Lavis John N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based organizations (CBOs are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery efforts. CBOs increasingly turn to community-based research (CBR given its participatory focus and emphasis on linking research to action. In order to further facilitate the use of research evidence by CBOs, we have developed a strategy for community-based knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE that helps CBOs more effectively link research evidence to action. We developed the strategy by: outlining the primary characteristics of CBOs and why they are important stakeholders in health systems; describing the concepts and methods for CBR and for KTE; comparing the efforts of CBR to link research evidence to action to those discussed in the KTE literature; and using the comparison to develop a framework for community-based KTE that builds on both the strengths of CBR and existing KTE frameworks. Discussion We find that CBR is particularly effective at fostering a climate for using research evidence and producing research evidence relevant to CBOs through community participation. However, CBOs are not always as engaged in activities to link research evidence to action on a larger scale or to evaluate these efforts. Therefore, our strategy for community-based KTE focuses on: an expanded model of 'linkage and exchange' (i.e., producers and users of researchers engaging in a process of asking and answering questions together; a greater emphasis on both producing and disseminating systematic reviews that address topics of interest to CBOs; developing a large-scale evidence service consisting of both 'push' efforts and efforts to facilitate 'pull' that highlight actionable messages from community relevant systematic reviews in a user-friendly way; and rigorous evaluations of efforts for linking research evidence to action. Summary
Kegeles, Susan M; Rebchook, Gregory; Pollack, Lance; Huebner, David; Tebbetts, Scott; Hamiga, John; Sweeney, David; Zovod, Benjamin
Considerable resources have been spent developing and rigorously testing HIV prevention intervention models, but such models do not impact the AIDS pandemic unless they are implemented effectively by community-based organizations (CBOs) and health departments. The Mpowerment Project (MP) is being implemented by CBOs around the U.S. It is a multilevel, evidence-based HIV prevention program for young gay/bisexual men that targets individual, interpersonal, social, and structural issues by using empowerment and community mobilization methods. This paper discusses the development of an intervention to help CBOs implement the MP called the Mpowerment Project Technology Exchange System (MPTES); CBOs' uptake, utilization and perceptions of the MPTES components; and issues that arose during technical assistance. The seven-component MPTES was provided to 49 CBOs implementing the MP that were followed longitudinally for up to two years. Except for the widely used program manual, other program materials were used early in implementing the MP and then their use declined. In contrast, once technical assistance was proactively provided, its usage remained constant over time, as did requests for technical assistance. CBOs expressed substantial positive feedback about the MPTES, but felt that it needs more focus on diversity issues, describing real world implementation approaches, and providing guidance on how to adapt the MP to diverse populations.
Full Text Available Community-based responses have a lengthy history. The ravages of HIV on family functioning has included a widespread community response. Although much funding has been invested in front line community-based organisations (CBO, there was no equal investment in evaluations. This study was set up to compare children aged 9-13 years old, randomly sampled from two South African provinces, who had not received CBO support over time (YC with a group of similarly aged children who were CBO attenders (CCC. YC baseline refusal rate was 2.5% and retention rate was 97%. CCC baseline refusal rate was 0.7% and retention rate was 86.5%. 1848 children were included-446 CBO attenders compared to 1402 9-13 year olds drawn from a random sample of high-HIV prevalence areas. Data were gathered at baseline and 12-15 months follow-up. Standardised measures recorded demographics, violence and abuse, mental health, social and educational factors. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that children attending CBOs had lower odds of experiencing weekly domestic conflict between adults in their home (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.09, 0.32, domestic violence (OR 0.22; 95% CI 0.08, 0.62, or abuse (OR 0.11; 95% CI 0.05, 0.25 at follow-up compared to participants without CBO contact. CBO attenders had lower odds of suicidal ideation (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.18, 0.91, fewer depressive symptoms (B = -0.40; 95% CI -0.62, -0.17, less perceived stigma (B = -0.37; 95% CI -0.57, -0.18, fewer peer problems (B = -1.08; 95% CI -1.29, -0.86 and fewer conduct problems (B = -0.77; 95% CI -0.95, -0.60 at follow-up. In addition, CBO contact was associated with more prosocial behaviours at follow-up (B = 1.40; 95% CI 1.13, 1.67. No associations were observed between CBO contact and parental praise or post-traumatic symptoms. These results suggest that CBO exposure is associated with behavioural and mental health benefits for children over time. More severe psychopathology was not affected by attendance and
Siller, Heidi; Renner, Walter; Juen, Barbara
The study focuses on psychosocial functioning of female Turkish immigrants in Austria with recurrent depressive disorder participating in self-help groups. Self-help groups guided by group leaders of Turkish descent should increase autonomy in participants, providing the opportunity to follow their ethnic health beliefs. Turkish immigrant women (n = 43) with recurrent depressive disorder participated in self-help groups over four months. Qualitative data of participants and group leaders, containing interviews, group protocols and supervision protocols of group leaders were analyzed using the qualitative content analysis for effects on psychosocial function, such as interaction with others, illness beliefs and benefit from self-help group. Women reported feelings of being neglected and violated by their husbands. They stated that they had gained strength and had emancipated themselves from their husbands. Self-help groups functioned as social resources and support for changes in participants' lives. Further interventions should integrate the functional value of depressive symptoms and focus on social support systems and social networks.
Johnson, Diane E.
A court-mandated parent education course aimed at reducing effects of divorce on children was evaluated by 1,400 participants over 5 years. Most respondents highly recommended the course and said it helped them become aware of their children's point of view and how to prevent long-term emotional problems. (SK)
Mays, Keith A; Maguire, Meghan
Since 2000, reports have documented the challenges faced by many Americans in receiving oral health care and the consequences of inadequate care such as high levels of dental caries among many U.S. children. To help address this problem, many dental schools now include community-based dental education (CBDE) in their curricula, placing students in extramural clinics where they provide care in underserved communities. CBDE is intended to both broaden the education of future oral health professionals and expand care for patients in community clinics. The aim of this study was to develop a three-year profile of the patients seen and the care provided by students at extramural clinics associated with one U.S. dental school. Three student cohorts participated in the rotations: final-year students in the Doctor of Dental Surgery, Bachelor of Science in Dental Hygiene, and Master of Dental Therapy programs. The study was a retrospective analysis of data retrieved from the school's database for three consecutive academic years. The data included patients' demographics and special health care needs status (based on information collected by students from their patients) and procedures students performed while on rotations. For the three-year period, the results showed a total of 43,128 patients were treated by 418 student providers. Approximately 25% of all encounters were with pediatric patients. Students completed 5,908 child prophylaxis, 5,386 topical fluoride varnish, and 7,678 sealant procedures on pediatric patients. Annually, 7% of the total patients treated had special health care needs. The results show that these students in CBDE rotations provided a substantial amount of oral health care at extramural sites and gained additional experience in caring for a diverse population of patients and performing a wide range of procedures.
Wurz, Amanda J.; Yamauchi, Yayoi; Pires, Lanie Ann
Objective. A qualitative research methods approach was used to explore the experiences of participants in an ongoing community-based yoga program developed for cancer survivors and their support persons. Methods. 25 participants took part in a series of semistructured focus groups following a seven-week yoga program and at three- and six-month follow-ups. Focus groups were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a process of inductive thematic analysis. Results. The group was comprised of 20 cancer survivors, who were diagnosed on average 25.40 (20.85) months earlier, and five support persons. Participants had completed the yoga program an average of 3.35 (3.66) times previously and attended approximately 1.64 (0.70) of three possible focus groups. Four key themes were identified: (1) safety and shared understanding; (2) cancer-specific yoga instruction; (3) benefits of yoga participation; (4) mechanisms of yoga practice. Conclusions. Qualitative research provides unique and in-depth insight into the yoga experience. Specifically, cancer survivors and support persons participating in a community-based yoga program discussed their experiences of change over time and were acutely aware of the beneficial effects of yoga on their physical, psychological, and social well-being. Further, participants were able to articulate the mechanisms they perceived as underpinning the relationship between yoga and improved well-being as they developed their yoga practice. PMID:27974899
Michael J. Mackenzie
Full Text Available Objective. A qualitative research methods approach was used to explore the experiences of participants in an ongoing community-based yoga program developed for cancer survivors and their support persons. Methods. 25 participants took part in a series of semistructured focus groups following a seven-week yoga program and at three- and six-month follow-ups. Focus groups were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a process of inductive thematic analysis. Results. The group was comprised of 20 cancer survivors, who were diagnosed on average 25.40 (20.85 months earlier, and five support persons. Participants had completed the yoga program an average of 3.35 (3.66 times previously and attended approximately 1.64 (0.70 of three possible focus groups. Four key themes were identified: (1 safety and shared understanding; (2 cancer-specific yoga instruction; (3 benefits of yoga participation; (4 mechanisms of yoga practice. Conclusions. Qualitative research provides unique and in-depth insight into the yoga experience. Specifically, cancer survivors and support persons participating in a community-based yoga program discussed their experiences of change over time and were acutely aware of the beneficial effects of yoga on their physical, psychological, and social well-being. Further, participants were able to articulate the mechanisms they perceived as underpinning the relationship between yoga and improved well-being as they developed their yoga practice.
Full Text Available The broad goals of the community-based participatory research (CBPR include community engagement, capacity building, developing practical solutions for community concerns and knowledge building. This article describes the data generation and sharing process as it relates to the goals of CBPR and health promotion in an American Indian/Alaska Native communities. The project described herein, “Investigating Inupiaq Cultural Resilience: A Pilot Study, “ achieved these goals in a tribal context by fostering intergenerational dialogue through data collection. The intergenerational exchange served to collect data for a community-based participatory study and provide an opportunity for communication between Elders, adults and youth. By providing an arena for intergenerational sharing, the format encouraged cross-age connections and in doing so, supported, in a broad sense, the transmission of cultural knowledge. The article describes the process and articulates the ways it supports the CBPR goals of engagement, practical relevance, knowledge generation and health promotion.
Bork, Lasse; Kaltwasser, Pablo Rovira; Sercu, Piet
Chen et al. (2010) report that for ‘commodity currencies’, the exchange rate predicts the country’s commodity index but not vice versa. The commodity currency hypothesis is consistent with the Engle and West (2005) exchange rate model if the fundamental is chosen to be the country’s key export...... prices and if the latter are exogenous to the exchange rate dynamics. In our view, however, commodity prices are essentially financial asset prices that are set in a forward-looking way, exactly like exchange rates. If both the exchange rate and the commodity prices are based on discounted future...... of commodity prices. Cross-predictability, in contrast, seems to be only minor at best, not robust to plausible variations in the test design, and bi-directional rather than one-directional. We show to what extent the difference between Chen et al’s empirical findings and ours is due to the presence of time...
Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Malaysian adults has increased by more than two folds over the past two decades. Strategies to collaborate with the existing community partners may become a promising channel for wide-scale dissemination of diabetes prevention in the country. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of community-based lifestyle interventions delivered to adults with prediabetes and their health-related quality of life as compared to the usual care group.This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two sub-urban communities in Seremban, Malaysia. A total of 268 participants with prediabetes aged between 18 to 65 years old were assigned to either the community-based lifestyle intervention (Co-HELP (n = 122 or the usual care (n = 146 groups. The Co-HELP program was delivered in partnership with the existing community volunteers to incorporate diet, physical activity, and behaviour modification strategies. Participants in the Co-HELP group received twelve group-based sessions and two individual counselling to reinforce behavioural change. Participants in the usual care group received standard health education from primary health providers in the clinic setting. Primary outcomes were fasting blood glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1C. Secondary outcomes included weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, diet, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL.An intention-to-treat analysis of between-groups at 12-month (mean difference, 95% CI revealed that the Co-HELP participants' mean fasting plasma glucose reduced by -0.40 mmol/l (-0.51 to -0.28, p600 METS/min/wk (60.7% vs 32.2%, p<0.001 compared to the usual care group.This study provides evidence that a culturally adapted diabetes prevention program can be implemented in the community setting, with reduction of several diabetes risk
Edgerton Mary E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue Microarrays (TMAs allow researchers to examine hundreds of small tissue samples on a single glass slide. The information held in a single TMA slide may easily involve Gigabytes of data. To benefit from TMA technology, the scientific community needs an open source TMA data exchange specification that will convey all of the data in a TMA experiment in a format that is understandable to both humans and computers. A data exchange specification for TMAs allows researchers to submit their data to journals and to public data repositories and to share or merge data from different laboratories. In May 2001, the Association of Pathology Informatics (API hosted the first in a series of four workshops, co-sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, to develop an open, community-supported TMA data exchange specification. Methods A draft tissue microarray data exchange specification was developed through workshop meetings. The first workshop confirmed community support for the effort and urged the creation of an open XML-based specification. This was to evolve in steps with approval for each step coming from the stakeholders in the user community during open workshops. By the fourth workshop, held October, 2002, a set of Common Data Elements (CDEs was established as well as a basic strategy for organizing TMA data in self-describing XML documents. Results The TMA data exchange specification is a well-formed XML document with four required sections: 1 Header, containing the specification Dublin Core identifiers, 2 Block, describing the paraffin-embedded array of tissues, 3Slide, describing the glass slides produced from the Block, and 4 Core, containing all data related to the individual tissue samples contained in the array. Eighty CDEs, conforming to the ISO-11179 specification for data elements constitute XML tags used in the TMA data exchange specification. A set of six simple semantic rules describe the complete data exchange
Full Text Available Carina Wattmo, Elisabeth Paulsson, Lennart Minthon, Elisabet LondosClinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, SwedenBackground: To investigate the long-term effects of cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI therapy and the influence of sociodemographic and clinical factors on the use of community-based home help services (HHS by patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD.Methods: This 3-year, prospective, multicenter study included 880 AD patients treated with donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine in a routine clinical setting. At baseline and every 6 months, the patients were assessed with several rating scales, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL, and Physical Self-Maintenance Scale. Doses of ChEI and amounts of HHS per week were recorded. Cox regression models were used to predict the time to HHS, and multiple linear regression was used to predict the volume of HHS used.Results: During the study, 332 patients (38% used HHS. Factors that both postponed HHS use and predicted lower amounts of HHS were higher doses of ChEIs, better IADL ability, and living with family. Men, younger individuals, and those with a slower IADL decline showed a longer time to HHS, whereas female sex, a lower cognitive status, or more medications at baseline predicted fewer hours of HHS.Conclusions: Higher doses of ChEI might reduce the use of HHS, possibly reducing the costs of community-based care. Female spouses provide more informal care than do male spouses, so the likelihood of using HHS is greater among women with AD. The "silent group" of more cognitively impaired and frail elderly AD patients receives less HHS, which might precipitate institutionalization.Keywords: cognition, activities of daily living, treatment effect, gender, predictors
Wattmo, Carina; Paulsson, Elisabeth; Minthon, Lennart; Londos, Elisabet
To investigate the long-term effects of cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) therapy and the influence of sociodemographic and clinical factors on the use of community-based home help services (HHS) by patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This 3-year, prospective, multicenter study included 880 AD patients treated with donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine in a routine clinical setting. At baseline and every 6 months, the patients were assessed with several rating scales, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), and Physical Self-Maintenance Scale. Doses of ChEI and amounts of HHS per week were recorded. Cox regression models were used to predict the time to HHS, and multiple linear regression was used to predict the volume of HHS used. During the study, 332 patients (38%) used HHS. Factors that both postponed HHS use and predicted lower amounts of HHS were higher doses of ChEIs, better IADL ability, and living with family. Men, younger individuals, and those with a slower IADL decline showed a longer time to HHS, whereas female sex, a lower cognitive status, or more medications at baseline predicted fewer hours of HHS. Higher doses of ChEI might reduce the use of HHS, possibly reducing the costs of community-based care. Female spouses provide more informal care than do male spouses, so the likelihood of using HHS is greater among women with AD. The "silent group" of more cognitively impaired and frail elderly AD patients receives less HHS, which might precipitate institutionalization.
Jaeggi, Adrian V; Hooper, Paul L; Beheim, Bret A; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael
Social organisms sometimes depend on help from reciprocating partners to solve adaptive problems , and individual cooperation strategies should aim to offer high supply commodities at low cost to the donor in exchange for high-demand commodities with large return benefits [2, 3]. Although such market dynamics have been documented in some animals [4-7], naturalistic studies of human cooperation are often limited by focusing on single commodities . We analyzed cooperation in five domains (meat sharing, produce sharing, field labor, childcare, and sick care) among 2,161 household dyads of Tsimane' horticulturalists, using Bayesian multilevel models and information-theoretic model comparison. Across domains, the best-fit models included kinship and residential proximity, exchanges in kind and across domains, measures of supply and demand and their interactions with exchange, and household-specific exchange slopes. In these best models, giving, receiving, and reciprocating were to some extent shaped by market forces, and reciprocal exchange across domains had a strong partial effect on cooperation independent of more exogenous factors like kinship and proximity. Our results support the view that reciprocal exchange can provide a reliable solution to adaptive problems [8-11]. Although individual strategies patterned by market forces may generate gains from trade in any species , humans' slow life history and skill-intensive foraging niche favor specialization and create interdependence [12, 13], thus stabilizing cooperation and fostering divisions of labor even in informal economies [14, 15]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Using community-based participatory research to explore social determinants of women's mental health and barriers to help-seeking in three urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved communities.
Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen; De Maagd-Rodriguez, Megan
Depression and anxiety are significant mental health issues that affect urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished women disproportionately. This study sought to identify social determinants of mental health and barriers to help-seeking for this population. Using community based participatory research and focus groups, sixty-one Black, Hispanic, and White women identified economic, family, cultural, and neighborhood issues as perceived determinants of their depression/anxiety. They identified practical, psychosocial, and cultural barriers to their help-seeking behavior. These results can promote women's health by fostering an understanding of social factors as perceived determinants of depression/anxiety and shaping practice and policy initiatives that foster positive aggregate outcomes. © 2013.
Dembe, Allard E; Biehl, Jeffrey M; Smith, Alicia D; Garcia de Gutierrez, Teresa
A coalition of employers in the hotel and restaurant industries collaborated with community-based organizations to undertake a unique demonstration project, called the Employed Latino Health Initiative, aimed at improving access to basic health care services for low-wage Latino workers in Columbus, Ohio. With grant funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the project developed and tested protocols allowing Latino workers from participating companies to obtain basic health care screenings, referrals to medical providers, health education training, and the services of a qualified community health navigator. Data from the pilot project indicated high screening participation rates, extensive referrals to providers for follow-up care, and a substantial need for facilitation services by community health navigators. The project provides a model for how employers can potentially promote their own interests in boosting work productivity through facilitating expanded access to basic medical services among vulnerable workers, despite the absence of conventional health insurance coverage.
... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Community-Based Care Basic Facts & Information A variety of ... Adult Day Care Adult day care is a community-based option that has become more common. It ...
Farmer, Steven M; Van Dyne, Linn; Kamdar, Dishan
This article develops the argument that team-member exchange (TMX) relationships operate at both between- and within-group levels of analysis to influence an employee's sense of identification with coworkers in the group and their helping organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) directed at coworkers. Specifically, we propose that relatively higher quality TMX relationships of an employee as compared with other members of the group influence an employee's sense of positive uniqueness, whereas higher average level of TMX quality in the group creates a greater sense of belonging. Multilevel modeling analysis of field data from 236 bank managers and their subordinates supports the hypotheses and demonstrates 3 key findings. First, team members identify more with their coworkers when they have high relative TMX quality compared with other group members and are also embedded in groups with higher average TMX. Second, identification with coworkers is positively related to helping OCB directed toward team members. Finally, identification with coworkers mediates the interactive effect of relative TMX quality and group average TMX quality on helping. When TMX group relations allow individuals to feel a valued part of the group, but still unique, they engage in higher levels of helping. Overall moderated mediation analysis demonstrates that the mediated relationship linking relative TMX quality with helping OCB via identification with coworkers is stronger when group average TMX is high, but not present when group average TMX is low. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and recommend future research on multilevel conceptualizations of TMX. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Thornton, P. E.; Metcalfe, D.; Oren, R.; Ricciuto, D. M.
The magnitude, spatial distribution, and variability of land net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) are important determinants of the trajectory of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Independent observational constraints provide important clues regarding NEE and its component fluxes, with information available at multiple spatial scales: from cells, to leaves, to entire organisms and collections of organisms, to complex landscapes and up to continental and global scales. Experimental manipulations, ecosystem observations, and process modeling all suggest that the components of NEE (photosynthetic gains, and respiration and other losses) are controlled in part by the availability of mineral nutrients, and that nutrient limitation is a common condition in many biomes. Experimental and observational constraints at different spatial scales provide a complex and sometimes puzzling picture of the nature and degree of influence of nutrient availability on carbon cycle processes. Photosynthetic rates assessed at the cellular and leaf scales are often higher than the observed accumulation of carbon in plant and soil pools would suggest. We infer that a down-regulation process intervenes between carbon uptake and plant growth under conditions of nutrient limitation, and several down-regulation mechanisms have been hypothesized and tested. A recent evaluation of two alternative hypotheses for down-regulation in the light of whole-plant level flux estimates indicates that some plants take up and store extra carbon, releasing it to the environment again on short time scales. The mechanism of release, either as additional autotrophic respiration or as exudation belowground is unclear, but has important consequences for long-term ecosystem state and response to climate change signals. Global-scale constraints from atmospheric concentration and isotopic composition data help to resolve this question, ultimately focusing attention on land use fluxes as the most uncertain
Tzeel, Albert; Lawnicki, Victor; Pemble, Kim R
As emergency department utilization continues to increase, health plans must limit their cost exposure, which may be driven by duplicate testing and a lack of medical history at the point of care. Based on previous studies, health information exchanges (HIEs) can potentially provide health plans with the ability to address this need. To assess the effectiveness of a community-based HIE in controlling plan costs arising from emergency department care for a health plan's members. Albert Tzeel. The study design was observational, with an eligible population (N = 1482) of fully insured plan members who sought emergency department care on at least 2 occasions during the study period, from December 2008 through March 2010. Cost and utilization data, obtained from member claims, were matched to a list of persons utilizing the emergency department where HIE querying could have occurred. Eligible members underwent propensity score matching to create a test group (N = 326) in which the HIE database was queried in all emergency department visits, and a control group (N = 325) in which the HIE database was not queried in any emergency department visit. Post-propensity matching analysis showed that the test group achieved an average savings of $29 per emergency department visit compared with the control group. Decreased utilization of imaging procedures and diagnostic tests drove this cost-savings. When clinicians utilize HIE in the care of patients who present to the emergency department, the costs borne by a health plan providing coverage for these patients decrease. Although many factors can play a role in this finding, it is likely that HIEs obviate unnecessary service utilization through provision of historical medical information regarding specific patients at the point of care.
Community-based tourism: Origins and present trends. ... Understanding the origins of Community Based Tourism helps in mapping its possible trajectories. Past and current trends are important to unlock the possibilities ... from genuine CBT projects. Keywords: Community participation, development, management, tourism.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based interventions are a promising approach and an important component of a comprehensive response to obesity. In this paper we describe the Collaboration of COmmunity-based Obesity Prevention Sites (CO-OPS Collaboration in Australia as an example of a collaborative network to enhance the quality and quantity of obesity prevention action at the community level. The core aims of the CO-OPS Collaboration are to: identify and analyse the lessons learned from a range of community-based initiatives aimed at tackling obesity, and; to identify the elements that make community-based obesity prevention initiatives successful and share the knowledge gained with other communities. Methods Key activities of the collaboration to date have included the development of a set of Best Practice Principles and knowledge translation and exchange activities to promote the application (or use of evidence, evaluation and analysis in practice. Results The establishment of the CO-OPS Collaboration is a significant step toward strengthening action in this area, by bringing together research, practice and policy expertise to promote best practice, high quality evaluation and knowledge translation and exchange. Future development of the network should include facilitation of further evidence generation and translation drawing from process, impact and outcome evaluation of existing community-based interventions. Conclusions The lessons presented in this paper may help other networks like CO-OPS as they emerge around the globe. It is important that networks integrate with each other and share the experience of creating these networks.
Novak, Josef; Ohska, Tokio; Nemec, Vaclav
Let us start with a story of the conservatory in Prague where a Czech student Jan Snitil met a Japanese girl Masako Nakajima. Their marriage helped to initiate a cultural exchange between their countries of birth. Later Jan Snitil as the conductor of the Opera house in Opava with the help of a NPO group under his wife had a considerable success in introducing the Czech opera Dalibor (from Bedrich Smetana; stage director Josef Novak) in Japan and by realizing the first performance of the Japanese opera "Juzuru" (stage director T. Ohska) in Opava. This brought together both respective stage directors. The intensifying interest of T. Ohska for the operas of Smetana inspired J. Novak to arrange in Prague his meeting with Vaclav Nemec well known for his promotion work of the great Czech composer. In his professional career Vaclav Nemec is the internationally known Earth scientist specialized since early 1960's in the field of mathematical geology (later also in tectonics) and since 1991 respected as the "Father of Geoethics". At the meeting Nemec recognized Ohska as a Physics Professor specialized in nuclear physic and attracted him for an active participation in the field of geoethics. Prof. Ohska prepared valuable presentations for the international session on geoethics at Pribram (2011) and especially for the International Geological Congress in Brisbane (2012). At Pribram in the course of a social party Lidmila Nemcova (co-convenor of the meeting) introduced Prof. Ohska to Waclaw Demecki, Chancellor of the Higher School of Management in Legnica (Poland). Demecki has been inviting Ohska for special lectures on science as well as on cultural heritage of Japan. Professor Ohska arranges his visits to Poland through Prague where he can meet with Novak and Nemec to discuss the staging of the last opera of Smetana "Devil's Wall". Nemec in his research had finally deciphered (2012, i.e. 130 years after the first performance) the "mystery" of this opera: the composer put
Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter
is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under...... the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport...
Cardona-Olarte, Pablo; Krauss, Ken W.; Twilley, Robert R.
Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa co-occur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1) were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (gw), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE), and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and stomatal conductance and gw, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated) during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for assimilation at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.
Full Text Available Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa cooccur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1 were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A, stomatal conductance (gw, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci, instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE, and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and gw and, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for A at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.
Lauber, T Bruce; Decker, Daniel J; Knuth, Barbara A
We conducted case studies of three successful examples of collaborative, community-based natural resource conservation and development. Our purpose was to: (1) identify the functions served by interactions within the social networks of involved stakeholders; (2) describe key structural properties of these social networks; and (3) determine how these structural properties varied when the networks were serving different functions. The case studies relied on semi-structured, in-depth interviews of 8 to 11 key stakeholders at each site who had played a significant role in the collaborative projects. Interview questions focused on the roles played by key stakeholders and the functions of interactions between them. Interactions allowed the exchange of ideas, provided access to funding, and enabled some stakeholders to influence others. The exchange of ideas involved the largest number of stakeholders, the highest percentage of local stakeholders, and the highest density of interactions. Our findings demonstrated the value of tailoring strategies for involving stakeholders to meet different needs during a collaborative, community-based natural resource management project. Widespread involvement of local stakeholders may be most appropriate when ideas for a project are being developed. During efforts to exert influence to secure project approvals or funding, however, involving specific individuals with political connections or influence on possible sources of funds may be critical. Our findings are consistent with past work that has postulated that social networks may require specific characteristics to meet different needs in community-based environmental management.
Lauber, T. Bruce; Decker, Daniel J.; Knuth, Barbara A.
We conducted case studies of three successful examples of collaborative, community-based natural resource conservation and development. Our purpose was to: (1) identify the functions served by interactions within the social networks of involved stakeholders; (2) describe key structural properties of these social networks; and (3) determine how these structural properties varied when the networks were serving different functions. The case studies relied on semi-structured, in-depth interviews of 8 to 11 key stakeholders at each site who had played a significant role in the collaborative projects. Interview questions focused on the roles played by key stakeholders and the functions of interactions between them. Interactions allowed the exchange of ideas, provided access to funding, and enabled some stakeholders to influence others. The exchange of ideas involved the largest number of stakeholders, the highest percentage of local stakeholders, and the highest density of interactions. Our findings demonstrated the value of tailoring strategies for involving stakeholders to meet different needs during a collaborative, community-based natural resource management project. Widespread involvement of local stakeholders may be most appropriate when ideas for a project are being developed. During efforts to exert influence to secure project approvals or funding, however, involving specific individuals with political connections or influence on possible sources of funds may be critical. Our findings are consistent with past work that has postulated that social networks may require specific characteristics to meet different needs in community-based environmental management.
Tse, Herman H M; Lam, Catherine K; Lawrence, Sandra A; Huang, Xu
According to balance theory (Heider, 1958), when 2 coworkers develop different levels of leader-member exchange (LMX) relationships with their supervisor, a triadic relational imbalance will arise among the 3 parties that may result in hostile sentiments and poor social interactions between them. This study examines the consequences and psychological processes of (dis)similar levels of LMX on the interpersonal interactions between coworkers. Using data from 2 independent studies, the results of social relations analyses show that (a) actual (dis)similarity in LMX between Coworkers A and B increases Coworker A's feelings of contempt for Coworker B and decreases Coworker A's perception of help received from Coworker B (Study 1); (b) Coworker A is more likely to experience contempt for Coworker B when Coworker A perceives that he/she has a higher or lower level of LMX compared to Coworker B than when Coworker A perceives that his/her level of LMX is similar to Coworker B's (Study 2); and (c) these relationships only hold true for employees with a high social comparison orientation (SCO) in both Studies 1 and 2. Particularly, in Study 1, we also show that contempt is a crucial mediator that transmits the interactive effect of LMX (dis)similarity and SCO on perceptions of help received from coworkers. Furthermore, an average level of perceived help from coworkers is positively related to the sales performance of individual employees. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Gender Responsive Community Based Planning and Budgeting Tool for Local Governance. During the early 1990s, IDRC supported the development and testing of a reliable and cost-efficient tool for monitoring poverty and facilitating local level budgeting: the community-based (poverty) monitoring system (CBMS).
Chilcoat, George W.
Discusses the history and reasons for community-based mural art in North America. Describes the steps involved in a community-based mural project for students in which they work in groups to develop a mural theme and a sketch of the mural, paint the mural, document the process, and then present the mural to the class. (CMK)
Sustainable community based interventions for improving environment and health for communities in slums of Banda, Kampala City, Uganda : final technical report (2007-2011). Rapports. Eco-Health project start-up/methodological workshop , Sports View Hotel, Kireka, 11th-13th July 2007 : sustainable community based ...
Community-based health insurance knowledge, concern, preferences, and financial planning for health care among informal sector workers in a health district of Douala, Cameroon. JJN Noubiap, WYA Joko, JMN Obama, JJR Bigna ...
is hinged on a research aimed at understanding how and why Community Based Networks deploy telecom and Broadband infrastructure. The study was a qualitative study carried out inductively using Grounded Theory. Six cases were investigated.Two Community Based Network Mobilization models were identified......The deployment of previous wireless standards has provided more benefits for urban dwellers than rural dwellers. 5G deployment may not be different. This paper identifies that Community Based Networks as carriers that deserve recognition as potential 5G providers may change this. The argument....... The findings indicate that 5G connectivity can be extended to rural areas by these networks, via heterogenous networks. Hence the delivery of 5G data rates delivery via Wireless WAN in rural areas can be achieved by utilizing the causal factors of the identified models for Community Based Networks....
Anonymous,; Monyo, Emmanuel; Banziger, Marianne
Designed to address the issues that limit the access of small-scale farmers in sub-Saharan Africa to quality, affordable seed of the crops on which they depend for food security and livelihoods, this collection of articles describes successful principles for and experiences in community-based seed production. Among other things, the manuscripts analyze current seed production systems and models; propose ways to design successful community-based seed production schemes; describe proper seed pr...
Bautista Solís, P.; Bommel, P.; Campos, X.; Suarez, A.; Leclerc, G.
Community-based drinking water organizations have the responsibility in supplying water for domestic use to 29% of the Costa Rican population. Nowadays, more than 1.500 of these organizations face important challenges for achieving this critical mission, such as fulfilling national drinking-water quality standards, and improving their organization and administration to secure water supply and distribution under climate change. We conducted action-research in two communities with similar geographical and demographic conditions: Cuajiniquil and Colas de Gallo located in the drought prone Guanacaste region in Costa Rica. Both communities are contrasted regarding to their assets and organization. We addressed the following research question: Can a participatory process help communities assess the situation of their aqueduct and its management, project themselves in the future, and build more resilient strategies to face domestic water restrictions? Through 16 participatory sessions, we adapted the Wat-a-Game (WAG) toolkit to the problem of domestic water provision in these communities, creating the WAG-Tico role-playing game. This was complemented by two other activities: visits by regional actors sharing their experience, and exchange visits between both communities for cross-learning about community-based water management. The process resulted in a locally-led collaboration between both communities and the emergence of community commitments for improving drought resilience. WAG-Tico sensibilized participants to appreciate the value of community organization and the impacts of climate change on water supply, and develop aqueduct management rules. Exchange visits and regional actors interventions promoted opportunities for accessing to external resources (i.e. social, human and financial). Colas de Gallo created its first water committee for building a community aqueduct and their first drilled well. Cuajiniquil has committed in protecting its water springs, organized
Kennedy, Emma Margaret
The term 'vertical integration' is used broadly in medical education, sometimes when discussing community based medical education (CBME). This article examines the relevance of the term 'vertical integration' and provides an alternative perspective on the complexities of facilitating the CBME process. The principles of learner centredness, patient centredness and flexibility are fundamental to learning in the diverse contexts of 'community'. Vertical integration as a structural concept is helpful for academic organisations but has less application to education in the community setting; a different approach illuminates the strengths and challenges of CBME that need consideration by these organisations.
Full Text Available Abstract: Business is not only economic institution, but social institution too. As social institution, business has responsibility to help society in solving social problem. This responsibility called Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. CSR pays attention about social problem and environment, so CSR support continuous development to help government role. Nowadays, our government has national developmentâ€™s agenda. One of them is tourism sector (Visit Indonesia Year 2008 programmed. But tourism sector has challenge in human resources. In this case, business role in practice CSR is needed to help tourism sector. With CSR activities, the quality of local community will increase to participate in tourism activities. CSR activities include training that based on research. When the quality of local community increase, local community can practice the concept of community based tourism (CBT. In the future, Indonesia has a power to compete with other countries.
Participation in community based natural resource management programme and effects on welfare of rural families in Ikwerre, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... and seedlings, fertilizers and reduction in cost of inputs should be taken into cognizance and proper mainstreaming of target beneficiaries of the programme intervention.
Sustainable Community Based Interventions for Improving Environment and Health in the Banda Slums, Kampala (Uganda). Rapid urbanization is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. About 12 000 people live in Banda parish in eastern Kampala. The area is swampy and prone to episodes of cholera. Incidence ...
Interest in Community Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) developed as a result of a general despondency with State management of these resources. There is general agreement on the desirability of CNBRM. Numerous programmes and projects currently implemented as CBNRMs bear evidence to this.
ABSTRACT. The study was on participation in Community Based Natural Resource Management. Programme (CBNRMP) and its socio-economic effect on rural families in Ikwerre. Area, Rivers State Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to 60 beneficiaries of the programme. Data collected were subjected to ...
Ecotourism practise is a sustainable management tool targeted at improving livelihood and wellbeing of ... techniques. INTRODUCTION. Community-based natural resource management has been defined as, ―a process by which landholders gain access and use rights to, or ... architects, developers, business people, and.
Describes the Community-Based Arts Project in central New York State, which offers a course through Cornell University that allows students to explore local history and family traditions through storytelling. The steps of story collecting and sharing are a circular transaction of reflecting, listening, telling, and reflecting with the audience,…
and volunteers. The intervention is being implemented in Ngwenya and Kauma. These are squatter settlements, located in the poorest areas in urban Lilongwe. The ESC action research intervention is informed by both participatory and community-based research approaches and involves the active participation of different.
Banta, J. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States); Munger, M. [Cook Inlet Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Kenai, AK (United States)
The Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council and the Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council are independent, non profit organizations formed in 1989 following the Exxon Valdez oil spill to promote the concept of community-based oil spill response (COSR) in their respective regions. COSR involves local citizens in responding to oil spilled in waters they rely upon for income, recreation and subsistence. The 2 advisory councils recently held a Community Oil Spill Response Forum to review the status of existing COSR teams and to share information about past and future COSR-related efforts. The meeting served as an information exchange process about regulatory programs, COSR variations in communities and harbors, training, and personnel issues. Key groups attending the forum were harbor masters, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, United States Coast Guard, existing COSR teams, oil response organizations, local community governments, and volunteers from the advisory councils. This paper was based on the notes taken from the forum. It was agreed that the current system is inadequate in its response to small spills that are frequently associated with non-tank vessels. It was suggested that improved capacity for community-based response could address the situation. It was also suggested that work groups should meet on an annual or biannual basis to continue to educate responders and communities about oil spill response. 7 refs.
Bakker, D; Spreeuwenberg, P.
Background: One of the potentially strong points of general-practice-based primary care is that it is accessible within local communities. As the arm of clinical medicine with the broadest reach into the community, primary care clinicians are well-positioned to understand local needs and design programmes that address community health. This paper analyses variations in the degree to which general practices indeed work community based. Geographical factors, patient factors, and practice factor...
Epstein, R M; Cole, D R; Gawinski, B A; Piotrowski-Lee, S; Ruddy, N B
To explore how students learn in community-based family physicians' offices from the student's point of view. Each student completing a community-based family medicine clerkship wrote a "critical incident" narrative about an event that was particularly educational. A coding system was developed by a multidisciplinary research team and thematic analysis was conducted. Critical education experiences were brief, problem-focused, had definitive outcomes, were often collaborative, and led to self-reflection. The most commonly identified mode of learning was "active observation." In most of these situations, the student had significant clinical responsibility, but some involved observation of complex tasks beyond the expectations of a medical student. Most (77%) identified their learning needs after having observed a preceptor, rather than prospectively. Collaboration, coaching, advocacy, and exploring affect were means whereby preceptors and students created a learning environment that students felt was safe, allowed them to recognize their own learning needs, and helped them adopt new behaviors. These findings broaden the definition of active learning to include active observation and support learner-centered and relational models of learning. Increasing preceptors' awareness of these modes of student learning will enhance the quality of education in ambulatory settings.
While the Mozambique government policy promotes community-based fisheries management in artisanal fisheries, we argue that under current conditions of ineffective community-based governance, a strong focus on reconstruction of social capital will be required before a community-based resource management process ...
Ayers, Jessica; Huq, Saleemul
Over a billion people - the world's poorest and most bulnerable communities – will bear the brunt of climate change. For them, building local capacity to cope is a vital step towards resilience. Community-based adaptation (CBA) is emerging as a key response to this challenge. Tailored to local cultures and conditions, CBA supports and builds on autonomous adaptations to climate variability, such as the traditional baira or floating gardens of Bangladesh, which help small farmers' crops survive climate-driven floods. Above all, CBA is participatory – a process involving both local stakeholders, and development and disaster risk reduction practitioners. As such, it builds on existing cultural norms while addressing local development issues that contribute to climate vulnerability. CBA is now gaining ground in many regions, and is ripe for the reassessment offered here.
Fimbres, Manuel F.; McKay, Emily Gantz
This guide is designed to help Hispanic community-based organizations (CBOs) begin Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education and prevention activities. The following barriers to AIDS education in the Hispanic community are outlined: (1) the perception that AIDS is a gay, white, male disease; (2) the social stigma associated with…
10 févr. 2017 ... Researchers will investigate how community-based water organizations in Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are adapting to the changes. ... that influence decisions to invest in climate change adaptation actions -develop design guidelines and criteria to help prioritize climate change adaptation ...
Huq, Saleemul; Reid, Hannah
Helping the millions of poor people at greatest risk from climate change to adapt to its impacts is a daunting task. One new approach that deserves greater support is community-based adaptation (CBA). This briefing paper outlines the concepts behind CBA, shares some early lessons learned, and calls for greater networking, information sharing and support for CBA activities.
McCullagh, Marjorie C.; Sanon, Marie-Anne; Cohen, Michael A
Challenges associated with recruiting and retaining community-based populations in research studies have been recognized yet remain of major concern for researchers. There is a need for exchange of recruitment and retention techniques that inform recruitment and retention strategies. Here, the authors discuss a variety of methods that were successful in exceeding target recruitment and retention goals in a randomized clinical trial of hearing protector use among farm operators. Recruitment an...
Treue, Thorsten; Nathan, Iben
from CBNRM will be useful when designing community-based climate adaptation strategies. Thus, this note is a contribution to an ongoing debate as well as a product of the long-standing experiences of Danida's environmental portfolio. CBNRM is not a stand-alone solution to secure poverty reduction......) and how this concept may be used as a development strategy. CBNRM has the triple objective of poverty reduction, natural resource conservation and good governance. The opportunity and challenge is to pursue these objectives simultaneously, as they are not, by default, mutually supportive. Lessons learnt...... representatives from the public sector (and not only environmental authorities), civil society (women and men), private sector as well as financial institutions. It is envisaged that this work note will be followed by an interdisciplinary workshop in Copenhagen in 2008...
Ancker, Jessica S; Abramson, Erika; Patel, Vaishali; Dhopeshwarkar, Rina V; Kaushal, Rainu
Implementing health information technology (IT) at the community level is a national priority to help improve healthcare quality, safety, and efficiency. However, community-based organizations implementing health IT may not have expertise in evaluation. This study describes lessons learned from experience as a multi-institutional academic collaborative established to provide independent evaluation of community-based health IT initiatives. The authors' experience derived from adapting the principles of community-based participatory research to the field of health IT. To assist other researchers, the lessons learned under four themes are presented: (A) the structure of the partnership between academic investigators and the community; (B) communication issues; (C) the relationship between implementation timing and evaluation studies; and (D) study methodology. These lessons represent practical recommendations for researchers interested in pursuing similar collaborations. PMID:21807649
Full Text Available Community-based conservation is generally implemented on public land and aims to empower local people in the management process. Within the Biosphere Reserve of Camargue (Rhone river delta, southern France, a private research centre on Mediterranean wetland conservation has changed this structure and has attempted to implement a community-based conservation project on its private land. The motivation behind this decision is based on the need to improve wetland conservation and the local public acceptance of the wetland research centre. The project methodology has been adapted from the integrated coastal zone management framework, with the aim of balancing conservation, local development, and social adhesion objectives. This article analyses the results of this project and the cost-benefits of such an endeavour from a private landowner′s perspective. This study can help other private landowners or organisations developing future community-based conservation projects on private lands.
Nishii, Lisa H; Mayer, David M
This research examines leader-member exchange (LMX) at the group level as a moderator of the relationships between demographic (i.e., race, age, gender) and tenure diversity and group turnover. Drawing primarily from LMX, social categorization, and expectation states theories, we hypothesized that through the pattern of LMX relationships that they develop with followers, group managers influence inclusion and status differentials within groups such that the positive relationship between diversity and group turnover will be weaker when the group mean on LMX is high or when group differentiation on LMX is low. Results from a sample of supermarket departments (N = 348) yielded general support for the study hypotheses. We also found evidence for a 3-way interaction involving demographic diversity, LMX mean, and LMX differentiation such that the interaction between demographic diversity and LMX differentiation was only significant when LMX mean was high. These findings highlight the important role that leaders play in influencing the relationship between diversity and turnover through the patterns of inclusion that they create in their units.
This article examines whether transnational networks reconfigure state-civil society relationships in ways that lead to civil society empowerment and increased organizational capacity to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mexico. Using a comparative case study, I identify the types of transnational networks and exchanges that both help and hinder community-based HIV/AIDS organizations (CBOs) that provide AIDS prevention and treatment services in Tijuana and Mexico City. Data derive from over 50 formal interviews, organizational documents and archival records, and observation. I argue that the form and function of transnational networks is shaped by the geo-political context of local organizational fields and that, in turn, transnational networks provide innovative opportunities for civil society-state partnerships that favor some local organizations over others. Ultimately, I take apart the prevailing assumption that transnational networks are inherently good, and show how they can (re)produce inter-organizational stratification at the local level. The conclusions of this research are helpful to international health practitioners and social scientists seeking to understand how civil society's participation in transnational networks can both challenge and reproduce existing community-state power regimes and health inequities.
Dhimas Setyo Nugroho
Full Text Available The concept of community-based tourism in the dome house tourism village has succeeded in becoming a tool to trigger the development of the dome house resident and its environment. All of the development can be obviously seen from the economic, social, cultural, environmental and political aspects with a very enthusiastic participation of the resident. The rapid development of the resident and their high participation can emerge a strategy to make the tourist village survive from the tourism industry competition. In this case, the author found that there is a connection between the high level of community participation and the rapid development as the result of it. Therefore, the more the resident willing to participate, the more it will affect the development of the resident and its environment. This research uses qualitative method. The data were obtained by conducting interview, observation, and documentation. After those steps, the data were processed by interactive and SWOT analysis. Then, questionnaire was used to validate the data towards 21 residents.
Community-based distribution projects are currently operating in 40 countries, including the program in Oyo State in southwest Nigeria. Such programs utilize volunteer community workers to expand the availability and accessibility of primary health care services, family planning information, and nonprescription contraceptives in rural areas. These workers play a vital role in linking the village with government health facilities. Among the responsibilities of community health workers are promotion of food supply and proper nutrition, adequate supply of safe water and sanitation, maternal and child health care (including family planning, immunization, prevention and control of major endemic diseases, treatment of common diseases, and provision of essential drugs). These workers are nominated by traditional village leaders and selected by public health nurses; priority is given to traditional birth attendants. In Oyo State, community workers participate in an extensive 2-phase learning program followed by refresher courses every 6 months. After 2 years of program services in Oyo State, approval of family planning increased from 20% to 50% and the desire to postpone the next pregnancy beyond the period of postpartum abstinence increased from 15% to 34%. Knowledge of a modern family planning method rose from 24% to 45%. Current use of contraception rose from 1.5% to 4.5%. Despite these gains, there has been a persistence of the traditional viewpoint that regards sex as primarily for the purpose of procreation. An additional barrier is the widespread belief among husbands that if women are protected from conceiving, they will engage in extramarital relations. These strong Yoruba cultural beliefs continue to restrict acceptance of family planning and pose a challenge to health workers.
Robinson, Lance W; Makupa, Enock
Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation-Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania-using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor-spending powers and revenue-generating powers-relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.
Renewal strategy and community based organisations in community development in Nigeria: Some empirical evidence. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... the people". Keywords: Renewal strategy, Community development, Community-based organizations, Bottom-up, Top-down, Nigeria ...
30 sept. 2009 ... Beyond Propietorship: Murphree's Laws on Community-based Natural Resource Management in Southern Africa. Book cover Beyond Propietorship: Murphree's Laws on Community-based Natural Resource Management in Southern. Directeur(s) : B.B. Mukamuri, J.M. Manjengwa, and S. Anstey. Maison(s) ...
30 sept. 2009 ... Beyond Propietorship : Murphree's Laws on Community-based Natural Resource Management in Southern Africa. Couverture du livre Beyond Propietorship : Murphree's Laws on Community-based Natural Resource Management in. Directeur(s) : B.B. Mukamuri, J.M. Manjengwa, et S. Anstey. Maison(s) ...
Introduction: A Community-Based Health Insurance Scheme (CBHI) is any program managed and operated by a community-based organization that provides resource pooling and risk-sharing to cover the costs of health care services. CBHI reduces out of pocket expenditure and is the most appropriate insurance model for ...
Community-based tourism and its potential to improve living conditions among the Hananwa of. Blouberg (Limpopo Province), with particular reference to catering services during winter. ISSN 0378-5254 Tydskrif vir Gesinsekologie en Verbruikerswetenskappe, Vol 35, 2007. Community-based tourism and its potential to.
A community-based rural development programme by Volunteers Efforts for Development Concerns (VEDCO), a local NGO in central Uganda, was used as a case to critically explore the community-based environmental education processes. The programme aimed to empower smallholder farmers economically and ...
Objective: To assess opportunities and threats towards the continuity and success of Community based reproductive health service programme in Northeast Ethiopia. Design: Community based comparative cross sectional study. Setting: Two districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia, classified as strong and weak community ...
Various Community-Based Reproductive Health interventions were initiated in many developing countries but their effectiveness has not been evaluated as much as needed. A comparative cross sectional study was carried out in February 2002 among women who participated in community based reproductive health ...
Denmark in urban settings (3). Since 85% of the country's population live in rural areas, information from rural community-based morbidity surveillance is essential for health planners. A one-year community based study of under-ﬁves in rural Butajira in 1991 showed. ARI and acute diarrhea to be the most common diseases ...
Community Based Distributors and Increased Ownership of the Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets in Rural Area of Jos Plateau State. ... those that served as community based distributors (CBDs) who were pregnant women themselves that could read and write and understood English, Hausa and the native language Birom.
Campano, Gerald; Ghiso, María Paula; Welch, Bethany J.
In this article Gerald Campano, María Paula Ghiso, and Bethany J. Welch explore the role of ethical and professional norms in community-based research, especially in fostering trust within contexts of cultural diversity, systemic inequity, and power asymmetry. The authors present and describe a set of guidelines for community-based research that…
Community-based participatory approach has been used for decades in rural sociology and the humanities in the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of development and intervention projects. Community-based medical and health education paradigm has become the accepted standard for undergraduate ...
Collier, A. M.; Ware, G. E.; Iwasaki, P. G.; Main, D.; Billingsley, L. R.; Pandya, R.; Hannigan, M.
Our project seeks to expand scientific knowledge of air pollutant screening methods while also gathering data a community group can use to improve local health outcomes. Working with Taking Neighborhood Health to Heart (TNH2H), a Denver-based neighborhood group with significant experience doing community-based participatory research (CBPR) related to improving individual and community health, we designed a project to help residents test their homes for two contaminants of interest: radon and perchloroethylene. Radon is naturally occurring and commonly found across Colorado. Perchloroethylene contamination has been discovered in other parts of Denver and residents of Northeast Denver would like to learn more about its possible presence in their neighborhood. Additionally while radon is simple to test for, the same cannot be said for perchloroethylene. This project provides an opportunity to pilot a low-cost sampling method for perchloroethylene, apply TNH2H's CBPR model to an environmental health issue, adapt it for the geosciences, and engage the community in education around air quality issues. Data collected during the project will be shared with participating homes and the larger community. Community members will also participate in understanding and interpreting the data, and together community members and scientists will plan possible next steps, which may involve conducting further research, taking community action, or recommending changes in policy and practice. Beyond the local impacts, we are testing an air quality sampling method that could make sampling more accessible to a broader range of communities. We are also learning more about how communities and scientists can best work together and what additional resources can help facilitate and ensure successful implementation of these types of projects. Our partner, the Thriving Earth Exchange, will use what we learn to facilitate scientist-community partnerships like this in other communities around the
Maria E. Fernandez-Gimenez
Full Text Available Collaborative and community-based monitoring are becoming more frequent, yet few studies have examined the process and outcomes of these monitoring approaches. We studied 18 collaborative or community-based ecological assessment or monitoring projects undertaken by five community-based forestry organizations (CBFs, to investigate the objectives, process, and outcomes of collaborative ecological monitoring by CBF organizations. We found that collaborative monitoring can lead to shared ecological understanding among diverse participants, build trust internally and credibility externally, foster social learning and community-building, and advance adaptive management. The CBFs experienced challenges in recruiting and sustaining community participation in monitoring, building needed technical capacity for monitoring, and communicating monitoring results back to the broader community. Our results suggest that involving diverse and sometimes adversarial interests at key points in the monitoring process can help resolve conflicts and advance social learning, while also strengthening the link between social and ecological systems by improving the information base for management and increasing collective awareness of the interdependence of human and natural forest communities.
Janzen, Rich; Ochocka, Joanna; Turner, Leanne; Cook, Tabitha; Franklin, Michelle; Deichert, Debbie
In this article we argue for a community-based approach as a means of promoting a culture of evaluation. We do this by linking two bodies of knowledge - the 70-year theoretical tradition of community-based research and the trans-discipline of program evaluation - that are seldom intersected within the evaluation capacity building literature. We use the three hallmarks of a community-based research approach (community-determined; equitable participation; action and change) as a conceptual lens to reflect on a case example of an evaluation capacity building program led by the Ontario Brian Institute. This program involved two community-based groups (Epilepsy Southwestern Ontarioand the South West Alzheimer Society Alliance) who were supported by evaluators from the Centre for Community Based Research to conduct their own internal evaluation. The article provides an overview of a community-based research approach and its link to evaluation. It then describes the featured evaluation capacity building initiative, including reflections by the participating organizations themselves. We end by discussing lessons learned and their implications for future evaluation capacity building. Our main argument is that organizations that strive towards a community-based approach to evaluation are well placed to build and sustain a culture of evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carlson, Barbara A; Neal, Diane; Magwood, Gayenell; Jenkins, Carolyn; King, Marilyn Givens; Hossler, Charles L
This article describes the participatory research process, results, action plan, and implications of the community health information needs assessment conducted within the African American community in two South Carolina counties. The REACH 2010: Charleston and Georgetown Diabetes Coalition library program is a partnership among community organizations, public and health sciences libraries, and lay community health advisors. A planning committee studied digital divide issues related to health information, designed and implemented a survey, held focus groups, analyzed data, identified needs and assets, and formulated an action plan to increase the dissemination of diabetes information. Key survey findings show that older (older than 60) and less educated (fewer than 12 years of education) African Americans in Charleston and Georgetown counties lack skills to access Internet and library services and suffer disparities in health information. Based on assessment evidence, the community plans to increase Internet access points and provide a train-the-trainer program to teach people skills for using Internet and library resources to get high-quality information about diabetes and its complications. This process taps community resources, builds local capacities and technical skills, educates about health, and empowers participants as active partners in their own health and their community's health.
Murphy, John W
Using the Las Mercedes Project as an example, the aim of this article is to discuss the philosophy and practice of community-based projects. At the core of such projects is a shift in understanding the nature of community. A community, in this case, represents a reality that persons construct that determines the character of rules, norms, and the focus and style of interventions. Additionally, community-based organizations, such as the Las Mercedes Project, are fully participatory, decentered, and carry the imprint of a community's members. Community-based projects, in this regard, improve the likelihood of creating successful interventions.
Kern, Lisa M; Wilcox, Adam B; Shapiro, Jason; Yoon-Flannery, Kahyun; Abramson, Erika; Barron, Yolanda; Kaushal, Rainu
To determine potential predictors of sustainability among community-based organizations that are implementing health information technology (HIT) with health information exchange, in a state with significant funding of such organizations. A longitudinal cohort study of community-based organizations funded through the first phase of the $440 million Healthcare Efficiency and Affordability Law for New Yorkers program. We administered a baseline telephone survey in January and February 2007, using a novel instrument with open-ended questions, and collected follow-up data from the New York State Department of Health regarding subsequent funding awarded in March 2008. We used logistic regression to determine associations between 18 organizational characteristics and subsequent funding. All 26 organizations (100%) responded. Having the alliance led by a health information organization (odds ratio [OR] 11.4, P = .01) and having performed a community-based needs assessment (OR 5.1, P = .08) increased the unadjusted odds of subsequent funding. Having the intervention target the long-term care setting (OR 0.14, P = .03) decreased the unadjusted odds of subsequent funding. In the multivariate model, having the alliance led by a health information organization, rather than a healthcare organization, increased the odds of subsequent funding (adjusted OR 6.4; 95% confidence interval 0.8, 52.6; P = .08). Results from this longitudinal study suggest that both health information organizations and healthcare organizations are needed for sustainable HIT transformation.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Volume of Home- and Community-Based Services and Time to Nursing-Home Placement The purpose of this study was to determine whether the volume of Home and Community...
The Community-Based Social Marketing (CBSM) Training Guide and recycling toolkit provides an overview of how to increase the adoption of sustainable behaviors and recycling practices with a community.
Sri Endah Nurhidayati
Full Text Available The role of government in the development of Community Based Tourism (CBT is very important to strengthen communities around the tourism destination. Government has significant role to ensure that the community has accesses, opportunities and an important power in the development of tourism. The objectives of this research are: (1 describe the government's perception of the Community Based Tourism (CBT development, (2 identifying government policies to support the Community Based Tourism (CBT implementation in Batu City, East Java, and (3 describe the constraints that occur in the implementation of Community based Tourism (CBT in Batu City, East Java. This study uses qualitative approach by analyzing critical reality, being constructed locally and specifically. The study was conducted in Batu City, East Java. Perceptions of government on the implementation of community-based tourism reflected the mindset of the individual. The community-based tourism development in Batu city is considered the same as rural tourism development. The Government supervise the development of tourism products, especially the tourist village. To support the existence of a tourist village Department of Tourism and Creative Economy help develop and market promotion. Barriers to the implementation of community-based tourism development with regard to the internal aspects of the government: the quality of human resources decision makers in the Batu Government do not possess educational background of tourism, government people less creative design programs and somewhat forced, the lack of trust the government to local communities, government is not able to map the condition social community related to the system's internal decision-making in the community that are less able to intervene in all components of society, a narrow understanding of CBT, and yet solid government policy coordination between stakeholders. While the external barriers are lack of insight into the
Leahy, Nicole E; Sessler, Kelly A; Baggott, Kaitlin; Laverde, Louisa; Rabbitts, Angela; Yurt, Roger W
The objective of the study is to educate New York City seniors aged 60 years and older about fire safety and burn prevention through the use of a community-based, culturally sensitive delivery platform. The ultimate goal is to reduce burn injury morbidity and mortality among this at-risk population. Programming was developed and provided to older adults attending community-based senior centers. Topics included etiology of injury, factors contributing to burn injuries, methods of prevention, emergency preparedness, and home safety. Attendees completed a postpresentation survey. Of the 234 senior centers invited to participate in the program, 64 (27%) centers requested presentations, and all received the educational programming, reaching 2196 seniors. An additional 2590 seniors received education during community-based health fairs. A majority reported learning new information, found the presentation helpful, and intended to apply this knowledge to daily routines. Data confirm that many opportunities exist to deliver culturally sensitive burn prevention programming to the older adult population of this large metropolitan area in settings that are part of their daily lives. A majority of respondents welcomed the information, perceived it as helpful, and reported that they were likely to integrate the information into their lives.
Piskorowski, Wilhelm A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Mastey, Jerry; Krell, Rachel E
Increasing the use of community-based programs is an important trend in improving dental education to meet the needs of students and the public. To support this trend, understanding the history of programs that have established successful models for community-based education is valuable for the creation and development of new programs. The community-based education model of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry (UMSOD) offers a useful guide for understanding the essential steps and challenges involved in developing a successful program. Initial steps in program development were as follows: raising funds, selecting an outreach clinical model, and recruiting clinics to become partners. As the program developed, the challenges of creating a sustainable financial model with the highest educational value required the inclusion of new clinical settings and the creation of a unique revenue-sharing model. Since the beginning of the community-based program at UMSOD in 2000, the number of community partners has increased to twenty-seven clinics, and students have treated thousands of patients in need. Fourth-year students now spend a minimum of ten weeks in community-based clinical education. The community-based program at UMSOD demonstrates the value of service-based education and offers a sustainable model for the development of future programs.
Johnston, Craig A; Rost, Stephanie; Miller-Kovach, Karen; Moreno, Jennette P; Foreyt, John P
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that clinicians refer obese adults for intensive, multicomponent behavioral counseling, yet most obese Americans choose a self-help approach to lose weight. The current study examined weight loss between a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers program) and a self-help condition. A total of 292 participants were randomized to either a Weight Watchers condition (WW) (n = 147) or a self-help condition (n = 145). Participants in the WW condition were provided with 3 ways to access the treatment: weekly meetings; WW mobile application; and WW online tools. Weights were measured at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Additionally, self-report use of access modes was collected at 3 and 6 months. Participants in the WW condition significantly decreased their body mass index at 6 months (F = 36.7, P weight, respectively, compared with those in the self-help condition. In a secondary analysis, high usage of all 3 access modes resulted in the greatest weight loss (P weight loss than a self-help approach, suggesting it is a viable community-based provider of weight loss treatment, as recommended by the USPSTF. Further, high usage of 3 access modes was associated with greater weight loss results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Courtney, Karen L; Lingler, Jennifer H; Mecca, Laurel Person; Garlock, Laurie A; Schulz, Richard; Dick, Andrew W; Olshansky, Ellen
Community-based (multi-user) telehealth interventions may be beneficial for older adults, but there is little research regarding such interventions. As a first step in feasibility assessment, we used a qualitative descriptive approach to examine the acceptability and perceived value of community-based telehealth kiosks with regard to current health self-management practices of community-dwelling older adults. Participants included residents (n = 6) and community agency case managers (n = 3) of a U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development-subsidized senior apartment building. Both positive impressions from and concerns of each group are presented. Findings helped guide plans for future telehealth kiosk implementation and training. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Sharma, R; Marasini, S; Nepal, B P
Because of the availability of modern health facilities and moderately easy access to health services in the last 25 years, the blindness due to cataract and trachoma is expected to decline in Nepal. So it is felt that the causes of blindness need to be revised. To regroup the disease pattern leading to permanent blindness in patients attending a suburban multidisciplinary community-based hospital of Nepal. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in patients attending Dhulikhel hospital over a period of 12 months, from March 2010. Only the patients with best corrected visual acuity of less than 3/60 were enrolled in the study. A detailed ocular examination was carried out. A total of 76 eyes of 58 patients were analyzed. Of all, 32 were male (55.2 %). The mean age of the patients was 43.03 ± 22.98, with a range of 7 years to 84 years. Retinal diseases had the higher prevalence (23, 39.7 %) followed by amblyopia (10, 17.2 %) and corneal diseases (9, 15.51 %). Anisometropic amblyopia (3.94 %) was the commonest type of amblyopia. Retinitis pigmentosa (9.21 %) and age-related macular degeneration (7.89 %) were common retinal diseases whereas anterior staphyloma (5.26 %) and leucoma (3.94 %) were common corneal diseases. Other important and rare causes of blindness included ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy and vitelliform dystrophy. Periodic collection of statistics on the relative frequency of the causes of blindness is important in socioeconomically developing nations like Nepal. This helps to revise the pattern of blinding diseases so that priorities can be redefined. © NEPjOPH.
première partie: Help LEP ou le tunnel de l'infini- pièce radiophonique intéréssant sur l'origine de la matière deuxième partie: Help LEP débat; suite à cette pièce interview avec 3 physiciens du Cern sur le projet LEP et le but du Cern qui est la recherche fondamentale
N. P. Taukobong
Full Text Available Backgound: The aim of community based clinical training is tproduce graduates who are responsive to the health needs of their communit It is envisaged that upon completion of training graduates would go back an serve their respective communities following exposure to community need Program evaluation should therefore allow students to express the inadequacie and strengths of the program.Aim: To evaluate the community-based clinical program through student's experiences.Methodology: A qualitative research design was used. End of block students reports for both third (8 and fourth (15 year physiotherapy students (n = 23 were used to collect the data. Responses in the reports were grouped into the following categories for purpose of data analysis: feeling about the block, suggestion/s and supervision.Results: The students described the community based clinical program as an unique learning experience which equipped them with the understanding of life within communities. Sixty five percent (65% expressed satisfaction with the supervision given. The main complaints were amounts of paper work involved and clinical workload.Conclusion: The student's experiences indicated that the community-based clinical program within the MEDUNSA physiotherapy department realizes the goal of community-based clinical training as determined by WHO, except for inclusion of some multi-professional approaches and adaptation of the supervision provided.
Durham, Jo; Bains, Amara
In most developed nations, there has been a shift from public services to a marketisation of public goods and services - representing a significant reform process aiming to transform the way in which community-based human services, such as health, are delivered and consumed. For services, this means developing the capacity to adapt and innovate in response to changing circumstances to achieve quality. The availability of rigorous research to demonstrate whether a market approach and contestability, in particular, is a coherent reform process is largely absent. Contestability operates on the premise that better procurement processes allow more providers to enter the market and compete for contracts. This is expected to create stimulus for greater efficiencies, innovation and improved service delivery to consumers. There is limited understanding, however, about how community-based providers morph and re-configure in response to the opportunities posed by contestability. This study focuses on the effect of a contestability policy on the community-managed mental health sector. A realist review will be undertaken to understand how and why the introduction of contestability into a previously incontestable market influences the ways in which community-based mental health providers respond to contestability. The review will investigate those circumstances that shape organisational response and generate outcomes through activating mechanisms. An early scoping has helped to formulate the initial program theory. A realist synthesis will be undertaken to identify relevant journal articles and grey literature. Data will be extracted in relation to the emerging contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes and their configurations. The analysis will seek patterns and regularities in these configurations across the extracted data and will focus on addressing our theory-based questions. Increasingly, community-based mental health markets are moving to contestability models. Rigorous
Dutcher, Gale A; Hamasu, Claire
A panel was convened to elicit guidance for librarians in initiating and implementing community-based health information outreach. Participants included a panel of individuals from communities or community organizations who represented the types of groups with which librarians or information specialists need to interact and an audience who represented health sciences libraries, public libraries, academic institutions, government agencies, funding agencies, and community-based organizations and could contribute to a discussion on community-based health information outreach. The panel was presented with a hypothetical community setting and asked to respond to a series of questions: What do librarians need to learn about the community before they make their visits? What methods of outreach have been successful in your work? How would you implement and sustain a health information program in your community? How would health information interventions reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health? The panel helped to frame many of the issues that may confront librarians as they initiate information-related programs in communities. There is clear consensus on the need for librarians to make the effort to reach out into the community, to make the contacts, to seek to understand the community, to talk with leaders, and to respect the community as they promote and teach the use of health information resources. It was confirmed that librarians and libraries have an important role in diminishing health disparities by improving access to health information.
Horowitz, Carol R; Arniella, Agueda; James, Sherline; Bickell, Nina A
It is important to teach community members about the causes, magnitude and effects of health disparities that affect them, and to partner with them to develop, test and disseminate programs that they can sustain to improve health. East and Central Harlem are two underserved, predominantly minority, inner-city communities whose residents have disproportionately high morbidity and mortality from chronic conditions. We developed an approach to educate and work together with Harlem residents to study health disparities, and to use peer-led classes to improve chronic disease management and outcomes. Researchers and community leaders formed a community-based research core ("Core") with funds from a large health disparities grant. We then assembled a community advisory board and partnered with them to start a community newsletter to explain the causes of local health disparities and suggest ways to eliminate them. Together, we also began to create a self-sustaining cadre of community-based peer educators to teach culturally acceptable chronic disease self-management skills. The recruited board consists of 33 leaders of community-based health and social service organizations, religious institutions, and tenant organizations, as well as local activists. We produced and distributed our first educational newsletter to more than 4,000 community leaders, members and community-based organizations. We also adapted an existing chronic disease self-management program for the Harlem population and developed strategies to recruit peer educators and sustain their efforts in the future. To help them attain expertise in teaching chronic disease self-management, the board selected four individuals to become master peer-education trainers. The board then helped recruit more than 60 community members and leaders for our first two peer-education courses. Researchers, clinicians and community leaders worked together to disseminate knowledge about health disparities and a peer
Abarca, Marco A
After winning a class-action lawsuit against unconstitutional prison conditions in Puerto Rico, Marco Abarca managed to direct part of the fine monies accumulated throughout years of litigation toward an investment that would improve the living conditions in one of the largest and poorest housing projects in Puerto Rico. With the participation of parolees and probationers, he began to transform a mosquito-infested badland into a natural haven. Then, with the help of science educators, the group designed a workshop for elementary school children on urban ecology. As the participants organized, what developed was a community-based, self-employed enterprise known as Aula Verde.
Skovdal, Morten; Mwasiaji, W.; Morrison, J.
promising method of supporting orphans and carers. Qualitative data were obtained from 15 orphans and 26 caregivers in Bondo District, Kenya, beneficiaries of a CCCT programme run by a partnership between the community, the government social services department and a foreign donor. Our findings suggest......Various types of 'cash transfer' are currently receiving much attention as a way of helping orphans and vulnerable children in Africa. Drawing on a qualitative study conducted in Western Kenya, this paper points to the strategy of community-based capital cash transfers (CCCT) as a particularly...
VanderBurgh, D; Jamieson, R; Beardy, J; Ritchie, S D; Orkin, A
Community-based first aid training is the collaborative development of locally relevant emergency response training. The Sachigo Lake Wilderness Emergency Response Education Initiative was developed, delivered, and evaluated through two intensive 5-day first aid courses. Sachigo Lake First Nation is a remote Aboriginal community of 450 people in northern Ontario, Canada, with no local paramedical services. These courses were developed in collaboration with the community, with a goal of building community capacity to respond to medical emergencies. Most first aid training programs rely on standardized curriculum developed for urban and rural contexts with established emergency response systems. Delivering effective community-based first aid training in a remote Aboriginal community required specific adaptations to conventional first aid educational content and pedagogy. Three key lessons emerged during this program that used collaborative principles to adapt conventional first aid concepts and curriculum: (1) standardized approaches may not be relevant nor appropriate; (2) relationships between course participants and the people they help are relevant and important; (3) curriculum must be attentive to existing informal and formal emergency response systems. These lessons may be instructive for the development of other programs in similar settings.
Wattmo, Carina; Londos, Elisabet; Minthon, Lennart
Many individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) live alone, and this figure is expected to increase. This study aimed to describe the cognitive and functional abilities of solitary-living AD patients, and the potential predictors of their usage of community-based services. This 3-year, prospective, multicenter study included 1,021 participants with mild-to-moderate AD (Mini-Mental State Examination score, 10-26) treated with a cholinesterase inhibitor in a routine clinical setting. At baseline and every 6 months, patients were assessed using cognitive, instrumental, and basic activities of daily living (ADL) scales, and service utilization was recorded. Logistic regression models were used to predict the usage of community-based services. At the start of cholinesterase inhibitor therapy (time of AD diagnosis), 355 individuals (35%) were living alone. They were mainly female, older, had more impaired basic ADL capacity, and had a larger number of concomitant medications when compared with those living with family. Regarding the solitary-living patients, lower instrumental ADL (IADL) ability and more medications were independent predictors of usage of home-help services, whereas more impaired IADL at baseline and faster IADL deterioration were predictors of nursing home admission. For those living with family, older age, lower basic ADL, and a greater number of medications predicted home-help services, whereas a larger amount of home help predicted nursing home placement. In addition, female sex was a risk factor for both the utilization of home-help services and nursing home placement. Cognitive ability was not significantly associated with the usage of community-based services. A large number of AD patients, predominantly females, live alone with severe cognitive and functional impairment. The amount of home-help services used did not reflect cognitive severity, suggesting that home help did not meet the needs related to cognitive deterioration. Increased knowledge
Spears Johnson, C. R.; Kraemer Diaz, A. E.; Arcury, T. A.
This analysis describes the nature of community participation in National Institutes of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects, and explores the scientific and social implications of variation in community participation. We conducted in-depth interviews in 2012 with…
Abstract — Local participation, especially in natural resource management, has been promoted as a key strategy in the quest for sustainable development. Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) is an approach that has generally been promoted as an institution that genuinely includes and empowers ...
25 avr. 2016 ... It is not just about responding to climate shocks, but is a learning process that empowers communities to solve problems and plan for climate events. ... These briefs resulted from a pilot project carried out as part of the Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa (CBAA) initiative, with support ...
In the 1990s Tanzanians witnessed a rush by government Ministries and Departments to formulate and/or reformulate their policies. One such policy is the Wildlife Policy, formulated by the Wildlife Division in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism. Some policies affect community-based wildlife management (CWM) ...
This survey examined the management of Community Based Education (CBE) field activities at Jimma University (JU). The study used both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were collected from students and academic staff through structured questionnaire. Qualitative data were gathered from top university ...
The absence of wasting and the high prevalence of stunting (37,5%) in the community-based sample suggested that the main problem is chronic socioeconomic underdevelopment, rather than a severe or immediate lack of food. The fact that fewer than 20% of households are in any way reliant on domestic production for ...
This study reports on findings of a pilot of community-based distribution (CBD) of injectable contraceptives in two local government areas (LGAs) of Gombe State, Nigeria. From August 2009 to January 2010, the project enrolled, trained and equipped community health extension workers (CHEWs) to distribute condoms, oral ...
Background: Globally, it has been estimated that almost 15% of world's population live with some form of disability, of which the majority are from developing nations. Objectives: To explore the role of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) in the health sector, identify the prevalent challenges, and to suggest measures to ...
Goulder, Ray; Scott, Graham W.
This communication reports how bioscience students are encouraged to benefit from city and regional community-based resources through use of a guidebook and student-managed learning. Positive outcomes of the module are that bioscience students take their learning experience beyond the classroom, they engage with wider community resources, and they…
Gronvall, Erik; Malmborg, Lone; Messeter, Jörn
and design things; and different accounts of values in design. Inspired by the concept of design things, and as a consequence of the need for continuous negotiation of values observed in all three cases, we suggest the concept of thinging as fruitful for creating productive agonistic spaces with a stronger...... attention towards the process of negotiating values in community-based PD....
Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) in Cross River State (CRS) was investigated with a view to understanding its efficiency and effectiveness as a tool for sustainable forest management in the State. Four sets of questionnaire were administered to forestry officials; forest edge communities; timber ...
This study assessed Community-Based Natural Resources Management Programme (CBNRMP) for environmental sustainability in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were gathered through a structured interview schedule from 120 rural dwellers participating in CBNRMP. Data collected were described with descriptive statistical ...
Green, Lawrence W.
The author comments on Meredith Minkler's article, "Ethical Challenges for the "Outside" Researcher in Community-Based Participatory Research," Health Education & Behavior 31(6):684-697, 2004 [see EJ824234]. Specifically, this commentary notes along with Minkler that, in relation to the relatively uncharted territory of Community-Based…
Ingman, Benjamin C.
This autoethnography provides a description and thematic illustration of the student experience of a community-based research (CBR) course and partnership. Through evaluating personal experiences with CBR, the author identified three qualities of meaningful CBR experiences: trust, indeterminacy, and emotion. These qualities are explored, and…
This article explores the socio - cultural aspects of community - based management of natural resources in Madagascar. The contractual devolution of management rights and responsibilities to local user groups constitutes an important instrument in the country's environmental policy. Its challenges and opportunities
Determinants of diarrhoeal diseases: a community based study in urban south western Ethiopia. ... acute respiratory infecions (ARI) in the previous two weeks were found to be significantly associated with occurrence of diarrhoeal disease; however, only ARI and well water were retained in the logistic regression analysis.
Meuwissen, L.; Voorham, T.; Bakker, D. de
Aim: Community based primary health care offers in potential the opportunity to tailor health service delivery to the needs and demands of the local population. Up to now, there is no clear cut method to do this. In a pilot benchmark for general practices, data were collected on demand and
Community Based Ecological Monitoring of Non Timber Forest Products in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (India). Securing the livelihoods of forest-dependent peoples necessitates good governance and sustainable management of common-pool resources. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in the Western Ghats of South India ...
From September 24 through October 4,1997, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the status of Community-based distribution (CBD) of family planning as perceived by reproductive age groups aged 15-49 years and the CBD workers. The study covered 14 German Agency for Technical Co-operation (GTZ) ...
The objectives of this study are two folds: firstly to explore the magnitude of catastrophic expenditure, and secondly to determine its contributing factor,s including the protective impact of the voluntary community based health insurance schemes in Tanzania. The study covered 274 respondents. Study findings have shown ...
Community-based education (CBE) and service learning (SL) are teaching approaches used in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of the Free State (UFS), Bloemfontein, South Africa to address these challenges. Students have different views with regard to CBE and SL, and by surveying these perceptions ...
This systematic review aimed at examining the best available evidence on the effectiveness of community-based nutrition education in improving the nutrition status of under five children in developing countries. Methods : A systematic search of the literature was conducted utilising the following data bases: Cumulative ...
Abstract—Coral reef monitoring (CRM) has been recognised as an important management tool and has consequently been incorporated in Integrated Coastal. Area Management (ICAM) programmes in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). Community-based coral reef monitoring (CB-CRM), which uses simplified procedures ...
Hu, Liang; Dittmann, Lars
a heterogeneous community-based random way-point (HC-RWP) mobility model that captures the four important properties of real human mobility. These properties are based on both intuitive observations of daily human mobility and analysis of empirical mobility traces. By discrete event simulation, we show HC...
The Ministry of Education approved Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) programme delivered in Junior Secondary Schools and a community-based initiative to raise AIDS Competency of rural communities were evaluated using a clustered randomized control trial and mixed qualitative-quantitative methods. Ten schools ...
Yet, for the many communities involved in the management of forests and other nature reserves, their local knowledges and experiences have been instrumental in the management of their environments and their resources. This paper evaluates the contributions of indigenous knowledge in community-based management ...
nity through a network of village health volunteers provid- ing information, counselling and community-based distribution (CBD) of oral contraceptives, condoms and spermicides. • Demonstration of a three-tiered child spacing services de- livery model (community, clinic/outreach sites, and hospi- tal) which can be replicated ...
Oct 1, 2010 ... Teaching staff face similar challenges of complexity and uncertainty7 as they attempt to shape the curriculum for a community-based rotation into one that is more appropriate for meeting the demands of the health system.8-10 Medical students at the University of Pretoria participate in a Health and Health ...
Due to the criminal activities of the cult groups in the NDR and ineptitude of the police, communities have responded by creating vigilante groups but this has only promoted cycle of violence. The paper recommended that government should tackle community-based cultism and also strengthen the Nigeria Police Force to be ...
The paper reports an investigation on how community-based tourism can be used as a development strategy for the efficient and sustainable use of tourist resources in seventeen (17) communities within the Hippopotamus (hippo) Sanctuary of the Wa West District of the Upper West Region of Ghana. Specifically, it explores ...
Community-based tourism is increasingly being developed and promoted as a means of reducing poverty in developing countries, assisting local communities to meet their needs through the offering of a tourism product. The Swaziland Tourism Authority with the support of the European Union Fund has made significant ...
This article examines the growth of Community-Based Tourism within the broader discipline of tourism. New topics in the field have emerged such as responsible tourism, pro-poor tourism, sports tourism and moral impacts of tourism. This phenomenon also reflects the multidisciplinarity of tourism. In this article, using the ...
What does it mean to provide community-based health education that respects adults of diverse cultures and ways of being in the world? How does one nurture meaningful learning opportunities that awaken possibilities as a catalyst for understanding, conversation, and action? In this article, nurturing place, sharing power, heart listening, talking…
Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.
Urban environmental management and environmental health issues are of increasing concern worldwide. The need for urban environmental management work at the local level where the Peace Corps works most effectively is significant, but training materials dedicated specifically to community-based solid waste management work in urban areas are lacking.…
Socio-Cultural Challenges Facing Community- Based Interventions in Providing Care and Support to Children Affected by HIV and AIDS in Lesotho. ... Overstressed and in many cases already overwhelmed, the extended family networks face ever-greater burdens as the number of orphans continues to grow. On the other ...
Sep 12, 2010 ... price and availability being barriers to a healthier diet.22 Rural and urban women in KwaZulu-Natal ..... this input as an important variable, the focus of the Lusikisiki project was on technology transfer, .... the biggest challenges to overcome when implementing community- based gardening activities.54 A ...
This study analyzed community-Based Poverty Reduction Agency (CPRA) and Civil Resources Development and Documentation Centres (CIRDDC) and highlighted implications for sustainable poverty alleviation in central zone of Ebonyi state, Nigeria. Two hundred and forty randomly selected participants in poverty ...
The consequences of not assessing and managing construction risks are that projects may experience time and cost overruns and lead to poor quality structures. It, therefore, becomes necessary to systematically manage uncertainty in community-based construction in order to increase the likelihood of meeting project ...
Community Based Seed Multiplication (CBSM) approaches have been used by agricultural research and .... received seed for multiplication and distribution in rural ..... M. NATEEBWA et al. 332 seed production strategies, Mexico. D.F.: CIMMYT. http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/ bitstream/56188/2/seed_production. Manual.pdf.
tors to empower disabled people/ their family members. /community members regardless of any parameter by creating awareness, eliminating stigma, promoting social inclusion, meeting basic needs and facilitating access to health, education and vocational opportunities.3,6. CBR: Scope and benefits. Community-based ...
Enhancing crop productivity through community-based seed multiplication system. ... to purchase household items, and part invested in transport businesses and rearing of small ruminants as well as in human capital such as paying children's school fees and family hospital bills and meeting other social responsibilities.
Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.
Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…
Background: HIV/AIDS is the major public health problem in our country. Studies need to be conducted to assess the behavioral risk factors of its transmission and prevention. Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitude and practice of HIV/AIDS in the study population. Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was ...
Deogade, Suryakant C; Naitam, Dinesh
Community-based dental education (CBDE) is the implementation of dental education in a specific social context, which shifts a substantial part of dental clinical education from dental teaching institutional clinics to mainly public health settings. Dental students gain additional value from CBDE when they are guided through a reflective process of learning. We propose some key elements to the existing CBDE program that support meaningful personal learning experiences. Dental rotations of 'externships' in community-based clinical settings (CBCS) are year-long community-based placements and have proven to be strong learning environments where students develop good communication skills and better clinical reasoning and management skills. We look at the characteristics of CBDE and how the social and personal context provided in communities enhances dental education. Meaningfulness is created by the authentic context, which develops over a period of time. Structured reflection assignments and methods are suggested as key elements in the existing CBDE program. Strategies to enrich community-based learning experiences for dental students include: Photographic documentation; written narratives; critical incident reports; and mentored post-experiential small group discussions. A directed process of reflection is suggested as a way to increase the impact of the community learning experiences. We suggest key elements to the existing CBDE module so that the context-rich environment of CBDE allows for meaningful relations and experiences for dental students and enhanced learning.
The article explores specific challenges in supervising, accommodating and evaluating diverse candidates who pursue an action-led and community-based research approach rooted within the visual arts. I contend that there is a specific challenge in the field of postgraduate supervision of engaging evaluation strategies.
The research took the form of case studies at local villages, of which Noqhekwane is the subject of this article. The study revealed that sufficient natural and cultural attractions exist in Noqhekwane, but that the threats identified to both cultural and physical environments are serious. Keywords: Challenges, community based ...
Community Based Seed Multiplication (CBSM) approaches have been used by agricultural research and development actors to improve farmers' access to quality seed in many developing countries. CBSM can be private or public driven. However, ways of designing the CBSM for optimum effectiveness under public and ...
Limited access to seed of improved varieties is an impediment to agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. Researchers in the national and international agricultural research systems have been piloting a community based seed multiplication and marketing enterprises (CBSME) model, as an alternative to the formal ...
Area Management (ICAM) programmes in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). Community-based coral reef monitoring (CB-CRM) ..... Hatziolos, M. E. (2007) Coral Reefs. Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean. Acidification. Science 318: 1737-1742. Horrill, J.C., Kalombo H & Makoloweka. S., (2001). Collaborative Reef and.
Inadequate access to water influences sanitation and hygiene, and this affects the work of CHW. Government needs to respond promptly to the water and sanitation needs of marginalized communities with limited resources. The findings of the study had implications for policy on WASH and community-based care in low ...
This paper is derived from a PhD study conducted in rural Uganda.The study used Participatory Action. Research (PAR) methodology to explore how educational methods employed in community-based environmental education programmes were empowering communities to respond appropriately to environmental ...
Background. A collaborative interprofessional research project that involved community members was beneficial to community development. Objective. To draw upon the experiences of academics relating to their involvement in an interprofessional community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. Methods. A Delphi ...
Objective: To assess the capacity of established community based organisations (CBOs) to disseminate information on sleeping sickness control. Design: Participatory interview process administered to randomly selected CBOs in a tsetse and trypanosomosis endemic area. Setting: Busia district, Western, Kenya. Results: ...
Dunbar, David; Terlecki, Melissa; Watterson, Nancy; Ratmansky, Lisa
This article describes how two faculty members at Cabrini College--one from biology and the other from psychology--incorporated interdisciplinary community-based research in an honors course on environmental watershed issues. The course, Environmental Psychology, was team-taught in partnership with a local watershed organization, the Valley Creek…
Access to land among land-poor households has always been contentious. In Malawi, the government, aware of this, started Community Based Rural Based Land Development Project. (CBRLDP), financed by the World Bank. The project brought to the fore the latent antagonistic relationship between immigrants and host ...
This paper argues that the term 'empowerment' is too complex a concept to be simply 'inserted' into development project designs without prior and precise conceptualization. Drawing on qualitative research conducted in 2010/2011 and using Ghana's Community-Based Rural Development Projects (CBRDP) as a case ...
Tourism is a modern-day engine for growth and one of the largest industries globally. Being a labour intensive industry with a supply chain that links many sectors, tourism is a priority sector in the national government's planning and policy framework. To understand the impact of community based tourism (CBT) projects in ...
A community-based eye care programme was carried out in Ikeduru Local Government Area (LGA) of Imo State, Nigeria. This LGA has an estimated population of 150,000. Ocular examinations were carried out on 16,783 (11.19% of total population) mixed population that cut across different ages. The presbyopic content ...
In a community based study at Legon in 1997, a valuation method was used to assess the willingness of students on study leave to pay a percentage premium of their income ... The premium level was found to be influenced positively by financier, sex, age, income, and negatively by health expenditure, but not occupation.
The article considers the potential for community-based forest management (of existing forests) in developing countries, as a future CDM strategy, to sequester and mitigate carbon and to claim credits in future commitment periods. This kind of forestry is cost-effective, and should bring many more
The paper considers the potential for community based forest management (of existing forests) in developing countries, as a future CDM strategy, to sequester carbon and claim credits in future commitment periods. This kind of forestry is cost effective, and should bring many more benefits to local
Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Chun-Hou; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Chen; Wang, Jean
This study evaluated the outcome and process of a community-based aging intervention program for the elderly in Taiwan. The program included education on nutrition and dietary behavior and on physical activities. Outcome and process evaluations were conducted. The program may have had some effects on decreasing some dietary behavioral problems and…
Access to land among land-poor households has always been contentious. In Malawi, the government, aware of this, started Community Based Rural Based Land Development Project (CBRLDP), financed by the World Bank. The project brought to the fore the latent antagonistic relationship between immigrants and host ...
Chatio, Samuel; Akweongo, Patricia
The shortage of formal health workers has led to the utilization of Community-Based Health Volunteers (CBHV) to provide health care services to people especially in rural and neglected communities. Community-based health volunteers have been effective partners in health care delivery at the community level for many years. The challenge is how to retain these volunteers and also sustain their activities. This study explored factors affecting retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers' activities in a rural setting in Northern Ghana. This was a qualitative study comprising thirty-two in-depth interviews (IDIs) with health volunteers and health workers in-charge of health volunteers' activities. Purposive sampling technique was used to select study participants for the interviews. The interviews were transcribed and coded into themes using Nvivo 10 software. The thematic analysis framework was used to analyze the data. Study participants reported that the desire to help community members, prestige and recognition as doctors in community mainly motivated them to work as health volunteers. Lack of incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch lights, wellington boots and transportation in the form of bicycles to facilitate the movement of health volunteers affected the work. They suggested that lack of these things discouraged them from working as health volunteers. Most of the dropout volunteers said lack of support and respect from community members made them to stop working as health volunteers. They recommended that community support, incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch light, wellington boots, bicycles, awards to hard working volunteers are mechanisms that can help retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities. Providing means of transport and non-monetary incentives would help to retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities at the community level.
Full Text Available The shortage of formal health workers has led to the utilization of Community-Based Health Volunteers (CBHV to provide health care services to people especially in rural and neglected communities. Community-based health volunteers have been effective partners in health care delivery at the community level for many years. The challenge is how to retain these volunteers and also sustain their activities. This study explored factors affecting retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers' activities in a rural setting in Northern Ghana.This was a qualitative study comprising thirty-two in-depth interviews (IDIs with health volunteers and health workers in-charge of health volunteers' activities. Purposive sampling technique was used to select study participants for the interviews. The interviews were transcribed and coded into themes using Nvivo 10 software. The thematic analysis framework was used to analyze the data.Study participants reported that the desire to help community members, prestige and recognition as doctors in community mainly motivated them to work as health volunteers. Lack of incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch lights, wellington boots and transportation in the form of bicycles to facilitate the movement of health volunteers affected the work. They suggested that lack of these things discouraged them from working as health volunteers. Most of the dropout volunteers said lack of support and respect from community members made them to stop working as health volunteers. They recommended that community support, incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch light, wellington boots, bicycles, awards to hard working volunteers are mechanisms that can help retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities.Providing means of transport and non-monetary incentives would help to retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities at the
Kia-Keating, Maryam; Santacrose, Diana; Liu, Sabrina
Community-based participatory researchers increasingly incorporate photography and social media into their work. Despite its relative infancy, social media has created a powerful network that allows individuals to convey messages quickly to a widespread audience. In addition to its potential benefits, the use of social media in research also carries risk, given the fast pace of exchanges, sharing of personal images and ideas in high accessibility, low privacy contexts and continually shifting options and upgrades. This article contributes to the literature examining ethical considerations for photography and social media use in community-based participatory research. We describe three key ethical dilemmas that we encountered during our participatory photography project with Latina/o youth: (a) use and content of images and risk; (b) incentives and coercion; and (c) social media activity and confidentiality. We provide our responses to these challenges, contextualized in theory and practice, and share lessons learned. We raise the question of how to contend with cultural shifts in boundaries and privacy. We propose that evaluating participant vulnerability versus potential empowerment may be more fitting than the standard approach of assessing risks and benefits. Finally, we recommend upholding the principles of participatory research by co-producing ethical practices with one's participants. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.
Sheikhattari, Payam; Apata, Jummai; Kamangar, Farin; Schutzman, Christine; O'Keefe, Anne; Buccheri, Jane; Wagner, Fernando A
Tobacco use remains a major public health problem in the U.S. disproportionately affecting underserved communities. The Communities Engaged and Advocating for a Smoke-free Environment (CEASE) initiative is an intervention to address the problem using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach. This study compares quit rates in a peer-led community-based intervention with those achieved in a clinical setting. The intervention consisted of three Phases. Phase I (n = 404) was a clinic-based trial comparing two types of counseling. Phase II (n = 398) and Phase III (n = 163) interventions were conducted in community venues by trained Peer Motivators. Quit rates at 12-week follow-up increased from 9.4 % in Phase I (clinic-based) to an average of 23.7 % in Phases II and III combined (community-based). The main predictor of smoking cessation was delivery of services in community settings (OR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.7-4.2) while controlling for possible confounders. A community-based approach can significantly guide and improve effectiveness and acceptability of smoking cessation services designed for low-income urban populations. In addition, CBPR can result in better recruitment and retention of the participants.
Gay, Valerie; Leijdekkers, Peter; Gill, Asif; Felix Navarro, Karla
The effective care and well-being of a community is a challenging task especially in an emergency situation. Traditional technology-based silos between health and emergency services are challenged by the changing needs of the community that could benefit from integrated health and safety services. Low-cost smart-home automation solutions, wearable devices and Cloud technology make it feasible for communities to interact with each other, and with health and emergency services in a timely manner. This paper proposes a new community-based care model, supported by technology, that aims at reducing healthcare and emergency services costs while allowing community to become resilient in response to health and emergency situations. We looked at models of care in different industries and identified the type of technology that can support the suggested new model of care. Two prototypes were developed to validate the adequacy of the technology. The result is a new community-based model of care called 'Le Bon Samaritain'. It relies on a network of people called 'Bons Samaritains' willing to help and deal with the basic care and safety aspects of their community. Their role is to make sure that people in their community receive and understand the messages from emergency and health services. The new care model is integrated with existing emergency warning, community and health services. Le Bon Samaritain model is scalable, community-based and can help people feel safer, less isolated and more integrated in their community. It could be the key to reduce healthcare cost, increase resilience and drive the change for a more integrated emergency and care system.
Kolter, Jan; Kernchen, Thomas; Pernul, Günther
The landscape of the World Wide Web with all its versatile services heavily relies on the disclosure of private user information. Service providers collecting more and more of these personal user data pose a growing privacy threat for users. Addressing user concerns privacy-enhancing technologies emerged. One goal of these technologies is to enable users to improve the control over their personal data. A famous representative is the PRIME project that aims for a holistic privacy-enhancing identity management system. However, approaches like the PRIME privacy architecture require service providers to change their server infrastructure and add specific privacy-enhancing components. In the near future, service providers are not expected to alter internal processes. In this paper, we introduce a collaborative privacy community that allows the open exchange of privacy-related information. We lay out the privacy community’s functions and potentials within a user-centric, provider-independent privacy architecture that will help foster the usage and acceptance of privacy-enhancing technologies.
Langabeer, James R; Champagne, Tiffany
Unlike consumer goods industries, healthcare has been slow to implement technolo gies that support exchange of data in patients' health records. This results in avoid able medication errors, avoidable hospital readmissions, unnecessary duplicate testing, and other inefficient or wasteful practices. Community-based regional health information exchange (HIE) organizations have evolved in response to federal aims to encourage interoperability, yet little is known about their strategic approach. We use the lens of institutional and strategic management theories to empirically explore the differences in business strategies deployed in HIEs that are, to date, financially sustainable versus those that are not. We developed a 20-question survey targeted to CEOs to assess HIE business strategies. Our sample consisted of 60 community-based exchanges distributed throughout the United States, and we achieved a 58% response rate. Questions centered on competitive strategy and financial sustainability. We relied on logistic regression methods to explore relationships between variables. Our regression identified characteristics common to sustainable organizations. We defined sustainability as revenues exceeding operational costs. Seventeen of the 35 organizations (49%) defined themselves as currently sustainable. Focus and cost leadership strategies were significantly associated with sustainability. Growth strate gies, which were much more common than other strategies, were not associated with sustainability. We saw little evidence of a differentiation strategy (i.e., the basis of competition whereby the attributes of a product or service are unmatched by rivals). Most CEOs had a relatively optimistic outlook, with 60% stating they were confident of surviving over the next 5 years; however, nearly 9% of the organizations were in some phase of divestiture or exit from the market. HIEs are evolving differently based on local leadership decisions, yet their strategic approach is
McCullagh, Marjorie C; Sanon, Marie-Anne; Cohen, Michael A
Challenges associated with recruiting and retaining community-based populations in research studies have been recognized yet remain of major concern for researchers. There is a need for exchange of recruitment and retention techniques that inform recruitment and retention strategies. Here, the authors discuss a variety of methods that were successful in exceeding target recruitment and retention goals in a randomized clinical trial of hearing protector use among farm operators. Recruitment and retention strategies were 1) based on a philosophy of mutually beneficial engagement in the research process, 2) culturally appropriate, 3) tailored to the unique needs of partnering agencies, and 4) developed and refined in a cyclical and iterative process. Sponsoring organizations are interested in cost-effective recruitment and retention strategies, particularly relating to culturally and ethnically diverse groups. These approaches may result in enhanced subject recruitment and retention, concomitant containment of study costs, and timely accomplishment of study aims. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Francisković, Tanja; Tovilović, Zdravko; Suković, Zoran; Stevanović, Aleksandra; Ajduković, Dean; Kraljević, Radojka; Bogić, Marija; Priebe, Stefan
To explore the use of health care and community-based services in war-affected regions of Croatia and its relation to mental health. A sample of 719 adults exposed to at least one war-related traumatic event were selected by random-walk technique from three Croatian counties and interviewed for socio-demographic data, mental health status (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview), and service use (Matrix for the Assessment of Community and Healthcare Services) in the period from 1991 to 2006. Descriptive analysis of service use was performed. Relations between service use, current mental health, and recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were analyzed using logistic regression models. The traumatized population used a wide range of health care and community-based services. Health care was the most frequently used service category, especially primary health care (92.5%), followed by accommodation support (57.9%), financial support (57.7%), and employment support (32.5%). Compared with participants without mental disorders, participants with current PTSD were more likely to use only legal support (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-3.99), while participants with other mental disorders were more likely to use social support and contacts (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.08-2.75). Receiving accommodation support (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.03-4.06) was the only significant predictor of recovery from PTSD, while seeking legal support (OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08-0.92) was related to slower recovery. Although a wide range of services were organized to help the traumatized population in Croatia, only the solution of housing issue significantly predicted recovery. The organization of help services should take into consideration the existing infrastructure and local specificities, and respect the needs of people in war-affected areas.
Anke Wanger, Minas Woldetsadik, Matthias Siebeck
the community-based education method (CBE) successfully used in Jimma to the LMU. In order to achieve this, mutual exchange of staff and students between these two universities is necessary. METHODS: As the first part of this exchange, six interns in their final year in Medical. School at Jimma University and five staff ...
Costain, Lyndel; Croker, Helen
Obesity is a serious and increasing health issue. Approximately two-thirds of adults in the UK are now overweight or obese. Recent public health reports firmly reinforce the importance of engaging individuals to look after their health, including their weight. They also spell out the need for individuals to be supported more actively, on many levels, to enable this 'engagement'. Meanwhile, national surveys indicate that approximately two-thirds of adults are concerned about weight control, with one-third actively trying to lose weight. This finding is hardly surprising considering current weight statistics, plus the plethora of popular diets on offer. Weight-loss methods include diet clubs, diet books, exercise, meal replacements, advice from healthcare professionals and following a self-styled diet. Obesity is a multi-factorial problem, and losing weight and, in particular, maintaining weight loss is difficult and often elusive. It is argued that the modern obesogenic or 'toxic' environment has essentially taken body-weight control from an instinctive 'survival' process to one that needs sustained cognitive and skill-based control. The evidence suggests that health professionals can help individuals achieve longer-term weight control by supporting them in making sustainable lifestyle changes using a range of behavioural techniques. These techniques include: assessing readiness to change; self-monitoring; realistic goal setting; dietary change; increased physical activity; stimulus control; cognitive restructuring; relapse management; establishing ongoing support. Consistently working in a client-centred way is also being increasingly advocated and incorporated into practice to help motivate and encourage, rather than hinder, the individual's progress.
Although barter is often perceived as something that proceeded money, barter is still used. The focus of the paper is on barter exchanges. Barter exchanges are used both in developing countries as well as in developed countries (including the U.S.). They are used by both organizations...... and individuals. They usually allow to exchange good but some include also services. Some exchanges allow only for bi-directional barter, i.e. when only two parties are involved in the exchange. But probably most of the barter exchanges use barter money; this makes it easier to exchange goods and services...
Full Text Available Based on an expressed need in the past few years for an appropriate research methodology for colonized peoples, this article proposes a way of conducting research that is faithful to the essential tenets of the African culture. The article delineates principles of a community-based participatory approach to research in Africa. After first outlining the essential tenets of a community-based research (CBR that are relevant for research projects in Africa, the article argued that the existing CBR lacked a specifically African philosophical basis. It explained the uniqueness of the African philosophy. It then summed up the research principles based on that philosophy. Last, the challenges of conducting such a research study in Africa were outlined. Despite the African emphasis of the overall approach, this proposed methodology may be employed in similar settings where issues such as decolonization are important variables in the research strategy.
Strauss, Ronald P; Stein, Margot B; Edwards, Jeffrey; Nies, Kevin C
Community-based dental education (CBDE) shifts a substantial portion of dental clinical education from dental school clinics to mainly public health settings. For dental students to learn effectively in community settings they need preparatory education in cultural awareness, communication skills, and the social and behavioral sciences. The effective integration of CBDE into a dental curriculum requires reflective components, evaluation, and highly organized community-based experiences. This chapter reviews organizational principles and specific strategies to ensure that CBDE is conducted in a fashion that enables student learning and community oral health service. CBDE has substantial potential for affecting the values and behaviors of dental students relative to health care access for underserved populations and for attracting diverse students to dental education. CBDE also provides dentistry with an opportunity to guide dental faculty and student values and orientation towards public service, engagement, ethics, and the health of the public.
Full Text Available In 1999-2000 the Integrated Community-Based Home Care model for the care of people with AIDS in communities were implemented in seven sites across the country. The post-implementation evaluation showed that most respondents felt that the model could be replicated if a functioning and informed network including all partners, and a strong management team were in place. The effects of the project were mainly positive for all stakeholders (hospice, clinic, hospital, PWA and their carers, professionals and other community members. Hospitals and community- based services became more aware of and involved in the needs of PWA and felt that the model enabled them to address these needs. PWA and their carers felt supported and respected.
Bordeaux, Bryan C.; Wiley, Crystal; Tandon, S. Darius; Horowitz, Carol R.; Brown, Pamela Bohrer; Bass, Eric B.
Despite the importance of disseminating the results of community-based participatory research (CBPR), community health partnerships face many challenges in getting their work published. The purpose of this article is to present practical guides for writing about CBPR for those who have little experience in writing for publication or those who want to help their partners write strong manuscripts for peer-reviewed journals. The article includes tips on how to organize each part of a manuscript, suggestions on how partners can collaborate on preparing manuscripts, recommendations on how to convey unique aspects of a partnership’s work throughout a manuscript, and an annotated bibliography of well-written CBPR articles. By understanding how to prepare a manuscript about CBPR for a peer-reviewed journal, authors should be more effective in disseminating information that will help other communities to benefit from their partnership’s work. PMID:20208291
Steven Allender; Brynle Owen; Jill Kuhlberg; Janette Lowe; Phoebe Nagorcka-Smith; Jill Whelan; Colin Bell
Introduction Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity. Methods Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12) built a community model that progressed from connec...
Dinah McLeod; Maurizia Tovo
The World Bank is financing an increasing number of community-based social services projects. The objective of this paper is to review and categorize the extent, scope and mechanisms of these projects in the current Bank portfolio, and to identify good practices and potential pitfalls. The authors identify 99 projects that finance at least $1.6 billion in social services. While most of the projects surveyed deliver"traditional"services such as nutrition, maternal and child care, and literacy,...
For approximately 20 years, the indigenous nationalities of Ecuador have been searching for new alternatives in order to adapt to the new social and cultural changes in the society and also to face economic problems. For this reason new alternatives of community based tourism have been built according to their own cultural rationalities. The tourism activity has facilitated the possibility to improve the living conditions and create intercultural encounters.
DePrince, Anne P; Labus, Jennifer; Belknap, Joanne; Buckingham, Susan; Gover, Angela
Using a longitudinal, randomized controlled trial, this study assessed the impact of a community-based outreach versus a more traditional criminal justice system-based referral program on women's distress and safety following police-reported intimate partner abuse (IPA). Women (N = 236 women) with police-reported IPA were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 interdisciplinary community-coordinated response program conditions: Outreach (community-based victim advocate outreach) or Referral (criminal justice system-based victim advocate referrals to community-based agencies). Participants were interviewed 3 times over a 1-year period: within 26 (median) days of police-reported IPA, 6 months later, and 12 months later. Primary outcome measures included posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptom severity (Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale; Beck Depression Inventory-II), fear appraisals (Trauma Appraisal Questionnaire), IPA revictimization (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale), and readiness to leave the relationship with the abuser. One year after the initial interview, women in the Outreach condition reported decreased PTSD and depression symptom severity and fear compared with women in the Referral condition. Although both conditions were unrelated to revictimization in the follow-up year, women in the Outreach condition reported greater readiness to leave the abuser and rated services as more helpful than women in the Referral condition. This is one of the first studies to examine community-based outreach in the context of an interdisciplinary community coordinated response to police-reported IPA. The findings suggest that community-based outreach by victim advocates results in decreased distress levels, greater readiness to leave abusive relationships, and greater perceived helpfulness of services relative to system-based referrals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background. Given the dementia epidemic and the increasing cost of healthcare, there is a need to assess the economic benefit of community based dementia screening programs. Materials and Methods. Markov model simulations were generated using data obtained from a community based dementia screening program over a one-year period. The models simulated yearly costs of caring for patients based on clinical transitions beginning in pre dementia and extending for 10 years. Results. A total of 93 individuals (74 female, 19 male were screened for dementia and 12 meeting clinical criteria for either mild cognitive impairment (n=7 or dementia (n=5 were identified. Assuming early therapeutic intervention beginning during the year of dementia detection, Markov model simulations demonstrated 9.8% reduction in cost of dementia care over a ten-year simulation period, primarily through increased duration in mild stages and reduced time in more costly moderate and severe stages. Discussion. Community based dementia screening can reduce healthcare costs associated with caring for demented individuals through earlier detection and treatment, resulting in proportionately reduced time in more costly advanced stages.
Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen
Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the
Full Text Available From the post World War II period through to the present, scientific research and policy has increasingly reflected acceptance and implementation of a view that public interests are better served through public participation. Built on principles of democratic participation, community-based research (CBR can produce new knowledge through the integration of knowledge of community members’ lived experience with the scientific and technical knowledge of academics. Although community-based research has experienced considerable recent attention as an approach to knowledge production, a specific focus on the participation of community members in decision-making or governance of CBR is sparse. To assist in understanding governance of CBR in Canada and the nature and extent of public participation, we conducted an interview-based qualitative study with 54 respondents. Arnstein’s (1969 theory of participation was used as the theoretical orientation. Respondents’ experiences showed their participation in governance was generally organised through four groups of factors that modified participation: pre-existing conditions, arrangements of governance, actions of academic actors, and actions of community actors. Although community members’ participation in governance was largely contingent on the arrangements, structures and actions controlled or formulated by academics, and despite their relatively limited access to and engagement with real decision-making power, in general community members’ participation was satisfactory to them. However, the highest level of participation that Arnstein envisaged was rarely attained. Awareness of theory and practice of participation in research decision-making can help research decision-makers put in place the conditions and means for realising democratic goals and knowledge co-production. Keywords: governance, decision-making, community-based research, public participation, Arnstein
Suwanvanichkij, Voravit; Murakami, Noriyuki; Lee, Catherine I; Leigh, Jen; Wirtz, Andrea L; Daniels, Brock; Mahn, Mahn; Maung, Cynthia; Beyrer, Chris
Cyclone Nargis hit Burma on May 2, 2008, killing over 138,000 and affecting at least 2.4 million people. The Burmese military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), initially blocked international aid to storm victims, forcing community-based organizations such as the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma (EAT) to fill the void, helping with cyclone relief and long-term reconstruction. Recognizing the need for independent monitoring of the human rights situation in cyclone-affected areas, particularly given censorship over storm relief coverage, EAT initiated such documentation efforts. A human rights investigation was conducted to document selected human rights abuses that had initially been reported to volunteers providing relief services in cyclone affected areas. Using participatory research methods and qualitative, semi-structured interviews, EAT volunteers collected 103 testimonies from August 2008 to June 2009; 42 from relief workers and 61 from storm survivors. One year after the storm, basic necessities such as food, potable water, and shelter remained insufficient for many, a situation exacerbated by lack of support to help rebuild livelihoods and worsening household debt. This precluded many survivors from being able to access healthcare services, which were inadequate even before Cyclone Nargis. Aid efforts continued to be met with government restrictions and harassment, and relief workers continued to face threats and fear of arrest. Abuses, including land confiscation and misappropriation of aid, were reported during reconstruction, and tight government control over communication and information exchange continued. Basic needs of many cyclone survivors in the Irrawaddy Delta remained unmet over a year following Cyclone Nargis. Official impediments to delivery of aid to storm survivors continued, including human rights abrogations experienced by civilians during reconstruction efforts. Such issues remain unaddressed in official assessments
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cyclone Nargis hit Burma on May 2, 2008, killing over 138,000 and affecting at least 2.4 million people. The Burmese military junta, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC, initially blocked international aid to storm victims, forcing community-based organizations such as the Emergency Assistance Teams-Burma (EAT to fill the void, helping with cyclone relief and long-term reconstruction. Recognizing the need for independent monitoring of the human rights situation in cyclone-affected areas, particularly given censorship over storm relief coverage, EAT initiated such documentation efforts. Methods A human rights investigation was conducted to document selected human rights abuses that had initially been reported to volunteers providing relief services in cyclone affected areas. Using participatory research methods and qualitative, semi-structured interviews, EAT volunteers collected 103 testimonies from August 2008 to June 2009; 42 from relief workers and 61 from storm survivors. Results One year after the storm, basic necessities such as food, potable water, and shelter remained insufficient for many, a situation exacerbated by lack of support to help rebuild livelihoods and worsening household debt. This precluded many survivors from being able to access healthcare services, which were inadequate even before Cyclone Nargis. Aid efforts continued to be met with government restrictions and harassment, and relief workers continued to face threats and fear of arrest. Abuses, including land confiscation and misappropriation of aid, were reported during reconstruction, and tight government control over communication and information exchange continued. Conclusions Basic needs of many cyclone survivors in the Irrawaddy Delta remained unmet over a year following Cyclone Nargis. Official impediments to delivery of aid to storm survivors continued, including human rights abrogations experienced by civilians during
Full Text Available Injuries are a major global public health problem. There are very few community-based studies on childhood injury from India. The objective of this cross-sectional, community-based survey was to identify the incidence, type, and risk factors of unintentional childhood injuries. The study was done in seven villages and ten contiguous urban slums in Ujjain, India. World Health Organization (WHO tested tools and definitions were used for the survey, which included 2518 households having 6308 children up to 18 years of age, with 2907 children from urban households and 3401 from rural households. The annual incidence of all injuries was 16.6%, 95% Confidence Interval 15.7–17.5%, (n = 1049. The incidence was significantly higher among boys compared to girls (20.2% versus 12.7%, respectively, was highest in age group 6–10 years of age (18.9%, and in urban locations (17.5%. The most commonly identified injury types were: physical injuries (71%, burns (16%, poisonings (10%, agriculture-related injuries (2%, near drowning (2%, and suffocations (2%. The most common place of injury was streets followed by home. The study identified incidence of different types of unintentional childhood injuries and factors associated with increased risk of unintentional injuries. The results can help in designing injury prevention strategies and awareness programs in similar settings.
In response to Tomorrow's Doctors, the use of primary care as a teaching base has been extended in many medical curricula. Previous reports have largely been speculative, looking at the theoretical possibilities and concerns of general practitioner teachers; in order to validate such studies, it is now important to evaluate the experience of those actually engaged in new teaching opportunities. In addition, curriculum developers need to go beyond descriptive studies to weight the factors which may help or hinder new teaching. The aim of this qualitative study was to use the context of a substantive increase in community-based teaching to evaluate the perspective of key general practice tutors on factors related to recruitment and retention, impact and outcomes, curriculum delivery, training and support, and quality assurance of the course. Data were collected by written questionnaires to a sample of 45 general practitioners, plus semi-structured interviews with 15 general practitioners (33% of total sample). The data were purposively analysed to seek key factors, which were weighted by 'force field' analysis to show the balance of positive and negative factors. The data demonstrate important factors which may facilitate or impair community-based teaching at the levels of tutor, student, practice, and academic context. A 'cycle of satisfaction' is described, where personal motivation, shared team responsibility for teaching, and an enhanced professional self-image may all be crucial interdependent contributors. Suggestions are drawn from the data on key elements of effective academic support and possible practical quality indicators.
Formicola, Allan J; Bailit, Howard L
This article examines the history, current status, and future direction of community-based dental education (CBDE). The key issues addressed include the reasons that dentistry developed a different clinical education model than the other health professions; how government programs, private medical foundations, and early adopter schools influenced the development of CBDE; the societal and financial factors that are leading more schools to increase the time that senior dental students spend in community programs; the impact of CBDE on school finances and faculty and student perceptions; and the reasons that CBDE is likely to become a core part of the clinical education of all dental graduates.
... transition models, and lessons learned from participation in the Quality Improvement Organizations' (QIOs... provide a forum for community-based organizations, hospitals, Quality Improvement Organizations[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Community-based organizations (CBOs) are...
Kilian, Albert; Woods Schnurr, Lisa; Matova, Tafadzwa; Selby, Richmond Ato; Lokko, Kojo; Blaufuss, Sean; Gbanya, Miatta Zenabu; Allan, Ruth; Koenker, Hannah; Swaka, Martin; Greer, George; Fotheringham, Megan; Gerberg, Lilia; Lynch, Matthew
Continuous distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) has now been accepted as one way of sustaining ITN universal coverage. Community-based channels offer an interesting means of delivering ITNs to households to sustain universal ITN coverage. The objective of this study was to provide proof of concept for this channel. A 9-month, community-based, distribution pilot was implemented beginning 1 year after a mass campaign in Lainya County, South Sudan from 2012 to 2013. Following social mobilization, community members could request an ITN from a net coupon holder. Eligibility criteria included having lost an ITN, giving birth outside of the health facility, or not having enough ITNs for all household members. After verification, households could exchange the coupon for an ITN at a distribution point. The evaluation was a pre/post design using representative household surveys with two-stage cluster sampling and a sample size of 600 households per survey. At endline, 78% of respondents were aware of the scheme and 89% of those also received an ITN through community-based distribution. Population access to ITNs nearly doubled, from 38% at baseline to 66% after the pilot. Household ownership of any ITN and enough ITNs (1 for 2 people) also increased significantly, from 66 to 82% and 19 to 46%, respectively. Community-based distribution was the only source of ITNs for 53.4% of households. The proportion of the population using an ITN last night increased from 22.7% at baseline to 53.9% at endline. A logistic regression model indicates that although behaviour change communication was positively associated with an increase in ITN use, access to enough nets was the greatest determinant of use. ITN access and use improved significantly in the study area during the pilot, coming close to universal coverage targets. This pilot serves as proof of concept for the community-based distribution methodology implemented as a mechanism to sustain ITN universal coverage. Longer
Communities have an important role to play in biodiversity conservation. However, community-based conservation as a panacea, like government-based conservation as a panacea, ignores the necessity of managing commons at multiple levels, with vertical and horizontal interplay among institutions. The study of conservation in a multilevel world can serve to inform an interdisciplinary science of conservation, consistent with the Convention on Biological Diversity, to establish partnerships and link biological conservation objectives with local development objectives. Improving the integration of conservation and development requires rethinking conservation by using a complexity perspective and the ability to deal with multiple objectives, use of partnerships and deliberative processes, and learning from commons research to develop diagnostic tools. Perceived this way, community-based conservation has a role to play in a broad pluralistic approach to biodiversity protection: it is governance that starts from the ground up and involves networks and linkages across various levels of organization. The shift of attention to processes at multiple levels fundamentally alters the way in which the governance of conservation development may be conceived and developed, using diagnostics within a pluralistic framework rather than a blueprint approach.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Certain features of peace-building distinguish it from peacekeeping, and make it an appropriate strategy in dealing with vertical conflict and low intensity conflict. However, some theorists suggest that attempts, through peace-building, to impose liberal values upon non-democratic cultures are misguided and lack an ethical basis. Discussion We have been investigating the peace-building properties of community based approaches to disability in a number of countries. This paper describes the practice and impact of peace-building through Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR strategies in the context of armed conflict. The ethical basis for peace-building through practical community initiatives is explored. A number of benefits and challenges to using CBR strategies for peace-building purposes are identified. Summary During post-conflict reconstruction, disability is a powerful emotive lever that can be used to mobilize cooperation between factions. We suggest that civil society, in contrast to state-level intervention, has a valuable role in reducing the risks of conflict through community initiatives.
Gurung, D. R.; Shrestha, M.; Shrestha, N.; Debnath, B.; Jishi, G.; Bajracharya, R.; Dhonju, H. K.; Pradhan, S.
An increasing trend in the recurrence of natural disasters and associated impacts due to Floods, Glacier Lake out bursts, landslides and forest fire is reported over Hindu Kush Himalyan (HKH) region. Climate change and anthropogenic coupled factors are identified as primary factors for such increased vulnerability. The large degree of poverty, lack of infrastructure, poor accessibility and uncertainties involved in understanding high altitude land surface and climate dynamics poses serious challenges in reducing disaster vulnerability and mitigating disaster impacts. In this context effective development of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) protocols and mechanisms have been realized as an urgent need. The paper presents the adoption and experiences of multi scale DRR systems across different Himalayan member countries ranging from community based indigenous early warning to space based emergency response and decision support systems. The Establishment of a Regional Flood Information System (HKH-HYCOS) over Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) and Indus river basins promoted the timely exchange of flood data and information for the reduction of flood vulnerability within and among the participating countries. Satellite based forest fire alert systems evoked significant response among diverse stakeholders to optimize fire incidence and control. Satellite rainfall estimation products, satellite altimetry based flood early warning systems, flood inundation modelling and products, model derived hydrology flow products from different global data-sharing networks constitutes diverse information to support multi scale DRR systems. Community-based Flood Early Warning System (FEWS) enabled by wireless technology established over the Singara and Jiadhal rivers in Assam also stands as one of the promising examples of minimizing flood risk. Disaster database and information system and decision support tools in Nepal serves as potential tool to support diverse stakeholders.
Shen, Yuying; Yeatts, Dale E
Family-based support has been the traditional care arrangement for the elderly in China. With the maturing of its "one child per couple" policy and the changing scenarios of family structure and cultural norms, these traditional care arrangements for the Chinese elderly are becoming dismantled. Centers and associations within the community have gradually become the major infrastructures to provide old age service and support in China. This study examined the effects of family-based and community-based support on life satisfaction among older Chinese adults, using data from the pilot survey of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) in 2008. A series of multilevel models were assessed with statistical package SAS 9.2 among 1,398 Chinese adults aged 45 or older. The results suggest that even with the inclusion of community-based support, family-based support variable, the perceived future help from family members, still significantly predicted the life satisfaction among older Chinese adults.
Full Text Available The World Report on Disability highlights some of the major challenges in the path to realisation of the rights of persons with disabilities as per the United Nations Convention. While the recently published guidelines on Community Based Rehabilitation show the way to address these challenges, effective implementation would require not only higher levels of investment in human resources, but also a significantly newer and different skill-set for the additional personnel. The authors suggest that a scientifically sophisticated, systematic and coordinated research programme, with global reach and participation, is needed for the establishment of a useful and robust evidence-base for Community Based Rehabilitation interventions. It is also suggested that the development of a new cadre of rehabilitation workers could be a key component of the programme, and could help to alleviate the extant crisis in human resources for health in many low-income countries.
Richters, Annemiek; Rutayisire, Théoneste; Slegh, Henny
A distinguishing feature of the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi and the preceding 1990-1994 war in Rwanda was the social intimacy of the crimes committed. The legacy of this kind of violence includes distrust in social relations within communities and families, an increase of violence in everyday social interaction, transgressive sexual engagements, and a range of psychological problems. Many people feel nostalgia for their past social life, but are unable to change their current situation. In 2005, a community-based sociotherapy programme was introduced into this context of mental and social distress. The goal was to help people regain feelings of dignity and safety and to reduce distress. This paper is based on qualitative research, in particular, case studies. It explores how sociotherapy, as a specific form of peer group counselling, may facilitate the healing of suffering related to issues of sexuality, violence within the family and the breakdown of social connections on a community level.
Full Text Available Every community-based marine resource management (CBMRM inherently takes place in a highly complex social-ecological environment, and stakeholder perceptions related to various aspects of the natural and social environment guide behavior in every stage of the management process. This paper provides an introduction to the psychology of perception with regard to marine resource management. In particular, it offers a typology of CBMRM relevant perceptions along with an analysis of psychological, societal, and physical factors that modulate them. Based on this analysis, we propose the introduction of specially trained local Perception Experts (PE’s, whose role will be to recognize and reflect individual perceptions of involved stakeholders, and to communicate them at community meetings where decisions are made. This empirically testable addition to current CBMRM schemes could help to increase participation, develop management measures that fit the capacities of the involved stakeholders more accurately, and hence, contribute to a faster rehabilitation of marine resources.
Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Escamilla, Julia; Rodriguez, Erin M.; Vega, Susan; Bolaños, Liliana
Many behavioral health materials have not been translated into Spanish. Of those that are available in Spanish, some of them have not been translated correctly, many are only appropriate for a subgroup of Latinos, and/or multiple versions of the same materials exist. This article describes an innovative model of conducting bilingual English–Spanish translations as part of community-based participatory research studies and provides recommendations based on this model. In this article, the traditional process of conducting bilingual translations is reviewed, and an innovative model for conducting translations in collaboration with community partners is described. Finally, recommendations for conducting future health research studies with community partners are provided. Researchers, health care providers, educators, and community partners will benefit from learning about this innovative model that helps produce materials that are more culturally appropriate than those that are produced with the most commonly used method of conducting translations. PMID:25741929
Harrington, Robert; Jenkins, Peter; Marzke, Carolyn; Cohen, Carol
Prominent among the new models of social service delivery are organizations providing comprehensive, community-based supports and services (CCBSS) to children and their families. A needs analysis explored CCBSS sites' interest in and readiness to use a software tool designed to help them make more effective internal resource allocation decisions…
Whelan, Jillian; Love, Penny; Romanus, Anne; Pettman, Tahna; Bolton, Kristy; Smith, Erin; Gill, Tim; Coveney, John; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steve
Obesity is the single biggest public health threat to developed and developing economies. In concert with healthy public policy, multi-strategy, multi-level community-based initiatives appear promising in preventing obesity, with several countries trialling this approach. In Australia, multiple levels of government have funded and facilitated a range of community-based obesity prevention initiatives (CBI), heterogeneous in their funding, timing, target audience and structure. This paper aims to present a central repository of CBI operating in Australia during 2013, to facilitate knowledge exchange and shared opportunities for learning, and to guide professional development towards best practice for CBI practitioners. A comprehensive search of government, non-government and community websites was undertaken to identify CBI in Australia in 2013. This was supplemented with data drawn from available reports, personal communication and key informant interviews. The data was translated into an interactive map for use by preventive health practitioners and other parties. We identified 259 CBI; with the majority (84%) having a dual focus on physical activity and healthy eating. Few initiatives, (n=37) adopted a four-pronged multi-strategy approach implementing policy, built environment, social marketing and/or partnership building. This comprehensive overview of Australian CBI has the potential to facilitate engagement and collaboration through knowledge exchange and information sharing amongst CBI practitioners, funders, communities and researchers. An enhanced understanding of current practice highlights areas of strengths and opportunities for improvement to maximise the impact of obesity prevention initiatives. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Nelson, Fred; Foley, Charles; Foley, Lara S; Leposo, Abraham; Loure, Edward; Peterson, David; Peterson, Mike; Peterson, Thad; Sachedina, Hassan; Williams, Andrew
Payments for ecosystem services (PES) are an increasingly promoted approach to conservation. These approaches seek to develop financial mechanisms that create economic incentives for the maintenance of ecosystems and associated biodiversity by rewarding those who are responsible for provision of ecological services. There are, however, few cases in which such schemes have been used as a strategy for conserving wildlife in developing countries and very few operational examples of such schemes of any sort in sub-Saharan Africa. In savannah ecosystems, large mammal populations generally depend on seasonal use of extensive areas and are widely declining as a result of habitat loss, overexploitation, and policies that limit local benefits from wildlife. Community-based conservation strategies seek to create local incentives for conserving wildlife, but often have limited impact as a result of persistent institutional barriers that limit local rights and economic benefits. In northern Tanzania, a consortium of tourism operators is attempting to address these challenges through an agreement with a village that possesses part of a key wildlife dispersal area outside Tarangire National Park. The operators pay the community to enforce voluntary restrictions on agricultural cultivation and permanent settlement in a defined area of land. The initiative represents a potentially cost-effective framework for community-based conservation in an ecologically important area and is helping to reconcile historically conflicting local and national interests relative to land tenure, pastoralist livelihoods, and conservation. Wider adaptation of payments for ecosystem services approaches to settings where sustaining wildlife populations depends on local stewardship may help address current challenges facing conservation outside state-protected areas in savannah ecosystems in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the world.
Llanque, Sarah M.; Enriquez, Maithe; Cheng, An-Lin; Doty, Leilani; Brotto, Marco A.; Kelly, Patricia J.; Niedens, Michelle; Caserta, Michael S.; Savage, Lynette M.
This study describes an evaluation of a community-based psychoeducational intervention, called The Family Series Workshop, for caregivers of community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer’s disease or related dementias (ADRD). In a one-group pretest–posttest design, participants (n = 35) attended six weekly sessions. Caregiver stress, coping, and caregiving competence were evaluated along with demographic characteristics of participants. There was a significant improvement found for caregiving competence, and a marginally significant increase in coping with humor. Using regression analysis we also found that coping with humor, along with stress, were significant predictors of caregiving competence. These findings indicate that it is possible to increase caregiving competence utilizing a “grassroots” approach and that it is feasible to hold educational, group discussions on a plethora of challenging caregiving topics. PMID:25609602
Wassenaar, Merel; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A; de Haan, Gerrit-Jan; Carpay, Johannes A; Leijten, Frans S S
Epileptic seizures can be provoked by several factors. Better understanding of these factors may improve a patient's sense of control and could reduce seizures. In daily practice, the recognition of seizure precipitants relies heavily on clinical or video-EEG evidence, which can be difficult to obtain. Studies of seizure provocation are largely based on selected hospital-based patient populations, which may lead to biased occurrence estimates. Self-reported seizure precipitants are rarely studied, yet are necessary to understand the experiences of patients and improve epilepsy management. We performed a cross-sectional community-based study of 248 epilepsy patients, selected by pharmacy records of anti-epileptic drug use. Self-reported seizure precipitants and potential associated characteristics were assessed using questionnaires. Almost half of all patients (47 %) reported one or more seizure precipitants, of which stress, sleep deprivation, and flickering lights were the most common. In this community-based setting, light-provoked seizures were especially frequent compared to the literature. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), a lower age at seizure onset, and having auras or prodromes were found to be important independent prognostic factors associated with provoked seizures. IGE and a younger age at seizure onset have been linked to provoked seizures in earlier reports. The finding of auras or prodromes as a prognostic factor was unexpected, though case reports have described provoked seizures in patients having auras. Assessment of these factors may facilitate the early recognition of seizure precipitants in daily clinical practice. This is important for the optimization of epilepsy management for a large group of patients, as provoked seizures are expected to occur frequently.
Kahler, Jessica S; Roloff, Gary J; Gore, Meredith L
Poaching can disrupt wildlife-management efforts in community-based natural resource management systems. Monitoring, estimating, and acquiring data on poaching is difficult. We used local-stakeholder knowledge and poaching records to rank and map the risk of poaching incidents in 2 areas where natural resources are managed by community members in Caprivi, Namibia. We mapped local stakeholder perceptions of the risk of poaching, risk of wildlife damage to livelihoods, and wildlife distribution and compared these maps with spatially explicit records of poaching events. Recorded poaching events and stakeholder perceptions of where poaching occurred were not spatially correlated. However, the locations of documented poaching events were spatially correlated with areas that stakeholders perceived wildlife as a threat to their livelihoods. This result suggests poaching occurred in response to wildlife damage occurred. Local stakeholders thought that wildlife populations were at high risk of being poached and that poaching occurred where there was abundant wildlife. These findings suggest stakeholders were concerned about wildlife resources in their community and indicate a need for integrated and continued monitoring of poaching activities and further interventions at the wildlife-agricultural interface. Involving stakeholders in the assessment of poaching risks promotes their participation in local conservation efforts, a central tenet of community-based management. We considered stakeholders poaching informants, rather than suspects, and our technique was spatially explicit. Different strategies to reduce poaching are likely needed in different areas. For example, interventions that reduce human-wildlife conflict may be required in residential areas, and increased and targeted patrolling may be required in more remote areas. Stakeholder-generated maps of human-wildlife interactions may be a valuable enforcement and intervention support tool. © 2012 Society for
Profamilia in the Dominican Republic began a program called "Popular Promoters" in 1973 in which rural women were referred to family planning clinics, and in 1976 the community-based distribution program was formally begun. Between October 1974-October 1975, Profamilia had gained experience in the distribution of contraceptives in rural areas of the country. At the start, the community program continued promotion of family planning primarily in rural areas while offering contraceptive directly to those seeking them. By 1977, 105 communities and 12 provinces had been added to the program and 6500 women were being served. 14,500 of the 15,200 couples served in 1980 used pills. There were 23,000 users in 1984, 12,000 of whom were new acceptors. Over 34% of Profamilia's 66,000 clients are in the community-based distribution program. The program also maintains a strong educational component which each year offers over 400 talks in its 170 rural and urban communities on themes related to family planning, including health, education, nutrition, and use of available resources. Among early problems of the program were opposition from physicians, difficulty of recruiting volunteers who met the personality and other requirements, myths and incorrect beliefs of the community regarding family planning, the belief among men that contraception would encourage infidelity among women, and official pronatalist policies. The promoters work directly with the 170 distributors and also parrticipate in other community development activities such as the establishment of community organizations. Large families are seen as just 1 of the problems of the communities, most of which are impoverished, lack employment opportunities, and suffer other disadvantages of underdevelopment. Distributors are chosen by communities for leadership and other personality traits. Acceptance of family planning encourages efforts to assume control of other aspects of life.
Epstein, Jeffery N; Kelleher, Kelly J; Baum, Rebecca; Brinkman, William B; Peugh, James; Gardner, William; Lichtenstein, Phil; Langberg, Joshua
Although many efforts have been made to improve the quality of care delivered to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in community-based pediatric settings, little is known about typical ADHD care in these settings other than rates garnered through pediatrician self-report. Rates of evidence-based ADHD care and sources of variability (practice-level, pediatrician-level, patient-level) were determined by chart reviews of a random sample of 1594 patient charts across 188 pediatricians at 50 different practices. In addition, the associations of Medicaid-status and practice setting (ie, urban, suburban, and rural) with the quality of ADHD care were examined. Parent- and teacher-rating scales were used during ADHD assessment with approximately half of patients. The use of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria was documented in 70.4% of patients. The vast majority (93.4%) of patients with ADHD were receiving medication and only 13.0% were receiving psychosocial treatment. Parent- and teacher-ratings were rarely collected to monitor treatment response or side effects. Further, fewer than half (47.4%) of children prescribed medication had contact with their pediatrician within the first month of prescribing. Most variability in pediatrician-delivered ADHD care was accounted for at the patient level; however, pediatricians and practices also accounted for significant variability on specific ADHD care behaviors. There is great need to improve the quality of ADHD care received by children in community-based pediatric settings. Improvements will likely require systematic interventions at the practice and policy levels to promote change. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Masi, Christopher M; Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Cassey, Margaret Z; Kinney, Leah; Piotrowski, Z Harry
To determine whether access to health information via in-home Internet technology can positively influence empowerment among residents of a low-income urban community. In-home Internet access and training were provided to volunteers, who, along with a comparison group, were interviewed prior to and 1 year after initiation of the program. Community-based participatory research methods were used to design and implement the intervention. A 57-block area on the West Side of Chicago. Twenty-five community residents completed all phases of the technology intervention. Thirty-five randomly selected neighbors of these residents served as the comparison group. Members of the intervention group received Internet access via WebTV, training, technical support, and access to a community specific health-oriented web page during the course of the study. Intervention group members were similar to comparison group members in terms of empowerment at baseline. After receiving Internet access and training, empowerment related to health decision-making improved significantly in the intervention group. Similar changes did not occur in the comparison group. Affinity for and appreciation of information technology also increased in the intervention group but not in the comparison group. As a result, differences in attitudes toward technology increased between the 2 groups over time. Using community-based participatory research methods, we found that Internet access to community-specific and general health information can lead to increased empowerment and appreciation of information technology. These benefits accrued among the intervention group but not among a random group of their neighbors.
Gurney, Georgina G; Blythe, Jessica; Adams, Helen; Adger, W Neil; Curnock, Matthew; Faulkner, Lucy; James, Thomas; Marshall, Nadine A
The concept of community is often used in environmental policy to foster environmental stewardship and public participation, crucial prerequisites of effective management. However, prevailing conceptualizations of community based on residential location or resource use are limited with respect to their utility as surrogates for communities of shared environment-related interests, and because of the localist perspective they entail. Thus, addressing contemporary sustainability challenges, which tend to involve transnational social and environmental interactions, urgently requires additional approaches to conceptualizing community that are compatible with current globalization. We propose a framing for redefining community based on place attachment (i.e., the bonds people form with places) in the context of Australia's Great Barrier Reef, a World Heritage Area threatened by drivers requiring management and political action at scales beyond the local. Using data on place attachment from 5,403 respondents residing locally, nationally, and internationally, we identified four communities that each shared a type of attachment to the reef and that spanned conventional location and use communities. We suggest that as human-environment interactions change with increasing mobility (both corporeal and that mediated by communication and information technology), new types of people-place relations that transcend geographic and social boundaries and do not require ongoing direct experience to form are emerging. We propose that adopting a place attachment framing to community provides a means to capture the neglected nonmaterial bonds people form with the environment, and could be leveraged to foster transnational environmental stewardship, critical to advancing global sustainability in our increasingly connected world.
Segal, Jodi; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee; Wang, Youfa
OBJECTIVE: This study systematically reviewed community-based childhood obesity prevention programs in the United States and high-income countries. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library for relevant English-language studies. Studies were eligible if the intervention was primarily implemented in the community setting; had at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline; and compared results from an intervention to a comparison group. Two independent reviewers conducted title scans and abstract reviews and reviewed the full articles to assess eligibility. Each article received a double review for data abstraction. The second reviewer confirmed the first reviewer’s data abstraction for completeness and accuracy. RESULTS: Nine community-based studies were included; 5 randomized controlled trials and 4 non–randomized controlled trials. One study was conducted only in the community setting, 3 were conducted in the community and school setting, and 5 were conducted in the community setting in combination with at least 1 other setting such as the home. Desirable changes in BMI or BMI z-score were found in 4 of the 9 studies. Two studies reported significant improvements in behavioral outcomes (1 in physical activity and 1 in vegetable intake). CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is moderate that a combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. More research and consistent methods are needed to understand the comparative effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programs in the community setting. PMID:23753099
Ceraso, Marion; Gruebling, Kirsten; Layde, Peter; Remington, Patrick; Hill, Barbara; Morzinski, Jeffrey; Ore, Peggy
Addressing the nation's increasingly complex public health challenges will require more effective multisector collaboration and stronger public health leadership. In 2005, the Healthy Wisconsin Leadership Institute launched an annual, year-long intensive "community teams" program. The goal of this program is to develop collaborative leadership and public health skills among Wisconsin-based multisectoral teams mobilizing their communities to improve public health. To measure the scope of participation and program impacts on individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge and collective achievements of teams on coalition and short-term community outcomes. End-of-year participant program evaluations and follow-up telephone interviews with participants 20 months after program completion. Community-based public health leadership training program. Sixty-eight participants in the Community Teams Program during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2007 to 2008. Professional diversity of program participants; individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge; and collective achievements of teams, including coalition and short-term community outcomes. Participants in the Community Teams Program represent a diversity of sectors, including nonprofit, governmental, academic, business, and local public health. Participation increased knowledge across all public health and leadership competency areas covered in the program. Participating teams reported outcomes, including increased engagement of community leadership, expansion of preventive services, increased media coverage, strengthened community coalitions, and increased grant funding. Evaluation of this community-based approach to public health leadership training has shown it to be a promising model for building collaborative and public health leadership skills and initiating sustained community change for health improvement.
Mason, Lee L.; Perales, Jessica; Gallegos, Eric
In this paper, we address the shortage of behavior analysts serving rural communities and outline a model of service delivery for rural students with autism spectrum disorders. The model involves the use of pre-service behavior analysts to provide behavioral intervention to students with ASD in exchange for district-supported training and…
Martinez, William; Galván, Jorge; Saavedra, Nayelhi; Berenzon, Shoshana
Despite the high prevalence of mental disorders in Mexico, minimal mental health services are available and there are large gaps in mental health treatment. Community-based primary care settings are often the first contact between patients and the health system and thus could serve as important settings for assessing and treating mental disorders. However, no formal assessment has been undertaken regarding the feasibility of implementing these services in Mexico. Before tools are developed to undertake such an assessment, a more nuanced understanding of the microprocesses affecting mental health service delivery must be acquired. A qualitative study used semistructured interviews to gather information from 25 staff in 19 community-based primary care clinics in Mexico City. Semistructured interviews were analyzed by using the meaning categorization method. In a second phase of coding, emerging themes were compared with an established typology of barriers to health care access. Primary care staff reported a number of significant barriers to implementing mental health services in primary care clinics, an already fragile and underfunded system. Barriers included the following broad thematic categories: service issues, language and cultural issues, care recipient characteristics, and issues with lack of knowledge. Results indicate that the implementation of mental health services in primary care clinics in Mexico will be difficult. However, the information in this study can help inform the integration of mental health into community-based primary care in Mexico through the development of adequate evaluative tools to assess the feasibility and progress of integrating these services.
Rimmer, James H; Henley, Kathryn Y
The length of stay in inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation after an injury or illness has declined in recent years, exposing those with newly acquired neurologic disability to a risk of significant postrehabilitation health decline. Following a short stay in outpatient rehabilitation, individuals with neurologic disability have few, if any, options to continue their physical recovery after discharge, thus further increasing their risk for functional decline and secondary conditions. Professionals who work in community-based fitness facilities have the potential to assist therapists in extending the recovery process and preventing this decline. The focus of this article was to address a conceptual framework for better understanding how rehabilitation and health/fitness professionals can work together to help with this growing need. To that end, the antecedents to and effects of postrehabilitation health decline are discussed, followed by the introduction of a theoretical model illustrating a therapist-to-trainer system that facilitates the use of community-based fitness facilities by individuals with neurologic disabilities to continue their recovery postrehabilitation. Finally, a thorough description of an exemplary existing community-based inclusive fitness program is presented, followed by examples of select disability groups using these programs for continued recovery.Video Abstract available (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A45) for more insights from the authors.
Slater, Joyce; Qadar, Zeeshan; Bewza, Jennifer
To assess the status of food and nutrition programming in community-based HIV organizations in Canada. A telephone survey was administered to 80 community-based HIV organizations asking about characteristics of food and nutrition programs and the perceived program gaps. The majority of organizations had programs directed at improving food access through meals, food banks, community kitchens or cooking classes, food vouchers, gardens, and street vans. Almost half of the organizations (n = 39) provided nutrition counselling by a registered dietitian or nurse, and the majority also provided referrals to other food and nutrition services in the community. Most organizations would like to have more food-related programming, including: more frequent provision of nutritious and fresh food options, methods to make better use of available food, transportation and grocery vouchers, more staff dedicated to food programs, and improved food preparation and storage infrastructure. Although community-based HIV organizations provide a range of food and nutrition programs, they face challenges due to inadequate resources. Decision makers should provide more funding for these programs; however, they must be augmented with other supports such as adequate housing, income, and addiction counselling. Dietitians can help organizations maximize the impact of their limited resources and can advocate for systemic changes to enhance determinants of health for people living with HIV.
Tieman, Jennifer Joy; Morgan, Deidre Diane; Swetenham, Kate; To, Timothy Hong Man; Currow, David Christopher
Changing population demography and patterns of disease are increasing demands on the health system. Telehealth is seen as providing a mechanism to support community-based care, thus reducing pressure on hospital services and supporting consumer preferences for care in the home. This study examined the processes involved in developing a prototype telehealth intervention to support palliative care patients involved with a palliative care service living in the community. The challenges and considerations in developing the palliative care telehealth prototype were reviewed against the Center for eHealth Research (CeHRes) framework, a telehealth development model. The project activities to develop the prototype were specifically mapped against the model's first four phases: multidisciplinary project management, contextual inquiry, value specification, and design. This project has been developed as part of the Telehealth in the Home: Aged and Palliative Care in South Australia initiative. Significant issues were identified and subsequently addressed during concept and prototype development. The CeHRes approach highlighted the implicit diversity in views and opinions among participants and stakeholders and enabled issues to be considered, resolved, and incorporated during design through continuous engagement. The CeHRes model provided a mechanism that facilitated "better" solutions in the development of the palliative care prototype by addressing the inherent but potentially unrecognized differences in values and beliefs of participants. This collaboration enabled greater interaction and exchange among participants resulting in a more useful and clinically valuable telehealth prototype.
Leff, Stephen S; Thomas, Duane E; Vaughn, Nicole A; Thomas, Nicole A; MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Freedman, Melanie A; Abdul-Kabir, Saburah; Woodlock, Joseph; Guerra, Terry; Bradshaw, Ayana S; Woodburn, Elizabeth M; Myers, Rachel K; Fein, Joel A
School-based violence prevention programs have shown promise for reducing aggression and increasing children's prosocial behaviors. Prevention interventions within the context of urban after-school programs provide a unique opportunity for academic researchers and community stakeholders to collaborate in the creation of meaningful and sustainable violence prevention initiatives. This paper describes the development of a collaborative between academic researchers and community leaders to design a youth violence prevention/leadership promotion program (PARTNERS Program) for urban adolescents. Employing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) model, this project addresses the needs of urban youth, their families, and their community. Multiple strategies were used to engage community members in the development and implementation of the PARTNERS Program. These included focus groups, pilot testing the program in an after-school venue, and conducting organizational assessments of after-school sites as potential locations for the intervention. Community members and academic researchers successfully worked together in all stages of the project development. Community feedback helped the PARTNERS team redesign the proposed implementation and evaluation of the PARTNERS Program such that the revised study design allows for all sites to obtain the intervention over time and increases the possibility of building community capacity and sustainability of programs. Despite several challenges inherent to CBPR, the current study provides a number of lessons learned for the continued development of relationships and trust among researchers and community members, with particular attention to balancing the demand for systematic implementation of community-based interventions while being responsive to the immediate needs of the community.
Nguyen, Leonard T; Buse, Joshua D; Baskin, Leland; Sadrzadeh, S M Hossein; Naugler, Christopher
Serum iron is an important clinical test to help identify cases of iron deficiency or overload. Fluctuations caused by diurnal variation and diet are thought to influence test results, which may affect clinical patient management. We examined the impact of these preanalytical factors on iron concentrations in a large community-based cohort. Serum iron concentration, blood collection time, fasting duration, patient age and sex were obtained for community-based clinical testing from the Laboratory Information Service at Calgary Laboratory Services for the period of January 2011 to December 2015. A total of 276,307 individual test results were obtained. Iron levels were relatively high over a long period from 8:00 to 15:00. Mean concentrations were highest at blood collection times of 11:00 for adult men and 12:00 for adult women and children, however iron levels peaked as late as 15:00 in teenagers. With regard to fasting, iron levels required approximately 5h post-prandial time to return to a baseline, except for children and teenage females where no significant variation was seen until after 11h fasting. After 10h fasting, iron concentrations in all patient groups gradually increased to higher levels compared to earlier fasting times. Serum iron concentrations remain reasonably stable during most daytime hours for testing purposes. In adults, blood collection after 5 to 9h fasting provides a representative estimate of a patient's iron levels. For patients who have fasted overnight, i.e. ≥12h fasting, clinicians should be aware that iron concentrations may be elevated beyond otherwise usual levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Asakawa, Tomohiro; Kawabata, Hidenobu; Kisa, Kengo; Terashita, Takayoshi; Murakami, Manabu; Otaki, Junji
Background Working in multidisciplinary teams is indispensable for ensuring high-quality care for elderly people in Japan’s rapidly aging society. However, health professionals often experience difficulty collaborating in practice because of their different educational backgrounds, ideas, and the roles of each profession. In this qualitative descriptive study, we reveal how to build interdisciplinary collaboration in multidisciplinary teams. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 26 medical professionals, including physicians, nurses, public health nurses, medical social workers, and clerical personnel. Each participant worked as a team member of community-based integrated care. The central topic of the interviews was what the participants needed to establish collaboration during the care of elderly residents. Each interview lasted for about 60 minutes. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to content analysis. Results The analysis yielded the following three categories concerning the necessary elements of building collaboration: 1) two types of meeting configuration; 2) building good communication; and 3) effective leadership. The two meetings described in the first category – “community care meetings” and “individual care meetings” – were aimed at bringing together the disciplines and discussing individual cases, respectively. Building good communication referred to the activities that help professionals understand each other’s ideas and roles within community-based integrated care. Effective leadership referred to the presence of two distinctive human resources that could coordinate disciplines and move the team forward to achieve goals. Conclusion Taken together, our results indicate that these three factors are important for establishing collaborative medical teams according to health professionals. Regular meetings and good communication facilitated by effective leadership can promote
Scanlon, Dennis P; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Beich, Jeff; Christianson, Jon B; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; McHugh, Megan C; Mittler, Jessica N; Shi, Yunfeng; Bodenschatz, Laura J
The Aligning Forces for Quality (AF4Q) initiative is the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's (RWJF's) signature effort to increase the overall quality of healthcare in targeted communities throughout the country. In addition to sponsoring this 16-site, complex program, the RWJF funds an independent scientific evaluation to support objective research on the initiative's effectiveness and contributions to basic knowledge in 5 core programmatic areas. The research design, data, and challenges faced in the evaluation of this 10-year initiative are discussed. A descriptive overview of the evaluation research design for a multi-site, community based, healthcare quality improvement initiative is provided. The multiphase research design employed by the evaluation team is discussed. Evaluation provides formative feedback to the RWJF, participants, and other interested audiences in real time; develops approaches to assess innovative and under-studied interventions; furthers the analysis and understanding of effective community-based collaborative work in healthcare; and helps to differentiate the various facilitators, barriers, and contextual dimensions that affect the implementation and outcomes of community-based health interventions. The AF4Q initiative is arguably the largest community-level healthcare improvement demonstration in the United States to date; it is being implemented at a time of rapid change in national healthcare policy. The implementation of large-scale, multi-site initiatives is becoming an increasingly common approach for addressing problems in healthcare. The evaluation research design for the AF4Q initiative, and the lessons learned from its approach, may be valuable to others tasked with evaluating similar community-based initiatives.
Waldie, Peter A.
Conservation commonly requires trade-offs between social and ecological goals. For tropical small-scale fisheries, spatial scales of socially appropriate management are generally small—the median no-take locally managed marine area (LMMA) area throughout the Pacific is less than 1 km2. This is of particular concern for large coral reef fishes, such as many species of grouper, which migrate to aggregations to spawn. Current data suggest that the catchment areas (i.e. total area from which individuals are drawn) of such aggregations are at spatial scales that preclude effective community-based management with no-take LMMAs. We used acoustic telemetry and tag-returns to examine reproductive migrations and catchment areas of the grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus at a spawning aggregation in Papua New Guinea. Protection of the resultant catchment area of approximately 16 km2 using a no-take LMMA is socially untenable here and throughout much of the Pacific region. However, we found that spawning migrations were skewed towards shorter distances. Consequently, expanding the current 0.2 km2 no-take LMMA to 1–2 km2 would protect approximately 30–50% of the spawning population throughout the non-spawning season. Contrasting with current knowledge, our results demonstrate that species with moderate reproductive migrations can be managed at scales congruous with spatially restricted management tools.
Kidest Getu Melese
Full Text Available Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all. Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general.
Mueller, J P; Rischkowsky, B; Haile, A; Philipsson, J; Mwai, O; Besbes, B; Valle Zárate, A; Tibbo, M; Mirkena, T; Duguma, G; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M
Breeding programmes described as community-based (CBBP) typically relate to low-input systems with farmers having a common interest to improve and share their genetic resources. CBBPs are more frequent with keepers of small ruminants, in particular smallholders of local breeds, than with cattle, pigs or chickens with which farmers may have easier access to alternative programmes. Constraints that limit the adoption of conventional breeding technologies in low-input systems cover a range of organizational and technical aspects. The analysis of 8 CBBPs located in countries of Latin-America, Africa and Asia highlights the importance of bottom-up approaches and involvement of local institutions in the planning and implementation stages. The analysis also reveals a high dependence of these programmes on organizational, technical and financial support. Completely self-sustained CBBPs seem to be difficult to realize. There is a need to implement and document formal socio-economic evaluations of CBBPs to provide governments and other development agencies with the information necessary for creating sustainable CBBPs at larger scales. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Arturo Balderas Torres
Full Text Available Countries at the United Nations Framework on the Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC have decided to engage local communities and indigenous groups into the activities for the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV of the program to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and increase carbon removals (REDD+. Previous research and projects have shown that communities can produce reliable data on forest area and carbon estimates through field measurements. The objective of this article is to describe the framework that is being created for REDD+ under the UNFCCC to identify the potential inclusion of local information produced through community-based monitoring (CBM into monitoring systems for REDD+. National systems could use different sources of information from CBM: first, local information can be produced as part of public programs by increasing sample size of national or regional inventories; second, government can collect information to produce carbon estimates from on-going management practices implemented at local level driven by access to local direct benefits (e.g., forest management plans, watershed conservation; third, national data systems could include information from projects participating in carbon markets and other certification schemes; and finally information will be produced as part of the activities associated to the implementation of social and environmental safeguards. Locally generated data on carbon and areas under different forms of management can be dovetailed into national systems and be used to describe management practices, complement existing information or replace Tier 1/2 values with more detailed local data produced by CBM.
Full Text Available El creciente impulso del Community-based tourism (CBT como vía para un turismo sostenible y estrategia para el desarrollo social nos obliga a profundizar en su comprensión. En este artículo proponemos como táctica teórico-metodológica la focalización analítica en la comunidad. El referente empírico de la investigación es el turismo comunitario (TC en Ecuador, donde se han seleccionado cinco comunidades para llevar a cabo un estudio etnográfico en profundidad. Como conclusión planteamos un marco comprensivo del TC que tiene tres pilares básicos: la centralidad analítica de las comunidades, la consideración del TC como `traducción´ antes que como `adaptación´ al mercado, y el carácter fortalecedor antes que debilitador del TC para las comunidades. De aquí se derivan una serie de indicadores cualitativos que sirven para encarar, desde el punto de vista teórico, la comprensión general del CBT y asimismo son útiles para la evaluación de la sostenibilidad de proyectos y experiencias de CBT
Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.
Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)— specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability—stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502
Akbari, Mohammad; Hu, Xia; Nie, Liqiang; Chua, Tat-Seng
Online community-based health services accumulate a huge amount of unstructured health question answering (QA) records at a continuously increasing pace. The ability to organize these health QA records has been found to be effective for data access. The existing approaches for organizing information are often not applicable to health domain due to its domain nature as characterized by complex relation among entities, large vocabulary gap, and heterogeneity of users. To tackle these challenges, we propose a top-down organization scheme, which can automatically assign the unstructured health-related records into a hierarchy with prior domain knowledge. Besides automatic hierarchy prototype generation, it also enables each data instance to be associated with multiple leaf nodes and profiles each node with terminologies. Based on this scheme, we design a hierarchy-based health information retrieval system. Experiments on a real-world dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our scheme in organizing health QA into a topic hierarchy and retrieving health QA records from the topic hierarchy.
Allender, Steven; Owen, Brynle; Kuhlberg, Jill; Lowe, Janette; Nagorcka-Smith, Phoebe; Whelan, Jill; Bell, Colin
Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity. Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12) built a community model that progressed from connection circles to causal loop diagrams using scripts from the system dynamics literature. Participants began this work in identifying change over time in causes and effects of childhood obesity within their community. The initial causal loop diagram was then reviewed and elaborated by 50 community leaders over a full day session. The process created a causal loop diagram representing community perceptions of determinants and causes of obesity. The causal loop diagram can be broken down into four separate domains; social influences; fast food and junk food; participation in sport; and general physical activity. This causal loop diagram can provide the basis for community led planning of a prevention response that engages with multiple levels of existing settings and systems.
Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities (Wildcat 2013), variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation (Maldonado et al. 2013), affecting Tribal water resources (Cozzetto et al. 2013), traditional foods (Lynn et al. 2013; Gautam et al. 2013), forests and forest resources (Voggesser et al. 2013) and Tribal health (Donatuto et al 2014; Doyle et al. 2013). This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by Tribal communities (USEPA, 2014a, www.epa.gov/ncer/tribalresearch). The Tribal Research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STA
Andrews, Jeannette O; Newman, Susan D; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J; Bunting, Shelia
The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners' readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions and key indicators necessary for academic and community partnership readiness to conduct CBPR. Key informant interviews and focus groups (n = 36 participants) were conducted with academic and community participants who had experiences with CBPR partnerships. A 'framework analysis' approach was used to analyze the data and generate a new model, CBPR Partnership Readiness Model. Antecedents of CBPR partnership readiness are a catalyst and mutual interest. The major dimensions of the CBPR Partnership Readiness Model are (i) goodness of fit, (ii) capacity, and (iii) operations. Preferred outcomes are sustainable partnership and product, mutual growth, policy and social and health impact on the community. CBPR partnership readiness is an iterative and dynamic process, partnership and issue specific, influenced by a range of environmental and contextual factors, amenable to change and essential for sustainability and promotion of health and social change in the community.
Full Text Available Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity.Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12 built a community model that progressed from connection circles to causal loop diagrams using scripts from the system dynamics literature. Participants began this work in identifying change over time in causes and effects of childhood obesity within their community. The initial causal loop diagram was then reviewed and elaborated by 50 community leaders over a full day session.The process created a causal loop diagram representing community perceptions of determinants and causes of obesity. The causal loop diagram can be broken down into four separate domains; social influences; fast food and junk food; participation in sport; and general physical activity.This causal loop diagram can provide the basis for community led planning of a prevention response that engages with multiple levels of existing settings and systems.
Jamie L Schutte
Full Text Available The use of web-based portals, while increasing in popularity in the fields of medicine and research, are rarely reported on in community-based rehabilitation programs. A program within the Pennsylvania Office of Vocational Rehabilitation’s Hiram G. Andrews Center, the Cognitive Skills Enhancement Program (CSEP, sought to enhance organization of program and participant information and communication between part- and full-time employees, supervisors and consultants. A telerehab system was developed consisting of (1 a web-based portal to support a variety of clinical activities and (2 the Versatile Integrated System for Telerehabilitation (VISyTER video-conferencing system to support the collaboration and delivery of rehabilitation services remotely. This descriptive evaluation examines the usability of the telerehab system incorporating both the portal and VISyTER. Telerehab system users include CSEP staff members from three geographical locations and employed by two institutions. The IBM After-Scenario Questionnaire (ASQ and Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ, the Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ, and two demographic surveys were administered to gather both objective and subjective information. Results showed generally high levels of usability. Users commented that the telerehabilitation system improved communication, increased access to information, improved speed of completing tasks, and had an appealing interface. Areas where users would like to see improvements, including ease of accessing/editing documents and searching for information, are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Morning light exposure administered as simulated dawn looks a promising method to treat Seasonal Affective Disorder, but it may moreover help with resetting the inaccurate organisation of body clock functions relative to sleep occurring in winter among people in general. Disturbances in sleep patterns are common and may compromise wellbeing even in the short term. Our hypothesis was that simulated dawn could improve the subjective quality of sleep during winter. Methods A community-based trial with 100 volunteer subjects provided with dawn simulators. Study period lasted for eight weeks, and subjects used the dawn simulators for two weeks at a time, each subject acting as his own control (ABAB-design. Main outcome measure was subjective quality of sleep recorded each morning with Groningen Sleep Quality Scale. Results 77 subjects completed the trial. Quality of sleep improved while subjects were using dawn simulator-devices (p = 0.001. The treatment became beneficial after six days' use of dawn simulator, but the effect did not last after the use was ceased. Conclusion Dawn simulation may help to improve the subjective quality of sleep, but the benefits are modest. Further research is needed to verify these findings and to elucidate the mechanism by which dawn simulation acts on the sleep-wake pattern.
Few studies have examined community-based doula care during the childbearing period. This descriptive study was designed to explore and describe the perceptions of disadvantaged pregnant and parenting teens (N = 24) who received support from culturally matched, community-based doulas. Their reported perceptions included enhanced knowledge about childbearing, support during childbirth, self-care, and early attachment to the newborn. Participants concurred that the community-based doula interve...
Legesse, Mengistu; Mamo, Gezahegne; Ameni, Gobena; Medhin, Girmay; Bjune, Gunnar; Abebe, Fekadu
Background: Information on the community-based prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in different settings is vital for planning, execution and evaluation of strategies to control the disease. Objective: To assess community-based prevalence of undetected active pulmonary TB (PTB) in pastoralists of the Amibara District. Methods: Between March and April 2010, a community-based cross-sectional survey of undiagnosed active PTB was conducted in the pastoralists of the Amibara District of the Afar...
The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.
..., and Behavioral and Mental Health Professionals; Graduate Psychology Education; and Preventive and... interdisciplinary, community-based training grant programs; expertise in the field; and personal desire in...
Limitations Ideally we would want to show that this type of network model can actually help troops, Veterans and their families reintegrate more smoothly...08-2-0655 TITLE: Military, Family, and Community Networks Helping with Reintegration PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Laurie Slone... Reintegration Dartmouth College Hanover, NH 03755 Dr. Laurie Slone A community based network to assist with the reintegration of service members and their
Seyednezami Nasrin; Nabipour Iraj; Pazoki Raha; Imami Seyed
Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) ...
Liou, Horng-Huei; Wu, Chia-Yun; Chiu, Yueh-Hsia; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chen, Rong-Chi; Chen, Ta-Fu; Chen, Chih-Chuan; Hwang, Yuarn-Chung; Wen, Ying-Rong; Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi
We aimed to quantify the mortality reduction by which the early detection of Parkinson's disease (PD) within a community-based study could reduce the number of advanced cases. Data used in this study were derived from two community-based surveys and from a clinical series of PD cases identified from a medical centre. The cumulative survival by Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) scale was estimated and the mortality reduction derived from a community-based survey was predicted. A total of 117 PD patients were detected through two community-based approaches. By comparing the H-Y stage distribution of screen-detected cases with those from the clinical series, a 22.5% excess in the number of early PD (H-Y stage I and stage II) were identified with screening. The risk ratios of being H-Y stage III or severe for community-based detected cases versus clinical series were 0.49 (95% confidence interval: 0.30-0.78). The total death rate adjusted by H-Y stage distribution was 21% and 28% for cases from community and clinical series, respectively. The present study revealed that early detection of PD through a community-based survey may reduce 51% incidence of stage III or more severe PD at diagnosis, leading to a 25% reduction in mortality.
Osborn, L M
Two elements are essential for implementing community-based educational programs: a vision of how community experiences fit into the training of the health professionals of the future and a local environment that will support innovation, change, and growth. Change cannot occur unless very basic assumptions regarding medical education are challenged. What is "quality education"? Can programs oriented toward tertiary and specialty care adequately provide the training that should be the core of a 3-year general training program? Do schools and programs select and train physicians to function within the microcosm of the academic center, or do they prepare physicians to manage the country's health care needs? National consensus has had little influence over local environments. Each medical school, training program, and teaching facility must reexamine its values and its culture. Each must have a vision of the physicians of the future and a commitment to train them appropriately. The role of vision and culture in creating successful programs has been clearly described. Several key elements have been found to be consistent with success, the first being vision. Four basic principles will bring the vision to fruition: (1) preserving core values while still stimulating progress; (2) emphasizing the process by which programs are created, implemented, and changed rather than the product; (3) avoiding the "tyranny of the or," learning to be inclusive with a broad vision rather than limited to an "either-or" approach; and (4) aligning the process, management, and values in working toward envisioned progress for the future. Effective leadership is essential for a group or organization to accomplish its mission, as is an organizational structure that aligns responsibility, authority, resources, and accountability.
Schensul, Jean J; Trickett, Edison
This introduction to a special issue of the American Journal of Community Psychiatry is the result of a symposium at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Applied Anthropology, 2006, that brought together anthropologists and psychologists involved in community based collaborative intervention studies to examine critically the assumptions, processes and results of their multilevel interventions in local communities with local partners. The papers were an effort to examine context by offering a theoretical framework for the concept of "level" in intervention science, and advocating for "multi-level" approaches to social/behavioral change. They presented examples of ways in which interventions targeted social "levels" either simultaneously or sequentially by working together with communities across levels, and drawing on and co-constructing elements of local culture as components of the intervention. The papers raised a number of important issues, for example: (1) How are levels defined and how should collaborators be chosen; (2) does it matter at which level multilevel interventions begin; (3) do multilevel interventions have a greater effect on desired outcomes than level-specific interventions; (4) are multilevel interventions more sustainable; (5) are multilevel interventions cost effective to run, and evaluate; (6) how can theories of intervention be generated and adapted to each level of a multilevel intervention; (7) how should intervention activities at each level coordinate to facilitate community resident or target population empowerment? Many of these questions were only partially addressed in the papers presented at that time, and are more fully addressed in the theoretical papers, case studies and approach to evaluation included in this collection.
Patterson, Tracy Enright; Dinkin, Donna R; Champion, Heather
Purpose The purpose of this article is to share the lessons learned about the role of team sponsors in action-learning teams as part of community-based health leadership development programs. Design/methodology/approach This case study uses program survey results from fellow participants, action learning coaches and team sponsors to understand the value of sponsors to the teams, the roles they most often filled and the challenges they faced as team sponsors. Findings The extent to which the sponsors were perceived as having contributed to the work of the action learning teams varied greatly from team to team. Most sponsors agreed that they were well informed about their role. The roles sponsors most frequently played were to provide the teams with input and support, serve as a liaison to the community and serve as a sounding board, motivator and cheerleader. The most common challenges or barriers team sponsors faced in this role were keeping engaged in the process, adjusting to the role and feeling disconnected from the program. Practical implications This work provides insights for program developers and community foundations who are interested in building the capacity for health leadership by linking community sponsors with emerging leaders engaged in an action learning experience. Originality/value This work begins to fill a gap in the literature. The role of team sponsors has been studied for single organization work teams but there is a void of understanding about the role of sponsors with multi-organizational teams working to improve health while also learning about leadership.
Mine, Tsunenori; Matsuno, Daisuke; Amamiya, Makoto
This paper proposes an agent community based information retrieval method, which uses agent communities to manage and look up information related to users. An agent works as a delegate of its user and searches for information that the user wants by communicating with other agents. The communication between agents is carried out in a peer-to-peer computing architecture. In order to retrieve information related to a user query, an agent uses two histories : a query/retrieved document history(Q/RDH) and a query/sender agent history(Q/SAH). The former is a list of pairs of a query and retrieved documents, where the queries were sent by the agent itself. The latter is a list of pairs of a query and sender agents and shows ``who sent what query to the agent''. This is useful to find a new information source. Making use of the Q/SAH is expected to cause a collaborative filtering effect, which gradually creates virtual agent communities, where agents with the same interests stay together. Our hypothesis is that a virtual agent community reduces communication loads to perform a search. As an agent receives more queries, then more links to new knowledge are achieved. From this behavior, a ``give and take''(or positive feedback) effect for agents seems to emerge. We implemented this method with Multi-Agents Kodama which has been developed in our laboratory, and conducted preliminary experiments to test the hypothesis. The empirical results showed that the method was much more efficient than a naive method employing 'broadcast' techniques only to look up a target agent.
Full Text Available Abstract Substance-using women who exchange sex for money, drugs or shelter as a means of basic subsistence (ie. survival sex have remained largely at the periphery of HIV and harm reduction policies and services across Canadian cities. This is notwithstanding global evidence of the multiple harms faced by this population, including high rates of violence and poverty, and enhanced vulnerabilities to HIV transmission among women who smoke or inject drugs. In response, a participatory-action research project was developed in partnership with a local sex work agency to examine the HIV-related vulnerabilities, barriers to accessing care, and impact of current prevention and harm reduction strategies among women in survival sex work. This paper provides a brief background of the health and drug-related harms among substance-using women in survival sex work, and outlines the development and methodology of a community-based HIV prevention research project partnership. In doing so, we discuss some of the strengths and challenges of community-based HIV prevention research, as well as some key ethical considerations, in the context of street-level sex work in an urban setting.
Penkunas, Michael James; Eom, Kirsten Yuna; Chan, Angelique Wei-Ming
Home- and center-based long-term care (LTC) services allow older adults to remain in the community while simultaneously helping caregivers cope with the stresses associated with providing care. Despite these benefits, the uptake of community-based LTC services among older adults remains low. We analyzed data from a longitudinal study in Singapore to identify the characteristics of individuals with referrals to home-based LTC services or day rehabilitation services at the time of hospital discharge. Classification and regression tree analysis was employed to identify combinations of clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of patients and their caregivers for individuals who did not take up their referred services. Patients' level of limitation in activities of daily living (ADL) and caregivers' ethnicity and educational level were the most distinguishing characteristics for identifying older adults who failed to take up their referred home-based services. For day rehabilitation services, patients' level of ADL limitation, home size, age, and possession of a national medical savings account, as well as caregivers' education level, and gender were significant factors influencing service uptake. Identifying subgroups of patients with high rates of non-use can help clinicians target individuals who are need of community-based LTC services but unlikely to engage in formal treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Daud, Shahidah Md; Ramli, Razamin; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd
Tourism industry has become the highlighted sector which has amazingly increased the national income level. Despite the tourism industry being one of the highest income generating sectors, Homestay Programme as a Community-Based Tourism (CBT) product in Malaysia does not absorbed much of the incoming wealth. Homestay Programme refers to a programme in a community where a tourist stays together with a host family and experiences the everyday way of life of the family in both direct and indirect manner. There are over 100 Homestay Programme currently being registered with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Malaysia which mostly are located in rural areas, but only a few excel and enjoying the fruit of the booming industry. Hence, this article seeks to identify the critical success factors for a Community-Based Rural Homestay Programme in Malaysia. A modified pairwise method is utilized to further evaluate the identified success factors in a more meaningful way. The findings will help Homestay Programme function as a community development tool that manages tourism resources. Thus, help the community in improving local economy and creating job opportunities.
Ngo, Bic; Lewis, Cynthia; Maloney Leaf, Betsy
In this chapter, we review the literature on community-based arts programs serving minoritized youth to identify the conditions and practices for fostering sociopolitical consciousness. Community-based arts programs have the capacity to promote teaching and learning practices in ways that engage youth in the use of academic skills to pursue…
Contends that community-based theatre (CBT) can productively redefine the parameters of what "political performance" can mean. Draws on the work of community-based performance artist Tim Miller and on the author's experience as a dramaturg to suggest that artists and scholars must develop a revised idea of what constitutes activist democratic…
This paper explores learner progression for participants in community-based adult learning (CBAL) provision in Scotland. It focuses on learners' perceptions of progression drawn from analysis of life history interviews carried out with ten adults who had participated in community-based adult learning. The analysis of data was undertaken in three…
This article examines a programme of work produced by community-based theatre company, Manaton and East Dartmoor (MED) Theatre, addressing issues of climate change as they impact on life in rural Devon, UK. After some discussion of MED Theatre's constitution as a community-based company and the group's long-term engagement with the place, history,…
Gagnon, Elizabeth; O'Sullivan, Tracey; Lane, Daniel E.; Paré, Nicole
Disasters happen worldwide, and it is necessary to engage emergency management agencies, health and social services, and community-based organizations in collaborative management activities to enhance community resilience. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been widely accepted in public health research as an approach to develop…
Droppert, Alida J.
This paper describes the culture of experiential community based learning at Central College, a rural liberal arts college in Midwestern, USA. Pre-service teachers use experiential community based learning to reflect on their personal growth in understanding the needs of diverse learners. Reflections demonstrate how the program contributes to the…
Glass, Ronald David; Newman, Anne
Collaborative community-based research can bring a range of benefits to universities, communities, and the public more broadly. A distinct virtue of collaborative community-based research is that it makes the ethical-epistemic intersections and challenges in research a focal point of its methodology. This makes collaborative community-based…
Zwerink, Marlies; Effing, Tanja; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van der Valk, Paul; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; van der Palen, Job
Introduction: Information regarding cost-effectiveness of community-based exercise programmes in COPD is scarce. Therefore, we have investigated whether a community-based exercise programme is a cost-effective component of self-management for patients with COPD after 2 years of follow-up. Methods:
Although social psychology has always had an interest in helping behavior, only recently has the full complexity of helping relations begun to be researched. Help seeking and receiving in the educational setting raise many issues regarding the use and effectiveness of the help itself. Central to all helping relations is the seeking/receiving…
Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg
Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...
In 2002, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe signed an agreement establishing the enlarged Greater Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area. The area includes designated national parks and a matrix of land between them that is mostly under communal tenure. This project will apply scenario planning to help ...
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Nabors, Laura; Baker-Phibbs, Christina; Woodson, Kenneth
Child trauma is a mental health concern and more information is needed about treatment in community mental health settings. This article presents results of a focus group and member checking sessions held with counselors who provided therapy for children experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder in a community-based setting. Results indicated that play and art techniques were commonly used during individual child therapy sessions. Sessions were child-directed and allowed children to review trauma experiences in a "safe" setting with an "expert" guide. Several themes were commonly addressed in sessions including opportunities to re-experience, release, and reorganize the trauma, building resilience or self-esteem for the child, promoting safety, and helping the child to regulate emotional reactions and behavior problems. Counselors focused on discussing ways to interact with the child to promote healing and there was a belief that children would return to a positive developmental trajectory after coping with traumatic experiences. Future research needs to address what works for whom, in terms of what interventions are useful in child-directed counseling sessions for children who have experienced specific types of trauma, such as sexual and physical abuse or witnessing domestic violence. Integration of knowledge from evidence-based treatments will also further inform clinical practice with children who have experienced traumatic events.
Zizzi, Sam; Kadushin, Peter; Michel, Jesse; Abildso, Christiaan
Compared with randomized trials, community-based interventions are delivered by a wider variety of professionals with varied training backgrounds. When evidence-based programs are scaled into larger formats and disseminated to a wider audience, little is understood about how clients experience these interventions. To understand the experience of clients after meetings with nutrition, exercise, and health behavior professionals, researchers surveyed participants after 6 months in a weight management program. A total of 958 participants were recruited in monthly cohorts beginning September 2011 to complete a program evaluation survey. Qualitative inductive analysis was completed on several open-text items querying respondents as to what they found helpful from meetings with a registered dietitian, personal trainer, and health behavior counselor. Results indicate participants benefitted from gaining knowledge, learning new behavioral skills, or from interpersonal interactions. Findings suggest that the various professional services are valued by clients and that professionals appear to stay within their scope of practice. Implications for those working in weight management are discussed. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Reed, Daniel O; Hooker, Roderick S
In the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system, most orthopedic care takes place in the VA medical centers (VAMCs). Because most patients receiving orthopedic care were referred by adult medicine providers, more widely deploying physician assistants (PAs) in orthopedic medicine might help offset this workload. An orthopedic medicine demonstration project recruited, trained, and positioned PAs in community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) to improve access to care. The project involved surgeons at the Houston VAMC instructing five newly employed PAs in a wide range of orthopedic evaluation and management strategies before their assignment to a CBOC. An administrative assessment compared encounter data pre- and postproject (2012 and 2014) to determine if this strategy modified orthopedic workload and improved patient access to care. By 2014, orthopedic patient visit volume had increased 31%-10% at the VAMC and 21% at the five CBOCs. Overall, the five deployed PAs managed 28% of all orthopedic encounters spread over 1 year and only 3.2% of visits required VAMC referral for further evaluation or treatment. During the project, the total volume of patient visits increased throughout the Houston VAMC region but access to care for this specialty service also increased, with more veteran musculoskeletal care being met at the five CBOCs, off-loading visit demand centrally. The adaptability and flexibility of new roles has been identified as one of the defining characteristics of PAs. That the VHA can take advantage of this role malleability suggests that employing PAs is useful in meeting medical service needs of veterans.
Full Text Available The Marine Fishery Resources Management Project (MFRMP hopes to facilitate partnership between the local government unit and the local communities in managing the coastal resources of Bolinao. Mobilization, both at the community and municipal levels, has been very important in promoting community-based strategies in coastal resources management. The community organization process in the municipality has gone through several levels; and different organizations have been formed. In empowering individuals and organizations, strategies tend to be varied and fluid depending on the need, the reason for mobilization, and the resources at hand. The Bolinao experience showcases different strategies used in implementing the resource enhancement, coastal zoning, harvest regulation, and capability building components of the program. These have included the formation of people's organizations, the mobilization of zonal action teams for each of the four zones, the creation and orientation of fishery and aquatic resources management councils at the barangay and municipal levels, and the active collaboration with the local government unit. These strategies and approaches have provided the people and the communities a wealth of experience and lessons that provide helpful insights in undertaking different endeavors. The strategies employed in the mobilization activities have significantly contributed to the empowerment of communities and individuals who are the primary managers of their resources.
Garcia-Huidobro, Diego; Allen, Michele; Rosas-Lee, Maira; Maldonado, Francisco; Gutierrez, Lois; Svetaz, Maria Veronica; Wieling, Elizabeth
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) can help increase the attendance in community programs. Padres Informados, Jovenes Preparados (PIJP) is a program that aims to prevent tobacco and other substance use among Latino youth by promoting positive parenting. Although the trial used CBPR approaches, attendance was inconsistent. In the present study, factors associated with attendance and nonattendance and recommendations to maximize participation were explored in 12 brief feedback discussions (BFDs) with participants and in 10 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with facilitators who delivered PIJP. Content analysis guided two pairs of researchers, who independently coded emerging themes and categories (κ = .86 for BFDs and .73 for IDIs). Data from BFDs and IDIs were merged and interpreted together. We grouped factors that positively affected participation into three categories: individual and family (e.g., motivation), program (e.g., offering food and childcare and having facilitators who are trusted), and research (e.g., having incentives). Barriers to participation were grouped into four categories: individual and family (e.g., family conflicts), sociocultural (e.g., community and cultural beliefs), program (e.g., fixed schedules), and research (e.g., recruitment procedures). Participants provided recommendations to address all types of barriers. Although PIJP used CBPR, complete satisfaction of community needs is difficult. Effective community programs must address participants' needs and preferences. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
McCabe-Sellers, Beverly; Lovera, Dalia; Nuss, Henry; Wise, Carolyn; Ning, Baitang; Teitel, Candee; Clark, Beatrice Shelby; Toennessen, Terri; Green, Bridgett; Bogle, Margaret L; Kaput, Jim
Personal and public health information are often obtained from studies of large population groups. Risk factors for nutrients, toxins, genetic variation, and more recently, nutrient-gene interactions are statistical estimates of the percentage reduction in disease in the population if the risk were to be avoided or the gene variant were not present. Because individuals differ in genetic makeup, lifestyle, and dietary patterns than those individuals in the study population, these risk factors are valuable guidelines, but may not apply to individuals. Intervention studies are likewise limited by small sample sizes, short time frames to assess physiological changes, and variable experimental designs that often preclude comparative or consensus analyses. A fundamental challenge for nutrigenomics will be to develop a means to sort individuals into metabolic groups, and eventually, develop risk factors for individuals. To reach the goal of personalizing medicine and nutrition, new experimental strategies are needed for human study designs. A promising approach for more complete analyses of the interaction of genetic makeups and environment relies on community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodologies. CBPR's central focus is developing a partnership among researchers and individuals in a community that allows for more in depth lifestyle analyses but also translational research that simultaneously helps improve the health of individuals and communities. The USDA-ARS Delta Nutrition Intervention Research program exemplifies CBPR providing a foundation for expanded personalized nutrition and medicine research for communities and individuals.
Ferguson, K J; Spitzer, R L
This study examined binge eating and weight cycling in a community-based sample of successful (46 women, 44 men) and unsuccessful (29 women, 25 men) dieters. Successful dieters had lost at least 15% of body weight, kept the weight off for at least 1 year, and regained no more than 10 lb (average weight loss = 48 lb). Subjects completed a written questionnaire and were interviewed by phone several weeks later. Unsuccessful dieters were more obese when starting on a diet (average body mass index = 35.6 compared to 32.1) and were much more likely to have lost and regained 20 lb. Six-month prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) was 19% for unsuccessful dieters and 6% for successful dieters; lifetime prevalence was 15% and 13%, respectively. Unsuccessful dieters were two to three times more likely to perceive a lack of control during an episode of overeating, to be disgusted with themselves for overeating, and to eat alone because they were embarrassed. Encouraging dieters to set realistic goals, identify potential relapse situations, and interpret lapses may help them succeed.
Cristiana Simão Seixas
Full Text Available Community-based institutions used to be driven by local needs, but in recent decades, some of them have been responding to national and global economic opportunities. These cases are of interest because they make it possible to investigate how local institutions can evolve in response to new challenges. A promising set of cases comes from the UNDP Equator Initiative, a program that holds biennial searches to find and reward entrepreneurship cases that seek to reduce poverty and conserve biodiversity at the same time. What can we learn from these local entrepreneurship cases that seem to be playing at the global level? Here we focus on partnerships and horizontal and vertical linkages in a sample of ten Equator Initiative projects. We find that successful projects tend to interact with a large array of support groups, typically 10 to 15 partners. Based on information from on-site research, these partners include local and national NGOs; local, regional and (less commonly national governments; international donor agencies and other organizations; and universities and research centers. These partners provide a range of services and support functions, including raising start-up funds; institution building; business networking and marketing; innovation and knowledge transfer; and technical training. These findings indicate that a diverse variety of partners are needed to help satisfy a diversity of needs, and highlight the importance of networks and support groups in the evolution of commons institutions.
Cain, Katrice D; Theurer, Jacqueline R; Sehgal, Ashwini R
To determine how grant funds are shared between academic institutions and community partners in community-based participatory research (CBPR). Review of all 62 investigator-initiated R01 CBPR grants funded by the National Institutes of Health from January 2005 to August 2012. Using prespecified criteria, two reviewers independently categorized each budget item as being for an academic institution or a community partner. A third reviewer helped resolve any discrepancies. Among 49 evaluable grants, 68% of all grant funds were for academic institutions and 30% were for community partners. For 2% of funds, it was unclear whether they were for academic institutions or for community partners. Community partners' share of funds was highest in the categories of other direct costs (62%) and other personnel (48%) and lowest in the categories of equipment (1%) and indirect costs (7%). A majority of CBPR grant funds are allocated to academic institutions. In order to enhance the share that community partners receive, funders may wish to specify a minimum proportion of grant funds that should be allocated to community partners in CBPR projects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange
that help professionals understand each other’s ideas and roles within community-based integrated care. Effective leadership referred to the presence of two distinctive human resources that could coordinate disciplines and move the team forward to achieve goals. Conclusion: Taken together, our results indicate that these three factors are important for establishing collaborative medical teams according to health professionals. Regular meetings and good communication facilitated by effective leadership can promote collaborative practice and mutual understanding between various professions. Keywords: interprofessional education, multidisciplinary collaboration, integrated primary and community care, qualitative research, interdisciplinary communication, geriatric health services, Japan
Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months could reduce infant mortality by 13%. Although 99% women initiate breastfeeding in Uganda, exclusive breastfeeding rates remain low. Although peer counsellors for support of breastfeeding mothers have been found useful in other countries, they have not been used in Uganda. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of training community based peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding in a rural district in Uganda. Methods With assistance of the investigators, the local communities selected fifteen women aged 25 to 30 years. These women were trained for five days on breastfeeding counselling using the La Leche League curriculum. After training they returned to their communities and started supporting breastfeeding peers. They were followed up and supported in their work for three months. The programme was evaluated through focus group discussions with the peer counsellors, fathers and mothers. Results The trainees appreciated the knowledge gained and discussed cultural beliefs which affect breastfeeding. They offered breastfeeding support to 15 mothers each within the first two months. They found time to visit and help their breastfeeding peers despite busy schedules. They identified common breastfeeding problems as "insufficient breast milk", sore nipples, breast engorgement, mastitis and poor positioning at the breast. They further observed that most of these problems were eased by correct positioning of the baby at the breast. The peer counsellors were easily accepted by their communities. The mothers were happy to have someone within their community helping them with their breastfeeding problems. Although the peer counsellors were initially selected as volunteers, soon they demanded remuneration. Conclusion The training and follow up of peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding in this rural district is feasible. The peer
Lakkappa, Bharath; Shah, Sanjay; Rogers, Stephen; Holman, Leanne Helen
Intermediate care services have been introduced to help mitigate unnecessary hospital demand and premature placement in long-term residential care. Many patients are elderly and/or with complex comorbidities, but little consideration has been given to the palliative care needs of patients referred to intermediate care services. The objective of this study is to determine the proportion of patients referred to a community-based intermediate care team who died during care and up to 24 months after discharge and so to help inform the development of supportive and palliative care in this setting. A retrospective cohort study of all 4770 adult patients referred to Northamptonshire Intermediate Care Team (ICT) between 11 April 2010 and 10 April 2011. Of 4770 patients referred, 60% were 75 years or older and 32% were 85 years of age or older. 4.0% of patients died during their ICT stay and 11% within 30 days of discharge. At the end of 12 months, 25% of the patients had died, increasing to 32% before the end of the second year. About 34% of all deaths occurred during the ICT stay or within 30 days of discharge, and a further 46% by the end of the first year. Male gender and higher age were associated with greater likelihood of death. It is important for ICT clinicians to consider immediate and longer-term palliative care needs among patients referred to ICTs. Care models involving ICTs and palliative care teams working together could enable more people with end-stage non-cancer illnesses to die at home. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
D'Souza, W; Crane, J; Burgess, C; Te Karu, H; Fox, C; Harper, M; Robson, B; Howden-Chapman, P; Crossland, L; Woodman, K
Although asthma self-management plans are widely recommended as essential in the long-term treatment of adult asthma, there have been few studies examining their use. Our objective was to assess the effect of a "credit card" adult asthma self-management plan in a community experiencing major health problems from asthma, by means of a before and after intervention trial of the efficacy of the "credit card" plan, when introduced through community-based asthma clinics. The participants were 69 Maori people with asthma. The "credit card" plan consisted of written guidelines for the self-management of asthma, based on self-assessment of asthma severity, printed on a plastic card. On one side, management guidelines were based on the interpretation of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) recordings, whilst the reverse side was based on symptoms. The outcome measures used were before and after comparison of markers of asthma morbidity and requirement for acute medical treatment; and a structured questionnaire assessing the acceptability and use of the credit card plan. Following the introduction of the plan, the mean PEFR increased from 347 to 389 l.min-1, the percentage of nights woken fell from 30.4 to 16.9%, and the number of days "out of action" fell from 3.8 to 1.7%. The requirements for acute medical treatment also fell during the intervention period. Most participants commented favourably on the content and usefulness of the plan. In the situation of worsening asthma, 28% of subjects found the peak flow side of the card most helpful, 7% the symptoms side, and 48% found both sides equally helpful.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
deWilde, Carol Kolb; Milman, Anita; Flores, Yvonne; Salmerón, Jorge; Ray, Isha
The burden of diarrhoeal disease remains high in the developing world. Community-based safe drinking water programmes are being promoted as cost-effective interventions that will help reduce this illness burden. However, the effectiveness of these programmes remains under-investigated. The primary argument of this paper is that the biological exposure reductions underlying safe water interventions vary tremendously over space and time, and studies that only report results of intent-to-treat analyses cannot reveal why such programmes succeed or fail. The paper develops a stepwise evaluation framework to characterize, and so analyse, the technical, financial, social and behavioural factors that underlie exposure and mediate the impact of safe water investments. Relevant factors include physical performance of the water system, community capacity to maintain and manage the systems, and the time and budget constraints of households participating in the programme. The approach draws on the public health, community-based resource management, and household choice literatures to identify modifiable points of failure along the causal pathway to programme impact. The evaluation framework is used to assess the performance and impact of UVWaterworks, a community-based water purification system in rural Mexico, 5 years after the programme began. No impact on diarrhoea incidence was found in this case. The assessment method revealed that (a) household priorities and preferences were a key factor in maintaining exposure to safe drinking water sources, and therefore (b) user convenience was a primary leverage point for programme improvement. The findings indicate that a comprehensive examination of the many factors that influence the performance and impact of safe water programmes is necessary to elucidate why these programmes fail or succeed.
Parents of struggling learners are often unsure of how to assist their children at home. The author provides useful strategies and tips for principals to help parents support and encourage their children who are slow learners.
Arthur Frederick Hoole
Full Text Available Namibia’s community-based natural resource management program (CBRNM and communal conservancies have gained international acclaim for rural poverty alleviation and wildlife conservation on the commons. Community-based ecotourism enterprise development has played a central role in the generation of community revenues, employment and additional benefits. The place of community-based ecotourism enterprises in the evolution of Namibia’s conservancies is examined. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA approach was conducted in Namibia as part of recent doctoral research in 2006 and 2007, featuring participant observation, semi-structured key informant interviews and structured communal villager interviews. Findings demonstrate some tangible successes of community-based ecotourism enterprise development, as well as emerging issues in related benefits distribution and power brokering. The case of the Torra Conservancy is profiled as a leading model for success in partnerships between conservancies, as community-based conservation institutions, and tourism enterprises. The experience of Ehi-rovipuka Conservancy is also detailed, to illuminate challenges and prospects for replicating the Torra model. Power relationships between and among private enterprise, community, and the state are elucidated. Ecotourism enterprise development can contribute successfully to community-based conservation. But, issues of power sharing, governance and competition necessitate the further evolution of commons institutions to capture future, sustainable benefits from community-based conservation premised on wildlife and related ecotourism development.
LoIacono Merves, Marni; Rodgers, Caryn R R; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Bauman, Laurie J
Community-Based Participatory Research partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low-income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned the value of a Youth Development framework and intentionally structuring a youth-friendly Community-Based Participatory Research environment. Finally, we will raise some ethical responsibilities to consider when working with youth partners.
Stein, Catherine H; Faigin, David A
In this introduction to the special issue, we describe some of the rewards and challenges of community-based arts initiatives for our discipline. We explore the inherent tensions between art and science that are reflected in community-based arts activities. We pose larger questions about researching community-based arts activities and defining the arts as a means of promoting social change. The diversity of populations, settings, and issues represented by the papers in the special issue are described and a common set of values, methods of inquiry and action are discussed.
Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and
Singh, S.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.; Jongerden, J.P.
This paper considers the strategies of self help group for micro-enterprise development in rural areas. It seeks to answer the question of whether and under which conditions self help groups are an effective vehicle for organizing and representing local people in the development of community based
This report is focused on the use of affective pointers (acknowledgements and hedges) detected in exchanges between learners and tutors on asynchronous mathematics online help sites. In this environment, both students and tutors use feedback in form of acknowledgements to control communication and assess its success. Hedges, or insecurities, point…
Van Gelderen, Stacey A; Krumwiede, Kelly A; Krumwiede, Norma K; Fenske, Candace
To describe the application of the Community-Based Collaborative Action Research (CBCAR) framework to uplift rural community voices while conducting a community health needs assessment (CHNA) by formulating a partnership between a critical access hospital, public health agency, school of nursing, and community members to improve societal health of this rural community. This prospective explorative study used the CBCAR framework in the design, collection, and analysis of the data. The framework phases include: Partnership, dialogue, pattern recognition, dialogue on meaning of pattern, insight into action, and reflecting on evolving pattern. Hospital and public health agency leaders learned how to use the CBCAR framework when conducting a CHNA to meet Affordable Care Act federal requirements. Closing the community engagement gap helped ensure all voices were heard, maximized intellectual capital, synergized efforts, improved communication by establishing trust, aligned resources with initiatives, and diminished power struggles regarding rural health. The CBCAR framework facilitated community engagement and promoted critical dialogue where community voices were heard. A sustainable community-based collaborative was formed. The project increased the critical access hospital's capacity to conduct a CHNA. The collaborative's decision-making capacity was challenged and ultimately strengthened as efforts continue to be made to address rural health.
William H. C. Li
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for population-based smoking cessation interventions targeting female smokers in Hong Kong. This study describes the development of a community-based network to promote smoking cessation among female smokers in Hong Kong. Methods Local women’s organizations collaborated to launch a project to provide gender-specific smoking cessation services. In the first phase of the project, the Women Against Tobacco Taskforce (WATT was created. In the second phase, a smoking cessation training curriculum was developed and female volunteers were trained. The third and final phase included the provision of gender-specific smoking cessation counseling services in Hong Kong. Results A need assessment survey with 623 workers and volunteers of WATT members was carried out to develop a gender-specific smoking cessation training curriculum. A 1-day training workshop to 28 WATT affiliates who provided brief cessation counseling in the community was organized. Fourteen organizations (69 service units agreed to form a network by joining WATT to promote smoking cessation and increase awareness of the specific health risks among female smokers. Conclusions The community-based network to promote smoking cessation was effective in helping female smokers to quit smoking or reduce their cigarette consumption. The results also suggest that this community model of promoting gender-specific smoking cessation services is feasible. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT02968199 (Retrospectively registered on November 16, 2016.
Aftonomos, L B; Appelbaum, J S; Steele, R D
.... We explore this issue here in an outcome study of individuals with aphasia enrolled in 2 community-based, comparably managed and equipped therapy programs, which use a specially designed computer...
A peer evaluation of the community-based education programme for medical students at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences: A southern African Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) collaboration.
Shapiro, E. Gary
Three variables, derived from Blau's (1955) analysis of consultation networks among federal agents and Homans' (1961) social exchange analysis, were manipulated to observe their effects on help seeking. Subjects were presented with a hypothetical situation where help was needed. Subjects indicated that they would be more likely to seek help from a…
Wilson Michael G
Full Text Available Abstract Community-based organizations are important health system stakeholders as they provide numerous, often highly valued programs and services to the members of their community. However, community-based organizations are described using diverse terminology and concepts from across a range of disciplines. To better understand the literature related to community-based organizations in the health sector (i.e., those working in health systems or more broadly to address population or public health issues, we conducted a scoping review by using an iterative process to identify existing literature, conceptually map it, and identify gaps and areas for future inquiry. We searched 18 databases and conducted citation searches using 15 articles to identify relevant literature. All search results were reviewed in duplicate and were included if they addressed the key characteristics of community-based organizations or networks of community-based organizations. We then coded all included articles based on the country focus, type of literature, source of literature, academic discipline, disease sector, terminology used to describe organizations and topics discussed. We identified 186 articles addressing topics related to the key characteristics of community-based organizations and/or networks of community-based organizations. The literature is largely focused on high-income countries and on mental health and addictions, HIV/AIDS or general/unspecified populations. A large number of different terms have been used in the literature to describe community-based organizations and the literature addresses a range of topics about them (mandate, structure, revenue sources and type and skills or skill mix of staff, the involvement of community members in organizations, how organizations contribute to community organizing and development and how they function in networks with each other and with government (e.g., in policy networks. Given the range of terms used to
Rasmussen, Asger Nørregård; Nieminen, Elli Emilia; Tadeo, Eileen Ruth; Rich-Byberg, Isak Phakiso
This project seeks to explore the antagonism between neo-liberal economical forces and community based social movements that seek to oppose them. This is a qualitative case study, the case being the intentional community Svanholm, which is based in Denmark. Our problem formulation investigates how the community members of Svanholm position themselves in relation to the dichotomy between being a social movement and a community-based social enterprise. The data is collected by interviewing two ...
Vivien Runnels; Caroline Andrew
From the post World War II period through to the present, scientific research and policy has increasingly reflected acceptance and implementation of a view that public interests are better served through public participation. Built on principles of democratic participation, community-based research (CBR) can produce new knowledge through the integration of knowledge of community members’ lived experience with the scientific and technical knowledge of academics. Although community-based resear...
Parish, Joycelyn G.; Parish, Thomas S.
Reviews successful attempts to help students who perform below their potential. Argues that effective measures for helping underachieving students include: teachers believing in their students, and making the classroom a place which provides love, belonging, power, fun, and freedom. (RS)
... chosen to help where the caregiver needs it. Education and Information Coping Skills Counseling Family Meetings Home Care Help Hospice Care for the Cancer Patient Caregivers have a very hard job and it's ...
Garnett, Bernice R; Wendel, Josefine; Banks, Chandra; Goodridge, Ardeene; Harding, Richard; Harris, Robin; Hacker, Karen; Chomitz, Virginia R
Despite universal environmental and policy-focused initiatives that resulted in declines in obesity among children in Cambridge, Massachusetts, disparities persist among racial/ethnic groups. In response, a community coalition formed the Healthy Eating and Living Project (HELP), to investigate and disseminate findings regarding disparities in excess weight among Cambridge Black youth (ages 6-14), with the aim of facilitating reciprocal learning and community mobilization to ultimately increase community engagement and inform prevention efforts. This paper details the theoretical framework, methods, and results of disseminating HELP findings to various sectors of the Cambridge Black/African American (Black) community. First, using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, the HELP coalition analyzed existing data and conducted qualitative studies with Cambridge Black families to better understand the sociocultural and familial determinants of excess weight. We then developed presentation and print materials and used different dissemination approaches. We solicited feedback to inform the dissemination process and mobilization of obesity prevention efforts. We disseminated information through six community groups (parents, students, pastors, men's health group, community leaders, and a health coalition), email lists, and websites. Reciprocal learning among and between HELP and community members yielded data presentation challenges, as well as prevention effort ideas and barriers. Dissemination of local health data should be considered both as a strategy to increase community engagement and as an intervention to promote collective efficacy and community change. Careful attention should be dedicated to the language used when communicating racial disparities in excess weight to various community groups.
Levin, Pamela F; Swider, Susan M; Breakwell, Susan; Cowell, Julia M; Reising, Virginia
The Quad Council competencies for public health nursing (PHN) provide guidance in developing curricula at both the generalist and specialist level. However, these competencies are based on nursing roles in traditional public health agencies and community/public health is defined more broadly than official agency practice. The question arises as to whether community-based specialties require largely the same knowledge and skill set as PHN. The purpose of the competency cross-mapping project reported here was to (a) assess the intersection of the Quad Council competencies with four community-based specialties and (b) ensure the appropriateness of a Quad Council-based curriculum to prepare graduates across these four specialties (home health, occupational health, environmental health, and school nursing). This article details the multistep cross-mapping process, including validation with practice leaders. Results indicate strong alignment of community-based specialty competencies with Quad Council competencies. Community-based specialty-specific content that did not align well is identified, along with examples of didactic and clinical strategies to address gaps. This work indicates that a Quad Council-based curriculum is appropriate to prepare graduates in community-based specialties when attention to the specialty-specific competencies in the clinical setting is included. This work guides the development of a doctorate of nursing practice curriculum in PHN, encompassing the four additional community-based specialties. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mirjam de Klerk; Alice de Boer; Sjoerd Kooiker; Inger Plaisier; Peggy Schyns
Original title: Hulp geboden The help provided to people with a care need is about to undergo major changes in the Netherlands. People who need help will be expected to rely more on help from members of their network. What are the opportunities for informal carers and volunteers, and where
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative studies of amniotes have been hindered by a dearth of reptilian molecular sequences. With the genomic assembly of the green anole, Anolis carolinensis available, non-avian reptilian genes can now be compared to mammalian, avian, and amphibian homologs. Furthermore, with more than 350 extant species in the genus Anolis, anoles are an unparalleled example of tetrapod genetic diversity and divergence. As an important ecological, genetic and now genomic reference, it is imperative to develop a standardized Anolis gene nomenclature alongside associated vocabularies and other useful metrics. Results Here we report the formation of the Anolis Gene Nomenclature Committee (AGNC and propose a standardized evolutionary characterization code that will help researchers to define gene orthology and paralogy with tetrapod homologs, provide a system for naming novel genes in Anolis and other reptiles, furnish abbreviations to facilitate comparative studies among the Anolis species and related iguanid squamates, and classify the geographical origins of Anolis subpopulations. Conclusions This report has been generated in close consultation with members of the Anolis and genomic research communities, and using public database resources including NCBI and Ensembl. Updates will continue to be regularly posted to new research community websites such as lizardbase. We anticipate that this standardized gene nomenclature will facilitate the accessibility of reptilian sequences for comparative studies among tetrapods and will further serve as a template for other communities in their sequencing and annotation initiatives.
... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Eligibility To Participate § 2517.300 Who may participate in a community-based service-learning program... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who may participate in a community-based service...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are funds for community-based service-learning... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Distribution of Funds § 2517.600 How are funds for community-based service-learning programs distributed? All...
... Community-Based Organization Projects? 426.23 Section 426.23 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Secretary use for the Community-Based Organization Projects? The Secretary uses the following criteria to evaluate an application for a community-based organization project: (a) Program factors. (10...
... the Secretary fund under community-based supported employment projects? (a) Authorized activities. The following activities are authorized under community-based projects: (1) Job search assistance. (2) Job... Community-Based Supported Employment projects for the provision of extended supported employment services...
Full Text Available Carina Wattmo, Elisabet Londos, Lennart Minthon Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, SwedenIntroduction: Many individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD live alone, and this figure is expected to increase. This study aimed to describe the cognitive and functional abilities of solitary-living AD patients, and the potential predictors of their usage of community-based services.Methods: This 3-year, prospective, multicenter study included 1,021 participants with mild-to-moderate AD (Mini-Mental State Examination score, 10–26 treated with a cholinesterase inhibitor in a routine clinical setting. At baseline and every 6 months, patients were assessed using cognitive, instrumental, and basic activities of daily living (ADL scales, and service utilization was recorded. Logistic regression models were used to predict the usage of community-based services.Results: At the start of cholinesterase inhibitor therapy (time of AD diagnosis, 355 individuals (35% were living alone. They were mainly female, older, had more impaired basic ADL capacity, and had a larger number of concomitant medications when compared with those living with family. Regarding the solitary-living patients, lower instrumental ADL (IADL ability and more medications were independent predictors of usage of home-help services, whereas more impaired IADL at baseline and faster IADL deterioration were predictors of nursing home admission. For those living with family, older age, lower basic ADL, and a greater number of medications predicted home-help services, whereas a larger amount of home help predicted nursing home placement. In addition, female sex was a risk factor for both the utilization of home-help services and nursing home placement. Cognitive ability was not significantly associated with the usage of community-based services.Conclusion: A large number of AD patients, predominantly females, live alone with severe
Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.
Jorge-Monteiro, Maria F; Ornelas, José H
The aim of the present study was to develop the Portuguese version of the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS-P), and to assess the validity of the findings using the revised test, with 213 users from 5 nonprofit community-based mental health organizations. Participants in the assessment completed a self-reported survey investigating their sense of personal recovery, personal empowerment, capabilities achievement, psychiatric symptoms' frequency, and demographic data. Evidence from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses using the 24-item version of the test, validated a 4-factor structure for the RAS-P model based on the dimensions of Personal Goals and Hope, Managing Help Needs, Supportive Interpersonal Relationships, and Life Beyond Symptoms, consistent with components of the recovery process. Convergent and discriminant validity was also achieved using bivariate correlation coefficients among the 4 subscales' scores, between the overall scale and the subscales, and in relation to external variables. Findings allowed for the interpretation that the RAS-P is measuring a particular psychological construct, which is different from symptoms of the mental illness. A hypothesized significant association with personal empowerment and with capabilities achievement was demonstrated. Positive association was also found between participants' use of recovery-oriented services such as independent housing or supported employment programs. The RAS-P scores also revealed excellent internal consistency for the overall scale (α = .90), and good consistency for the subscales (>.75), which attest to its precision in measurement. In conclusion, the study proved the RAS-P a reliable and useful tool in the context of the community mental health practice. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Andrew Lou L. Mungcal
Full Text Available This paper addressed the issue of sustainable coastal resource management through a successful Community-Based Coastal Resource Management (CB-CRM Program in the Municipality of Mariveles, province of Bataan in the Philippines. The paper investigated how governance and institutional and legislative framework, and the concept of sustainable development complemented each other to promote good local eco-governance in the management and protection of finite local marine resources. Specifically, it analyzed how the local fisherfolk community of Mariveles utilized efficiently their finite marine resources in the context of eco-governance. It also investigated how the cooperative efforts of various stakeholders: peoples’ organizations (POs, local government unit (LGU, and a non-government organization (NGO in Mariveles, Bataan affected their coastal resources against environmental degradation and exploitation. This paper would benefit POs, LGUs, and NGOs in their quest for sustainable management and conservation of their limited coastal resources. This paper yielded the following findings. First, POs and NGOs engage when NGOs can strengthen the POs’ capacity building through the transfer of skills and technology, when NGOs can enhance the POs’ indigenous knowledge, and when NGOs are more knowledgeable of formal venues of LGU participation. Second, LGUs, NGOs and POs engage when POs and NGOs can complement each other to strengthen their capacity building, and when NGOs can help implement environmental programs that are beneficial to the POs. Third, NGOs and POs engage when POs are threatened by elite power, and when NGOs want their environmental issues on LGU’s legislative agenda. Finally, NGOs and POs engage when they see possible LGU cooperation. Participant observation through focus group discussion (FGD and key informants’ interview of different stakeholders was a primary source of information in formulating the aforementioned conclusions
Full Text Available An initiative to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD was launched in December 2007 at the Bali Conference of Parties (COP to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, yet little progress has been made in Asia in developing certified REDD projects, especially those that engage forest-dependent people. According to UNFCCC, REDD is a multilevel activity that involves both national policy and structures, as well as subnational projects involving local communities . While many Asian nations are trying to create frameworks that link the national strategy to sub-national projects, in India this formal integration has yet to take place. As a consequence projects like the Khasi Hills Community REDD+ project fall outside the UNFCCC strategy and operate under voluntary standards (Plan Vivo and markets. The project involves both avoided deforestation and reforestation components. The project is being implemented by a federation of ten Khasi tribal kingdoms, a major ethnolinguistic group in the Indian state of Meghalaya. Project experience may provide guidance regarding actions required to create a more enabling environment for community forest carbon projects in Asia. These findings may better inform the December 2015 21st UNFCCC Conference of Parties in Paris as they again address REDD strategy. The experience of this Khasi Federation  in designing and implementing a REDD project has led to the emergence of a modernizing forest management system that is helping to conserve and restore the Khasi’s ancestral forests. Learning from this REDD project also illustrates the barriers that the Khasi communities have faced, including those imposed by national governments, certifiers, and carbon markets, that will likely constrain the expansion and replication of community-based climate initiatives. The author suggests some alternative policies and systems that may enable greater community participation in
Nguyen-Truong, Connie K Y; Lee-Lin, Frances; Leo, Michael C; Gedaly-Duff, Vivian; Nail, Lillian M; Wang, Pei-Ru; Tran, Tri
To explore factors potentially influencing Pap testing practices among Vietnamese American immigrant women (VIW, foreign-born) and describe their awareness of cervical cancer screening resources in their community. Descriptive study guided by the ecological model and community-based participatory research principles. Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Vietnamese American immigrant women (211) who were age 21 and older. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses to analyze a self-administered questionnaire that was pretested and translated using a team approach. Approximately 74% of VIW who completed the survey reported at least one Pap test, and 69% reported Pap testing history adherent to national guidelines. The factor most strongly associated with Pap testing receipt was suggestion from a friend, followed by longer residency in the United States, lower perceived common barriers, and lower perceived cultural barriers, for example, lack of family support and use of Eastern/Asian medicine. The factor most strongly associated with guideline adherence was having health insurance, followed by a recommendation from a physician or nurse practitioner. Only 11% of VIW knew where to obtain a free or low-cost Pap tests. Nurses can influence rates of Pap testing among VIW by providing health education through outreach programs targeted at lay health workers and their social networks, identifying at-risk patients such as recently immigrated women, reducing perceived common and cultural barriers to Pap testing, and helping women seek alternative payment options if they lack health insurance. Primary health care providers should be reminded of their essential role in increasing Pap testing adherence. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Bull, Janet; Kamal, Arif H; Harker, Matthew; Taylor, Donald H; Bonsignore, Lindsay; Morris, John; Massie, Lisa; Singh Bhullar, Parampal; Howell, Mary; Hendrix, Mark; Bennett, Deeana; Abernethy, Amy
Although limited, the descriptions of Community-Based Palliative Care (CBPC) demonstrates variability in team structures, eligibility, and standardization across care settings. In 2014, Four Seasons Compassion for Life, a nonprofit hospice and palliative care (PC) organization in Western North Carolina (WNC), was awarded a Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Health Care Innovation (CMMI) Award to expand upon their existing innovative model to implement, evaluate, and demonstrate CBPC in the United States. The objective of this article is to describe the processes and challenges of scaling and standardizing the CBPC model. Four Season's CBPC model serves patients in both inpatient and outpatient settings using an interdisciplinary team to address symptom management, psychosocial/spiritual care, advance care planning, and patient/family education. Medicare beneficiaries who are ≥65 years of age with a life-limiting illness were eligible for the CMMI project. The CBPC model was scaled across numerous counties in WNC and Upstate South Carolina. Over the first two years of the project, scaling occurred into 21 counties with the addition of 2 large hospitals, 52 nursing facilities, and 2 new clinics. To improve efficiency and effectiveness, a PC screening referral guide and a risk stratification approach were developed and implemented. Care processes, including patient referral and initial visit, were mapped. This article describes an interdisciplinary CBPC model in all care settings to individuals with life-limiting illness and offers guidance for risk stratification assessments and mapping care processes that may help PC programs as they develop and work to improve efficiencies.
Full Text Available Addressing today's environmental challenges is intimately linked to understanding and improving natural resource governance institutions. As a result conservation initiatives are increasingly realizing the importance of integrating local perspectives of land tenure arrangements, natural resource rights, and local beliefs into conservation approaches. However, current work has not sufficiently considered the dynamic nature of natural resource governance institutions over time and the potential implications for current conservation interventions. We therefore explored how and why hunting governance has changed since the precolonial period in two ethnic hunting communities in Gabon, Central Africa, integrating various ethnographic methods with resource-use mapping, and a historic literature review. In both communities, hunting governance has undergone significant changes since the precolonial period. A closed-access, lineage-based system of resource use with strict penalties for trespassing, has evolved into a more open-access system, in which the influence of customary governance systems, including magico-political aspects, has declined. These changes have occurred mainly in response to policies and governance structures put in place by the colonial government and postindependence, early state laws. This included a policy of merging villages, the introduction of more modern hunting techniques such as guns and wire cables, and a shift from community to government ownership of the land. Current governance structures are thus the product of a complex mixture of customary, colonial and state influences. These findings suggest that a historical perspective of resource governance, gained through in-depth and long-term engagement with local communities, can provide important insights for community-based conservation approaches, such as helping to identify potential causes and perceptions of environmental change and to design more suitable conservation
Full Text Available Oilfield-adjacent communities often report symptoms such as headaches and/or asthma. Yet, little data exists on health experiences and exposures in urban environments with oil and gas development. In partnership with Promotoras de Salud (community health workers, we gathered household surveys nearby two oil production sites in Los Angeles. We tested the capacity of low-cost sensors for localized exposure estimates. Bilingual surveys of 205 randomly sampled residences were collected within two 1500 ft. buffer areas (West Adams and University Park surrounding oil development sites. We used a one-sample proportion test, comparing overall rates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS of Service Planning Area 6 (SPA6 and Los Angeles County for variables of interest such as asthma. Field calibrated low-cost sensors recorded methane emissions. Physician diagnosed asthma rates were reported to be higher within both buffers than in SPA6 or LA County. Asthma prevalence in West Adams but not University Park was significantly higher than in Los Angeles County. Respondents with diagnosed asthma reported rates of emergency room visits in the previous 12 months similar to SPA6. 45% of respondents were unaware of oil development; 63% of residents would not know how to contact local regulatory authorities. Residents often seek information about their health and site-related activities. Low-cost sensors may be useful in highlighting differences between sites or recording larger emission events and can provide localized data alongside resident-reported symptoms. Regulatory officials should help clarify information to the community on methods for reporting health symptoms. Our community-based participatory research (CBPR partnership supports efforts to answer community questions as residents seek a safety buffer between sensitive land uses and active oil development.
Drug overdose death rates have increased steadily in the United States since 1979. In 2008, a total of 36,450 drug overdose deaths (i.e., unintentional, intentional [suicide or homicide], or undetermined intent) were reported, with prescription opioid analgesics (e.g., oxycodone, hydrocodone, and methadone), cocaine, and heroin the drugs most commonly involved . Since the mid-1990s, community-based programs have offered opioid overdose prevention services to persons who use drugs, their families and friends, and service providers. Since 1996, an increasing number of these programs have provided the opioid antagonist naloxone hydrochloride, the treatment of choice to reverse the potentially fatal respiratory depression caused by overdose of heroin and other opioids. Naloxone has no effect on non-opioid overdoses (e.g., cocaine, benzodiazepines, or alcohol) . In October 2010, the Harm Reduction Coalition, a national advocacy and capacity-building organization, surveyed 50 programs known to distribute naloxone in the United States, to collect data on local program locations, naloxone distribution, and overdose reversals. This report summarizes the findings for the 48 programs that completed the survey and the 188 local programs represented by the responses. Since the first opioid overdose prevention program began distributing naloxone in 1996, the respondent programs reported training and distributing naloxone to 53,032 persons and receiving reports of 10,171 overdose reversals. Providing opioid overdose education and naloxone to persons who use drugs and to persons who might be present at an opioid overdose can help reduce opioid overdose mortality, a rapidly growing public health concern.
Full Text Available This research investigated the relationship between adolescent afterschool program attendance, self-esteem and feelings of community connectedness. Thirty-nine of the 61 at-risk adolescents enrolled in two federally funded, community based afterschool programs participated in the study. Participants completed a 10-item self-esteem questionnaire and a 5-item section of the Youth Involved in Community Issues Survey (YICI to measure perceptions of community connectedness. Attendance records were also collected from the sites. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlations. Results indicated that there was not a significant relationship between the total variables. The individual item analysis, however, did find a significant relationship between adolescent community connectedness and self esteem items. Findings suggest that there is a relationship to be explored and strengthened through means of community outreach for adolescents. Conclusions from this study have important implications for youth practice. Specifically, program leaders need to help adolescents get involved in the community as contributing members.
Rodriguez-garcia, R; Aumack, K J; Gallagos-vazquez, N; Ramos-chacon, R
An experimental breastfeeding promotion project was started in Mexico in December 1986 by FEMAP, a Mexican federation of private, non-profit neighborhood health programs, in collaboration with the Georgetown University Institute for International Studies in Family Planning. The project has conducted promotion activities in 3 communities. In 1 community, activities focus on individual teaching and counseling of mothers about breastfeeding. In a 2nd community, mothers are taught in groups. A 3rd receives both individual and group counseling. A 4th community has been selected as a control site for research purposes. So far, supervisory and monitoring systems have been set up, and promotional activities begun. The next phase of the project will emphasize data collection and analysis. Research assistants have been trained in data collection, interviewing techniques, and reporting requirements. Coordinators and supervisors have received teacher training and information about lactation management. Supervisors train local "promoters," women from each community who teach breastfeeding practices on a voluntary basis. Participants have helped to develop a reference manual for supervisors and coordinators. So far, the communities have been responding positively to the program. Experience so far suggests that other groups developing breastfeeding promotional activities should: 1) take the time to properly select and train research assistants and promoters, and provide them with follow-up support; 2) make sure that staff are familiar with local culture and aware of local socio-demographic factors; 3) test research and educational materials in the local community before using them broadly; 4) remain open-minded, flexible, and adaptable to local community needs.
Canyon Ranch Institute and Health Literacy Media are a 501(c)3 non-profit public charity working to improve health based on the best evidence-based practices of health literacy and integrative health. As an organization, we offer a spectrum of health literacy work extending from plain language services to intensive community-based interventions. (See www.canyoranchinstitute.org & www.healthliteracy.media) In this chapter, we discuss the methodologies and outcomes of two of those community-based interventions - the Canyon Ranch Institute Life Enhancement Program and our Theater for Health program. Perhaps uniquely, an underpinning approach to both efforts is based on the increasing body of evidence of health literacy as a social determinant of health. Therefore, our research and evaluation of these programs captures not only changes in knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs but explicitly includes changes in informed behavior change and objective health outcomes as well. Our work makes it clear - that if you engage people in a health literate approach to informed behavior change (and respect their knowledge of their own lives and context) you can help people help themselves to better health. Further, from the perspective of health as a right and a resource for living, we find people who advance their health use this resource to continually better their own and their family's lives as well as the communities where they live. Hopefully, the examples provided in this chapter provide a sense of direction and motivation to others to fully explore the potential of health literacy to improve health and well-being, increase satisfaction with life, and produce health outcomes at a lower cost.
Busza, Joanna; Walker, Damilola; Hairston, Alana; Gable, Alicia; Pitter, Christian; Lee, Stephen; Katirayi, Leila; Simiyu, Rogers; Mpofu, Daphne
needed to elucidate the pathways through which specific interventions achieve desired PMTCT outcomes. A social ecological framework can help analyze the complex interplay of facilitators and barriers to PMTCT service uptake in each context, thus helping to inform selection of locally relevant community-based interventions.
-based interventions to occur, comprehensive process evaluations are needed to elucidate the pathways through which specific interventions achieve desired PMTCT outcomes. A social ecological framework can help analyze the complex interplay of facilitators and barriers to PMTCT service uptake in each context, thus helping to inform selection of locally relevant community-based interventions.
McCormack, Lauren; Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Bann, Carla
: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is controversial because of uncertainty about whether it reduces mortality and whether the potential benefits outweigh the harms. Given these uncertainties, many medical associations recommend using an informed decision-making (IDM) process for making decisions about PSA screening, so that men can make well informed decisions that reflect their values and preferences. : The aim of this paper was to describe the communication exchange between men and their providers regarding PSA screening and the outcomes associated with having a discussion about screening from the patient perspective. : We evaluated survey results obtained at baseline and approximately 12 months post-intervention. Baseline data collection took place in community-based organizations, and follow-up data were collected by mail. Men between 40 and 80 years of age who had not been diagnosed with prostate cancer were eligible for the study. We implemented a multicomponent, community-based intervention designed to help men make informed decisions about PSA screening. Primary outcome measures included characteristics of patient-provider discussions, screening behavior, feeling informed and satisfied, and patients' preferred and actual levels of involvement in screening decisions and concordance between the two. : Overall, 59% of men (220 of 373) had a discussion with a healthcare professional about the PSA screening test. Older men (those aged ≥50 years), Black men, and those who were married were more likely to talk to a provider. When a discussion did occur, two out of three men said that the discussion affected their decision making, and one-quarter changed their screening choice as a result. According to patients, there was apparent variation regarding the extent to which providers recommended the PSA test: 68% of providers recommended it and 3% did not recommend it. One in ten men said that the provider ordered the test without making a recommendation
projects that are being conducted alongside the community hazard map include marking evacuation routes with painted bamboo signs, creating a meaningful landslide awareness mural, and installing simple early warning systems that detect land movement and alert residents that evacuation routes should be used. KKN-PPM is scheduled to continue until August 25th, 2011. In the future, research will be done into using the model for community based hazard mapping outlined here in the Geological Sciences Department at SDSU to increase georisk awareness and improve mitigation of landslides in local areas of need such as Tijuana, Mexico.
Skelton, Jann B; Owen, James A
The Community Pharmacy Residency Program (CPRP) Planning Committee convened to develop a vision and a strategic action plan for the advancement of community pharmacy residency training. Aligned with the profession's efforts to achieve provider status and expand access to care, the Future Vision and Action Plan for Community-based Residency Training will provide guidance, direction, and a strategic action plan for community-based residency training to ensure that the future needs of community-based pharmacist practitioners are met. National thought leaders, selected because of their leadership in pharmacy practice, academia, and residency training, served on the planning committee. The committee conducted a series of conference calls and an in-person strategic planning meeting held on January 13-14, 2015. Outcomes from the discussions were supplemented with related information from the literature. Results of a survey of CPRP directors and preceptors also informed the planning process. The vision and strategic action plan for community-based residency training is intended to advance training to meet the emerging needs of patients in communities that are served by the pharmacy profession. The group anticipated the advanced skills required of pharmacists serving as community-based pharmacist practitioners and the likely education, training and competencies required by future residency graduates in order to deliver these services. The vision reflects a transformation of community residency training, from CPRPs to community-based residency training, and embodies the concept that residency training should be primarily focused on training the individual pharmacist practitioner based on the needs of patients served within the community, and not on the physical location where pharmacy services are provided. The development of a vision statement, core values statements, and strategic action plan will provide support, guidance, and direction to the profession of pharmacy to
Wattmo, Carina; Londos, Elisabet; Minthon, Lennart
Introduction Many individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) live alone, and this figure is expected to increase. This study aimed to describe the cognitive and functional abilities of solitary-living AD patients, and the potential predictors of their usage of community-based services. Methods This 3-year, prospective, multicenter study included 1,021 participants with mild-to-moderate AD (Mini-Mental State Examination score, 10–26) treated with a cholinesterase inhibitor in a routine clinical setting. At baseline and every 6 months, patients were assessed using cognitive, instrumental, and basic activities of daily living (ADL) scales, and service utilization was recorded. Logistic regression models were used to predict the usage of community-based services. Results At the start of cholinesterase inhibitor therapy (time of AD diagnosis), 355 individuals (35%) were living alone. They were mainly female, older, had more impaired basic ADL capacity, and had a larger number of concomitant medications when compared with those living with family. Regarding the solitary-living patients, lower instrumental ADL (IADL) ability and more medications were independent predictors of usage of home-help services, whereas more impaired IADL at baseline and faster IADL deterioration were predictors of nursing home admission. For those living with family, older age, lower basic ADL, and a greater number of medications predicted home-help services, whereas a larger amount of home help predicted nursing home placement. In addition, female sex was a risk factor for both the utilization of home-help services and nursing home placement. Cognitive ability was not significantly associated with the usage of community-based services. Conclusion A large number of AD patients, predominantly females, live alone with severe cognitive and functional impairment. The amount of home-help services used did not reflect cognitive severity, suggesting that home help did not meet the needs related to
Norris, Keith C; Brusuelas, Rebecca; Jones, Loretta; Miranda, Jeanne; Duru, O Kenrik; Mangione, Carol M
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is ideally a collaborative approach to research that equitably involves all partners in the research process and recognizes the unique strengths that each brings. We reviewed the processes, strategies, and activities around the interface of community-academic partnerships using a CBPR model focused on addressing healthcare issues for minority elders. Key challenges for the community side include understanding: (1) the needs of the academic partner; (2) how to assess whether there are shared values, goals, and research priorities; (3) the limits of one's organization and competing demands; (4) how to use the partnership to build community capacity to conduct research; and (5) the value added for the community from involvement in research versus the risks inherent in participation. Key challenges for the academic side of the partnership include understanding: (1) what community is; (2) the value added by a true partnership; (3) how to build effective relationships; (4) what a balanced collaboration with equal power sharing entails; (5) that community partner goals may not mirror academic goals; (6) the capabilities and limits of community partners; and (7) how to effectively use a community advisory board (CAB). Building relationships and effective collaboration require time, patience, physical presence, respect, and commitment-elements frequently in short supply in a busy academic environment. A memorandum of understanding (MOU) can be an important tool to document roles and responsibilities. The community advisory board (CAB) is an important liaison between the community and academic settings but is not sufficient to constitute a partnership in and of itself. Members should be carefully selected so that the CAB can assist in: (1) creating a partnership roadmap; (2) providing contacts and strategies; (3) helping to broker competing agendas; (4) helping provide a balance in articulating the community health priorities; (5
Dokka, R. K.
Geodetic networks offer unparalleled opportunities to monitor and understand many of the rhythms of the Earth most vital to the sustainability of modern and future societies, i.e., crustal motions, sea-level, and the weather. For crustal deformation studies, the advantage is clear. Modern measurements allow us to document not only the permanent strains incurred over a seismic cycle, for example, but also the ephemeral strains that are critical for understanding the underlying physical mechanism. To be effective for science, however, geodetic networks must be properly designed, capitalized, and maintained over sufficient time intervals to fully capture the processes in action. Unfortunately, most networks lack interoperability and lack a business plan to ensure long term sustainability. The USA, for example, lacks a unified nation-wide GNSS network that can sustain its self over the coming years, decades, and century. Current federal priorities do not yet envision such a singular network. Publicly and privately funded regional networks exist, but tend to be parochial in scope, and optimized for a special user community, e.g., surveying, crustal motions, etc. Data sharing is common, but the lack of input at the beginning limits the functionality of the system for non-primary users. Funding for private networks depend heavily on the user demand, business cycle, and regulatory requirements. Agencies funding science networks offer no guarantee of sustained support. An alternative model (GULFNet) developed in Louisiana is meeting user needs, is sustainable, and is helping engineers, surveyors, and geologists become more spatially enabled. The common denominator among all participants is the view that accurate, precise, and timely geodetic data have tangible value for all segments of society. Although operated by a university (LSU), GULFNet is a community-based partnership between public and private sectors. GULFNet simultaneously achieves scientific goals by providing
Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann
A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.
Daniela B. Raik
Full Text Available Community-based forest management has proliferated throughout Africa as national governments have decentralized the administration of public forestry. Community-based forestry has taken multiple forms, depending on the assortment of land-tenure systems, forest-use norms, wood demand, and social organization, among others factors. Nature, Wealth, and Power is an analytical framework that has been developed from experiences in natural resource management in Africa. In this paper, we amend the framework to People, Nature, Wealth, and Power (PNWP, and propose it as an analytical lens for community-based forest management initiatives. We use the PNWP framework to assess the responsiveness of contractual forest management in the Menabe region of Madagascar to the interests of local communities, the state forest agency, and conservation nongovernmental organizations. Findings indicate that members of each of the three groups hold some differing interests, which may result in conflict over time. Specifically, interests converge around the Nature and Wealth categories and diverge around the People and Power categories. Also, the contract mechanism for community-based forest management currently being implemented in Menabe does not account for the People and Wealth interests held by any of the three groups. More research is needed, but our inquiry indicates the PNWP framework holds promise for assessing community-based forest management initiatives.
Full Text Available Background: Community-based nursing focuses on providing health services to families and communities in the second and third levels of prevention and this can improve the individuals, families and communities’ quality of life, and reduce the healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to explore the status of community-based nursing in Iran. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted from March to November 2015, in Tehran, Iran, using the content analysis approach. The study setting consisted of Iran and Tehran Faculties of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran, Iran. The purposive sampling method was used. Twenty faculty members and Master’s and PhD students were interviewed by using the face-to-face semi-structured interview method. Moreover, two focus groups were conducted for complementing and enriching the study data. The data were analyzed using the Graneheim and Lundman’s approach to content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study findings was maintained by employing the Lincoln and Guba’s criteria of credibility, dependability, and confirmability. Results: In total, 580 codes were generated and categorized into three main categories of conventional services, the necessity for creating infrastructures, and multidimensional outcomes of community-based nursing. Conclusion: Introducing community-based nursing into nursing education curricula and creating ample job opportunities for community-based nurses seem clearly essential.
Full Text Available Education of health professionals using principles of community-based education is the recommended national policy in South Africa. A paradigm shift to community based education is reported in a number of nursing education institutions in South Africa. Reviewed literature however revealed that in some educational institutions planning, implementation and evaluation of Community-based Educational (CBE programmes tended to be haphazard, uncoordinated and ineffective, resulting in poor student motivation. Therefore the purpose of this study was to analyse the implementation of community-based education in basic nursing education programmes in South Africa. Strauss and Corbin’s (1990 grounded theory approach guided the research process. Data were collected by means of observation, interviews and document analysis. The findings revealed that collaborative decision-making involving all stakeholders was crucial especially during the curriculum planning phase. Furthermore, special criteria should be used when selecting community learning sites to ensure that the selected sites are able to facilitate the development of required graduate competencies. Collaborative effort, true partnership between academic institutions and communities, as well as government support and involvement emerged as necessary conditions for the successful implementation of community-based education programmes.
Heydari, Heshmatolah; Rahnavard, Zahra; Ghaffari, Fatemeh
ABSTRACT Background: Community-based nursing focuses on providing health services to families and communities in the second and third levels of prevention and this can improve the individuals, families and communities’ quality of life, and reduce the healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to explore the status of community-based nursing in Iran. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted from March to November 2015, in Tehran, Iran, using the content analysis approach. The study setting consisted of Iran and Tehran Faculties of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran, Iran. The purposive sampling method was used. Twenty faculty members and Master’s and PhD students were interviewed by using the face-to-face semi-structured interview method. Moreover, two focus groups were conducted for complementing and enriching the study data. The data were analyzed using the Graneheim and Lundman’s approach to content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study findings was maintained by employing the Lincoln and Guba’s criteria of credibility, dependability, and confirmability. Results: In total, 580 codes were generated and categorized into three main categories of conventional services, the necessity for creating infrastructures, and multidimensional outcomes of community-based nursing. Conclusion: Introducing community-based nursing into nursing education curricula and creating ample job opportunities for community-based nurses seem clearly essential.
Describes the Ikaiyurluki Mikelnguut (Helping Our Children) project in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska where trained natural helpers are helping Yup'ik Eskimo villagers to cope with crisis situations--notably teenage suicide and drug and alcohol abuse. (Author/BB)
... chapter Join our online community Helping Friends and Family Part of living well with Alzheimerâs is adjusting to your ânew normalâ and helping family and friends do the same. Knowing what to ...
Miller, Nancy A; Harrington, Charlene; Goldstein, Elizabeth
The authors explore state variation in expenditures for Medicaid community-based care services for the period 1990 to 1997. A random effects panel model is used to explore the relationship between state demographic, supply, economic, programmatic, and political factors and states' Medicaid community-based care expenditures. Although states increased provision of services over the study period, significant state-level variation was evident. Expenditures were positively associated with state per capita income, regulation of nursing home bed supply, and the number of Medicare home health users but were negatively related to nursing home bed supply. Recent legal rulings, combined with the demonstrated preferences of most individuals to receive care in the community, require policies to foster the expansion of Medicaid community-based care. The most consistent relationships that are amenable to policy intervention relate to state fiscal resources and long-term care supply regulation.
la Cour, Karen; Cutchin, Malcolm
Background. Increasing incidence of cancer combined with prolonged survival have raised the need for developing community based rehabilitation. The objectives of the analysis were to describe and interpret the key issues related to coordination and coherence of community-based cancer rehabilitation....... A Grounded Theory approach was used to analyze the data. Results. A lack of shared cultures among health care providers and systems of delivery was a primary barrier to collaboration which was essential for establishing coordination of care. Formal multidisciplinary steering committees, team......-based organization, and informal relationships were fundamental for developing coordination and coherence. Conclusions. Coordination and coherence in community-based rehabilitation relies on increased collaboration, which may best be optimized by use of shared frameworks within and across systems. Results highlight...
Park, Claire Su-Yeon; Park, Eunok
This study aimed to identify factors that significantly affect patient-perceived satisfaction with community-based case management services and provide practical strategies for improving patient-perceived quality of care. Secondary data analyses were performed in 2010, 2013, 2015, and 2016, which included Pearson's and Spearman's correlation, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests, and stepwise multiple regression. The response variable was measured by the Korean Patient-Perceived Satisfaction Scale of Community-Based Case Management Services (Korean-PSCCM; a 10-level Likert-type scale), whereas explanatory variables were derived from prior studies. Significant predictors of patient-perceived satisfaction with community-based case management services included "capacity to change," "patient-perceived time spent with a case manager," "support/advocacy," "working period," and "emotional connectedness."
This article tackles the perspectives and limits of the extension of health coverage based on community based health insurance schemes in Africa. Despite their strong potential contribution to the extension of health coverage, their weaknesses challenge their ability to play an important role in this extension. Three limits are distinguished: financial fragility; insufficient adaptation to characteristics and needs of poor people; organizational and institutional failures. Therefore lessons can be learnt from the limits of the institutionalization of community based health insurance schemes. At first, community based health insurance schemes are to be considered as a transitional but insufficient solution. There is also a stronger role to be played by public actors in improving financial support, strengthening health services and coordinating coverage programs.
Full Text Available Community-based resource management is a key approach to achieve successful small-scale fisheries and marine conservation. Many local management initiatives worldwide have been successfully managing aquatic resources and livelihoods of communities depending on them. Community-based management is particularly prevalent in small tropical islands where communities are frequently heavily dependent on coral reef ecosystems and small-scale reef fisheries for their livelihoods. Community-based management is, however, not always a panacea since there are inherit trade-offs among multiple objectives which are sometimes accentuated by community heterogeneity. It is well recognized that perceived and real evidence of community benefits are key to attributing success to local community-based management. However, broader understanding of community-based management objectives and how fishers' perceived personal objectives and characteristics affect management outcomes remains limited. We apply a non-linear Principle Component Analysis (PCA to explore variations in personally held community-based management objectives, based on local surveys for fishing communities in the Kei Islands in Indonesia. We then examine whether these variations also explain their perceptions of environmental and economic outcomes that are achieved by this management systems. In this study important differences are found in the perceptions fishers have of the relative importance of different community management objectives. The value people attribute to aspects of community management can be related to their socio-demographic characteristics and experienced fishers tend to focus more on environmental objectives. Given that strong links were found between community management outcomes and terrestrially based activities there is an opportunity to link in the terrestrial and coastal systems management and achieve multiple objective outcomes.
John W. Stanifer
by setting. These results may help inform the design of future community-based studies or randomized controlled trials examining NCDs in the region particularly those that use cluster-sampling methods.
Full Text Available The article examines the impact of social capital characteristics of local communities on the effectiveness of the community-based approach to economic development. The conclusion that such social capital characteristics as (antipaternalism, solidarity and cooperation have the greatest importance for the economic development is made based on the analysis of UNDP and the European Union project “Community-based approach to local development”. It was hypothesized that the creation of community organizations could be an effective mechanism to actualize the existing social capital of rural communities in Ukraine.
Windsor, Liliane Cambraia
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been identified as a useful approach to increasing community involvement in research. Developing rigorous methods in conducting CBPR is an important step in gaining more support for this approach. The current article argues that concept mapping, a structured mixed methods approach, is useful in the initial development of a rigorous CBPR program of research aiming to develop culturally tailored and community-based health interventions for vulnerable populations. A research project examining social dynamics and consequences of alcohol and substance use in Newark, New Jersey, is described to illustrate the use of concept mapping methodology in CBPR. A total of 75 individuals participated in the study.
Twombly, Eric C; Holtz, Kristen D; Stringer, Kimberly
Promotores are community lay health workers, who provide outreach and services to Latinos. Little research on the promotores programs exists and the focus of this article is to identify the challenges faced by community-based nonprofits when implementing promotores programs. To explore this type of program telephone interviews were conducted with ten promotores academic experts and nonprofit executives. The results suggest that implementation challenges fall into three major categories: the lack of standardized information on promotores programs, labor issues, and organizational costs. Future recommendations are made which highlight promotores recruitment and retention strategies, and the development of a clearinghouse of programmatic implementation information for community-based nonprofits.
Mtshali, N G
Community-based education is about a decade old in basic nursing education in South Africa. An extensive review of literature revealed that although CBE was a familiar concept in South Africa, there was however, limited understanding of what this phenomenon means. The purpose of the study was to analyse the concept 'community-based education' with the aim of discovering shared understanding of this phenomenon in basic nursing education within the South African context. Strauss and Corbin's (1990) grounded theory approach was used to guide the research process. The South African Nursing Council's (SANC) education committee, the National Department of Health, human resources division representatives as well as seven nursing education institutions with well-established CBE programmes participated in the study. The data was collected by means of observations, interviews and document analysis. Purposive sampling and later theoretical sampling was used for selecting interviewees. This resulted in a total of 45 interviewees. The data collection and initial data analysis took place concurrently. Descriptive analysis followed by conceptual analysis was performed using Strauss and Corbin's model. The findings in this study revealed that community-based education is education that uses the community extensively, especially the under-developed and under-resourced settings, for learning purposes in order to enhance relevance of nursing education to the needs of the South African population. The core discriminatory characteristics of CBE were found to include; primacy of the community as a learning environment; the early exposure of students to community-based learning experiences; community-based learning experiences dominating the curriculum, exposure to community-based learning experiences throughout the curriculum, vertical sequencing of community-based learning experiences in a curriculum, starting from primary settings to secondary and later tertiary health care settings
Reich, Stephanie M; Kay, Joseph S; Lin, Grace C
Community-based participatory research is predicated on building partnerships that tackle important issues to the community and effectively improve these issues. Community-based participatory research can also be an empowering experience, especially for children. This article describes a university-community partnership in which students at a low-income middle school worked to improve the quality of the cafeteria food provided to the 986 students eligible for free and reduced price lunches. The project led to menu changes, improved communication between youth, school administrators, and district staff, and enabled youth to enact school improvements that were beneficial for their health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria continues to be a major public health problem in remote forested areas in Cambodia. As a national strategy to strengthen community-based malaria control, the Cambodian government has been running the Village Malaria Worker (VMW project since 2001. This study sought to examine the nature and quality of the VMWs' services. Methods Data collection was carried out in February and March 2008 through interviews with one of the two VMWs who takes the lead in malaria control activities in each of the 315 VMW villages (n = 251. The questionnaire addressed 1 the sociodemographic characteristics of VMWs, 2 service quality, 3 actions for malaria prevention and vector control, and 4 knowledge of malaria epidemiology and vector ecology. Results VMWs were effective in conducting diagnosis with Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs and prescribing anti-malarials to those who had positive RDT results, skills that they had acquired through their training programmes. However, most other services, such as active detection, explanations about compliance, and follow-up of patients, were carried out by only a small proportion of VMWs. The variety of actions that VMWs took for malaria prevention and vector control was small (average action index score 12.8/23, and their knowledge was very limited with less than 20% of the VMWs giving correct answers to six out of seven questions on malaria epidemiology and vector ecology. Knowledge of vector breeding places and malaria transmission were significant determinants of both the quality of VMWs' services and the variety of their actions for malaria prevention and vector control. Conclusions VMWs' services focused primarily on diagnosis and treatment. Their focus needs to be broadened to cover other aspects of malaria control in order to further strengthen community-based malaria control. VMWs' actions and knowledge also need substantial improvement. Strengthening training programmes can help achieve better
Yasuoka, Junko; Poudel, Krishna C; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Nguon, Chea; Ly, Po; Socheat, Duong; Jimba, Masamine
Malaria continues to be a major public health problem in remote forested areas in Cambodia. As a national strategy to strengthen community-based malaria control, the Cambodian government has been running the Village Malaria Worker (VMW) project since 2001. This study sought to examine the nature and quality of the VMWs' services. Data collection was carried out in February and March 2008 through interviews with one of the two VMWs who takes the lead in malaria control activities in each of the 315 VMW villages (n = 251). The questionnaire addressed 1) the sociodemographic characteristics of VMWs, 2) service quality, 3) actions for malaria prevention and vector control, and 4) knowledge of malaria epidemiology and vector ecology. VMWs were effective in conducting diagnosis with Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) and prescribing anti-malarials to those who had positive RDT results, skills that they had acquired through their training programmes. However, most other services, such as active detection, explanations about compliance, and follow-up of patients, were carried out by only a small proportion of VMWs. The variety of actions that VMWs took for malaria prevention and vector control was small (average action index score 12.8/23), and their knowledge was very limited with less than 20% of the VMWs giving correct answers to six out of seven questions on malaria epidemiology and vector ecology. Knowledge of vector breeding places and malaria transmission were significant determinants of both the quality of VMWs' services and the variety of their actions for malaria prevention and vector control. VMWs' services focused primarily on diagnosis and treatment. Their focus needs to be broadened to cover other aspects of malaria control in order to further strengthen community-based malaria control. VMWs' actions and knowledge also need substantial improvement. Strengthening training programmes can help achieve better performance by VMWs.
Diane McClymont Peace
Full Text Available Objectives: Health Canada's Program for Climate Change and Health Adaptation in Northern First Nation and Inuit Communities is unique among Canadian federal programs in that it enables community-based participatory research by northern communities. Study design: The program was designed to build capacity by funding communities to conduct their own research in cooperation with Aboriginal associations, academics, and governments; that way, communities could develop health-related adaptation plans and communication materials that would help in adaptation decision-making at the community, regional, national and circumpolar levels with respect to human health and a changing environment. Methods: Community visits and workshops were held to familiarize northerners with the impacts of climate change on their health, as well as methods to develop research proposals and budgets to meet program requirements. Results: Since the launch of the Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program in 2008, Health Canada has funded 36 community projects across Canada's North that focus on relevant health issues caused by climate change. In addition, the program supported capacity-building workshops for northerners, as well as a Pan-Arctic Results Workshop to bring communities together to showcase the results of their research. Results include: numerous films and photo-voice products that engage youth and elders and are available on the web; community-based ice monitoring, surveillance and communication networks; and information products on land, water and ice safety, drinking water, food security and safety, and traditional medicine. Conclusions: Through these efforts, communities have increased their knowledge and understanding of the health effects related to climate change and have begun to develop local adaptation strategies.
Jones, Jami I.
Considers the role of school library media specialists in helping teens cope with developmental and emotional challenges. Discusses resiliency research, and opportunities to develop programs and services especially for middle school and high school at-risk teens. (LRW)
... About Stress (Video) Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress How Can I Help My Child Cope With Divorce? Relax & Unwind Center Worry Less in 3 Steps Five Steps for Fighting Stress Worrying About War - for Kids Stress What Stresses ...
... local university health centers for their psychiatry or psychology departments. You can also go to the website ... MedlinePlus website also has lists of directories and organizations that can help in identifying a health practitioner. ...
Liu, Hai-Ying; Kobernus, Mike; Broday, David; Bartonova, Alena
programme as a system that supports and promotes community-based environmental governance. Next, we discuss some of the challenges involved in developing this approach. This work seeks to initiate a debate and help defining what is the Citizens' Observatory, its potential role in environmental governance, and its validity as a tool for environmental research.
Pulsifer, P. L.; Collins, J. A.; Kaufman, M.; Eicken, H.; Parsons, M. A.; Gearheard, S.
Local and traditional knowledge and community-based monitoring programs are increasingly being recognized as an important part of establishing an Arctic observing network, and understanding Arctic environmental change. The Seasonal Ice Zone Observing Network (SIZONet, http://www.sizonet.org) project has implemented an integrated program for observing seasonal ice in Alaska. Observation and analysis by local sea ice experts helps track seasonal and inter-annual variability of the ice cover and its use by coastal communities. The ELOKA project (http://eloka-arctic.org) is collaborating with SIZONet on the development of a community accessible, Web-based application for collecting and distributing local observations. The SIZONet project is dealing with complicated qualitative and quantitative data collected from a growing number of observers in different communities while concurrently working to design a system that will serve a wide range of different end users including Arctic residents, scientists, educators, and other stakeholders with a need for sea ice information. The benefits of linking and integrating knowledge from communities and university-based researchers are clear, however, development of an information system in this multidisciplinary, multi-participant context is challenging. Participants are geographically distributed, have different levels of technical expertise, and have varying goals for how the system will be used. As previously reported (Pulsifer et al. 2010), new technologies have been used to deal with some of the challenges presented in this complex development context. In this paper, we report on the challenges and innovations related to working as a multi-disciplinary software development team. Specifically, we discuss how Agile software development methods have been used in defining and refining user needs, developing prototypes, and releasing a production level application. We provide an overview of the production application that
Killingback, Clare; Tsofliou, Fotini; Clark, Carol
Physical inactivity is a global phenomenon, with estimates of one in four adults not being active enough to achieve health benefits, thus heightening the risk of developing non-communicable diseases. In order to realise the health and wellbeing gains associated with physical activity the behaviour must be sustained. Community-based group exercise programmes (CBGEP) utilising social supports have been shown to be one means of not only increasing activity levels for older people, but sustaining physical activity. A gap in the literature was identified around older people's long-term adherence to real-life CBGEP within a UK context. This study therefore sought to address this gap by understanding older people's ongoing adherence to CBGEP with a view to gaining further insight about which factors contribute to enabling people to sustain their physical activity levels. A multiple case study research design was employed to understand older people's (≥60 years, n = 27) adherence (≥ 69%, for ≥ 1 year) to three current CBGEP in the South- West of England. Qualitative data (participant observation, focus groups, documents, and interviews) were collected and analysed using inductive thematic analysis followed by the analytic technique of explanation building. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and used to set the context of the study. The current study offers five unique insights into real-life programmes which have been successful in helping older people maintain adherence for a year or longer. These included: factors relating to the individual, the instructor (particularly their personality, professionalism and humanised approach), programme design (including location, affordability, the use of music, and adaptable exercise content), social features which supported a sense of belonging, and participant perceived benefits (physical and psycho-social). These all served to explain older people's adherence to CBGEP. These factors related
Noy, N.; NCBO Team
Advances in computing power and new computational techniques have changed the way researchers approach science. In many fields, one of the most fruitful approaches has been to use semantically aware software to break down the barriers among disparate domains, systems, data sources, and technologies. Such software facilitates data aggregation, improves search, and ultimately allows the detection of new associations that were previously not detectable. Achieving these analyses requires software systems that take advantage of the semantics and that can intelligently negotiate domains and knowledge sources, identifying commonality across systems that use different and conflicting vocabularies, while understanding apparent differences that may be concealed by the use of superficially similar terms. An ontology, a semantically rich vocabulary for a domain of interest, is the cornerstone of software for bridging systems, domains, and resources. However, as ontologies become the foundation of all semantic technologies in e-science, we must develop an infrastructure for sharing ontologies, finding and evaluating them, integrating and mapping among them, and using ontologies in applications that help scientists process their data. BioPortal  is an open-source on-line community-based ontology repository that has been used as a critical component of semantic infrastructure in several domains, including biomedicine and bio-geochemical data. BioPortal, uses the social approaches in the Web 2.0 style to bring structure and order to the collection of biomedical ontologies. It enables users to provide and discuss a wide array of knowledge components, from submitting the ontologies themselves, to commenting on and discussing classes in the ontologies, to reviewing ontologies in the context of their own ontology-based projects, to creating mappings between overlapping ontologies and discussing and critiquing the mappings. Critically, it provides web-service access to all its
Kia-Keating, Maryam; Santacrose, Diana E; Liu, Sabrina R; Adams, Jessica
High rates of exposure to violence and other adversities among Latino/a youth contribute to health disparities. The current article addresses the ways in which community-based participatory research (CBPR) and human-centered design (HCD) can help engage communities in dialogue and action. We present a project exemplifying how community forums, with researchers, practitioners, and key stakeholders, including youths and parents, integrated HCD strategies with a CBPR approach. Given the potential for power inequities among these groups, CBPR + HCD acted as a catalyst for reciprocal dialogue and generated potential opportunity areas for health promotion and change. Future directions are described.
Al-Azri, Mohammed; Al-Hamedi, Ibtisam; Al-Awisi, Huda; Al-Hinai, Mustafa; Davidson, Robin
The majority of deaths from cancer occur in low and middle income countries, partly due to poor public awareness of the signs and symptoms of cancer. A community based survey using the Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM) questionnaire was conducted in three different communities in Oman. Omani adults aged 18 years and above were invited to participate in the study. A total of 345 responded from 450 invited participants (response rate=76.7%). The majority of respondents were unable to identify the common signs and symptoms of cancer identified in the CAM (average awareness was 40.6%). The most emotional barrier to seeking help was worry about what the doctor might find (223, 64.6%); a practical barrier was too busy to make an appointment (259, 75.1%) and a service barrier was difficulty talking to the doctor (159, 46.1%). The majority of respondents (more than 60% for seven out of ten symptoms) would seek medical help in two weeks for most signs or symptoms of cancer. Females were significantly more likely than males to be embarrassed (pOman. This might leads to earlier diagnosis, improved prognosis and reduced mortality from cancer.
Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 25–64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p Conclusion An intervention based on CBPR methods can be effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. Trial Registration ACTRNO12606000521527
Pazoki, Raha; Nabipour, Iraj; Seyednezami, Nasrin; Imami, Seyed Reza
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods. A total of 335 healthy, 25-64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week) increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p physical activity per week (mean = 139.81, SE = 23.35) than women in the control group (mean = 40.14, SE = 12.65) at week 8 (p effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. ACTRNO12606000521527.
In any community you can find people--often a lot of people--who value the arts and support the idea of providing a place where young people can share in creating artistic products. Community-based arts programs support positive youth development in city neighborhoods and in smaller towns across America. Research has found connections between…
Bassano, Louis V.; McConnon, James C., Jr.
This article explains how Extension can enhance and expand its nationwide community-based entrepreneurship programs by developing strategic partnerships with other organizations to create highly effective educational programs for rural entrepreneurs. The activities and impacts of the Down East Micro-Enterprise Network (DEMN), an alliance of three…
Botterbusch, Karl F.; Miller, John W.
This report discusses the outcomes of a study that examined the present state of 124 community-based rehabilitation programs (CRP) and future trends. Results indicated: (1) the typical CRP served an average of 219 consumers daily and had total revenues of $5.262 million; (2) more than 60 percent of the CRPs offered programs in the following areas:…
Homberg, M.J.C. van den; Posthumus, A.L.
Christian Aid, Cordaid, PVGS and Practical Action established a community-based early warning system for cross-border floods between India and Nepal in 45 Indian villages. The project will scale to 95 villages early 2016. The number of stakeholders and organizational levels of this system with four
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV in a community-based antiretroviral clinic in South Africa. FC Fitzgerald, LG Bekker, R Kaplan, L Myer, SD Lawn, R Wood. Abstract. Objective. To examine the uptake of ART among pregnant women referred to an ART service and the associated rates and risk factors for vertical HIV ...
Lee, Jason W.; Kane, Jennifer; Cavanaugh, Terence
Both community-based learning (CBL) and online learning are popular pedagogical practices, with distinct benefits and issues for teaching and learning. The integration of these practices may seem challenging, but they can be compatible. This article seeks to provide effective examples and support for conducting CBL projects in online courses while…
Grommon, Eric; Davidson, William S., II; Bynum, Timothy S.
Prisoner reentry programs continue to be developed and implemented to ease the process of transition into the community and to curtail fiscal pressures. This study describes and provides relapse and recidivism outcome findings related to a randomized trial evaluating a multimodal, community-based reentry program that prioritized substance abuse…
Afulani, Patience A.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Opoku, Ernest C.; Asunka, Joseph
The Nutrition and Malaria Control for Child Survival Project is a community-based growth promotion project that utilizes Community Health Workers (CHWs), referred to as Community Child Growth Promoters (CCGPs), as the principal change agents. The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of key stakeholders about the project and the role…
Adler, Geri; Lawrence, Briana M.; Ounpraseuth, Songthip T.; Asghar-Ali, Ali Abbas
Dementia is a major public health concern. Educating health-care providers about dementia warning signs, diagnosis, and management is paramount to fostering clinical competence and improving patient outcomes. The objective of this project was to describe and identify educational and training needs of staff at community-based outpatient clinics…
Wink, G.; Casimir, G.; Goris, M.
This is the success story of a community-based learning course (CBLC) project addressing the concerns of the international community of students and staff of Wageningen University and Research Centre (WageningenUR). A joint effort of this community, WageningenUR and social entrepreneurs resulted in
Mercier, Samuel; Desauty, Fabrice; Lamache, Christophe; Lefort, Hugues
In community-based care, the teams must adapt to the environment and perform a number of technical procedures. Foldable medical equipment has been developed and patented, enabling the care provision to approach hospital standards and improving working conditions in this context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Velott, Diana L.; Agbese, Edeanya; Mandell, David; Stein, Bradley D.; Dick, Andrew W.; Yu, Hao; Leslie, Douglas L.
This research aims to describe the characteristics of 1915(c) Home- and Community-Based Services waivers for children with autism spectrum disorder across states and over time. While increasingly popular, little is known about these Medicaid waivers. Understanding the characteristics of these programs is important to clinicians and policymakers in…
Na, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Jung; Han, Seok Jin
In this paper, we propose a community-based dance programme designed for North Korean female defectors in South Korea, with the aim of promoting their physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. We set up four research objectives: to look into social contexts of North Korean female refugees in South Korea, to identify the women's desire…
Background: Out-of-pocket payments create financial barriers to health care access. There is an increasing interest in the role of community based health insurance schemes in improving equity and access of the poor to essential health care. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of Jamii Bora Health Insurance on ...
Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal; Campbell, Michelle; Hoffman, Renee Thibodeau; Self, Kayli
This study examined Pathways Early Autism Intervention, a community-based, parent-mediated, intensive behavioral and developmental intervention program for children with autism spectrum disorders that could be used as a model for state-funded early intervention programs. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, across-participants design was used.…
Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) shares many of the core values of health education and related fields, the outside researcher embracing this approach to inquiry frequently is confronted with thorny ethical challenges. Following a brief review of the conceptual and historical roots of CBPR, Kelly's ecological principles for…
When a mother's own milk is not available, safe, donated human breastmilk is an excellent alternative. High rates of under-5 mortality have prompted the South African (SA) Ministry of Health to commit to scaling up human milk banks in key health facilities. Community-based human milk banks (CBHMBs) have the potential ...
Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela
The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…
Agran, Martin; Snow, Kimberly; Swaner, Jayne
A survey of 65 secondary and postsecondary-education special educators found that they supported both community-based instruction and inclusive education and believed students benefited from each. The implications of the findings are discussed, with an emphasis on basing educational programming on the student's needs, wishes, and interests.…
Sin, H.L.; Minca, C.
This paper discusses the question of responsibility with reference to community-based tourism. Local communities are often presented by the tourist industry as an inherent value to recognize and protect. Tourists visiting distant places are thus frequently exhorted to ‘go local’ through having a
An increasing number of community colleges (CCs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) are now working in partnership to develop education and training programs enabling low-income workers to gain the education and skills necessary to obtain higher-wage jobs and develop a foundation for lifelong learning and career advancement. The following…
Preiser-Houy, Lara; Navarrete, Carlos J.
Service-learning projects are becoming more prevalent in Information Systems education. This study explores the use of community-based research, a special kind of a service-learning strategy, in an Information Systems web development course. The paper presents a case study of a service-learning project to develop an educational web portal for a…
Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca
This study examined the practices of 24 community-based rape prevention programs. Although these programs were geographically dispersed throughout one state, they were remarkably similar in their approach to rape prevention programming. DiMaggio and Powell's (1991) theory of institutional isomorphism was used to explain the underlying causes of…
Learning experiences in community-based settings provide students with learning opportunities, as they are actively engaged in PHC-associated activities in under-resourced communities. Many nursing schools in higher education integrated and implemented a CBE programme with an end-goal of becoming healthcare ...
Haslip, Meishi Lim; Haslip, Michael J.
This article shares lessons learned from the implementation of a community-based character education program in Malaysia. The program at Jenjarom Learning Center is directed toward the transformation and empowerment of local children and youth through moral and character education. The stated purpose of the program has been to awaken the…
Conclusions: Community-based participatory research ethical challenges are of the same kind in most parts of the world. However, some discrepancies exist that calls for local scrutiny. Future use and critic of current explored ethical issues and principles are highly encouraged.
Weaver, Richard G.; Gray, Carolyn F.; Demby, Neal A.; Cinotti, William R.; Clark, Nereyda P.; Hicks, Jeffrey L.
Reports results of a working group convened by the American Association of Dental Schools to examine establishment of dental education programs with significant affiliations with community-based clinical care settings. Identifies factors and conditions believed to be critical to successful program linkages, including goals and objectives, support…
Community-based initiatives address community issues by providing a multi-agency approach to prevention and intervention services (Connell et al.,1995). When incorporating multiple agencies, it can be challenging to obtain multiple perspectives and gaining consensus on the priorities and direction for these initiatives. This study employed a…
Arrieta, Martha I.; Fisher, Leevones; Shaw, Thomas; Bryan, Valerie; Hudson, Andrea; Hansberry, Shantisha; Eastburn, Sasha; Freed, Christopher R.; Shelley-Tremblay, Shannon; Hanks, Roma Stovall; Washington-Lewis, Cynthia; Roussel, Linda; Dagenais, Paul A.; Icenogle, Marjorie; Slagle, Michelle L.; Parker, L. Lynette; Crook, Errol
Although there is strong support for community engagement and community-based participatory research (CBPR) from public health entities, medical organizations, and major grant-funding institutions, such endeavors often face challenges within academic institutions. Fostering the interest, skills, and partnerships to undertake participatory research…
In Central America, nearly 24,000 community-based organizations supply drinking water to rural and peri-urban residents. By delivering potable water, these organizations improve the health and welfare of millions, and play a key role in local economic development. Climate change in the region is resulting in higher ...
Sørensen, Sabrina Storgaard; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Weinreich, Ulla Møller
Objectives: To analyse the cost effectiveness of community-based case management for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: The study took place in the third largest municipality in Denmark and was conducted as a randomised controlled trial with 12 months...
This paper examines how local knowledge is employed in environmental adult education in a community-based ecotourism project in an island community in southern Thailand. The study is based on field research and analysis of project websites, media reports and documents. Situated at the intersection of global tourism and a local Thai-Malay Muslim…
HIV testing is a major issue of concern in developing countries. This paper aims at documenting field experiences in regard to testing for HIV in a community- based research. Detailed protocol was followed and participation in the study was on voluntary basis. Focus group discussions were held in study community.
Cooke, Penelope R.; Hemmings, Brian C.
The authors of this article report on a qualitative study of Australian community-based natural resource management groups known as Landcare groups. They discuss how four Landcare groups contributed to sustainability practices and how a policy change implemented in 2003 influenced the efforts of the groups to remain active in their activities.…
Selman, Mary; Blackwell, Margaret
A community-based program for adults learning English as a second language has been carried out by Vancouver Community College in British Columbia. The program, known as Neighborhood English Classes of the college, offers classes at accessible locations in the community to serve immigrants who are unable or unwilling to attend the intensive…
the 25 local government areas that make up Delta State using stratified and random sampling technique. The community based organization were interviewed using structured questionnaires ... link between the state and community us so as to increase the ... dependence culture put in place by colonization was maintained.
disease in sub-Saharan Africa.3 In this region, all-stroke fatality from available hospital-based prospective ... a community-based model for stroke care in South Africa. Ingwavuma in northern KwaZulu-Natal was .... bedridden and incontinent and requires constant nursing and attention). Three-month follow-up. Patients were ...
Erika s. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell
Urban environmental stewardship activities are on the rise in cities throughout the Northeast. Groups participating in stewardship activities range in age, size, and geography and represent an increasingly complex and dynamic arrangement of civil society, government and business sectors. To better understand the structure, function and network of these community-based...
Warren D Hill
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An estimated 250,000 Canadians are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV. The present study describes a cohort of individuals with HCV referred to community-based, integrated prevention and care projects developed in British Columbia. Treatment outcomes are reported for a subset of individuals undergoing antiviral therapy at four project sites.
Hovey, Lauren; Kaylor, Mary Beth; Alwan, Majd; Resnick, Helaine E
Older adults residing in rural areas often lack convenient, patient-centered, community-based approaches to facilitate receipt of routine care to manage common chronic conditions. Without adequate access to appropriate disease management resources, the risk of seniors' experiencing acute events related to these common conditions increases substantially. Further, poorly managed chronic conditions are costly and place seniors at increased risk of institutionalization and permanent loss of independence. Novel, telehealth-based approaches to management of common chronic conditions like hypertension may not only improve the health of older adults, but may also lead to substantial cost savings associated with acute care episodes and institutionalization. The aim of this report is to summarize practical considerations related to operations and logistics of a unique community-based telemonitoring pilot study targeting rural seniors who utilize community-based senior centers. This article reviews the technological challenges encountered during the study and proposes solutions relevant to future research and implementation of telehealth in community-based, congregate settings.
Grauer, Kit; Castro, Juan Carlos; Lin, Ching-Chiu
Community-based new media programs offer a distinct place of arts learning in the larger learning and media ecologies that teens and young adults navigate. As part of a 3-year case study of new media programs, the Gulf Islands Film and Television School (GIFTS) presents pedagogical and curricular insights that are relevant to both out-of- and…
Kong, Luis J.
In this chapter, the author will explore the significance of race from a social constructionist perspective. He will focus on immigration laws and on examples of legal cases that have set the stage for current definitions of whiteness and racial identification. A community-based transformational organizing model will be presented. The model will…
This article revisits the scholarship on emotion in composition studies and extends this work through a consideration of emotion in community-based writing courses. With examples from student reflection essays from one such course, Writing With the Community, I explore emotion as a generative aspect of the students' semester writing projects for…
Lim, Caroline; Barrio, Concepción; Hernandez, Mercedes; Barragán, Armando; Brekke, John S.
Objective: We assessed the rate of recovery from schizophrenia in community-based psychosocial rehabilitation and whether psychosocial attributes predicted the achievement of recovery beyond demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods: We used data from 246 individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorder collected at baseline and at 6 and…
Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Hill, Patricia; Gore, Nicole
Families and Schools Together (FAST) is a collaborative program involving schools, families, and community-based partners in efforts to prevent substance use, juvenile delinquency, school failure, child abuse and neglect, mental health problems, and violence. Although evaluated extensively, there remains a dearth of qualitative data on child and…
Granner, Michelle L.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Fields, Regina; Hallenbeck, Joyce
This study conducted a newspaper content analysis as part of an evaluation of a community-based participatory research project focused on increasing physical activity through policy and environmental changes, which included activities related to media advocacy and media-based community education. Daily papers (May 2003 to December 2005) from both…
Hoenigl, Martin; Green, Nella; Camacho, Martha; Gianella, Sara; Mehta, Sanjay R; Smith, Davey M; Little, Susan J
We analyzed signs and symptoms in 90 patients diagnosed with acute HIV infection in a community-based program that offered universal HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification testing. Forty-seven (52%) patients reported ongoing signs or symptoms at the time of testing. Another 25 (28%) reported signs or symptoms that had occurred during the 14 days before testing.
Hoenigl, Martin; Green, Nella; Camacho, Martha; Gianella, Sara; Mehta, Sanjay R.; Smith, Davey M.; Little, Susan J.
We analyzed signs and symptoms in 90 patients diagnosed with acute HIV infection in a community-based program that offered universal HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification testing. Forty-seven (52%) patients reported ongoing signs or symptoms at the time of testing. Another 25 (28%) reported signs or symptoms that had occurred during the 14 days before testing.
Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel
This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…
Muller, Susan M.; Dodd, Amelia; Fiala, Kelly A.
Attrition is a major problem for all areas of education. The presence of protective factors has been shown to promote resiliency, which might influence retention. This study was designed to examine characteristics associated with resiliency among a population of pre-service educators, public school teachers, and community-based health educators.…
Lee, Jason W.; Kane, Jennifer J.; Gregg, Elizabeth A.
This article explores the opportunities and challenges that university instructors and students have when completing course assignments that merge community-based learning (CBL) and online learning (OL) in sport management and athletic administration pedagogy. As online instruction continues to increase, instructors and students need to be…
Lucero, Julie; Wallerstein, Nina; Duran, Bonnie; Alegria, Margarita; Greene-Moton, Ella; Israel, Barbara; Kastelic, Sarah; Magarati, Maya; Oetzel, John; Pearson, Cynthia; Schulz, Amy; Villegas, Malia; White Hat, Emily R.
This article describes a mixed methods study of community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership practices and the links between these practices and changes in health status and disparities outcomes. Directed by a CBPR conceptual model and grounded in indigenous-transformative theory, our nation-wide, cross-site study showcases the value…
Kenny, Marilyn; Cap, Ihor
Canada's Community-Based Language Training (CBLT) program was designed as a part-time, flexible language training response for non-confident, isolated immigrant women who required adult English-as-a-Second-Language (A/ESL) training to assist them in their daily lives. It addressed barriers to their participation in classes housed in educational…
Hanchanlert, Yotsak; Pramakhatay, Worawat; Pradubwong, Suteera; Prathanee, Benjamas
Prevalence of cleft lip and palate (CLP) is high in Northeast Thailand. Most children with CLP face many problems, particularly compensatory articulation disorders (CAD) beyond surgery while speech services and the number of speech and language pathologists (SLPs) are limited. To determine the effectiveness of networking of Khon Kaen University (KKU) Community-Based Speech Therapy Model: Kosumphisai Hospital, Kosumphisai District and Maha Sarakham Hospital, Mueang District, Maha Sarakham Province for reduction of the number of articulations errors for children with CLP. Eleven children with CLP were recruited in 3 1-year projects of KKU Community-Based Speech Therapy Model. Articulation tests were formally assessed by qualified language pathologists (SLPs) for baseline and post treatment outcomes. Teachings on services for speech assistants (SAs) were conducted by SLPs. Assigned speech correction (SC) was performed by SAs at home and at local hospitals. Caregivers also gave SC at home 3-4 days a week. Networking of Community-Based Speech Therapy Model signficantly reduced the number of articulation errors for children with CLP in both word and sentence levels (mean difference = 6.91, 95% confidence interval = 4.15-9.67; mean difference = 5.36, 95% confidence interval = 2.99-7.73, respectively). Networking by Kosumphisai and Maha Sarakham of KKU Community-Based Speech Therapy Model was a valid and efficient method for providing speech services for children with cleft palate and could be extended to any area in Thailand and other developing countries, where have similar contexts.
Supplement: Community-based safety-nets and strategies to reduce vulnerability to drought, crop losses and market crises. NA Ngongi. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences Vol. 7 (3) 2008: pp. 229-236. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...
Community Based Social Audit of Health Services in Two Districts of Afghanistan. The health system in Afghanistan has been chronically neglected during decades of war and conflict. As the country emerges from this situation, it is overwhelmed by a long list of priorities in almost every sector. Scarce health resources ...
S. Humphries; Tom Holmes
The Green Value tool was developed in response to the need for simplified procedures that could be used in the field to conduct financial analysis for community-based forest enterprises (CFEs). Initially our efforts focused on a set of worksheets that could be used by both researchers and CFEs to monitor and analyze costs and income for one production period. The...
Full Text Available and normative conditions that pertain in particular communities. Secondly, that in the short to medium term the most effective interventions would involve the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases and the use of community-based peer educators to promote...
Mohr, David C.; Carmody, Timothy; Erickson, Lauren; Jin, Ling; Leader, Julie
Objective: Multiple trials have found telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) to be effective for the treatment of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate T-CBT for the treatment of depression among veterans served by community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) outside of major urban areas. Method: Eighty-five veterans…
... schools that provide interdisciplinary, community based training in graduate clinical psychology, clinical social work, professional counseling, or marriage and family therapy. HRSA has a special interest in the... holdings, consultancies, research grants, and/or contracts to permit an evaluation of possible sources of...
Chávez, José A; Suárez, Lázaro V; Del Rosario, Odalis; Hechavarría, Suiberto; Quiñones, Judith
The shortage of health professionals in developing countries and especially in their poorest regions imperils the vision of health for all. New training policies and strategies are needed urgently to address these shortages. The Gambia's new Community-Based Medical Programme is one such strategy. KEYWORDS Medical education, access to health care, healthcare disparities, health manpower, rural health, developing countries, The Gambia.
Seow, Hsien; Bainbridge, Daryl; Brouwers, Melissa; Bryant, Deanna; Tan Toyofuku, Sue; Kelley, Mary Lou
Evidence has shown that, despite wide variation in models of care, community-based specialist palliative care teams can improve outcomes and reduce acute care use at end of life. The goal of this study was to explore similarities in care practices among effective and diverse specialist teams to inform the development of other community-based teams. Interviews with 78 providers and administrators from 11 distinct community-based specialist palliative care teams from Ontario, Canada were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using an inductive approach to identify common themes. 3 key themes across all teams emerged. First, the distinct models of care were generally summarised into 3 models: primary care and specialist providers either collaborated by transferring, sharing or consulting in care. Second, teams explicitly or implicitly followed 7 common care practices related to: specialised expertise 24/7; intrateam communication; timeliness; physical symptom and psychosocial-spiritual management; education; peace and fulfilment; and advocacy for patient preferences. Third, all teams emphasised the importance of team building, even more than using clinical tools and processes. Despite wide variation in models of care among community-based specialist palliative care teams, this large qualitative study identified several common themes in care practices that can guide the development of other teams. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Lawton, Pamela Harris; La Porte, Angela M.
Quality community-based art education programs for older adults over the age of 50 should exploit the broad range of interests and cognitive abilities of participants by utilizing adult education theory, brain research, and the best practices of adult art education programs. We consider a developing paradigm on the cognitive abilities of the…
Prier, Darius D.
In this article, the social imagination of community-based sites of urban resistance enable out-of-school literacy practices in Black popular culture to foreground the contemporary context in which youth empowerment is nurtured in out-of-school learning settings. Second, the author chronicles how youth advocates in hip-hop--based community…
Murphy, Margueritte S.; Flowers, Kathleen S.
This article describes the development of the Community-Based Learning (CBL) Scorecard by a grant-funded consortium of liberal arts institutions. The aim of the scorecard was to promote assessment that improves student learning with an instrument that employs a quantitative scale, allowing for benchmarking across institutions. Extensive interviews…
Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; McDermott, Robert J.; Alfonso, Moya L.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nickelson, Jen; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; DeBate, Rita D.; Phillips, Leah M.; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang
Background: Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age)…
Harris, Gregory E.
Community-based research (CBR) and counselling practice share multiple skill sets and ideological tenets. In addition, CBR offers an approach to research that can be highly conducive to effective counselling-related research. Despite these consistencies and benefits, counsellors and counselling students have underutilized this approach to…
Kane, Emily W.
Based on quantitative survey data and qualitative data from journal entries by students in a seminar focused on community-based research, undergraduate student perceptions of community partners are explored in the context of debates about the politics of knowledge. Student perceptions that frame community partners as the recipients of academic…
Douglas, Ty-Ron Michael; Peck, Craig
This study examines how and why peoples of African descent access and utilize community-based pedagogical spaces that exist outside schools. Employing a theoretical framework that fuses historical methodology and border-crossing theory, the researchers review existing scholarship and primary documents to present an historical examination of how…
Oyama, Hirofumi; Fujita, Motoi; Goto, Masahiro; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Tomoe
Purpose: In this study we evaluate outcomes of a community-based program to prevent suicide among elderly individuals aged 65 and older. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental design with intervention and referent municipalities. The program included a 7-year implementation of depression screening with follow-up by general practitioners…
This study reviewed current issues in preparing qualified teachers for increasing diverse student populations in the U.S. and in other multicultural and multiethnic countries. Based on the framework of community-based and multicultural teacher education, this literature review paper analyzed issues and problems existed in the current curriculum,…
Dec 9, 2009 ... Use of traditional medicine versus use of the community-based primary health care clinic by the. San community at Platfontein a De Jager GF, MBChB ab Prinsloo EAM, MBChB, MFamMed, MHPE c Joubert G, BA, MSc a Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free ...
Ibrahim, Mona M.; Rosenheim, Marnie R.; Amer, Mona M.; Larson, Haley A.
This study explored perceptions of community-based learning in a sample of 176 students at a liberal arts college in Cairo, Egypt, and a sample of 176 students at a liberal arts college in the Midwestern United States. Students responded to a 38-item rating scale that assessed gains in several domains as a result of engaging in community-based…
A growing number of universities have implemented community-based research pedagogy into their undergraduate education. Integrating academic training with community engagement has the potential to engage students in a way volunteering may not. This interview with Trisha Thorme, an anthropologist and assistant director of Princeton University's…
Franz, Nancy K.
Graduate students are increasingly interested in community-based research and public scholarship. However, they often struggle to find faculty research mentors who fully understand or have been personally involved with this type of research and related scholarship. In fact, some graduate students are advised by graduate committee members to…
Darroch, Francine; Giles, Audrey
Within Canada, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become the dominant methodology for scholars who conduct health research with Aboriginal communities. While CBPR has become understood as a methodology that can lead to more equitable relations of power between Aboriginal community members and researchers, it is not a panacea. In…
Johnson, Chad V.; Bartgis, Jami; Worley, Jody A.; Hellman, Chan M.; Burkhart, Russell
This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project utilized a mixed-methods survey design to identify urban (Tulsa, OK) American Indian (AI) strengths and needs. Six hundred fifty AIs (550 adults and 100 youth) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and beliefs about their community. These results were used in conjunction with other…
Amendola, Mary Grace
Hispanic/Latinos (H/L) are being studied for healthcare disparities research utilizing community-based participatory research (CBPR). CBPR's active participation of community members and researchers suggests improvement in community health. Yet there are no known studies that inductively investigated the lived experience of H/L community leaders…
Peters, Joe; Matarasso, Michael
A participatory curriculum development process was undertaken to design and implement a university-level, community-based environmental education training course to target behaviors and thus increase the effectiveness of conservation programs in central Vietnam. The process included (1) stakeholder analysis, (2) training needs assessment, (3)…
Arora, Prerna G; Krumholz, Lauren S; Guerra, Terry; Leff, Stephen S
Although the partnership between academic researchers and community members is paramount to community-based research efforts, a limited number of measures exist to evaluate this construct. Of those in existence, no assessment measures include a comprehensive coverage of the many dimensions of partnerships. In addition, these measures were not designed through an extensive community-based participatory research (CBPR) model, in which the strengths of traditional assessment techniques were integrated with input from stakeholders. The purpose of this article was to describe the creation of a measure to evaluate key dimensions of partnerships forged between researchers and community members using a CBPR approach to measurement development. The iterative process of developing this measure consisted of integrating valuable feedback from community partners and researchers, via multiple rounds of item sorting and qualitative interviewing. The resultant measure, titled Partnership Assessment In community-based Research (PAIR), consists of 32 items, and comprises 5 dimensions: communication, collaboration, partnership values, benefits, and evaluation. The innovative process of using CBPR in the development of measures, the benefits of this approach, and the lessons learned are highlighted. PAIR was developed out of a need identified jointly by community members and researchers, and is intended to characterize the range of relationships between researchers and community members engaging in community-based research and programming.
Blackmer, Rachel; Hayes-Harb, Rachel
We present a community-based research project aimed at identifying effective methods and materials for teaching English literacy skills to adult English as a second language emergent readers. We conducted a quasi-experimental study whereby we evaluated the efficacy of two approaches, one based on current practices at the English Skills Learning…
Effing, Tanja; Zielhuis, Gerhard; Kerstjens, Huib; van der Valk, Paul; van der Palen, Job
Little is known about effects of community-based physiotherapeutic exercise programmes incorporated in COPD self-management programmes. In a randomised trial, the effect of such a programme (COPE-active) on exercise capacity and various secondary outcomes including daily activity as a marker of
Smit, M.; Ganzeboom, A.; Dawson, J.A.; Walther, F.J.; Bustraan, J.; van Roosmalen, Jos; te Pas, A.B.
To evaluate the feasibility of using pulse oximetry (PO) for evaluating infants born in community-based midwifery care. Design: a prospective, observational study of infants born after midwifery supervised (home) births. Setting: 27 midwives from seven practices providing primary care in (home)
Price, Sarah Kye
Low-income and ethnic minority women have been described as at risk for experiencing depression during and around the time of pregnancy, a finding complicated by low levels of mental health service use within this population. This study retrospectively examined data from a community-based perinatal depression project targeting low-income women in…
Chung, Grace Y.; Brown, Gina; Gibson, Desmond
Melanoma incidence is increasing among Hispanics/Latinos in California. This community-based project reached out to a rural Hispanic/Latino community in North San Diego County to provide melanoma prevention and screening education. At a local community health fair, bilingual volunteer lay health workers led 10- to 15-minute-long information…
Gimbel, Ronald W.; Lehrman, Sue; Strosberg, Martin A.; Ziac, Veronica; Freedman, Jay; Savicki, Karen; Tackley, Lisa
Using variables measuring organizational characteristics and environmental influences, this study analyzed job satisfaction in community-based HIV/AIDS organizations. Organizational characteristics were found to predict job satisfaction among employees with varying intensity based on position within the organization. Environmental influences had…
Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.; Trejo, Laura; Miranda, Jeanne; Jimenez, Elizabeth; Quiter, Elaine S.; Mangione, Carol M.
Purpose: We describe the recruitment strategies and personnel and materials costs associated with two community-based research studies in a Mexican-origin population. We also highlight the role that academic-community partnerships played in the outreach and recruitment process for our studies. We reviewed study documents using case study…
Yatan Pal Singh Balhara
Full Text Available Background. There are limited community based treatment services for drug dependence in India. Rural areas and urban resettlement colonies are in particular deficient in such services. Aims. The current study aimed at preliminary assessment of substance use disorder management services at a community based substance use treatment clinic in an urban resettlement colony. Methods. The study was carried out at community based substance use treatment centre in a resettlement colony in India. The records of the centre were chart reviewed. Results. A total of 754 patients were registered at the clinic during the study period. Heroin was the primary drug of abuse for 63% of the patients. The mean duration of follow-up for the patients with opioid and alcohol dependence was 13.47 (SD±10.37; range 0–39 months. A total of 220 patients of opioid dependence were prescribed substation or abstinence directed therapy. Buprenorphine (87, slow release oral morphine (SROM (16, and dextropropoxyphene (98 were used for opioid substitution. Conclusion. It is possible to deliver substance use disorder treatment services in community setting. There is a need to develop area specific community based treatment services for substance abuse in socially disadvantaged populations such as urban resettlement colonies.
A.D. Mebratie (Anagaw); R.A. Sparrow (Robert); Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem); G. Alemu (Getnet ); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)
textabstractLow contract renewal rates have been identified as one of the challenges facing the development of community based health insurance schemes (CBHI). This paper uses longitudinal household survey data to examine dropout in the case of Ethiopia’s pilot CBHI scheme, which saw enrolment
This article suggests that the methodology of community-based action research provides concrete strategies for fostering effective community problem solving. To argue for a community research pedagogy, the author draws upon past and present scholarship in action research and participatory action research, experiences teaching an undergraduate…
Brenner, Viktor; Nicholson, Bonnie C.; Fox, Robert A.
Evaluated effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral parenting program for parents of children ages 1 to 5 years offered through community-based family resource centers. Found that participants showed significant decreases in use of verbal and corporal punishment, and increases in nurturing behaviors as measured by the Parent Behavior Checklist.…
Hernandes, Nidia A; Probst, Vanessa S; Da Silva, Rubens A; Januário, Renata S B; Pitta, Fabio; Teixeira, Denilson C
It is unclear whether participation in exercise programs specifically developed for elderly translates into a more active lifestyle. To compare the objectively measured level of physical activity in daily life (PADL) between physically independent elderly who participate or do not participate in community-based exercise programs; and to evaluate which factors are associated with the higher level of PADL in these subjects. 134 elderly participants in community-based exercise programs (PG) and 104 non-participants (NPG) had their level of PADL measured using pedometers during 7 days. 6-minute walking test (6MWT), incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT), muscle strength, flexibility and balance. The PG had higher 1-week mean daily step count than NPG (8314 [IQR 5971-10060] vs. 6250 [IQR 4346-8207] steps/day, pphysically active subjects (>8000 steps/day) in PG than in NPG (37% vs. 16%, respectively; pdaily steps count (model r(2)=0.56, pphysically independent elderly, a higher level of physical activity in daily life occurs in those who participate in community-based exercise programs, regardless of the weekday and including non-program days. Participation of elderly in community-based exercise programs should be more systematically available and encouraged due to its close link to higher activity levels and better exercise capacity.
BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points."…
Magarian, Edward O.; And Others
An interdisciplinary project provided ambulatory care clinical training for pharmacy and nursing students in community-based pharmacies, promoting early detection and medical follow-up of common health problems within the community. Students learned new clinical skills in patient health assessment, new diagnostic technologies, patient education…
Masho, Saba; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara; Singleton, Rose; Bradford, Judith; Chapman, Derek; Svikis, Dace
Striking racial disparities in infant mortality exist in the United States, with rates of infant death among African Americans nearly twice the national average. Community-based participatory research approaches have been successful in fostering collaborative relationships between communities and researchers that are focused on developing…
Bennett, Jeffrey V.; Alsbury, Thomas L.; Fan, Jingjing
This study explores participant experiences at two contrasting high schools in a large, urban school district in crisis who implemented mandatory community-based learning (CBL) (e.g. community service, work-based internships) as a policy of reform. Rawls' theory of justice as fairness is used to examine capacity of the district formal policy to…
Background: The Health Systems Trust implemented a community-based growth monitoring intervention project that fits into the Integrated Nutrition Programme focus areas and commissioned an evaluation of this project. Objective: To assess project volunteers' knowledge on infant and young child nutrition and growth ...
Ruch-Ross, Holly; Keller, David; Miller, Nicole; Bassewitz, Jane; Melinkovich, Paul
To address the "millennial morbidities," pediatricians must partner with community-based organizations to develop interventions. Little is known about the capacity of the resulting programs for program evaluation or the importance of evaluation in project success and sustainability. The objective of this study was to examine the capacity of community-based health programs to conduct project evaluations and determine the impact of project evaluation on project outcome. Project directors from 149 community-based programs funded from 1989 to 2003 through the Healthy Tomorrows Partnership for Children Program were surveyed regarding their project experience with evaluation and documentation of project outcomes and the current status of their project. Program directors from 123 (83%) programs completed the survey. Despite barriers to the evaluation process, 83% of the respondents indicated that their evaluations produced useful information. Programs that were described by respondents as "well evaluated" were more likely to report that the evaluation was implemented as planned and that the evaluation included outcome measures. Projects were more likely to be sustained in their original form when at least 1 outcome was reported on the survey. Evaluation of community-based programs, although challenging, is beneficial to project success and sustainability. Policy makers and funding agencies should consider ways to encourage community partnerships to incorporate evaluation into their planning process.
Mahfuzul Haque, A.B.
Seasonal floodplains are water bodies that retain water for 5-6 months during which they are suitable to grow fish and other aquatic animals. Out of 2.8 million ha of medium and deep-flooded areas, about 1.5 million ha are estimated to be suitable for Community-Based Fish Culture (CBFC). WorldFish
Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun
The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…
Tinkler, Alan; Tinkler, Barri; Gerstl-Pepin, Cynthia; Mugisha, Vincent M.
This article reports on how one teacher education program utilized a Learn and Serve America grant to embed service-learning experiences into its practices. Included are narrative reflections on how the program faculty developed a community-based, participatory approach to service-learning in order to act as a responsive partner to the needs of…
Garoutte, Lisa; McCarthy-Gilmore, Kate
One goal of service and community-based learning is to produce students who are more tightly engaged in the larger communities surrounding their institutions. Drawing on data from three courses, we argue that an asset-based approach plays a role in creating authentic campus-community partnerships that strive to engage students as members of the…
Pablo A. Domene
Conclusion: The acute responses to classes of partnered Latin dance and non-partnered Latin-themed aerobic dance suggest that in physically inactive women participation is indeed efficacious in terms of community-based physical activity and psychosocial health promotion.
Browder, Diane M.; And Others
The study evaluated the use of simulated instruction on vending machine use as an adjunct to community-based instruction with two moderately retarded children. Results showed concurrent acquisition of the vending machine skills across trained and untrained sites. (Author/DB)
Meghea, Cristian Ioan; Williams, Karen Patricia
The few existing economic evaluations of community-based health promotion interventions were reported retrospectively at the end of the trial. We report an evaluation of the costs of the Kin Keeper(superscript SM) Cancer Prevention Intervention, a female family-focused educational intervention for underserved women applied to increase breast and…
Verheijden, M.W.; Kok, F.J.
Community-based interventions have increasingly received attention since researchers and public health professionals have come to acknowledge the importance of an environment that makes the healthy choice the easy choice. All stakeholders including the target community are involved to achieve
Ma, Yi; Du, Chunhua; Cai, Thomas; Han, Qingfeng; Yuan, Huanhuan; Luo, Tingyan; Ren, Guoliang; Mburu, Gitau; Wang, Bangyuan; Golichenko, Olga; Zhang, Chaoxiong
Worldwide, people who use drugs (PWUD) are among the populations at highest risk for HIV infection. In China, PWUD are primarily sentenced to compulsory detainment centres, in which access to healthcare, including HIV treatment and prevention services, is limited or non-existent. In 2008, China's 2008 Anti-Drug Law encouraged the development and use of community-based drug dependence rehabilitation, yet there is limited evidence evaluating the efficacy and challenges of this model in China. In this study, we explore these challenges and describe how cooperation between law enforcement and health departments can meet the needs of PWUD. In 2015, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with all four staff members and 16 clients of the Ping An Centre No. 1 for community-based drug treatment, three local police officers and three officials from the local Centre for Disease Control. Interviews explored obstacles in implementing community-based drug dependence treatment and efforts to resolve these difficulties. Transcripts were coded and analyzed with qualitative data analysis software (MAXQDA 11). We identified three challenges to community-based drug treatment at the Ping An Centre No. 1: (1) suboptimal coordination among parties involved, (2) a divergence in attitudes towards PWUD and harm reduction between law enforcement and health officials and (3) conflicting performance targets for police and health officials that undermine the shared goal of treatment. We also identified the take-home methadone maintenance treatment model at the Ping An Centre No. 1 as an example of an early successful collaboration between the police, the health department and PWUD. To overcome barriers to effective community-based drug treatment, we recommend aligning the goals of law enforcement and public health agencies towards health-based performance indicators. Furthermore, tensions between PWUD and police need to be addressed and trust between them fostered, using community-based
Inaba, Misato; Takahashi, Nobuyuki
Although social solidarity is an essential component that helps maintaining social order, what produces solidarity and how does it work have not been fully investigated. We conducted an experiment to examine whether experiencing different forms of social exchange produces different levels of solidarity. We compared four forms of social exchange: reciprocal exchange (exchange resources without negotiation), negotiated exchange (with negotiation), pure-generalized exchange (giver can choose who to give) and chain-generalized exchange (giver cannot choose who to give). Two dimensions classify these exchanges: the number of players (two vs. more than two), and involvement of negotiation. Reciprocal and negotiated exchanges occur within dyads, while pure- and chain-generalized exchanges involve three or more players. Only the negotiated exchange involves negotiation process; the other exchanges are purely unilateral giving. Participants played a one-shot social dilemma game (SDG) before and after social exchange session. The more the players cooperated in SDG, the stronger the social solidarity. Results show that the cooperation rate in SDG increased more in the reciprocal, pure- and chain-generalized exchange conditions than that in the negotiated exchange condition, suggesting that social solidarity is facilitated by experiencing social exchange which does not involve negotiation.
Maria A. Osborne
Full Text Available Objective: To identify and describe Pennsylvania pharmacists who currently provide or are interested in providing community-based patient care services and are interested in joining a statewide practice network. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: February to June 2009 in Pennsylvania. Participants: 1700 pharmacists. Intervention: Mailed and electronic survey. Main outcome measures: Number and geographic location of pharmacists providing or interested in providing community-based patient care in Pennsylvania. Description of patient care documentation methods; physical space; services provided; perceived barriers to providing patient care; training needs; and interest in joining a statewide practice network. Results: The final analysis included data from 1700 pharmacists. Approximately one-third of pharmacists (n=554 were providing patient care services to community-based patients. Most were routinely documenting (67.5% and many had a semi-private or private space to provide care. MTM and immunizations were the most common services provided. Respondents reported the most significant barrier to providing MTM, diabetes education, and smoking cessation education was time constraints, whereas training was a barrier for immunization provision. Most pharmacists were not being compensated for patient care services. Of the 869 pharmacists interested in joining a statewide network, those providing care were more interested in joining than those who were not (70.8% vs. 43.8%, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Pennsylvania pharmacists are interested in providing community-based patient care services and joining a statewide practice network focused on providing community-based patient care services. This research serves as a foundation for building a pharmacist practice network in Pennsylvania. Type: Original Research
Coe, Julie M; Brickhouse, Tegwyn H; Bhatti, Bushra A; Best, Al M
With a significant need for more general dentists to provide care for pediatric patients, previous studies have found that community-based clinical training experience with children increased dental students' willingness to provide care to pediatric patients after graduation. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of community-based clinical training with pediatric patients on dental students' self-perceived confidence in treating pediatric patients, both overall and related to specific procedures. Of the total 105 fourth-year dental students at one U.S. dental school invited to participate in the study in academic year 2011-12, 76 completed the survey about their community-based dental education (CBDE), for a 72% response rate. Over half of the respondents (55%) reported feeling more confident in treating pediatric patients after their rotations. The increase in confidence was not associated with demographics. The placement of sealants (p=0.0022) and experience in giving local anesthesia (p=0.0008) were the two procedures most strongly associated with the increase in confidence. Also, these students received more experience in pulp therapy, extractions, and treating children up to three years of age during their community-based rotations than in the school-based clinic. In this study, greater exposure to pediatric dental clinical experiences during CBDE increased the students' confidence in treating pediatric patients. These results suggest that community-based experiences are useful in supplementing the school-based pediatric clinical experience, including increasing entry-level dentists' confidence in treating pediatric patients.
J.M. Timmermans; A. de Boer; C. van Campen; M.M.Y. de Klerk; J.S.J. de Wit; I Woittiez
Original title: Vrij om te helpen. Anyone combining paid work with caring for relatives or close friends who need lots of help will quickly run out of time. It is even possible that they will become overburdened due to the effort of combining tasks. For this reason, the government is
Vardiman, Phillip; Carrand, David; Gallagher, Philip M.
Stretching prior to activity is universally accepted as an important way to improve performance and help prevent injury. Likewise, limited flexibility has been shown to decrease functional ability and predispose a person to injuries. Although this is commonly accepted, appropriate stretching for children and adolescents involved with sports and…
... to keep family relationships and friendships over time. Exercise can also help prevent depression or lift your mood. Stay active and involved in life. Talk to your physician if you are feeling depressed. Teeth & ... Lungs: Regular aerobic exercise keeps lung capacity up. Smoking leads to chronic ...
Ensuring a Blind Peer Review. Open Journal Systems Help. Journal Home > Editorial Process > Editor's Role > Submission Summary. Submission Summary. The Summary page for each submission is used by the Editor to manage the submission files and its associated metadata or indexing information.
Woods, G E
A short account is given of a voluntary organization, PACE, formed by parents of young handicapped children in Leeds. PACE provides friendship and help to other parents, arranges the toy library, riding for the disabled and other activities for the children. It also raises money that is needed for special projects.
Spencer, Maria Gutierrez, Comp.; Almance, Sofia, Comp.
Written in Spanish and English, the booklet briefly discusses what parents can do to help their child learn at school. The booklet briefly notes the importance of getting enough sleep; eating breakfast; praising the child; developing the five senses; visiting the doctor; having a home and garden; talking, listening, and reading to the child;…
This book presents a range of strategies for adult literacy tutors and offers a wealth of practical advice on teaching spelling within the context of writing. Chapters 1-3 offer basic information on talking with the student about spelling, finding out how the student spells and helping the student to see himself/herself as a "good" speller, and…
Kc, N P; Kc, A; Sharma, N; Malla, H; Thapa, N; Aryal, K; Vitrakoti, R; Bhandari, R M
A number of studies on community mobilization for maternal and newborn health have demonstrated that community participation is of profound importance in the delivery of community based survival interventions for mother, newborn and children and a cost effective way to reduce mortality. However, the lessons learnt from the efficacy trials have not been tested within the health systems. Nepal is well known for its public health programmes and wide successes in campaign based interventions as a result of active involvement of volunteers and organizations based in the community. This paper analyzes the degree of community participation and mobilization in community-based maternal, newborn and child health programmes and its potential implication in acceleration towards achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. The study is based on analysis of the existing national community based maternal, neonatal and child health programmes in terms of degree of community mobilization and participation for ownership and sustainability of programmes. Furthermore, a qualitative assessment was carried out to assess the level of engagement of community structures in community based maternal, newborn and child health programme. None of the national community based maternal, newborn and child health programmes used the community action cycle approach and there was minimal level of involvement of community networks. The mother's groups had been least engaged in identifying and solving the maternal, newborn and child health problems and Female community health volunteer were engaged in delivering messages at household level and not through the mother's groups. Though the Community Action Cycle was studied in Nepal and it was found effective to achieve the objectives, getting its lessons into practice to design community health programs were lacking. The mother's groups need to be revitalized to ensure their active participation in identifying, analyzing and agreeing on steps to solve
Vicent Ripoll, Ignacio de Loyola
EDU - HelpDesk és una aplicació destinada a gestionar les incidències TIC d'un centre educatiu. Pretén comunicar al coordinador TIC les possibles avaries o errors informàtics que un professor o el personal d'administració i serveis es pot trobar, per tal que aquest les pugui solucionar de manera àgil i efectiva. A més a més, l'aplicació permet consultar un historial de totes les incidències o avaries que s'han produït en el centre. EDU - HelpDesk es una aplicación destinada a gestionar la...
... 447 RIN 0938-AO53 Medicaid Program; State Plan Home and Community-Based Services, 5-Year Period for Waivers, Provider Payment Reassignment, and Setting Requirements for Community First Choice; Correction... Federal Register entitled ``Medicaid Program; State Plan Home and Community-Based Services, 5- Year Period...
The objective of this thesis is two-fold: (1) to investigate the degree distribution property of community-based social networks (CSNs) and (2) to provide solutions to a pertinent problem, the Key Player Problem. In the first part of this thesis, we consider a growing community-based network in which the ability of nodes competing for links to new…
Aroian, J; Meservey, P M; Crockett, J G
In part 1 of this two-part series, the authors described the Manager as Developer Model and its use in acute care settings and a community-based nursing administration curriculum. In this article, they predict its use to guide development of leadership and education for the future of community-based practice.
Shoana Humphries; Thomas P. Holmes; Karen Kainer; Carlos Gabriel Goncalves Koury; Edson Cruz; Rosana de Miranda Rocha
Community-based forest management is an integral component of sustainable forest management and conservation in the Brazilian Amazon, where it has been heavily subsidized for the last ten years. Yet knowledge of the financial viability and impact of community-based forest enterprises (CFEs) is lacking. This study evaluates the profitability of three CFEs in the...
...-Based Job Training Grants; Comment Request AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration. ACTION... comments on a new data collection for the Evaluation of the Community- Based Job Training Grants. A copy [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Community-Based Job Training Grants (CBJTG...
Graat, J.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Heijnen, M.L.; Kok, F.J.; Pallast, E.G.; Greeff, de S.C.; Dorigo-Zetsma, J.W.
Background and Objective: Community-based elderly studies concerning microbiology of acute respiratory infections are scarce. Data on subclinical infections are even totally absent, although asymptomatic persons might act as a source of respiratory infections. Methods: In a 1-year community-based
... Community-Based Organization Projects? 426.6 Section 426.6 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM General § 426.6 What activities does the Secretary fund under the Community-Based Organization Projects? (a) The Secretary supports projects that assist disadvantaged youths in...
Lipman, Ellen L.; Boyle, Michael H.; Cunningham, Charles; Kenny, Meghan; Sniderman, Carrie; Duku, Eric; Mills, Brenda; Evans, Peter; Waymouth, Marjorie
Objective: There are few well-evaluated uncomplicated community-based interventions for childhood aggression. The authors assess the impact of a community-based anger management group on child aggressive behaviors, using a randomized, controlled trial (RCT). Method: Families with children 7 to 11 years old were recruited through advertisements and…
Alcock, Glyn A.; More, Neena Shah; Patil, Sarita; Porel, Maya; Vaidya, Leena; Osrin, David
Community-based initiatives have become a popular approach to addressing the health needs of underserved populations, in both low- and higher-income countries. This article presents findings from a study of female peer facilitators involved in a community-based maternal and newborn health intervention in urban slum areas of Mumbai. Using…
Full Text Available Homelessness is a growing social issue that is a consequence of structural inequities and contributor to the development of health inequities. Community-based research (CBR has been proposed as an effective research strategy for addressing health equities and promoting social justice through participatory processes. The purpose of this article is to examine the application of CBR principles and practices in the homeless sector and the implications for the production of knowledge and social change to address homelessness. Drawing on our experiences as researchers and service providers, we reflect on the significant successes and challenges associated with using CBR in the homelessness sector. In our discussion we emphasise insights, challenges and lessons learned from a community-university partnership that focused on an evaluation of a transitional shelter program in a large urban centre where housing is expensive and often unavailable. Keywords: Homelessness, housing, transitional housing, transitional shelter, program evaluation, community-based research
Paula P du Rand
Full Text Available In 1997 the School for Nursing, University of the Orange Free State, changed from the traditional lecture method of teaching to problem-based learning and from a curative to a community-based approach. Lecturers from a traditional environment became facilitators and new skills such as listening, dialogue, negotiation, counselling and problemsolving were expected from them. Besides the role change, the environment changed from a structural classroom to an unstructured community. The aim of this research was to determine the perceptions and experiences of facilitators in problem-based learning and community-base education. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Kruger, Daniel J; Shirey, Lauren; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Skorcz, Stephen; Brady, Janice
The Speak to Your Health! community survey is a biennial community-based survey designed and implemented by the Prevention Research Center of Michigan whose central mission is to strengthen the capacity of the community to improve health. The survey was developed collaboratively by the university and community partners that comprise the Prevention Research Center of Michigan and focuses on health and social issues at the heart of the community of Genesee County, Michigan. The results of this survey have been used to shape policy changes and strategic planning at the county health department and in local health intervention programs. This project has demonstrated that useful quantitative data for addressing local public health policy and planning can be collected using the principles of community-based research.
Yancey, Elleen M.; Mayberry, Robert; Armstrong-Mensah, Elizabeth; Collins, David; Goodin, Lisa; Cureton, Shava; Trammell, Ella H.; Yuan, Keming
Objectives To design and test HIV-RAAP (HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction Among Heterosexually Active African American Men and Women: A Risk Reduction Prevention Intervention) a coeducational, culture- and gender-sensitive community-based participatory HIV risk reduction intervention. Methods A community-based participatory research process included intervention development and implementation of a 7-session coeducational curriculum conducted over 7 consecutive weeks. Results The results indicated a significant intervention effect on reducing sexual behavior risk (P=0.02), improving HIV risk knowledge (P=0.006), and increasing sexual partner conversations about HIV risk reduction (P= 0.001). Conclusions The HIV-RAAP intervention impacts key domains of heterosexual HIV transmission. PMID:22488405
Neupane, Dinesh; McLachlan, Craig S; Christensen, Bo
BACKGROUND: Hypertension contributes to a significant burden of cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries; however, responses are inadequate because of a lack of conclusive evidence on population-based approaches to hypertension control. METHODS/DESIGN: The objective of the present...... study is to determine the effect of family-based home health education and blood pressure monitoring by trained female community health volunteers. The primary outcome is change in mean systolic blood pressure. A community-based, open-masked, two-armed, cluster-randomized trial will be conducted...... will conduct home visits for health education and blood pressure measurement. The primary outcomes will be modeled by using multiple linear regression analysis. DISCUSSION: This project will be an investigation of a community-based intervention to control blood pressure in countries with limited resources...
Darling, Margaret; Gonzalez, Florencia; Graves, Kristi; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Leventhal, Kara-Grace; Caicedo, Larisa
Research exists on strategies for successful conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Unfortunately, few published resources are available to advise community-based organizations (CBOs) on preparation for and engagement in CBPR. We aimed to create a resource for CBOs that describes how an organization can prepare for and participate in CBPR. We used a case study approach of one CBO with a decade-long history of collaboration with academic researchers. We identified lessons learned through a retrospective review of organizational records and the documentation of experiences by CBO leadership and research partners. The findings were then labeled according to CBPR Partnership Readiness Model dimensions. The review of CBO documents and key informant interviews yielded ten practical tips to increase organizational readiness for and engagement in CBPR. By understanding the best practices for organizational readiness for and participation in CPBR, CBOs will be better equipped to actively participate in community-academic partnerships.
Kadri, Michele Rocha; Schweickardt, Julio Cesar
The scope of this paper was to analyze the perception of community-based organizations and their contributions to the history of tackling Aids in Amazonas State. It involved qualitative research with the use of oral and documental sources. Data were collected between June and September 2013 by means of semi-structured interviews with the leaders of eight organizations that work or worked with more vulnerable communities. Based on Discourse Analysis the conclusion drawn is that that the organizations perceive two distinct phases since the decentralization of funds from the Sexually-Transmitted Diseases Aids and Viral Hepatitis Department to the local leaders. The first phase was marked by the strengthening of organizations, collective empowerment and active political participation. The current phase has seen the distancing between organizations, a loss of political momentum and weakening of common response and organization.
Full Text Available A primary challenge given to university foreign language departments and Title VI National Resource Centers is to increase interest and participation in foreign language learning, with particular emphasis on less commonly taught languages (LCTLs. Given that many LCTLs in high demand by the US government, including Arabic, Chinese, Persian and Turkish, rarely find their way into the school curricula, this article offers a successful ongoing community-based model of how one university-town partnership addresses advocacy with programming for pre-K-grade 9. Non-native and heritage undergraduate language students who volunteered as community language teachers found the experience invaluable to their pedagogical development. Teacher education programs or language departments can employ this approach to community-based teaching, by providing free, sustained language teaching in existing community centers. This article offers guidance for how to start and expand such a program.
Sherer W. Royce
Full Text Available Allowing the voiceless to have a voice is a tenet of empowerment. This paper highlights research that employed a participatory action research framework to gain a better understanding of young people’s perceptions about youth empowerment and acquire their perspective (voice about the meaningfulness of participation in out-of-school advocacy and volunteer program activities. Using Photovoice, the research provides a missing point of view in youth empowerment model development. Results indicate that the quality of a youth’s participation in a community-based program is determined by 1 youth expressing themselves without censorship, 2 occasions for youth to expand their social networks with youth and adults, and 3 adults observing and valuing youth contributions. These findings raise implications for community-based, youth empowerment programs including program philosophy, program procedures, youth empowerment content and activities, and adult leadership style. The findings may assist practitioners when designing youth empowering activities and researchers when operationalizing youth empowerment.
Max O. Stephenson, Jr.
Full Text Available This article focuses on the question of what role community-based organization leaders play in shaping the possibility for the emergence of new social imaginaries. It argues that deep social conflicts and efforts to secure purposive change are likely to demand strong civil society organization response and that certain forms of imagination are necessary and must be actively employed among community-based leaders if new imaginaries are to be discerned and effectively shared in ways that encourage sustained dialogue and the development of new social understandings. The article explores these briefly and draws illustratively upon two relevant examples from the peacebuilding literature to contend that such imagination-led leadership is necessary to catalyze new social imaginaries that can lead to more resilient social orders.
Full Text Available The Latino community continues to grow at an increasing rate. Latinos have become the “majority-minority,” and by 2043, minorities will be the majority in the United States with Latinos as the largest ethnic minority group. The lack of targeted programming to ethnically diverse audiences is a growing concern for many organizations. This article describes research-based strategies and best practices for providing culturally appropriate Extension programs to the Latino community through community-based programs. This is illustrated through examples incorporated into three community-based programs offered in Southwest Idaho, Southeast Oregon, and Southwest Washington. The objective is to discuss the value of each key component when providing services to the Latino community; describe what the research indicates; and offer practical applications for educators, staff, and other professionals to expand outreach and engagement efforts to the Latino population. Implications for professionals working with the Latino community are discussed.
Wu, Zunyou; Detels, Roger; Zhang, Jiapeng; Li, Virginia; Li, Jianhua
This study evaluated a community-based program in China to prevent initiation of drug use in young men. Similar intervention and control areas were selected. Village leaders, teachers, and women and youth leaders were recruited to participate in the program. Community activities were organized and intervention activities in schools were implemented. Incidence of new drug users was estimated. There was a 2.7-fold greater reduction in drug use initiation in the intervention area (1.59% vs 0.60%). Reduction was highest among males aged 15 to 19, single men, illiterate men, and the Jingpo minority. HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes and recognition of drug problems were all significantly better in the intervention area. Community-based intervention programs to prevent drug use can be successful in rural areas of China.
Full Text Available This article describes a feminist community-based research project involving faculty and student collaboration to evaluate a dating and domestic violence awareness initiative. Using a critical ethics of care that emphasizes relationships and allows for constant reflection about power dynamics, role, positionality, and emotions, the authors reflect on what was learned during the research process. Faculty and student researchers share their perspectives and offer suggestions for future feminist collaborative research projects. Significant lessons learned include ensuring that all are invested from the outset of the project, guaranteeing that student researchers understand why their role is so critical in community-based research, and acknowledging not just faculty power over students but student privilege as well.
Meghea, Cristian Ioan; Williams, Karen Patricia
The few existing economic evaluations of community-based health promotion interventions were reported retrospectively at the end of the trial. We report an evaluation of the costs of the Kin Keeper(SM) Cancer Prevention Intervention, a female family-focused educational intervention for underserved women applied to increase breast and cervical cancer screening by enhancing cancer literacy. The cost analysis was performed from the perspective of a health organization with established community partnerships adding the Kin Keeper family intervention in the future to an existing community health worker program. The cost of delivering the Kin Keeper intervention, including two cancer education home visits, was $151/family. Kin Keeper is an inexpensive educational intervention delivered by community health workers to promote breast and cervical screening, with strong fidelity and quality. Prospecting cost evaluations of community-based interventions are needed for making informed timely decisions on the adaptation and expansion of such programs. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Vera E. W. Hanaoka
Full Text Available A major challenge of the foreign language context, and teaching less commonly taught languages in specific, is engaging learners in the target culture and promoting meaningful use of the foreign language. This study demonstrates how community-based instruction, in the form of ethnographic observations and interviews and service learning, can promote learner’s language affiliation — a sense of identification with the target culture and language. As a result of interactions with the local target language community made possible by the community-based assignments, university-level Japanese language learners gained an understanding of the target culture based on their individual experiences. By engaging with a community of Japanese speakers, learners saw how Japanese language skills and an understanding of Japanese culture are relevant to their lives. Heritage learners felt a strengthened sense of belonging to the wider Japanese community.
Full Text Available Background: Obesity and poor health habits impact youth’s health and occupational participation. Occupational therapy’s role in preventing and treating obesity continues to emerge in the research literature. This article explores the impact of a community-based program emphasizing health and wellness for female youth. Methods: Five girls 11 to 13 years of age participated in the healthy occupations program. Before and after the program, the participants engaged in an individual semi-structured interview and completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and the CATCH Kids Club Questionnaire. The youth participated in a focus group midprogram. Results: The participants were receptive to information regarding healthy behaviors and initiated positive health behavior changes after implementation of a 7-week healthy lifestyle community- based program. Conclusion: Occupational therapy can collaborate with community partners to provide programming focused on health promotion and prevention as part of the interprofessional approach to preventing and treating childhood obesity and building healthier communities.
Housten, Ashley J.; Abel, Regina A.; Lindsey, Terianne; King, Allison A.
Background Sickle cell trait (SCT) screening is required at birth in the United States; however, adults rarely know their SCT status prior to having children. Purpose Assess feasibility of a community-based SCT education and testing intervention. Methods Participants were recruited from eight community sites to complete an educational program and offered a hemoglobin analysis. A genetic counselor met individually with participants to discuss lab results. Results Between July 14, 2010 and May 31, 2012, 637 participants completed the educational program. Five hundred seventy (89.5%) provided a blood sample, and 61 (10.9%) had SCT or other hemoglobinopathies. The genetic counselor met with 321 (56.3%) participants. Conclusions Community-based SCT testing shows initial feasibility and may increase the number of individuals who know their trait status. PMID:27774352
Vidoni, Eric D; Van Sciver, Angela; Johnson, David K; He, Jinghua; Honea, Robyn; Haines, Brian; Goodwin, Jami; Laubinger, M Pat; Anderson, Heather S; Kluding, Patricia M; Donnelly, Joseph E; Billinger, Sandra A; Burns, Jeffrey M
The benefits of exercise for aging have received considerable attention in both the popular and academic press. The putative benefits of exercise for maximizing cognitive function and supporting brain health have great potential for combating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aerobic exercise offers a low-cost, low-risk intervention that is widely available and may have disease modifying effects. Demonstrating that aerobic exercise alters the AD process would have enormous public health implications. The purpose of this paper is to report the protocol of a current, community-based pilot study of aerobic exercise for AD to guide future investigation. This manuscript provides 1) an overview of possible benefits of exercise in those with dementia, 2) a rationale and recommendations for implementation of a community-based approach, 3) recommendation for implementation of similar study protocols, and 4) unique challenges in conducting an exercise trial in AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flocks, J; Clarke, L; Albrecht, S; Bryant, C; Monaghan, P; Baker, H
The Together for Agricultural Safety project is a community-based social marketing project working to reduce the adverse health effects of pesticide exposure among fernery and nursery workers in Florida. In 3 years, the collaboration between university and community researchers has embodied many of the principles of community-based research while completing multiple stages of formative data collection required for a social marketing project. This hybrid approach to developing a health intervention for a minority community has been successful in its early stages because the community partners are organized, empowered, and motivated to execute research activities with the assistance of academic partners. However, this work has also been labor intensive and costly. This article describes the lessons learned by project partners and considers the limitations of this approach for agricultural health research.