH4+ evaporation during deposition: (i canopy resistances for HNO3 and HCl of up to 100 s m-1, (ii simultaneous particle emission of small particles (DpDp>0.18 µm, (iii NH4+ deposition faster than derived from size-distributions and size-segregated EC particle fluxes. These observations coincide with the observations of (i surface concentration products of NH3 and HNO3 well below the thermodynamic equilibrium value and (ii Damköhler numbers that indicate chemical conversion to be sufficiently fast to modify exchange fluxes. The measurements imply a removal rate of volatile NH4+ of 3−30×10-6 s-1 averaged over the 1 km boundary-layer, while NH3 deposition is underestimated by typically 20 ng m-2 s-1 (28% and flux reversal may occur.

  6. Molecular magnetism of a linear Fe(III)-Mn(II)-Fe(III) complex. Influence of long-range exchange interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengen, M. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Bill, E. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Butzlaff, C. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Trautwein, A.X. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Winter, M. [Anorganische Chemie 1, Ruhr-Univ., Bochum (Germany); Chaudhuri, P. [Anorganische Chemie 1, Ruhr-Univ., Bochum (Germany)


    The magnetic properties of [L-Fe(III)-dmg{sub 3}Mn(II)-Fe(III)-L] (ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} have been characterized by magnetic susceptibility, EPR, and Moessbauer studies. L represents 1,4,7-trimethyl-,1,4,7-triazacyclononane and dmg represents dimethylglyoxime. X-ray diffraction measurements yield that the arrangement of the three metal centers is strictly linear with atomic distances d{sub Fe-Mn} = 0.35 nm and d{sub Fe-Fe} = 0.7 nm. Magnetic susceptibility measurements (3-295 K) were analyzed in the framework of the spin-Hamiltonian formalism considering Heisenberg exchange and Zeeman interaction: H = J{sub Fe-Mn} (S{sub Fe1} + S{sub Fe2})S{sub Mn} + J{sub Fe-Fe}S{sub Fe1}S{sub Fe2} + g{mu}{sub B}S{sub total}B. The spins S{sub Fe1} = S{sub Fe2} = S{sub Mn} = 5/2 of the complex are antiferromagnetically coupled, yielding a total spin of S{sub total} = 5/2 with exchange coupling constants F{sub Fe-Mn} = 13.4 cm{sup -1} and J{sub Fe-Fe} = 4.5 cm{sup -1}. Magnetically split Moessbauer spectra were recorded at 1.5 K under various applied fields (20 mT, 170 mT, 4 T). The spin-Hamiltonian analysis of these spectra yields isotropic magnetic hyperfine coupling with A{sub total}/(g{sub N}{mu}{sub N}) = -18.5 T. The corresponding local component A{sub Fe} is related to A{sub total} via spin-projection: A{sub total} = (6/7)A{sub Fe}. The resulting A{sub Fe}/(g{sub N}{mu}{sub N}) = -21.6 T is in agreement with standard values of ferric high-spin complexes. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters as obtained from Moessbauer studies and exchange coupling constants as derived from susceptibility measurements are corroborated by temperature-dependent EPR studies. (orig.)

  7. Sorting Nexin 27 Protein Regulates Trafficking of a p21-activated Kinase (PAK) Interacting Exchange Factor (β-Pix)-G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase Interacting Protein (GIT) Complex via a PDZ Domain Interaction* (United States)

    Valdes, Julie L.; Tang, Jingrong; McDermott, Mark I.; Kuo, Jean-Cheng; Zimmerman, Seth P.; Wincovitch, Stephen M.; Waterman, Clare M.; Milgram, Sharon L.; Playford, Martin P.


    Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) is a 62-kDa protein localized to early endosomes and known to regulate the intracellular trafficking of ion channels and receptors. In addition to a PX domain, SNX27 is the only sorting family member that contains a PDZ domain. To identify novel SNX27-PDZ binding partners, we performed a proteomic screen in mouse principal kidney cortical collecting duct cells using a GST-SNX27 fusion construct as bait. We found that β-Pix (p21-activated kinase-interactive exchange factor), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rho family of small GTPases known to regulate cell motility directly interacted with SNX27. The association of β-Pix and SNX27 is specific for β-Pix isoforms terminating in the type-1 PDZ binding motif (ETNL). In the same screen we also identified Git1/2 as a potential SNX27 interacting protein. The interaction between SNX27 and Git1/2 is indirect and mediated by β-Pix. Furthermore, we show recruitment of the β-Pix·Git complex to endosomal sites in a SNX27-dependent manner. Finally, migration assays revealed that depletion of SNX27 from HeLa and mouse principal kidney cortical collecting duct cells significantly decreases cell motility. We propose a model by which SNX27 regulates trafficking of β-Pix to focal adhesions and thereby influences cell motility. PMID:21926430

  8. Interaction of amphiphiles with integral membrane proteins. II. A simple, minimal model for the nonspecific interaction of amphiphiles with the anion exchanger of the erythrocyte membrane. (United States)

    Gruber, H J


    In a previous paper we have reported on the structural perturbation of the erythrocyte membrane anion exchanger by a regular series of model amphiphiles, as shown by differential scanning calorimetry (Gruber, H.J. and Low, P.S., Biochim. Biophys. Acta, preceding article). Now the data are interpreted by a model in which the effects of amphiphile structure upon buffer-membrane partitioning are well separated from the dependence of the intrinsic potencies of membrane-bound amphiphiles upon amphiphile structure. The buffer-membrane partitioning situation was demonstrated to regularly change between extremes within a series of homologous amphiphiles, i.e. from a negligible to a predominant fraction of total amphiphile in the sample residing in the membrane. Based upon this demonstration a large number of reports on the chain length dependence of apparent potency could be reinterpreted in terms of chain length profiles of intrinsic potency, allowing for a comparison of the responses of various membrane proteins to homologous series of amphiphiles. The response patterns for chain length variation could be divided into three distinct classes: the intrinsic potency (i) can be independent of chain length over a very wide range of length, (ii) it can be rather independent up to a critical length where a sudden cut-off in potency occurs, or (iii) it can drop monotonically over a wide range of chain length. The intrinsic potency values of saturated fatty acids in destabilizing the anion exchanger were interpreted by very simple assumptions: only direct interactions between amphiphiles and target proteins and a simple amphiphile partition equilibrium between a pool of equivalent low affinity sites on the protein and the bulk lipid matrix. The observed monotonic decay of the intrinsic potency of saturated fatty acids with increasing chain length from C8 to C20 was translated into a constant increment of free energy by which each additional CH2 favors the transfer away from sites

  9. Modelling of the interaction between chemical and mechanical behaviour of ion exchange resins incorporated into a cement-based matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Bescop P.


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a predictive model, based on experimental data, to determine the macroscopic mechanical behavior of a material made up of ion exchange resins solidified into a CEM III cement paste. Some observations have shown that in some cases, a significant macroscopic expansion of this composite material may be expected, due to internal pressures generated in the resin. To build the model, we made the choice to break down the problem in two scale’s studies. The first deals with the mechanical behavior of the different heterogeneities of the composite, i.e. the resin and the cement paste. The second upscales the information from the heterogeneities to the Representative Elementary Volume (REV of the composite. The heterogeneities effects are taken into account in the REV by applying a homogenization method derived from the Eshelby theory combined with an interaction coefficient drawn from the poroelasticity theory. At the first scale, from the second thermodynamic law, a formulation is developed to estimate the resin microscopic swelling. The model response is illustrated on a simple example showing the impact of the calculated internal pressure, on the macroscopic strain.

  10. Systems of Interaction between the First Sedentary Villages in the Near East Exposed Using Agent-Based Modelling of Obsidian Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ortega


    Full Text Available In the Near East, nomadic hunter-gatherer societies became sedentary farmers for the first time during the transition into the Neolithic. Sedentary life presented a risk of isolation for Neolithic groups. As fluid intergroup interactions are crucial for the sharing of information, resources and genes, Neolithic villages developed a network of contacts. In this paper we study obsidian exchange between Neolithic villages in order to characterize this network of interaction. Using agent-based modelling and elements taken from complex network theory, we model obsidian exchange and compare results with archaeological data. We demonstrate that complex networks of interaction were established at the outset of the Neolithic and hypothesize that the existence of these complex networks was a necessary condition for the success and spread of a new way of living.

  11. Role of Single-Ion Anisotropy and Magnetic Exchange Interactions in Suppressing Zero-Field Tunnelling in {3d-4f} Single Molecule Magnets. (United States)

    Gupta, Tulika; Beg, Mohammad Faizan; Rajaraman, Gopalan


    Extensive ab initio CASSCF/RASSI-SO/SINGLE_ANISO/POLY_ANISO calculations have been undertaken on eight structurally similar previously synthesized [Cu(II)(L)(C3H6O)Ln(III)(NO3)3] (Ln = Dy (1), Tb (3), Ho (5), and Er (7)) and [V(IV)O(L)(C3H6O)Ln(III)(NO3)3] (Ln = Dy (2), Tb (4), Ho (6), and Er (8)) (here H2L = N,N'-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)-1,3-diamino-2,2-dimethylpropane) complexes (crystal structures reported earlier). Our estimated exchange interactions (J) using the Lines model for complexes 1-8 (1.55 cm(-1), 0.15 cm(-1), 5.30 cm(-1), 0.06 cm(-1), 1.05 cm(-1), -0.18 cm(-1), 0.24 cm(-1), and -0.02 cm(-1) for complexes 1-8 respectively) match well with the experimental values (HE-EPR and pulse magnetization technique) reported earlier and offer confidence in the methodology employed. We have established the mechanism of magnetic coupling for this series to rationalize the observation that LnCu complexes are strongly coupled compared to LnV complexes. Besides, the results procured based on the BS-DFT method imply a crucial role of overlap between the 3d and 4f orbitals, the formally empty 5d/6s/6p orbitals of Ln(III) ion in the exchange coupling mechanism. To probe the origin/absence of magnetization relaxation observed in these complexes 1-8, both the single-ion and the exchange anisotropy are analyzed. Our calculations reveal that stronger exchange interaction quenches the quantum tunnelling of magnetization behavior in these complexes; however, for LnV complexes the exchange interaction was too small to offer a large blockade barrier. In the quest to obtain a stronger exchange interaction, we have assessed several models and have developed a magneto-structural correlation. An antagonizing behavior between the JCuDy and Ucal values are noted for the Dy-O-O-Cu dihedral angle correlation developed on complex 1. This highlights the subtle nature of the magnetic anisotropy in this class of complexes and postulates that both the single-ion anisotropy and the exchange

  12. Better band gaps for wide-gap semiconductors from a locally corrected exchange-correlation potential that nearly eliminates self-interaction errors (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Harbola, Manoj K.; Johnson, Duane D.


    This work constitutes a comprehensive and improved account of electronic-structure and mechanical properties of silicon-nitride (Si3 N4 ) polymorphs via van Leeuwen and Baerends (LB) exchange-corrected local density approximation (LDA) that enforces the exact exchange potential asymptotic behavior. The calculated lattice constant, bulk modulus, and electronic band structure of Si3 N4 polymorphs are in good agreement with experimental results. We also show that, for a single electron in a hydrogen atom, spherical well, or harmonic oscillator, the LB-corrected LDA reduces the (self-interaction) error to exact total energy to  ∼10%, a factor of three to four lower than standard LDA, due to a dramatically improved representation of the exchange-potential.

  13. Modeling coupled interactions of carbon, water, and ozone exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. I: model description. (United States)

    Nikolov, Ned; Zeller, Karl F


    A new biophysical model (FORFLUX) is presented to study the simultaneous exchange of ozone, carbon dioxide, and water vapor between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The model mechanistically couples all major processes controlling ecosystem flows trace gases and water implementing recent concepts in plant eco-physiology, micrometeorology, and soil hydrology. FORFLUX consists of four interconnected modules-a leaf photosynthesis model, a canopy flux model, a soil heat-, water- and CO2- transport model, and a snow pack model. Photosynthesis, water-vapor flux and ozone uptake at the leaf level are computed by the LEAFC3 sub-model. The canopy module scales leaf responses to a stand level by numerical integration of the LEAFC3model over canopy leaf area index (LAI). The integration takes into account (1) radiative transfer inside the canopy, (2) variation of foliage photosynthetic capacity with canopy depth, (3) wind speed attenuation throughout the canopy, and (4) rainfall interception by foliage elements. The soil module uses principles of the diffusion theory to predict temperature and moisture dynamics within the soil column, evaporation, and CO2 efflux from soil. The effect of soil heterogeneity on field-scale fluxes is simulated employing the Bresler-Dagan stochastic concept. The accumulation and melt of snow on the ground is predicted using an explicit energy balance approach. Ozone deposition is modeled as a sum of three fluxes- ozone uptake via plant stomata, deposition to non-transpiring plant surfaces, and ozone flux into the ground. All biophysical interactions are computed hourly while model projections are made at either hourly or daily time step. FORFLUX represents a comprehensive approach to studying ozone deposition and its link to carbon and water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems.

  14. Application of mixed-mode, solid-phase extraction in environmental and clinical chemistry. Combining hydrogen-bonding, cation-exchange and Van der Waals interactions (United States)

    Mills, M.S.; Thurman, E.M.; Pedersen, M.J.


    Silica- and styrene-divinylbenzene-based mixed-mode resins that contain C8, C18 and sulphonated cation-exchange groups were compared for their efficiency in isolation of neutral triazine compounds from water and of the basic drug, benzoylecgonine, from urine. The triazine compounds were isolated by a combination of Van der Waals and hydrogen-bonding interactions, and benzoylecgonine was isolated by Van der Waals interactions and cation exchange. All analytes were eluted with a polar organic solvent contaning 2% ammonium hydroxide. Larger recoveries (95%) were achieved on copolymerized mixed-mode resins where C18 and sulfonic acid are in closer proximity than on 'blended' mixed-mode resins (60-70% recovery).

  15. A membrane cell for on-line hydrogen/deuterium exchange to study protein folding and protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Astorga-Wells, Juan; Landreh, Michael; Johansson, Jan; Bergman, Tomas; Jörnvall, Hans


    A membrane cell for hydrogen and deuterium exchange on-line with mass spectrometry has been developed to monitor protein-protein interactions and protein conformations. It consists of two channels separated by a semipermeable membrane, where one channel carries the protein sample and the other deuterium oxide. The membrane allows transfer of deuterium oxide into the sample flow. The labeling time is controlled via the flow rate in the sample channel. This cell was validated against three models commonly used in hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry: monitoring of folded and unfolded states in a protein, mapping the protein secondary structure at the peptide level, and detection of protein and antibody interactions. The system avoids the conventionally used sample dilution and handling, allowing for potential automation.

  16. A Membrane Cell for On-line Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange to Study Protein Folding and Protein-Protein Interactions by Mass Spectrometry* (United States)

    Astorga-Wells, Juan; Landreh, Michael; Johansson, Jan; Bergman, Tomas; Jörnvall, Hans


    A membrane cell for hydrogen and deuterium exchange on-line with mass spectrometry has been developed to monitor protein-protein interactions and protein conformations. It consists of two channels separated by a semipermeable membrane, where one channel carries the protein sample and the other deuterium oxide. The membrane allows transfer of deuterium oxide into the sample flow. The labeling time is controlled via the flow rate in the sample channel. This cell was validated against three models commonly used in hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry: monitoring of folded and unfolded states in a protein, mapping the protein secondary structure at the peptide level, and detection of protein and antibody interactions. The system avoids the conventionally used sample dilution and handling, allowing for potential automation. PMID:21610101

  17. Exchange bias properties of 140 nm-sized dipolarly interacting circular dots with ultrafine IrMn and NiFe layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spizzo, F., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra and CNISM, Università di Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Tamisari, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra and CNISM, Università di Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia and CNISM, Università di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Chinni, F.; Bonfiglioli, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra and CNISM, Università di Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Gerardino, A. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR, I-00156 Roma (Italy); Barucca, G. [Dipartimento SIMAU, Università Politecnica delle Marche, I-60131 Ancona (Italy); Bisero, D.; Fin, S.; Del Bianco, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra and CNISM, Università di Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy)


    We studied the exchange bias effect in an array of IrMn(3 nm)/NiFe(3 nm) circular dots (size ~140 nm and center-to-center distance ~200 nm, as revealed by microscopy analyses), prepared on a large area (3×3 mm{sup 2}) by electron beam lithography and lift-off, using dc sputtering deposition. Hysteresis loops were measured by SQUID magnetometer at increasing values of temperature T (in the 5–300 K range) after cooling from 300 K down to 5 K in zero field (ZFC mode) and in a saturating magnetic field (FC mode). The exchange bias effect disappears above T~200 K and, at each temperature, the exchange field H{sub EX} measured in ZFC is substantially lower than the FC one. Micromagnetic calculations indicate that, at room temperature, each dot is in high-remanence ground state, but magnetic dipolar interactions establish a low-remanence configuration of the array as a whole. Hence, at low temperature, following the ZFC procedure, the exchange anisotropy in the dot array is averaged out, tending to zero. However, even the FC values of H{sub EX} and of the coercivity H{sub C} are definitely smaller compared to those measured in a reference continuous film with the same stack configuration (at T=5 K, H{sub EX}~90 Oe and H{sub C}~180 Oe in the dots and H{sub EX}~1270 Oe and H{sub C}~860 Oe in the film). Our explanation is based on the proven glassy magnetic nature of the ultrathin IrMn layer, implying the existence of magnetic correlations among the spins, culminating in a collective freezing below T~100 K. We propose, also by the light of micromagnetic simulations, that the small dot size imposes a spatial constraint on the magnetic correlation length among the IrMn spins so that, even at the lowest temperature, their thermal stability, especially at the dot border, is compromised. - Highlights: • Exchange bias in 140 nm-sized IrMn(3 nm)/NiFe(3 nm) dots much weaker than in a film. • Glassy magnetic nature of the IrMn phase and collective spin freezing at T<100 K

  18. Pressure tuning of bond-directional exchange interactions and magnetic frustration in the hyperhoneycomb iridate β -Li2IrO3 (United States)

    Veiga, L. S. I.; Etter, M.; Glazyrin, K.; Sun, F.; Escanhoela, C. A.; Fabbris, G.; Mardegan, J. R. L.; Malavi, P. S.; Deng, Y.; Stavropoulos, P. P.; Kee, H.-Y.; Yang, W. G.; van Veenendaal, M.; Schilling, J. S.; Takayama, T.; Takagi, H.; Haskel, D.


    We explore the response of Ir 5 d orbitals to pressure in β -Li2IrO3 , a hyperhoneycomb iridate in proximity to a Kitaev quantum spin-liquid (QSL) ground state. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals a reconstruction of the electronic ground state below 2 GPa, the same pressure range where x-ray magnetic circular dichroism shows an apparent collapse of magnetic order. The electronic reconstruction, which manifests a reduction in the effective spin-orbit interaction in 5 d orbitals, pushes β -Li2IrO3 further away from the pure Jeff=1 /2 limit. Although lattice symmetry is preserved across the electronic transition, x-ray diffraction shows a highly anisotropic compression of the hyperhoneycomb lattice which affects the balance of bond-directional Ir-Ir exchange interactions driven by spin-orbit coupling at Ir sites. An enhancement of symmetric anisotropic exchange over Kitaev and Heisenberg exchange interactions seen in theoretical calculations that use precisely this anisotropic Ir-Ir bond compression provides one possible route to the realization of a QSL state in this hyperhoneycomb iridate at high pressures.

  19. The role of nonmagnetic d{sup 0} vs. d{sup 10}B-type cations on the magnetic exchange interactions in osmium double perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Hai L., E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden 01187 (Germany); Yamaura, Kazunari [Research Center for Functional Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Tjeng, Liu Hao [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden 01187 (Germany); Jansen, Martin, E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden 01187 (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart 70569 (Germany)


    Polycrystalline samples of double perovskites Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6} (B=Sc, Y, In) were synthesized by solid state reactions. They adopt the cubic double perovskite structures (space group, Fm-3m) with ordered B and Os arrangements. Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6} (B=Sc, Y, In) show antiferromagnetic transitions at 93 K, 69 K, and 28 K, respectively. The Weiss-temperatures are −590 K for Ba{sub 2}ScOsO{sub 6}, −571 K for Ba{sub 2}YOsO{sub 6}, and −155 K for Ba{sub 2}InOsO{sub 6}. Sc{sup 3+} and Y{sup 3+} have the open-shell d{sup 0} electronic configuration, while In{sup 3+} has the closed-shell d{sup 10}. This indicates that a d{sup 0} B-type cation induces stronger overall magnetic exchange interactions in comparison to a d{sup 10}. Comparison of Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6} (B=Sc, Y, In) to their Sr and Ca analogues shows that the structural distortions weaken the overall magnetic exchange interactions. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic properties of osmium double perovskites Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6} (B=Sc, Y, In) were studied. Comparison of Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6}indicates that a d{sup 0} B-type cation induces stronger overall magnetic exchange interactions in comparison to a d{sup 10}. - Highlights: • Magnetic properties of double perovskites Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6} (B=Sc, Y, In) were studied. • A d{sup 0}B-type cation induces stronger magnetic interactions than a d{sup 10}. • Structural distortions weaken the overall Os{sup 5+}-Os{sup 5+} magnetic interactions.

  20. Field scale interaction and nutrient exchange between surface water and shallow groundwater in the Baiyang Lake region, North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauns, Bentje; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Song, Xianfang


    Fertilizer input for agricultural food production, as well as the discharge of domestic and industrial water pollutants, increases pressures on locally scarce and vulnerable water resources in the North China Plain. In order to: (a) understand pollutant exchange between surface water and groundwa......Fertilizer input for agricultural food production, as well as the discharge of domestic and industrial water pollutants, increases pressures on locally scarce and vulnerable water resources in the North China Plain. In order to: (a) understand pollutant exchange between surface water...

  1. Vortices and magnetic structures of the target type in two-dimensional ferromagnetics with the anisotropic exchange interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Borisov, A B; Mikushina, N A; Moskvin, A S


    One investigated into structure of vortices and of other topological defects in two-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnet. Paper contains basic data derived from microscopic theory of spin anisotropy in 3d- and 4f-element base systems. One studied effect of parameters of anisotropic exchange and single-ionic anisotropy on vortex structure. One studied magnetization vortices in freely plane ferromagnetic with anisotropic exchange and local anisotropy. One predicted and analyzed structure of a new class of static leading centre (target) type vortex configurations in anisotropic ferromagnet

  2. Electric manipulation of the Mn-acceptor binding energy and the Mn-Mn exchange interaction on the GaAs (110) surface by nearby As vacancies (United States)

    Mahani, M. R.; MacDonald, A. H.; Canali, C. M.


    We investigate theoretically the effect of nearby As (arsenic) vacancies on the magnetic properties of substitutional Mn (manganese) impurities on the GaAs (110) surface, using a microscopic tight-binding model which captures the salient features of the electronic structure of both types of defects in GaAs. The calculations show that the binding energy of the Mn acceptor is essentially unaffected by the presence of a neutral As vacancy, even at the shortest possible VAs-Mn separation. On the other hand, in contrast to a simple tip-induced-band-bending theory and in agreement with experiment, for a positively charged As vacancy the Mn-acceptor binding energy is significantly reduced as the As vacancy is brought closer to the Mn impurity. For two Mn impurities aligned ferromagnetically, we find that nearby charged As vacancies enhance the energy level splitting of the associated coupled acceptor levels, leading to an increase of the effective exchange interaction. Neutral vacancies leave the exchange splitting unchanged. Since it is experimentally possible to switch reversibly between the two charge states of the vacancy, such a local electric manipulation of the magnetic dopants could result in an efficient real-time control of their exchange interaction.

  3. Evidence of exchange interaction of localized carriers and transition metals in diluted II-VI nanostructures : ODMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baranov, P. G.; Romanov, N. G.; Tolmachev, D. O.; Gurin, A. S.; Namozov, B. R.; Kusrayev, Yu G.; Karczewski, G.; Orlinskii, S.; De Mello Donega, C.; Schmidt, J.


    Optically detected magnetic resonance study of (CdMn)Te/(CdMg)Te quantum wells allowed to reveal the formation of exchange-coupled complexes consisting of Mn ions and localized holes in quantum wells with excess hole concentration and the directional electron tunneling towards wider wells in

  4. Exchange-correlation effects on quantum wires with spin-orbit interactions under the influence of in-plane magnetic fields (United States)

    Malet, Francesc; Pi, Martí; Barranco, Manuel; Serra, Llorenç; Lipparini, Enrico


    Within the noncollinear local spin-density approximation, we have studied the ground state structure of a parabolically confined quantum wire submitted to an in-plane magnetic field, including both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. We have explored a wide range of linear electronic densities in the weak (strong) coupling regimes that appear when the ratio of spin-orbit to confining energy is small (large). These results are used to obtain the conductance of the wire. In the strong coupling limit, the interplay between the applied magnetic field—irrespective of the in-plane direction, the exchange-correlation energy, and the spin-orbit energy—produces anomalous plateaus in the conductance vs linear density plots that are otherwise absent, or washes out plateaus that appear when the exchange-correlation energy is not taken into account.

  5. Use of ion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography in the preparation and recovery of polyethylene glycol-linked proteins. (United States)

    Seely, J E; Richey, C W


    Cation- and anion-exchange chromatography can be used to purify a polyethylene glycol-linked protein dimer (PEG dimer) made with M, 20 000 PEG bis-vinylsulfone, even when there are no net charge differences between the components that are being separated. The retention time on ion-exchange generally is inversely proportional to the PEG:protein ratio (on a mass basis). One of the biggest challenges in developing the process for making this PEG dimer was the quality of the PEG linker. Reversed-phase HPLC can be used to determine both size heterogeneity and the degree of end-group activation of Mr 20 000 PEG bis-vinylsulfone. In addition, we have found that hydrophobic interaction chromatography can be used make more size homogeneous preparations of Mr 20000 PEG bis-vinylsulfone, which significantly increased the recovery of the PEG dimer.

  6. The interaction between lipid exchange and thyroid status in the conditions of prolonged influence of small doses of radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Sokolenko


    Full Text Available We studied the interaction between the indicators of lipid exchange and thyroid status among the inhabitants of radiation contaminated territories under additional psycho-emotional load. We observed 170 students aged between 18–24 and divided them into a control group of students who were from areas unaffected by radiation (70 people and the main experimental group of students from territories of increased radio-ecological load (IV radiation zone, 100 people. We determined the content of thyrotropic hormone (TTH, triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxin (T4, total cholesterin (TC, triglycerides (TG, cholesterin of lipoproteins of high density (Ch-LPHD and cholesterin of lipoproteins of low density (Ch-LPLD. We found that people who had lived since birth in territories which were contaminated with radionuclides and were affected by prolonged influence of small doses of ionizing radiation had significant fluctuations of indicators of concentrations of TTH, T3 and T4, forming manifestations of hypothyroidism and hyperthyrosis among some of those tested. Independently from hyperthyrosis, the effect was accompanied by growth in the level of TH, TG, Ch-LPHD and Ch-LPLD. Persons with manifestations of hypothyroidism had the content of TH above the upper limit of the homeostatic norm and the level of Ch-LPLD was higher than the norm in sub-groups with features of hypo- and hyperthyrosis. All those tested from the main group showed a significant positive correlation connection between the level of TTH and levels of TH and Ch-LPLD. The subgroup with manifestations of hyperthyrosis had a positive correlation between the levels of TTH and TG, the subgroups with manifestations of euthyroidism and hyperthyrosis had a negative correlation between the levels of TTH and Ch-LPHD. The hyperthyrosis subgroup had a significant positive correlation connection between T3 and TH and Ch-LPLD. The euthyroidism and hypothyroidism subgroups had a significant negative correlation

  7. Using Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry to Define the Specific Interactions of the Phospholipase A2 Superfamily with Lipid Substrates, Inhibitors, and Membranes* (United States)

    Cao, Jian; Burke, John E.; Dennis, Edward A.


    The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) superfamily consists of 16 groups and many subgroups and constitutes a diverse set of enzymes that have a common catalytic activity due to convergent evolution. However, different PLA2 types have unique three-dimensional structures and catalytic residues as well as specific tissue localization and distinct biological functions. Understanding how the different PLA2 enzymes associate with phospholipid membranes, specific phospholipid substrate molecules, and inhibitors on a molecular basis has advanced in recent years due to the introduction of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. Its theory, practical considerations, and application to understanding PLA2/membrane interactions are addressed. PMID:23209293

  8. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Immunology and Graduate Program in Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Limjindaporn, Thawornchai [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn [Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University at Salaya Campus, Nakorn Pathom 73170 (Thailand); Noisakran, Sansanee [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai, E-mail: [Division of Medical Molecular Biology and BIOTEC-Medical Biotechnology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)


    Research highlights: {yields} Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. {yields} Adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. {yields} The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. {yields} AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. {yields} AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl{sup -}) and bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1

  9. Exchange bias properties of 140 nm-sized dipolarly interacting circular dots with ultrafine IrMn and NiFe layers (United States)

    Spizzo, F.; Tamisari, M.; Chinni, F.; Bonfiglioli, E.; Gerardino, A.; Barucca, G.; Bisero, D.; Fin, S.; Del Bianco, L.


    We studied the exchange bias effect in an array of IrMn(3 nm)/NiFe(3 nm) circular dots (size 140 nm and center-to-center distance 200 nm, as revealed by microscopy analyses), prepared on a large area (3×3 mm2) by electron beam lithography and lift-off, using dc sputtering deposition. Hysteresis loops were measured by SQUID magnetometer at increasing values of temperature T (in the 5-300 K range) after cooling from 300 K down to 5 K in zero field (ZFC mode) and in a saturating magnetic field (FC mode). The exchange bias effect disappears above T 200 K and, at each temperature, the exchange field HEX measured in ZFC is substantially lower than the FC one. Micromagnetic calculations indicate that, at room temperature, each dot is in high-remanence ground state, but magnetic dipolar interactions establish a low-remanence configuration of the array as a whole. Hence, at low temperature, following the ZFC procedure, the exchange anisotropy in the dot array is averaged out, tending to zero. However, even the FC values of HEX and of the coercivity HC are definitely smaller compared to those measured in a reference continuous film with the same stack configuration (at T=5 K, HEX 90 Oe and HC 180 Oe in the dots and HEX 1270 Oe and HC 860 Oe in the film). Our explanation is based on the proven glassy magnetic nature of the ultrathin IrMn layer, implying the existence of magnetic correlations among the spins, culminating in a collective freezing below T 100 K. We propose, also by the light of micromagnetic simulations, that the small dot size imposes a spatial constraint on the magnetic correlation length among the IrMn spins so that, even at the lowest temperature, their thermal stability, especially at the dot border, is compromised.

  10. Interaction of saddle girth construction and tension on respiratory mechanics and gas exchange during supramaximal treadmill exercise in horses. (United States)

    Bowers, J; Slocombe, R F; Sides, R H; Bayly, W M; Kingston, J K


    To determine the effect of girth construction and tension on respiratory mechanics and gas exchange during supramaximal treadmill exercise in horses. Six healthy detrained Thoroughbred horses were exercised on a treadmill inclined at 10% at 110% VO2max. Horses were instrumented for respiratory mechanics and gas exchange studies, and data were recorded during incremental exercise tests. The animals were exercised for 2 min at 40% VO2max, and samples and measurements were collected at 1 min 45 sec. After 2 min, speed was increased to that estimated at 110% VO2max and data was collected at 45 sec, 90 sec and every 30 sec thereafter at this speed until the horses fatigued. Horses were run on three occasions with the same racing saddle and saddle packing but using two different girths, either an elastic girth (EG) or a standard canvas girth (SCG) which is nonelastic. A run with 5 kg tension applied to a standard canvas girth was the control for each horse, with additional runs at 15 kg using either the standard canvas girth or using the elastic girth. The runs were randomised and tensions applied were measured at end exhalation whilst at rest. Increasing girth tension was not associated with changes in respiratory mechanical or gas exchange properties. Although girths tightened to 15 kg tension had short run to fatigue times this was not found to be significantly different to girths set at 5 kg resting tension. Girth tensions declined at end exhalation in horses nearing fatigue. Loss in performance associated with high girth tensions is not due to alteration of respiratory mechanics. Loss in performance may be related to inspiratory muscles working at suboptimal lengths due to thoracic compression or compression of musculature around the chest. However, these changes are not reflected in altered respiratory mechanical or gas exchange properties measured during tidal breathing during supramaximal exercise. Other factors may hasten the onset of fatigue when horses

  11. Orbitally induced hierarchy of exchange interactions in the zigzag antiferromagnetic state of honeycomb silver delafossite Ag3Co2SbO6. (United States)

    Zvereva, E A; Stratan, M I; Ushakov, A V; Nalbandyan, V B; Shukaev, I L; Silhanek, A V; Abdel-Hafiez, M; Streltsov, S V; Vasiliev, A N


    We report the revised crystal structure, static and dynamic magnetic properties of quasi-two dimensional honeycomb-lattice silver delafossite Ag3Co2SbO6. The magnetic susceptibility and specific heat data are consistent with the onset of antiferromagnetic long range order at low temperatures with Néel temperature TN ∼ 21.2 K. In addition, the magnetization curves revealed a field-induced (spin-flop type) transition below TN in moderate magnetic fields. The GGA+U calculations show the importance of the orbital degrees of freedom, which maintain a hierarchy of exchange interaction in the system. The strongest antiferromagnetic exchange coupling was found in the shortest Co-Co pairs and is due to direct and superexchange interaction between the half-filled xz + yz orbitals pointing directly to each other. The other four out of six nearest neighbor exchanges within the cobalt hexagon are suppressed, since for these bonds the active half-filled orbitals turned out to be parallel and do not overlap. The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra reveal a broad absorption line attributed to the Co(2+) ion in an octahedral coordination with an average effective g-factor g = 2.40 ± 0.05 at room temperature and show strong divergence of the ESR parameters below ∼150 K, which implies an extended region of short-range correlations. Based on the results of magnetic and thermodynamic studies in applied fields, we propose a magnetic phase diagram for the new honeycomb-lattice delafossite.

  12. The PDZ-interaction of the intestinal anion exchanger downregulated in adenoma (DRA; SLC26A3) facilitates its movement into Rab11a-positive recycling endosomes. (United States)

    Lissner, S; Hsieh, C-J; Nold, L; Bannert, K; Bodammer, P; Sultan, A; Seidler, U; Graeve, L; Lamprecht, G


    Electroneutral NaCl absorption in the ileum and colon is mediated by downregulated in adenoma (DRA) (Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻ exchanger; SLC26A3) and Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger 3 (NHE3, SLC9A3). Surface expression of transport proteins undergoes basal and regulated recycling by endo- and exocytosis. Expression and activity of DRA in the plasma membrane depend on intact lipid rafts, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), and the PDZ interaction of DRA. However, it is unknown how the PDZ interaction of DRA affects its trafficking to the cell surface. Therefore, the (re)cycling pathway of DRA was investigated in HEK cells stably expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-DRA or EGFP-DRA-ETKFminus (a mutant lacking the PDZ interaction motif). Early, late, and recycling endosomes were immunoisolated by precipitating stably transfected mCherry-hemagglutinin (HA)-Rab5a, -7a, or -11a. EGFP-DRA and EGFP-DRA-ETKFminus were equally present in early endosomes. In recycling endosomes, wild-type DRA was preferentially present, whereas, in late endosomes, DRA-ETKF-minus dominated. Correspondingly, EGFP-DRA colocalized with mCherry-HA-Rab11a in recycling endosomes, whereas EGFP-DRA-ETKFminus colocalized with mCherry-HA-Rab7a in late endosomes. Functionally, this different distribution was reflected by a shorter half-life of the mutant DRA. Transient expression of dominant-negative Rab11a(S25N) inhibited the activity (-17%, P recycling pathway. Taken together, the PDZ interaction of DRA facilitates its movement into Rab11a-positive recycling endosomes, from where it is inserted in the plasma membrane. A scenario emerges where specific PDZ adaptor proteins are present along several compartments of the endocytosis-recycling pathway.

  13. Single column comprehensive analysis of pharmaceutical preparations using dual-injection mixed-mode (ion-exchange and reversed-phase) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Taylor, Mark R; Haddad, Paul R; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett


    The comprehensive separation and detection of hydrophobic and hydrophilic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), their counter-ions (organic, inorganic) and excipients, using a single mixed-mode chromatographic column, and a dual injection approach is presented. Using a mixed-mode Thermo Fisher Acclaim Trinity P1 column, APIs, their counter-ions and possible degradants were first separated using a combination of anion-exchange, cation-exchange and hydrophobic interactions, using a mobile phase consisting of a dual organic modifier/salt concentration gradient. A complementary method was also developed using the same column for the separation of hydrophilic bulk excipients, using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) under high organic solvent mobile phase conditions. These two methods were then combined within a single gradient run using dual sample injection, with the first injection at the start of the applied gradient (mixed-mode retention of solutes), followed by a second sample injection at the end of the gradient (HILIC retention of solutes). Detection using both ultraviolet absorbance and refractive index enabled the sensitive detection of APIs and UV-absorbing counter-ions, together with quantitative determination of bulk excipients. The developed approach was applied successfully to the analysis of a dry powder inhalers (Flixotide(®), Spiriva(®)), enabling comprehensive quantification of all APIs and excipients in the sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Field scale interaction and nutrient exchange between surface water and shallow groundwater in the Baiyang Lake region, North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauns, Bentje; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Song, Xianfang


    in Hebei Province, China, was undertaken. The study showed a high influence of low-quality surface water on the shallow aquifer. Major inflowing pollutants into the aquifer were ammonium and nitrate via inflow from the adjacent Fu River (up to 29.8mg/L NH4-N and 6.8mg/L NO3-N), as well as nitrate via......Fertilizer input for agricultural food production, as well as the discharge of domestic and industrial water pollutants, increases pressures on locally scarce and vulnerable water resources in the North China Plain. In order to: (a) understand pollutant exchange between surface water...... threat to groundwater quality. Surface water quality improvements are therefore recommended in conjunction with simultaneous monitoring of nitrate in the aquifer, and reduced agricultural N-inputs should be considered....

  15. Barter exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    Although barter is often perceived as something that proceeded money, barter is still used. The focus of the paper is on barter exchanges. Barter exchanges are used both in developing countries as well as in developed countries (including the U.S.). They are used by both organizations...... and individuals. They usually allow to exchange good but some include also services. Some exchanges allow only for bi-directional barter, i.e. when only two parties are involved in the exchange. But probably most of the barter exchanges use barter money; this makes it easier to exchange goods and services...

  16. A novel surface-confined glucaminium-based ionic liquid stationary phase for hydrophilic interaction/anion-exchange mixed-mode chromatography. (United States)

    Qiao, Lizhen; Wang, Shuangyuan; Li, Hua; Shan, Yuanhong; Dou, Abo; Shi, Xianzhe; Xu, Guowang


    Glucaminium-based ionic liquids are a new class of recently developed ionic liquids and prepared by functionalizing the amine group of N-methyl-d-glucamine, which renders them good hydrophilicity due to the presence of the glucose structure and charged quaternary ammonium group. In the present study, a glucaminium-based ionic liquid N,N-diallyl-N-methyl-d-glucaminium bromide was synthesized and subsequently bonded to the surface of 3-mercaptopropyl modified silica materials through "thiol-ene" click chemistry. The obtained stationary phase was characterized by elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy, and then packed as a HPLC column. A mixture of five nucleosides was used to characterize the separation performance of the obtained column under HILIC mode and the column efficiency was determined with cytidine as the test solute, reaching 80,000plates/m. Then, the retention behavior was evaluated by investigating the effect of various chromatographic factors on retention of different types of solutes, and the results revealed that the developed surface-confined glucaminium-based ionic liquid stationary phase exhibited a hydrophilic interaction/anion-exchange mixed-mode retention mechanism. Finally, two mixtures of nucleotides and flavonoids were separated on the glucaminium-based ionic liquid column, respectively under hydrophilic interaction and hydrophilic interaction/anion-exchange mixed-mode chromatography. In conclusion, the multimodal retention capabilities of the glucaminium-based ionic liquid column could offer a wider range of retention behavior and flexible selectivity toward polar and hydrophilic compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Selectivity issues in targeted metabolomics: Separation of phosphorylated carbohydrate isomers by mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/weak anion exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Hinterwirth, Helmut; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Preinerstorfer, Beatrix; Gargano, Andrea; Reischl, Roland; Bicker, Wolfgang; Trapp, Oliver; Brecker, Lothar; Lindner, Wolfgang


    Phosphorylated carbohydrates are important intracellular metabolites and thus of prime interest in metabolomics research. Complications in their analysis arise from the existence of structural isomers that do have similar fragmentation patterns in MS/MS and are hard to resolve chromatographically. Herein, we present selective methods for the liquid chromatographic separation of sugar phosphates, such as hexose and pentose phosphates, 2- and 3-phosphoglycerate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, as well as glucosamine 1- and 6-phosphate utilizing mixed-mode chromatography with reversed-phase/weak anion-exchangers and a charged aerosol detector. The best results were obtained when the reversed-phase/weak anion-exchanger column was operated under hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography elution conditions. The effects of various chromatographic parameters were examined and are discussed on the basis of a simple stoichiometric displacement model for explaining ion-exchange processes. Employed acidic conditions have led to the complete separation of α- and β-anomers of glucose 6-phosphate at low temperature. The anomers coeluted in a single peak at elevated temperatures (>40°C) (peak coalescence), while at intermediate temperatures on-column interconversion with a plateau in-between resolved anomer peaks was observed with apparent reaction rate constants between 0.1 and 27.8×10(-4) s(-1). Dynamic HPLC under specified conditions enabled to investigate mutarotation of phosphorylated carbohydrates, their interconversion kinetics, and energy barriers for interconversion. A complex mixture of six hexose phosphate structural isomers could be resolved almost completely.

  18. Magnetic investigations of phase transitions, exchange interactions, and magnetic ground state in nanosheets of β-Co(OH)2 (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Seehra, Mohindar S.


    Detailed investigations of the magnetic properties of the layered system β-Co(OH)2 are presented. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy of the sample show it to consist of hexagonal nanosheets with thickness  ≈30 nm and width ~100 nm-200 nm. Analysis of its measured magnetization (M) as a function of temperature (T  =  2 K to 300 K) and magnetic field (H up to 90 kOe) yields a Neel temperature T N  =  9.2 K. This lower T N  =  9.2 K, compared to T N  =  11.6 K reported for bulk β-Co(OH)2, is due to finite-size effects. Analysis of the data for T  >  T N shows that the M versus T data does not quite fit the Curie-Weiss law since both the Curie constant C and Weiss temperature θ have noticeable temperature dependence. This temperature dependence is interpreted to be due to the effect of spin-orbit coupling, yielding a low-temperature effective spin S  =  1/2 ground state with magnetic moment µ  =  4.745 µ B and g  =  5.479. For T  calculated M S  =  163 emu g-1 for the complete alignment of the spins at T  =  0 K for the spin S  =  1/2 ground state with g  =  5.479. The fitting of the M versus T data for T  >  T N to the high temperature series for S  =  1/2 XY model yields the in-plane ferromagnetic exchange constant J 1/k B  =  (1.8  ±  0.2) K for Co2+ ions, with the interplane exchange constant J 2/k B  ≃  -0.2 K determined from the magnitude of T N. The temperature dependence of H C1 and H C2 is presented and discussed.

  19. Interactive effects between nitrogen fertilization and elevated CO2 on growth and gas exchange of papaya seedling (United States)

    Elevation of CO2 in the atmosphere will change requirements for minerals, mainly nitrogen, altering the relationship between nutrients demand and growth of the plants. We evaluated the interacting effects between CO2 concentrations (390 or 750 µL L-1) and nitrogen levels (3mM or 8mM) on the growth, ...

  20. Secondary interactions, an unexpected problem emerged between hydroxyl containing analytes and fused silica capillaries in anion-exchange micro-liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Castillo, A; Roig-Navarro, A F; Pozo, O J


    Relevant secondary interactions (hydrogen-bond type), additional to the main anion-exchange mechanism, were found when a method for As, Se and Cr speciation was developed based on microLC-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) coupling. In order to get the claimed analytical performance characteristics of the microbore columns, microLC systems are equipped with very narrow bore fused silica capillaries. When a mobile phase of NH(4)NO(3) at pH 8.7 was used, a notable tailing was observed for As(III), As(V), MMA and Se(IV), species containing hydroxyl groups in its chemical structure at this pH value. However, additional interactions appeared neither when the fused silica capillaries of the capillary LC system were substituted for polyetheretherketone (PEEK) nor operating at pH below 8.5. A mechanism to explain the additional interaction observed is proposed and tested in this work. It seems that high pH values produce a partial hydrolysis of the siloxane groups of the fused silica capillaries. Under these conditions, degradation products of silica, containing ionized silanol groups, reach the column and interact with the anion-exchange resin. Then, ionized silanol groups, retained on the column, can interact with the hydroxyl moiety of the aforementioned analytes leading to severe peak tailing and broadening. Different strategies were evaluated to solve the problem. The addition of a salt containing hydroxyl groups in the mobile phase such as hydrogen phosphate, the diminution of the pH and the use of PEEK capillaries in the microHPLC system demonstrated to be suitable. Finally, two alternative microHPLC-ICP-MS separations, based on a gradient elution of NH(4)NO(3) at pH 8.0 and NH(4)NO(3)/NH(4)H(2)PO(4) at pH 8.7, were optimized and compared. Results showed better peak shapes for some species when hydrogen phosphate was added to the mobile phase.

  1. Preparation of hydrophilic interaction/ion-exchange mixed-mode chromatographic stationary phase with adjustable selectivity by controlling different ratios of the co-monomers. (United States)

    Bo, Chunmiao; Wang, Xiaomeng; Wang, Chaozhan; Wei, Yinmao


    Development of mixed-mode chromatography (MMC) stationary phase with adjustable selectivity is beneficial to meet the needs of complex samples. In this work, surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) using the mixture of two functional monomers was proposed as a new preparation strategy for MMC stationary phase with adjustable selectivity. The mixture of sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (NASS) and dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) underwent SI-ATRP to bond poly(NASS-co-DMAEMA) on the surface of silica to prepare hydrophilic interaction/ion-exchange mixed-mode stationary phase. Various analytes (neutral, acidic, basic analytes and strong polar nucleosides) were employed to investigate the retention behaviors. The influences of water content and pH of the mobile phase on the retention validated the mixed-mode retention mechanisms of HILIC and ion-exchange. The charge and polarity of stationary phase as well as the separation selectivity were conveniently manipulated by the ratio of NASS to DMAEMA monomer, and the use of DMAEMA in the mixture additionally endowed the column with the temperature-responsive characteristics. Moreover, the application of the developed column was demonstrated by the successful separation of nucleosides, β-agonists and safflower injection. In a word, the proposed strategy can be potentially applied in the controllable preparation of MMC stationary phase with adjustable selectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Driving factors of interactions between the exchange rate market and the commodity market: A wavelet-based complex network perspective (United States)

    Wen, Shaobo; An, Haizhong; Chen, Zhihua; Liu, Xueyong


    In traditional econometrics, a time series must be in a stationary sequence. However, it usually shows time-varying fluctuations, and it remains a challenge to execute a multiscale analysis of the data and discover the topological characteristics of conduction in different scales. Wavelet analysis and complex networks in physical statistics have special advantages in solving these problems. We select the exchange rate variable from the Chinese market and the commodity price index variable from the world market as the time series of our study. We explore the driving factors behind the behavior of the two markets and their topological characteristics in three steps. First, we use the Kalman filter to find the optimal estimation of the relationship between the two markets. Second, wavelet analysis is used to extract the scales of the relationship that are driven by different frequency wavelets. Meanwhile, we search for the actual economic variables corresponding to different frequency wavelets. Finally, a complex network is used to search for the transfer characteristics of the combination of states driven by different frequency wavelets. The results show that statistical physics have a unique advantage over traditional econometrics. The Chinese market has time-varying impacts on the world market: it has greater influence when the world economy is stable and less influence in times of turmoil. The process of forming the state combination is random. Transitions between state combinations have a clustering feature. Based on these characteristics, we can effectively reduce the information burden on investors and correctly respond to the government's policy mix.

  3. The role of magnetic interactions in exchange bias properties of MnFe2O4@γ-Fe2O3 core/shell nanoparticles (United States)

    Silva, F. G.; Aquino, R.; Tourinho, F. A.; Stepanov, V. I.; Raikher, Yu L.; Perzynski, R.; Depeyrot, J.


    Low-temperature magnetic properties of assemblies of 3.3 nm sized nanoparticles (NPs) based on a MnFe2O4 core protected by a maghemite shell are investigated. These NPs are obtained by a chemical core/shell method developed for the synthesis of the electrostatically stabilized ferrofluid colloidal dispersions that we probe here. They are model systems where the interparticle interaction is tuned by the NP volume fractions, ranging here between 0.4% and 13.9%. It has been shown that these NPs consist of a well-ordered ferrimagnetic core surrounded by a disordered spin glass-like surface layer and that they display uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. We compare the magnetic hysteresis loops of non-textured frozen dispersions (with magnetic anisotropy axis of NPs distributed at random) with those of a powder based on the same NPs. After cooling under field the hysteresis loops shift along the H axis, expressing the coupling between the spin-ordered cores and the disordered surface layers. The negative H-shift provides an evaluation for the exchange bias (EB) field. The EB field is optimum for a cooling field of the order of the anisotropy field. A comparison between frozen dispersions and disordered powder allows us to distinguish the influence of intra- and interparticle interactions on the EB. Interparticle collective effects dominate in the powder while an intraparticle EB, eventually hindered by dipolar interactions at large volume fraction, is observed in frozen dispersions.

  4. Leader-member exchange and work-family interactions: the mediating role of self-reported challenge- and hindrance-related stress. (United States)

    Culbertson, Satoris S; Huffman, Ann H; Alden-Anderson, Rachel


    The authors examined the relations among 4 components of the leader-member exchange (LMX) relationship (i.e., contribution, affect, loyalty, and professional respect) and the level of work-family conflict and work-family facilitation that an employee experiences. Further, the authors examined the mediating role of challenge- and hindrance-related self-reported stress on relations. In doing this, the authors linked positive and negative aspects of LMX, stressors, work-family conflict, and work-family facilitation. Data from a sample of full-time employed individuals support some hypothesized relations between components of LMX and work-family interactions. Also, results support the mediating role of hindrance-related stress in the relation between (a) the affect and loyalty components of LMX and (b) work-family conflict. The authors discuss the implications and limitations of their findings.

  5. The crystal field and exchange interactions in NdNi{sub 5}, UGa{sub 2} and UPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwanski, R.J. [Pedagogical Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. for Phys. and Inf.]|[Centre for Solid State Physics, Sw. Filip 5, 31-150 Krakow (Poland); Kim-Ngan, N.H. [Centre for Solid State Physics, Sw. Filip 5, 31-150 Krakow (Poland)


    Magnetic and electronic properties of the hexagonal NdNi{sub 5}, UGa{sub 2} and UPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3} have been reviewed within a crystalline electric field approach in combination with exchange interactions. The fine electronic structure in these compounds associated with the Nd{sup 3+} and U{sup 3+} ions have been derived. The Nd{sup 3+} and U{sup 3+} ions, as Kramers f {sup 3} systems, have the Kramers doublet ground state. In all compounds the Kramers doublet {Gamma}{sub 8} is the charge-formed ground state. The calculations reproduce all known experimental observations, in particular the observed ordered magnetic moment and Curie or Neel temperature. ((orig.))

  6. All-electron exact exchange treatment of semiconductors: effect of core-valence interaction on band-gap and d-band position. (United States)

    Sharma, S; Dewhurst, J K; Ambrosch-Draxl, C


    We present the first all-electron full-potential exact exchange (EXX) Kohn-Sham density functional calculations on a range of semiconductors and insulators (Ge, GaAs, CdS, Si, ZnS, C, BN, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe). We remove one of the main computational obstacles of such calculations by the use of a highly efficient basis for inversion of the response function. We find that the band gaps are not as close to experiment as those obtained from previous pseudopotential EXX calculations. The locations of d bands, determined using the full-potential EXX method, are in excellent agreement with experiment, irrespective of whether these are core, semicore, or valence states. We conclude that the inclusion of the core-valence interaction is necessary for accurate determination of EXX Kohn-Sham band structures and that EXX alone is not a complete answer to the band-gap problem in semiconductors.

  7. Recovery of infective virus particles in ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction monolith chromatography is influenced by particle charge and total-to-infective particle ratio. (United States)

    Sviben, Dora; Forcic, Dubravko; Ivancic-Jelecki, Jelena; Halassy, Beata; Brgles, Marija


    Viral particles are used in medical applications as vaccines or gene therapy vectors. In order to obtain product of high purity, potency and safety for medical use purification of virus particles is a prerequisite, and chromatography is gaining increased attention to meet this aim. Here, we report on the use of ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography on monolithic columns for purification of mumps virus (MuV) and measles virus (MeV). Efficiency of the process was monitored by quantification of infective virus particles (by 50% cell culture infective dose assay) and total virus particles, and monitoring of their size (by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis). Ion-exchange chromatography was shown to be inefficient for MuV and best results for MeV were obtained on QA column with recovery around 17%. Purification of MuV and MeV by hydrophobic interaction chromatography resulted in recoveries around 60%. Results showed that columns with small channels (d=1.4μm) are not suitable for MuV and MeV, although their size is below 400nm, whereas columns with large channels (6μm) showed to be efficient and recoveries independent on the flow rate up to 10mL/min. Heterogeneity of the virus suspension and its interday variability mostly regarding total-to-infective particle ratio was observed. Interestingly, a trend in recovery depending on the day of the harvest was also observed for both viruses, and it correlated with the total-to-infective particle ratio, indicating influence of the virus sample composition on the chromatography results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Models of the interactive effects of rising ozone, carbon dioxide and temperature on canopy carbon dioxide exchange and isoprene emission (United States)

    Martin, M. J.

    This thesis presents new process-based models to predict the response of vegetation to interactive effects of concurrently changing environmental variables. The combination of new process-based models with the biochemical mechanistic model equations of photosynthesis and simple canopy models, allow the prediction of responses of isoprene emission rates, wheat leaf CO2 assimilation, and wheat productivity to various scenarios of climate and atmospheric change, consistent with changes predicted by the 'business as usual' scenario, IS92a. Isoprene, a biogenic hydrocarbon emitted by many tree species, plays a key role in atmospheric chemistry and is a major precursor to phytotoxic ozone. As isoprene emission is highly temperature sensitive, the findings of the most recent research into isoprene synthesis and emission were used to construct a process-based model, to simulate the effects of environmental change on rates of isoprene emission from leaves. This model was subsequently scaled up to the canopy level, using a simple sunlit/shaded canopy model, and leaf energy budget equations. A second new process-based model, based on published data, was constructed to simulate the effects of acute ozone exposure on wheat leaf photosynthesis, and was also subsequently scaled up to the canopy level. In addition, the model of acute ozone effects was adapted to predict the effects of chronic ozone exposure on wheat photosynthesis, and scaled-up to predict the interactive effects of elevated (CO2] and (O3] on wheat productivity. Predictions are presented and discussed. The research illustrates the need for process-based models to predict the interactive effects of concurrently changing environmental factors on vegetation, in order to quantify the feedback effects under future atmospheric and climate conditions.

  9. Dynamical Reduction of the Dimensionality of Exchange Interactions and the "Spin-Liquid" Phase of κ -(BEDT -TTF )2X (United States)

    Powell, B. J.; Kenny, E. P.; Merino, J.


    We show that the anisotropy of the effective spin model for the dimer Mott insulator phase of κ -(BEDT -TTF )2X salts is dramatically different from that of the underlying tight-binding model. Intradimer quantum interference results in a model of coupled spin chains, where frustrated interchain interactions suppress long-range magnetic order. Thus, we argue, the "spin liquid" phase observed in some of these materials is a remnant of the Tomonaga-Luttinger physics of a single chain. This is consistent with previous experiments and resolves some outstanding puzzles.

  10. Mineral nutrition and elevated [CO(2)] interact to modify δ(13)C, an index of gas exchange, in Norway spruce. (United States)

    Marshall, John D; Linder, Sune


    The effects of the past century's increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) have been recorded in the stable carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) of the annual growth rings of trees. The isotope record frequently shows increases in photosynthetic CO2 uptake relative to stomatal conductance, which estimates the CO2 concentration gradient across the stomata (ca - ci). This variable, which is one control over the net photosynthetic rate, has been suggested as a homeostatic gas-exchange set point that is easy to estimate from δ(13)C and [CO2]. However, in high-latitude conifer forests, the literature is mixed; some studies show increases in (ca - ci) and others show homeostasis. Here we present leaf and tree-ring δ(13)C data from a controlled experiment that tested factorial combinations of elevated [CO2] (365 and 700 ∝mol mol(-1)) and fertilization on mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees in northern Sweden. We found first that the leaf carbon pool was contaminated by the current photosynthate in the older leaf cohorts. This is the reverse of the common observation that older photosynthate reserves can be used to produce new tissue; here the older tissue contains recent photosynthate. We found that the tree-ring data lack such contamination and in any case they better integrate over the canopy and the growing season than do leaves. In the second and third years of treatment, elevated [CO2] alone increased (ca - ci) by 38%; when combined with fertilization, it increased (ca - ci) by 60%. The results of this study support the idea that annual rings provide a clearer isotopic signal than do foliage age-classes. The tree-ring data show that inferred (ca - ci) depends not only on [CO2], but also on mineral-nutrient status. The differences in (ca - ci) are sufficiently large to account for the treatment-induced increase in wood-volume production in these stands.

  11. Ternary water in oil microemulsions made of cationic surfactants, water, and aromatic solvents. 2. Droplet sizes and interactions and exchange of material between droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jada, A.; Lang, J.; Zana, R. (CNRS-ULP, Strasbourg (France)); Makhloufi, R.; Hirsch, E.; Candau, S.J. (Laboratoire de Spectrometrie et d' Imagerie Ultrasonores, Strasbourg (France))


    Ternary water in oil microemulsions made of cationic surfactants, water, and aromatic solvents have been investigated by means of time-resolved fluorescence quenching, quasi-elastic light scattering, and electrical conductivity in order to determine the surfactant aggregation number N per water droplet, the rate constant k{sub e} for the exchange of material between droplets through collisions with temporary merging, the droplet diffusion coefficient D, and the coefficient of interaction between droplets {alpha} and to study the occurrence of electrical percolation as a function of the surfactant chain length, head-group size, and water content of system (expressed as the molar concentration ratio {omega} = (water)/(surfactant)). Most measurements were performed with chlorobenzene as solvent. In one instance, chlorobenzene was substituted by benzene in order to investigate the effect of the nature of the solvent. For a given surfactant, N and k{sub e} increased with {omega} and upon substituting chlorobenzene by benzene. Also, at a given {omega}, N and k{sub e} increased when the surfactant chain length was decreased. The increases of k{sub e} were always extremely large. The droplet hydrodynamic radii from quasi-elastic light scattering were found to agree with the droplet sizes calculated with the N values from fluorescence quenching. The droplet interaction coefficient {alpha} became more negative as the surfactant chain length decreased, indicating increasingly attractive interdroplet interactions. Finally, electrical percolation was found to occur in all systems where interdroplet interactions were sufficiently attractive. The percolation threshold {omega}-values increased with surfactant chain length.

  12. Magnetic properties of layered complexes [M(hfac){sub 2}]{sub 3}(R){sub 2}, M=Mn(II) and Cu(II), with trisnitroxide radicals having various metal-radical exchange interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Motoko; Hosokoshi, Yuko; Inoue, Katsuya [Applied Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Nishigonaka, Myodaiji, Okazaki (Japan); Markosyan, Ashot S. [Applied Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Nishigonaka, Myodaiji, Okazaki (Japan); Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail:; Iwamura, Hizu [Department of General Science, University of Air. Wakaba, Mihama, Chiba (Japan)


    A series of new layered 2D-network complexes [M(hfac){sub 2}]{sub 3}(R{sub {delta}}){sub 2} of M=Mn(II) and Cu(II) with trisnitroxide radicals R{sub {delta}} has been prepared and the magnetic properties were studied. Each triradical R{sub {delta}} has a quartet ground state and contributes not only to the formation of extended structures but essentially to the overall magnetism. Several exchange interactions, between M and nitroxide and intraradical nitroxide-nitroxide interactions, are responsible for the development of the characteristic magnetic properties in these heterospin systems. Depending on the nature of the interlayer interactions, they show either ferro/ferrimagnetic or antiferromagnetic long range order. The hierarchy of the different exchange interactions is established and the Mn-nitroxide and Cu-nitroxide exchange integrals are evaluated from the analysis of the temperature dependence of the paramagnetic susceptibility. With increasing intraradical exchange interaction, the complexes exhibit more pronounced 2D behaviour. (author)

  13. Competing Noncovalent Host-guest Interactions and H/D Exchange: Reactions of Benzyloxycarbonyl-Proline Glycine Dipeptide Variants with ND3 (United States)

    Miladi, Mahsan; Olaitan, Abayomi D.; Zekavat, Behrooz; Solouki, Touradj


    A combination of density functional theory calculations, hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) reactions, ion mobility-mass spectrometry, and isotope labeling tandem mass spectrometry was used to study gas-phase "host-guest" type interactions of a benzyloxycarbonyl (Z)-capped proline (P) glycine (G) model dipeptide (i.e., Z-PG) and its various structural analogues with ND3. It is shown that in a solvent-free environment, structural differences between protonated and alkali metal ion (Na+, K+, or Cs+)-complexed species of Z-PG affect ND3 adduct formation. Specifically, [Z-PG + H]+ and [Z-PG-OCH3 + H]+ formed gas-phase ND3 adducts ([Z-PG (or Z-PG-OCH3) + H + ND3]+) but no ND3 adducts were observed for [Z-PG + alkali metal]+ or [Z-PG + H - CO2]+. Experimentally measured and theoretically calculated collision cross sections (CCSs) of protonated and alkali metal ion-complexed Z-PG species showed similar trends that agreed with the observed structural differences from molecular modeling results. Moreover, results from theoretical ND3 affinity calculations were consistent with experimental HDX observations, indicating a more stable ND3 adduct for [Z-PG + H]+ compared to [Z-PG + alkali metal]+ species. Molecular modeling and experimental MS results for [Z-PG + H]+ and [Z-PG + alkali metal]+ suggest that optimized cation-π and hydrogen bonding interactions of carbonyl groups in final products are important for ND3 adduct formation.

  14. Anion exchange membrane (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus


    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  15. An exchange-Coulomb model potential energy surface for the Ne-CO interaction. II. Molecular beam scattering and bulk gas phenomena in Ne-CO mixtures. (United States)

    Dham, Ashok K; McBane, George C; McCourt, Frederick R W; Meath, William J


    Four potential energy surfaces are of current interest for the Ne-CO interaction. Two are high-level fully ab initio surfaces obtained a decade ago using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory and supermolecule coupled-cluster methods. The other two are very recent exchange-Coulomb (XC) model potential energy surfaces constructed by using ab initio Heitler-London interaction energies and literature long range dispersion and induction energies, followed by the determination of a small number of adjustable parameters to reproduce a selected subset of pure rotational transition frequencies for the (20)Ne-(12)C(16)O van der Waals cluster. Testing of the four potential energy surfaces against a wide range of available experimental microwave, millimeter-wave, and mid-infrared Ne-CO transition frequencies indicated that the XC potential energy surfaces gave results that were generally far superior to the earlier fully ab initio surfaces. In this paper, two XC model surfaces and the two fully ab initio surfaces are tested for their abilities to reproduce experiment for a wide range of nonspectroscopic Ne-CO gas mixture properties. The properties considered here are relative integral cross sections and the angle dependence of rotational state-to-state differential cross sections, rotational relaxation rate constants for CO(v=2) in Ne-CO mixtures at T=296 K, pressure broadening of two pure rotational lines and of the rovibrational lines in the CO fundamental and first overtone transitions at 300 K, and the temperature and, where appropriate, mole fraction dependencies of the interaction second virial coefficient, the binary diffusion coefficient, the interaction viscosity, the mixture shear viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients, and the thermal diffusion factor. The XC model potential energy surfaces give results that lie within or very nearly within the experimental uncertainties for all properties considered, while the coupled-cluster ab initio surface gives

  16. A credo for a spy magnetic exchange interactions in Gd\\/sub x\\/Y\\/sub 1-x\\/Ba\\/sub 2\\/Cu\\/sub 3\\/O\\/sub 7-D\\/ superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Giurgiu, L V


    The magnetic exchange interactions between Gd-spins and the coupling of Gd-spins to the conduction electron spin system as evidenced by ESR in the normal state of Gd/sub x/Y/sub 1-x/Ba/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7- delta / oriented $9 powders are discussed. (4 refs).

  17. Preparation of a novel weak cation exchange/hydrophobic interaction chromatography dual-function polymer-based stationary phase for protein separation using "thiol-ene click chemistry". (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Bai, Quan; Zhao, Kailou; Gao, Dong; Tian, Lei


    A novel dual-function mixed-mode stationary phase based on poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) microspheres was synthesized by thiol-ene click chemistry and characterized by infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The new system displays both hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) character in a high salt concentration mobile phase, and weak cation exchange (WCX) chromatography character in a low salt concentration mobile phase. It can be used to separate proteins in both ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) mode and HIC mode. The resolution and selectivity of the stationary phase were evaluated in both HIC mode and IEC mode using protein standards. In comparison with the conventional WCX and HIC columns, the results were satisfactory and acceptable. Protein mass and bioactivity recoveries of more than 96% can be achieved in both HIC mode and IEC mode using this column. The results indicate that the novel dual-function mixed-mode column in many cases can replace the use of two individual WCX and HIC columns. In addition, the effects on protein separation of different ligand structures in the dual-function stationary phase and the pH of the mobile phase used were also investigated in detail. The results show that electrostatic interaction of the ligand with proteins must match the hydrophobicity of the ligand, which is an important factor to prepare the dual-function stationary phase. On the basis of this dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column, a new two-dimensional liquid chromatography technology with a single column system was also developed in this study, and was used to renature and purify recombinant human interferon-γ from inclusion bodies. The mass recovery, purity, and specific bioactivity obtained for the purified recombinant human interferon-γ were 87.2%, 92.4%, and 2.8 × 10(7) IU/mg, respectively, in IEC mode, and 83.4%, 95.2%, and 4.3 × 10(7) IU/mg, respectively, in HIC mode. The results indicate that the

  18. Competing exchange interactions and magnetic anisotropy of La{sub 1−x}Tb{sub x}Mn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimov, E.G., E-mail: [Institute of Metal Physics UB RAS, S. Kovalevskaya str., 18, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Mushnikov, N.V.; Terentev, P.B.; Yazovskikh, K.A.; Titov, I.S.; Gaviko, V.S. [Institute of Metal Physics UB RAS, S. Kovalevskaya str., 18, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Umetsu, Rie Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)


    Crystal structure, magnetization and magnetic susceptibility have been studied for the La{sub 1−x}Tb{sub x}Mn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} (0≤x≤1) polycrystalline and quasi-single crystalline samples. It has been shown that, at low temperature T =4.2 K, substitution of the terbium for lanthanum leads to recurred change of the type of interlayer Mn-Mn magnetic ordering. For the compounds with x<0.2 ≈ x{sub c1} the manganese magnetic moments of adjacent layers are ordered ferromagnetically, in the concentration range 0.2x{sub c2} the Mn sublattice is again ferromagnetically ordered and, due to the negative Tb–Mn interaction, ferrimagnetic structure is formed. Using the magnetization data, the concentration magnetic phase diagram has been suggested. The observed variation of the type of magnetic ordering has been explained in terms of the change of interatomic Mn-Mn distances and a competition of the Tb–Mn, Mn–Mn and Tb–Tb interlayer exchange interactions. - Highlights: • Crystal structure and magnetic properties have been studied for the polycrystalline and quasi-single crystalline samples. • Substitution of the terbium for lanthanum leads to recurred change of the type of interlayer Mn–Mn magnetic ordering. • The compounds have high magnetic anisotropy, the tetragonal c-axis being the easy magnetization direction. • The magnetic x-T phase diagram includes five different magnetically ordered states.

  19. Online coupling of hydrophilic interaction/strong cation exchange/reversed-phase liquid chromatography with porous graphitic carbon liquid chromatography for simultaneous proteomics and N-glycomics analysis. (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Law, Henry C H; Zhang, Zaijun; Lam, Herman C; Quan, Quan; Li, Guohui; Chu, Ivan K


    In this study we developed a fully automated three-dimensional (3D) liquid chromatography methodology-comprising hydrophilic interaction separation as the first dimension, strong cation exchange fractionation as the second dimension, and low-pH reversed-phase (RP) separation as the third dimension-in conjunction downstream with additional complementary porous graphitic carbon separation, to capture non-retained hydrophilic analytes, for both shotgun proteomics and N-glycomics analyses. The performance of the 3D system alone was benchmarked through the analysis of the total lysate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, leading to improved hydrophilic peptide coverage, from which we identified 19% and 24% more proteins and peptides, respectively, relative to those identified from a two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and low-pH RP chromatography (HILIC-RP) system over the same mass spectrometric acquisition time; consequently, the 3D platform also provided enhanced proteome and protein coverage. When we applied the integrated technology to analyses of the total lysate of primary cerebellar granule neurons, we characterized a total of 2201 proteins and 16,937 unique peptides for this primary cell line, providing one of its most comprehensive datasets. Our new integrated technology also exhibited excellent performance in the first N-glycomics analysis of cynomolgus monkey plasma; we successfully identified 122 proposed N-glycans and 135 N-glycosylation sites from 122 N-glycoproteins, and confirmed the presence of 38 N-glycolylneuraminic acid-containing N-glycans, a rare occurrence in human plasma, through tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The ouabain-sensitive isoform of Na+-pump regulates vascular gap junctions via interaction with the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger in membrane microdomain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Nilsson, Holger; Aalkjær, Christian

    Ouabain, an inhibitor of the Na+-pump, has been shown to inhibit intercellular communication. We have recently shown that gap junctions between vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are regulated through an interaction between a ouabain-sensitive isoform of the Na+-pump and the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger...... leading to increases in [Ca2+]i in discrete areas near the plasma membrane. This suggests close association of these transport proteins in microdomains. Using PCR and co-immunoprecipitation we aimed to test this hypothesis in SMCs from mesenteric small arteries and in A7r5 cell line. Intercellular...... the uncoupling. Ten mM ouabain evoked spatially restricted [Ca2+]i transients along the cell periphery but not in the center of the cell. mRNA for all three isoforms of the Na+-pump α subunit were found in SMCs but only ouabain-sensitive α2 subunit was specifically co-immunoprecipitated with the Na+/Ca2...

  1. Effect of Coulomb interactions and Hartree-Fock exchange on structural, elastic, optoelectronic and magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}MnSi Heusler: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantri, T. [Laboratory of Technology and Solid’s Properties, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, BP 227, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria); Bentata, S., E-mail: [Laboratory of Technology and Solid’s Properties, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, BP 227, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria); Bouadjemi, B.; Benstaali, W. [Laboratory of Technology and Solid’s Properties, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, BP 227, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria); Bouhafs, B. [Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science Laboratory, Djillali Liabès University of Sidi Bel-Abbès, 22000 Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Abbad, A. [Laboratory of Technology and Solid’s Properties, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, BP 227, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria); Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science Laboratory, Djillali Liabès University of Sidi Bel-Abbès, 22000 Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Zitouni, A. [Laboratory of Technology and Solid’s Properties, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Abdelhamid Ibn Badis University, BP 227, Mostaganem 27000 (Algeria)


    Using the first-principle calculations, we have investigated the structural, elastic, optoelectronic and magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}MnSi Heusler alloy. Based on the density functional theory (DFT) and hiring the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method, we have used five approaches: the Hybrid on-site exact exchange, the Local Spin Density Approximation (LSDA), the LSDA+U, the Generalized Gradient Approximation GGA and GGA+U; where the Hubbard on-site Coulomb interaction correction U is calculated by constraint local density approximation for Co and Mn atoms. Our results show that the highly-ordered Co{sub 2}MnSi alloy is a ductile, stiff and anisotropic material. It has a half-metallic ferromagnetic character with an integer magnetic moment of 5 µB which is in good agreement with the Slater-Pauling rule. - Highlights: • Each approach gives a half magnetic compound. • EECE gives the largest gap. • Elastic properties show a stiff, ductile and anisotropic material. • Electronic properties are similar for the five approaches. • Total magnetic moment is the same for the five approaches (5 µB).

  2. Comparison of Enrichment Methods for Intact N- and O-Linked Glycopeptides Using Strong Anion Exchange and Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography. (United States)

    Yang, Weiming; Shah, Punit; Hu, Yingwei; Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Sun, Shisheng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hui


    Heterogeneity of protein glycosylation poses great challenges for analysis that is key to understand structure and function of glycoproteins. Resolving this conundrum requires efficient and specific enrichment of intact glycopeptides for identification and quantitation. To this end, hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) has been commonly used to enrich intact N- and O-linked glycopeptides. However, its effectiveness to enrich isobarically labeled glycopeptides remains unclear. Here, we studied three different enrichment methods for enrichment of N- and O-linked glycopeptides. It was found that removal of N-glycans prior to enrichment of O-linked glycopeptides by HILIC improved identification of O-linked glycopeptides by mass spectrometry. We also compared the enrichment of intact N- and O-linked glycopeptides using other chromatography methods and found that using cartridges containing materials for strong anion exchange (SAX) chromatography increased yield and identification of N- and O-linked glycopeptides. The enrichment of O-linked glycopeptides was further improved when a Retain AX cartridge (RAX) was used. In particular, isobaric tag labeled glycopeptides after C18 desalting could be readily enriched by SAX and RAX cartridges but not by HILIC to enable quantitative glycoproteomics. It is anticipated that the use of SAX and RAX cartridges will facilitate broad applications of identifications and quantitation of glycoproteins.

  3. Three dimensional liquid chromatography coupling ion exchange chromatography/hydrophobic interaction chromatography/reverse phase chromatography for effective protein separation in top-down proteomics. (United States)

    Valeja, Santosh G; Xiu, Lichen; Gregorich, Zachery R; Guner, Huseyin; Jin, Song; Ge, Ying


    To address the complexity of the proteome in mass spectrometry (MS)-based top-down proteomics, multidimensional liquid chromatography (MDLC) strategies that can effectively separate proteins with high resolution and automation are highly desirable. Although various MDLC methods that can effectively separate peptides from protein digests exist, very few MDLC strategies, primarily consisting of 2DLC, are available for intact protein separation, which is insufficient to address the complexity of the proteome. We recently demonstrated that hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) utilizing a MS-compatible salt can provide high resolution separation of intact proteins for top-down proteomics. Herein, we have developed a novel 3DLC strategy by coupling HIC with ion exchange chromatography (IEC) and reverse phase chromatography (RPC) for intact protein separation. We demonstrated that a 3D (IEC-HIC-RPC) approach greatly outperformed the conventional 2D IEC-RPC approach. For the same IEC fraction (out of 35 fractions) from a crude HEK 293 cell lysate, a total of 640 proteins were identified in the 3D approach (corresponding to 201 nonredundant proteins) as compared to 47 in the 2D approach, whereas simply prolonging the gradients in RPC in the 2D approach only led to minimal improvement in protein separation and identifications. Therefore, this novel 3DLC method has great potential for effective separation of intact proteins to achieve deep proteome coverage in top-down proteomics.

  4. Inner-shell spectroscopy and exchange interaction of Rydberg electrons bound by singly and doubly charged Kr and Xe atoms in small clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaka, Masanari; Hatsui, Takaki; Setoyama, Hiroyuki; Ruehl, Eckart [Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Kosugi, Nobuhiro, E-mail: [Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)


    Surface-site resolved Kr 3d{sub 5/2}{sup -1}5p and 3d{sub 5/2}{sup -1}6p and Xe 4d{sub 5/2}{sup -1}6p and 4d{sub 5/2}{sup -1}7p Rydberg excited states in small van der Waals Kr and Xe clusters with a mean size of = 15 are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, surface-site resolved Kr 4s{sup -2}5p, 4s{sup -2}6p, and 4s{sup -1}4p{sup -1}5p shakeup-like Rydberg states in small Kr clusters are investigated by resonant Auger electron spectroscopy. The exchange interaction of the Rydberg electron with the surrounding atoms and the induced polarization of the surrounding atoms in the singly and doubly ionized atoms are deduced from the experimental spectra to analyze different surface-site contributions in small clusters, assuming that the corner, edge, face, and bulk sites have 3, 5-6, 8, and 12 nearest neighbor atoms. These energies are almost proportional to the number of the nearest neighbor atoms. The present analysis indicates that small Kr and Xe clusters with = 15 have an average or mixture structure between the fcc-like cubic and icosahedron-like spherical structures.

  5. ‘Borderless’ Southeast Asia historiography: New scholarship on the interactions and exchanges between Southeast Asia and its South Asian and Chinese neighbours in the pre-1500 era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Hall


    Full Text Available Review of:Nola Cooke, Li Tana and James A. Anderson (eds, The Tongking Gulf through history. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011, x + 223 pp. [Encounters with Asia Series.] ISBN 9780812243369. Price: USD 59.95 (hardback.Derek Heng, Sino-Malay trade and diplomacy from the tenth through the fourteenth century. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2009, xiii + 286 pp. [Research in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series 121.] ISBN 9780896802711. Price: USD 28.00 (paperback.Hermann Kulke, K. Kesavapany and Vijay Sakhuja (eds, Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa: Reflections on the Chola naval expeditions to Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2009, xxv + 337 pp. [Nalanda-Sriwijaya Series.] ISBN 9789812509365, price: USD 39.90 (hardback; 9789812309372, USD 59.90 (paperback.Pierre-Yves Manguin, A. Mani and Geoff Wade (eds, Early interactions between South and Southeast Asia: Reflections on cross-cultural exchange. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011, xxxi + 514 pp. [Nalanda-Sriwijaya Series.] ISBN 9789814345101, price USD 49.90 (paperback; 9789814311168, USD 59.90 (hardback. [India Hardcover Edition co-published with Manohar Publishers and Distributors, India.]Geoff Wade and Sun Laichen (eds, Southeast Asia in the fifteenth century: The China factor. Singapore: NUS Press; Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010, xii + 508 pp. ISBN 9789971694487. Price: USD 32.00.

  6. High-Resolution Coarse-Grained Model of Hydrated Anion-Exchange Membranes that Accounts for Hydrophobic and Ionic Interactions through Short-Ranged Potentials. (United States)

    Lu, Jibao; Jacobson, Liam C; Perez Sirkin, Yamila A; Molinero, Valeria


    Molecular simulations provide a versatile tool to study the structure, anion conductivity, and stability of anion-exchange membrane (AEM) materials and can provide a fundamental understanding of the relation between structure and property of membranes that is key for their use in fuel cells and other applications. The quest for large spatial and temporal scales required to model the multiscale structure and transport processes in the polymer electrolyte membranes, however, cannot be met with fully atomistic models, and the available coarse-grained (CG) models suffer from several challenges associated with their low-resolution. Here, we develop a high-resolution CG force field for hydrated polyphenylene oxide/trimethylamine chloride (PPO/TMACl) membranes compatible with the mW water model using a hierarchical parametrization approach based on Uncertainty Quantification and reference atomistic simulations modeled with the Generalized Amber Force Field (GAFF) and TIP4P/2005 water. The parametrization weighs multiple properties, including coordination numbers, radial distribution functions (RDFs), self-diffusion coefficients of water and ions, relative vapor pressure of water in the solution, hydration enthalpy of the tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl) salt, and cohesive energy of its aqueous solutions. We analyze the interdependence between properties and address how to compromise between the accuracies of the properties to achieve an overall best representability. Our optimized CG model FFcomp quantitatively reproduces the diffusivities and RDFs of the reference atomistic model and qualitatively reproduces the experimental relative vapor pressure of water in solutions of tetramethylammonium chloride. These properties are of utmost relevance for the design and operation of fuel cell membranes. To our knowledge, this is the first CG model that includes explicitly each water and ion and accounts for hydrophobic, ionic, and intramolecular interactions explicitly

  7. Calculations of the dominant long-range, spin-independent contributions to the interaction energy between two nonrelativistic Dirac fermions from double-boson exchange of spin-0 and spin-1 bosons with spin-dependent couplings (United States)

    Aldaihan, S.; Krause, D. E.; Long, J. C.; Snow, W. M.


    Various theories beyond the Standard Model predict new particles with masses in the sub-eV range with very weak couplings to ordinary matter which can possess spin-dependent couplings to electrons and nucleons. Present laboratory constraints on exotic spin-dependent interactions with pseudoscalar and axial couplings for exchange boson masses between meV and eV are very poor compared to constraints on spin-independent interactions in the same mass range arising from spin-0 and spin-1 boson exchange. It is therefore interesting to analyze in a general way how one can use the strong experimental bounds on spin-independent interactions to also constrain spin-dependent interactions by considering higher-order exchange processes. The exchange of a pair of bosons between two fermions with spin-dependent couplings will possess contributions which flip spins twice and thereby generate a polarization-independent interaction energy which can add coherently between two unpolarized objects. In this paper we derive the dominant long-range contributions to the interaction energy between two nonrelativistic spin-1 /2 Dirac fermions from double exchange of spin-0 and spin-1 bosons proportional to couplings of the form gP4, gS2gP2, and gV2gA2 . Our results for gP4 are in agreement with previous calculations that have appeared in the literature. We demonstrate the usefulness of this analysis to constrain spin-dependent couplings by presenting the results of a reanalysis of data from a short-range gravity experiment to derive an improved constraint on (gPN)2, the pseudoscalar coupling for nucleons, in the range between 40 and 200 μ m of about a factor of 5 compared to previous limits. We hope that the expressions derived in this work will be employed by other researchers in the future to evaluate whether or not they can constrain exotic spin-dependent interactions from spin-independent measurements. The spin-independent contribution from 2-boson exchange with axial vector couplings

  8. EPR Line Shifts and Line Shape Changes Due to Heisenberg Spin Exchange and Dipole-Dipole Interactions of Nitroxide Free Radicals in Liquids: 8. Further Experimental and Theoretical Efforts to Separate the Effects of the Two Interactions (United States)

    Peric, Mirna; Bales, Barney L; Peric, Miroslav


    The work in Part 6 of this series (J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 4930), addressing the task of separating the effects of Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) and dipole-dipole (DD) interactions on EPR spectra of nitroxide spin probes in solution, is extended experimentally and theoretically. Comprehensive measurements of perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (pDT) in squalane, a viscous alkane, paying special attention to lower temperatures and lower concentrations were carried out in an attempt to focus on DD, the lesser understood of the two interactions. Theoretically, the analysis has been extended to include the recent comprehensive treatment by Salikhov (Appl. Magn. Reson. 2010, 38, 237). In dilute solutions, both interactions (1) introduce a dispersion component, (2) broaden the lines, and (3) shift the lines. DD introduces a dispersion component proportional to the concentration and of opposite sign to that of HSE. Equations relating the EPR spectral parameters to the rate constants due HSE and DD have been derived. By employing non-linear least-squares fitting of theoretical spectra to a simple analytical function and the proposed equations, the contributions of the two interactions to items (1)–(3) may be quantified and compared with the same parameters obtained by fitting experimental spectra. This comparison supports the theory in its broad predictions, however, at low temperatures, the DD contribution to the experimental dispersion amplitude does not increase linearly with concentration. We are unable to deduce if this discrepancy is due to inadequate analysis of the experimental data or an incomplete theory. A key new aspect of the more comprehensive theory is that there is enough information in the experimental spectra to find items (1)–(3) due to both interactions; however, in principle, appeal must be made to a model of molecular diffusion to separate the two. The permanent diffusion model is used to illustrate the separation in this

  9. Electron paramagnetic resonance line shifts and line shape changes due to heisenberg spin exchange and dipole-dipole interactions of nitroxide free radicals in liquids 8. Further experimental and theoretical efforts to separate the effects of the two interactions. (United States)

    Peric, Mirna; Bales, Barney L; Peric, Miroslav


    The work in part 6 of this series (J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 4930), addressing the task of separating the effects of Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) and dipole-dipole interactions (DD) on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of nitroxide spin probes in solution, is extended experimentally and theoretically. Comprehensive measurements of perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (pDT) in squalane, a viscous alkane, paying special attention to lower temperatures and lower concentrations, were carried out in an attempt to focus on DD, the lesser understood of the two interactions. Theoretically, the analysis has been extended to include the recent comprehensive treatment by Salikhov (Appl. Magn. Reson. 2010, 38, 237). In dilute solutions, both interactions (1) introduce a dispersion component, (2) broaden the lines, and (3) shift the lines. DD introduces a dispersion component proportional to the concentration and of opposite sign to that of HSE. Equations relating the EPR spectral parameters to the rate constants due to HSE and DD have been derived. By employing nonlinear least-squares fitting of theoretical spectra to a simple analytical function and the proposed equations, the contributions of the two interactions to items 1-3 may be quantified and compared with the same parameters obtained by fitting experimental spectra. This comparison supports the theory in its broad predictions; however, at low temperatures, the DD contribution to the experimental dispersion amplitude does not increase linearly with concentration. We are unable to deduce whether this discrepancy is due to inadequate analysis of the experimental data or an incomplete theory. A new key aspect of the more comprehensive theory is that there is enough information in the experimental spectra to find items 1-3 due to both interactions; however, in principle, appeal must be made to a model of molecular diffusion to separate the two. The permanent diffusion model is used to

  10. Zeeman Splitting Caused by Localized sp-d Exchange Interaction in Ferromagnetic GaMnAs Observed by Magneto-Optical Characterization (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroki

    .97Mn0.03As measured at 6 K. To calculate the Zeeman splitting energy at E0 (Gamma-CP), an experimentally reported parameter of a II-VI paramagnetic DMS, Cd 1-xMnxTe, was used due to some similarities of their electronic band structure. The Zeeman splitting energy at E0 (Gamma-CP) of Ga0.97Mn0.03As on sapphire, Ga 0.97Mn0.03As on InP, and free-standing Ga0.97Mn 0.03As was ~ 64 meV, ~ 9.6, meV and ~ 104 meV at 6 K. In addition, we found that MCD spectra around L-critical points shifted toward lower energy whereas the corresponding absorption spectra did not shift toward lower energy with an increase of Mn concentration. These results indicate that the sp-d exchange interaction in Ga1-xMn xAs has a very localized nature, because MCD is only active in a region where a band structure is affected by Mn spins, and optical absorption results from the overall sample response. This means that the sp-d exchange interactions are only generated within the sphere of influence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Grazhdanov


    Full Text Available Glasses with metallic and semi-conductive nano-particles appear to be perspective non-linear and luminescent materials of photonics. It was shown in theory that composite optical materials containing semi-conductive CdS-core with Ag shell (or vice versa are optimal for enhancement of non-linear Kerr effect. Interaction of such an ensemble of particles leads to the forming of Ag island structures on the CdS particle, and formation of acanthite Ag2S on the two phases border (CdS-Ag is minimal. In glasses synthesis of CdS quantum dots occurred due to thermal treatment close to glass transition temperature; introduction of silver was realized by low-temperature ion exchange (LIE. The main object of this work is investigation of Ag+ -LIE effect on the growth of CdS nano-particles. Two glasses were explored in this work: without CdS (glass 1 and with CdS (glass 2, processed by LIE at the temperature of 320°С for 10, 20 and 30 minutes and subsequent heat treatment at temperatures of 410°С and 420°С. In case of glass 1, intensive luminescence appears as a result of LIE, and subsequent heat treatment results in surface resonance at λ=410 nm. In case of glass 2, absorbance spectra change appears that is specific for formation of acanthite and weak luminescence shifting to long-wavelength region (from 550 to 700 nm as a result of applying LIE and heat treatment. It indicates the growth of CdS quantum dots. Experiment has shown that quantum efficiency increases to 70% for glass 2 containing CdS quantum dots without LIE, while glass that contains silver shows steep decrease of quantum efficiency to 0%. That decrease is caused by formation of acanthite Ag2S on the surface of CdS quantum dot.

  12. Interactions of elevated CO{sub 2} and drought stress in gas exchange and water-use efficiency in three temperate deciduous tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, N.; Maruyama, K.; Huang, Y. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Graduate School of Science and Technology


    The effect of CO{sub 2} increase on gas exchange and water-use efficiency (WUE) in three temperate deciduous species (Fagus crenata, Ginkgo biloba and Alnus firma) under gradually-developing drought-stress was assessed. Seedlings were grown within transparent open-top cabinets and maintained for 4 months at mean CO{sub 2} concentrations of either 350(ambient; C-350) or 700{mu}mol mol{sup -1} (elevated; C-700) and combined with five water regimes (leaf water potential, Psi{sub w}, higher than -0.3 (well-watered), -0.5 and -0.8 (moderate drought), -1.0 and fewer than -1.2 MPa (serious drought-stress)). Increase in CO{sub 2} concentration induced a 60% average increase in net photosynthetic rate (P-N) under well-watered conditions. The effect of C-700 became more pronounced with drought stress established, with an 80% average increase in P-N at Psi{sub w}, as low as -0.8 MPa; leaf conductance to water vapour transfer (g{sub s}) and transpiration rate (E), however, were significantly decreased. Consequently, WUE increased under drought, through drought stress affected potential E sooner than potential P-N. The interaction of CO{sub 2} x drought stress on WUE was significant in that P-N was stimulated while E in C-700 enriched plants resembled that of C-350 plants under drought. Hence if a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration occurs by the mid 21st century, then greater P-N in F. crenata, G. biloba and A. firma may be expected and the drought susceptibility of these species will be substantially enhanced.

  13. Exchange Network (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  14. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg


    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  15. Spin-exchange interactions in the S 2-state manganese tetramer in photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex deduced from g=2 multiline EPR signal (United States)

    Hasegawa, Koji; Ono, Taka-aki; Inoue, Yorinao; Kusunoki, Masami


    Possible spin-exchange structures of the Mn(III,IV,IV,IV) cluster in an S 2 state of plant photosystem II were computer-searched, within the range compatible with X-ray absorption data, by diagonalizing each Heisenberg spin-exchange Hamiltonian and then by checking whether it can take the S=1/2 ground state capable of explaining the effective 55Mn hyperfine constants determined from oriented multiline spectra and the first excited state with excitation energy around 20-50 cm -1, or not. The possible spin-exchange structures were found to be distributed in those that contain only one strong-antiferromagnetic coupling and at most two intermediate coupling(s). The most probable structures are discussed in detail.

  16. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.


    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  17. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y


    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    interaction between a human operator and an artificial actor or agent. We can apply insights from puppetry to develop culturally-aware robots. Here we describe the development of a robotic marionette theatre wherein robotic controllers assume the role of human puppeteers. The system has been built, tested...... including puppetry and dance. However, the aesthetics of these traditions vary across cultures and carry different associative and interpretive meanings. Puppetry offers a useful frame for understanding the relationship between abstract and imitative gestures and behavior, and instantiates the complex...

  19. Pervaporation with ion exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeddeker, K.W.; Wenzlaff, A.


    Sorption and pervaporation of aqueous-organic solvent systems (water-ethanol; water-carboxylic acids) with commercial ion exchange membranes are compared to obtain information on polymersolvent interaction vs. coupling. Close agreement between sorption selectivity and pervaporation selectivity indicates coupling. If pervaporation is less selective than sorption, polymer-solvent interaction overtakes coupling, the limit of de-coupling being phase separation within the sorbate as signaled by a sudden increase in permeability of the lesser interacting component. As long as sorption and pervaporation operate in parallel, favoring enrichment of the same component, coupling enhances the separation effect. If pervaporation counteracts sorption, coupling is detrimental to the separation effect. Potential applications include the dehydration of pre-concentrated water-ethanol using anion exchange membranes, and the enrichment of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solution by pervaporative removal of water through cation exchange membranes.

  20. Computation of local exchange coefficients in strongly interacting one-dimensional few-body systems: local density approximation and exact results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchukov, O. V.; Eriksen, E. H.; Midtgaard, J. M.


    been the focus of previous studies and consider some double-wells of current experimental interest. We find that the local density approximation works quite well as long as the potentials resemble harmonic wells but break down for larger barriers. In order to explore the consequences of applying...... the local density approximation in a concrete setup we consider quantum state transfer in the effective spin models that one obtains. Here we find that even minute deviations in the local exchange coefficients between the exact and the local density approximation can induce large deviations in the fidelity...

  1. Exchanging information

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Christine


    This is part of a series of books, which gives training in key business communication skills. Emphasis is placed on building awareness of language appropriateness and fluency in typical business interactions. This new edition is in full colour.

  2. Segmented heat exchanger (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann


    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  3. Role of magnetic exchange interaction due to magnetic anisotropy on inverse spin Hall voltage at FeSi3%/Pt thin film bilayer interface (United States)

    Shah, Jyoti; Ahmad, Saood; Chaujar, Rishu; Puri, Nitin K.; Negi, P. S.; Kotnala, R. K.


    In our recent studies inverse spin Hall voltage (ISHE) was investigated by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) using bilayer FeSi3%/Pt thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. In ISHE measurement microwave signal was applied on FeSi3% film along with DC magnetic field. Higher magnetization value along the film-plane was measured by magnetic hysteresis (M-H) loop. Presence of magnetic anisotropy has been obtained by M-H loop which showed easy direction of magnetization when applied magnetic field is parallel to the film plane. The main result of this study is that FMR induced inverse spin Hall voltage 12.6 μV at 1.0 GHz was obtained across Pt layer. Magnetic exchange field at bilayer interface responsible for field torque was measured 6 × 1014 Ω-1 m-2 by spin Hall magnetoresistance. The damping torque and spin Hall angle have been evaluated as 0.084 and 0.071 respectively. Presence of Si atom in FeSi3% inhomogenize the magnetic exchange field among accumulated spins at bilayer interface and feebly influenced by spin torque of FeSi3% layer. Weak field torque suppresses the spin pumping to Pt layer thus low value of inverse spin Hall voltage is obtained. This study provides an excellent opportunity to investigate spin transfer torque effect, thus motivating a more intensive experimental effort for its utilization at maximum potential. The improvement in spin transfer torque may be useful in spin valve, spin battery and spin transistor application.

  4. Gas-particle interactions above a Dutch heathland: I. Surface exchange fluxes of NH3, SO2, HNO3 and HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nemitz


    Full Text Available A field measurement campaign was carried out over a Dutch heathland to investigate the effect of gas-to-particle conversion and ammonium aerosol evaporation on surface/atmosphere fluxes of ammonia and related species. Continuous micrometeorological measurements of the surface exchange of NH3, SO2, HNO3 and HCl were made and are analyzed here with regard to average fluxes, deposition velocities (Vd, canopy resistances (Rc and canopy compensation point for NH3. Gradients of SO2, HNO3 and HCl were measured with a novel wet-denuder system with online anion chromatography. Measurements of HNO3 and HCl indicate an Rc of 100 to 200 s m-1 during warm daytime periods, probably at least partly due to non-zero acid partial pressures above NH4NO3 and NH4Cl on the leaf surfaces. Although it is likely that this observation is exacerbated by the effect of the evaporation of airborne NH4+ on the gradient measurements, the findings nevertheless add to the growing evidence that HNO3 and HCl are not always deposited at the maximum rate. Ammonia (NH3 fluxes show mainly deposition, with some periods of significant daytime emission. The net exchange could be reproduced both with an Rc model (deposition fluxes only using resistance parameterizations from former measurements, as well as with the canopy compensation point model, using parameterizations derived from the measurements. The apoplastic ratio of ammonium and hydrogen concentration (Γs=[NH4+]/[H+] of 1200 estimated from the measurements is large for semi-natural vegetation, but smaller than indicated by previous measurements at this site.

  5. Spin reorientation in α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles induced by interparticle exchange interactions in alpha-Fe2O3/NiO nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Cathrine; Lefmann, Kim; Lebech, Bente


    We report that the spin structure of alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles rotates coherently out of the basal (001) plane at low temperatures when interacting with thin plate-shaped NiO nanoparticles. The observed spin reorientation (up to similar to 70 degrees) in alpha-Fe2O3 nanoparticles has, in appearan...

  6. Beyond bridging the know-do gap: a qualitative study of systemic interaction to foster knowledge exchange in the public health sector in The Netherlands. (United States)

    van den Driessen Mareeuw, Francine; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Klerkx, Laurens; Naaldenberg, Jenneken; Koelen, Maria


    Despite considerable attention currently being given to facilitating the use of research results in public health practice, several concerns remain, resulting in the so-called know-do gap. This article aims to identify the key tensions causing the know-do gap from a broad perspective by using a systemic approach and considering the public health sector as an innovation system. An exploratory qualitative design including in-depth semi-structured interviews was used, with 33 interviewees from different actor categories in the Dutch public health innovation system. The analyses employed an innovation system matrix to highlight the principal tensions causing the know-do gap. Seven key tensions were identified, including: research priorities determined by powerful players; no consensus about criteria for knowledge quality; different perceptions about the knowledge broker role; competition engendering fragmentation; thematic funding engendering fragmentation; predominance of passive knowledge sharing; and lack of capacity among users to use and influence research. The identified tensions indicate that bridging the know-do gap requires much more than linking research to practice or translating knowledge. An innovation system perspective is crucial in providing information on the total picture of knowledge exchange within the Dutch public health sector. Such a system includes broader stakeholder involvement as well as the creation of social, economic, and contextual conditions (achieving shared visions, building networks, institutional change, removing financial and infrastructural barriers), as these create conducive factors at several system levels and induce knowledge co-creation and innovation.

  7. An orientation sensitive approach in biomolecule interaction quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling and its application in ion-exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Kittelmann, Jörg; Lang, Katharina M H; Ottens, Marcel; Hubbuch, Jürgen


    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling for prediction of biomolecule parameters has become an established technique in chromatographic purification process design. Unfortunately available descriptor sets fail to describe the orientation of biomolecules and the effects of ionic strength in the mobile phase on the interaction with the stationary phase. The literature describes several special descriptors used for chromatographic retention modeling, all of these do not describe the screening of electrostatic potential by the mobile phase in use. In this work we introduce two new approaches of descriptor calculations, namely surface patches and plane projection, which capture an oriented binding to charged surfaces and steric hindrance of the interaction with chromatographic ligands with regard to electrostatic potential screening by mobile phase ions. We present the use of the developed descriptor sets for predictive modeling of Langmuir isotherms for proteins at different pH values between pH 5 and 10 and varying ionic strength in the range of 10-100mM. The resulting model has a high correlation of calculated descriptors and experimental results, with a coefficient of determination of 0.82 and a predictive coefficient of determination of 0.92 for unknown molecular structures and conditions. The agreement of calculated molecular interaction orientations with both, experimental results as well as molecular dynamic simulations from literature is shown. The developed descriptors provide the means for improved QSAR models of chromatographic processes, as they reflect the complex interactions of biomolecules with chromatographic phases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  9. The interaction of soil phototrophs and fungi with pH and their impact on soil CO2, CO18O and OCS exchange. (United States)

    Sauze, Joana; Ogée, Jérôme; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Crouzet, Olivier; Nowak, Virginie; Wohl, Steven; Kaisermann, Aurore; Jones, Sam P; Wingate, Lisa


    The stable oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 and the mixing ratio of carbonyl sulphide (OCS) are potential tracers of biospheric CO2 fluxes at large scales. However, the use of these tracers hinges on our ability to understand and better predict the activity of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) in different soil microbial groups, including phototrophs. Because different classes of the CA family (α, β and γ) may have different affinities to CO2 and OCS and their expression should also vary between different microbial groups, differences in the community structure could impact the 'community-integrated' CA activity differently for CO2 and OCS. Four soils of different pH were incubated in the dark or with a diurnal cycle for forty days to vary the abundance of native phototrophs. Fluxes of CO2, CO18O and OCS were measured to estimate CA activity alongside the abundance of bacteria, fungi and phototrophs. The abundance of soil phototrophs increased most at higher soil pH. In the light, the strength of the soil CO2 sink and the CA-driven CO2-H2O isotopic exchange rates correlated with phototrophs abundance. OCS uptake rates were attributed to fungi whose abundance was positively enhanced in alkaline soils but only in the presence of increased phototrophs. Our findings demonstrate that soil-atmosphere CO2, OCS and CO18O fluxes are strongly regulated by the microbial community structure in response to changes in soil pH and light availability and supports the idea that different members of the microbial community express different classes of CA, with different affinities to CO2 and OCS.

  10. Abandoning Exact SU(3) in Coupled-Channel Final-State Interactions Through Reggeon Exchange for B-> pi pi K K-bar

    CERN Document Server

    Lach, P


    For weak decays B sup 0 sub d -> pi pi and K K-bar the effects of SU(3) breaking in coupled-channel final-state interaction effects are discussed in a Regge framework. It is shown that SU(3) breaking in the inelastic final-state transitions dramatically affects the phases of the isospin I = 0, 1, 2 amplitudes in the B sup 0 sub d decays. The effect of the singlet penguin diagram on these phases is studied. Furthermore, on the example of the B sup 0 sub d -> pi pi decays, the dependence of CP asymmetries on the size of penguin amplitude is analyzed.

  11. Redox biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv: protein-protein interaction between GlgB and WhiB1 involves exchange of thiol-disulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan KV Radha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an intracellular pathogen encounters redox stress throughout its life inside the host. In order to protect itself from the redox onslaughts of host immune system, M. tuberculosis appears to have developed accessory thioredoxin-like proteins which are represented by ORFs encoding WhiB-like proteins. We have earlier reported that WhiB1/Rv3219 is a thioredoxin like protein of M. tuberculosis and functions as a protein disulfide reductase. Generally thioredoxins have many substrate proteins. The current study aims to identify the substrate protein(s of M. tuberculosis WhiB1. Results Using yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified alpha (1,4-glucan branching enzyme (GlgB of M. tuberculosis as a interaction partner of WhiB1. In vitro GST pull down assay confirmed the direct physical interaction between GlgB and WhiB1. Both mass spectrometry data of tryptic digests and in vitro labeling of cysteine residues with 4-acetamido-4' maleimidyl-stilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid showed that in GlgB, C95 and C658 are free but C193 and C617 form an intra-molecular disulfide bond. WhiB1 has a C37XXC40 motif thus a C40S mutation renders C37 to exist as a free thiol to form a hetero-disulfide bond with the cysteine residue of substrate protein. A disulfide mediated binary complex formation between GlgB and WhiB1C40S was shown by both in-solution protein-protein interaction and thioredoxin affinity chromatography. Finally, transfer of reducing equivalent from WhiB1 to GlgB disulfide was confirmed by 4-acetamido-4' maleimidyl-stilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid trapping by the reduced disulfide of GlgB. Two different thioredoxins, TrxB/Rv1471 and TrxC/Rv3914 of M. tuberculosis could not perform this reaction suggesting that the reduction of GlgB by WhiB1 is specific. Conclusion We conclude that M. tuberculosis GlgB has one intra-molecular disulfide bond which is formed between C193 and C617. WhiB1, a thioredoxin like protein

  12. [Histone variants and histone exchange]. (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Gui, Jian-Fang


    Histones, as the basic components of nucleosome, are essential to chromatin structure and function. To adapt to various states of chromatin, corresponding histone variants are incorporated in nucleosome, and certain modifications also occur on the variants' tails. These variants change the conformation and stability of nucleosome to facilitate transcriptional activation or deactivation, DNA repairing, heterochromatin formation, and others. During histone exchange, chromatin remodeling complex facilitates histone variant deposition into nucleosome, and different variants have diverse deposition pathways. Recently, research on histone variants is not only a new hotspot in epigenetics, but also a new annotation of "histone code". In addition, histone exchange reveals new changing mechanism of DNA-histone interaction.

  13. Competing Magnetic Exchange Interactions in Tetranuclear d(1) Systems: Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetochemistry of a Neutral Vanadium(IV) Complex with a {(VO)(4)(&mgr;(3)-OR)(2)(&mgr;(2)-OR)(4)}(2+) Core. (United States)

    Plass, Winfried


    The complex [{VO(L)}(2){VO(acac)}(2)(&mgr;(2)-OMe)(2)] 1 can be synthesized by reaction of the Schiff base ligand N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-N'-(2-pyrrolylmethylidene)ethylenediamine (H(2)L) with [VO(acac)(2)] (Hacac = 2,4-pentanedione). The compound 1.MeOH has been characterized by IR, UV/vis, and ESR spectroscopy as well as magnetic susceptibility measurements. A single-crystal diffraction study performed on 1. MeOH gives the following crystal data: triclinic, P&onemacr;, a = 7.352(2) Å, b = 12.584(4) Å, c = 12.826(4) Å, alpha = 107.61(2) degrees, beta = 102.96(2) degrees, gamma = 95.25(2) degrees, Z = 1. The tetranuclear {(VO)(4)(&mgr;(3)-OR)(2)(&mgr;(2)-OR)(4)}(2+) core of 1 is composed of three different types of edge-shared binuclear units, an anti-coplanar, two syn-coplanar, and two twist configurations. Consistent with this connectivity pattern, analysis of the magnetic data reveals competing ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions within the tetranuclear core structure. Both ESR and magnetic data indicate a singlet ground state for 1. In addition, the general magnetic behavior of oxovanadium(IV) clusters is discussed on the basis of classification schemes derived from simple binuclear fragmentation patterns. Consistent with the superexchange mechanism expected to be operative for binuclear oxovanadium(IV) units with syn-coplanar configuration, the corresponding magnetic exchange parameter J(sc) of 1 (V.V = 3.410(2) Å) is determined to be antiferromagnetic at -153 cm(-)(1).

  14. An analysis of the development of home exchange organisations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the home exchange phenomenon by considering the historical developmentof the home exchange intermediation processes, membership profiles and the role of the media. The Internet has enableda more interactive process and facilitated home exchange kernels which, ...

  15. Genetic interactions between the Golgi Ca2+/H+ exchanger Gdt1 and the plasma membrane calcium channel Cch1/Mid1 in the regulation of calcium homeostasis, stress response and virulence in Candida albicans. (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Wang, Junjun; Cheng, Jianqing; Xu, Dayong; Jiang, Linghuo


    The Golgi-localized Saccharomyces cerevisiae ScGdt1 is a member of the cation/Ca(2+) exchanger superfamily. We show here that Candida albicans CaGdt1 is the functional homolog of ScGdt1 in calcium sensitivity, and shows genetic interactions with CaCch1 or CaMid1 in response to ER stresses. In addition, similar to ScCCH1 and ScMID1, deletion of either CaCCH1 or CaMID1 leads to a growth sensitivity of cells to cold stress, which can be suppressed by deletion of CaGDT1. Furthermore, deletion of CaCCH1 leads to a severe delay in filamentation of C. albicans cells, and this defect is abolished by deletion of CaGDT1. In contrast, CaGDT1 does not show genetic interaction with CaMID1 in filamentation. Interestingly, C. albicans cells lacking both CaMID1 and CaGDT1 exhibit an intermediate virulence between C. albicans cells lacking CaCCH1 (non-virulent) and C. albicans cells lacking CaGDT1 (partially virulent), while C. albicans cells lacking both CaCCH1 and CaGDT1 are not virulent in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. Therefore, CaGdt1 genetically interacts with the plasma membrane calcium channel, CaCch1/CaMid1, in the response of C. albicans cells to cold and ER stresses and antifungal drug challenge as well as in filamentation and virulence. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  16. Exclusive neutral strange particle production from double Pomeron exchange produced by proton-proton interactions at radical s = 62 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeens, J.


    Data are presented for the first time on exclusive Pomeron-Pomeron interactions which produce a neutral strange and neutral antistrange particle pair in a central system X. In this paper, the system, X, is identified as one of the following neutral combinations; K{sub s}{sup 0}K{sub s}{sup 0}, K{sub s}{sup 0}K{sup {plus minus}}{pi}{sup {minus plus}}, {Lambda}{sup 0}{bar {Lambda}}{sup 0}, {Lambda}{sup 0}{bar {Lambda}}{sup 0}*. These data were obtained in proton-proton collisions at {radical}s = 62 GeV at the CERN ISR. The triggering systems used to obtain these data are described, followed by a description of the data. The central system mass distributions are presented along with differential mass cross section estimates. A broad enhancement is seen in the K{sub s}{sup 0}K{sub s}{sup 0} system at a mass of 1.2 GeV, and is likely to have the quantum numbers J{sup PC} = 0{sup ++}. Total cross section estimates of 1.3 {plus minus} .64 {mu}b in the K{sub 2}{sup 0}K{sub s}{sup 0} system, . 44 {plus minus} .14 {mu}b in the K{sub s}{sup 0}K{sup {plus minus}}{pi}{sup {minus plus}} system, .20 {plus minus} .14 {mu}b in the {Lambda}{sup 0}{bar {Lambda}}{sup 0} system, and .13 {plus minus} .06 {mu}b in the {Lambda}{sup 0}{bar {Lambda}}{sup 0}* system are obtained.

  17. VT Telephone Exchange Boundaries (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The UtilityTelecom_EXCHANGE represents Vermont Telephone Exchange boundaries as defined by the VT Public Service Board. The original data was...

  18. Coworker exchange: relationships between coworkers, leader-member exchange, and work attitudes. (United States)

    Sherony, Kathryn M; Green, Stephen G


    The study of leadership exchanges is extended by studying both leader-member exchanges (LMXs) and coworker exchanges (CWXs). Data from 110 coworker dyads were used to examine relationships between LMXs and CWXs and between exchange relationships and work attitudes. As predicted, the interaction between 2 coworkers' LMX scores predicted CWX quality for the coworker dyad. Also, after controlling for LMX, greater diversity in a worker's CWX relationships was negatively related to his or her organizational commitment but not job satisfaction. The quality of a worker's CWX relationships, however, did not moderate the relationship between CWX diversity and work attitudes.

  19. Orbital angular momentum exchange in parametric down conversion (United States)

    Huguenin, J. A. O.; Martinelli, M.; Caetano, D. P.; Coutinho Dos Santos, B.; Almeida, M. P.; Souto Ribeiro, P. H.; Nussenzveig, P.; Khoury, A. Z.


    Orbital angular momentum exchange, both in cavity free stimulated parametric down conversion and in an optical parametric oscillator, is studied. In both cases, the conditions for parametric amplification are discussed in terms of the orbital angular momentum exchange between the interacting fields. It is shown that in cavity free parametric down conversion, parametric amplification is conditioned to conserve orbital angular momentum. However, for parametric oscillation, cavity and anisotropy effects play a crucial role in the orbital angular momentum exchange between the interacting fields.

  20. Ideal Heat Exchange System (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.


    The requirements with which a heat exchange system should comply in order that at certain values of the total contact surface and heat load the entropy production in it should be minimal have been determined. It has been shown that this system can serve as a standard for real systems of irreversible heat exchange. We have found the conditions for physical realizability of a heat exchange system in which heat exchange occurs by a law linear with respect to the temperature difference between contacting flows. Analogous conditions are given without deriving for the case of heat exchange by the Fourier law.

  1. Resolution exchange simulation. (United States)

    Lyman, Edward; Ytreberg, F Marty; Zuckerman, Daniel M


    We extend replica-exchange simulation in two ways and apply our approaches to biomolecules. The first generalization permits exchange simulation between models of differing resolution--i.e., between detailed and coarse-grained models. Such "resolution exchange" can be applied to molecular systems or spin systems. The second extension is to "pseudoexchange" simulations, which require little CPU usage for most levels of the exchange ladder and also substantially reduce the need for overlap between levels. Pseudoexchanges can be used in either replica or resolution exchange simulations. We perform efficient, converged simulations of a 50-atom peptide to illustrate the new approaches.

  2. Air-sea interactions and exchanges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    occurred in fairly high and rather uniform concentrations throughout the water column, and although its production through photo-oxidation in the surface layer probably represented an important sink of DMS, significant amounts of the latter should...

  3. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)


    The Radioecology Exchange ( was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (, the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites and This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed

  4. Groundwater–Surface Water Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karan, Sachin

    The exchange of groundwater-surface water has been invetigated in the western part of Denmark. Holtum AA provides the framework for all the performed investigations. Several methods are used, primarily eld based measurements ombined with numerical models to achieve insight to the governing...... processes of interaction between groundwater and surface water. By using heat as a tracer it has been possible to use temperature directly as calibrationtargets in a groundwater and heat transport model. Thus, it is possible to use heat investigate the change in groundwater discharge in dynamic conditions...... by using simple temperature devices along a stream to delineate the areas of interest in regard to GW{SW exchange. Thus, at several locations in a stream a temperature data logger was placed in the water column and right at the streambed-water interface. By looking at the correlation of streambed...

  5. Phase exposure-dependent exchange (United States)

    Ginn, T. R.; Schreyer, L. G.; Zamani, K.


    Solutes and suspended material often experience delays during exchange between phases one of which may be moving. Consequently transport often exhibits combined effects of advection/dispersion, and delays associated with exchange between phases. Such processes are ubiquitous and include transport in porous/fractured media, watersheds, rivers, forest canopies, urban infrastructure systems, and networks. Upscaling approaches often treat the transport and delay mechanisms together, yielding macroscopic "anomalous transport" models. When interaction with the immobile phase is responsible for the delays, it is not the transport that is anomalous, but the lack of it, due to delays. We model such exchanges with a simple generalization of first-order kinetics completely independent of transport. Specifically, we introduce a remobilization rate coefficient that depends on the time in immobile phase. Memory-function formulations of exchange (with or without transport) can be cast in this framework, and can represent practically all time-nonlocal mass balance models including multirate mass transfer and its equivalent counterparts in the continuous time random walk and time-fractional advection dispersion formalisms, as well as equilibrium exchange. Our model can address delayed single-/multievent remobilizations as in delay-differential equations and periodic remobilizations that may be useful in sediment transport modeling. It is also possible to link delay mechanisms with transport if so desired, or to superpose an additional source of nonlocality through the transport operator. This approach allows for mechanistic characterization of the mass transfer process with measurable parameters, and the full set of processes representable by these generalized kinetics is a new open question.

  6. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin


    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  7. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers (United States)

    Hansen, Scott


    The Laser Processed Heat Exchanger project will investigate the use of laser processed surfaces to reduce mass and volume in liquid/liquid heat exchangers as well as the replacement of the harmful and problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHX). For this project, two scale unit test articles will be designed, manufactured, and tested. These two units are a high efficiency liquid/liquid HX and a high reliability CHX.

  8. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael


    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  9. Microtube strip heat exchanger (United States)

    Doty, F. D.


    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchanger. The DSI completed a heat exchanger stress analysis of the ten-module heat exchanger bank; and performed a shell-side flow inhomogeneity analysis of the three-module heat exchanger bank. The company produced 50 tubestrips using an in-house CNC milling machine and began pressing them onto tube arrays. The DSI revised some of the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips into the array to improve some of the prototype tooling.

  10. Seed exchange networks, ethnicity, and sorghum diversity. (United States)

    Labeyrie, Vanesse; Thomas, Mathieu; Muthamia, Zachary K; Leclerc, Christian


    Recent studies investigating the relationship between crop genetic diversity and human cultural diversity patterns showed that seed exchanges are embedded in farmers' social organization. However, our understanding of the social processes involved remains limited. We investigated how farmers' membership in three major social groups interacts in shaping sorghum seed exchange networks in a cultural contact zone on Mount Kenya. Farmers are members of residence groups at the local scale and of dialect groups clustered within larger ethnolinguistic units at a wider scale. The Chuka and Tharaka, who are allied in the same ethnolinguistic unit, coexist with the Mbeere dialect group in the study area. We assessed farmers' homophily, propensity to exchange seeds with members of the same group, using exponential random graph models. We showed that homophily is significant within both residence and ethnolinguistic groups. At these two levels, homophily is driven by the kinship system, particularly by the combination of patrilocal residence and ethnolinguistic endogamy, because most seeds are exchanged among relatives. Indeed, residential homophily in seed exchanges results from local interactions between women and their in-law family, whereas at a higher level, ethnolinguistic homophily is driven by marriage endogamy. Seed exchanges and marriage ties are interrelated, and both are limited between the Mbeere and the other groups, although frequent between the Chuka and Tharaka. The impact of these social homophily processes on crop diversity is discussed.

  11. Induced ferro-ferromagnetic exchange bias in nanocrystalline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-García, J.C.; Rivas, M.; García, J.A.


    An unusual magnetic hysteresis consisting of horizontally shifted and distorted loops appears in some Co-based nanocrystalline systems in which soft and hard ferromagnetic phases coexist. The bias field can be tuned at room temperature by premagnetising treatments. Several works attributed the origin of this effect to the dipolar interaction, while little attention has been paid to the exchange interaction contribution due to its short-range nature. In this paper the relative importance of the dipolar and exchange interactions is investigated by means of micromagnetic simulations. It is demonstrated that the exchange coupling, though a nearest-neighbour interaction, has far-reaching repercussions in the magnetic configuration, and substantially prevails over the magnetostatic interaction as the cause of the asymmetrical magnetisation reversal. The straightforward conclusion is that we are dealing with a ferro-ferromagnetic exchange bias effect. - Highlights: • Magnetic biphase nanocrystalline systems with biased hysteresis loops are presented. • Computational calculations including magnetostatic and exchange interactions have been made. • Exchange interaction largely prevails as the cause of the biasing effect. • The biasing of HL is due to exchange coupling of both ferromagnetic phases. • Assuming monodomain behaviour for the crystals allows simulating the experimental HL.

  12. EPR of exchange coupled systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bencini, Alessandro


    From chemistry to solid state physics to biology, the applications of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) are relevant to many areas. This unified treatment is based on the spin Hamiltonian approach and makes extensive use of irreducible tensor techniques to analyze systems in which two or more spins are magnetically coupled. This edition contains a new Introduction by coauthor Dante Gatteschi, a pioneer and scholar of molecular magnetism.The first two chapters review the foundations of exchange interactions, followed by examinations of the spectra of pairs and clusters, relaxation in oligon

  13. GRUNDTVIG in transnational exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg.......Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg....

  14. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivan Catton


    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  15. Education and Industry Exchange (United States)

    Webb, Gerald A.


    Through an exchange plan a school representative worked at the personnel counter of a local company, and a supervisor from that company worked with counselors, faculty, administrators, and students from the local school. The exchange of ideas and insights were of benefit to the school and the company. (KP)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunge, A.L.; Klein, G.; Radke, C.J.


    Exchange of hardness ions is important in enhanced oil recovery with chemical additives. In both micellar-polymer and caustic flooding processes, multivalent ions released from rock surfaces can interact with anionic surfactants, rendering them preferentially oil soluble and/or insoluble in water. Because hardness cations are sparingly soluble and precipitate in alkaline solutions, such solutions may be more efficient as surfactant flood preflushes than are softened brines. Multivalent ion precipitation may also occur in alkaline waterflooding. To permit design of such processes, this paper presents a chromatographic theory for simultaneous ion exchange with precipitation of divalent ions. Theoretical effluent histories and concentration profiles are presented for the cases of finite pulses and continuous injection of hydroxide ions into linear cores. Complete capture of the insoluble salt particles is assumed. Results are given for the case of instantaneous equilibration of the solution with the precipitate, as well for the case of complete nonequilibrium, in which the solid precipitate does not redissolve. The efficiency of alklaine preflushing is shown to depend on the exchange isotherm, initial divalent loading of the rock, injected pH and salinity, the solubility product of the precipitated salt, and pulse size. The effect of slug size on complete equilibrium removal of hardness ions is reduced efficiency with increasing size until a critical volume approximating continuous injection is reached. Increasing injected pH and salinity provides a more favorable response. Experimental data for Berea sandstone and an argillaceous sand compare favorably with the proposed theory.

  17. Transaksi Dalam Teori Exchange Behaviorism George Caspar Homans (Perspektif Ekonomi Syariah)


    Machmud, Muhammad Eka


    This article analyzes theory of exchange behaviorism by George C. Homans from Islamic economic perspective. Homans in Exchange Behaviorism concerns about cost and reward because in interaction people mostly concern about cost and reward obtained. The core of Homans exchange behaviorism theory lies in the collection of the propositions regarding two individuals or more who interact each other. Each of which the proposition provides an explanation of the form of social exchange that happens. Us...

  18. Can positive social exchanges buffer the detrimental effects of negative social exchanges? Age and gender differences. (United States)

    Fiori, Katherine L; Windsor, Tim D; Pearson, Elissa L; Crisp, Dimity A


    Findings from existing research exploring whether positive social exchanges can help to offset (or 'buffer' against) the harmful effects of negative social exchanges on mental health have been inconsistent. This could be because the existing research is characterized by different approaches to studying various contexts of 'cross-domain' and 'within-domain' buffering, and/or because the nature of buffering effects varies according to sociodemographic characteristics that underlie different aspects of social network structure and function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the buffering effects of global perceptions of positive exchanges on the link between global negative exchanges and mental health varied as a function of age and gender. We used a series of regressions in a sample of 556 Australian older adults (ages 55-94) to test for three-way interactions among gender, positive social exchanges, and negative social exchanges, as well as age and positive and negative social exchanges, in predicting mental health, controlling for years of education, partner status, and physical functioning. We found that positive exchanges buffered against negative exchanges for younger old adults, but not for older old adults, and for women, but not for men. Our findings are interpreted in light of research on individual differences in coping responses and interpersonal goals among late middle-aged and older adults. Our findings are in line with gerontological theories (e.g., socioemotional selectivity theory), and imply that an intervention aimed at using positive social exchanges as a means of coping with negative social exchanges might be more successful among particular populations (i.e., women, 'younger' old adults). Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Developing Sociolinguistic Competence through Intercultural Online Exchange (United States)

    Ritchie, Mathy


    The main goal of this study was to investigate whether computer-mediated communication (CMC) intercultural exchange offers the conditions necessary for the development of the sociolinguistic competence of second language learners. Non-native speakers (NNS) of French in British Columbia interacted through CMC with native speakers (NS) of French in…

  20. Heat exchanger design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Thulukkanam, Kuppan


    Completely revised and updated to reflect current advances in heat exchanger technology, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Second Edition includes enhanced figures and thermal effectiveness charts, tables, new chapter, and additional topics--all while keeping the qualities that made the first edition a centerpiece of information for practicing engineers, research, engineers, academicians, designers, and manufacturers involved in heat exchange between two or more fluids.See What's New in the Second Edition: Updated information on pressure vessel codes, manufacturer's association standards A new c

  1. Dipole-induced exchange bias. (United States)

    Torres, Felipe; Morales, Rafael; Schuller, Ivan K; Kiwi, Miguel


    The discovery of dipole-induced exchange bias (EB), switching from negative to positive sign, is reported in systems where the antiferromagnet and the ferromagnet are separated by a paramagnetic spacer (AFM-PM-FM). The magnitude and sign of the EB is determined by the cooling field strength and the PM thickness. The same cooling field yields negative EB for thin spacers, and positive EB for thicker ones. The EB decay profile as a function of the spacer thickness, and the change of sign, are attributed to long-ranged dipole coupling. Our model, which accounts quantitatively for the experimental results, ignores the short range interfacial exchange interactions of the usual EB theories. Instead, it retains solely the long range dipole field that allows for the coupling of the FM and AFM across the PM spacer. The experiments allow for novel switching capabilities of long range EB systems, while the theory allows description of the structures where the FM and AFM are not in atomic contact. The results provide a new approach to design novel interacting heterostructures.

  2. Knowledge exchange between agents in real-time environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter; Møller, Gert Lykke


    To obtain unpredictable social interaction between autonomous agents in real-time environments, we present a simple method for logic-based knowledge exchange. A method which is able to form new knowledge rather than do simple exchange of particular rules found in predetermined rule sets. The appl...

  3. Social Representation of Intercultural Exchange in an International University (United States)

    Kudo, Kazuhiro


    This paper provides an interpretive investigation into the social representation of intercultural exchange at one of the newly established international universities in Japan. The author conducted quasi-structured interviews with 5 staff members and 22 students to gain insight into their perceptions of intercultural exchange and interactions. The…

  4. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  5. Enhanced skyrmion stability due to exchange frustration. (United States)

    von Malottki, S; Dupé, B; Bessarab, P F; Delin, A; Heinze, S


    Skyrmions are localized, topologically non-trivial spin structures which have raised high hopes for future spintronic applications. A key issue is skyrmion stability with respect to annihilation into the ferromagnetic state. Energy barriers for this collapse have been calculated taking only nearest neighbor exchange interactions into account. Here, we demonstrate that exchange frustration can greatly enhance skyrmion stability. We focus on the prototypical film system Pd/Fe/Ir(111) and use an atomistic spin model parametrized from first-principles calculations. We show that energy barriers and critical fields of skyrmion collapse as well as skyrmion lifetimes are drastically enhanced due to frustrated exchange and that antiskyrmions are metastable. In contrast an effective nearest-neighbor exchange model can only account for equilibrium properties of skyrmions such as their magnetic field dependent profile or the zero temperature phase diagram. Our work shows that frustration of long range exchange interactions - a typical feature in itinerant electron magnets - is a route towards enhanced skyrmion stability even in systems with a ferromagnetic ground state.

  6. Microplate Heat Exchanger Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a microplate heat exchanger for cryogenic cooling systems used for continuous flow distributed cooling systems, large focal plane arrays, multiple cooling...

  7. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server


    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  8. HUD Exchange Grantee Database (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  9. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  10. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik


    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  11. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges (United States)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  12. Hard Colour Singlet Exchange at the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian; Lonnblad, Leif; Cox, Brian; Forshaw, Jeff; Lonnblad, Leif


    We have performed a detailed phenomenological investigation of the hard colour singlet exchange process which is observed at the Tevatron in events which have a large rapidity gap between outgoing jets. We include the effects of multiple interactions to obtain a prediction for the gap survival factor. Comparing the data on the fraction of gap events with the prediction from BFKL pomeron exchange we find agreement provided that a constant value of alpha_s is used in the BFKL calculation. Moreover, the value of alpha_s is in line with that extracted from measurements made at HERA.

  13. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.


    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As

  14. Moving into an interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer


    Opening an interaction is a crucial step in establishing and maintaining social relationships. In this paper we describe how participants in an institutional setting, a help desk counter for exchange students at an international university, literally move into interaction. This is accomplished...

  15. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)


    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  16. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.


    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  17. Heat exchanger panel (United States)

    Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)


    The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

  18. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred


    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  19. Nature's Heat Exchangers. (United States)

    Barnes, George


    Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

  20. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)


    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  1. Technology Performance Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    To address the need for accessible, high-quality data, the Department of Energy has developed the Technology Performance Exchange (TPEx). TPEx enables technology suppliers, third-party testing laboratories, and other entities to share product performance data. These data are automatically transformed into a format that technology evaluators can easily use in their energy modeling assessments to inform procurement decisions.

  2. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Document Server


    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at

  3. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  4. Heat exchanger. Varmeveksler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, I.E.; Wagner, W.R.


    The invention concerns a manifold for a plate-type heat exchanger, and includes a side channel connected the inlet of the manifold. The plates can be designed as an integral assembly together with the integrated side- and external end-manifolds as well. 16 drawings.

  5. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waffelaert, Pascale


    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This

  6. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Jonscher, Peter


    A problem exists in reducing the total heating power required to extract oxygen from lunar regolith. All such processes require heating a great deal of soil, and the heat energy is wasted if it cannot be recycled from processed material back into new material. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-hand - ed auger, and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite direction by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement, a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith, and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two. The unique feature of this system is that it allows for counterflow heat exchange to occur between solids, instead of liquids or gases, as is commonly done. In addition, in variants of this concept, the hydrogen reduction can be made to occur within the counterflow heat exchanger itself, enabling a simplified lunar ISRU (in situ resource utilization) system with excellent energy economy and continuous nonbatch mode operation.

  7. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J


    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  8. Data Exchange Inventory (DEXI) System (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEXI is an intranet application used by SSA users to track all incoming and outgoing data exchanges between SSA and our data exchange partners. Information such as...

  9. Numeracy-Related Exchanges in Joint Storybook Reading and Play (United States)

    Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen; Nelson, Jackie; Bumpass, Charity; Sassine, Bianca


    Studies of the processes by which parents encourage early numerical development in the context of parent-child interactions during routine, culturally relevant activities at home are scarce. The present study was designed to investigate spontaneous exchanges related to numeracy during parent-child interactions in reading and play activities at…

  10. Renormalization of one-pion exchange and power counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nogga, A; Timmermans, RGE; van Kolck, U


    The renormalization of the chiral nuclear interactions is studied. In leading order, the cutoff dependence is related to the singular tensor interaction of the one-pion exchange potential. In S waves and in higher partial waves where the tensor force is repulsive this cutoff dependence can be

  11. DHE (downhole heat exchangers). [Downhole Heat Exchangers (DHE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culver, G.


    The use of downhole heat exchangers (DHE) for residential or commercial space and domestic water heating and other applications has several desirable features. Systems are nearly or completely passive -- that is, no or very little geothermal water or steam is produced from the well either reducing or completely eliminating surface environmental concerns and the need for disposal systems or injection wells. Initial cost of pumps and installation are eliminated or reduced along with pumping power costs and maintenance costs associated with pumping often corrosive geothermal fluids. Many residential and small commercial systems do not require circulating pumps because the density difference in the incoming and outgoing sides of the loop are sufficient to overcome circulating friction losses in the entire system. The major disadvantage of DHEs is their dependence on natural heat flow. In areas where geological conditions provide high permeability and a natural hydraulic gradient, DHEs can provide a substantial quantity of heat. A single 500-ft (152 m) well in Klamath Falls, Oregon, supplies over one megawatt thermal and output is apparently limited by the surface area of pipe that can be installed in the well bore. In contrast, DHEs used in conjunction with heat pumps may supply less than 8 KW from a well of similar depth. Here output is limited by conductive heat flow with perhaps a small contribution from convection near the well bore. The highest capacity DHE reported to date, in Turkey, supplies 6 MW thermal from an 820-ft (250 m) well. There were two main goals for this project. The first was to gather, disseminate and exchange internationally information on DHES. The second was to perform experiments that would provide insight into well bore/aquifer interaction and thereby provide more information on which to base DHE designs. 27 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Manipulation of magnetic exchange in iridate heterostructures (United States)

    Meyers, D.; Fabbris, G.; Yin, Weiguo; Casa, D.; Cao, Yue; Hao, Lin; Schmitt, T.; Liu, Jian; Dean, M. P. M.

    Artificial layering of disparate materials into superlattices is an emerging method that promises unparalleled versatility in accessing ground states unavailable to bulk synthesis. Heterostructures composed of paramagnetic, metallic SrIrO3 interspaced with band insulating SrTiO3 were found to host a canted antiferromagnetic ground state, mirroring the Ruddlesen-Popper series iridates with enhanced tunability. We investigate the magnetic excitation spectrum of these artificial systems using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and directly infer the interlayer and intralayer magnetic exchange interactions. Understanding how interfacial effects modify magnetic interactions is a vital prerequisite for efforts to controllably target different ground states within complex oxide-heterostructures.

  13. Dynamical Clustering of Exchange Rates


    Fenn, Daniel J.; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J; Mark McDonald; Stacy Williams; Johnson, Neil F.; Jones, Nick S


    We use techniques from network science to study correlations in the foreign exchange (FX) market over the period 1991--2008. We consider an FX market network in which each node represents an exchange rate and each weighted edge represents a time-dependent correlation between the rates. To provide insights into the clustering of the exchange rate time series, we investigate dynamic communities in the network. We show that there is a relationship between an exchange rate's functional role withi...

  14. Serial tempering without exchange. (United States)

    Nymeyer, Hugh


    Serial tempering is a computational method that turns the temperature T (or more generally any independent λ parameter) into a dynamical variable. It is shown that, under conditions for which this variable is fast, serial tempering is equivalent to the umbrella sampling method with a single effective potential. This equivalence is demonstrated using both a small one-dimensional system and a small solvated peptide. The suggestion is then made to replace the serial tempering protocol with the equivalent umbrella sampling calculation. This approach, serial tempering without exchange (STeWiE), has the same performance as serial tempering in the limit that exchanges are frequent, is simpler to implement, and has fewer adjustable parameters than conventional serial tempering. The equivalence of serial tempering and STeWiE also provides a convenient route for estimating and optimizing the performance of serial tempering simulations and other generalized-ensemble methods.

  15. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus


    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation......, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  16. Exchange rate rebounds after foreign exchange market interventions (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi


    This study examined the rebounds in the exchange rate after foreign exchange intervention. When intervention is strongly effective, the exchange rate rebounds at next day. The effect of intervention is reduced slightly by the rebound after the intervention. The exchange rate might have been 67.12-77.47 yen to a US dollar without yen-selling/dollar-purchasing intervention of 74,691,100 million yen implemented by the Japanese government since 1991, in comparison to the actual exchange rate was 103.19 yen to the US dollar at the end of March 2014.

  17. O3 and NOx Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubet, B.; Castell, J.F.; Laville, P.; Personne, E.; Tuzet, A.; Ammann, C.; Emberson, L.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kowalski, A.S.; Merbold, L.; Stella, P.; Tuovinen, J.P.


    This discussion was based on the background document “Review on modelling atmosphere-biosphere exchange of Ozone and Nitrogen oxides”, which reviews the processes contributing to biosphere-atmosphere exchange of O3 and NOx, including stomatal and non-stomatal exchange of O3 and NO, NO2.

  18. The stability of exchange networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doğan, G.; Assen, M. van; Rijt, A. van de; Buskens, V.W.


    Economic and sociological exchange theories predict divisions of exchange benefits given an assumed fixed network of exchange relations. Since network structure has been found to have a large impact on actors’ payoffs, actors have strong incentives for network change.Weanswer the question what

  19. Integrated foreign exchange risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen


    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of impor...

  20. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...

  1. Scraped surface heat exchangers. (United States)

    Rao, Chetan S; Hartel, Richard W


    Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHEs) are commonly used in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries for heat transfer, crystallization, and other continuous processes. They are ideally suited for products that are viscous, sticky, that contain particulate matter, or that need some degree of crystallization. Since these characteristics describe a vast majority of processed foods, SSHEs are especially suited for pumpable food products. During operation, the product is brought in contact with a heat transfer surface that is rapidly and continuously scraped, thereby exposing the surface to the passage of untreated product. In addition to maintaining high and uniform heat exchange, the scraper blades also provide simultaneous mixing and agitation. Heat exchange for sticky and viscous foods such as heavy salad dressings, margarine, chocolate, peanut butter, fondant, ice cream, and shortenings is possible only by using SSHEs. High heat transfer coefficients are achieved because the boundary layer is continuously replaced by fresh material. Moreover, the product is in contact with the heating surface for only a few seconds and high temperature gradients can be used without the danger of causing undesirable reactions. SSHEs are versatile in the use of heat transfer medium and the various unit operations that can be carried out simultaneously. This article critically reviews the current understanding of the operations and applications of SSHEs.

  2. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone


    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  3. Paste heat exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The subject of coal paste heat exchangers is discussed in this letter report from Gelsenberg A.G. to I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G. Gelsenberg had given little consideration to the heating of coal paste by means of regeneration (heat exchange) because of the lack of experience in paste regeneration with bituminous coal, especially at 700 atmospheres. At the I.G. Farben plant at Poelitz, paste regeneration was carried out so that low concentration coal paste was heated in the regenerator together with the process gas, and the remaining coal was fed into the cold pass of the preheater in a thicker paste. Later tests proved this process viable. Gelsenberg heated normal coal paste and the gas in heat exchangers with the goal of relieving the preheater. Good results were achieved without change in design. The coal paste was heated with process gas in the regenerator at up to 315 degrees with constant pressure difference, so that after three months no decrease in K-values and no deposition or thickening was observed. Through the omission of paste gas, the pressure difference of the system became more constant and did not rise above the former level. The temperature also was more controllable, the chamber smoother running. Principal thermal data are given in a table. 1 table, 1 graph.

  4. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  5. Using ion exchange chromatography to purify a recombinantly expressed protein. (United States)

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Gabelli, Sandra B


    Ion exchange chromatography (IEX) separates molecules by their surface charge, a property that can vary vastly between different proteins. There are two types of IEX, cation exhange and anion exchange chromatography. The protocol that follows was designed by the authors for anion exchange chromatography of a recombinantly expressed protein having a pI of 4.9 and containing two cysteine residues and one tryptophan residue, using an FPLC system. Prior to anion exchange, the protein had been salted out using ammonium sulfate precipitation and partially purified via hydrophobic interaction chromatography (see Salting out of proteins using ammonium sulfate precipitation and Use and Application of Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography for Protein Purification). Slight modifications to this protocol may be made to accommodate both the protein of interest and the availability of equipment. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rearrangements of interacting Fermi liquids


    Yang, Rong-Yao; Jiang, Wei-Zhou


    The stability condition of Landau Fermi liquid theory may be broken when the interaction between particles is strong enough. In this case, the ground state is reconstructed to have a particle distribution different from the Fermi-step function. For specific instances, one case with the vector boson exchange and another with the relativistic heavy-ion collision are taken into consideration. With the vector boson exchange, we find that the relative weak interaction strength can lead to the grou...

  7. Ligand Exchange Kinetics of Environmentally Relevant Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasci, Adele Frances [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    The interactions of ground water with minerals and contaminants are of broad interest for geochemists but are not well understood. Experiments on the molecular scale can determine reaction parameters (i.e. rates of ligand exchange, activation entropy, activation entropy, and activation volume) that can be used in computations to gain insight into reactions that occur in natural groundwaters. Experiments to determine the rate of isotopic ligand exchange for three environmentally relevant metals, rhodium (Rh), iron (Fe), and neptunium (Np), are described. Many environmental transformations of metals (e.g. reduction) in soil occur at trivalent centers, Fe(III) in particular. Contaminant ions absorb to mineral surfaces via ligand exchange, and the reversal of this reaction can be dangerous, releasing contaminants into the environment. Ferric iron is difficult to study spectroscopically because most of its complexes are paramagnetic and are generally reactive toward ligand exchange; therefore, Rh(III), which is diamagnetic and less reactive, was used to study substitution reactions that are analogous to those that occur on mineral oxide surfaces. Studies on both Np(V) and Np(VI) are important in their own right, as 237Np is a radioactive transuranic element with a half-life of 2 million years.

  8. The Dynamics of Multilateral Exchange (United States)

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F.

    The article formulates a dynamic mathematical model where arbitrarily many players produce, consume, exchange, loan, and deposit arbitrarily many goods over time to maximize utility. Consuming goods constitutes a benefit, and producing, exporting, and loaning away goods constitute a cost. Utilities are benefits minus costs, which depend on the exchange ratios and bargaining functions. Three-way exchange occurs when one player acquires, through exchange, one good from another player with the sole purpose of using this good to exchange against the desired good from a third player. Such a triple handshake is not merely a set of double handshakes since the player assigns no interest to the first good in his benefit function. Cognitive and organization costs increase dramatically for higher order exchanges. An exchange theory accounting for media of exchange follows from simple generalization of two-way exchange. The examples of r-way exchange are the triangle trade between Africa, the USA, and England in the 17th and 18th centuries, the hypothetical hypercycle involving RNAs as players and enzymes as goods, and reaction-diffusion processes. The emergence of exchange, and the role of trading agents are discussed. We simulate an example where two-way exchange gives zero production and zero utility, while three-way exchange causes considerable production and positive utility. Maximum utility for each player is reached when exchanges of the same order as the number of players in society are allowed. The article merges micro theory and macro theory within the social, natural, and physical sciences.

  9. Peculiarity of the charge-exchange quadrupole excitation in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardi, R.; Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S.


    The experimental isovector quadrupole strength in the charge exchange channels is smaller than predicted by random phase approximation calculations using conventional nuclear interactions. The introduction of nonlocal components in the interaction combined with the existence of a low-lying rotational 2/sup +/ quadrupole state in the daughter nucleus can explain this behavior. These nonlocal interactions do not play a role in the properties of the isovector monopole and dipole resonance.

  10. Cryogenic regenerative heat exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Robert A


    An in-depth survey of regenerative heat exchangers, this book chronicles the development and recent commercialization of regenerative devices for cryogenic applications. Chapters cover historical background, concepts, practical applications, design data, and numerical solutions, providing the latest information for engineers to develop advanced cryogenic machines. The discussions include insights into the operation of a regenerator; descriptions of the cyclic and fluid temperature distributions in a regenerator; data for various matrix geometries and materials, including coarse and fine bronze, stainless steel-woven wire mesh screens, and lead spheres; and unique operating features of cryocoolers that produce deviations from ideal regenerator theory.

  11. Tunable giant exchange bias in the single-phase rare-earth-transition-metal intermetallics YM n12 -xF ex with highly homogenous intersublattice exchange coupling (United States)

    Xia, Yuanhua; Wu, Rui; Zhang, Yinfeng; Liu, Shunquan; Du, Honglin; Han, Jingzhi; Wang, Changsheng; Chen, Xiping; Xie, Lei; Yang, Yingchang; Yang, Jinbo


    A tunable giant exchange bias effect is discovered in a family of bulk intermetallic compounds YM n12 -xF ex . Experimental data demonstrate that the exchange bias effect originates from global interactions among ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic sublattices but not the interfacial exchange coupling or inhomogeneous magnetic clusters. A giant exchange bias with a loop shift of up to 6.1 kOe has been observed in YM n4.4F e7.6 compound. In a narrow temperature range, the exchange bias field shows a sudden switching-off whereas the coercivity shows a sudden switching-on with increasing temperature. This unique feature indicates that the intersublattice exchange coupling is highly homogenous. Our theoretical calculations reveal this switching feature, which agrees very well with the experiments and provides insights into the physical underpinnings of the observed exchange bias and coercivity.

  12. Ecological Controls on Land-Atmosphere Exchange (United States)

    Goulden, M. L.; Litvak, M. E.; Winston, G.; Miller, S. D.; Read, E.; Elliot, R.


    We have been using long-term eddy covariance to investigate the patterns of energy and CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and a freshwater marsh in California, and also between the atmosphere and a series of boreal forest stands in Manitoba, Canada. Most researchers believe that ecological phenomenon, such as plant herbivore interactions and interspecific differences in plant life-history strategy, are relatively unimportant in determining the interannual and landscape patterns of Land-Atmosphere exchange. However, we have found that interactions between plants and herbivores exert a large control on the interannual patterns of energy and CO2 exchange in the freshwater marsh, and that interspecific differences in plant strategy are critical for understanding the landscape scale patterns of energy and CO2 exchange in the boreal forest. Despite a relatively constant climate and flooding regime at the California marsh, annual Carbon balance varied by 6 tC ha-1 or more from year to year. These deviations were caused in part by variation in herbivory by rodents and insects. Likewise, peak CO2 uptake by boreal forest stands recovering from fire differed less than expected, with a 4-year-old stand assimilating CO2 at rates comparable to that by middle aged stands, and faster than that by old stands. These patterns reflect differences in the life history strategies of the dominant plants, with the youngest stands dominated by fast growing ruderals, the middle aged stands dominated by fast growing competitive species, and the old stands dominated by slow growing stress tolerant species.

  13. Vanishing magnetic interactions in ferromagnetic thin films. (United States)

    Dunn, J Hunter; Karis, O; Andersson, C; Arvanitis, D; Carr, R; Abrikosov, I A; Sanyal, B; Bergqvist, L; Eriksson, O


    We have used element-specific hysteresis measurements, based on the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism technique, to investigate magnetic trilayer structures composed of Fe and Ni layers. Within a critical regime we have discovered a class of structures in which the exchange interaction, the mechanism responsible for the macroscopic magnetism, can become vanishingly small. The experimental observations are supported by first principles theory and are explained as arising from a cancellation of several competing magnetic interactions. Hence, we have discovered a system with a novel exchange interaction between magnetic layers in direct contact that replaces the conventional exchange interaction in ferromagnets.

  14. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.


    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  15. Characteristics of model heat exchanger (United States)

    Kolínský, Jan


    The aim of this paper is thermal analysis of model water to water heat exchanger at different mass flow rates. Experimental study deals with determination of total heat transfer - power of the heat exchanger. Furthermore the paper deals with analysis of heat exchanger charakcteristic using a definition of thermal efficiency. It is demonstrated that it is advisable to monitor the dependence of thermal efficiency and flow ratio.

  16. Socio-technical HCI for Ethical Value Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelnour-Nocera, José; Nielsen, Lene; Christensen, Lars Rune


    Ensuring ethical value exchange is moving to the forefront of the global challenges that HCI will have to address in the coming years In this position paper, we argue that applying a context-sensitive, sociotechnical approach to HCI can help meet the challenge. The background is that the life...... interaction design (HWID) to meet the challenges of designing for ethical value exchange. We present three cases of service design, and suggest how to add a fourth similar case using the HWID approach during the INTERACT ‘field trip plus workshop’. We conclude that applying a context sensitive sociotechnical...

  17. The Life Science Exchange: a case study of a sectoral and sub-sectoral knowledge exchange programme. (United States)

    Perkins, Brian Lee; Garlick, Rob; Wren, Jodie; Smart, Jon; Kennedy, Julie; Stephens, Phil; Tudor, Gwyn; Bisson, Jonathan; Ford, David V


    Local and national governments have implemented sector-specific policies to support economic development through innovation, entrepreneurship and knowledge exchange. Supported by the Welsh Government through the European Regional Development Fund, The Life Science Exchange® project was created with the aim to increase interaction between stakeholders, to develop more effective knowledge exchange mechanisms, and to stimulate the formation and maintenance of long-term collaborative relationships within the Welsh life sciences ecosystem. The Life Science Exchange allowed participants to interact with other stakeholder communities (clinical, academic, business, governmental), exchange perspectives and discover new opportunities. Six sub-sector focus groups comprising over 200 senior stakeholders from academia, industry, the Welsh Government and National Health Service were established. Over 18 months, each focus group provided input to inform healthcare innovation policy and knowledge mapping exercises of their respective sub-sectors. Collaborative projects identified during the focus groups and stakeholder engagement were further developed through sandpit events and bespoke support. Each sub-sector focus group produced a report outlining the significant strengths and opportunities in their respective areas of focus, made recommendations to overcome any 'system failures', and identified the stakeholder groups which needed to take action. A second outcome was a stakeholder-driven knowledge mapping exercise for each area of focus. Finally, the sandpit events and bespoke support resulted in participants generating more than £1.66 million in grant funding and inward investment. This article outlines four separate outcomes from the Life Science Exchange programme. The Life Science Exchange process has resulted in a multitude of collaborations, projects, inward investment opportunities and special interest group formations, in addition to securing over ten times its own

  18. What Drives Stock Exchange Integration?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ekaterina Dorodnykh


    .... After a broad discussion of the existent literature, the investigation combines a large number of potentially relevant determinants for the explanation of whether stock exchanges are participating...

  19. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Elfassy, David


    The bestselling guide to Exchange Server, fully updated for the newest version Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 is touted as a solution for lowering the total cost of ownership, whether deployed on-premises or in the cloud. Like the earlier editions, this comprehensive guide covers every aspect of installing, configuring, and managing this multifaceted collaboration system. It offers Windows systems administrators and consultants a complete tutorial and reference, ideal for anyone installing Exchange Server for the first time or those migrating from an earlier Exchange Server version.Microsoft

  20. Hybrid Heat Exchangers (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei


    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  1. Knowledge exchange and integrated services: experiences from an integrated community intellectual (learning) disability service for adults. (United States)

    Farrington, C; Clare, I C H; Holland, A J; Barrett, M; Oborn, E


    This paper examines knowledge exchange dynamics in a specialist integrated intellectual (learning) disability service, comprising specialist healthcare provision with social care commissioning and management, and considers their significance in terms of integrated service delivery. A qualitative study focusing on knowledge exchange and integrated services. Semi-structured interviews (n = 25) were conducted with members of an integrated intellectual disability service in England regarding their perceptions of knowledge exchange within the service and the way in which knowledge exchange impinges on the operation of the integrated service. Exchange of 'explicit' (codifiable) knowledge between health and care management components of the service is problematic because of a lack of integrated clinical governance and related factors such as IT and care record systems and office arrangements. Team meetings and workplace interactions allowed for informal exchange of explicit and 'tacit' (non-codifiable) knowledge, but presented challenges in terms of knowledge exchange completeness and sustainability. Knowledge exchange processes play an important role in the functioning of integrated services incorporating health and care management components. Managers need to ensure that knowledge exchange processes facilitate both explicit and tacit knowledge exchange and do not rely excessively on informal, 'ad hoc' interactions. Research on integrated services should take account of micro-scale knowledge exchange dynamics and relationships between social dynamics and physical factors. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Resonant indirect exchange in 1D semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhansky, I.V., E-mail: [Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Krainov, I.V.; Averkiev, N.S. [Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Lähderanta, E. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)


    We consider resonant indirect exchange interaction between magnetic centers in 1D nanostructures. The magnetic centers are assumed to be coupled to the 1D conducting channel by the quantum tunneling which can be of resonant character. The indirect exchange between the centers is mediated by the free carriers of the channel. The two cases of quadratic and linear energy dispersion of the 1D free carriers are considered. The former case is attributed to conventional semiconductor (InGaAs based to be concrete) nanowires or nanowhiskers, while the latter case is associated with carbon nanotubes with magnetic adatoms. We demonstrate that whenever the energy of a bound state at the magnetic center lies within the continuum energy spectra of the delocalized carriers in the channel the indirect exchange is strongly enhanced due to effective tunnel hybridization of the bound states with the continuum. - Highlights: • A resonant indirect exchange interaction between magnetic centers mediated by a 1D conducting channel is considered. • It is shown that the indirect exchange is strongly enhanced due to resonant tunnel coupling of a magnetic bound state with the delocalized states. • The two cases of quadratic and linear energy dispersion of the 1D free carriers are considered. • Pecularities of the indirect exchange mediated by a carbon nanotube has been investigated.

  3. Pervaporation of water-ethanol through ion exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzlaff, A.; Boeddeker, K.W.; Hattenbach, K.


    The performance of ion exchange membranes in sorption and pervaporation of water-ethanol has been studied as function of membrane type (ion loading) and feed composition, and has been compared with the performance of cellulose triacetate. A relatively uniform pattern of preferential water sorption for all membranes studied, reasonably excepting the H/sup +/ form and CTA, contrasts sharply with distinct differences in selectivity and flux between cation exchange and anion exchange membranes. The key to an understanding of the interactions involved appears to be the activity of the sorbed ethanol, which is increased in case of cation exchange membranes, and lowered in case of anion exchange membranes. Increases ethanol activity is traced to a salting-out effect ultimately leading to phase separation within the membrane fluid, as evidenced by a disproportionately high ethanol flux and the adverse effect of selective diffusion reducing overall selectivity. Lowering the ethanol activity enhances selectivity, thus favoring anion exchange membranes for the separation under consideration. When projected to comparable thickness, anion exchange membranes are superior to cellulose triacetate, the OH/sup -/ form being the most promising of the membranes studied.

  4. Analysis of heat exchanger network for temperature fluctuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zunlong


    Full Text Available Subject to temperature disturbance, exchangers in heat exchanger network will interact. It is necessary to evaluate the degree of temperature fluctuation in the network. There is inherently linear relationship between output and inlet temperatures of heat exchanger network. Based on this, the concept of temperature-change sensitivity coefficient was put forward. Quantitative influence of temperature fluctuation in the network was carried out in order to examine transmission character of temperature fluctuation in the system. And the information was obtained for improving the design quality of heat exchanger network. Favorable results were obtained by the introduced method compared with the experimental results. These results will assist engineers to distinguish primary and secondary influencing factors, which can be used in observing and controlling influencing factors accurately.

  5. Scalar scattering via conformal higher spin exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Euihun [School of Physics and Astronomy,Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Gauge, Gravity & Strings, Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe,Institute for Basic Sciences, Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Nakach, Simon; Tseytlin, Arkady A. [Theoretical physics group, Blackett Laboratory,Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    Theories containing infinite number of higher spin fields require a particular definition of summation over spins consistent with their underlying symmetries. We consider a model of massless scalars interacting (via bilinear conserved currents) with conformal higher spin fields in flat space. We compute the tree-level four-scalar scattering amplitude using a natural prescription for summation over an infinite set of conformal higher spin exchanges and find that it vanishes. Independently, we show that the vanishing of the scalar scattering amplitude is, in fact, implied by the global conformal higher spin symmetry of this model. We also discuss one-loop corrections to the four-scalar scattering amplitude.

  6. Ion thruster charge-exchange plasma flow (United States)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Gabriel, S. B.; Kitamura, S.


    The electron bombardment ion thruster has been under development for a number of years and during this time, studies of the plasmas produced by the thrusters and their interactions with spacecraft have been evaluated, based on available data. Due to diagnostic techniques used and facility effects, there is uncertainty as to the reliability of data from these early studies. This paper presents data on the flow of the charge-exchange plasma produced just downstream of the thruster's ion optics. The 'end-effect' of a cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to determine ion density and directed ion velocity. Results are compared with data obtained from a retarding potential analyzer-Faraday cup.

  7. 78 FR 69910 - Joint Industry Plan; BATS Exchange, Inc., BATS-Y Exchange, Inc., BOX Options Exchange LLC, C2... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Joint Industry Plan; BATS Exchange, Inc., BATS-Y Exchange, Inc., BOX Options Exchange LLC, C2... LLC, NYSE Arca, Inc. and Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed National Market System Plan... and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed National Market System (``NMS'') Plan Governing...

  8. Liquid/liquid heat exchanger (United States)

    Miller, C. G.


    Conceptual design for heat exchanger, utilizing two immiscible liquids with dissimilar specific gravities in direct contact, is more efficient mechanism of heat transfer than conventional heat exchangers with walls or membranes. Concept could be adapted for collection of heat from solar or geothermal sources.

  9. Educators Exchange: A Program Evaluation. (United States)

    Armstrong, William B.

    The Educators Exchange Program (EEP) was established under a training and educational exchange agreement reached by California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In the program, the District provided a 4-week technological training program to faculty at Centros de Capacitacion Tecnologica Industrial…

  10. Risk Balance in Exchange Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Dashti (Mohammad); Y. Wang (Yanjing); I. Cervesato


    htmlabstractWe study the behaviour of rational agents in exchange protocols which rely on trustees. We allow malicious parties to compromise the trustee by paying a cost and, thereby, present a game analysis that advocates exchange protocols which induce balanced risks on the participants. We also

  11. Professional Exchange: Mapping the Future. (United States)

    Dingman, Robert L.


    New associate editor of Professional Exchange section of "Journal of Mental Health Counseling" discusses importance of section. Lists potential topics suggested in 1989, then adds several other topics to the list. Concludes with guidelines for submission to Professional Exchange section. (NB)

  12. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav


    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  13. Transendothelial lipoprotein exchange and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Jensen, Kurt Svarre


    OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria associates with increased risk of atherosclerosis in individuals without diabetes. We hypothesized that transendothelial lipoprotein exchange is elevated among such individuals, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein accumulation and thus atherosclerosis....... METHODS: Using an in vivo isotope technique, transendothelial exchange of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured in 77 non-diabetic individuals. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL was reinjected intravenously, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was calculated as index of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS......: There was no difference in transendothelial LDL exchange between subjects with microalbuminuria versus normoalbuminuria (mean (95% confidence interval) 3.8%/h (3.3-4.3%/h) versus 4.2%/h (3.7-4.7%/h); P=0.33). In contrast, there was a positive correlation between transendothelial LDL exchange and (logarithmically...

  14. Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ohadi, Michael; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Cetegen, Edvin


    In Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, the authors’ focus on the new generation highly efficient heat exchangers and presentation of novel data and technical expertise not available in the open literature.  Next generation micro channels offer record high heat transfer coefficients with pressure drops much less than conventional micro channel heat exchangers. These inherent features promise fast penetration into many mew markets, including high heat flux cooling of electronics, waste heat recovery and energy efficiency enhancement applications, alternative energy systems, as well as applications in mass exchangers and chemical reactor systems. The combination of up to the minute research findings and technical know-how make this book very timely as the search for high performance heat and mass exchangers that can cut costs in materials consumption intensifies.

  15. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.


    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  16. Simulating Replica Exchange: Markov State Models, Proposal Schemes, and the Infinite Swapping Limit. (United States)

    Zhang, Bin W; Dai, Wei; Gallicchio, Emilio; He, Peng; Xia, Junchao; Tan, Zhiqiang; Levy, Ronald M


    Replica exchange molecular dynamics is a multicanonical simulation technique commonly used to enhance the sampling of solvated biomolecules on rugged free energy landscapes. While replica exchange is relatively easy to implement, there are many unanswered questions about how to use this technique most efficiently, especially because it is frequently the case in practice that replica exchange simulations are not fully converged. A replica exchange cycle consists of a series of molecular dynamics steps of a set of replicas moving under different Hamiltonians or at different thermodynamic states followed by one or more replica exchange attempts to swap replicas among the different states. How the replica exchange cycle is constructed affects how rapidly the system equilibrates. We have constructed a Markov state model of replica exchange (MSMRE) using long molecular dynamics simulations of a host-guest binding system as an example, in order to study how different implementations of the replica exchange cycle can affect the sampling efficiency. We analyze how the number of replica exchange attempts per cycle, the number of MD steps per cycle, and the interaction between the two parameters affects the largest implied time scale of the MSMRE simulation. The infinite swapping limit is an important concept in replica exchange. We show how to estimate the infinite swapping limit from the diagonal elements of the exchange transition matrix constructed from MSMRE "simulations of simulations" as well as from relatively short runs of the actual replica exchange simulations.

  17. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.


    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  18. Local structures of ions at ion-exchange resin/solution interface. (United States)

    Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo


    The local structures of Cl- and Br- in anion-exchange resins have been studied by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and separation selectivity is discussed on the basis of results. When two different anion-exchange resins having trimethylammonium and dimethylammonium groups as anion-exchange groups are employed for ion-exchange experiments, slightly higher Br- selectivity has been obtained with the former. XAFS has indicated that the average hydration numbers for a given anion is not affected by the structure of the ion-exchange group, but that the extent of ion-association between the anion and the ion-exchange groups depends on the type of the ion-exchange group. Shorter interaction distance (and in turn stronger ion-association) has been confirmed for the dimethylammonium-type resin, and is consistent with lower Br- selectivity of this resin.

  19. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.


    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  20. Measurement of absorption and charge exchange of $\\pi^+$ on carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Ieki, K; Berkman, S; Bhadra, S; Cao, C; de Perio, P; Hayato, Y; Ikeda, M; Kanazawa, Y; Kim, J; Kitching, P; Mahn, K; Nakaya, T; Nicholson, M; Olchanski, K; Rettie, S; Tanaka, H A; Wilking, M J; Tobayama, S; Yamauchi, T; Yen, S; Yokoyama, M


    The combined cross section for absorption and charge exchange interactions of positively charged pions with carbon nuclei for the momentum range 200 MeV/c to 300 MeV/c have been measured with the DUET experiment at TRIUMF. The uncertainty is reduced by nearly half compared to previous experiments. This result will be a valuable input to existing models to constrain pion interactions with nuclei.

  1. On Cultural And Academic Exchanges Between China And African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooperation between China and African countries has often been portrayed as an economic one. Despite multiple exchanges in the area of culture and knowledge production, not much is written about Chinese culture in Africa or knowledge production interaction between both China and African countries. Just to give an ...

  2. The Role of Work Values in Leader-Member Exchange. (United States)

    Steiner, Dirk D.; Dobbins, Gregory H.

    The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) approach to leadership emphasizes the interactive nature of the superior-subordinate relationship, asserting that an individual's role in an organization is defined through a series of episodes with the supervisor. Because work-related values are potentially important subordinate characteristics in LMX development,…

  3. DNA strand exchange catalyzed by molecular crowding in PEG solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Bobo


    DNA strand exchange is catalyzed by molecular crowding and hydrophobic interactions in concentrated aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol, a discovery of relevance for understanding the function of recombination enzymes and with potential applications to DNA nanotechnology. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Hydration shells exchange charge with their protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Lindgård, Per-Anker; Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert


    Investigation of the interaction between a protein and its hydration shells is an experimental and theoretical challenge. Here, we used ultrasonic pressure waves in aqueous solutions of a protein to explore the conformational states of the protein and its interaction with its hydration shells....... In our experiments, the amplitude of an ultrasonic pressure wave is gradually increased (0–20 atm) while we simultaneously measure the Raman spectra from the hydrated protein (β-lactoglobulin and lysozyme). We detected two types of spectral changes: first, up to 70% increase in the intensity...... the presence of an ultrasonic pressure, a protein and its hydration shells are in thermodynamic and charge equilibrium, i.e. a protein and its hydration shells exchange charges. The ultrasonic wave disrupts these equilibria which are regained within 30–45 min after the ultrasonic pressure is shut off....

  5. Coworker Exchange, Leader-Member Exchange, and Work Attitudes:P A Study of Coworker Dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wikaningrum


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine how leader-member exchange (LMX similarity might affect exchange quality between coworkers. This research also investigates the relationships of LMX and CWX (coworker exchange to employees’ organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Each respondent from 76 nurses at three hospitals in Semarang were asked to rate the quality of the relationship he/she had with his/her supervisor, resulting in 76 LMX ratings. They were also asked to rate the quality of their relationships with each of their coworkers. A dyad was created where we had complete information on two employees rating one another. Once paired, a total of 146 dyads with complete LMX, CWX, and work attitude data were acquired. The results of this research indicate that the interaction between two coworkers’ LMX scores predicts CWX quality for the coworker dyad. After controlling for CWX, LMX quality is positively related to job satisfaction, but not to organizational commitment. Furthermore, after controlling for LMX, a greater diversity in a worker’s CWX relationship is negatively associated to his/her organizational commitment, but not to his/her job satisfaction. The interaction of CWX quality and CWX diversity, however, does not predict work attitude.

  6. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange. (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D


    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.



    Podobeková, Veronika; Peráčková, Jana


    The article discusses utilization of heat from waste water in sewage. During the year, temperature of water in sewage ranges between 10 °C and 20 °C and the heat from sewage could be used for heating, cooling and hot water preparation in building. The heat is extracted through a transfer surface area of the heat exchanger into the heat pump, which is able to utilize the low–potential energy. Different design and types of the heat exchangers in sewage are dealt with: heat exchangers embedded i...

  8. Relational and XML Data Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Arenas, Marcelo


    Data exchange is the problem of finding an instance of a target schema, given an instance of a source schema and a specification of the relationship between the source and the target. Such a target instance should correctly represent information from the source instance under the constraints imposed by the target schema, and it should allow one to evaluate queries on the target instance in a way that is semantically consistent with the source data. Data exchange is an old problem that re-emerged as an active research topic recently, due to the increased need for exchange of data in various for

  9. Heat exchanger using graphite foam (United States)

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John


    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  10. Magnetic interactions between nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Frandsen, Cathrine


    We present a short overview of the influence of inter-particle interactions on the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. Strong magnetic dipole interactions between ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles, that would be superparamagnetic if isolated, can result in a collective state of nanoparti......We present a short overview of the influence of inter-particle interactions on the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. Strong magnetic dipole interactions between ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles, that would be superparamagnetic if isolated, can result in a collective state...... of nanoparticles. This collective state has many similarities to spin-glasses. In samples of aggregated magnetic nanoparticles, exchange interactions are often important and this can also lead to a strong suppression of superparamagnetic relaxation. The temperature dependence of the order parameter in samples...... of strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles or goethite grains is well described by a simple mean field model. Exchange interactions between nanoparticles with different orientations of the easy axes can also result in a rotation of the sub-lattice magnetization directions....

  11. Nanoscale Control of Exchange Bias with BiFeO3 Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Lane W.; Chu, Ying-Hao; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Huijben, Mark; Yu, Pu; Han, Shu-Jen; Lee, Donkoun; Wang, Shan X.; Ramesh, R.


    We demonstrate a direct correlation between the domain structure of multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films and exchange bias of Co0.9Fe0.1/BiFeO3 heterostructures. Two distinct types of interactions − an enhancement of the coercive field (exchange enhancement) and an enhancement of the coercive field

  12. The Usage of Informational Gateways for Data Exchange between Personal Data Systems of Different Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Goncharov


    Full Text Available When personal data exchange between informational systems takes place, one must guarantee the systems are not integrating but just interacting. This task can not be accomplished by using traditional tools such as firewalls, cryptography and so on. To solve the problem we suggest deploying of informational gateway in personal data exchange process.

  13. Does Sex of Dyad Members Really Matter? A Review of Leader-Member Exchange (United States)

    Goertzen, Brent J.; Fritz, Susan M.


    Leader-member exchange (LMX) generally refers to the leadership process centered on the interactions between leaders and direct reports. The basic premise of high quality leader-member exchange relationships holds that direct reports gain tremendous benefits through these partnerships. LMX is perhaps the most commonly researched theory of…

  14. A novel silica based click lysine anion exchanger for ion exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Guo, Hongyue; Chu, Changhu; Li, Yan; Yang, Bingcheng; Liang, Xinmiao


    Ion chromatography (IC) is one of the most powerful analysis technologies for the determination of charged compounds. A novel click lysine stationary phase was prepared via Cu(I) catalyzed alkyne-azide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC) and applied to the analysis of inorganic ions. The chromatographic evaluation demonstrated good performance (e.g. the plate number of thiocyanate is ∼50,000 plates m(-1)) and effective separation ability for the common inorganic anions with aqueous Na(2)SO(4) eluent. The separation mechanism was observed to be mainly dominated by ion exchange interaction. The retention of these analytes is highly dependent on the pH value of eluent. Compared with the lysine stationary phase prepared via the conventional manner, the click lysine exchanger demonstrated shorter retention time and better ion separation characteristics under the same chromatographic conditions, which is a great advantage for rapid separation and analysis of inorganic ions.

  15. Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton


    This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

  16. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This project seeks to improve the efficiency of the plutonium anion-exchange process for purifying Pu through the development of alternate ion-exchange media. The objective of the project in FY15 was to develop and test a porous foam monolith material that could serve as a replacement for the current anion-exchange resin, Reillex® HPQ, used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for purifying Pu. The new material provides advantages in efficiency over the current resin by the elimination of diffusive mass transport through large granular resin beads. By replacing the large resin beads with a porous foam there is much more efficient contact between the Pu solution and the anion-exchange sites present on the material. Several samples of a polystyrene based foam grafted with poly(4-vinylpyridine) were prepared and the Pu sorption was tested in batch contact tests.

  17. Liquid droplet heat exchanger studies (United States)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Hedges, D. E.; Yungster, S.


    Recent analytical and experimental investigations of the liquid droplet heat exchanger (LDHX) concept for space power applications are described. The performance of the LDHX is compared to that of a conventional heat exchanger for heat rejection applications in a Brayton cycle, using the mass-specific heat exchanger effectiveness as a figure of merit. It is shown that the LDHX has an order of magnitude advantage over the conventional heat exchanger. Furthermore, significant improvement in cycle efficiency and power to mass ratio is possible. Two-phase flow experiments in a laboratory scale LDHX, using air and water as the two media, show very good agreement with the quasi-one-dimensional model used in the parametric studies.

  18. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim


    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  19. VLER Health Exchange by Area (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — “Connect Your Docs” through the Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record (VLER) Health Exchange program. This program gives VA and community health care providers secure...

  20. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat...

  1. Ferromagnetism and interlayer exchange coupling in thin metallic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienert, Jochen


    This thesis is concerned with the ferromagnetic Kondo lattice (s-d,s-f) model for film geometry. The spin-fermion interaction of this model refers to substances in which localized spins interact with mobile charge carriers like in (dilute) magnetic semiconductors, manganites, or rare-earth compounds. The carrier-mediated, indirect interaction between the localized spins comprises the long-range, oscillatory RKKY exchange interaction in the weak-coupling case and the short-range doubleexchange interaction for strong spin-fermion coupling. Both limits are recovered in this work by mapping the problem onto an effective Heisenberg model. The influence of reduced translational symmetry on the effective exchange interaction and on the magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic Kondo lattice model is investigated. Curie temperatures are obtained for different parameter constellations. The consequences of charge transfer and of lattice relaxation on the magnetic stability at the surface are considered. Since the effective exchange integrals are closely related to the electronic structure in terms of the density of states and of the kinetic energy, the discussion is based on the modifications of these quantities in the dimensionally-reduced case. The important role of spin waves for thin film and surface magnetism is demonstrated. Interlayer exchange coupling represents a particularly interesting and important manifestation of the indirect interaction among localized magnetic moments. The coupling between monatomic layers in thin films is studied in the framework of an RKKY approach. It is decisively determined by the type of in-plane and perpendicular dispersion of the charge carriers and is strongly suppressed above a critical value of the Fermi energy. Finally, the temperature-dependent magnetic stability of thin interlayer-coupled films is addressed and the conditions for a temperature-driven magnetic reorientation transition are discussed. (orig.)

  2. International Prices and Exchange Rates


    Gopinath, Gita; Burstein, Ariel


    We survey the recent empirical and theoretical developments in the literature on the relation between prices and exchange rates. After updating some of the major findings in the empirical literature we present a simple framework to interpret this evidence. We review theoretical models that generate insensitivity of prices to exchange rate changes through variable markups, both under flexible prices and nominal rigidities, first in partial equilibrium and then in general equilibrium.

  3. Exchange rate determination in Vietnam


    Thai-Ha Le


    This study investigates the determinants of the exchange rate in Vietnam and suggests policy implications. Gregory-Hansen cointegration tests and generalised variance decomposition (VDC) analysis were applied to monthly data from July 2004 to December 2013. The model was built based on the three popular approaches to exchange rate determination, which are purchasing power parity (PPP) approach, balance of payment (BOP) approach, and monetary and portfolio approach. This study finds that the p...

  4. Shared Year Exchange in Nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsegaard, Helle Wendner; Wederkinck, Elisabeth


    Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien.......Beskrivelse af Shared Year Exchange in Nursing, et udviklingsporjekt omhandlende udvikling, beskrivelse og implementering af et fælles studieår for sygeplejerskestuderende ved Metropol og La Trobe University Australien....

  5. Students as effective harm reductionists and needle exchange organizers. (United States)

    Barbour, Kyle; McQuade, Miriam; Brown, Brandon


    Needle exchange programs are safe, highly effective programs for promoting health among people who inject drugs. However, they remain poorly funded, and often illegal, in many places worldwide due to fear and stigma surrounding drug use. Continued advocacy, education, and implementation of new needle exchanges are thus essential to improve public health and reduce structural inequality. We argue that students, and especially professional and graduate students, have the potential to play an important role in advancing harm reduction. Students benefit from the respect given to the professions they are training to enter, which gives them leverage to navigate the political hurdles often faced by needle exchange organizers, especially in areas that presently lack services. In addition, due to their relative simplicity, needle exchanges do not require much of the licensing, clinical knowledge, and infrastructure associated with more traditional student programs, such as student-run free medical clinics. Students are capable of learning harm reduction cultural approaches and techniques if they remain humble, open-minded, and seek the help of the harm reduction community. Consequently, students can generate tremendous benefits to their community without performing beyond their appropriate clinical limitations. Students benefit from organizing needle exchanges by gaining applied experience in advocacy, organization-building, and political finesse. Working in a needle exchange significantly helps erode stigma against multiple marginalized populations. Students in health-related professions additionally learn clinically-relevant knowledge that is often lacking from their formal training, such as an understanding of structural violence and inequality, root causes of substance use, client-centered approaches to health services, and interacting with clients as peers, rather than through the standard hierarchical medical interaction. We therefore encourage students to learn about

  6. Simultaneous optimization of water and heat exchange networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiyou; Hou, Yanlong; Li, Xiaoduan; Wang, Jingtao [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)


    This paper focuses on the simultaneous optimization of the heat-integrated water allocation networks. A mathematic model is established to illustrate the modified state-space representation of this problem. An easy logical method is employed to help identify the streams of hot or cold ones. In this model, the water exchange networks (WEN), heat exchange networks (HEN), and the interactions between the WEN and HEN combine together as one unity. Thus, the whole network can be solved at one time, which enhances the possibility to get a global optimal result. Examples from the literature and a PVC plant are analyzed to illustrate the accuracy and applicability of this method.

  7. Going on exchange to Scandinavia to improve language skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    Most exchange students now come to Scandinavian countries not because they are students of the languages of the countries concerned, but because they wish to experience study abroad and can do so in Scandinavia through the medium of English used as a lingua franca. This paper reports on a three-y...... for their interactions? What contributions do these exchanges make to European goals of promoting 'mother tongue plus two'? The paper sheds some light upon these questions and considers the implications of the answers found thus far....

  8. Magnetic interactions through fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Sigrist, Marc; Weihe, Høgni


    The nature of the magnetic interaction through fluoride in a simple, dinuclear manganese(III) complex (1), bridged by a single fluoride ion in a perfectly linear fashion, is established by experiment and density functional theory. The magnitude of the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction...... and the manganese(III) zero-field-splitting parameters are unambiguously determined by inelastic neutron scattering to yield J = 33.0(2) cm(-1) (Ĥ = JŜ1·Ŝ2 Hamiltonian definition) and single-ion D = -4.0(1) cm(-1). Additionally, high-field, high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetic measurements...... support the parameter values and resolve |E| ≈ 0.04 cm(-1). The exchange coupling constant (J) is 1 order of magnitude smaller than that found in comparable systems with linear oxide bridging but comparable to typical magnitudes through cyanide, thus underlining the potential of fluoride complexes...

  9. Biological Interactions of Nanomaterials (United States)


    interest of scientific and technical information exchange, and its publication does not constitute the Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas...proteins and glycoproteins, the cellular interactions of these NPs with human tissues must be considered. Because the production of viable sperm is...Billerica, MA). Then 30 μg of the immunoprecipitates were loaded onto 10 percent Tris-HCl gels for electrophoresis (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). The

  10. Comparison of reversed-phase/cation-exchange/anion-exchange trimodal stationary phases and their use in active pharmaceutical ingredient and counterion determinations. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Pohl, Christopher A


    This study involved three commercial reversed-phase (RP)/anion-exchange (AEX)/cation-exchange (CEX) trimodal columns, namely Acclaim Trinity P1 (Thermo Fisher Scientific), Obelisc R (SIELC Technologies) and Scherzo SM-C18 (Imtakt). Their chromatographic properties were compared in details with respect to hydrophobicity, anion-exchange capacity, cation-exchange capacity, and selectivity, by studying retention behavior dependency on organic solvent, buffer concentration and pH. It was found that their remarkably different column chemistries resulted in distinctive chromatography properties. Trinity P1 exhibited strong anion-exchange and cation-exchange interactions but low RP retention while Scherzo SM-C18 showed strong reversed-phase retention with little cation-exchange and anion-exchange capacities. For Obelisc R, its reversed-phase capacity was weaker than Scherzo SM-C18 but slightly higher than Trinity P1, and its ion-exchange retentions were between Trinity P1 and Scherzo SM-C18. In addition, their difference in selectivity was demonstrated by examples of determining the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and counterion of drug products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Polar Aprotic Modifiers for Chromatographic Separation and Back-Exchange Reduction for Protein Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Monitored by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Valeja, Santosh G.; Emmett, Mark R.; Marshall, Alan G.


    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry is an important non-perturbing tool to study protein structure and protein–protein interactions. However, water in the reversed-phase liquid chromatography mobile phase leads to back-exchange of D for H during chromatographic separation of proteolytic peptides following H/D exchange, resulting in incorrect identification of fast-exchanging hydrogens as unexchanged hydrogens. Previously, fast high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography have been shown to decrease back-exchange. Here, we show that replacement of up to 40% of the water in the LC mobile phase by the modifiers, dimethylformamide (DMF) and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) (i.e., polar organic modifiers that lack rapid exchanging hydrogens), significantly reduces back-exchange. On-line LC micro-ESI FT-ICR MS resolves overlapped proteolytic peptide isotopic distributions, allowing for quantitative determination of the extent of back-exchange. The DMF modified solvent composition also improves chromatographic separation while reducing back-exchange relative to conventional solvent. PMID:22298288

  12. Characterization of protein/ligand interactions by {sup 1}H/{sup 3}H exchange: application to the hAsf{sup 1}/ histone H{sup 3} complex; Caracterisation des interactions proteine / ligand par echange {sup 1}H/{sup 3}H: application au complexe entre la proteine hAsf{sup 1} et l'histone H{sup 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, G


    In the first chapter will be exposed the main current methods of identification to high debit of the interactions protein-protein. Then the methods allowing to characterize the surfaces of interaction or to determine the structures of the complexes will be listed by discussing the main advantages and the inconveniences. Our approach of characterization of the zones of interaction protein-protein is a method of 'foot-printing' 1, based on the identification and radicals' quantification formed on the residues of proteins accessible to the water. The second chapter will so discuss the development of this method of radical identification using the atom of tritium as radioactive label. Our approach will finally be validated in the third chapter by applying it to the characterization of amino acids involved in the interaction enter the human protein anti silencing factor 1 (hAsf11-156) and a fragment of the histone H{sup 3}. (N.C.)

  13. Exchange bias effect in Ti doped nanocrystalline SrFeO3-δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sendil Kumar


    Full Text Available Materials of Ti doped nanocrystalline SrFeO3-δ were synthesized through solid state reaction. Detailed magnetization measurements were carried out in zero field cooled (ZFC and field cooled (FC conditions. Compounds of SrFe1-xTixO3-δ (x = 0.1 to 0.3 are found to be spin glass and parent compound is a helical antiferromagnet. Non magnetic Ti4+ reduces the strength of exchange interactions and the curvature of hysteresis is changed towards concave nature. Exchange bias is observed below the peak temperature (irreversibility in magnetization (TIrr in ZFC-FC of SrFe1-xTixO3-δ (x = 0 to 0.3. The coercivity and exchange bias field values are found to be decreases with increase in temperature. Observed exchange bias effect is attributed to competition between antiferromagnetic superexchange and ferromagnetic double exchange interactions.

  14. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman


    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  15. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This research is focused on improving the efficiency of the anion exchange process for purifying plutonium. While initially focused on plutonium, the technology could also be applied to other ion-exchange processes. Work in FY17 focused on the improvement and optimization of porous foam columns that were initially developed in FY16. These foam columns were surface functionalized with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) to provide the Pu specific anion-exchange sites. Two different polymerization methods were explored for maximizing the surface functionalization with the PVP. The open-celled polymeric foams have large open pores and large surface areas available for sorption. The fluid passes through the large open pores of this material, allowing convection to be the dominant mechanism by which mass transport takes place. These materials generally have very low densities, open-celled structures with high cell interconnectivity, small cell sizes, uniform cell size distributions, and high structural integrity. These porous foam columns provide advantages over the typical porous resin beads by eliminating the slow diffusion through resin beads, making the anion-exchange sites easily accessible on the foam surfaces. The best performing samples exceeded the Pu capacity of the commercially available resin, and also offered the advantage of sharper elution profiles, resulting in a more concentrated product, with less loss of material to the dilute heads and tails cuts. An alternate approach to improving the efficiency of this process was also explored through the development of a microchannel array system for performing the anion exchange.

  16. Electrically Switched Cesium Ion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JPH Sukamto; ML Lilga; RK Orth


    This report discusses the results of work to develop Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) for separations of ions from waste streams relevant to DOE site clean-up. ESIX combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for radionuclide separation that lowers costs and minimizes secondary waste generation typically associated with conventional ion exchange. In the ESIX process, an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto. a high surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. As a result, the production of secondary waste is minimized, since the large volumes of solution associated with elution, wash, and regeneration cycles typical of standard ion exchange are not needed for the ESIX process. The document is presented in two parts: Part I, the Summary Report, discusses the objectives of the project, describes the ESIX concept and the approach taken, and summarizes the major results; Part II, the Technology Description, provides a technical description of the experimental procedures and in-depth discussions on modeling, case studies, and cost comparisons between ESIX and currently used technologies.

  17. Interactional Dimension of Online Asynchronous Exchange in an Asymmetric Telecollaboration (United States)

    Loizidou, Dora; Mangenot, François


    The telecollaborative project under study involves, on the one hand, Masters students who are studying to become teachers and who design the tasks as well as tutor them, and, on the other hand, French language students. The relationship in this type of telecollaboration has been shown to be both asymmetric and symmetric. The hypothesis this paper…

  18. Effects of perturbative exchanges in a QCD-string model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Weda; J. Tjon


    The QCD-string model for baryons derived by Simonov and used for the calculation of baryon magnetic moments in a previous paper is extended to include also perturbative gluon and meson exchanges. The mass spectrum of the baryon multiplet is studied. For the meson interaction either the pseudoscalar or pseudovector coupling is used. Predictions are compared with the experimental data. Besides these exchanges the influence of excited quark orbitals on the baryon ground state are considered by performing a multichannel calculation. The nucleon-Delta splitting increases due to the mixing of higher quark states while the baryon magnetic momenta decrease. The multichannel calculation with perturbative exchanges is shown to yield reasonable magnetic moments while the mass spectrum is close to experiment.

  19. Effect of interlayer exchange coupling on magnetic chiral structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. P.; Kwon, H. Y.; Kim, H. S.; Shim, J. H.; Won, C. [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    We numerically investigated the effect of interlayer exchange coupling on magnetic chiral structures, such as a helical/cycloidal spin structure and magnetic skyrmion crystal (SkX), which are produced in a magnetic system involving the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). We report the existence of a phase transition where the length scale of magnetic structure discontinuously changes, and that there can be a novel magnetic structure around the phase boundary that exhibits double-ordering lengths of magnetic structure. Therefore, the system has multiple ground phases determined by the ratio of interlayer exchange coupling strength and DMI strength. Furthermore, we investigated the critical condition of the external perpendicular field required for the SkX. The critical field is significantly reduced under the effect of interlayer exchange coupling, which can stabilize the SkX without the external field.

  20. Chain exchange in block copolymer micelles (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Bates, Frank; Lodge, Timothy


    Block copolymer micelles are aggregates formed by self-assembly of amphiphilic copolymers dispersed in a selective solvent, driven by unfavorable interactions between the solvent and the core-forming block. Due to the relatively long chains being subject to additional thermodynamic and dynamic constraints (e.g., entanglements, crystallinity, vitrification), block copolymer micelles exhibit significantly slower equilibration kinetics than small molecule surfactants. As a result, details of the mechanism(s) of equilibration in block copolymer micelles remain unclear. This present works focuses on the chain exchange kinetics of poly(styrene-b-ethylenepropylene) block copolymers in squalane (C30H62) using time-resolved small angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS). A mixture of h-squalane and d-squalane is chosen so that it contrast matches a mixed 50/50 h/d polystyrene micelle core. When the temperature is appropriate and isotopically labeled chains undergo mixing, the mean core contrast with respect to the solvent decreases, and the scattering intensity is therefore reduced. This strategy allows direct probing of chain exchange rate from the time dependent scattering intensity I(q, t).

  1. Oscillating-Coolant Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J.; Blosser, Max L.; Camarda, Charles J.


    Devices useful in situations in which heat pipes inadequate. Conceptual oscillating-coolant heat exchanger (OCHEX) transports heat from its hotter portions to cooler portions. Heat transported by oscillation of single-phase fluid, called primary coolant, in coolant passages. No time-averaged flow in tubes, so either heat removed from end reservoirs on every cycle or heat removed indirectly by cooling sides of channels with another coolant. Devices include leading-edge cooling devices in hypersonic aircraft and "frost-free" heat exchangers. Also used in any situation in which heat pipe used and in other situations in which heat pipes not usable.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The experience of recentyears showsthat it hasa fundamentalroleformation mechanismof the exchange rateinmacroeconomic stabilization. Global economiccrises, oil shockshave shownthe difficultyoffloatingsustainabilitybyparticipants in the system. EuropeanMonetary System, focused onconcertedfloatingcurrenciestoECU, was formedunder the conditionsin which somecountries have adoptedregional monetaryarrangements(EU countries, with suchbasescurrencyregimeshybridthat combinesspecific mechanismsto those offixedratefree floating. This paperaims to demonstratethe important role thatithasthe choice ofexchange rateregimeas abasic elementin thefoundationofmacroeconomic stabilizationinstruments. Consideredan expression of thestateof the domestic economyandinternationalcompetitiveness, the exchange rate is determined bya complex set ofexternal factorsorinternalstabilityisa prerequisite forthe crisis.

  3. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang


    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  4. Experimental study on the influence of charge exchange on the stopping power in the interaction of chlorine with a gas and a deuterium plasma; Etude experimentale de l`influence des echanges de charges sur le pouvoir d`arret dans l`interaction d`ions chlore avec un gaz et un plasma de deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nectoux, Marie [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)


    This thesis is placed in the context of the physics of energy deposition of a multicharged heavy ion beam in matter at intermediate energies. The experiment gave measurements of energy loss as a function of final charge state for chlorine ions at 1.7 MeV/u in deuterium gas or plasma. In this way, we explore the influence of charge state evolution, depending on experimentally measured capture and ionization cross sections and the electron density of the target, on energy loss. The target is cylindrical and enclosed by two fast valves. The plasma is created in the gas by a discharge, which induces a magnetic perturbation of the beam (lens effect). This effect induces a divergent and misaligned outgoing beam. A simulation including charge state and velocity evolution of the projectile in flight in the magnetic field has been made in order to optimize beam analysis, to reach a precision better than 10{sup -3} in energy measurement. This study led to removal of the target to the `Split Pole`, a refocusing magnetic spectrometer. The first results obtained clearly show the dependence of energy loss on exit charge and especially on its evolution in the target. This is explained in terms of the lengths covered by the projectile in its successive charge states in the target, which depends on target electron density and the medium considered. In plasma, we observed an energy distribution with exit charge twice that observed in gas, because of a strong decrease of charge exchange. A comparison of data obtained in gas with stopping power calculated from Bethe-Bloch-Barkas theory leads to the necessity of including spatial extension of the projectile charge in the theory. (author) 81 refs., 62 figs., 5tabs.

  5. Energetics of sodium-calcium exchanged zeolite A. (United States)

    Sun, H; Wu, D; Guo, X; Shen, B; Navrotsky, A


    A series of calcium-exchanged zeolite A samples with different degrees of exchange were prepared. They were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). High temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry measured the formation enthalpies of hydrated zeolites CaNa-A from constituent oxides. The water content is a linear function of the degree of exchange, ranging from 20.54% for Na-A to 23.77% for 97.9% CaNa-A. The enthalpies of formation (from oxides) at 25 °C are -74.50 ± 1.21 kJ mol(-1) TO2 for hydrated zeolite Na-A and -30.79 ± 1.64 kJ mol(-1) TO2 for hydrated zeolite 97.9% CaNa-A. Dehydration enthalpies obtained from differential scanning calorimetry are 32.0 kJ mol(-1) H2O for hydrated zeolite Na-A and 20.5 kJ mol(-1) H2O for hydrated zeolite 97.9% CaNa-A. Enthalpies of formation of Ca-exchanged zeolites A are less exothermic than for zeolite Na-A. A linear relationship between the formation enthalpy and the extent of calcium substitution was observed. The energetic effect of Ca-exchange on zeolite A is discussed with an emphasis on the complex interactions between the zeolite framework, cations, and water.

  6. [Utilization of Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange in Biopharmaceutical Industry]. (United States)

    Coufalová, D; Vojtěšek, B; Hernychova, L

    The development of biopharmaceutics is the fastest growing segment of the present pharmaceutical industry. The analysis of proteins therapeutics is a challenging task due to their large size and complexity of spatial structure. Any changes in the primary, secondary, tertiary or quaternary protein structure can have huge impact on their function, efficiency and toxicity. Mass spectrometry proved itself to be a powerful tool for analysis of primary protein structure (amino acid sequence) and thanks to the development of new techniques in last years it is able to analyse higher order protein structures. One of these new techniques is hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX). HDX is based on exchange of amid protons with deuterium from solution on the protein backbone chain. Protons on the surface of protein are exchanging with deuterium much faster than protons buried inside of protein. HDX results could provide information about spatial protein structure and also about protein-protein interactions and protein-ligand interactions. Furthermore, by analysing of deuterium exchange in different time points this method could give information about dynamic changes of protein structure and dynamics of proteins interactions. Because of possibilities of this method, HDX become attractive method for characterization of protein biopharmaceuticals. This review article is focused on the utilization of mass spectrometry in biopharmaceutical industry and mainly on HDX method and its applications.Key words: mass spectrometry - proteomics - protein conformation - drug discovery - drug industry - hydrogen/deuterium exchangeThe work was supported by the project MEYS - NPS I - LO1413.The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study.The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 23. 5. 2016Accepted: 10. 6. 2016.

  7. Kinetic model of mass exchange with dynamic Arrhenius transition rates (United States)

    Hristopulos, Dionissios T.; Muradova, Aliki


    We study a nonlinear kinetic model of mass exchange between interacting grains. The transition rates follow the Arrhenius equation with an activation energy that depends dynamically on the grain mass. We show that the activation parameter can be absorbed in the initial conditions for the grain masses, and that the total mass is conserved. We obtain numerical solutions of the coupled, nonlinear, ordinary differential equations of mass exchange for the two-grain system, and we compare them with approximate theoretical solutions in specific neighborhoods of the phase space. Using phase plane methods, we determine that the system exhibits regimes of diffusive and growth-decay (reverse diffusion) kinetics. The equilibrium states are determined by the mass equipartition and separation nullcline curves. If the transfer rates are perturbed by white noise, numerical simulations show that the system maintains the diffusive and growth-decay regimes; however, the noise can reverse the sign of equilibrium mass difference. Finally, we present theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of a system with many interacting grains. Diffusive and growth-decay regimes are established as well, but the approach to equilibrium is considerably slower. Potential applications of the mass exchange model involve coarse-graining during sintering and wealth exchange in econophysics.

  8. Exchange asymmetry in experimental settings (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Mark D. Morrison; Jacob A. Benfield; Gretchen Nurse Rainbolt; Paul A. Bell


    We review past trading experiments and present 11 new experiments designed to show how the trading rate responds to alterations of the experimental procedure. In agreement with earlier studies, results show that if the trade decision is converted to one resembling a choice between goods the exchange asymmetry disappears, but otherwise the asymmetry is...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  10. Our International Art Exchange Project. (United States)

    Cocciolone, Kathy R.


    Discusses an international art exchange project designed to teach fifth-grade students that the culture of a country is reflected in its art and that art is a universal language. Describes the contributions from Scotland, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Japan, and India. Points out ways to use materials in schools. (KO)

  11. Milk fouling in heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, T.J.M.


    The mechanisms of fouling of heat exchangers by milk were studied. Two major fouling mechanisms were indentified during the heat treatment of milk: (i) the formation and the subsequent deposition of activated serum protein molecules as a result of the heat denaturation; (ii) the

  12. Update of telephone exchange switches

    CERN Multimedia


    Within the scope of the CERN phone services improvement, a software update will be done on exchange switches on Wednesday 27 october from 7.00 pm to 12.00 pm. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this intervention. We appology in advance for any inconveniences that may occur.

  13. Maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia


    A maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th of September from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this lapse of time. We apology in advance for any inconveniences that this may cause.

  14. The Commodity and its Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset


    and the value of the quota are examined through the concrete exchange of fishing rights, and it is explained why quota trade can give rise to speculation and monopolies. In the final part of the chapter, it is argued that the value of transferable fishing quotas rely on a social relation between owners...... and nonowners of quota, as a form of monopoly rent....

  15. Baltic Exchange teper v Tallinne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  16. Energy Exchange NASA Opening Plenary (United States)

    Marrs, Rick


    Rick Marrs, Deputy Assistant Administrator Office of Strategic Infrastructure NASA Headquarters will be speaking during the 2017 Energy Exchange opening plenary. His presentation showcases the NASA mission, sustainability at NASA, NASA's strategic Sustainability Performance Plan, Existing PV Partnerships, and NASA funded Solar Initiatives at KSC.

  17. Homans on Exchange: Hedonism Revived (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Bengt


    George C. Homan's theory on social exchange is critically examined and found to have serious shortcomings with regard to its deductive and inductive aspects. An expecially prominent shortcoming concerns the tautological character of his concept of reward," which makes his theory deductively unclear and empirically untestable. Homan's critique…

  18. Common knowledge in email exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietsma, F.; Apt, K.R.; van Eijck, D.J.N.; Verbrugge, R.


    We consider a framework in which a group of agents communicates by means of emails, with the possibility of replies, forwards and blind carbon copies (BCC). We study the epistemic consequences of such email exchanges by introducing an appropriate epistemic language and semantics. This allows us to

  19. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica


    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  20. Inflationary trispectrum from graviton exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seery, David; Sloth, Martin Snoager; Vernizzi, Filippo


    We compute the connected four-point correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with standard kinetic terms, where the correlation is established via exchange of a graviton between two pairs of scalar fluctuations. Any such correlation yields a contrib...

  1. Interaction of spatial photorefractive solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Królikowski, W.; Denz, C.; Stepken, A.


    We present a review of our recent theoretical and experimental results on the interaction of two-dimensional solitary beams in photorefractive SBN crystals. We show that the collision of coherent solitons may result in energy exchange, fusion of the interacting solitons, the birth of a new solita...... that a soliton pair may experience both attractive and repulsive forces; depending on their mutual separation. We also show that strong attraction leads to periodic collision or helical motion of solitons depending on initial conditions.......We present a review of our recent theoretical and experimental results on the interaction of two-dimensional solitary beams in photorefractive SBN crystals. We show that the collision of coherent solitons may result in energy exchange, fusion of the interacting solitons, the birth of a new solitary...

  2. Exchange Rate Expectations and the Current Exchange Rate: A Test of the Monetarist Approach


    V S Somanath


    The monetarist model of the exchange rate includes expectations of the future exchange rate as a determinant of the current exchange rate. This paper investigates whether expectations are a significant determinant of the exchange rate. An expectations process that is consistent with a basic monetarist exchange rate model is considered. Alternative measures of expectations are generated using this process. In the empirical tests, while the standard forward exchange premium measure of expectati...

  3. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam


    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  4. Compact Ceramic Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, Charles [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a step change in power plant efficiency at a commercially viable cost, by obtaining performance data for prototype, compact, ceramic microchannel heat exchangers. By performing the tasks described in the initial proposal, all of the milestones were met. The work performed will advance the technology from Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3) to Technology Readiness Level 4 (TRL 4) and validate the potential of using these heat exchangers for enabling high efficiency solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or high-temperature turbine-based power plants. The attached report will describe how this objective was met. In collaboration with The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), specifications were developed for a high temperature heat exchanger for three commercial microturbines. Microturbines were selected because they are a more mature commercial technology than SOFC, they are a low-volume and high-value target for market entry of high-temperature heat exchangers, and they are essentially scaled-down versions of turbines used in utility-scale power plants. Using these specifications, microchannel dimensions were selected to meet the performance requirements. Ceramic plates were fabricated with microchannels of these dimensions. The plates were tested at room temperature and elevated temperature. Plates were joined together to make modular, heat exchanger stacks that were tested at a variety of temperatures and flow rates. Although gas flow rates equivalent to those in microturbines could not be achieved in the laboratory environment, the results showed expected efficiencies, robust operation under significant temperature gradients at high temperature, and the ability to cycle the stacks. Details of the methods and results are presented in this final report.

  5. Socio-technical HCI for Ethical Value Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelnour-Nocera, José; Nielsen, Lene; Christensen, Lars Rune


    Ensuring ethical value exchange is moving to the forefront of the global challenges that HCI will have to address in the coming years In this position paper, we argue that applying a context-sensitive, sociotechnical approach to HCI can help meet the challenge. The background is that the life...... of marginalized people in contemporary society is challenging and uncertain. The marginalized can face health and cognitive issues as well as a lack of stability of social structures such as family, work and social inclusion. Three questions are of concern when innovating together with people ‘at the margins...... interaction design (HWID) to meet the challenges of designing for ethical value exchange. We present three cases of service design, and suggest how to add a fourth similar case using the HWID approach during the INTERACT ‘field trip plus workshop’. We conclude that applying a context sensitive sociotechnical...

  6. Improved Strongly Deniable Authenticated Key Exchanges for Secure Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger Nik


    Full Text Available A deniable authenticated key exchange (DAKE protocol establishes a secure channel without producing cryptographic evidence of communication. A DAKE offers strong deniability if transcripts provide no evidence even if long-term key material is compromised (offline deniability and no outsider can obtain evidence even when interactively colluding with an insider (online deniability. Unfortunately, existing strongly deniable DAKEs have not been adopted by secure messaging tools due to security and deployability weaknesses.

  7. Leader-Member Exchange, Communication Frequency And Burnout


    Mr Graham, L N; Van Witteloostuijn, A.


    In a field study of 128 middle-managers in similar roles but in different organizations within the UK public sector, we find that the quality of their leader-member exchange (LMX) relationship with their immediate supervisor is negatively related to the three dimensions of burnout. As hypothesized, LMX and communication frequency are found to interact in the prediction of emotional exhaustion. For low-quality LMX, the relationship between communication frequency and emotional exhaustion is po...

  8. MEMBEDAH TEORI SOSIOLOGI: Teori Pertukaran (Exchange Theory) George Caspar Homans


    Wardani Wardani


    This article is aimed at analyzing critically George Caspar Homans’s theory of exchange. The critical analysis that may be called here simply as “maping ideology” embodied in theory is needed to place the theory within the specific social and political condition, intellectual background, school of thought having great influence on it, and so forth, and also to assesses its limitedness as a theoretical frame-work of scientific research to explain complicated social phenomenon or human interact...

  9. Exchangeable cations in some soils of Mt. Stara planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belanović Snežana


    Full Text Available Land use in forest and pasture ecosystems requires the respecting of ecological and economic interactions between the individual components of these ecosystems. The content of nutrition elements in the soil solution depends on soil types, climate conditions and vegetation species, i.e., it is conditioned by their cycling in the ecosystem. This paper studies the cation exchange capacity in pasture and forest soils of Mt. Stara Planina.

  10. The Endogeneity of the Exchange Rate as a Determinant of FDI: A Model of Money, Entry, and Multinational Firms


    Russ, Katheryn


    This paper argues that when the exchange rate and projected sales in the host country are jointly determined by underlying macroeconomic variables, standard regressions of FDI flows on both exchange rate levels and volatility are subject to bias. The results hinge on the interaction of macroeconomic uncertainty, a sunk cost, and heterogeneous productivity across firms. They indicate that a multinational firm’s response to increases in exchange rate volatility will differ depending on whethe...

  11. Modular Heat Exchanger With Integral Heat Pipe (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.


    Modular heat exchanger with integral heat pipe transports heat from source to Stirling engine. Alternative to heat exchangers depending on integrities of thousands of brazed joints, contains only 40 brazed tubes.

  12. Flexible Exchange of Farming Device Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    A new trend in the farming business is to replace conventional farming devices with computerized farming devices. Accordingly, numerous computer-based farming devices for logging, processing and exchanging data have recently been installed on moving farm machinery such as tractors. The exchange...... of data generally takes place between the devices and farming systems, mostly installed at the premises of farmers, contractors, advisory services etc. In most cases, data exchange is based on farming data exchange standards and is bi-directional. Bi-directional data exchange allows different devices...... and systems to exchange data based on a predefined set of rules. In consequence, many hand-coded data exchange solutions have been developed in the farming business. Although efforts regarding incorporating data exchange standards have been made, their actual usage so far has been limited, due to the fact...

  13. Two perspectives on the coupled carbon, water and energy exchange in the planetary boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combe, M.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Ouwersloot, H. G.; Jacobs, C. M. J.; Peters, W.


    Understanding the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere is key to modelling boundary-layer meteorology and cloud formation, as well as carbon cycling and crop yield. In this study we explore these interactions in the exchange of water, heat and CO2 in a cropland-atmosphere system

  14. Two perspectives on the coupled carbon, water, and energy exchange in the planetary boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combe, M.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.; Ouwersloot, H.G.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Peters, W.


    Understanding the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere is key to model boundary-layer meteorology and cloud formation, as well as carbon cycling and crop yield. In this study we explore these interactions in the exchange of water, heat, and CO2 in a cropland–atmosphere system at

  15. Two perspectives on the coupled carbon, water and energy exchange in the planetary boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combe, M.; Vilà-Guerau De Arellano, J.; Ouwersloot, H.G.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Peters, W.


    Understanding the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere is key to modelling boundary-layer meteorology and cloud formation, as well as carbon cycling and crop yield. In this study we explore these interactions in the exchange of water, heat and CO2 in a cropland–atmosphere system

  16. Rethinking exchange market models as optimization algorithms (United States)

    Luquini, Evandro; Omar, Nizam


    The exchange market model has mainly been used to study the inequality problem. Although the human society inequality problem is very important, the exchange market models dynamics until stationary state and its capability of ranking individuals is interesting in itself. This study considers the hypothesis that the exchange market model could be understood as an optimization procedure. We present herein the implications for algorithmic optimization and also the possibility of a new family of exchange market models

  17. Latin American foreign exchange intervention - Updated


    Da Silva, Sergio; Nunes, Mauricio


    We examine Latin American foreign exchange intervention in a framework where the exchange rate regime is endogenous and there exists an inefficient, equilibrium foreign exchange intervention bias. The model suggests that greater central bank independence is associated with lesser intervention in the foreign exchange market, and also with leaning-against-the-wind intervention. Both results are confirmed by data from 13 Latin American countries.

  18. How to stabilize the currency exchange rate


    BLINOV, Sergey


    In 2015, many countries had to deal with the weakening of their currencies. Issues regarding exchange rate management by the Central Banks have again become the focal point of heated debate. For example, the Russian Ruble exchange rate has been fluctuating hugely. The problem now is not so much the Ruble's weakness as instability of its exchange rate, volatility. The management of the Central Bank claims that stabilization of the Ruble exchange rate is not possible though it is the respons...

  19. Heat exchanger and related methods (United States)

    Turner, Terry D.; McKellar, Michael G.


    Heat exchangers include a housing having an inlet and an outlet and forming a portion of a transition chamber. A heating member may form another portion of the transition chamber. The heating member includes a first end having a first opening and a second end having a second opening larger than the first opening. Methods of conveying a fluid include supplying a first fluid into a transition chamber of a heat exchanger, supplying a second fluid into the transition chamber, and altering a state of a portion of the first fluid with the second fluid. Methods of sublimating solid particles include conveying a first fluid comprising a material in a solid state into a transition chamber, heating the material to a gaseous state by directing a second fluid through a heating member and mixing the first fluid and the second fluid.

  20. The picture exchange communication system. (United States)

    Bondy, A S; Frost, L A


    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was developed as a means to teach children with autism and related developmental disabilities a rapidly acquired, self-initiating, functional communication system. Its theoretical roots combine principles from applied behavior analysis and guidelines established within the field of alternative and augmentative communication. This approach has several potential advantages relative to imitation-based strategies (both vocal and gestural) and symbol selection strategies. The system begins with the exchange of simple icons but rapidly builds "sentence" structure. The system also emphasizes developing the request function prior to developing responding to simple questions and commenting. The development of requesting with a sentence structure also permits the rapid development of attributes more traditionally taught within a receptive mode. The relationship between the introduction of PECS and various other behavioral issues (i.e., social approach and behavior management) as well as its relationship to the codevelopment of speech are reviewed.

  1. Analysis of Leader Member Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Santoso


    Full Text Available This research aims to find out how the relationship of superiors and subordinates works or we call it, LEADER MEMBER EXCHANGE (LMX in another term. The object of this research is an Integrated Nursing Home for Impaired Speech and Hearing (INISPH, ''Meohai” Kendari, with 5 superiors and subordinates of this institution as the research informants. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative analysis. The research found that the relationship of superiors and subordinates or Leader Member Exchange (LMX, has been well-intertwined, based on the affection, loyalty, enormous contribution, and respect one another toward the profession done in creating a close relationship to achieve the goal.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v15i2.3244

  2. Value Appropriation in Business Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J.; Geersbro, Jens


    master the difficult balance between value creation and appropriation. This review has provided an overview of the many managerial options for value appropriation and created knowledge on the effects of the various appropriation mechanisms enabling managers to secure company rents while not jeopardizing......Purpose – Value appropriation is a central, yet neglected aspect in business exchange research. The purpose of the paper is to generate an overview of research on active value appropriation in business exchange and provide the foundation for further research into value appropriation, as well...... as some initial guidance for managers. Design/methodology/approach – Literatures investigating value appropriation were identified by the means of a systematic review of the overall management literature. Findings – The authors provide an overview and comparison of the literatures and find that they apply...

  3. High Temperature Composite Heat Exchangers (United States)

    Eckel, Andrew J.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.


    High temperature composite heat exchangers are an enabling technology for a number of aeropropulsion applications. They offer the potential for mass reductions of greater than fifty percent over traditional metallics designs and enable vehicle and engine designs. Since they offer the ability to operate at significantly higher operating temperatures, they facilitate operation at reduced coolant flows and make possible temporary uncooled operation in temperature regimes, such as experienced during vehicle reentry, where traditional heat exchangers require coolant flow. This reduction in coolant requirements can translate into enhanced range or system payload. A brief review of the approaches and challengers to exploiting this important technology are presented, along with a status of recent government-funded projects.

  4. The Kuroshio exchange with the South and East China Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Matsuno


    Full Text Available The Kuroshio flows along the edges of the marginal East Asian seas such as the South China Sea (SCS and East China Sea (ECS. Exchanges of materials and energy between the Kuroshio and the marginal seas partly control the environments of the marginal seas. In particular, saline water from the Kuroshio maintains certain salinity in the shelf water in the ECS. Nutrients from the subsurface of the Kuroshio may influence primary production on the shelf. We summarize how the Kuroshio comes into contact with the shelf water or marginal seas, describing phenomena related to the exchange between the Kuroshio and the ECS along with the SCS, using reports in the literature along with original data. The Kuroshio tends to intrude into the SCS through the Luzon Strait in various manners such as direct intrusion, associated with eddies and as a loop current. The Kuroshio intrusion into the shelf region of the ECS has distinct seasonal variation and the Taiwan Warm Current plays a significant role in the determination of water properties in the outer shelf associated with the Kuroshio intrusion. We then examine physical processes related to the interaction between the Kuroshio and shelf water. Interaction between the Kuroshio and the bottom topography is an important process in the control of the exchange around the shelf break. Vertical mixing and frontal eddies are also important factors that control the water exchange and formation of water masses in the outer shelf. Wind stress plays a significant role in the exchange with a rather event-like manner. To determine the source of the water masses, chemical tracers could be powerful tools and it is suggested that a significant part of the shelf water consists of Kuroshio intermediate water.

  5. Electrically controlled cesium ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    Several sites within the DOE complex (Savannah River, Idaho, Oak Ridge and Hanford) have underground storage tanks containing high-level waste resulting from nuclear engineering activities. To facilitate final disposal of the tank waste, it is advantageous to separate and concentrate the radionuclides for final immobilization in a vitrified glass matrix. This task proposes a new approach for radionuclide separation by combining ion exchange (IX) and electrochemistry to provide a selective and economic separation method.

  6. Value-Added Exchange Rates


    Rudolfs Bems; Robert C. Johnson


    This paper updates the conceptual foundations for measuring real effective exchange rates (REERs) to allow for vertical specialization in trade. We derive a value-added REER describing how demand for the value added that a country produces changes as the price of its value added changes relative to competitors. We then compute this index for 42 countries from 1970-2009 using trade measured in value added terms and GDP deflators. There are substantial differences between value-added and conven...

  7. Exchange, phenomenology and the Self


    Galonska, Deniece; Yener, Efe Can; Sørensen, Karen Mallya; Olesen, Tine Lautrup


    The research project aims to investigate the ‘Self’ concerning the experience of being an international exchange student. As the research approaches the three participants as unique individuals, phenomenology provided a foundation regarding the ontological stance and a method. The philosophy of phenomenology and its different interview methods will be discussed, in relation to perspectives by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger, with attention aimed at the question whether or not objectiv...

  8. Review of Fractal Heat Exchangers


    Huang, Zhiwei; Hwang, Yunho; Aute, Vikrant; Radermacher, Reinhard


    Nature has inspired many scientists and engineers to solve problems through observation and mimicry. One such example is heat transfer enhancement. The enormous natural heat and mass transfer phenomena have led engineers to seek solutions to heat transfer enhancement problems from nature. Fractal geometries are found in respiratory and vascular systems of plants and animals, such as blood vessels, human lungs, leaves, coastlines, etc. Inspired by this, fractal heat exchangers have been develo...

  9. Prison needle exchange programs work. (United States)


    On 27 October 2004 the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and the Ontario Medical Association (OMA) released reports recommending that needle exchange programs (NEPs) be implemented in prisons, based on evidence that such programs promote and protect the health of both prisoners and prison staff. At the same time, the Scottish Prison Service announced that it was looking at providing such programs, and an Iranian physician reported on a pilot project in his country.

  10. Ion-exchange chromatographic protein refolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freydell, E.; Wielen, van der L.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Ottens, M.


    The application of ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography to protein refolding (IExR) has been successfully proven, as supported by various studies using different model proteins, ion-exchange media and flow configurations. Ion-exchange refolding offers a relatively high degree of process

  11. Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy in Slovenia


    Gonzalo Caprirolo; Vladimir Lavrac


    The paper is divided in three sections presenting some stylized facts concerning monetary and exchange rate policy framework in Slovenia. Three periods are covered: Money-based Stabilization Policy (1991-1995), Price and Real Exchange Rate Stability Dual Targeting Policy (1996-2001), and Exchange Rate Based Stabilization Policy and Accession to ERM2 (2001-).

  12. 78 FR 38203 - Refunds and Exchanges (United States)


    ... Service through the manager, Payment Technology, USPS Headquarters. Subsequently, as part of this final... from the manager, Payment Technology (see 608.8.1 for address). * * * * * 9.0 Exchanges and Refunds... Not Exchangeable The following postage items cannot be exchanged: a. Adhesive stamps, unless mistakes...

  13. Cryogenic Heat Exchanger with Turbulent Flows (United States)

    Amrit, Jay; Douay, Christelle; Dubois, Francis; Defresne, Gerard


    An evaporator-type cryogenic heat exchanger is designed and built for introducing fluid-solid heat exchange phenomena to undergraduates in a practical and efficient way. The heat exchanger functions at liquid nitrogen temperature and enables cooling of N[subscript 2] and He gases from room temperatures. We present first the experimental results of…

  14. The magic of knowledge exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    “If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these apples then you and I will still each have one apple. But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us will have two ideas”. (George Bernard Shaw). The CERN Global Network is a new, ideal place for past and present members of the CERN community to share ideas and create new links.   On 29 April, CERN’s Knowledge and Technology Transfer (KTT) Group launched the CERN Global Network, a tool whose aim is to facilitate knowledge exchanges inside and outside CERN. "Among the greatest ambassadors of knowledge are people who have been trained and educated at CERN and also at other institutes: here is where the Global Network comes into play", says Rolf Heuer, CERN Director General. “During the first phase, the Network will be open to current and former members of the CERN personnel, that is, staff, fellows, apprentices, associates, students a...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, J.C. (ed.)


    This report discusses the following topics on computer environments: Releasing computer software outside EG G Idaho; Ilford digital photo imager; mandatory upgrade of PC ORPS software; ORPS host computer upgrade; EROB computer users see network change; password expiration notice; big iron still has place in HPC market; handy scripts to copy and move files; more on workstation password expiration; training center course schedule for April 1993; Microsoft Word Version 5.1a- button bar; file attributes can provide you greater flexibility; constructing a personal WordPerfect dictionary; and Windows shortcuts.

  16. Entangling two transportable neutral atoms via local spin exchange. (United States)

    Kaufman, A M; Lester, B J; Foss-Feig, M; Wall, M L; Rey, A M; Regal, C A


    To advance quantum information science, physical systems are sought that meet the stringent requirements for creating and preserving quantum entanglement. In atomic physics, robust two-qubit entanglement is typically achieved by strong, long-range interactions in the form of either Coulomb interactions between ions or dipolar interactions between Rydberg atoms. Although such interactions allow fast quantum gates, the interacting atoms must overcome the associated coupling to the environment and cross-talk among qubits. Local interactions, such as those requiring substantial wavefunction overlap, can alleviate these detrimental effects; however, such interactions present a new challenge: to distribute entanglement, qubits must be transported, merged for interaction, and then isolated for storage and subsequent operations. Here we show how, using a mobile optical tweezer, it is possible to prepare and locally entangle two ultracold neutral atoms, and then separate them while preserving their entanglement. Ground-state neutral atom experiments have measured dynamics consistent with spin entanglement, and have detected entanglement with macroscopic observables; we are now able to demonstrate position-resolved two-particle coherence via application of a local gradient and parity measurements. This new entanglement-verification protocol could be applied to arbitrary spin-entangled states of spatially separated atoms. The local entangling operation is achieved via spin-exchange interactions, and quantum tunnelling is used to combine and separate atoms. These techniques provide a framework for dynamically entangling remote qubits via local operations within a large-scale quantum register.

  17. Radiation enhanced antiferromagnetic exchange between spins in a superconducting host (United States)

    Akkaravarawong, Kamphol; Vayrynen, Jukka; Sau, Jay; Glazman, Leonid; Yao, Norman


    A magnetic impurity on a conventional superconductor can host a localized bound state whose energy lies inside the superconducting gap. If the distance between two such impurities is smaller than the coherence length, the presence of these so-called Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) bound states can induce an antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between the impurities, falling off as 1 /r2 . Although the YSR interaction exhibits a slower decay than conventional RKKY interactions, its strength is significantly weaker, making it extremely challenging to experimentally observe. We demonstrate that the strength of the YSR interaction can be enhanced via radiation assisted virtual occupation, and that the signature of this coupling can naturally be observed through spectroscopy.

  18. Matter and Interactions: A Particle Physics Perspective (United States)

    Organtini, Giovanni


    In classical mechanics, matter and fields are completely separated; matter interacts with fields. For particle physicists this is not the case; both matter and fields are represented by particles. Fundamental interactions are mediated by particles exchanged between matter particles. In this article we explain why particle physicists believe in…

  19. Noise suppression and long-range exchange coupling for gallium arsenide spin qubits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowski, Filip

    of the qubit splitting with respect to gate voltages. We show that for singlet-triplet and resonant exchange qubit this can be achieved by operating a quantum dot array in a highly symmetric configuration. The symmetrization approach results in a factor-of-six improvement of the double dot singlet......-triplet exchange oscillations quality factor while the dephasing times for the threeelectron resonant exchange qubit are marginally longer. Second, we present the study of the Overhauser field noise arising due to interaction with the nuclear spin bath. We show that the Overhauser field noise conforms to classical...... dot in nine different charge occupancies and identify ground state spin in all cases. For even-occupied spin-1/2 multielectron quantum dot a variation of the gate voltage by a few milivolts in the vicinity of the charge transition leads to sign change of the exchange interaction with a single...

  20. Exchange rate pass-through to various price indices: Empirical estimation using vector error correction models


    Bachmann, Andreas


    The extent to which exchange rate fluctuations are passed through to domestic prices is of high relevance for open economies and for monetary authorities targeting price stability. Existing empirical studies estimating the exchange rate pass-through for Switzerland are based on either single equation estimation or on VAR models. However, these approaches feature some major drawbacks. The former cannot account for dynamic interactions between the time series and both methods disregard long-run...

  1. [Signal exchange between plants and Arbuscular Mycorrhizae fungi during the early stage of symbiosis - A review]. (United States)

    Duan, Qianqian; Yang, Xiaohong; Huang, Xianzhi


    Much is known about Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (AM), an important component of the ecosystem, whereas little is known about the signal exchange that allows mutual recognition and reprograming for the anticipated physical interaction. This review addresses the latest advances of signal exchange between plants and AM, including signal substances and their function, related genes and regulation function in the early stage of plant-fungal symbiosis.

  2. Computer simulation of methanol exchange dynamics around cations and anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Santanu; Dang, Liem X.


    In this paper, we present the first computer simulation of methanol exchange dynamics between the first and second solvation shells around different cations and anions. After water, methanol is the most frequently used solvent for ions. Methanol has different structural and dynamical properties than water, so its ion solvation process is different. To this end, we performed molecular dynamics simulations using polarizable potential models to describe methanol-methanol and ion-methanol interactions. In particular, we computed methanol exchange rates by employing the transition state theory, the Impey-Madden-McDonald method, the reactive flux approach, and the Grote-Hynes theory. We observed that methanol exchange occurs at a nanosecond time scale for Na+ and at a picosecond time scale for other ions. We also observed a trend in which, for like charges, the exchange rate is slower for smaller ions because they are more strongly bound to methanol. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  3. The determinants of exchange rate in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel BENAZIC


    Full Text Available The dilemma for every country with an independent monetary policy is which kind of exchange rate arrangement should be applied. Through the exchange rate policy, countries can influence their economies, i.e. price stability and export competiveness. Croatia is a new EU member state, it has its own monetary policy and currency but it is on the way to euro introduction. Regarding the experiences from the beginning of the 1990s when Croatia was faced with serious monetary instabilities and hyperinflation, the goal of Croatian National Bank (CNB is to ensure price stability and one way to do so is through exchange rate policy. Croatia, as a small and open economy, has applied a managed floating exchange rate regime. The exchange rate is determined primarily by the foreign exchange supply and demand on the foreign exchange market, with occasional market interventions by the CNB. Therefore, in order to maintain exchange rate stability, policymakers must be able to recognize how changes in these factors affect changes in the exchange rate. This research aims to find a relationship among the main sources of foreign currency inflow and outflow and the level of exchange rate in Croatia. The analysis is carried out by using the bounds testing (ARDL approach for co-integration. The results indicate the existence of a stable co-integration relationship between the observed variables, whereby an increase in the majority of variables leads to an exchange rate appreciation.

  4. Skyrmion states in multilayer exchange coupled ferromagnetic nanostructures with distinct anisotropy directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraerman, A.A. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, GSP-105, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue, 23, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ermolaeva, O.L., E-mail: [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, GSP-105, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue, 23, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Skorohodov, E.V.; Gusev, N.S. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, GSP-105, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Mironov, V.L.; Vdovichev, S.N. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, GSP-105, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue, 23, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Demidov, E.S. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarin Avenue, 23, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)


    We report the experimental observation of magnetic skyrmion states in patterned ferromagnetic nanostructures consisting of perpendicular magnetized Co/Pt multilayer film exchange coupled with Co nanodisks in vortex state. The magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations show that depending on the magnitude of Co/Pt perpendicular anisotropy in these systems two different modes of skyrmion formation are realized. - Highlights: • The magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations of magnetic states in multilayer exchange coupled ferromagnetic nanostructures. • The effects of exchange interaction in Co/Pt multilayer film coupled with Co nanodisks have been studied. • The magnetic scyrmion states at room temperature have been observed.

  5. Analyzing the effect of ion exchange on flexural strength of cermaco II and colorlogic veneer porcelains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rashidan


    Full Text Available   The major foible of dental ceramics is their brittle nature. Therefore, the producers of these materials have focused on the “strength” issue. A method of increasing strength is ion exchange on porcelain surface which leads to formation of a compressive crust that opposing forces should overcome before developing a crack. In current study, ion exchange in two types of porcelain, Ceramco II which is used in PFM restorations and Colorloic veneer which is used for laminates, veneers, inlays and onlays, are evaluated. Additionally, laminate porcelains, etching effect on strength of porcelain and interaction of acid etching and ion exchange have been studied.

  6. A Review of Industrial Heat Exchange Optimization (United States)

    Yao, Junjie


    Heat exchanger is an energy exchange equipment, it transfers the heat from a working medium to another working medium, which has been wildly used in petrochemical industry, HVAC refrigeration, aerospace and so many other fields. The optimal design and efficient operation of the heat exchanger and heat transfer network are of great significance to the process industry to realize energy conservation, production cost reduction and energy consumption reduction. In this paper, the optimization of heat exchanger, optimal algorithm and heat exchanger optimization with different objective functions are discussed. Then, optimization of the heat exchanger and the heat exchanger network considering different conditions are compared and analysed. Finally, all the problems discussed are summarized and foresights are proposed.

  7. The joint effects of personality and workplace social exchange relationships in predicting task performance and citizenship performance. (United States)

    Kamdar, Dishan; Van Dyne, Linn


    This field study examines the joint effects of social exchange relationships at work (leader-member exchange and team-member exchange) and employee personality (conscientiousness and agreeableness) in predicting task performance and citizenship performance. Consistent with trait activation theory, matched data on 230 employees, their coworkers, and their supervisors demonstrated interactions in which high quality social exchange relationships weakened the positive relationships between personality and performance. Results demonstrate the benefits of consonant predictions in which predictors and outcomes are matched on the basis of specific targets. We discuss theoretical and practical implications. (c) 2007 APA.

  8. Superheated water ion-exchange chromatography: an experimental approach for interpretation of separation selectivity in ion-exchange processes. (United States)

    Shibukawa, Masami; Shimasaki, Tomomi; Saito, Shingo; Yarita, Takashi


    Cation-exchange selectivity for alkali and alkaline-earth metal ions and tetraalkylammonium ions on a strongly acidic sulfonic acid cation-exchange resin has been investigated in the temperature range of 40-175 degrees C using superheated water chromatography. Dependence of the distribution coefficient (ln KD) on the reciprocal of temperature (1/T) is not linear for most of the ions studied, and the selectivity coefficient for a pair of alkali metal ions or that of alkaline-earth metal ions approaches unity as temperature increases. On the other hand, the retention order of tetraalkylammonium ions is reversed at 160 degrees C or above when eluted with Na2SO4 aqueous solution and the larger ions are eluted faster than the smaller ones contrary to the retention order obtained at ambient temperature. The change in ion-exchange selectivity with temperature observed with superheated water chromatography has been discussed on the basis of the effect of temperature on hydration of the ions and specific adsorption or distribution of ionic species between the external solution and ion-exchange resin. In superheated water, the electrostatic interaction or association of the ions with the fixed ion becomes a predominant mechanism resulting in different separation selectivity from that obtained at ambient temperature.

  9. Evaluation of the thermal effect on separation selectivity in anion-exchange processes using superheated water ion-exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Shibukawa, Masami; Taguchi, Akihiko; Suzuki, Yusuke; Saitoh, Kazunori; Hiaki, Toshihiko; Yarita, Takashi


    The thermal effect on retention and separation selectivity of inorganic anions and aromatic sulfonate ions in anion-exchange chromatography is studied on a quaternized styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer anion-exchange column in the temperature range of 40-120 °C using superheated water chromatography. The selectivity coefficient for a pair of identically charged anions approaches unity as temperature increases provided the ions have the same effective size, such that the retention of an analyte ion decreases with an increase in temperature when the analyte ion has stronger affinity for the ion-exchanger than that of the eluent counterion, whereas it increases when it has weaker affinity. The change in anion-exchange selectivity with temperature observed with superheated water chromatography has been discussed on the basis of the effect of temperature on hydration of the ions. At elevated temperatures, especially in superheated water, the electrostatic interaction or association of the ions with the fixed ion in the resin phase becomes a predominant factor resulting in a different separation selectivity from that obtained at ambient temperature.

  10. Heat exchanger with oscillating flow (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)


    Various heat exchange apparatuses are described in which an oscillating flow of primary coolant is used to dissipate an incident heat flux. The oscillating flow may be imparted by a reciprocating piston, a double action twin reciprocating piston, fluidic oscillators or electromagnetic pumps. The oscillating fluid flows through at least one conduit in either an open loop or a closed loop. A secondary flow of coolant may be used to flow over the outer walls of at least one conduit to remove heat transferred from the primary coolant to the walls of the conduit.

  11. Information exchanges in cournot duopolies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faíña Medín J. Andrés


    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the profitability of information sharing among Cournot oligopolists receiving private information about random demand. We model the random demand as a linear demand having, 1 an unknown intercept, and 2 an unknown slope. In each of these two scenarios, firms observe private signals about the unknown parameter. We show that in the scenario-1, if the private signal observed by firms is accurate enough, information exchange is profitable and in the scenario-2, if there is a sufficiently large variation in the demand slope and private signals are accurate enough, firms earn strictly higher profits by sharing their information rather than keeping it private.



    V. L. Dobin; V. G. Demikhov; M. P. Zharikova


    The review analyzes the major foreign publications on the iron exchange in mycobacteria for the recent years. The issues of iron absorption by tuberculous mycobacteria, its preservation and regulation of their metabolism have been reviewed. Deeper and more detail description of the above process will provide new opportunities for therapeutic interventions into it and assist in development of new tuberculosis treatment techniques.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Dobin


    Full Text Available The review analyzes the major foreign publications on the iron exchange in mycobacteria for the recent years. The issues of iron absorption by tuberculous mycobacteria, its preservation and regulation of their metabolism have been reviewed. Deeper and more detail description of the above process will provide new opportunities for therapeutic interventions into it and assist in development of new tuberculosis treatment techniques.

  14. Two-way quantum communication: 'secure quantum information exchange' (United States)

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Maurya, Ajay K.; Prakash, Hari


    In this paper, we present a new idea of two-way quantum communication called 'secure quantum information exchange' (SQIE). If there are two arbitrary unknown quantum states |ξrangIA and |ηrangIB, initially with Alice and Bob, respectively, then SQIE protocol leads to the simultaneous exchange of these states between Alice and Bob with the aid of the special kind of six-qubit entangled (SSE) state and classical assistance of the third party, Charlie. The term 'secure' signifies the fact that SQIE protocol either faithfully exchanges the unknown quantum states proceeding in a prescribed way or, in case of any irregularity, the process generates no results. For experimental realization of the SQIE protocol, we have suggested an efficient scheme for generating SSE states using the interaction between highly detuned Λ-type three-level atoms and the optical coherent field. By theoretical calculations, we found that SSE states of almost unit fidelity with perfect success rates for appreciable mean photon numbers (Fav >= 0.999 for |α|2 >= 1.5) can be generated by our scheme. Further, we have discussed possible experimental imperfections, such as atomic-radiative time, cavity damping time, atom-cavity interaction time, and the efficiency of discrimination between the coherent field and the vacuum state shows that our SQIE protocol is within the reach of technology presently available.

  15. Excited State Atom-Ion Charge-Exchange (United States)

    Li, Ming; Makrides, Constantinos; Petrov, Alexander; Kotochigova, Svetlana


    We theoretically investigate the exothermic charge-exchange reaction between an excited atom and a ground-state positive ion. In particular, we focus on MOT-excited Ca*(4s4p 1P) atoms colliding with ground-state Yb+ ions, which are under active study by the experimental group of E. Hudson at UCLA. Collisions between an excited atom and an ion are guided by two major contributions to the long-range interaction potentials, the induction C4 /R4 and charge-quadrupole C3 /R3 potentials, and their coupling by the electron-exchange interaction. Our model of these forces leads to close-coupling equations for multiple reaction channels. We find several avoided crossings between the potentials that couple to the nearby asymptotic limits of Yb*+Ca+, some of which can possibly provide large charge exchange rate coefficients above 10-10 cm3 / s. We acknowledge support from the US Army Research Office, MURI Grants W911NF-14-1-0378 and the US National Science Foundation, Grant PHY-1619788.

  16. Microbial interactions: ecology in a molecular perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raíssa Mesquita Braga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The microorganism-microorganism or microorganism-host interactions are the key strategy to colonize and establish in a variety of different environments. These interactions involve all ecological aspects, including physiochemical changes, metabolite exchange, metabolite conversion, signaling, chemotaxis and genetic exchange resulting in genotype selection. In addition, the establishment in the environment depends on the species diversity, since high functional redundancy in the microbial community increases the competitive ability of the community, decreasing the possibility of an invader to establish in this environment. Therefore, these associations are the result of a co-evolution process that leads to the adaptation and specialization, allowing the occupation of different niches, by reducing biotic and abiotic stress or exchanging growth factors and signaling. Microbial interactions occur by the transference of molecular and genetic information, and many mechanisms can be involved in this exchange, such as secondary metabolites, siderophores, quorum sensing system, biofilm formation, and cellular transduction signaling, among others. The ultimate unit of interaction is the gene expression of each organism in response to an environmental (biotic or abiotic stimulus, which is responsible for the production of molecules involved in these interactions. Therefore, in the present review, we focused on some molecular mechanisms involved in the microbial interaction, not only in microbial-host interaction, which has been exploited by other reviews, but also in the molecular strategy used by different microorganisms in the environment that can modulate the establishment and structuration of the microbial community.

  17. 31 CFR 515.325 - National securities exchange. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National securities exchange. 515.325... Definitions § 515.325 National securities exchange. The term national securities exchange shall mean an exchange registered as a national securities exchange under section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of...

  18. 31 CFR 500.325 - National securities exchange. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National securities exchange. 500.325... Definitions § 500.325 National securities exchange. The term national securities exchange shall mean an exchange registered as a national securities exchange under section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of...

  19. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  20. How did China's foreign exchange reform affect the efficiency of foreign exchange market? (United States)

    Ning, Ye; Wang, Yiming; Su, Chi-wei


    This study compares the market efficiency of China's onshore and offshore foreign exchange markets before and after the foreign exchange reform on August 11, 2015. We use the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of the onshore and offshore RMB/USD spot exchange rate series as basis. We then find that the onshore foreign exchange market before the reform has the lowest market efficiency, which increased after the reform. The offshore foreign exchange market before the reform has the highest market efficiency, which dropped after the reform. This finding implies the increased efficiency of the onshore foreign exchange market and the loss of efficiency in the offshore foreign exchange market. We also find that the offshore foreign exchange market is more efficient than the onshore market and that the gap shrank after the reform. Changes in intervention of the People's Bank of China since the reform is a possible explanation for the changes in the efficiency of the foreign exchange market.

  1. A study of accurate exchange-correlation functionals through adiabatic connection (United States)

    Singh, Rabeet; Harbola, Manoj K.


    A systematic way of improving exchange-correlation energy functionals of density functional theory has been to make them satisfy more and more exact relations. Starting from the initial generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals, this has culminated into the recently proposed SCAN (strongly constrained and appropriately normed) functional that satisfies several known constraints and is appropriately normed. The ultimate test for the functionals developed is the accuracy of energy calculated by employing them. In this paper, we test these exchange-correlation functionals—the GGA hybrid functionals B3LYP and PBE0 and the meta-GGA functional SCAN—from a different perspective. We study how accurately these functionals reproduce the exchange-correlation energy when electron-electron interaction is scaled as αVee with α varying between 0 and 1. Our study reveals interesting comparison between these functionals and the associated difference Tc between the interacting and the non-interacting kinetic energy for the same density.

  2. Phase-exchange thermoacoustic engine (United States)

    Offner, Avshalom; Meir, Avishai; Ramon, Guy Z.; WET Lab Team


    Phase-exchange thermoacoustic engines are reliable machines holding great promise in converting heat from low grade heat sources to mechanical or electrical power. In these engines the working fluid is a gas mixture containing one condensable component, decreasing the temperature difference required for ignition and steady state operation. Our experimental setup consists of a vertical acoustic resonator containing a mixture of air-water vapor. Water evaporates near the heat source, condenses at the heat sink and is drawn back down by gravity and capillary forces where it re-evaporates, sustaining a steady state closed thermodynamic cycle. We investigated the stability limit, namely the critical point at which temperature difference in the engine enables onset of self-excited oscillations, and the steady state of the engine. A simple theoretical model was derived, describing mechanisms of irreversible entropy generation and production of acoustic power in such engines. This model captures the essence in the differences between regular and phase-exchange thermoacoustic engines, and shows good agreement with experimental results of stability limit. Steady state results reveal not only a dramatic decrease in temperature difference, but also an increase in engine performances. The authors acknowledge the support from the Nancy and Stephen Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP).

  3. Exchange of astronomy teaching experiences (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    The Working Group of the European Association for Astronomy Education responsible for Teacher Training organises an annual Summer School for teachers under expert guidance. For a week the teachers participating can exchange experiences, increase their knowledge and discuss different ideas and perspectives. In general, the instructors are professional astronomers, professors and teachers from different countries. The papers presented offer very practical activities, paying special attention to didactic aspects, and take the form of general lectures to all 40 participants and workshops to reduced groups of 20 participants. There are also day and night observations, without expensive equipment or complicated procedures, that are easy to set up and based on topics that it is possible to use in the classroom. The Summer Schools promote a scientific astronomical education at all levels of astronomy teaching, reinforce the link between professional astronomers and teachers with experience of teaching astronomy, allow debates among the participants on their pedagogical activities already carried out in their own classroom and help them to organise activities outside it. Astronomy teachers need special training, access to specific research, to new educational materials and methods and the opportunity to exchange experiences. All these things are provided by the Summer School.

  4. Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Christine

    Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London: Action towards an image of greatness contributes to the growing field of research on social entrepreneurship. The thesis is the result of an interesting, anthropological study of a social voluntary organisation, City Year London, a British affiliate...... of an American charity. Young volunteers were followed in their daily activities working as mentors for public primary school children, and the interaction between staff and volunteers in City Year London were observed. Also, interviews with both volunteers and staff were carried out. The thesis explores...... the empirical findings applying an understanding of learning as social exchange of value. The rich empirical data has led to analyses that draw on and contribute to economic anthropology, learning theories and social entrepreneurship....

  5. Lipid exchange between Borrelia burgdorferi and host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson T Crowley


    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, has cholesterol and cholesterol-glycolipids that are essential for bacterial fitness, are antigenic, and could be important in mediating interactions with cells of the eukaryotic host. We show that the spirochetes can acquire cholesterol from plasma membranes of epithelial cells. In addition, through fluorescent and confocal microscopy combined with biochemical approaches, we demonstrated that B. burgdorferi labeled with the fluorescent cholesterol analog BODIPY-cholesterol or (3H-labeled cholesterol transfer both cholesterol and cholesterol-glycolipids to HeLa cells. The transfer occurs through two different mechanisms, by direct contact between the bacteria and eukaryotic cell and/or through release of outer membrane vesicles. Thus, two-way lipid exchange between spirochetes and host cells can occur. This lipid exchange could be an important process that contributes to the pathogenesis of Lyme disease.

  6. Hidden Interface Driven Exchange Coupling in Oxide Heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Aiping [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Wang, Qiang [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown WV 26506 USA; Fitzsimmons, Michael R. [Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville TN 37996 USA; Enriquez, Erik [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Weigand, Marcus [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Harrell, Zach [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; McFarland, Brian [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Lü, Xujie [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Dowden, Paul [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. [Department of Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 OFS UK; Yarotski, Dmitry [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Jia, Quanxi [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM 87545 USA; Department of Materials Design and Innovation, University at Buffalo - The State University of New York, Buffalo NY 14260 USA


    A variety of emergent phenomena have been enabled by interface engineering in complex oxides. The existence of an intrinsic interfacial layer has often been found at oxide heterointerfaces. However, the role of such an interlayerin controlling functionalities is not fully explored. Here, we report the control of the exchange bias (EB) in single-phase manganite thin films with nominallyuniform chemical composition across the interfaces. The sign of EB depends on the magnitude of the cooling field. A pinned layer, confirmed by polarized neutron reflectometry, provides the source of unidirectional anisotropy. The origin of the exchange bias coupling is discussed in terms of magnetic interactions between the interfacial ferromagnetically reduced layer and the bulk ferromagnetic region. The sign of EB is related to the frustration of antiferromagnetic coupling between the ferromagnetic region and the pinned layer. Our results shed new light on using oxide interfaces to design functional spintronic devices.

  7. Spin relaxation via exchange with donor impurity-bound electrons (United States)

    Appelbaum, Ian

    In the Bir-Aronov-Pikus depolarization process affecting conduction electrons in p-type cubic semiconductors, spin relaxation is driven by exchange with short-lived valence band hole states. We have identified an analogous spin relaxation mechanism in nominally undoped silicon at low temperatures, when many electrons are bound to dilute dopant ion potentials. Inelastic scattering with externally injected conduction electrons accelerated by electric fields can excite transitions into highly spin-orbit-mixed bound excited states, driving strong spin relaxation of the conduction electrons via exchange interaction. We reveal the consequences of this spin depolarization mechanism both below and above the impact ionization threshold, where conventional charge and spin transport are restored. Based upon: Lan Qing, Jing Li, Ian Appelbaum, and Hanan Dery, Phys Rev. B 91, 241405(R) (2015). We acknowledge support from NSF, DTRA, and ONR.

  8. Exchange self-energy and compressibility of multilayer graphene by wavefunction rotation method (United States)

    Min, Hongki


    Multilayer graphene has chiral electronic structure which strongly depends on the stacking sequence. A fundamental issue is to understand the interplay between the chiral electronic structure and electron-electron interaction, and the exchange interaction is the leading-order correction to the electron-electron interaction. The exchange energy calculation of multilayer graphene, however, requires a large amount of computational cost, because of non-local nature of the exchange interaction and because of the absence of the analytic form of the wavefunction, which should be obtained self-consistently. We overcome this problem using the wavefunction rotation method, in which the angular part of the wavefunction is obtained analytically by attaching a phase factor that is determined by the stacking sequence, thus reducing the computational cost significantly. Using this method, we calculate the exchange self-energy and compressibility of multilayer graphene, and discuss the role of intralayer and interlayer exchanges. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(2012013963).

  9. Switching field of partially exchange-coupled particles (United States)

    Oliva, M. I.; Bertorello, H. R.; Bercoff, P. G.


    The magnetization reversal of partially exchange-coupled particles is studied in detail. The starting point is the observation of a complicated phenomenology in the irreversible susceptibility and FORC distribution functions of Ba hexaferrite samples obtained by means of different sintering conditions. Several peaks in the first-order reversal curve (FORC) distribution functions were identified and associated with clusters with different number of particles. The switching fields of these clusters were related to an effective anisotropy constant Keff that depends on the number of particles in the cluster. Keff is linked to the exchange-coupled volume between two neighboring particles and as a weighted mean between the anisotropy constants of the coupled and uncoupled volumes. By using the modified Brown's equation αex=0.322 is obtained. In order to interpret these results, the switching field of a two-particle system with partial exchange coupling is studied. It is assumed that the spins reorientation across the contact plane between the particles is like a Bloch wall. The energy of the system is written in terms of the fraction of volume affected by exchange coupling and the switching fields for both particles are calculated. At small interaction volume fraction each particle inverts its magnetization independently from the other. As the fraction of exchange-coupled volume increases, cooperative effects appear and the two particles invert their magnetization in a cooperative way. The proposed model allows to interpret for the first time the empirical factor αex in terms of physical arguments and also explain the details observed in the FORC distribution function.

  10. Investigating the effects of liquidity and exchange rate on Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younos Vakil Alroaia


    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of two macroeconomic factors; namely exchange rate and liquidity on stock index. The proposed study was applied in Iran and on major index of Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2001-2011. They reported that the currency exchange maintained negative impact on stock exchange for the period of investigation. This is due to the fact that when currency devalued, working capital decreases and firms did not enough money to purchase raw materials, pay wages, etc. In addition, liquidity marinated a direct and positive relationship with exchange index. However, the impact of liquidity seems to be bigger than currency exchange.

  11. Needs Assessment for Exchange Students in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentei Takaya


    Full Text Available With the growing mobility of international students in Asia and the Pacific, Taiwan has become actively involved in promoting international academic exchange. This research investigates the experience of exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China and examines their needs while studying in Taiwan. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China. The findings suggest that while exchange students from the Philippines and mainland China both encountered difficulties during their study in Taiwan, exchange students from the Philippines were inclined to encounter more difficulties compared to those from mainland China due to language difficulties. Based on the findings of this study, suggested support services for future exchange students in Taiwan are outlined to match the needs of students from both Chinese and non-Chinese-speaking backgrounds.

  12. Listening to agent agendas in student exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Gertrud


    The paper is based upon a research study of short-term student exchanges. The study took place from 1996-2000, and comprises seven classes of students from six Danish business schools. Short-term student exchanges in terms of EU funded exchanges and local school exchanges are means to develop...... the students’ understanding of their own cultural background and of foreign cultures. The research study is an attempt to look at internationalisation and student exchanges from a student perspective. Thus the structural aim and the structural framework are considered given elements. The study is based upon...... institutional scepticism and placed within the theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism. The methodology applied is qualitative, grounded theory, and the data originate from diaries, semi-structured interviews and semi-open questionnaires. The findings show that the students have their own exchange...

  13. Strongly exchange-coupled triplet pairs in an organic semiconductor (United States)

    Weiss, Leah R.; Bayliss, Sam L.; Kraffert, Felix; Thorley, Karl J.; Anthony, John E.; Bittl, Robert; Friend, Richard H.; Rao, Akshay; Greenham, Neil C.; Behrends, Jan


    From biological complexes to devices based on organic semiconductors, spin interactions play a key role in the function of molecular systems. For instance, triplet-pair reactions impact operation of organic light-emitting diodes as well as photovoltaic devices. Conventional models for triplet pairs assume they interact only weakly. Here, using electron spin resonance, we observe long-lived, strongly interacting triplet pairs in an organic semiconductor, generated via singlet fission. Using coherent spin manipulation of these two-triplet states, we identify exchange-coupled (spin-2) quintet complexes coexisting with weakly coupled (spin-1) triplets. We measure strongly coupled pairs with a lifetime approaching 3 μs and a spin coherence time approaching 1 μs, at 10 K. Our results pave the way for the utilization of high-spin systems in organic semiconductors.

  14. Incentives and Information Exchange in International Taxation


    Keen, M.; Ligthart, J.E.


    The exchange of taxpayer-specific information between national tax authorities has recently emerged as a key and controversial topic in international tax policy discussions, most notably with the OECD s harmful tax practices project and the EU s savings tax initiative.This paper analyses the effects of information exchange and withholding taxes, recognizing that countries which agree to exchange information do not forfeit the ability to levy withholding taxes, and also focusing in particular ...

  15. Development of nursing students during international exchange


    Varusk, Inge


    The purpose of the study was to gather information about the experiences which nursing exchange students have had when they have been abroad. This aim of this literature review was to evaluates and presents the most current and relevant information of the topic as possible. The findings were divided into two themes – how nursing exchange students had evolved on a personal and on a professional level. Most of the findings were about how the nursing exchange students had evolved on a person...

  16. [Plasma exchange in nephrology: Indications and technique]. (United States)

    Ridel, Christophe; Kissling, Sébastien; Mesnard, Laurent; Hertig, Alexandre; Rondeau, Éric


    Plasma exchange is a non-selective apheresis technique that can be performed by filtration or centrifugation allowing rapid purification of high molecular weight pathogens. An immunosuppressive treatment is generally associated to reduce the rebound effect of the purified substance. Substitution solutes such as human albumin and macromolecules are needed to compensate for plasma extraction. Compensation by viro-attenuated plasma is reserved solely for the treatment of thrombotic microangiopathies or when there is a risk of bleeding, because this product is very allergenic and expensive. The treatment goal for a plasma exchange session should be between one and one and one-half times the patient's plasma volume estimated at 40 mL/kg body weight. The anticoagulation is best ensured by the citrate. Complications of plasma exchange are quite rare according to the French hemapheresis registry. The level of evidence of efficacy of plasma exchange in nephrology varies from one pathology to another. Main indications of plasma exchange in nephrology are Goodpasture syndrome, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis when plasma creatinine is greater than 500 μmol/L, and thrombotic microangiopathies. During renal transplantation, plasma exchange may be proposed in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) desensitization protocols or ABO-incompatible graft. After renal transplantation, plasma exchange is indicated as part of the treatment of acute humoral rejection or recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on the graft. Plasma exchanges are also proposed in the management of cryoglobulinemia or polyarteritis nodosa. Hemodialysis with membranes of very high permeability tends to replace plasma exchange for myeloma nephropathy. The benefit from plasma exchange has not been formally demonstrated for the treatment of severe lupus or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. There is no indication of plasma exchange in the treatment of scleroderma or nephrogenic

  17. Electric control of exchange bias training. (United States)

    Echtenkamp, W; Binek, Ch


    Voltage-controlled exchange bias training and tunability are introduced. Isothermal voltage pulses are used to reverse the antiferromagnetic order parameter of magnetoelectric Cr(2)O(3), and thus continuously tune the exchange bias of an adjacent CoPd film. Voltage-controlled exchange bias training is initialized by tuning the antiferromagnetic interface into a nonequilibrium state incommensurate with the underlying bulk. Interpretation of these hitherto unreported effects contributes to new understanding in electrically controlled magnetism.

  18. China: Exchange Rate Policy and Asian Trade


    Alicia García-Herrero; Tuuli Koivu


    This paper shows empirically that China s trade balance is sensitive to fluctuations in the renminbi real effective exchange rate. However, the current size of the trade surplus is such that exchange rate policy, alone, will probably not be able to address the imbalance. The reduction in the trade surplus is limited mainly because Chinese imports do not react as expected to exchange rate appreciation. In fact, they tend to fall rather than increase. By estimating bilateral import equations fo...

  19. An Abstract Interaction Concept for Designing Interaction Behaviour of Service Compositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirgahayu, T.; Quartel, Dick; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Mertins, Kai; Ruggaber, Rainer; Popplewell, Keith; Xu, Xiaofei


    In a service composition, interaction behaviour specifies an information exchange protocol that must be complied with in order to guarantee interoperability between services. Interaction behaviour can be designed using a top-down design approach utilising high abstraction levels to control its

  20. Fluid to fluid contact heat exchanger (United States)

    Clark, W. E.


    Heat transfer and pressure drop test results for a fluid to fluid contact heat exchanger are reported. The heat exchanger, fabricated and tested to demonstrate one method of transferring heat between structures in space, had a total contact area of 0.18 sq m. It utilized contact surfaces which were flexible and conformed to the mating contact surfaces upon pressurization of the fluid circulating within the heat exchanger. During proof-of-concept performance tests, the heat exchanger was operated in a typical earth environment. It demonstrated a contact conductance of 3.8 kW/sq m C at contact pressures in the 15 to 70 kPa range.

  1. Essential Specification Elements for Heat Exchanger Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, L.


    Performance upgrade and equipment degradation are the primary impetuses for a nuclear power plant to engage in the large capital cost project of heat exchanger replacement. Along with attention to these issues, consideration of heat exchanger Codes and Standards, material improvements, thermal redesign, and configuration are essential for developing User’s Design Specifications for successful replacement projects. The User’s Design Specification is the central document in procuring ASME heat exchangers. Properly stated objectives for the heat exchanger replacement are essential for obtaining the materials, configurations and thermal designs best suited for the nuclear power plant. Additionally, the code of construction required and the applied manufacturing standard (TEMA or HEI) affects how the heat exchanger may be designed or configured to meet the replacement goals. Knowledge of how Codes and Standards affect design and configuration details will aid in writing the User’s Design Specification. Joseph Oat Corporation has designed and fabricated many replacement heat exchangers for the nuclear power industry. These heat exchangers have been constructed per ASME Section III to various Code-Years or ASME Section VIII-1 to the current Code-Year also in accordance with TEMA and HEI. These heat exchangers have been a range of like-for-like replacement to complete thermal, material and configuration redesigns. Several examples of these heat exchangers with their Code, Standard and specification implications are presented. (Author.

  2. Ion Exchange and Liquid Column Chromatography. (United States)

    Walton, Harold F.


    Emphasizes recent advances in principles and methodology in ion exchange and chromatography. Two tables list representative examples for inorganic ions and organic compounds. Cites 544 references. (CS)

  3. Entropy exchange for infinite-dimensional systems. (United States)

    Duan, Zhoubo; Hou, Jinchuan


    In this paper the entropy exchange for channels and states in infinite-dimensional systems are defined and studied. It is shown that, this entropy exchange depends only on the given channel and the state. An explicit expression of the entropy exchange in terms of the state and the channel is proposed. The generalized Klein's inequality, the subadditivity and the triangle inequality about the entropy including infinite entropy for the infinite-dimensional systems are established, and then, applied to compare the entropy exchange with the entropy change.

  4. Micro tube heat exchangers for Space Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mezzo fabricates micro tube heat exchangers for a variety of applications, including aerospace, automotive racing, Department of Defense ground vehicles, economizers...

  5. Foreign Exchange Risk in International Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina-Olivia Balu


    In this article we will focus on forward and futures contracts for managing foreign exchange risk. A forward is a contract to buy or sell currency at an agreed upon exchange rate at a specific date in the future. Futures are similar to forwards except that they’re traded on exchanges which specify settlement dates. Also we make some recommendations related to the foreign exchange risk-management practices that are useful for companies involved in international trade and for financial institutions interested in providing hedging products to these companies.

  6. Data Exchange Management Information System (DEMIS) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEMIS combines a database (Operational Data Store - ODS) of data exchange-related Management Information (MI) with the agency's querying and reporting utility, the...

  7. Health and sexual behaviour among exchange students. (United States)

    Petersson, Carina; Peterson, Ulla; Swahnberg, Katarina; Oscarsson, Marie


    The objective was to describe the exchange students' health and sexual behaviour associated with their exchange studies, and examine the extent to which they had received preventive efforts against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) and safer sex before departure. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a web survey with questions about sexual behaviour, self-esteem and psychological well-being. Data were analysed using descriptive and analytical statistics. A total of 136 outgoing exchange students from a Swedish University participated. Most of the exchange students rated their health as good, had psychological well-being and rated their self-esteem as being high. Approximately half of the exchange students had sex with a new partner during the exchange semester, and 87% of them had sexually risky behaviour. More than half (61%) of the exchange students had received preventive efforts before departure. No statistically significant difference regarding preventive information was found between those who reported sexually risky behaviour and those who did not. The group that had sexually risky behaviour desired free condoms and access to clinics for sexual health. CONCLUSIONS EXCHANGE STUDENTS RATED THEIR HEALTH AS GOOD, AND THE MAJORITY OF THEM PARTICIPATED IN INFORMATION SESSIONS THAT ADDRESSED PREVENTIVE EFFORTS ON HIV/STI AND SAFER SEX BEFORE DEPARTURE SEXUALLY RISKY BEHAVIOUR DURING EXCHANGE STUDIES WAS REPORTED AND HIGHLIGHTS THE NEED FOR MORE EFFECTIVE PREVENTIVE MEASURES; FOR EXAMPLE, A RECOLLECTION OF READING STI INFORMATION. © Author(s) 2016.

  8. Exchange effects in a cold plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ekman, Robin; Brodin, Gert


    We have studied the exchange corrections to linear electrostatic wave propagation in a plasma using a quantum kinetic formalism. Specifically we have considered the zero temperature limit. In order to simplify the calculations we have focused on the long wavelength limit, i.e. wavelengths much longer than the de Broglie wavelength. For the case of ion-acoustic waves we have calculated the exchange correction both to the damping rate and the real part of the frequency. For Langmuir waves the frequency shift due to exchange effects is found. Our results are compared with the frequency shifts deduced from commonly used exchange potentials which are computed from density functional theory.

  9. Algorithms for Lightweight Key Exchange. (United States)

    Alvarez, Rafael; Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Santonja, Juan; Zamora, Antonio


    Public-key cryptography is too slow for general purpose encryption, with most applications limiting its use as much as possible. Some secure protocols, especially those that enable forward secrecy, make a much heavier use of public-key cryptography, increasing the demand for lightweight cryptosystems that can be implemented in low powered or mobile devices. This performance requirements are even more significant in critical infrastructure and emergency scenarios where peer-to-peer networks are deployed for increased availability and resiliency. We benchmark several public-key key-exchange algorithms, determining those that are better for the requirements of critical infrastructure and emergency applications and propose a security framework based on these algorithms and study its application to decentralized node or sensor networks.

  10. Monetary Exchange with Multilateral Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julien, Benoît; Kennes, John; King, Ian

    This paper analyzes monetary exchange in a search model allowing for multilateral matches to be formed, according to a standard urn-ballprocess. We consider three physical environments: indivisible goods and money, divisible goods and indivisible money, and divisible goods and money. We compare....... In particular, surplus maximization can be achieved in this setting, in equilibrium, with a positive money supply. Moreover, with flexible prices and directed search, the first best allocation can be attained through price posting or through auctions with lotteries, but not through auctions without lotteries....... Finally, analysis of the case of divisible goods and money can be performed without the assumption of large families (as in Shi (1997)) or the day and night structure of Lagos and Wright (2005)....

  11. Educational Exchanges Across the Equator (United States)

    Norman, D. J.; Walker, C. E.; Smith, M.; Pompea, S. M.; Orellana, D.


    What is color? What is light? How can we use a spectrometer to help students understand the answers to these questions? Even half a world apart and between people of different languages and cultures, how to teach these ideas to students can be a lively subject for discussion. And it is! Aided by Internet 2-based videoconferencing, NOAO North and South have sponsored three teacher professional development videoconference workshops, dubbed ASTRO-Chile, linking teachers in Tucson, AZ, and La Serena, Chile. The teachers exchange methods and ideas about how to explain and demonstrate physical concepts, important to the study of astronomy, to students of various ages. The workshops are conducted in Spanish with four bilingual science teachers from the Tucson area discussing pedagogical approaches with their teaching counterparts in Chile. Demonstrations and project presentations, from both sites, are included as part of each workshop. This work is supported, in part, through funding from the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  12. Exchanger system for anhydrite pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penet, A.


    This paper deals with the problem of roadway behaviour affecting airways, bottom roads and top roads in advancing faces in the HBNPC area. The support work in these zones used to be undertaken manually and involved a lot of man hours. These operations are now mechanized in the form of pneumatic stowing with anhydrite. The latter is delivered by pipeline using compressed air. The 'exchanger' is a sort of branching system in the pipeline enabling the flow to be switched from the top end of the face to the bottom end and vice versa (diagram). The associated operations can be undertaken with ease. The effect the system has on costs will soon be known. (In French)

  13. Exchange Rate Policy in Morocco and Persistence of Real Exchange Rate Misalignments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohamed Bouzahzah; Radouane Bachar


    .... The objective of this article is to highlight the persistent nature of misalignments of the real exchange rate of the Dirham, especially since the adoption by Morocco of a policy exchange rate based...

  14. Exchange bias in zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB based metallic glass composite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R, Lisha; P, Geetha; B, Aravind P.; Anantharaman, M. R., E-mail: [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-682022 (India); T, Hysen [Christian College, Chengannur, Kerala-689121 (India); Ojha, S.; Avasthi, D. K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi-110067 (India); Ramanujan, R. V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)


    The Exchange bias phenomenon and methods to manipulate the bias field in a controlled manner are thrust areas in magnetism due to its sophisticated theoretical concepts as well as advanced technological utility in the field of spintronics. The Exchange bias effect is observed as a result of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic (FM-AFM) exchange interaction, usually observed as a loop shift on field cooling below the Neel temperature of AFM. In the present study, we have chosen zinc ferrite which is a well known antiferromagnet, and FeNiMoB based metallic glass as the ferromagnet. The films were prepared by RF sputtering technique. The thickness and composition was obtained by RBS. The magnetic studies using SQUID VSM indicate exchange bias effect in the system. The effect of thermal annealing on exchange bias effect was studied. The observed exchange bias in the zinc ferrite-FeNiMoB system is not due to FM-AFM coupling but due to spin glass-ferromagnetic interaction.

  15. Topological strings linking with quasiparticle exchange in superconducting Dirac semimetals (United States)

    Lopes, Pedro L. e. S.; Teo, Jeffrey C. Y.; Ryu, Shinsei


    We demonstrate a topological classification of vortices in three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological superconductors based on superconducting Dirac semimetals with an s -wave superconducting order parameter by means of a pair of numbers (NΦ,N ) , accounting how many units NΦ of magnetic fluxes h c /4 e and how many N chiral Majorana modes the vortex carries. From these quantities, we introduce a topological invariant, which further classifies the properties of such vortices under linking processes. While such processes are known to be related to instanton processes in a field theoretic description, we demonstrate here that they are, in fact, also equivalent to the fractional Josephson effect on junctions based at the edges of quantum spin Hall systems. This allows one to consider microscopically the effects of interactions in the linking problem. We therefore demonstrate that associated to links between vortices, one has the exchange of quasiparticles, either Majorana zero modes, or e /2 quasiparticles, which allows for a topological classification of vortices in these systems, seen to be Z8 classified. While NΦ and N are shown to be both even or odd in the weakly interacting limit, in the strongly interacting scenario one loosens this constraint. In this case, one may have further fractionalization possibilities for the vortices, whose excitations are described by SO(3) 3 -like conformal field theories with quasiparticle exchanges of more exotic types.

  16. Do Viruses Exchange Genes across Superkingdoms of Life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahana S. Malik


    Full Text Available Viruses can be classified into archaeoviruses, bacterioviruses, and eukaryoviruses according to the taxonomy of the infected host. The host-constrained perception of viruses implies preference of genetic exchange between viruses and cellular organisms of their host superkingdoms and viral origins from host cells either via escape or reduction. However, viruses frequently establish non-lytic interactions with organisms and endogenize into the genomes of bacterial endosymbionts that reside in eukaryotic cells. Such interactions create opportunities for genetic exchange between viruses and organisms of non-host superkingdoms. Here, we take an atypical approach to revisit virus-cell interactions by first identifying protein fold structures in the proteomes of archaeoviruses, bacterioviruses, and eukaryoviruses and second by tracing their spread in the proteomes of superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. The exercise quantified protein structural homologies between viruses and organisms of their host and non-host superkingdoms and revealed likely candidates for virus-to-cell and cell-to-virus gene transfers. Unexpected lifestyle-driven genetic affiliations between bacterioviruses and Eukarya and eukaryoviruses and Bacteria were also predicted in addition to a large cohort of protein folds that were universally shared by viral and cellular proteomes and virus-specific protein folds not detected in cellular proteomes. These protein folds provide unique insights into viral origins and evolution that are generally difficult to recover with traditional sequence alignment-dependent evolutionary analyses owing to the fast mutation rates of viral gene sequences.

  17. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Atmosphere Water Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Bou-Zeid, Elie


    Understanding and quantifying the interaction of the atmosphere with underlying water surfaces is of great importance for a wide range of scientific fields such as water resources management, climate studies of ocean-atmosphere exchange, and regional weat

  18. Dynamics of heat, water, and soluble gas exchange in the human airways: 1. A model study. (United States)

    Tsu, M E; Babb, A L; Ralph, D D; Hlastala, M P


    In order to provide a means for analysis of heat, water, and soluble gas exchange with the airways during tidal ventilation, a one dimensional theoretical model describing heat and water exchange in the respiratory airways has been extended to include soluble gas exchange with the airway mucosa and water exchange with the mucous layer lining the airways. Not only do heat, water, and gas exchange occur simultaneously, but they also interact. Heating and cooling of the airway surface and mucous lining affects both evaporative water and soluble gas exchange. Water evaporation provides a major source of heat exchange. The model-predicted mean airway temperature profiles agree well with literature data for both oral and nasal breathing validating that part of the model. With model parameters giving the best fit to experimental data, the model shows: (a) substantial heat recovery in the upper airways, (b) minimal respiratory heat and water loss, and (c) low average mucous temperatures and maximal increases in mucous thickness. For resting breathing of room air, heat and water conservation appear to be more important than conditioning efficiency. End-tidal expired partial pressures of very soluble gases eliminated by the lungs are predicted to be lower than the alveolar partial pressures due to the absorption of the expired gases by the airway mucosa. The model may be usable for design of experiments to examine mechanisms associated with the local hydration and dehydration dynamics of the mucosal surface, control of bronchial perfusion, triggering of asthma, mucociliary clearance and deposition of inhaled pollutant gases.

  19. Analyzing Social Interactions: Promises and Challenges of Cross Recurrence Quantification Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Konvalinka, Ivana; Wallot, Sebastian


    The scientific investigation of social interactions presents substantial challenges: interacting agents engage each other at many different levels and timescales (motor and physiological coordination, joint attention, linguistic exchanges, etc.), often making their behaviors interdependent in non...

  20. 76 FR 25774 - Determination of Foreign Exchange Swaps and Foreign Exchange Forwards Under the Commodity... (United States)


    ... exchange derivatives, such as foreign exchange options, currency swaps, or non-deliverable forwards (``NDFs... markets for derivative instruments. In general, the payment obligations on currency swaps, interest rate... derivatives. Foreign exchange options, currency swaps, and NDFs may not be exempted from the CEA's definition...

  1. Interest Rate Rules, Exchange Market Pressure, and Successful Exchange Rate Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.; Mavromatis, K.


    Central banks with an exchange rate objective set the interest rate in response to what they call ''pressure.'' Instead, existing interest rate rules rely on the exchange rate minus its target. To stay closer to actual policy, we introduce a rule that uses exchange market pressure (EMP), the

  2. Australian Universities' Strategic Goals of Student Exchange and Participation Rates in Outbound Exchange Programmes (United States)

    Daly, Amanda; Barker, Michelle


    International student exchange programmes are acknowledged as one aspect of a broader suite of internationalisation strategies aimed at enhancing students' intercultural understanding and competence. The decision to participate in an exchange programme is dependent on both individual and contextual factors such as student exchange policies and…

  3. Exchange Studies as Actor-Networks: Following Korean Exchange Students in Swedish Higher Education (United States)

    Ahn, Song-ee


    This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the…

  4. 77 FR 24752 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; International Securities... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66834; File Nos. SR-EDGA-2012-08; SR-EDGX-2012-07; SR- ISE-2012-21] Self... Exchange AG Will Transfer Its Interest in ISE Holdings, Inc. to a Newly Formed Swiss Corporation, Eurex... (``EDGA''), EDGX Exchange, Inc. (``EDGX''), International Securities Exchange, LLC (``ISE'' and, with EDGA...

  5. Physical forces between humans and how humans attract and repel each other based on their social interactions in an online world

    CERN Document Server

    Thurner, Stefan


    Physical interactions between particles are the result of the exchange of gauge bosons. Human interactions are mediated by the exchange of messages, goods, money, promises, hostilities, etc. While in the physical world interactions and their associated forces have immediate dynamical consequences (Newton's law) the situation is not clear for human interactions. Here we study the acceleration between humans who interact through the exchange of messages, goods and hostilities in a massive multiplayer online game. For this game we have complete information about all interactions (exchange events) between about 1/2 million players, and about their trajectories (positions) in a metric space of the game universe at any point in time. We derive the interaction potentials for communication, trade and attacks and show that they are harmonic in nature. Individuals who exchange messages and trade goods generally attract each other and start to separate immediately after exchange events stop. The interaction potential fo...

  6. Two-pion-exchange in the non-mesonic weak decay of {lambda}-hypernuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumillas, C. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail:; Garbarino, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Turin (Italy); Parreno, A.; Ramos, A. [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    The non-mesonic weak decay of {lambda}-hypernuclei is studied within a one-meson-exchange potential supplemented by a chirally motivated two-pion-exchange mechanism. The effects of final state interactions on the outgoing nucleons are also taken into account. Particular attention is payed to the asymmetry of the protons emitted by polarized hypernuclei. The one-meson-exchange model describes the non-mesonic rates and the neutron-to-proton ratio satisfactorily but predicts a too large and negative asymmetry parameter. The two-pion exchange mechanism modifies the strength and sign of some decay amplitudes. As a consequence, while the rates change moderately, the asymmetry parameter is strongly affected, acquiring values that lie well within the experimental observations.

  7. The evolutionary synchronization of the exchange rate system in ASEAN+6 (United States)

    Feng, Xiaobing; Hu, Haibo; Wang, Xiaofan


    Although there are extensive researches on the behavior of the world currency network, the complexity of the Asian regional currency system is not well understood regardless of its importance. Using daily exchange rates this paper examines exchange rate co-movements in the region before and after the China exchange rate reform. It was found that the correlation between Asian currencies and the US Dollar, the previous regional key currency has become weaker and intra-Asia interactions have increased. Cross sample entropy and cross entropy approaches are also applied to examine the synchrony behavior among the Asian currencies. The study also shows that the Asian exchange rate markets featured are neither stochastic nor efficient. These findings may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of collective behaviors in a regional currency network; they will also lay a theoretical foundation for further policy formulation in Asian currency integration.

  8. Amide H/D exchange in the thermal transition of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talluri, S.; Scheraga, H.A. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))


    The H/D exchange behavior of RNase A at pH 2.5 at a number of temperatures spanning the thermal transition region has been examined by NMR spectroscopy. The amide proton of V116 has a slow rate of H/D exchange even at temperatures above the midpoint of the thermal transition. The H/D exchange behavior of the peptide corresponding to residues 105-124 of RNase A and the peptide corresponding to residues 115-117 is compared with that of RNase A, showing that folding/unfolding cannot be described by a two-state model, and that both short- and long-range interactions are responsible for the slow rate of H/D exchange.

  9. A comprehensive molecular dynamics approach to protein retention modeling in ion exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Lang, Katharina M H; Kittelmann, Jörg; Dürr, Cathrin; Osberghaus, Anna; Hubbuch, Jürgen


    In downstream processing, the underlying adsorption mechanism of biomolecules to adsorbent material are still subject of extensive research. One approach to more mechanistic understanding is simulating this adsorption process and hereby the possibility to identify the parameters with strongest impact. So far this method was applied with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of two model proteins on one cation exchanger. In this work we developed a molecular dynamics tool to simulate protein-adsorber interaction for various proteins on an anion exchanger and ran gradient elution experiments to relate the simulation results to experimental data. We were able to show that simulation results yield similar results as experimental data regarding retention behavior as well as binding orientation. We could identify arginines in case of cation exchangers and aspartic acids in case of anion exchangers as major contributors to binding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exchange cotunneling through quantum dots with spin-orbit coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, Jens; Andersen, Andreas; Flensberg, Karsten


    We investigate the effects of spin-orbit interaction (SOI) on the exchange cotunneling through a spinful Coulomb blockaded quantum dot. In the case of zero magnetic field, Kondo effect is shown to take place via a Kramers doublet and the SOI will merely affect the Kondo temperature. In contrast, we...... find that the breaking of time-reversal symmetry in a finite field has a marked influence on the effective Anderson and Kondo models for a single level. The nonlinear conductance can now be asymmetric in bias voltage and may depend strongly on the direction of the magnetic field. A measurement...

  11. Equal exchange: Determining a fair price for carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodes, G.; Kamel, S.


    This first volume in the new series CD4CDM Perspective Series focuses on determining an equal exchange between carbon buyers and sellers in CDM transactions. Contributors to this volume represent a wide spectrum of the various market actors that are interacting in order to realize both successful and equitable carbon transactions. The following issues are discussed: Global carbon price dynamics; CDM project risk profiles and/or premiums; Importance of time factors and delivery guarantees; Impact of regulatory drivers and post-Kyoto outlook; Region-specific outlooks; Strategies, contracting models and approaches. (BA)

  12. Challenges in quantifying biosphere-atmosphere exchange of nitrogen species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, M.A.; Nemitz, E.; Erisman, J.W.


    Recent research in nitrogen exchange with the atmosphere has separated research communities according to N form. The integrated perspective needed to quantify the net effect of N on greenhouse-gas balance is being addressed by the NitroEurope Integrated Project (NEU). Recent advances have depended...... on improved methodologies, while ongoing challenges include gas-aerosol interactions, organic nitrogen and N2 fluxes. The NEU strategy applies a 3-tier Flux Network together with a Manipulation Network of global-change experiments, linked by common protocols to facilitate model application. Substantial...

  13. An iterative homogenization technique that preserves assembly core exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondot, Ph. [Electricite de France, Recherche et Developement, SINETICS, 92 - Clamart (France); Sanchez, R. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Etudes Nucleaires, Service Etude des Reacteurs et de Modelisations Avancees, 91 - Gilf sur Yvette (France)


    A new interactive homogenization procedure for reactor core calculations is proposed that requires iterative transport assembly and diffusion core calculations. At each iteration the transport solution of every assembly type is used to produce homogenized cross sections for the core calculation. The converged solution gives assembly fine multigroup transport fluxes that preserve macro-group assembly exchanges in the core. This homogenization avoids the periodic lattice-leakage model approximation and gives detailed assembly transport fluxes without need of an approximated flux reconstruction. Preliminary results are given for a one-dimensional core model. (authors)

  14. Heat Exchanger Lab for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates (United States)

    Rajala, Jonathan W.; Evans, Edward A.; Chase, George G.


    Third year chemical engineering undergraduate students at The University of Akron designed and fabricated a heat exchanger for a stirred tank as part of a Chemical Engineering Laboratory course. The heat exchanger portion of this course was three weeks of the fifteen week long semester. Students applied concepts of scale-up and dimensional…

  15. Assessing heat exchanger performance data using temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To ensure operation of heat exchangers, the goal is to verify that the exchanger is performing, or will perform, at its design. This is especially relevant to coolers that typically operate at heat loads reduced from their design basis. In addition, any calculated performance acceptance criteria must also consider uncertainty and ...

  16. Identifying the weights in exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.


    Exchange market pressure (EMP) measures the pressure on a currency to depreciate, and it is particularly relevant in crisis periods. EMP adds to the actual depreciation a weighted combination of policy instruments used to ward off depreciation, such as interest rates and foreign exchange

  17. The Story of Foreign Trade and Exchange. (United States)

    Fan, Cedric

    This comic-style booklet is one of a series of educational booklets published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The booklet uses everyday language and lively illustrations to explain the benefits of international trade; the effects of tariffs and quotas; the significance of foreign exchange rates; how the foreign exchange market facilities…

  18. Timing matters in foreign exchange markets (United States)

    Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki


    We show using nonlinear time series analysis that the timing of trades in foreign exchange markets has significant information. We apply a set of methods for analyzing point process data developed in neuroscience and nonlinear science. Our results imply that foreign exchange markets might be chaotic and have short-term predictability.

  19. Individual Differences in Reactions to Inequitable Exchanges. (United States)

    Ellis, Barbara B.; Penner, Louis A.


    Investigates the role of sociopathic tendencies in reactions to inequitable exchanges in 273 males and females classified as high or low in sociopathy. Subjects read narratives of inequitable exchanges and assumed the role of the exploiter and the role of the victim in each. (Author/RH)

  20. Synthesis, characterization and ion exchange properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The material has been characterized on the basis of chemical composition, pH titration, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis. The effect on the exchange capacity of drying the exchanger at different temperatures has been studied. The analytical importance of the material has been ...