WorldWideScience

Sample records for exchange factors identification

  1. Identification of a negative regulatory region for the exchange activity and characterization of T332I mutant of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10 (ARHGEF10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Taro; Shibata, Satoshi; Tokuhara, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Wataru; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Ichiro; Kogo, Mikihiko; Ohoka, Yoshiharu; Inagaki, Shinobu

    2011-08-26

    The T332I mutation in Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10 (ARHGEF10) was previously found in persons with slowed nerve conduction velocities and thin myelination of peripheral nerves. However, the molecular and cellular basis of the T332I mutant is not understood. Here, we show that ARHGEF10 has a negative regulatory region in the N terminus, in which residue 332 is located, and the T332I mutant is constitutively active. An N-terminal truncated ARHGEF10 mutant, ARHGEF10 ΔN (lacking amino acids 1-332), induced cell contraction that was inhibited by a Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 and had higher GEF activity for RhoA than the wild type. The T332I mutant also showed the phenotype similar to the N-terminal truncated mutant. These data suggest that the ARHGEF10 T332I mutation-associated phenotype observed in the peripheral nerves is due to activated GEF activity of the ARHGEF10 T332I mutant.

  2. Identification of a Negative Regulatory Region for the Exchange Activity and Characterization of T332I Mutant of Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 10 (ARHGEF10)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Taro; Shibata, Satoshi; Tokuhara, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Wataru; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Ichiro; Kogo, Mikihiko; Ohoka, Yoshiharu; Inagaki, Shinobu

    2011-01-01

    The T332I mutation in Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10 (ARHGEF10) was previously found in persons with slowed nerve conduction velocities and thin myelination of peripheral nerves. However, the molecular and cellular basis of the T332I mutant is not understood. Here, we show that ARHGEF10 has a negative regulatory region in the N terminus, in which residue 332 is located, and the T332I mutant is constitutively active. An N-terminal truncated ARHGEF10 mutant, ARHGEF10 ΔN (lacking amino acids 1–332), induced cell contraction that was inhibited by a Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 and had higher GEF activity for RhoA than the wild type. The T332I mutant also showed the phenotype similar to the N-terminal truncated mutant. These data suggest that the ARHGEF10 T332I mutation-associated phenotype observed in the peripheral nerves is due to activated GEF activity of the ARHGEF10 T332I mutant. PMID:21719701

  3. Identification and weighting factors influencing the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in plastic injection industry using VIKOR and Shannon Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Hashemzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single minute exchange of dies (SMED is one of the most important tools to achieve lean production system. The main idea of this system is to provide methods and to use creative and innovative solutions for continuous improvement. Due to the importance of this issue and its effect on reducing waste during the production process, this study presents a method to identify and to weight factors in the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in 14 plastic injection factories. In this study, fourteen factories in injection industry were chosen and the factors influencing the implementation of single minute exchange of dies were identified. Following data collection, decision matrix was formed and the weight of each factor was determined by using Shannon Entropy. Then, in order to determine the readiness of factories, VIKOR method was used to rank companies. The results indicate priorities of the following factors in establishing SMED that include: Senior management support, technical capabilities, technical knowledge of staff and consultants, knowledge of mold design, manufacturing infrastructure, team work, combination of the project team work, benchmarking, training, clear understanding of project objectives, rewards and motivation, proper management expectation, project management, teamwork and organizational culture. Practical implications: Due to the factors, Top manager can make the best decision for implementing of SMED technique. This study develops factors influencing on SMED implementation based on Shannon and VIKOR methods for ranking parameters and plants.

  4. Firm-Specific Foreign Exchange Exposure Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Brodin, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have used the stock market approach to find the aggregate number of (firms with) foreign exchange exposures in a given country, region, or industry. Methodologies have differed in many aspects but two of the most basic differences relate to observation frequency and the choice...

  5. A continuous exchange factor method for radiative exchange in enclosures with participating media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.H.N.; Chung, B.T.F.; Litkouhi, B.

    1987-01-01

    A continuous exchange factor method for analysis of radiative exchange in enclosures is developed. In this method two types of exchange functions are defined, direct exchange function and total exchange function. Certain integral equations relating total exchange functions to direct exchange functions are developed. These integral equations are solved using Gaussian quadrature integration method. The results obtained based on the present approach are found to be more accurate than those of the zonal method

  6. Optimal design of tests for heat exchanger fouling identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Kyle A.; Hale, William T.; Such, Kyle D.; Shea, Brian R.; Bollas, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Built-in test design that optimizes the information extractable from the said test. • Method minimizes the covariance of a fault with system uncertainty. • Method applied for the identification and quantification of heat exchanger fouling. • Heat exchanger fouling is identifiable despite the uncertainty in inputs and states. - Graphical Abstract: - Abstract: Particulate fouling in plate fin heat exchangers of aircraft environmental control systems is a recurring issue in environments rich in foreign object debris. Heat exchanger fouling detection, in terms of quantification of its severity, is critical for aircraft maintenance scheduling and safe operation. In this work, we focus on methods for offline fouling detection during aircraft ground handling, where the allowable variability range of admissible inputs is wider. We explore methods of optimal experimental design to estimate heat exchanger inputs and input trajectories that maximize the identifiability of fouling. In particular, we present a methodology in which D-optimality is used as a criterion for statistically significant inference of heat exchanger fouling in uncertain environments. The optimal tests are designed on the basis of a heat exchanger model of the inherent mass, energy and momentum balances, validated against literature data. The model is then used to infer sensitivities of the heat exchanger outputs with respect to fouling metrics and maximize them by manipulating input trajectories; thus enhancing the accuracy in quantifying the fouling extent. The proposed methodology is evaluated with statistical indices of the confidence in estimating thermal fouling resistance at uncertain operating conditions, explored in a series of case studies.

  7. What determines the exchange rate: economic factors or market sentiment?

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory P. Hopper

    1997-01-01

    Do economic factors influence exchange rates? Or does market sentiment play a bigger role? Are short-run exchange rates predictable? Greg Hopper reviews exchange-rate economics, focusing on what is predictable and what isn't. He also examines the practical implications of exchange-rate theories for currency option pricing, risk management, and portfolio selection.

  8. Roles of perceived exchange quality and organisational identification in predicting turnover intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores whether the perceived quality of the leader–member exchange and the general environment of exchange could predict turnover intention. It further examines the role of organisational identification as an explanatory variable mediating between exchange relationships and turnover intention. The authors used three-step hierarchical linear regressions on a data set collected in two time waves. The results supported the mediating role of organisational identification for the leader–member exchange and turnover intention relationship as well as the general environment of exchange and turnover intention relationship. Moreover, as was expected, the general exchange quality had a greater impact on organisational identification compared to the leader–member exchange quality. However, the findings did not confirm the expected trend in the case of two exchange variables predicting turnover intention.

  9. INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY IDENTIFICATION, DEVELOPMENT, DEMONSTRATION, DEPLOYMENT AND EXCHANGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy C. Herndon

    2001-02-28

    Cooperative Agreement (DE-FC21-95EW55101) between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Florida State University's Institute for International Cooperative Environmental Research (IICER) was designed to facilitate a number of joint programmatic goals of both the DOE and the IICER related to international technology identification, development, demonstration and deployment using a variety of mechanisms to accomplish these goals. These mechanisms included: laboratory and field research; technology demonstrations; international training and technical exchanges; data collection, synthesis and evaluation; the conduct of conferences, symposia and high-level meetings; and other appropriate and effective approaches. The DOE utilized the expertise and facilities of the IICER at Florida State University to accomplish its goals related to this cooperative agreement. The IICER has unique and demonstrated capabilities that have been utilized to conduct the tasks for this cooperative agreement. The IICER conducted activities related to technology identification, development, evaluation, demonstration and deployment through its joint centers which link the capabilities at Florida State University with collaborating academic and leading research institutions in the major countries of Central and Eastern Europe (e.g., Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland) and Russia. The activities and accomplishments for this five-year cooperative agreement are summarized in this Final Technical Report.

  10. Nurses' turnover intention: The impact of leader-member exchange, organizational identification and job embeddedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechawatanapaisal, Decha

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of three factors on turnover intention: leader-member exchange quality, organizational identification and job embeddedness. This area of inquiry has not been fully investigated in the literature. Employee turnover, particularly of professionals, becomes a very challenging issue. It continually affects organizations in terms of resourcing and developmental costs, manpower instability, day-to-day operations, perception of quality care and efficiency. Therefore, employees' working attitude and behaviour have drawn increasing attention for further research to determine which factors keep them with their employer. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with self-report questionnaires. Data were collected from 1,966 nurses from sixteen private general hospitals in Thailand during February-June 2016. Hypotheses were tested and analysed by means of a confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modelling and a bootstrapping procedure. The results revealed the direct relationship between leader-member exchange quality and job embeddedness. Organizational identification played an intermediary role that partially mediated the relationship between leader-member exchange quality on job embeddedness. Analysis also provided support for the mediating effect of organizational identification and turnover intention through job embeddedness. This study extends the job embeddedness theory and gains understanding of the antecedent factors that directly and indirectly cause employees to become embedded and lead to predict turnover intention. The findings are pertinent, as few studies have investigated such relationships. The implications provide insights into how organizations can better retain their workforce. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Social identity and social exchange: Identification, support, and withdrawal from the job

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); R. van Dick (Rolf); S. Tavares (Susanna)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIntegrating insights from the social exchange perspective and the social identity perspective, we propose that evaluations of support received from the organization and its representatives and organizational identification interact to predict withdrawal from the job. The relationship of

  12. Factors contributing to troponin exchange in myofibrils and in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, M; Trimble, D; Yu, L C; Chalovich, J M

    2000-01-01

    The troponin complex in a muscle fiber can be replaced with exogenous troponin by using a gentle exchange procedure in which the actin-tropomyosin complex is never devoid of a full complement of troponin (Brenner et al. (1999) Biophys J 77: 2677-2691). The mechanism of this exchange process and the factors that influence this exchange are poorly understood. In this study, the exchange process has now been examined in myofibrils and in solution. In myofibrils under rigor conditions, troponin exchange occurred preferentially in the region of overlap between actin and myosin when the free Ca2+ concentration was low. At higher concentrations of Ca2+, the exchange occurred uniformly along the actin. Ca2+ also accelerated troponin exchange in solution but the effect of S1 could not be confirmed in solution experiments. The rate of exchange in solution was insensitive to moderate changes in pH or ionic strength. Increasing the temperature resulted in a two-fold increase in rate with each 10 degrees C increase in temperature. A sequential two step model of troponin binding to actin-tropomyosin could simulate the observed association and dissociation transients. In the absence of Ca2+ or rigor S1, the following rate constants could describe the binding process: k1 = 7.12 microM(-1) s(-1), k(-1) = 0.65 s(-1), k2 = 0.07 s(-1), k(-2) = 0.0014 s(-1). The slow rate of detachment of troponin from actin (k(-2)) limits the rate of exchange in solution and most likely contributes to the slow rate of exchange in fibers.

  13. RADGEN: A radiation exchange factor generator for rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    The RADGEN computer program has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to generate input required for the thermal radiation models used in the COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) computer program. The COBRA-SFS program uses radiation exchange factors to describe the net amount of energy transferred from each surface to every other surface in an enclosure. The RADGEN program generates radiation exchange factors for arrays of rods on a square or triangular pitch as well as open channel geometries. This report describes the input requirements for the RADGEN code, which may be executed in a batch or interactive mode, and outlines the solution procedure used to obtain the exchange factors. 4 refs., 25 figs., 13 tabs

  14. Scambio, a novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groffen John

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small GTPases of the Rho family are critical regulators of various cellular functions including actin cytoskeleton organization, activation of kinase cascades and mitogenesis. For this reason, a major objective has been to understand the mechanisms of Rho GTPase regulation. Here, we examine the function of a novel protein, Scambio, which shares homology with the DH-PH domains of several known guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho family members. Results Scambio is located on human chromosome 14q11.1, encodes a protein of around 181 kDa, and is highly expressed in both heart and skeletal muscle. In contrast to most DH-PH-domain containing proteins, it binds the activated, GTP-bound forms of Rac and Cdc42. However, it fails to associate with V14RhoA. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that Scambio and activated Rac3 colocalize in membrane ruffles at the cell periphery. In accordance with these findings, Scambio does not activate either Rac or Cdc42 but rather, stimulates guanine nucleotide exchange on RhoA and its close relative, RhoC. Conclusion Scambio associates with Rac in its activated conformation and functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho.

  15. Study on influencing factors for hydrogen isotopic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Mei; Liu Jun; Luo Yangming

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hydrogen-water catalytic exchange reaction offers an approach to hydrogen isotope separation, which can be applied in heavy water detritiation. Purpose: To optimize the operating condition for hydrogen-water catalytic exchange reaction, we analysed the influence of different factors on the transfer coefficient. Methods: In detail, the isotope exchange experiments of H-D system were carried out in a self-designed catalytic bed loaded with hydrophobic catalyst and hydrophilic packing with certain volume ratio. The experiments showed the changes of both the transfer coefficient and the pressure drop of column with the changing of the operational temperatures (29℃, 45℃, 60℃ and 75℃), the ratios of gas to liquid (0.58, 1.17, 2.65, 3.54) and the deuterium concentrations (5.05×10 -3 , 1.0144×10 -2 , 2.01×10 -2 ). Results: Results showed that 45℃ is the optimal temperature for operating. The transfer coefficient increases with the increasing of the ratio of gas to liquid in the ranges of 0.58 to 1.17 and 2.65 to 3.56, while decreases with the deuterium concentration increases from 5.05×10 -3 to 2.01×10 -2 . The pressure drop of column increases with increasing of gas flow rate. Conclusions: The experiment proves that the ratio of gas to liquid, the reaction temperature and the deuterium concentration are all important factors, which influence the transfer coefficient of deuterium obviously. The optimal operating condition for hydrogen-water catalytic exchange reaction are as follows: the temperature is 45℃, the ratio of gas to liquid is 3.56, and the deuterium concentration is 2.01×10 -2 . (authors)

  16. Accelerating parameter identification of proton exchange membrane fuel cell model with ranking-based differential evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Wenyin; Cai, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    Parameter identification of PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell model is a very active area of research. Generally, it can be treated as a numerical optimization problem with complex nonlinear and multi-variable features. DE (differential evolution), which has been successfully used in various fields, is a simple yet efficient evolutionary algorithm for global numerical optimization. In this paper, with the objective of accelerating the process of parameter identification of PEM fuel cell models and reducing the necessary computational efforts, we firstly present a generic and simple ranking-based mutation operator for the DE algorithm. Then, the ranking-based mutation operator is incorporated into five highly-competitive DE variants to solve the PEM fuel cell model parameter identification problems. The main contributions of this work are the proposed ranking-based DE variants and their application to the parameter identification problems of PEM fuel cell models. Experiments have been conducted by using both the simulated voltage–current data and the data obtained from the literature to validate the performance of our approach. The results indicate that the ranking-based DE methods provide better results with respect to the solution quality, the convergence rate, and the success rate compared with their corresponding original DE methods. In addition, the voltage–current characteristics obtained by our approach are in good agreement with the original voltage–current curves in all cases. - Highlights: • A simple and generic ranking-based mutation operator is presented in this paper. • Several DE (differential evolution) variants are used to solve the parameter identification of PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cells) model. • Results show that our method accelerates the process of parameter identification. • The V–I characteristics are in very good agreement with experimental data

  17. Uniformity factor of temperature difference in heat exchanger networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shang; Cui, Guo-min

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A uniformity factor of temperature (UFTD) is proposed to heat exchanger network (HEN). • A novel stage-wise superstructure with inner utilities is presented based on UFTD. • New model and DE method is combined as an optimization method. • Optimal HEN structures with inner utilities can be obtained with new method. - Abstract: A uniformity factor of temperature difference (UFTD) is proposed and set up to guide the optimization of Heat exchanger network (HEN). At first, the factor is presented to evaluate the whole enhancement of HEN by handling the logical mean temperature difference as two-dimensional discrete temperature field in system. Then, the factor is applied to different HENs, of which the comparison indicates that a more uniform discrete temperature field leads to a lower UFTD which correlated with a better whole enhancement to improve the optimization level of HEN. A novel stage-wise superstructure model where inner utility can be generated is presented for further analysis of correlation between UFTD and the efficiency of HEN, and more optimal HEN structures can be obtained as inner utility added. Inner utility appears to violate the thermodynamic law, but it makes the discrete temperature field more uniform and improves the heat transfer efficiency of the whole HEN, which brings much more profit than the side effect of inner utility. In sum, the UFTD can not only evaluate the optimization level of the HEN, but also be an optimization object to design new HEN with higher efficiency of energy utilization and lower total annual cost.

  18. Rapid Identification of Bacterial Virulence Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-15

    protein sorting and transport. F/’/wyi-deletion mutants had decreased invasiveness of HeLa cells when compared to their parental strain, and it has...mileux. Bacteria with intracellular life styles and have reductive genomes often have many different ABC transporters. This is certainly the case in...34 Microbiology 151:2975-2986. Newman , R.M., P. Salunkhe, A. Godzik, J.C. Reed. 2006. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Bacterial

  19. Applicability of concentration factors for the heavy metals hazard identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzi, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    The bioconcentration factor (BCF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) used as criteria for heavy metals hazards identification are inadequate. These considerations is based on the argument that the BCF-BAF model was developed and validated for xenobiotic synthetic organic substances and that does not recognize the complex internal metal dynamic of uptake, the internal sequestration, and the essentially of some heavy metals [it

  20. Identification of factors affecting individual industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Mirzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High knowledge and technology are rapidly becoming a competitive advantage in today’s world. Individual industries are considered one of the key sectors in the country’s industry. Ranking the factors that affect these industries makes us more familiar with their effectiveness and helps us take actions to improve such factors in knowledge-based companies. Consequently, based on previous research studies on Individual Industries, field observations, and a questionnaire prepared by the researchers, the current study explores and classifies the factors affecting the establishment of these industries. Regarding its purpose, this is an applied research, and regarding data collection, it is a descriptive survey. Using purposive sampling, 60 questionnaires were collected and effective factors were classified applying the SPSS software and the TOPSIS technique. This study suggests that content factors are ranked first place, while contextual and structural factors are ranked second and third, respectively. Therefore, executives and managers in single industries are recommended to strengthen joint enterprise norms and dominant values and beliefs in knowledge-based companies in order to help the growth and development of single industries.

  1. [Identification of risk factors for congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals C, Andrea; Cavada C, Gabriel; Nazer H, Julio

    2014-11-01

    The relative importance of congenital malformations as a cause of death in the first year of life is increasing along with the control of preventable causes of perinatal mortality. To identify risk factors for congenital malformations. Retrospective case-control study of births registered in the database of The Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), in the period 2001-2010. Birth weight and gestational age were significantly lower in cases than controls, behaving as risk factors and associated with a greater severity of congenital malformations. The risk and severity of congenital malformations increased along with mother's age. Fetal growth retardation, a history of congenital malformations in the family, physical factors and acute illnesses of the mother in the first trimester of pregnancy were also significant risk factors for congenital malformations and their severity. The educational level of the mother was a protective factor for congenital malformations and their severity. Variables previously identified as risk factors for congenital malformations, were significantly related with the occurrence of congenital malformations and their severity.

  2. Chlamydial entry involves TARP binding of guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Josh Lane

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis attachment to cells induces the secretion of the elementary body-associated protein TARP (Translocated Actin Recruiting Protein. TARP crosses the plasma membrane where it is immediately phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by unknown host kinases. The Rac GTPase is also activated, resulting in WAVE2 and Arp2/3-dependent recruitment of actin to the sites of chlamydia attachment. We show that TARP participates directly in chlamydial invasion activating the Rac-dependent signaling cascade to recruit actin. TARP functions by binding two distinct Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, Sos1 and Vav2, in a phosphotyrosine-dependent manner. The tyrosine phosphorylation profile of the sequence YEPISTENIYESI within TARP, as well as the transient activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K, appears to determine which GEF is utilized to activate Rac. The first and second tyrosine residues, when phosphorylated, are utilized by the Sos1/Abi1/Eps8 and Vav2, respectively, with the latter requiring the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate. Depletion of these critical signaling molecules by siRNA resulted in inhibition of chlamydial invasion to varying degrees, owing to a possible functional redundancy of the two pathways. Collectively, these data implicate TARP in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton remodeling machinery, demonstrating a mechanism by which C.trachomatis invades non-phagocytic cells.

  3. Knowledge brokerage context factors – What matters in knowledge exchange in impact assessment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarela, Sanna-Riikka; Söderman, Tarja; Lyytimäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Different knowledge brokerage strategies can be applied in impact assessment. • A conceptual framework for knowledge brokering is introduced. • Six test cases from different areas and jurisdictions are reviewed. • Various context factors affect the success of knowledge brokering in IA. - Abstract: The success of an impact assessment (IA) can mean both instrumental success of applying IA results directly in decision-making, and conceptual success linked to learning about policy problems more generally. Both instrumental and conceptual success can be claimed to be reliant on the knowledge exchange context of the IA, shaped by factors such as the complexity of the policy problem, type of policy area, organisational norms, actor constellations and continuance and openness of information sharing. Even though such context factors may be pre-set, they are nevertheless contested and reformulated during each IA process. This paper ties together lessons from six different IA processes that were performed between 2011 and 2013. The cases include agricultural policy at the EU and regional level in Greece, national-level climate change and energy policy in Finland and Estonia, resource efficiency policy at the German national level, and sustainable land use policy in Inner Mongolia, China. The paper introduces and applies a typology of knowledge brokerage context factors. The paper asks how knowledge brokerage is shaped by different contexts and what determines the consequent application (or non-application) of IA tools and the use of IA results. The paper concludes by highlighting the significance of identification and acknowledgement of different knowledge exchange contexts in IA

  4. Identification of Macroeconomic Factors in Large Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Dewachter, Hans; Houssa, Romain

    standard practices in the SVAR literature. Estimators based on the EM algorithm are developped. We apply this framework to a large panel of US monthly macroeconomic series. In particular, we identify nine macroeconomic factors and discuss the economic impact of monetary policy stocks. The results...

  5. Microarray-Based Identification of Transcription Factor Target Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorte, M.; Horstman, A.; Page, R.B.; Heidstra, R.; Stromberg, A.; Boutilier, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Microarray analysis is widely used to identify transcriptional changes associated with genetic perturbation or signaling events. Here we describe its application in the identification of plant transcription factor target genes with emphasis on the design of suitable DNA constructs for controlling TF

  6. Applying Intelligent Algorithms to Automate the Identification of Error Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haizhe; Qu, Qingxing; Munechika, Masahiko; Sano, Masataka; Kajihara, Chisato; Duffy, Vincent G; Chen, Han

    2018-05-03

    Medical errors are the manifestation of the defects occurring in medical processes. Extracting and identifying defects as medical error factors from these processes are an effective approach to prevent medical errors. However, it is a difficult and time-consuming task and requires an analyst with a professional medical background. The issues of identifying a method to extract medical error factors and reduce the extraction difficulty need to be resolved. In this research, a systematic methodology to extract and identify error factors in the medical administration process was proposed. The design of the error report, extraction of the error factors, and identification of the error factors were analyzed. Based on 624 medical error cases across four medical institutes in both Japan and China, 19 error-related items and their levels were extracted. After which, they were closely related to 12 error factors. The relational model between the error-related items and error factors was established based on a genetic algorithm (GA)-back-propagation neural network (BPNN) model. Additionally, compared to GA-BPNN, BPNN, partial least squares regression and support vector regression, GA-BPNN exhibited a higher overall prediction accuracy, being able to promptly identify the error factors from the error-related items. The combination of "error-related items, their different levels, and the GA-BPNN model" was proposed as an error-factor identification technology, which could automatically identify medical error factors.

  7. Exchange factor method: an alternative zonal formulation for analysis of radiating enclosures containing participating media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The exchange factor method (EFM) is introduced and compared to the zone method (ZM). In both the EFM and ZM the region of interest is discretized into volume and surface elements, each considered to be isothermal, which are small enough to give the required resolution. A suitable set of state variables for the system is composed of the surface element radiosities and the gas element emissive powers. The EFM defines exchange factors as dimensionless total-exchange areas for radiant interchange between volume and surface elements by all possible absorption/re-emission paths, but excluding wall reflections. In the EFM, the exchange factors replace the direct-exchange areas of the ZM and are used to write energy balances for each area and volume element in the system. As in the ZM, the radiant energy balance equations result in a set of algebraic equations linear in the system state variables. The distinguishing feature of the EFM is that exchange factors may be measurable quantities. Relationships between the EFM exchange factors and the ZM direct-exchange areas are presented. EFM conservation and reciprocity laws, analogous to those of the ZM, are also included. Temperature and heat flux distributions, predicted using the EFM, for two- and three-dimensional enclosures containing absorbing/emitting, isotropically scattering, and conducting media are included. An application of the EFM is proposed which calls for the measurement of exchange factors in a scale model of the enclosure to be analyzed. The measurement of these factors in an enclosure containing an isotropically scattering medium is discussed. The effects of isotropic scattering and absorption/re-emission processes are shown to be indistinguishable in their contribution to exchange factor paths

  8. Tritium separation factors in distillation and chemical exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Ghosh, S.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1982-01-01

    The vapour pressures of different isotopic hydrogen, water and ammonia molecules have been calculated. These vapour pressures can be used to evaluate relative volatilities of different species for separation of tritium isotopes by distillation. The equilibrium constants for various exchange reactions involving different deuterated and tritiated species of hydrogen, water and ammonia molecules have also been calculated for different temperatures. (author)

  9. Proteomic analysis of Rac1 signaling regulation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hadir; Carpy, Alejandro; Macek, Boris; Malliri, Angeliki

    2016-08-02

    The small GTPase Rac1 is implicated in various cellular processes that are essential for normal cell function. Deregulation of Rac1 signaling has also been linked to a number of diseases, including cancer. The diversity of Rac1 functioning in cells is mainly attributed to its ability to bind to a multitude of downstream effectors following activation by Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs). Despite the identification of a large number of Rac1 binding partners, factors influencing downstream specificity are poorly defined, thus hindering the detailed understanding of both Rac1's normal and pathological functions. In a recent study, we demonstrated a role for 2 Rac-specific GEFs, Tiam1 and P-Rex1, in mediating Rac1 anti- versus pro-migratory effects, respectively. Importantly, via conducting a quantitative proteomic screen, we identified distinct changes in the Rac1 interactome following activation by either GEF, indicating that these opposing effects are mediated through GEF modulation of the Rac1 interactome. Here, we present the full list of identified Rac1 interactors together with functional annotation of the differentially regulated Rac1 binding partners. In light of this data, we also provide additional insights into known and novel signaling cascades that might account for the GEF-mediated Rac1-driven cellular effects.

  10. Common factors and the exchange rate: results from the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rafael de Oliveira Felício

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the usefulness of factor models in explaining the dynamics of the exchange rate Real / Dollar from January 1999 to August 2011. The paper verifies that the inclusion of factors embedded on the common movements of exchange rates of a set of countries significantly improves the in-sample and out-of-sample predictive power of the models comprising only macroeconomic fundamentals commonly used in the literature to forecast the exchange rate. The paper also links the information contained in the factors to global shocks like the demand for dollars - a "dollar effect", volatility and liquidity of global financial markets.

  11. Stochastic Discount Factor Approach to International Risk-Sharing: Evidence from Fixed Exchange Rate Episodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadzi-Vaskov, M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of the stochastic discount factor approach to international risk-sharing applied to fixed exchange rate regimes. We calculate risk-sharing indices for two episodes of fixed or very rigid exchange rates: the Eurozone before and after the introduction of the Euro, and

  12. Influence of market factors on the pricing of exchange traded metals in the medium term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, S. V.; Shevelev, I. M.; Chernyi, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    On the basis of comparison of the influence of the stock exchange factors on the pricing of nonferrous metals for medium term with similar results for short term, it has been established that the main attention should be paid to the changes in the pricing environment on the metal market as a function of the prices of exchange traded metals. The situation on the market of energy carriers (hydrocarbons) and the European, American, and Asian stock exchanges can be based on parity and even significantly influence the variation of the metal prices. In the medium term, constructive development of metal trade should be reasonably promoted by changing the elasticity of supply with regard to prices for exchange traded metals and by applying the stock exchange factors that positively influence the pricing on commodity and stock markets.

  13. Identification of complexity cost factors in manufacturing companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Complexity tends to be arguably the biggest challenge of manufacturing companies. As the demand from the customers increases in volume and diversity, the number of finished products and components increases as well. This increasing product complexity has a direct effect on the production processes....... This research focuses on the relation between product and process complexity. Complexity cost factors are identified and categorized under the industrial standard APQC for process classification. Then, this categorization is used as a tool for identification of complexity cost factors in seven companies...

  14. Identification of some cross flow heat exchanger dynamic responses by measurement with low level binary pseudo-random input signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corran, E.R.; Cummins, J.D.; Hopkinson, A.

    1964-02-01

    An experiment was performed to assess the usefulness of the binary cross-correlation method in the context of the identification problem. An auxiliary burner was excited with a discrete interval binary code and the response to the perturbation of the input heat was observed by recording the variations of the primary inlet, primary outlet and secondary outlet temperatures. The observations were analysed to yield cross-correlation functions and frequency responses were subsequently determined between primary inlet and primary outlet temperatures and also between primary inlet and secondary outlet temperatures. The analysis verified (1) that these dynamic responses of this cross flow heat exchanger may be predicted theoretically, (2) in so far as this heat exchanger is representative of the generality of plant, that the binary cross-correlation method provides adequate identification of plant dynamics for control purposes in environments where small input variations and low signal to noise ratio are obligatory. (author)

  15. Factors controlling sulfur gas exchange in Sphagnum-dominated wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Atmosphere-peatland exchange of reduced sulfur gases was determined seasonally in fen in NH, and in an artificially-acidified fen at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Canada. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) dominated gas fluxes at rates as high as 400 nmol/m(sup -2)hr(sup -1). DMS fluxes measured using enclosures were much higher than those calculated using a stagnant-film model, suggesting that Sphagnum regulated efflux. Temperature controlled diel and seasonal variability in DMS emissions. Use of differing enclosure techniques indicated that vegetated peatlands consume atmospheric carbonyl sulfide. Sulfate amendments caused DMS and methane thiol concentrations in near-surface pore waters to increase rapidly, but fluxes of these gases to the atmosphere were not affected. However, emission data from sites experiencing large differences in rates of sulfate deposition from the atmosphere suggested that chronic elevated sulfate inputs enhance DMS emissions from northern wetlands.

  16. Exchange rate prediction with multilayer perceptron neural network using gold price as external factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fathian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of predicting the exchange rate time series in the foreign exchange rate market is going to be solved using a time-delayed multilayer perceptron neural network with gold price as external factor. The input for the learning phase of the artificial neural network are the exchange rate data of the last five days plus the gold price in two different currencies of the exchange rate as the external factor for helping the artificial neural network improving its forecast accuracy. The five-day delay has been chosen because of the weekly cyclic behavior of the exchange rate time series with the consideration of two holidays in a week. The result of forecasts are then compared with using the multilayer peceptron neural network without gold price external factor by two most important evaluation techniques in the literature of exchange rate prediction. For the experimental analysis phase, the data of three important exchange rates of EUR/USD, GBP/USD, and USD/JPY are used.

  17. Differential Rac1 signalling by guanine nucleotide exchange factors implicates FLII in regulating Rac1-driven cell migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hadir; Carpy, Alejandro; Woroniuk, Anna; Vennin, Claire; White, Gavin; Timpson, Paul; Macek, Boris; Malliri, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rac1 has been implicated in the formation and dissemination of tumours. Upon activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), Rac1 associates with a variety of proteins in the cell thereby regulating various functions, including cell migration. However, activation of Rac1 can lead to opposing migratory phenotypes raising the possibility of exacerbating tumour progression when targeting Rac1 in a clinical setting. This calls for the identification of factors that influence Rac1-driven cell motility. Here we show that Tiam1 and P-Rex1, two Rac GEFs, promote Rac1 anti- and pro-migratory signalling cascades, respectively, through regulating the Rac1 interactome. In particular, we demonstrate that P-Rex1 stimulates migration through enhancing the interaction between Rac1 and the actin-remodelling protein flightless-1 homologue, to modulate cell contraction in a RhoA-ROCK-independent manner. PMID:26887924

  18. Factors Influencing the Thermal Efficiency of Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Di Sipio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The performance of very shallow geothermal systems (VSGs, interesting the first 2 m of depth from ground level, is strongly correlated to the kind of sediment locally available. These systems are attractive due to their low installation costs, less legal constraints, easy maintenance and possibility for technical improvements. The Improving Thermal Efficiency of horizontal ground heat exchangers Project (ITER aims to understand how to enhance the heat transfer of the sediments surrounding the pipes and to depict the VSGs behavior in extreme thermal situations. In this regard, five helices were installed horizontally surrounded by five different backfilling materials under the same climatic conditions and tested under different operation modes. The field test monitoring concerned: (a monthly measurement of thermal conductivity and moisture content on surface; (b continuous recording of air and ground temperature (inside and outside each helix; (c continuous climatological and ground volumetric water content (VWC data acquisition. The interactions between soils, VSGs, environment and climate are presented here, focusing on the differences and similarities between the behavior of the helix and surrounding material, especially when the heat pump is running in heating mode for a very long time, forcing the ground temperature to drop below 0 °C.

  19. Influence of External Factors on the Taiwan Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Wen Huang

    2014-01-01

    Due to the small market size and the low trading volume, emerging markets are, in general, shallow and easily affected by external factors such as the capital flows from foreign portfolio investment and the stock market fluctuations of their major trading partners. This study attempts to investigate how foreign portfolio investment and the trading partner’s equity market affect the local stock market and whether such impacts are persistent through time. Adopting the GARCH-EVT-Copula approac...

  20. The Emerging Role of Guanine Exchange Factors in ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian eDroppelmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Small GTPases participate in a broad range of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and migration. The exchange of GDP for GTP resulting in the activation of these GTPases is catalyzed by a group of enzymes called guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, of which two classes: Dbl-related exchange factors and the more recently described Dock family exchange factors. Increasingly, deregulation of normal GEF activity or function has been associated with a broad range of disease states, including neurodegeneration and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this review, we examine this evidence with special emphasis on the novel role of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RGNEF/p190RhoGEF in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. RGNEF is the first neurodegeneration-linked GEF that regulates not only RhoA GTPase activation but also functions as an RNA binding protein that directly acts with low molecular weight neurofilament (NEFL mRNA 3’UTR to regulate its stability. This dual role for RGNEF, coupled with the increasing understanding of the key role for GEFs in modulating the GTPase function in cell survival suggests a prominent role for GEFs in mediating a critical balance between cytotoxicity and neuroprotection which, when disturbed, contributes to neuronal loss.

  1. The Common Factor of Bilateral U.S. Exchange Rates: What is it Related to?

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomareva, Natalia; Sheen, Jeffrey; Wang, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We identify a common factor driving a panel of fifteen monthly bilateral exchange rates against the U.S. dollar. We find this factor is closely related to U.S. nominal and real macroeconomic variables, financial market variables and commodity prices. Our results suggest this common factor is broadly related to the macroeconomic fundamentals in the Taylor rule and uncovered interest parity models. However, the set of fundamentals relevant to these models changes over time.

  2. Analysis of Critical Success Factors of Online International Learning Exchange of Korean School Pupils with English-Speaking Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Yeon; Park, Sanghoon

    2017-01-01

    This study identifies the factors influencing the success of online international learning exchange (ILE) among Korean school pupils who partnered with American and Australian pupils. In particular, it examined the effects of self-efficacy (SE), exchange infrastructure (EI) and quality of exchange activities (QEA) on the students' learning…

  3. Social Identity and Social Exchange: Identification, Support, and Withdrawal from the Job

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); R. van Dick (Rolf); S. Tavares (Susanna)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIntegrating insights from the social exchange perspective and the social identity perspective on the psychological relationship between the individual and the organization, we propose that evaluations of the support received from the organization and its representatives, and

  4. Identification of the Dimer Exchange Interface of the Bacterial DNA Damage Response Protein UmuD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murison, David A; Timson, Rebecca C; Koleva, Bilyana N; Ordazzo, Michael; Beuning, Penny J

    2017-09-12

    The Escherichia coli SOS response, an induced DNA damage response pathway, confers survival on bacterial cells by providing accurate repair mechanisms as well as the potentially mutagenic pathway translesion synthesis (TLS). The umuD gene products are upregulated after DNA damage and play roles in both nonmutagenic and mutagenic aspects of the SOS response. Full-length UmuD is expressed as a homodimer of 139-amino-acid subunits, which eventually cleaves its N-terminal 24 amino acids to form UmuD'. The cleavage product UmuD' and UmuC form the Y-family polymerase DNA Pol V (UmuD' 2 C) capable of performing TLS. UmuD and UmuD' exist as homodimers, but their subunits can readily exchange to form UmuDD' heterodimers preferentially. Heterodimer formation is an essential step in the degradation pathway of UmuD'. The recognition sequence for ClpXP protease is located within the first 24 amino acids of full-length UmuD, and the partner of full-length UmuD, whether UmuD or UmuD', is degraded by ClpXP. To better understand the mechanism by which UmuD subunits exchange, we measured the kinetics of exchange of a number of fluorescently labeled single-cysteine UmuD variants as detected by Förster resonance energy transfer. Labeling sites near the dimer interface correlate with increased rates of exchange, indicating that weakening the dimer interface facilitates exchange, whereas labeling sites on the exterior decrease the rate of exchange. In most but not all cases, homodimer and heterodimer exchange exhibit similar rates, indicating that somewhat different molecular surfaces mediate homodimer exchange and heterodimer formation.

  5. On factors influencing air-water gas exchange in emergent wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, David T.; Engel, Victor C.; Ferron, Sara; Hickman, Benjamin; Choi, Jay; Harvey, Judson W.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of gas exchange in wetlands is important in order to determine fluxes of climatically and biogeochemically important trace gases and to conduct mass balances for metabolism studies. Very few studies have been conducted to quantify gas transfer velocities in wetlands, and many wind speed/gas exchange parameterizations used in oceanographic or limnological settings are inappropriate under conditions found in wetlands. Here six measurements of gas transfer velocities are made with SF6 tracer release experiments in three different years in the Everglades, a subtropical peatland with surface water flowing through emergent vegetation. The experiments were conducted under different flow conditions and with different amounts of emergent vegetation to determine the influence of wind, rain, water flow, waterside thermal convection, and vegetation on air-water gas exchange in wetlands. Measured gas transfer velocities under the different conditions ranged from 1.1 cm h−1 during baseline conditions to 3.2 cm h−1 when rain and water flow rates were high. Commonly used wind speed/gas exchange relationships would overestimate the gas transfer velocity by a factor of 1.2 to 6.8. Gas exchange due to thermal convection was relatively constant and accounted for 14 to 51% of the total measured gas exchange. Differences in rain and water flow among the different years were responsible for the variability in gas exchange, with flow accounting for 37 to 77% of the gas exchange, and rain responsible for up to 40%.

  6. Factors Influencing Electronic Clinical Information Exchange in Small Medical Group Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralewski, John E.; Zink, Therese; Boyle, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the organizational factors that influence electronic health information exchange (HIE) by medical group practices in rural areas. Methods: A purposive sample of 8 small medical group practices in 3 experimental HIE regions were interviewed to determine the extent of clinical information exchange…

  7. Effects of core polarization and meson exchange currents on electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arima, Akito [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ikegami, Hidetsugu; Muraoka, Mitsuo [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    1980-01-01

    Magnetic form factors observed by electron scattering provide good evidence for core polarization and meson exchange currents. Their effects are discussed by taking /sup 17/O, /sup 51/V, /sup 207/Pb /sup 208/Pb, /sup 209/Bi and /sup 12/C.

  8. Macroeconomics factors and the balanced value of the Czech Koruna/Euro Exchange rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brůha, J.; Derviz, Alexis

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, 7-8 (2006), s. 318-343 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0671 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : exchange rate * latent risk * order flow pricing kernel Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2006

  9. Factors affecting the determination of the isotopically exchangeable phosphorus in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, L.E.M.

    1981-06-01

    In order to evaluate the factors that affect the determination of the isotopically exchangeable phosphorus in soils (L value), various greenhouse experiments were carried out. The following factors were considered: carrier level; plant species; harvest time; nitrogen doses; nitrogen sources; culture conditions and soil type. A radioactive solution with an activity level of approximately 10 μCi 32 p/3 kg soil with different carrier levels was located in layers or mixed completely with the soil depending upon the experiment. (author)

  10. Factors influencing intentions to use social recommender systems: a social exchange perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsung-Sheng; Hsiao, Wei-Hung

    2013-05-01

    This study employs the perspective of social exchange theory and seeks to understand users' intentions to use social recommender systems (SRS) through three psychological factors: trust, shared values, and reputation. We use structural equation modeling to analyze 221 valid questionnaires. The results show that trust has a direct positive influence on the intention to use SRS, followed by shared values, whereas reputation has an indirect influence on SRS use. We further discuss specific recommendations concerning these factors for developing SRS.

  11. Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Michal V.; Janouš, Dalibor; Taufarová, Klára; Havránková, Kateřina; Pavelka, Marian; Kaplan, Věroslav; Marková, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 5 (2011), s. 1035-1039 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1A6/108/07; GA MŠk 2B06068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : carbon fluxes * net ecosystem exchange * spruce forest * beech forest * Grassland * agroecosystem * wetland * climate factors Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.746, year: 2011

  12. Identification of Genetic Factors in the Etiology of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argel Aguilar Valles

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that affects approximately 1% of the worldwide population. It is characterized by psychotic episodes in which individuals have hallucinations or delusions. This disorder also involves a strong element of social dysfunction, lack of motivation and profound cognitive deficits. The causes of this disorder remain largely unknown, but evidence indicates that arises from changes in the development of the central nervous system. Among the identified risk factors for this disorder are several environmental events, including prenatal infections and malnutrition, and complications during childbirth. However, the most important factor seems to be genetics. Despite this, the identification of genes involved in the development of this disorder has emerged as one of the most difficult tasks facing modern genetics and genomics. The development of techniques for studying the human genome has allowed a more systematic approach to determine variations in the genome sequence and structure that area casually involved in schizophrenia. These studies suggest the participation hundreds of genes in schizophrenia development. In addition, it has been suggested that many of these genes are involved in various mental illnesses that today are diagnosed as separate entities, but whose biological substrate may be shared. Key words: schizophrenia, deletions, development, duplications, polymorphisms.

  13. Identification of genetic factors in the etiology of schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Valles, Argel

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that affects approximately 1% of the worldwide population. It is characterized by psychotic episodes in which individuals have hallucinations or delusions. This disorder also involves a strong element of social dysfunction, lack of motivation and profound cognitive deficits. The causes of this disorder remain largely unknown, but evidence indicates that arises from changes in the development of the central nervous system. Among the identified risk factors for this disorder are several environmental events, including prenatal infections and malnutrition, and complications during childbirth. However, the most important factor seems to be genetics. Despite this, the identification of genes involved in the development of this disorder has emerged as one of the most difficult tasks facing modern genetics and genomics. The development of techniques for studying the human genome has allowed a more systematic approach to determine variations in the genome sequence and structure that area casually involved in schizophrenia. These studies suggest the participation of hundreds of genes in schizophrenia development. In addition, it has been suggested that many of these genes are involved in various mental illnesses that today are diagnosed as separate entities, but whose biological substrate may be shared.

  14. Identification and assessment of risk factors affecting construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sayed Bassiony Ahmed Abd El-Karim

    2017-08-01

    Unexpected increase in cost and delays in construction projects are caused by owner, contractor, environments, etc. in which several types of risk factors may occur concurrently. The effect of cost overrun and schedule overrun do not only influence the construction industry but the overall economy as well. Even though construction project increasing in cost and schedule has received extensive attention of researchers, but because of continuous changes and development in the field, the study considered of added value to the construction industry in Egypt, in addition to risk strategy and plan analysis. In order to meet the deadline of a project and due to the complex nature of construction projects, cost and scheduling should be flexible enough to accommodate changes without negatively affecting the overall project cost and duration. As such, the objectives of the presented research in this paper are to identify, study, and assess the effect of the factors that affect cost and time contingency. Data are collected from sixteen construction companies in Egypt. The collected data, output charts and analyses spreadsheets will be used for the development of computerized model built by the authors with identification abbreviation RIAM.

  15. Talent identification model for sprinter using discriminant factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnanik, N. W.; Hariyanto, A.; Herdyanto, Y.; Satia, A.

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify young talented sprinter using discriminant factor. The research was conducted in 3 steps including item pool, screening of item pool, and trial of instruments at the small and big size of samples. 315 male elementary school students participated in this study with mean age of 11-13 years old. Data were collected by measuring anthropometry (standing height, sitting height, body mass, and leg length); testing physical fitness (40m sprint for speed, shuttle run for agility, standing broad jump for power, multistage fitness test for endurance). Data were analyzed using discriminant factor. The result of this study found that there were 5 items that selected as an instrument to identify young talented sprinter: sitting height, body mass, leg length, sprint 40m, and multistage fitness test. Model of Discriminant for talent identification in sprinter was D = -24,497 + (0,155 sitting height) + (0,080 body mass) + (0,148 leg length) + (-1,225 Sprint 40m) + (0,563 MFT). The conclusion of this study: instrument tests that have been selected and discriminant model that have been found can be applied to identify young talented as a sprinter.

  16. Radiation exchange factors between specular inner surfaces of a rectangular enclosure such as transplant production unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, Ahmed M.; Kozai, Toyoki

    2006-01-01

    General mathematical relations are presented for the specular exchange factors, F S , of diffuse radiation exchange between the inner surfaces of a rectangular enclosure. Three of these surfaces are specular reflectors, diffuse emitters and the fourth surface is a diffuse reflector, diffuse emitter. This enclosure can be used as a transplant production unit with artificial lighting for electric energy saving purposes. An image system and the crossed string method are used to derive these relations. The resulting expressions are conceptually simple and similar to the commonly known expressions of the exchange factors between diffuse surfaces, F. The accuracy of the presented F S relations was examined for different numbers of multiple reflections, N, on the specular surfaces and for different aspect ratios (ratio of the width, w to the height, h). The results proved that the relations are accurate and strongly satisfy the well-known relation of the radiation exchange between enclosure surfaces and satisfy the reciprocity relation. For any aspect ratio, considering N of 150 between highly reflective surfaces (ρ = 0.99) is sufficient to estimate the F S factors without any possible error. Using specular reflecting surfaces in such cases significantly reduces the electric energy consumption used for lighting

  17. Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Causes and Contributing Factors Leading to Exchange Transfusion at Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Heydarian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbilirubinemia is common in neonates; it can have a serious rising course. Due to its critical morbidity called "kernicterus", severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia causes which lead to exchange transfusion, should be clarified. This descriptive cross sectional study performed with reviewing of files of 118 neonates weighting 2kg and more who had exchange transfusion in pediatrics ward at Ghaem training hospital in Mashhad from April 2004 to March 2007. Among 118 patients, 75 (63.6% were male, and 43 patients (36.4% were female. The most common cause of exchange transfusion was ABO incompatibility (38.1%. In order of frequency, unknown etiology (25.4%, Rh incompatibility (16.1% with no immune hydrops, Sepsis(8.5%, urinary tract infection (5.1% and others (3.4% (Including Crigler-Najjar and cephalohematoma were next ones. Vaginal delivery and exclusive breast feeding were detected as associated factors. Mean serum bilirubin levels was 28.7 mg/dl (SD. 9.2 ABO incompatibility. ABO incompatibility was the main cause of exchange transfusion. Male gender, vaginal delivery and exclusive breast feeding were seen more among patients who need to be exchanged. So in case of ABO incompatibility especially when delivery route is vaginal, newborns should be visited soon again after early discharge from hospital.

  18. The domain architecture of large guanine nucleotide exchange factors for the small GTP-binding protein Arf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geldner Niko

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small G proteins, which are essential regulators of multiple cellular functions, are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs that stimulate the exchange of the tightly bound GDP nucleotide by GTP. The catalytic domain responsible for nucleotide exchange is in general associated with non-catalytic domains that define the spatio-temporal conditions of activation. In the case of small G proteins of the Arf subfamily, which are major regulators of membrane trafficking, GEFs form a heterogeneous family whose only common characteristic is the well-characterized Sec7 catalytic domain. In contrast, the function of non-catalytic domains and how they regulate/cooperate with the catalytic domain is essentially unknown. Results Based on Sec7-containing sequences from fully-annotated eukaryotic genomes, including our annotation of these sequences from Paramecium, we have investigated the domain architecture of large ArfGEFs of the BIG and GBF subfamilies, which are involved in Golgi traffic. Multiple sequence alignments combined with the analysis of predicted secondary structures, non-structured regions and splicing patterns, identifies five novel non-catalytic structural domains which are common to both subfamilies, revealing that they share a conserved modular organization. We also report a novel ArfGEF subfamily with a domain organization so far unique to alveolates, which we name TBS (TBC-Sec7. Conclusion Our analysis unifies the BIG and GBF subfamilies into a higher order subfamily, which, together with their being the only subfamilies common to all eukaryotes, suggests that they descend from a common ancestor from which species-specific ArfGEFs have subsequently evolved. Our identification of a conserved modular architecture provides a background for future functional investigation of non-catalytic domains.

  19. Heat exchanger modeling and identification for control of waste heat recovery systems in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Rojer, C.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    To meet future CO2 emission targets, Waste Heat Recovery systems have recently attracted much attention for automotive applications, especially for long haul trucks. This paper focuses on the development of a dynamic counter-flow heat exchanger model for control purposes. The model captures the

  20. Intercomparison and harmonization of methodologies, identification of future objectives in radioecology, training and exchange of scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1993-01-01

    Global objectives of the project are: cooperation and the exchange of information between radioecologists from countries outside EC and from countries which are not associated with the Radiation Protection Research Programme, in order to stimulate interactions that would increase the understanding of Radioecology problems; training of young scientists will be emphasized in the IUR new programme; IUR will develop a curriculum for a basic course in radioecology; furthermore IUR will play various roles in the field of informing the public. (R.P.)

  1. Double tube heat exchanger with novel enhancement: Part I - flow development length and adiabatic friction factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiruselvam, R.; Raghavan, Vijay R. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Tronoh (Malaysia)

    2012-04-15

    The study is conducted to evaluate the flow characteristics in a double tube heat exchanger using two new and versatile enhancement configurations. The novelty is that they are usable in single phase forced convection, evaporation and condensation. Correlations are proposed for flow development length and friction factor for use in predicting fluid pumping power in thermal equipment as well as in subsequent heat transfer characterization of the surface. (orig.)

  2. The influence of macroeconomic factors to the dynamics of stock exchange in the republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakizada Uteulievna Niyazbekova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the influence of macroeconomic factors on Kazakhstan Stock Exchange Market by using data from 2005 to 2014. Engle-Granger cointegration test has shown that stock index is cointegrated with the exchange rate, interest rate, CPI and oil price. Vector error correction model has confirmed that macroeconomic variables and the stock index has a long-term equilibrium relationship. Moreover, empirical results have shown that stock index can be used as a leading indicator of the economic situation in Kazakhstan. Therefore, the authors decided to consider the impact of major macroeconomic indicators to the dynamics of the stock market of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Engle-Granger cointegration test results show that the following variables such as exchange rate, 10-years long-term bond rate, the consumer price index and the Brent oil price are cointegrated with stock index, which means that there is a long-term relationship between this stock market index and these variables. With the help of econometric models, the authors have found the factors such as the exchange rate, the 10-year long-term bonds rate, the consumer price index and the Brent oil price (these factors have the long-term relationship with stock market index. Changes in the dynamics of the stock market index in Kazakhstan are caused by changes in the dynamics of Central bank's reserves and export. The analysis has shown that the economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (the index reflects the situation in the real sector of the economy remains dependent on world oil prices, the volume of exports and the rate of the national currency

  3. The importance of social exchange to nurses and nurse assistants: impact on retention factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybou, Jeroen; De Pourcq, Kaat; Paeshuyse, Michel; Gemmel, Paul

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the norm of reciprocity by examining relationships between perceived organisational support (POS), the quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) and psychological contract breach (PCB) and important nurse retention factors identified in the literature. A major cause of turnover among nurses is related to unsatisfying workplaces. Previous research, mainly outside the nursing setting, found that social exchange affects employees' work-related attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 217 nurses and nursing assistants to test and refine a model linking POS, LMX, PCB with job satisfaction, trust and turnover intentions. Hierarchical multiple linear regression revealed that POS, PCB and LMX explained significant variance in all three retention factors: job satisfaction (adjusted R² = 0.502), trust (adjusted R² = 0.462) and turnover intentions (adjusted R² = 0.196). POS and PCB predicted most strongly job satisfaction (P < 0.001) and trust (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). LMX predicted most strongly intention to leave (P < 0.01). In our study, POS, the quality of LMX and PCB were strongly related to job satisfaction, trust and turnover intentions. Nursing managers and leaders should recognize the importance of social exchange within their organisation to build trust, satisfy and retain scarce nurses and nursing assistants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Membrane association of the Arabidopsis ARF exchange factor GNOM involves interaction of conserved domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anders, Nadine; Nielsen, Michael M.; Keicher, Jutta

    2008-01-01

    vesicle formation by activating ARF GTPases on specific membranes in animals, plants, and fungi. However, apart from the catalytic exchange activity of the SEC7 domain, the functional significance of other conserved domains is virtually unknown. Here, we show that a distinct N-terminal domain of GNOM......The GNOM protein plays a fundamental role in Arabidopsis thaliana development by regulating endosome-to-plasma membrane trafficking required for polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1. GNOM is a family member of large ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs), which regulate...... mediates dimerization and in addition interacts heterotypically with two other conserved domains in vivo. In contrast with N-terminal dimerization, the heterotypic interaction is essential for GNOM function, as mutations abolishing this interaction inactivate the GNOM protein and compromise its membrane...

  5. Factors influencing rural and urban emergency clinicians' participation in an online knowledge exchange intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A; Murphy, Andrea L; Sinclair, Douglas; McGrath, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Rural emergency departments (EDs) generally have limited access to continuing education and are typically staffed by clinicians without pediatric emergency specialty training. Emergency care of children is complex and the majority of children receive emergency care in non-pediatric tertiary care centers. In recent decades, there has been a call to action to improve quality and safety in the emergency care of children. Of the one million ED visits by children in Ontario in 2005-2006, one in three visited more than once in a year and one in 15 returned to the ED within 72 hours of the index visit. This study explored factors influencing rural and urban ED clinicians' participation in a Web-based knowledge exchange intervention that focused on best practice knowledge about pediatric emergency care. The following questions guided the study: (i) What are the individual, context of practice or knowledge factors which impact a clinician's decision to participate in a Web-based knowledge exchange intervention?; (ii) What are clinicians' perceptions of organizational expectations regarding knowledge and information sources to be used in practice?; and (iii) What are the preferred knowledge sources of rural and urban emergency clinicians? A Web-based knowledge exchange intervention, the Pediatric Emergency Care Web Based Knowledge Exchange Project, for rural and urban ED clinicians was developed. The website contained 12 pediatric emergency practice learning modules with linked asynchronous discussion forums. The topics for the modules were determined through a needs assessment and the module content was developed by known experts in the field. A follow-up survey was sent to a convenience sample of 187 clinicians from nine rural and two urban Canadian EDs participating in the pediatric emergency Web-based knowledge exchange intervention study. The survey response rate was 56% (105/187). Participation in the knowledge exchange intervention was related to individual

  6. Contribution of meson exchange currents to magnetic form factor of a few complex nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathiot, J.F.

    1981-12-01

    We were interested in the contribution of meson exchange currents (MEC) to the magnetic form factor (MFF) of 49 Ti, 51 V, 87 Sr, 93 Nb at high momentum transfer (1.8 fm -1 to 3.2 fm -1 ). We found that the contribution of tensor correlations to the 1 S 0 - 3 S 1 transition of MEC (adding the 3 D 1 tensor part to the 3 S 1 relative state) multiply the previous calculations by a factor of 2.5 to 4. The sensitivity of MEC to the hadronic form factor is also estimated. It remains of discrepancy of a factor 2 for the MFF at 3 fm -1 for the first three nuclei [fr

  7. Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

  8. Structural Dynamics Control Allosteric Activation of Cytohesin Family Arf GTPase Exchange Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaby, Andrew W.; Das, Sanchaita; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Irving, Thomas C.; Bilsel, Osman; Lambright, David G.

    2018-01-01

    Membrane dynamic processes including vesicle biogenesis depend on Arf guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) containing a catalytic Sec7 domain and a membrane-targeting module such as a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The catalytic output of cytohesin family Arf GEFs is controlled by autoinhibitory interactions that impede accessibility of the exchange site in the Sec7 domain. These restraints can be relieved through activator Arf-GTP binding to an allosteric site comprising the PH domain and proximal autoinhibitory elements (Sec7-PH linker and C-terminal helix). Small-angle X-ray scattering and negative-stain electron microscopy were used to investigate the structural organization and conformational dynamics of cytohesin-3 (Grp1) in autoinhibited and active states. The results support a model in which hinge dynamics in the autoinhibited state expose the activator site for Arf-GTP binding, while subsequent C-terminal helix unlatching and repositioning unleash conformational entropy in the Sec7-PH linker to drive exposure of the exchange site.

  9. Identification of individual protein-ligand NOEs in the limit of intermediate exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibarkh, Mikhail; Malia, Thomas J.; Hopkins, Brian T.; Wagner, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    Interactions of proteins with small molecules or other macromolecules play key roles in many biological processes and in drug action, and NMR is an excellent tool for their structural characterization. Frequently, however, line broadening due to intermediate exchange completely eliminates the signals needed for measuring specific intermolecular NOEs. This limits the use of NMR for detailed structural studies in such kinetic situations. Here we show that an optimally chosen excess of ligand over protein can reduce the extent of line broadening for both the ligand and the protein. This makes observation of ligand resonances possible but reduces the size of the measurable NOEs due to the residual line broadening and the non-stoichiometric concentrations. Because the solubility of small molecule drug leads are often limited to high micromolar concentrations, protein concentrations are restricted to even lower values in the low micromolar range. At these non-stoichiometric concentrations and in the presence of significant residual line broadening, conventional NOESY experiments very often are not sensitive enough to observe intermolecular NOEs since the signals inverted by the NOESY preparation pulse sequence relax prior to significant NOE build up. Thus, we employ methods related to driven NOE spectroscopy to investigate protein-ligand interactions in the intermediate exchange regime. In this approach, individual protein resonances are selectively irradiated for up to five seconds to build up measurable NOEs at the ligand resonances. To enable saturation of individual protein resonances we prepare deuterated protein samples selectively protonated at a few sites so that the 1D 1 H spectrum of the protein is resolved well enough to permit irradiation of individual protein signals, which do not overlap with the ligand spectrum. This approach is suitable for measuring a sufficiently large number of protein-ligand NOEs that allow calculation of initial complex structures

  10. Testing the CAPM and Three Factors Model in China: Evidence from the Shanghai Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Weixi

    2015-01-01

    Since inception, China’s stock market has grown rapidly and has become one of the most important emerging markets in the world. However, many popular financial media depicts China’s stock market as irrational. Besides, empirical studies on asset pricing in China’s stock market do not provide a consistent conclusion for different periods. This study tests the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and Fama-French Three Factors Model in Shanghai Stock Exchange, China. For validity test of the CAPM,...

  11. Health information exchange implementation: lessons learned and critical success factors from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Sue S; Schooley, Benjamin L; Bhavsar, Grishma P

    2014-08-15

    statewide HIE were found. The most significant perceived success was accomplishing the implementation, although many interviewees also underscored the value of a project champion with decision-making power. In terms of lessons learned, social reasons were found to be very significant motivators for early implementation, frequently outweighing economic motivations. It was clear that understanding the guides early in the project would have mitigated some of the challenges that emerged, and early communication with the electronic health record vendor so that they have a solid understanding of the undertaking was critical. An HIE implementations evaluation framework was found to be useful for assessing challenges, motivations, value propositions for participating, and success factors to consider for future implementations. This case study illuminates five critical success factors for implementation of a health system onto a statewide HIE. This study also reveals that organizations have varied motivations and value proposition perceptions for engaging in the exchange of health information, few of which, at the early stages, are economically driven.

  12. Estimation of Hydrogen-Exchange Protection Factors from MD Simulation Based on Amide Hydrogen Bonding Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Hee; Venable, John D.; Steckler, Caitlin; Cellitti, Susan E.; Lesley, Scott A.; Spraggon, Glen; Brock, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) studies have provided critical insight into our understanding of protein folding, structure and dynamics. More recently, Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HX-MS) has become a widely applicable tool for HX studies. The interpretation of the wealth of data generated by HX-MS experiments as well as other HX methods would greatly benefit from the availability of exchange predictions derived from structures or models for comparison with experiment. Most reported computational HX modeling studies have employed solvent-accessible-surface-area based metrics in attempts to interpret HX data on the basis of structures or models. In this study, a computational HX-MS prediction method based on classification of the amide hydrogen bonding modes mimicking the local unfolding model is demonstrated. Analysis of the NH bonding configurations from Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation snapshots is used to determine partitioning over bonded and non-bonded NH states and is directly mapped into a protection factor (PF) using a logistics growth function. Predicted PFs are then used for calculating deuteration values of peptides and compared with experimental data. Hydrogen exchange MS data for Fatty acid synthase thioesterase (FAS-TE) collected for a range of pHs and temperatures was used for detailed evaluation of the approach. High correlation between prediction and experiment for observable fragment peptides is observed in the FAS-TE and additional benchmarking systems that included various apo/holo proteins for which literature data were available. In addition, it is shown that HX modeling can improve experimental resolution through decomposition of in-exchange curves into rate classes, which correlate with prediction from MD. Successful rate class decompositions provide further evidence that the presented approach captures the underlying physical processes correctly at the single residue level. This assessment is further strengthened in a comparison of

  13. Sector Identification in a Set of Stock Return Time Series Traded at the London Stock Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronnello, C.; Tumminello, M.; Lillo, F.; Micciche, S.; Mantegna, R. N.

    2005-09-01

    We compare some methods recently used in the literature to detect the existence of a certain degree of common behavior of stock returns belonging to the same economic sector. Specifically, we discuss methods based on random matrix theory and hierarchical clustering techniques. We apply these methods to a portfolio of stocks traded at the London Stock Exchange. The investigated time series are recorded both at a daily time horizon and at a 5-minute time horizon. The correlation coefficient matrix is very different at different time horizons confirming that more structured correlation coefficient matrices are observed for long time horizons. All the considered methods are able to detect economic information and the presence of clusters characterized by the economic sector of stocks. However, different methods present a different degree of sensitivity with respect to different sectors. Our comparative analysis suggests that the application of just a single method could not be able to extract all the economic information present in the correlation coefficient matrix of a stock portfolio.

  14. CONREAL web server: identification and visualization of conserved transcription factor binding sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berezikov, E.; Guryev, V.; Cuppen, E.

    2005-01-01

    The use of orthologous sequences and phylogenetic footprinting approaches have become popular for the recognition of conserved and potentially functional sequences. Several algorithms have been developed for the identification of conserved transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), which are

  15. Identification of fermentation inhibitors in wood hydrolyzates and removal of inhibitors by ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Caidian

    1998-12-01

    Common methods employed in the ethanol production from biomass consist of chemical or enzymatic degradation of biomass into sugars and then fermentation of sugars into ethanol or other chemicals. However, some degradation products severely inhibit the fermentation processes and substantially reduce the efficiency of ethanol production. How to remove inhibitors from the reaction product mixture and increase the production efficiency are critical in the commercialization of any processes of energy from biomass. The present study has investigated anion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction as potential methods for inhibitor removal. An analytical method has been developed to identify the fermentation inhibitors in a hydrolyzate. The majority of inhibitors present in hybrid poplar hydrolyzate have positively been identified. Ion exchange with weak basic Dowex-MWA-1 resin has been proved to be an effective mean to remove fermentation inhibitors from hybrid poplar hydrolyzate and significantly increase the fermentation productivity. Extraction with n-butanol might be a preferred way to remove inhibitors from wood hydrolyzates and improve the fermentability of sugars in the hydrolyzates. n-Butanol also removes some glucose, mannose and xylose from the hydrolyzate. Inhibitor identification reveals that lignin and sugar degradation compounds including both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes and carboxylic acids formed in hydrolysis, plus fatty acids and other components from wood extractives are major fermentation inhibitors in Sacchromyces cerevisiae fermentation. There are 35 components identified as fermentation inhibitors. Among them, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, syringic acid, syringaldehyde, and ferulic acid are among the most abundant aromatic inhibitors in hybrid poplar hydrolyzate. The conversion of aldehyde groups into carboxylic acid groups in the nitric acid catalyzed hydrolysis reduces the toxicity of the hydrolyzate. A wide spectrum of

  16. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and Psychosocial Factors at Work Among Healthcare Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson Hanse, Jan; Harlin, Ulrika; Jarebrant, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The study aims to examine the associations between leader–member exchange (LMX) and psychosocial factors at work. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was undertaken at four units in two not-for-profit hospitals in southwestern Sweden. The study sample included 240 employees.......-quality LMX was associated with good psychosocial work conditions experienced by the employees. Conclusions: The results support possible ways for managers and employees to strengthen their relationships and this may in turn lead to more sustainable systems in health care.......Aim: The study aims to examine the associations between leader–member exchange (LMX) and psychosocial factors at work. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was undertaken at four units in two not-for-profit hospitals in southwestern Sweden. The study sample included 240 employees....... Results: Significant correlations were found between LMX items and most of the psychosocial domains and dimensions. The strongest correlations were found between the LMX item affect and rewards/recognition, role clarity and predictability, and the LMX item loyalty and rewards/recognition. In sum, high...

  17. Factors influencing the alignment of accounting information systems of accepted manufacturing firms in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Tamoradi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to detect factors influencing the alignment of accounting information systems for firms in manufacturing sector listed on Tehran Stock Exchange. The concept of alignment has been investigated for many years, and strategic alignment plays essential role in increasing company performance. This paper investigates different levels of alignment and studies the factors, which influence alignment. More specifically, the work concentrates on the alignment between the requirements for accounting information (AIS requirements and the capacity of accounting systems (AIS capacity to build the information, in the specific context of manufacturing in Iran. The research sample consists of 216 companies over the period 2011-2007. The fit between these two sets was explored based on the moderation method and evidences indicate that AIS alignment in some firms was high. In addition, the relationship between the dependent variable and independent variables through multiple regressions yields a positive relationship between these variables.

  18. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changpeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recognition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantifying the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled: information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  19. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange studies of the rat thyroid transcription factor 1 homeodomain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, Gennaro; Fogolari, Federico; Damante, Giuseppe; Formisano, Silvestro; Tell, Gianluca; Leonardi, Antonio; Di Lauro, Roberto; Viglino, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    The 1 H NMR solution structure of the rat thyroid transcription factor 1 homeodomain (TTF-1 HD) showed that the molecule folds like classical homeodomains. The C-terminal extension of helix III (fragment 51-59) appeared to adopt a helical geometry, albeit not as rigid as the preceding portion, but the hydrogen-deuterium exchange of backboneamides and the NOE data provided evidence of a discontinuity between the two moieties of helix III at the highly conserved fragmentAsn 51 -His 52 -Arg 53 .Analysis of quantitative measurements of isotope exchange rates allows one to recognize the general occurrence, in that region of HD motifs, of opposite effects to helix III stability. Asparagine, histidine and arginine residues occur most frequently at the beginning and end of protein helices.In TTF-1 HD a local fluctuation is observed in the fragment 51-53 which either kinks or tightens the α-helix. A search through the protein structure database reveals that the three most common variants of HD fragments 51-53 are often involved in helices and, frequently, in helix initiation or termination. For homeodomains in general, the nature of the fragment 51-53 may be related to the conformational dynamics of their DNA-recognition helix (helix III). Besides the specific results on fragment 51-53, the complete isotope exchange analysis of TTF-1 HD data shows that the partially solvent-exposed recognition helix is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions, like most of the structured regions of the molecule. Hydrophobic stabilization of the contacting regions meets the requirements of a DNA-interaction mechanism which, as shown with other DNA-protein complexes, should entail negative heat capacity variations due to changes in solvent exposure of the nonpolar protein surface

  20. Identification of noise in linear data sets by factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscoe, B.A.; Hopke, Ph.K.

    1982-01-01

    A technique which has the ability to identify bad data points, after the data has been generated, is classical factor analysis. The ability of classical factor analysis to identify two different types of data errors make it ideally suited for scanning large data sets. Since the results yielded by factor analysis indicate correlations between parameters, one must know something about the nature of the data set and the analytical techniques used to obtain it to confidentially isolate errors. (author)

  1. A dynamic balanced scorecard for identification internal process factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad sofiyabadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a dynamic balanced score card (BSC to investigate the strategic internal process management factors. The proposed dynamic BSC emphasizes on internal processes aspect, and using VIKOR and Shannon Entropy, determinants the internal processes, process management and improvement and all important factors are ranked. The current study first introduces dynamic BSC and examines effective factors on the process. The proposed model focuses on internal processes perspective of BSC and determines importance degree of each factor is used using VIKOR decision-making techniques.

  2. Identification of regulatory targets for the bacterial Nus factor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniulyte, Gabriele; Singh, Navjot; Benoit, Courtney; Johnson, Richard; Ferguson, Robert; Paramo, Mauricio; Stringer, Anne M; Scott, Ashley; Lapierre, Pascal; Wade, Joseph T

    2017-12-11

    Nus factors are broadly conserved across bacterial species, and are often essential for viability. A complex of five Nus factors (NusB, NusE, NusA, NusG and SuhB) is considered to be a dedicated regulator of ribosomal RNA folding, and has been shown to prevent Rho-dependent transcription termination. Here, we identify an additional cellular function for the Nus factor complex in Escherichia coli: repression of the Nus factor-encoding gene, suhB. This repression occurs primarily by translation inhibition, followed by Rho-dependent transcription termination. Thus, the Nus factor complex can prevent or promote Rho activity depending on the gene context. Conservation of putative NusB/E binding sites upstream of Nus factor genes suggests that Nus factor autoregulation occurs in many bacterial species. Additionally, many putative NusB/E binding sites are also found upstream of other genes in diverse species, and we demonstrate Nus factor regulation of one such gene in Citrobacter koseri. We conclude that Nus factors have an evolutionarily widespread regulatory function beyond ribosomal RNA, and that they are often autoregulatory.

  3. A hierarchy of factors influence discontinuous gas exchange in the grasshopper Paracinema tricolor (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Berlizé; Chown, Steven L; Terblanche, John S

    2014-10-01

    The evolutionary origin and maintenance of discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) in tracheate arthropods are poorly understood and highly controversial. We investigated prioritization of abiotic factors in the gas exchange control cascade by examining oxygen, water and haemolymph pH regulation in the grasshopper Paracinema tricolor. Using a full-factorial design, grasshoppers were acclimated to hypoxic or hyperoxic (5% O2, 40% O2) gas conditions, or dehydrated or hydrated, whereafter their CO2 release was measured under a range of O2 and relative humidity (RH) conditions (5%, 21%, 40% O2 and 5%, 60%, 90% RH). DGE was significantly less common in grasshoppers acclimated to dehydrating conditions compared with the other acclimations (hypoxia, 98%; hyperoxia, 100%; hydrated, 100%; dehydrated, 67%). Acclimation to dehydrating conditions resulted in a significant decrease in haemolymph pH from 7.0±0.3 to 6.6±0.1 (mean ± s.d., P=0.018) and also significantly increased the open (O)-phase duration under 5% O2 treatment conditions (5% O2, 44.1±29.3 min; 40% O2, 15.8±8.0 min; 5% RH, 17.8±1.3 min; 60% RH, 24.0±9.7 min; 90% RH, 20.6±8.9 min). The observed acidosis could potentially explain the extension of the O-phase under low RH conditions, when it would perhaps seem more useful to reduce the O-phase to lower respiratory water loss. The results confirm that DGE occurrence and modulation are affected by multiple abiotic factors. A hierarchical framework for abiotic factors influencing DGE is proposed in which the following stressors are prioritized in decreasing order of importance: oxygen supply, CO2 excretion and pH modulation, oxidative damage protection and water savings. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Porphyromonas gingivalis Uses Specific Domain Rearrangements and Allelic Exchange to Generate Diversity in Surface Virulence Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashper, Stuart G; Mitchell, Helen L; Seers, Christine A; Gladman, Simon L; Seemann, Torsten; Bulach, Dieter M; Chandry, P Scott; Cross, Keith J; Cleal, Steven M; Reynolds, Eric C

    2017-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen of chronic periodontitis. The virulence of P. gingivalis is reported to be strain related and there are currently a number of strain typing schemes based on variation in capsular polysaccharide, the major and minor fimbriae and adhesin domains of Lys-gingipain (Kgp), amongst other surface proteins. P. gingivalis can exchange chromosomal DNA between strains by natural competence and conjugation. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variability of P. gingivalis strains sourced from international locations over a 25-year period and to determine if variability in surface virulence factors has a phylogenetic basis. Whole genome sequencing was performed on 13 strains and comparison made to 10 previously sequenced strains. A single nucleotide polymorphism-based phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a shallow tri-lobed phylogeny. There was a high level of reticulation in the phylogenetic network, demonstrating extensive horizontal gene transfer between the strains. Two highly conserved variants of the catalytic domain of the major virulence factor the Kgp proteinase (Kgp cat I and Kgp cat II) were found. There were three variants of the fourth Kgp C-terminal cleaved adhesin domain. Specific variants of the cell surface proteins FimA, FimCDE, MfaI, RagAB, Tpr, and PrtT were also identified. The occurrence of all these variants in the P. gingivalis strains formed a mosaic that was not related to the SNP-based phylogeny. In conclusion P. gingivalis uses domain rearrangements and genetic exchange to generate diversity in specific surface virulence factors.

  5. Respective influence of thermodynamic, hydrodynamic and diffusion factors on ion exchanger operation. Application to the ion exchanger NYMPHEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoud, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nymphea is an annular ion exchanger, with a resin bed 30 centimeter-thick, used for purification of the water from the spent fuel storage pool at La Hague reprocessing plant. Very low concentration solutions (10 -12 eq/l for cobalt) are purified by Nymphea, and parameter must be extrapolated from the range 0.01 - 0.0001 eq/l to very low concentrations. A model is developed, describing ion state inside the grains. The limiting step in Nymphea operation is external diffusion. Diffusion time is determined by mean grain size which should be accurately defined for extrapolation of results from monodispersed distribution (often the case in laboratories) to polydispersed (often the case in industry). Operation of an ion exchanger can be simulated for any ion number in solution. In steady state condition of concentration pool purification increases with flow rate. Simulation in transient operation allows the determination of all the concentrations in function of time and hence to calculate the time to reach the maximum permissible concentration for cobalt. This time depends upon calcium pollution (by fuel can dissolution, atmospheric pollution) which is not accurately known [fr

  6. Identification of a potent endothelium-derived angiogenic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankowski, Vera; Tölle, Markus; Tran, Thi Nguyet Anh

    2013-01-01

    The secretion of angiogenic factors by vascular endothelial cells is one of the key mechanisms of angiogenesis. Here we report on the isolation of a new potent angiogenic factor, diuridine tetraphosphate (Up4U) from the secretome of human endothelial cells. The angiogenic effect of the endothelia...

  7. Progress in the identification of genetic factors in periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Jepsen, S.; Loos, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility to periodontitis is determined by a complex interplay between bacteria, the immune system, and life-style factors, and is mainly regulated by genes. The genetic factors contributing to the pathogenesis of periodontitis are still not fully defined. The aim of the present review is

  8. Effect of complexing reagents on the ionization constant of boric acid and its relation to isotopic exchange separation factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.; Subramanian, R.; Mathur, P.K.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of change in concentration of complexing reagents having two or more hydroxyl groups, viz., ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dextrose and mannitol on the ionization constant of boric acid has been studied by pH-metric titration method. The effect of increase in ionization constant of boric acid on isotopic exchange separation factor for the separation of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography has been studied by the batch method. (author). 9 refs

  9. Geometric radiation exchange factors for axial radiative transfer in an LWR core filled with absorbing-emitting gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.H.; Cho, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A reactor core filled with an emitting-absorbing mixture (like steam, hydrogen gas and fission gases) is considered. Analysis is provided to evaluate axial radiative heat exchange of a rod bundle with a nonuniform axial temperature distribution. The necessary radiation exchange shape factors (geometric mean absorptance, emittance and transmittance) between segments of the complex rod bundle arrangement are presented. They are applicable to arbitrary sizes of segments, well suited for numerical computations

  10. Identification and assessment of organisational factors related to the safety of NPPs - State-of-the-Art Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumont, Genevieve; Bourrier, Mathilde; Frischknecht, Albert; Schoenfeld, Isabelle; Weber, Mike J.

    1999-09-01

    applications. The first application of the assessment method results from detection of organisational weaknesses in events or inspections, or from continuing deteriorating performance. The assessment tries to find root causes and contributing causes of the identified weaknesses in the organisation. This application is considered 'reactive'. The references for this approach are requirements of the regulatory body or utility commitments, or the legal framework. The second application assesses the organisational factors as leading indicators of performance problems. This application is considered 'proactive', integrating information on organisational factors in order to capture mechanisms which are very important for the reliability of the organisation. This could be the decision-making process, change process, coherence of the organisation with the policy, etc. Lastly, the participants identified several research needs for the identification and assessment of organisational factors, including the importance of international co-operation: - assessing the impact of organisational factors on human safety performance; - transferring of knowledge and developing a common metric amongst Member countries for comparing methods and audit practices; - establishing a common understanding of specific organisational mechanisms, features and patterns; - exchanging operational performance data for analysing the risk significance of organisational factors; - exchanging information in two to three years to discuss progress in concepts; - establishing theories and methodology, identifying risk significance and quantifying organisational factors

  11. An investigation on important factors influencing on forecasted earnings adjustment: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Babakhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing earning adjustment on firms selected on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2011. There are four independent variables associated with the proposed study of this paper including Proportion of shares owned by institutional investors, Return on assets, Profit change and Market value to book value. In addition, Investment restructuring is considered as control variable. The results of the implementation of regression analysis indicate that there was a reverse relationship between earning forecasted adjustment and two independent variables including size of firm as well as the ratio of market value to book value. However, Net profit has a direct and positive relationship with earning forecast adjustment.

  12. π-exchange NN interaction model with overlapping nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoud, X.

    1986-01-01

    The nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction model includes a π-exchange and takes into account the first excited state Δ(1232) of the nucleon. It is supplemented by a short-range repulsion which has been derived from the nucleon form factor (rms radius b/sub f/) combined with the three-quark wave function (rms radius b/sub q/). The optimization of the model on empirical scattering phase shifts below 300 MeV gives, for a minimum chi 2 , the root-mean-square radii b/sub f/ = b/sub q/ = 0.51 fm and a coupling constant G/sub π/ 2 /4π = 13

  13. Identification of Risk Factors for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shea, M. T; Hebert, Norman J

    2007-01-01

    The primary research aims are to examine the early longitudinal course of PTSD symptoms and test hypotheses regarding risk factors for chronic PTSD in military personnel returning from Iraq or Afghanistan...

  14. Institutional factors as criteria for business environment identification

    OpenAIRE

    Klovienė, Lina

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on the analysis of business environment in the context of performance measurement. Performance measurement is useful for an organization when it fits into the external and internal environment of the organization. The first requirement is to identify the business environment in order to analyze performance measurement. Institutional theory identifies internal and external environmental factors as institutional factors, according to which the behaviour of an organization coul...

  15. Identification of coordination factors affecting building projects performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Salah Alaloul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects performance requires improvement to fulfil the complexity of the stakeholders’ needs and expectations. Coordination process is proposed as an efficient solution for weak performance of construction projects. Therefore, coordination factors are vital in ensuring a successful implementation of all project phases. This study aimed to identify and prioritise coordination factors that influence the performance of building projects in Malaysian context. A vast body of literature on coordination process was reviewed and resulted in 53 coordination factor. Three rounds of Delphi technique were conducted. The most effective coordination factors were ranked based on the Relative Importance Index (RII such as Scheduling (RII = 0.97, Quality assurance plan (RII = 0.93, and all parties’ participation in plans (RII = 0.89. These coordination factors have fulfilled the research gap and provided better management and higher performance for project parties. The results offer insightful perspectives to define the most effective coordination factors, for addressing the dependency between project tasks and the parties to enhance project performance.

  16. Haploinsufficiency of the Sec7 guanine nucleotide exchange factor gea1 impairs septation in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Eckler

    Full Text Available Membrane trafficking is essential to eukaryotic life and is controlled by a complex network of proteins that regulate movement of proteins and lipids between organelles. The GBF1/GEA family of Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs regulates trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi by catalyzing the exchange of GDP for GTP on ADP Ribosylation Factors (Arfs. Activated Arfs recruit coat protein complex 1 (COP-I to form vesicles that ferry cargo between these organelles. To further explore the function of the GBF1/GEA family, we have characterized a fission yeast mutant lacking one copy of the essential gene gea1 (gea1+/-, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe ortholog of GBF1. The haploinsufficient gea1+/- strain was shown to be sensitive to the GBF1 inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA and was rescued from BFA sensitivity by gea1p overexpression. No overt defects in localization of arf1p or arf6p were observed in gea1+/- cells, but the fission yeast homolog of the COP-I cargo sac1 was mislocalized, consistent with impaired COP-I trafficking. Although Golgi morphology appeared normal, a slight increase in vacuolar size was observed in the gea1+/- mutant strain. Importantly, gea1+/- cells exhibited dramatic cytokinesis-related defects, including disorganized contractile rings, an increased septation index, and alterations in septum morphology. Septation defects appear to result from altered secretion of enzymes required for septum dynamics, as decreased secretion of eng1p, a β-glucanase required for septum breakdown, was observed in gea1+/- cells, and overexpression of eng1p suppressed the increased septation phenotype. These observations implicate gea1 in regulation of septum breakdown and establish S. pombe as a model system to explore GBF1/GEA function in cytokinesis.

  17. Factors Influencing the Identification of Sustainable Opportunities by SMEs: Empirical Evidence from Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Progress Choongo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 to examine the factors influencing the identification of sustainable opportunities among SMEs in a developing country, Zambia. The factors under investigation include knowledge of the natural/social environment, perception of threats to the natural/social environment, altruism towards others and entrepreneurial knowledge. We interviewed 220 owner-managers in the trading and service sector who supply goods and services to the mining industry in Zambia. We found that altruism towards others was partially supported by our empirical results while the positive effects of knowledge of the natural/social environment and perception of threats to the natural/social environment on the identification of sustainable opportunities were not supported. Contrary to our expectations, entrepreneurial knowledge does not positively moderate the relationship between explanatory variables and the identification of sustainable opportunities. In sum, we found only limited empirical support for the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 concerning the identification of sustainable opportunities. Our findings contribute to literature on entrepreneurship and sustainable opportunity identification by showing what factors influence the identification of sustainable opportunities. This can help us to create awareness among entrepreneurs regarding the effects of entrepreneurial activities on the environment and society; consequently, stimulating entrepreneurs to identify sustainable opportunities.

  18. Identification and assessment of organisational factors related to the safety of NPPs - State-of-the-Art Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumont, Genevieve; Bourrier, Mathilde; Frischknecht, Albert; Schoenfeld, Isabelle; Weber, Mike J.

    1999-01-01

    participants identified several research needs for the identification and assessment of organisational factors, including the importance of international co-operation: - assessing the impact of organisational factors on human safety performance; - transferring of knowledge and developing a common metric amongst Member countries for comparing methods and audit practices; - establishing a common understanding of specific organisational mechanisms, features and patterns; - exchanging operational performance data for analysing the risk significance of organisational factors; - exchanging information in two to three years to discuss progress in concepts; - establishing theories and methodology, identifying risk significance and quantifying organisational factors. This report is divided in three volumes: Volume I: 'Introduction' provides background information on the development of the workshop and how the workshop was organized. 'Organisational Factors' provides a description of the twelve factors identified in the workshop. 'Assessment Approaches' discusses various methods for assessing organisational factors. 'Future Needs' describes research needs to enhance understanding and knowledge of organisational factors and its contribution to human safety performance and risk. Volume II: Methods and frameworks used in different countries by utilities, regulators and researchers. Volume III: Papers contributed by the participants

  19. Identification of contributing factors to pedestrian overpass selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of overpass and the safety level of pedestrian, this paper aims to investigate the contributing factors for selective preference of overpass. Eight overpasses were investigated in Xi’an, and a questionnaire was conducted by the pedestrians near the overpass. Totally, 1131 valid samples (873 used of overpasses and 258 non-used of overpasses were collected. Based on the data, a binary logit (BL model was developed to identify what and how the factors affect the selective preference of overpass. The BL model was calibrated by the maximum likelihood method. Likelihood ratio test and McFadden-R2 were used to analyze the goodness-of-fit of the model. The results show that the BL model has a reasonable goodness-of-fit, and the prediction accuracy of the BL model can reach 81.9%. The BL model showed that the selective preference of overpass was significantly influenced by eight factors, including gender, age, career, education level, license, detour wishes, detour distance, and crossing time. Besides, the odds ratios of significant factors were also analyzed to explain the impacts of the factors on selective preference of overpass.

  20. Contribution to identification of factors causing radiographic image unsharpness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branzan, C.; Popescu, A.; Radu, R.

    1995-01-01

    Radiographic image quality is crucial for the ability of the radiographic method to give us a maximum information about the macroscopic structure of materials and pieces, investigated by penetrating radiation. Radiographic image quality depends on several factors. A high quality image is able to show small and typical defects. One of the most important factor affecting radiographic image is unsharpness. The total effective unsharpness of the film must be some function of several factors and their contribution is taken into account by summing up different kinds of unsharpness: geometric unsharpness, internal unsharpness, screen unsharpness, and accidental unsharpness. This work analyses the weight of the radiographic image unsharpness and the possibilities for determining its influence on the quality of the radiographic image. (author)

  1. Effect of geometric factors on performance of a sodium to air heat exchanger in a fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, K.; Vinod, V.; Padmakumar, G.; Rudramoorthy, R.; Rajan, K.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A heat exchanger analysis (HE) before scale up reduces excess heat transfer area. • Representative Elementary Volume analysis of a HE speeds up the solution. • The error in air temperature rise prediction by numerical across HE is within 5%. • When both pitches are reduced, the maximum increase in heat flux is experienced. • The experience has resulted in better design of next level heat exchangers. - Abstract: Prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) has a safety grade decay heat removal system whose performance depends on the effective functioning of natural convection heat exchangers called sodium to air heat exchangers. The development of Representative Elementary Volume (REV) model for the sodium to air heat exchanger is necessary to envisage its design and to study the effect of various factors for continuous improvement in design. With a Representative Elementary Volume, the hydrodynamic and heat transfer characteristics of the heat exchanger was studied and the results agree well with experimental data. The effect of longitudinal pitch and transverse pitch on the heat exchanger performance has been studied and an improvement of 22% in heat transfer is predicted

  2. Identification of risk aversion factor for radiation workers in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadul, Abdulbagi; Na, Seong H.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation aversion factor reflects the degree of avoidance of radiation exposure which is considered a fundamental element in the optimization of radiation protection and a key factor in determining the real monetary value of the man-Sievert (Sv). This study provides an adjusted risk aversion factor, which was prescribed by the Korea Institute for Nuclear Safety (KINS), a regulatory body in Korea. Specifically, the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) evaluated the monetary value of the man-Sv for Korean Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) workers. This monetary value was assessed by the radiation aversion factor. Consequently, identifying the monetary value of the man-Sv in this study will enhance not only the effectiveness of optimization of radiation protection in Korea but also contribute to reduce doses to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) when accounting for economic and societal aspects. The primary purpose of this study is to obtain the risk aversion factor for radiation workers in medical and industrial facilities in Korea. The secondary purpose is to evaluate the real monetary value of the man-Sv.These objectives will be accomplished by collecting data from surveys that consider a variety of socio-economic conditions. The value of 1.45 represents considerable avoidance of radiation risk for the majority of NDT radiographers due to familiarity and work experience with radiation hazards. On the other hand, the value 1.57 indicates that most of radiation medical practitioners, in particular, interventional radiologists have a strong will to avoid radiation risk. However, they will accept more risk with incremental salary increases. For international comparison, the concept of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) should be adopted to obtain the alpha values in real term. Certainly, this monetary value of the man-Sv is expected to contribute effectively in optimization of radiation protection in both medical and industrial fields. The findings of this study

  3. Identification of risk aversion factor for radiation workers in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadul, Abdulbagi [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Seong H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radiation aversion factor reflects the degree of avoidance of radiation exposure which is considered a fundamental element in the optimization of radiation protection and a key factor in determining the real monetary value of the man-Sievert (Sv). This study provides an adjusted risk aversion factor, which was prescribed by the Korea Institute for Nuclear Safety (KINS), a regulatory body in Korea. Specifically, the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) evaluated the monetary value of the man-Sv for Korean Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) workers. This monetary value was assessed by the radiation aversion factor. Consequently, identifying the monetary value of the man-Sv in this study will enhance not only the effectiveness of optimization of radiation protection in Korea but also contribute to reduce doses to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) when accounting for economic and societal aspects. The primary purpose of this study is to obtain the risk aversion factor for radiation workers in medical and industrial facilities in Korea. The secondary purpose is to evaluate the real monetary value of the man-Sv.These objectives will be accomplished by collecting data from surveys that consider a variety of socio-economic conditions. The value of 1.45 represents considerable avoidance of radiation risk for the majority of NDT radiographers due to familiarity and work experience with radiation hazards. On the other hand, the value 1.57 indicates that most of radiation medical practitioners, in particular, interventional radiologists have a strong will to avoid radiation risk. However, they will accept more risk with incremental salary increases. For international comparison, the concept of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) should be adopted to obtain the alpha values in real term. Certainly, this monetary value of the man-Sv is expected to contribute effectively in optimization of radiation protection in both medical and industrial fields. The findings of this study

  4. Identification of External Critical Success Factors in Microbial Biotechnology Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza AZIMI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biotechnology is expected to change production methods, the products themselves and the structure of the industries in the new economies. Hopefully, countries in the Middle-East, Latin America, Asia and Africa have already recognized the importance of microbial biotechnology's promise. In this sense, the importance of externalities which might affect the success or failure of these companies becomes an issue of paramount importance. In the present study, we will try to identify the main external factors which could lead in the success of microbial biotechnology firms in Iran. To do so, the research follows a qualitative research design to answer this main question. Based on our findings, critical success factors are categorized in the following categories: General Environment (GE, Political Position (PP, Economic Position (EP, and Market Position (MP.

  5. Identification of risk factors of computer information technologies in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrebniak M.P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic direction of development of secondary school and vocational training is computer training of schoolchildren and students, including distance forms of education and widespread usage of world information systems. The purpose of the work is to determine risk factors for schoolchildren and students, when using modern information and computer technologies. Results of researches allowed to establish dynamics of formation of skills using computer information technologies in education and characteristics of mental ability among schoolchildren and students during training in high school. Common risk factors, while operating CIT, are: intensification and formalization of intellectual activity, adverse ergonomic parameters, unfavorable working posture, excess of hygiene standards by chemical and physical characteristics. The priority preventive directions in applying computer information technology in education are: improvement of optimal visual parameters of activity, rationalization of ergonomic parameters, minimizing of adverse effects of chemical and physical conditions, rationalization of work and rest activity.

  6. Influence of concentration and hydrodynamic factors in sorption of iodine by anion-exchangers of the mass-transfer rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.V.; Smirnov, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the joint influence of hydrodynamic and concentration factors in sorption of iodine by AV-17-8 and anion exchange resins on the mass-transfer coefficient is the subject of this report. The method of central composite rotatable experimental design was used for quantitative assessment and derivation of the appropriate equations. The investigation yielded the necessary regression equations satisfactorily describing the influence of all the factors in the mass-transfer coefficient. the optimal mass-transfer conditions were determined. On the basis of the values obtained, recommendations are made on the optimal hydrodynamic conditions of operation of equipment with pneumatic circulation of the ion-exchanger

  7. Falls' problematization and risk factors identification through older adults' narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsch, Patricia; Myskiw, Mauro; Myskiw, Jociane de Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Falling is an important event for older adults as they might cause physical and psychological impairment, institutionalization and increased mortality risk. Adherence in falls prevention programs depends on older adults' perceptions in relation to falling. The current study aims to investigate the fall problematization and older adults' perception about the risk factors for falls. This is an exploratory qualitative research, conducted through content analysis approach. The sample consisted of older adults aged 60 years and older who participate in community groups in Porto Alegre (Brazil), and professors from two local universities. Final sample consisted of 22 participants, mean age was 70.2 ± 7.1. Coding and interpretation of data resulted in two thematic categories, named: falls' problematization and the perception of the risk factors for falling. The first category highlights that many older adults do not realize falling as a potential problem, which suggests that current preventive measures may not be reaching the target population. The second category shows that older adults' perceptions in relation to the risk factors exist, but often they are not avoided, because older adults consider their ability to "take care" as the main method of prevention, and due to the multifactorial nature of falls, this cannot be considered an efficient solution.

  8. Identification of a potent endothelium-derived angiogenic factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Jankowski

    Full Text Available The secretion of angiogenic factors by vascular endothelial cells is one of the key mechanisms of angiogenesis. Here we report on the isolation of a new potent angiogenic factor, diuridine tetraphosphate (Up4U from the secretome of human endothelial cells. The angiogenic effect of the endothelial secretome was partially reduced after incubation with alkaline phosphatase and abolished in the presence of suramin. In one fraction, purified to homogeneity by reversed phase and affinity chromatography, Up4U was identified by MALDI-LIFT-fragment-mass-spectrometry, enzymatic cleavage analysis and retention-time comparison. Beside a strong angiogenic effect on the yolk sac membrane and the developing rat embryo itself, Up4U increased the proliferation rate of endothelial cells and, in the presence of PDGF, of vascular smooth muscle cells. Up4U stimulated the migration rate of endothelial cells via P2Y2-receptors, increased the ability of endothelial cells to form capillary-like tubes and acts as a potent inducer of sprouting angiogenesis originating from gel-embedded EC spheroids. Endothelial cells released Up4U after stimulation with shear stress. Mean total plasma Up4U concentrations of healthy subjects (N=6 were sufficient to induce angiogenic and proliferative effects (1.34 ± 0.26 nmol L(-1. In conclusion, Up4U is a novel strong human endothelium-derived angiogenic factor.

  9. DNA Barcoding for Identification of "Candidatus Phytoplasmas" Using a Fragment of the Elongation Factor Tu Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Paltrinieri, Samanta

    2012-01-01

    Background Phytoplasmas are bacterial phytopathogens responsible for significant losses in agricultural production worldwide. Several molecular markers are available for identification of groups or strains of phytoplasmas. However, they often cannot be used for identification of phytoplasmas from...... different groups simultaneously or are too long for routine diagnostics. DNA barcoding recently emerged as a convenient tool for species identification. Here, the development of a universal DNA barcode based on the elongation factor Tu (tuf) gene for phytoplasma identification is reported. Methodology....../Principal Findings We designed a new set of primers and amplified a 420–444 bp fragment of tuf from all 91 phytoplasmas strains tested (16S rRNA groups -I through -VII, -IX through -XII, -XV, and -XX). Comparison of NJ trees constructed from the tuf barcode and a 1.2 kbp fragment of the 16S ribosomal gene revealed...

  10. The impact of professional and organizational identification on the relationship between hospital-physician exchange and customer-oriented behaviour of physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybou, Jeroen; De Caluwé, Gaelle; Verleye, Katrien; Gemmel, Paul; Annemans, Lieven

    2015-02-17

    Hospitals face increasingly competitive market conditions. In this challenging environment, hospitals have been struggling to build high-quality hospital-physician relationships. In the literature, two types of managerial strategies for optimizing relationships have been identified. The first focuses on optimizing the economic relationship; the second focuses on the noneconomic dimension and emphasizes the cooperative structure and collaborative nature of the hospital-physician relationship. We investigate potential spillover effects between the perceptions of physicians of organizational exchange and their customer-oriented behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 130 self-employed physicians practicing at six Belgian hospitals. Economic exchange was measured using the concept of distributive justice (DJ); noneconomic exchange was measured by the concept of perceived organizational support (POS). Our outcomes consist of three types of customer-oriented behaviours: internal influence (II), external representation (ER), and service delivery (SD). Our results show a positive relationship between DJ and II (adjusted R(2) = 0.038, t = 2.35; p = 0.028) and ER (adjusted R(2) = 0.15, t = 4.59; p relationship between POS and II (adjusted R(2) = 0.032, t = 2.26; p = 0.026) and ER (adjusted R(2) = 0.22, t = 5.81; p relationship was present between DJ (p = 0.54) or POS (p = 0.57) and SD. Organizational identification positively moderates the relationship between POS and ER (p = 0.045) and between DJ and ER (p = 0.056). The relationships between POS and II (p = 0.54) and between DJ and II (p = 0.99) were not moderated by OI. Professional identification did not moderate the studied relationships. Our results demonstrate that both perceptions of economic and noneconomic exchange are important to self-employed physicians' customer-oriented behaviours. Fostering organizational identification could enhance this reciprocity dynamic.

  11. Cyclists' Behaviour: identification of factors on commuting by bicycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Andrade

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, cycling is a widely accepted transportation mode and often used for commuting or other purposes. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the reasons that motivate people to cycle, even though the Japanese transportation policies towards cycling are somewhat limited when compared to other countries with high cycling levels. Behavioural and statistical analyses are presented with a focus on unimodal commuting trips. In the behavioural analysis, commuters’ views on cycling are presented. In the statistical analysis, Nested Logit models are estimated to assess factors with strong influence on cycling. This paper contributes to further understanding the behaviour of active cyclists.

  12. Research on the Multiple Factors Influencing Human Identification Based on Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ping; Hu, Jianmin

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of the multiple factors affecting human identification ability based on pyroelectric infrared technology is a complex problem. First, we examine various sensed pyroelectric waveforms of the human body thermal infrared signal and reveal a mechanism for affecting human identification. Then, we find that the mechanism is decided by the distance, human target, pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor, the body type, human moving velocity, signal modulation mask, and Fresnel lens. The mapping relationship between the sensed waveform and multiple influencing factors is established, and a group of mathematical models are deduced which fuse the macro factors and micro factors. Finally, the experimental results show the macro-factors indirectly affect the recognition ability of human based on the pyroelectric technology. At the same time, the correctness and effectiveness of the mathematical models is also verified, which make it easier to obtain more pyroelectric infrared information about the human body for discriminating human targets. PMID:29462908

  13. Identification of effective factors on customer loyalty with mobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Sardar Donighi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Customers or clients are counted to be reasons for existence and continuation of life of every organization and, therefore, it is essential to review various aspects of customer satisfaction. Many customers may seem to be satisfied but they may switch to competitor companies for various reasons. Loyal customers constitute a major factor for organizational successes and there are many attempts to create loyal customers. The customer loyalty was defined as commitment of customers to deal with a particular organization or buy given goods repeatedly. During the present research, the researcher engages in the evaluation of factors effective on satisfaction and loyalty of customers and in the study of their interactions, using the famous American Model of Customer Satisfaction. Major variables of such pattern are as follows: customer expectations, perceived quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, Repurchase Likelihood, Price Tolerance changes and customer complaint. In this study, 384 cell-phone users were randomly selected from different departments of North Tehran Branch of Islamic Azad University. Valuable data were gathered by closed response questionnaire. Afterward we derived eleven correlations between different parameters by using structural equation modeling. Finally, all of suppositions were confirmed by confidence level up to 95%. In addition, the SPSS and XLSTAT PLS software packages are utilized in the process and analysis of data and investigation of study's hypotheses and necessary analyses have been done.

  14. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md.; Huysmans, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of response different climatic and manmade factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in a drought prone region in Bangladesh to understand the forcing mechanisms. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. The influence of land use patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land use. The result shows that drought intensity is more severe during the dry season (November to April) compared to the rainy season (May to October). The evapotranspiration and rainfall deficit has a significant effect on meteorological drought which has a direct relation with groundwater drought. Urbanization results in a decrease of groundwater recharge which increases groundwater drought severity. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation and recurrent meteorological droughts are the main causes of groundwater drought in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management. More detailed studies on climate change and land use change effects on groundwater drought are recommended. Keywords: Groundwater drought, SPI & RDI, Spatially distributed groundwater recharge, Irrigation, Bangladesh

  15. Identification and Evaluation of Factors of Dividend Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Omerhodžić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dividend policy determines the ratio between the earnings distributed to shareholders and the earnings retained in the company. Even though retained earnings are one of the most important funding sources used for financing corporate growth, the accrued dividends represent stakeholders' cash flows. Should the cash be reinvested in business operations or should it be paid out to investors in equity? The decision might seem simple, but it provokes a surprising number of controversies. Despite thorough theoretical and empirical analyses aimed to explain their omnipresence, dividends remain one of the biggest puzzles in corporate finances. This paper starts by determining the term of dividend and stating the types of dividends. This is followed by a discussion on dividend policy and optimal dividend policy and an analysis of factors that managers should have in mind when forming dividend policy. Considerable attention is given to the leading dividend theories which try to answer the question about the role of dividends in maximizing the value of a corporation, as well as to practical instructions offered to managers in an attempt to achieve this goal. Other related issues are also discussed, such as dividend reinvestment plans, stockdividends, and share repurchase. Finally, two surveys are presented. The aim of conducting the surveys was to determine the attitudes of managers on dividend policy and to identify factors which the managers viewed as decisive when establishing a concrete dividend policy.

  16. Chemical exchange equilibria in isotope separation. Part I : Evaluation of separation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    The theory of chemical exchange equilibria as applied to the isotope separation processes and the isotope effects on equilibrium constants of different exchange reactions has come a long way since its inception by Urey and Rittenberg. An attempt has been made to bring relevant information together and present a unified approach to isotopic chemical exchange equilibrium constant evaluation and its implications to separation processes. (auth.)

  17. Mapping temperature-induced conformational changes in the Escherichia coli heat shock transcription factor sigma 32 by amide hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Wolfgang; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Roepstorff, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Stress conditions such as heat shock alter the transcriptional profile in all organisms. In Escherichia coli the heat shock transcription factor, sigma 32, out-competes upon temperature up-shift the housekeeping sigma-factor, sigma 70, for binding to core RNA polymerase and initiates heat shock...... gene transcription. To investigate possible heat-induced conformational changes in sigma 32 we performed amide hydrogen (H/D) exchange experiments under optimal growth and heat shock conditions combined with mass spectrometry. We found a rapid exchange of around 220 of the 294 amide hydrogens at 37...... degrees C, indicating that sigma 32 adopts a highly flexible structure. At 42 degrees C we observed a slow correlated exchange of 30 additional amide hydrogens and localized it to a helix-loop-helix motif within domain sigma 2 that is responsible for the recognition of the -10 region in heat shock...

  18. Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, Michal V.; Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara; Havrankova, Katerina; Pavelka, Marian; Kaplan, Veroslav; Markova, Irena

    2011-01-01

    By comparing five ecosystem types in the Czech Republic over several years, we recorded the highest carbon sequestration potential in an evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). Because of a massive ecosystem respiration, the final carbon gain of the grassland was negative. Climate was shown to be an important factor of carbon uptake by ecosystems: by varying the growing season length (a 22-d longer season in 2005 than in 2007 increased carbon sink by 13%) or by the effect of short- term synoptic situations (e.g. summer hot and dry days reduced net carbon storage by 58% relative to hot and wet days). Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy which is demonstrated by the comparison of seasonal course of carbon uptake between coniferous (Norway spruce) and deciduous (European beech) stands. - Highlights: → Highest carbon sequestration potential in evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). → The final carbon gain of the grassland was negative (massive ecosystem respiration). → Climate is important factor of net primary productivity. → Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy of ecosystem. - Identification of the apparent differences in the carbon storage by different ecosystem types.

  19. Identification of food intake patterns and associated factors in teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Márcia Oliveira Mascarenhas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify schoolchildren"s dietary patterns and investigate the demographic, social, and economic determinants of the differences found between patterns. METHODS: The sample consisted of 1,330 students aged 11 to 17 years attending the public schools of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The subjects' food intake data were collected by a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire comprising 97 food items. All information was collected during a single interview. The exposure variables were gender, age, and socioeconomic class, and the outcome variables were categorized food consumption pattern in "mixed pattern", "traditional pattern", and "healthy pattern". The data were treated by simple and multiple linear regression analyses and the dietary patterns determined by factor analysis. RESULTS: Most participants were female (56.9% and over 13 years old (79.2%. The "mixed pattern" was positively associated with females (β=0.181, p0.0001 and classes D, C, and B (β=-0.125, p<0.023. CONCLUSION: Three dietary patterns were identified among the adolescents, namely mixed, traditional, and healthy. Gender and socioeconomic class were associated with dietary patterns. Male teenagers and those in the lower socioeconomic classes had a healthier dietary pattern than their peers of higher socioeconomic classes and females.

  20. [Identification of risk factors in relatives of type-2 diabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Alvarez, Norma Angélica; Vela-Otero, Yolanda; Carrada-Brav, Teodoro

    2006-01-01

    To identify risk factors and warning signs in a sample of first-degree relatives of type-2 diabetics at the Family Medicine Unit 2 of the General Hospital in Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico. In a non-probabilistic sample of 360 relatives, a 14-item questionnaire was applied to measure abdominal perimeter and body mass index (obesity and overweight), eating habits, addictions and sedentarism. The questionnaire was made by general consent of experts, by applying Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient. Specific rates of prevalence by sex and age groups were estimated. 233 (65%) relatives were females. As part of their family history background, arterial hypertension was recorded in 263 (73%) and acute myocardial infarction in 97 (27%). Among the dangerous food for health consumed by the relatives of diabetics are cola drinks in 94.7%, red meat in 83%, candies in 74.7% and chips in 65.8%; only half of them consumed fresh fruits and vegetables; a quarter of them ate prickly pears or whole wheat bread. There were 163 (45.3%) persons with high-risk abdominal perimeter, and sedentarism was present in 267 (74.2%). However, obesity was 3 times more frequent in females, but excessive drinking or smoking habits were 7 times more prevailing in males. A high-risk behavior was demonstrated among relativies of diabetic patients. Therefore, a public-health educational program is required to modify risky habits. A change towards prevention rather than cure is much needed in health staff.

  1. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  2. Identification of Risk Factors Influencing Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Touahmia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents (RTAs are becoming a major problem around the world, incurring enormous losses of human and economic resources. Recent reports from the World Health Organization (WHO reveal that each year more than 1.25 million people are killed and 50 million are injured in road traffic accidents worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, statistics show that at least one traffic accident occurs every minute, causing up to 7,000 deaths and over 39,000 injuries annually. In this study, the main causes of RATs in the province of Hail are examined. The data was collected through the use of a survey which was developed to evaluate the effect of influencing parameters on RTA rate. The results show that 67% of RTAs result from human factors, 29% from road conditions and 4% from vehicle defects. Excessive speed and violation of traffic rules and regulations were found to be the main causes of RATs. Low rates of compliance with speed limit signs and seat-belt regulations were also observed. These findings highlight the need of strengthening effective traffic law enforcement alongside with improving traffic safety and raising public awareness.

  3. Wavelet-based blind identification of the UCLA Factor building using ambient and earthquake responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, B; Narasimhan, S

    2010-01-01

    Blind source separation using second-order blind identification (SOBI) has been successfully applied to the problem of output-only identification, popularly known as ambient system identification. In this paper, the basic principles of SOBI for the static mixtures case is extended using the stationary wavelet transform (SWT) in order to improve the separability of sources, thereby improving the quality of identification. Whereas SOBI operates on the covariance matrices constructed directly from measurements, the method presented in this paper, known as the wavelet-based modified cross-correlation method, operates on multiple covariance matrices constructed from the correlation of the responses. The SWT is selected because of its time-invariance property, which means that the transform of a time-shifted signal can be obtained as a shifted version of the transform of the original signal. This important property is exploited in the construction of several time-lagged covariance matrices. The issue of non-stationary sources is addressed through the formation of several time-shifted, windowed covariance matrices. Modal identification results are presented for the UCLA Factor building using ambient vibration data and for recorded responses from the Parkfield earthquake, and compared with published results for this building. Additionally, the effect of sensor density on the identification results is also investigated

  4. Factors Linked to Identification with a Super-Ordinate Category in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple regression analyses suggested that factors linked to identification with a super-ordinate category were related more to personal variables than to status differentiation and distribution of resources. These results are discussed with reference to the Common Ingroup Identity model (Gaertner et al, 1993), Breakwell's ...

  5. Factors influencing sentinel lymph node identification failure in breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straalman, K.; Kristoffersen, U.S.; Galatius, H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for failed sentinel lymph node identification in breast cancer surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics, surgeon experience and detection success/failure were registered at 748 sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures...... at our inpatient clinic. Data were analysed with backward stepwise multiple logistic regression with a cut-off point of p

  6. Proteomic identification of CIB1 as a potential diagnostic factor in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proteomic identification of CIB1 as a potential diagnostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma. Tong Junrong Zhou Huancheng H E Feng Gao Yi Yang Xiaoqin Luo Zhengmao Zhang Hong Zeng Jianying Wang Yin Huang Yuanhang Zhang Jianlin Sun Longhua He Guolin. Articles Volume 36 Issue 4 September 2011 pp 659- ...

  7. Organizational Factors of Justice and Culture Leading to Organizational Identification in Merger and Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Maimunah; Umar Baki, Nordahlia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the influence of two organizational factors, namely, organizational justice and organizational culture, on organizational identification as perceived by employees following merger and acquisition (M&A) in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The study, which adopts the Social Identity Theory as its…

  8. Identification of factors associated with diagnostic error in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Missed, delayed or incorrect diagnoses are considered to be diagnostic errors. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a study to analyse cognitive aspects of the process by which primary care (PC) physicians diagnose dyspnoea. It examines the possible links between the use of heuristics, suboptimal cognitive acts and diagnostic errors, using Reason’s taxonomy of human error (slips, lapses, mistakes and violations). The influence of situational factors (professional experience, perceived overwork and fatigue) is also analysed. Methods Cohort study of new episodes of dyspnoea in patients receiving care from family physicians and residents at PC centres in Granada (Spain). With an initial expected diagnostic error rate of 20%, and a sampling error of 3%, 384 episodes of dyspnoea are calculated to be required. In addition to filling out the electronic medical record of the patients attended, each physician fills out 2 specially designed questionnaires about the diagnostic process performed in each case of dyspnoea. The first questionnaire includes questions on the physician’s initial diagnostic impression, the 3 most likely diagnoses (in order of likelihood), and the diagnosis reached after the initial medical history and physical examination. It also includes items on the physicians’ perceived overwork and fatigue during patient care. The second questionnaire records the confirmed diagnosis once it is reached. The complete diagnostic process is peer-reviewed to identify and classify the diagnostic errors. The possible use of heuristics of representativeness, availability, and anchoring and adjustment in each diagnostic process is also analysed. Each audit is reviewed with the physician responsible for the diagnostic process. Finally, logistic regression models are used to determine if there are differences in the diagnostic error variables based on the heuristics identified. Discussion This work sets out a new approach to studying the

  9. Identification of factors associated with diagnostic error in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minué, Sergio; Bermúdez-Tamayo, Clara; Fernández, Alberto; Martín-Martín, José Jesús; Benítez, Vivian; Melguizo, Miguel; Caro, Araceli; Orgaz, María José; Prados, Miguel Angel; Díaz, José Enrique; Montoro, Rafael

    2014-05-12

    Missed, delayed or incorrect diagnoses are considered to be diagnostic errors. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a study to analyse cognitive aspects of the process by which primary care (PC) physicians diagnose dyspnoea. It examines the possible links between the use of heuristics, suboptimal cognitive acts and diagnostic errors, using Reason's taxonomy of human error (slips, lapses, mistakes and violations). The influence of situational factors (professional experience, perceived overwork and fatigue) is also analysed. Cohort study of new episodes of dyspnoea in patients receiving care from family physicians and residents at PC centres in Granada (Spain). With an initial expected diagnostic error rate of 20%, and a sampling error of 3%, 384 episodes of dyspnoea are calculated to be required. In addition to filling out the electronic medical record of the patients attended, each physician fills out 2 specially designed questionnaires about the diagnostic process performed in each case of dyspnoea. The first questionnaire includes questions on the physician's initial diagnostic impression, the 3 most likely diagnoses (in order of likelihood), and the diagnosis reached after the initial medical history and physical examination. It also includes items on the physicians' perceived overwork and fatigue during patient care. The second questionnaire records the confirmed diagnosis once it is reached. The complete diagnostic process is peer-reviewed to identify and classify the diagnostic errors. The possible use of heuristics of representativeness, availability, and anchoring and adjustment in each diagnostic process is also analysed. Each audit is reviewed with the physician responsible for the diagnostic process. Finally, logistic regression models are used to determine if there are differences in the diagnostic error variables based on the heuristics identified. This work sets out a new approach to studying the diagnostic decision-making process

  10. 75 FR 62137 - Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest Factors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... exchange Federal coal deposits for Alluvial Valley Floor (AVF) fee coal pursuant to the Federal Land Policy...; MTM-99236] Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest... Alluvial Valley Floor Environmental Assessment can be viewed on the BLM's Miles City Field Office Web page...

  11. WBSCR16 Is a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Important for Mitochondrial Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorui Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulated inter-mitochondrial fusion/fission is essential for maintaining optimal mitochondrial respiration and control of apoptosis and autophagy. In mammals, mitochondrial fusion is controlled by outer membrane GTPases MFN1 and MFN2 and by inner membrane (IM GTPase OPA1. Disordered mitochondrial fusion/fission contributes to various pathologies, and MFN2 or OPA1 mutations underlie neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we show that the WBSCR16 protein is primarily associated with the outer face of the inner mitochondrial membrane and is important for mitochondrial fusion. We provide evidence of a WBSCR16/OPA1 physical interaction in the intact cell and of a WBSCR16 function as an OPA1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF. Homozygosity for a Wbscr16 mutation causes early embryonic lethality, whereas neurons of mice heterozygous for the mutation have mitochondria with reduced membrane potential and increased susceptibility to fragmentation upon exposure to stress, suggesting roles for WBSCR16 deficits in neuronal pathologies.

  12. Family-wide characterization of the DENN domain Rab GDP-GTP exchange factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Shin-ichiro; Gerondopoulos, Andreas; Linford, Andrea; Rigden, Daniel J; Barr, Francis A

    2010-10-18

    A key requirement for Rab function in membrane trafficking is site-specific activation by GDP-GTP exchange factors (GEFs), but the majority of the 63 human Rabs have no known GEF. We have performed a systematic characterization of the 17 human DENN domain proteins and demonstrated that they are specific GEFs for 10 Rabs. DENND1A/1B localize to clathrin patches at the plasma membrane and activate Rab35 in an endocytic pathway trafficking Shiga toxin to the trans-Golgi network. DENND2 GEFs target to actin filaments and control Rab9-dependent trafficking of mannose-6-phosphate receptor to lysosomes. DENND4 GEFs target to a tubular membrane compartment adjacent to the Golgi, where they activate Rab10, which suggests a function in basolateral polarized sorting in epithelial cells that compliments the non-DENN GEF Sec2 acting on Rab8 in apical sorting. DENND1C, DENND3, DENND5A/5B, MTMR5/13, and MADD activate Rab13, Rab12, Rab39, Rab28, and Rab27A/27B, respectively. Together, these findings provide a basis for future studies on Rab regulation and function.

  13. Expression of a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Ect2, in the developing mouse pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M S; Tsuji, T; Higashida, C; Takahashi, M; Higashida, H; Koizumi, K

    2010-05-01

    The pituitary gland is a highly mitotically active tissue after birth. Various cell types are known to undergo proliferation in the anterior pituitary. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating mitotic activity in this tissue. When searching for genes specifically expressed in the pituitary gland among those that we previously screened in Drosophila, we found epithelial cell-transforming gene 2 (Ect2). Ect2 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPases, which is known to play an essential role in cytokinesis. Although there have been many cellular studies regarding the function of Ect2, the temporal and spatial expression patterns of Ect2 in vivo have not been determined. In the present study, we examined the postnatal developmental expression of Ect2 in the mouse pituitary. Enhanced Ect2 expression was detected in the mouse pituitary gland during the first 3 weeks after birth, which coincided well with the period of rapid pituitary expansion associated with increased growth rate. Immunostaining analysis showed that Ect2-expressing cells were distributed in the anterior and intermediate lobes, but not the posterior lobe, of the pituitary. These Ect2-expressing cells frequently incorporated the thymidine analogue, EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine), indicating that these cells were mitotically active. Taken together, the results demonstrate the functional role of Ect2 in postnatal proliferating cells in the two lobes of the pituitary, thereby suggesting roles in developmental growth of the mammalian pituitary.

  14. Ric-8A, a Gα protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor potentiates taste receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Fenech

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Taste receptors for sweet, bitter and umami tastants are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. While much effort has been devoted to understanding G-protein-receptor interactions and identifying the components of the signalling cascade downstream of these receptors, at the level of the G-protein the modulation of receptor signal transduction remains relatively unexplored. In this regard a taste-specific regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS, RGS21, has recently been identified. To study whether guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs are involved in the transduction of the signal downstream of the taste GPCRs we investigated the expression of Ric-8A and Ric-8B in mouse taste cells and their interaction with G-protein subunits found in taste buds. Mammalian Ric-8 proteins were initially identified as potent GEFs for a range of Gα subunits and Ric-8B has recently been shown to amplify olfactory signal transduction. We find that both Ric-8A and Ric-8B are expressed in a large portion of taste bud cells and that most of these cells contain IP3R-3 a marker for sweet, umami and bitter taste receptor cells. Ric-8A interacts with Gα-gustducin and Gαi2 through which it amplifies the signal transduction of hTas2R16, a receptor for bitter compounds. Overall, these findings are consistent with a role for Ric-8 in mammalian taste signal transduction.

  15. Structural landscape of the proline-rich domain of Sos1 nucleotide exchange factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Caleb B; Bhat, Vikas; Kurouski, Dmitry; Mikles, David C; Deegan, Brian J; Seldeen, Kenneth L; Lednev, Igor K; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-01-01

    Despite its key role in mediating a plethora of cellular signaling cascades pertinent to health and disease, little is known about the structural landscape of the proline-rich (PR) domain of Sos1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Herein, using a battery of biophysical tools, we provide evidence that the PR domain of Sos1 is structurally disordered and adopts an extended random coil-like conformation in solution. Of particular interest is the observation that while chemical denaturation of PR domain results in the formation of a significant amount of polyproline II (PPII) helices, it has little or negligible effect on its overall size as measured by its hydrodynamic radius. Our data also show that the PR domain displays a highly dynamic conformational basin in agreement with the knowledge that the intrinsically unstructured proteins rapidly interconvert between an ensemble of conformations. Collectively, our study provides new insights into the conformational equilibrium of a key signaling molecule with important consequences on its physiological function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exchange enhancement of the electron g-factor in a two-dimensional semimetal in HgTe quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovkun, L. S., E-mail: bovkun@ipmras.ru; Krishtopenko, S. S.; Zholudev, M. S.; Ikonnikov, A. V.; Spirin, K. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Teppe, F.; Knap, W. [Universite Montpellier II, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C), UMR CNRS 5221, GIS-TERALAB (France); Gavrilenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The exchange enhancement of the electron g-factor in perpendicular magnetic fields to 12 T in HgTe/CdHgTe quantum wells 20 nm wide with a semimetal band structure is studied. The electron effective mass and g-factor at the Fermi level are determined by analyzing the temperature dependence of the amplitude of Shubnikov–de Haas oscillation in weak fields and near odd Landau-level filling factors ν ≤ 9. The experimental values are compared with theoretical calculations performed in the one-electron approximation using the eight-band kp Hamiltonian. The found dependence of g-factor enhancement on the electron concentration is explained by changes in the contributions of hole- and electron-like states to exchange corrections to the Landau-level energies in the conduction band.

  17. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2002-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrain of Florida, the size of the catchment delivering ground-water inflow to lakes is often considerably smaller than the topographically defined drainage basin. The size is determined by a balance of factors that act individually to enhance or diminish the hydraulic connection between the lake and the adjacent surficial aquifer, as well as the hydraulic connection between the surficial aquifer and the deeper limestone aquifer. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and the size of the ground-water catchment for lakes in mantled karst terrain were examined by: (1) reviewing the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of 14 Florida lake basins with available ground-water inflow estimates, and (2) simulating ground-water flow in hypothetical lake basins. Variably-saturated flow modeling was used to simulate a range of physical and hydrogeologic factors observed at the 14 lake basins. These factors included: recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, thickness of the unsaturated zone, size of the topographically defined basin, depth of the lake, thickness of the surficial aquifer, hydraulic conductivity of the geologic units, the location and size of karst subsidence features beneath and onshore of the lake, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Catchment size and the magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with increases in recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, the size of the topographically defined basin, hydraulic conductivity in the surficial aquifer, the degree of confinement of the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The catchment size and magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with decreases in the number and size of karst subsidence features in the basin, and the thickness of the unsaturated zone near the lake. Model results, although qualitative, provided insights into: (1) the types of lake basins in mantled karst terrain that have the potential to generate small and large

  18. DNA barcoding for identification of 'Candidatus Phytoplasmas' using a fragment of the elongation factor Tu gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Makarova

    Full Text Available Phytoplasmas are bacterial phytopathogens responsible for significant losses in agricultural production worldwide. Several molecular markers are available for identification of groups or strains of phytoplasmas. However, they often cannot be used for identification of phytoplasmas from different groups simultaneously or are too long for routine diagnostics. DNA barcoding recently emerged as a convenient tool for species identification. Here, the development of a universal DNA barcode based on the elongation factor Tu (tuf gene for phytoplasma identification is reported.We designed a new set of primers and amplified a 420-444 bp fragment of tuf from all 91 phytoplasmas strains tested (16S rRNA groups -I through -VII, -IX through -XII, -XV, and -XX. Comparison of NJ trees constructed from the tuf barcode and a 1.2 kbp fragment of the 16S ribosomal gene revealed that the tuf tree is highly congruent with the 16S rRNA tree and had higher inter- and intra- group sequence divergence. Mean K2P inter-/intra- group divergences of the tuf barcode did not overlap and had approximately one order of magnitude difference for most groups, suggesting the presence of a DNA barcoding gap. The use of the tuf barcode allowed separation of main ribosomal groups and most of their subgroups. Phytoplasma tuf barcodes were deposited in the NCBI GenBank and Q-bank databases.This study demonstrates that DNA barcoding principles can be applied for identification of phytoplasmas. Our findings suggest that the tuf barcode performs as well or better than a 1.2 kbp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene and thus provides an easy procedure for phytoplasma identification. The obtained sequences were used to create a publicly available reference database that can be used by plant health services and researchers for online phytoplasma identification.

  19. Expression Pattern and Localization Dynamics of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor RIC8 during Mouse Oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merly Saare

    Full Text Available Targeting of G proteins to the cell cortex and their activation is one of the triggers of both asymmetric and symmetric cell division. Resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (RIC8, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, activates a certain subgroup of G protein α-subunits in a receptor independent manner. RIC8 controls the asymmetric cell division in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, and symmetric cell division in cultured mammalian cells, where it regulates the mitotic spindle orientation. Although intensely studied in mitosis, the function of RIC8 in mammalian meiosis has remained unknown. Here we demonstrate that the expression and subcellular localization of RIC8 changes profoundly during mouse oogenesis. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that RIC8 expression is dependent on oocyte growth and cell cycle phase. During oocyte growth, RIC8 is abundantly present in cytoplasm of oocytes at primordial, primary and secondary preantral follicle stages. Later, upon oocyte maturation RIC8 also populates the germinal vesicle, its localization becomes cell cycle dependent, and it associates with chromatin and the meiotic spindle. After fertilization, RIC8 protein converges to the pronuclei and is also detectable at high levels in the nucleolus precursor bodies of both maternal and paternal pronucleus. During first cleavage of zygote RIC8 localizes in the mitotic spindle and cell cortex of forming blastomeres. In addition, we demonstrate that RIC8 co-localizes with its interaction partners Gαi1/2:GDP and LGN in meiotic/mitotic spindle, cell cortex and polar bodies of maturing oocytes and zygotes. Downregulation of Ric8 by siRNA leads to interferred translocation of Gαi1/2 to cortical region of maturing oocytes and reduction of its levels. RIC8 is also expressed at high level in female reproductive organs e.g. oviduct. Therefore we suggest a regulatory function for RIC8 in mammalian gametogenesis and fertility.

  20. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RIC8 regulates conidial germination through Gα proteins in Neurospora crassa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla J Eaton

    Full Text Available Heterotrimeric G protein signaling is essential for normal hyphal growth in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We have previously demonstrated that the non-receptor guanine nucleotide exchange factor RIC8 acts upstream of the Gα proteins GNA-1 and GNA-3 to regulate hyphal extension. Here we demonstrate that regulation of hyphal extension results at least in part, from an important role in control of asexual spore (conidia germination. Loss of GNA-3 leads to a drastic reduction in conidial germination, which is exacerbated in the absence of GNA-1. Mutation of RIC8 leads to a reduction in germination similar to that in the Δgna-1, Δgna-3 double mutant, suggesting that RIC8 regulates conidial germination through both GNA-1 and GNA-3. Support for a more significant role for GNA-3 is indicated by the observation that expression of a GTPase-deficient, constitutively active gna-3 allele in the Δric8 mutant leads to a significant increase in conidial germination. Localization of the three Gα proteins during conidial germination was probed through analysis of cells expressing fluorescently tagged proteins. Functional TagRFP fusions of each of the three Gα subunits were constructed through insertion of TagRFP in a conserved loop region of the Gα subunits. The results demonstrated that GNA-1 localizes to the plasma membrane and vacuoles, and also to septa throughout conidial germination. GNA-2 and GNA-3 localize to both the plasma membrane and vacuoles during early germination, but are then found in intracellular vacuoles later during hyphal outgrowth.

  1. The positive transcription factor of the 5S RNA gene proteolyses during direct exchange between 5S DNA sites

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    We have examined the association, dissociation, and exchange of the 5S specific transcription factor (TFIIIA) with somatic- and oocyte-type 5S DNA. The factor associates faster with somatic than with oocyte 5S DNA, and the rate of complex formation is accelerated by vector DNA. Once formed, the TFIIIA-5S DNA complex is stable for greater than 4 h in the absence of free 5S DNA, and its dissociation is identical for somatic and for oocyte 5S DNA. In the presence of free 5S DNA, the factor trans...

  2. Application of factor analysis in identification of dominant hydrogeochemical processes of some nitrogenous groundwater of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Jana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical analyses are used for reducing large datasets to a smaller number of variables, which explain main hydrogeochemical processes that control water geochemistry. Factor analysis (FA allows discovering intercorrelations inside the data matrix and grouping of similar variables, i.e. chemical parameters. In this way new variables are extracted, which are called factors, and each factor is explained by some hydrogeochemical process. Applying FA to a dataset that consists of 15 chemical parameters measured on 40 groundwater samples from Serbia, four factors were extracted, which explain 73.9% of total variance in the analyzed dataset. Interpretation of obtained factors indicated several hydrogeochemical processes: the impact of sea water intrusions and volatiles in previous geological periods, solutes diffusion from the marine clay, cation exchange and dissolution of carbonate and silicate minerals. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43004

  3. A non-catalytic N-terminal domain negatively influences the nucleotide exchange activity of translation elongation factor 1Bα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosiuk, Tetiana V; Shalak, Vyacheslav F; Szczepanowski, Roman H; Negrutskii, Boris S; El'skaya, Anna V

    2016-02-01

    Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1Bα (eEF1Bα) is a functional homolog of the bacterial factor EF-Ts, and is a component of the macromolecular eEF1B complex. eEF1Bα functions as a catalyst of guanine nucleotide exchange on translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A). The C-terminal domain of eEF1Bα is necessary and sufficient for its catalytic activity, whereas the N-terminal domain interacts with eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1Bγ (eEF1Bγ) to form a tight complex. However, eEF1Bγ has been shown to enhance the catalytic activity of eEF1Bα attributed to the C-terminal domain of eEF1Bα. This suggests that the N-terminal domain of eEF1Bα may in some way influence the guanine nucleotide exchange process. We have shown that full-length recombinant eEF1Bα and its truncated forms are non-globular proteins with elongated shapes. Truncation of the N-terminal domain of eEF1Bα, which is dispensable for catalytic activity, resulted in acceleration of the rate of guanine nucleotide exchange on eEF1A compared to full-length eEF1Bα. A similar effect on the catalytic activity of eEF1Bα was observed after its interaction with eEF1Bγ. We suggest that the non-catalytic N-terminal domain of eEF1Bα may interfere with eEF1A binding to the C-terminal catalytic domain, resulting in a decrease in the overall rate of the guanine nucleotide exchange reaction. Formation of a tight complex between the eEF1Bγ and eEF1Bα N-terminal domains abolishes this inhibitory effect. © 2015 FEBS.

  4. Air exchanges and indoor carbon dioxide concentration in Australian pig buildings: Effect of housing and management factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banhazi, T. M.; Stott, P.; Rutley, D.

    2011-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in improving air quality within livestock buildings. However, the influence of housing and management factors on air exchange rates and indoor gas concentrations is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of housing and management...... production, although these buildings may not always provide an optimal environment for pig production. (C) 2011 IAgrE. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Evaluation of the reliability concerning the identification of human factors as contributing factors by a computer supported event analysis (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpert, B.; Maimer, H.; Loroff, C.

    2000-01-01

    The project's objectives are the evaluation of the reliability concerning the identification of Human Factors as contributing factors by a computer supported event analysis (CEA). CEA is a computer version of SOL (Safety through Organizational Learning). Parts of the first step were interviews with experts from the nuclear power industry and the evaluation of existing computer supported event analysis methods. This information was combined to a requirement profile for the CEA software. The next step contained the implementation of the software in an iterative process of evaluation. The completion of this project was the testing of the CEA software. As a result the testing demonstrated that it is possible to identify contributing factors with CEA validly. In addition, CEA received a very positive feedback from the experts. (orig.) [de

  6. Regulation of mitotic spindle formation by the RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoh Takaya

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF10 was originally identified as the product of the gene associated with slowed nerve-conduction velocities of peripheral nerves. However, the function of ARHGEF10 in mammalian cells is totally unknown at a molecular level. ARHGEF10 contains no distinctive functional domains except for tandem Dbl homology-pleckstrin homology and putative transmembrane domains. Results Here we show that RhoA is a substrate for ARHGEF10. In both G1/S and M phases, ARHGEF10 was localized in the centrosome in adenocarcinoma HeLa cells. Furthermore, RNA interference-based knockdown of ARHGEF10 resulted in multipolar spindle formation in M phase. Each spindle pole seems to contain a centrosome consisting of two centrioles and the pericentriolar material. Downregulation of RhoA elicited similar phenotypes, and aberrant mitotic spindle formation following ARHGEF10 knockdown was rescued by ectopic expression of constitutively activated RhoA. Multinucleated cells were not increased upon ARHGEF10 knockdown in contrast to treatment with Y-27632, a specific pharmacological inhibitor for the RhoA effector kinase ROCK, which induced not only multipolar spindle formation, but also multinucleation. Therefore, unregulated centrosome duplication rather than aberration in cytokinesis may be responsible for ARHGEF10 knockdown-dependent multipolar spindle formation. We further isolated the kinesin-like motor protein KIF3B as a binding partner of ARHGEF10. Knockdown of KIF3B again caused multipolar spindle phenotypes. The supernumerary centrosome phenotype was also observed in S phase-arrested osteosarcoma U2OS cells when the expression of ARHGEF10, RhoA or KIF3B was abrogated by RNA interference. Conclusion Collectively, our results suggest that a novel RhoA-dependent signaling pathway under the control of ARHGEF10 has a pivotal role in the regulation of the cell division cycle. This pathway is not involved in

  7. Factors affecting the exchange of genetic material between Nordic and US Holstein populatons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, L H; Sørensen, A C; Lassen, J

    2009-01-01

    in the simulation study, especially the genetic correlations between traits. A more similar relative weighting of the index traits across populations did not change total genetic gain in the Nordic Holstein population. The possibility of exchanging genetic material with the US Holstein population led...

  8. ψ (2 S ) versus J /ψ suppression in proton-nucleus collisions from factorization violating soft color exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Qing; Venugopalan, Raju; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Zhang, Hong-Fei

    2018-01-01

    We argue that the large suppression of the ψ (2 S ) inclusive cross section relative to the J /ψ inclusive cross section in proton-nucleus (p+A) collisions can be attributed to factorization breaking effects in the formation of quarkonium. These factorization breaking effects arise from soft color exchanges between charm-anticharm pairs undergoing hadronization and comoving partons that are long lived on time scales of quarkonium formation. We compute the short distance pair production of heavy quarks in the color glass condensate (CGC) effective field theory and employ an improved color evaporation model (ICEM) to describe their hadronization into quarkonium at large distances. The combined CGC+ICEM model provides a quantitative description of J /ψ and ψ (2 S ) data in proton-proton (p+p) collisions from both RHIC and the LHC. Factorization breaking effects in hadronization, due to additional parton comovers in the nucleus, are introduced heuristically by imposing a cutoff Λ , representing the average momentum kick from soft color exchanges, in the ICEM. Such soft exchanges have no perceptible effect on J /ψ suppression in p+A collisions. In contrast, the interplay of the physics of these soft exchanges at large distances, with the physics of semihard rescattering at short distances, causes a significant additional suppression of ψ (2 S ) yields relative to that of the J /ψ . A good fit of all RHIC and LHC J /ψ and ψ (2 S ) data, for transverse momenta P⊥≤5 GeV in p+p and p+A collisions, is obtained for Λ ˜10 MeV.

  9. Identification and comparison of structural factors of innovation capability in ESCO with desirable status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jalali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the identification and comparison of structural factors of innovation capability in Esfahan Steel Company (ESCO. Innovation is a crucial factor in growth, success, and survival of organizations. Since the innovation for organizations is not possible without the level of innovation capabilities and the need for steel products and imports of goods from developed countries has greatly increased, this study intends to investigate the factors affecting the subject that may be able to increase the production and reduce the need to import it. Evaluation of the innovation capability factors of ESCO compared with its desired status in industry can help companies develop innovative strategies and also achieve organizational goals. Statistical analysis methods and mean comparison test by examining the structure of the innovation capability in the form of a standard questionnaire was employed. The findings suggest that the innovation capability in the existing situation of ESCO in comparison with the desired situation is significantly different.

  10. Source identification and exchangeability of heavy metals accumulated in vegetable soils in the coastal plain of eastern Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiutong, Xu; Mingkui, Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Vegetable production in China is suffering increasingly heavy metal damages from various pollution sources including agricultural, industrial and other activities. It is of practical significance to understand the effects of human activities on the accumulation and exchangeability of soil heavy metals in vegetable fields. In this study, seventy-two arable layer samples of vegetable soils were collected from the Shaoxing coastal plain, a representative region of the coastal plain of eastern Zhejiang province, China for characterizing the effects of fertilization methods on accumulation and exchangeable heavy metals in soils (Exchangeable heavy metals in the soil samples were extracted by 0.01molL -1 CaCl 2 ). The different origins of heavy metals in the vegetable soils were investigated by multivariate statistical techniques, including principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). Marked increases were noted for soil heavy metals due to long-term manure or chemical fertilizer application. Three significant components were extracted by PCA, explaining 78.86% of total variance. Mn, Co, Ni, Fe, and Al were associated in lithogenic components, while an anthropogenic origin was identified for Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg. However, As level was due to the geochemical background and was not linked to soil management. The results obtained by cluster analysis elucidated individual relationships between metals and agreed with PCA. Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn in the soils that were mainly associated with the application of chemical fertilizers, organic manures or other activities regarding soil management. Although the origin of Cd, Hg, and As was also attributed to soil management, other sources like vehicle exhaust or aerial depositions were not discarded as possible contributors. Soil amended with organic fertilizer contained more Cu, Pb, Zn and Cr; whereas the soil amended with chemical fertilizer had more Cd. Application of fertilizers also had significant effect on the

  11. Risk identification in food safety: Strategy and outcomes of the EFSA emerging risks exchange network (EREN), 2010-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, M. C.; Goumperis, T.; Andersson, W.

    2017-01-01

    should be considered emerging or not, and if it merited further consideration, such as generating data on the issue, starting a full risk assessment and/or consultation of other bodies. According to the emerging risks identification process set in place at EFSA, the issues discussed and found...

  12. Social network-related risk factors for bloodborne virus infections among injection drug users receiving syringes through secondary exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Prithwish; Cox, Joseph; Boivin, Jean-François; Platt, Robert W; Jolly, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Secondary syringe exchange (SSE) refers to the exchange of sterile syringes between injection drug users (IDUs). To date there has been limited examination of SSE in relation to the social networks of IDUs. This study aimed to identify characteristics of drug injecting networks associated with the receipt of syringes through SSE. Active IDUs were recruited from syringe exchange and methadone treatment programs in Montreal, Canada, between April 2004 and January 2005. Information on each participant and on their drug-injecting networks was elicited using a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Subjects' network characteristics were examined in relation to SSE using regression models with generalized estimating equations. Of 218 participants, 126 were SSE recipients with 186 IDUs in their injecting networks. The 92 non-recipients reported 188 network IDUs. Networks of SSE recipients and non-recipients were similar with regard to network size and demographics of network members. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age and gender, SSE recipients were more likely than non-recipients to self-report being HIV-positive (OR=3.56 [1.54-8.23]); require or provide help with injecting (OR=3.74 [2.01-6.95]); have a social network member who is a sexual partner (OR=1.90 [1.11-3.24]), who currently attends a syringe exchange or methadone program (OR=2.33 [1.16-4.70]), injects daily (OR=1.77 [1.11-2.84]), and shares syringes with the subject (OR=2.24 [1.13-4.46]). SSE is associated with several injection-related risk factors that could be used to help focus public health interventions for risk reduction. Since SSE offers an opportunity for the dissemination of important prevention messages, SSE-based networks should be used to improve public health interventions. This approach can optimize the benefits of SSE while minimizing the potential risks associated with the practice of secondary exchange.

  13. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Identification of problems and alternative approaches. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multi-disciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The final phase of the project focused on identification of the most significant human factors problems with respect to safe and effective operation of the teletherapy system and an identification and assessment of alternative approaches for resolving the problems. This report presents the findings of this final phase.

  14. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Identification of problems and alternative approaches. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multi-disciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The final phase of the project focused on identification of the most significant human factors problems with respect to safe and effective operation of the teletherapy system and an identification and assessment of alternative approaches for resolving the problems. This report presents the findings of this final phase

  15. The Development of a Patient-Identification-Oriented Nursing Shift Exchange Support System Using Wireless RFID PDA Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Pin-Jen; She, Chien-Cheng; Chang, Polun

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to technically testing the feasibility of combining RFID and PDA technologies in nursing care and to develop a support system for the nursing shift exchange, which featured with “Positive Patient Identification” and “Point of Care” for patient’s safety and security. The most challenging part for the future work would be to embed the system into the real workflow. Future study would be to examine the practical effectiveness of the system....

  16. Influence of the definition of acute renal failure post-cardiac surgery on incidence, patient identification, and identification of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyez, Luc

    2011-03-01

    Acute renal failure post-cardiac surgery (RF) is a major complication and is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Early recognition and identification of risk factors for RF is therefore important. However, several definitions of RF are used. The intention of this study is to evaluate if the used definitions influence the incidence and the identification of risk factors for RF. We identified, after exclusion of 13 patients with preoperative dialysis, 995 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery at the UMC St. Radboud Medical Center between January 2009 and 15 February 2010 as our study cohort. Apart from the definition used by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons, we selected five major international studies concerning RF, each using a different RF definition. These six definitions were used to evaluate the incidence of and identification of risk factors for RF in our study cohort. There is not only a statistically significant difference in incidence (range 4.94-38.1%) of RF between the definitions (p definition several common but also several different risk variables. Multivariate analysis identified also different independent predictors, with different odds ratios for RF for each definition. This study shows that the used definition of RF influences not only the incidence of RF, but also patient identification and the identification of risk variables. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Building a famous brand often makes it possible to have sustainable growth in competitive market. A good brand name plays an important role on increasing word of mouth advertisement, the number of loyal customers and repurchase habits. However, in order to build a good brand, we need to create sustainable brand identification and to do this we need to determine influential factors. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing brand identification. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 23 questions, distributes it among 400 people who purchase regularly from hyperstar and collects 400 filled ones. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.735. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Approx. Chi-Square are 0.784 and 2300.022, respectively. Based on the results of our survey, we have derived five factors including sense of brand, brand community, trust to brand, value of brand and personality of brand.

  18. Electrochemical acidification of Kraft black liquor by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane: Ion exchange membrane fouling identification and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Maryam; Mikhaylin, Sergey; Bazinet, Laurent; Savadogo, Oumarou; Paris, Jean

    2017-02-15

    Integrated forest biorefinery offers promising pathways to sustainably diversify the revenue of pulp and paper industry. In this context, lignin can be extracted from a residual stream of Kraft pulping process, called black liquor, and subsequently converted into a wide spectrum of bio-based products. Electrochemical acidification of Kraft black liquor by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane results in lignin extraction and caustic soda production. Even though the implementation of this method requires less chemicals than the chemical acidification process, fouling of the ion exchange membranes and especially bipolar membrane impairs its productivity. Membrane thickness and ash content measurements along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) analysis were performed to identify the nature and mechanisms of the membrane fouling. The results revealed that the fouling layer mostly consisted of organic components and particularly lignin. Based on our proposed fouling mechanisms, throughout the electrodialysis process the pH of the black liquor gradually decreased and as a result more proton ions were available to trigger protonation reaction of lignin phenolic groups and decrease the lignin solubility. Due to the abundance of the proton ions on the surface of the cation exchange layers of the bipolar membrane, destabilized lignin macro-molecules started to self-aggregate and formed lignin clusters on its surface. Over the time, these lignin clusters covered the entire surface of the bipolar membrane and the spaces between the membranes and, eventually, attached to the surface of the cation exchange membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of additional genes under the control of the transcription factor sigma F of Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Decatur, A; Losick, R

    1996-01-01

    We describe the identification of five transcriptional units under the control of the sporulation transcription factor sigma F in Bacillus subtilis. These are csfA, csfB, csfC, csfD, and csfF, located at approximately 230 degrees, 2 degrees, 316 degrees, 205 degrees, and approximately 290 degrees, respectively, on the genetic map. Null mutations in csfA, csfB, csfC, or csfD, either alone or together, do not cause a noticeable defect in sporulation or germination.

  20. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of Arabidopsis Sodium Proton Antiporter (NHX and Human Sodium Proton Exchanger (NHE Homologs in Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hima Kumari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Na+ transporters play an important role during salt stress and development. The present study is aimed at genome-wide identification, in silico analysis of sodium-proton antiporter (NHX and sodium-proton exchanger (NHE-type transporters in Sorghum bicolor and their expression patterns under varied abiotic stress conditions. In Sorghum, seven NHX and nine NHE homologs were identified. Amiloride (a known inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger activity binding motif was noticed in both types of the transporters. Chromosome 2 was found to be a hotspot region with five sodium transporters. Phylogenetic analysis inferred six ortholog and three paralog groups. To gain an insight into functional divergence of SbNHX/NHE transporters, real-time gene expression was performed under salt, drought, heat, and cold stresses in embryo, root, stem, and leaf tissues. Expression patterns revealed that both SbNHXs and SbNHEs are responsive either to single or multiple abiotic stresses. The predicted protein–protein interaction networks revealed that only SbNHX7 is involved in the calcineurin B-like proteins (CBL- CBL interacting protein kinases (CIPK pathway. The study provides insights into the functional divergence of SbNHX/NHE transporter genes with tissue specific expressions in Sorghum under different abiotic stress conditions.

  1. Title Investigation of the influence of various factors on the power of heat exchange by radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolyov Alexander V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of lack of knowledge of radiation heat transfer process has been repeatedly raised in various studies. Despite the fact that works on study of heat transfer by radiation covers a wide range of different industries, it should be noted the lack of materials on study of heat exchange processes by radiation in a core of a nuclear reactor. In this work, the fuel assemblies of the VVER-1000 reactor were used as the bodies under study. Aim: The aim of the research is to investigate the heat exchange process between heat transfer assemblies and to study of the effect of changing the distance between the fuel assemblies on their power taking into account the inter-radiating of assemblies. Materials and Methods: A general description of the process of heat transfer by radiation. A calculation study of the effect of geometric parameters on heat transfer in the close lattice of the reactor core is performed. The influence of heat transfer by radiation on the temperature change of the fuel assemblies surface of the VVER-1000 reactor at change in the cassette gap is studied. The change in the power of the fuel assemblies relative to the initial power with a change in the cassette gap was studied. Experimental measurements of the temperature at different distances from the radiation source were made with an obstacle in the path of radiation propagation in the form of glass and water of different levels. The heat radiation and convective heat transfer are calculated based on the obtained experimental data. The calculation of thermal radiation power and convective heat transfer based on the obtained experimental data is performed. Results: The calculation results show that in models that determine the temperature of the fuel assemblies in the core of the VVER-1000 reactor, the radiation heat transfer must be taken into account. In this case, the amount of transferred energy is the greater, the smaller the distance between objects. This is observed

  2. PCR-based identification of cacao black pod causal agents and identification of biological factors possibly contributing to Phytophthora megakarya's field dominance in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the Phytophthora species that cause black pod of cacao, P. megakarya is the most virulent, posing a serious threat to cacao production in Africa. Correct identification of the species causing the black pod and understanding the virulence factors involved are important for developing sustainabl...

  3. Influence of the definition of acute renal failure post-cardiac surgery on incidence, patient identification, and identification of risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noyez, L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Acute renal failure post-cardiac surgery (RF) is a major complication and is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Early recognition and identification of risk factors for RF is therefore important. However, several definitions of RF are used. The intention of

  4. Prescribing errors during hospital inpatient care: factors influencing identification by pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Mary P; Buchan, Iain E

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of prescribing errors identified by pharmacists in hospital inpatients and the factors influencing error identification rates by pharmacists throughout hospital admission. 880-bed university teaching hospital in North-west England. Data about prescribing errors identified by pharmacists (median: 9 (range 4-17) collecting data per day) when conducting routine work were prospectively recorded on 38 randomly selected days over 18 months. Proportion of new medication orders in which an error was identified; predictors of error identification rate, adjusted for workload and seniority of pharmacist, day of week, type of ward or stage of patient admission. 33,012 new medication orders were reviewed for 5,199 patients; 3,455 errors (in 10.5% of orders) were identified for 2,040 patients (39.2%; median 1, range 1-12). Most were problem orders (1,456, 42.1%) or potentially significant errors (1,748, 50.6%); 197 (5.7%) were potentially serious; 1.6% (n = 54) were potentially severe or fatal. Errors were 41% (CI: 28-56%) more likely to be identified at patient's admission than at other times, independent of confounders. Workload was the strongest predictor of error identification rates, with 40% (33-46%) less errors identified on the busiest days than at other times. Errors identified fell by 1.9% (1.5-2.3%) for every additional chart checked, independent of confounders. Pharmacists routinely identify errors but increasing workload may reduce identification rates. Where resources are limited, they may be better spent on identifying and addressing errors immediately after admission to hospital.

  5. The Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor FGD6 coordinates cell polarity and endosomal membrane recycling in osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenblock, Charlotte; Heckel, Tobias; Czupalla, Cornelia; Espírito Santo, Ana Isabel; Niehage, Christian; Sztacho, Martin; Hoflack, Bernard

    2014-06-27

    The initial step of bone digestion is the adhesion of osteoclasts onto bone surfaces and the assembly of podosomal belts that segregate the bone-facing ruffled membrane from other membrane domains. During bone digestion, membrane components of the ruffled border also need to be recycled after macropinocytosis of digested bone materials. How osteoclast polarity and membrane recycling are coordinated remains unknown. Here, we show that the Cdc42-guanine nucleotide exchange factor FGD6 coordinates these events through its Src-dependent interaction with different actin-based protein networks. At the plasma membrane, FGD6 couples cell adhesion and actin dynamics by regulating podosome formation through the assembly of complexes comprising the Cdc42-interactor IQGAP1, the Rho GTPase-activating protein ARHGAP10, and the integrin interactors Talin-1/2 or Filamin A. On endosomes and transcytotic vesicles, FGD6 regulates retromer-dependent membrane recycling through its interaction with the actin nucleation-promoting factor WASH. These results provide a mechanism by which a single Cdc42-exchange factor controlling different actin-based processes coordinates cell adhesion, cell polarity, and membrane recycling during bone degradation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Transcriptome-wide identification of Camellia sinensis WRKY transcription factors in response to temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Li, Xing-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Li, Hui; Wang, Yong-Xin; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is a leaf-type healthy non-alcoholic beverage crop, which has been widely introduced worldwide. Tea is rich in various secondary metabolites, which are important for human health. However, varied climate and complex geography have posed challenges for tea plant survival. The WRKY gene family in plants is a large transcription factor family that is involved in biological processes related to stress defenses, development, and metabolite synthesis. Therefore, identification and analysis of WRKY family transcription factors in tea plant have a profound significance. In the present study, 50 putative C. sinensis WRKY proteins (CsWRKYs) with complete WRKY domain were identified and divided into three Groups (Group I-III) on the basis of phylogenetic analysis results. The distribution of WRKY family transcription factors among plantae, fungi, and protozoa showed that the number of WRKY genes increased in higher plant, whereas the number of these genes did not correspond to the evolutionary relationships of different species. Structural feature and annotation analysis results showed that CsWRKY proteins contained WRKYGQK/WRKYGKK domains and C2H2/C2HC-type zinc-finger structure: D-X18-R-X1-Y-X2-C-X4-7-C-X23-H motif; CsWRKY proteins may be associated with the biological processes of abiotic and biotic stresses, tissue development, and hormone and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Temperature stresses suggested that the candidate CsWRKY genes were involved in responses to extreme temperatures. The current study established an extensive overview of the WRKY family transcription factors in tea plant. This study also provided a global survey of CsWRKY transcription factors and a foundation of future functional identification and molecular breeding.

  7. Discarding Discards: Identification of influential factors and possible mitigation tools in demersal trawl fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feekings, Jordan P.

    Discarding of aquatic organisms is a global problem in the world’s fisheries, where more than 7 million tonnes are caught and subsequently discarded each year. The understanding of what drives discarding can help provide mitigation measures in the future. Altering management measures which result...... in high discard rates/ratios may prove beneficial not only to the economic viability of the fishery but also to the biological functioning of the ecosystem. The present Ph.D. thesis, titled “Discarding Discards: Identification of influential factors and possible mitigation tools in demersal trawl...... an examination of the efficiency of technical regulations currently in force and retrospective analyses of the efficiency of such measures in the past. The thesis consists of a review and 4 papers. Paper I is an investigation of the factors that can potentially influence the discarding of commercial species...

  8. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE AND FACTORS INFLUENCING ITS BANKING COMPANIES IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the influence of corporate governance on corporate performance in Indonesia. Data from 20 banking companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange for the period of five years 2011-2016 conducted a panel data analysis with modeling by conducting Chow and Hausman tests. The results show that the influence of corporate governance (institutional share ownership, independent comers, audit committee and board of directors, non performing loan and loan to deposit ratio have an effect on company performance measure. in particular, the findings indicate that non performing loans have a negative and significant effect on return on assets, and audit committee variables have a positive and significant impact on return on equity, whereas while non performing loan and loan to deposit ratio have the negative and significant impact on return on equity. Other variables have no significant effect on return on assets and return on equity.

  9. Technology, Incentives, or Both? Factors Related to Level of Hospital Health Information Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sunny C; Everson, Jordan; Adler-Milstein, Julia

    2018-02-28

    To assess whether the level of health information exchange (HIE) in U.S. hospitals is related to technology capabilities, incentives to exchange, or both. A total of 1,812 hospitals attesting to stage 2 of Medicare's Meaningful Use Incentive Program through April 2016. Hospital-level, multivariate OLS regression with state fixed effects was used to analyze the relationship between technology capability and incentives measures, and percent of care transitions with summary of care records (SCRs) sent electronically to subsequent providers. Stage 2 hospitals reported sending SCRs electronically for an average of 41 percent (median = 33 percent) of transitions. HIE level is related to four capability measures, one incentive measure, and one measure that is related to both capability and incentive. Percent of transitions with SCRs sent electronically was 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.1-5.1) for hospitals with a third-party HIE vendor, 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.5-5.4) for hospitals with an EHR vendor as their HIE vendor, and 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.4-5.4) for hospitals that automatically alert primary care providers. The direction and statistical significance of the relationships between specific EHR vendor and electronic SCR transmission level varied by vendor. Nonprofits and government hospitals performed 5 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 1.5-9.1) and 8 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 3.4-12.3) than for-profits. Hospitals in systems performed 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.8-6.1). The overall level of HIE is low, with hospitals sending an SCR electronically for less than half of patient transitions. Specific hospital characteristics related to both technology capabilities and incentives were associated with higher levels of HIE. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. Health information exchange technology on the front lines of healthcare: workflow factors and patterns of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin B; Lorenzi, Nancy M

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of how a health information exchange (HIE) fits into clinical workflow at multiple clinical sites. Materials and Methods The ethnographic qualitative study was conducted over a 9-month period in six emergency departments (ED) and eight ambulatory clinics in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. Data were collected using direct observation, informal interviews during observation, and formal semi-structured interviews. The authors observed for over 180 h, during which providers used the exchange 130 times. Results HIE-related workflow was modeled for each ED site and ambulatory clinic group and substantial site-to-site workflow differences were identified. Common patterns in HIE-related workflow were also identified across all sites, leading to the development of two role-based workflow models: nurse based and physician based. The workflow elements framework was applied to the two role-based patterns. An in-depth description was developed of how providers integrated HIE into existing clinical workflow, including prompts for HIE use. Discussion Workflow differed substantially among sites, but two general role-based HIE usage models were identified. Although providers used HIE to improve continuity of patient care, patient–provider trust played a significant role. Types of information retrieved related to roles, with nurses seeking to retrieve recent hospitalization data and more open-ended usage by nurse practitioners and physicians. User and role-specific customization to accommodate differences in workflow and information needs may increase the adoption and use of HIE. Conclusion Understanding end users' perspectives towards HIE technology is crucial to the long-term success of HIE. By applying qualitative methods, an in-depth understanding of HIE usage was developed. PMID:22003156

  11. The Analysis of Theoretical Approaches to Identification of Factors of Regional Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosyrieva Olena V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the investigation of current approaches to identification of factors of economic growth in the regions. The theory of new economic geography based on works and studies of P. Krugman has been considered. There highlighted the key issues of regional economic growth requiring an in-depth studying and consideration in the elaboration of strategies for sustainable development of the regions. The views of leading domestic and foreign scholars as well as the OECD experts, the World Bank, the National Statistics Service of the United Kingdom and others on the main drivers of economic growth have been analyzed. On the basis of the study the factors of regional economic growth most commonly encountered in theory and practice have been generalized. It is proved that scientists and analysts most often classify as the factors of regional economic growth the following ones: those characterizing human potential, scientific-technical and innovative activity, management and institutional capacity. The factors less frequently correlated by specialists and scientists with the regional economic growth include: those characterizing the environment, business and sociopolitical factors, which is associated with difficulty of their quantification, but in any case does not diminish their importance.

  12. ARHGEF7 (Beta-PIX acts as guanine nucleotide exchange factor for leucine-rich repeat kinase 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Haebig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations within the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene are a common cause of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease. The multidomain protein LRRK2 exhibits overall low GTPase and kinase activity in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that the rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF7 and the small GTPase CDC42 are interacting with LRRK2 in vitro and in vivo. GTPase activity of full-length LRRK2 increases in the presence of recombinant ARHGEF7. Interestingly, LRRK2 phosphorylates ARHGEF7 in vitro at previously unknown phosphorylation sites. We provide evidence that ARHGEF7 might act as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for LRRK2 and that R1441C mutant LRRK2 with reduced GTP hydrolysis activity also shows reduced binding to ARHGEF7. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Downstream effects of phosphorylation of ARHGEF7 through LRRK2 could be (i a feedback control mechanism for LRRK2 activity as well as (ii an impact of LRRK2 on actin cytoskeleton regulation. A newly identified familial mutation N1437S, localized within the GTPase domain of LRRK2, further underlines the importance of the GTPase domain of LRRK2 in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis.

  13. Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulch, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and unstable clones. These

  14. Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulch, Janet

    2013-09-11

    This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and

  15. View factor for radiation heat exchange between the wall and end of a cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bahadili, H.; Wood, J.

    1991-01-01

    In a paper by previous authors (Carlson and Garcia (1984) Ann. Nucl. Energy Vol 11, No 4), a numerical integration technique (trapezoidal rule) is developed for the approximate calculation of view factors for radiant heat transfer, for both internal and external radiation, from the curved surface of a right circular cylinder. In that paper the variation of view factor for internal radiation (wall to bottom of cylinder) with height, H, of the cylinder, is shown to reach a maximum value of about 0.36 when H is about 0.3. This behaviour is remarked upon in the text. We wish to make two points: (i) the internal view factors for the cylinder can be determined analytically (ii) the view factor behavior shown is erroneous. In fact, the view factor decreases monatonically as H increases, achieving its greatest value (0.5) as H tends to zero. H is normalised to a radius of unity. (author)

  16. Identification of trans-acting factors regulating SamDC expression in Oryza sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Supratim, E-mail: supratim_genetics@yahoo.co.in [Department of Crop Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); Roychoudhury, Aryadeep [Post Graduate Department of Biotechnology, St. Xavier' s College (Autonomous), 30, Mother Teresa Sarani, Kolkata - 700016, West Bengal (India); Sengupta, Dibyendu N. [Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Identification of cis elements responsible for SamDC expression by in silico analysis. • qPCR analysis of SamDC expression to abiotic and biotic stress treatments. • Detection of SamDC regulators using identified cis-elements as probe by EMSA. • Southwestern Blot analysis to predict the size of the trans-acting factors. - Abstract: Abiotic stress affects the growth and productivity of crop plants; to cope with the adverse environmental conditions, plants have developed efficient defense machinery comprising of antioxidants like phenolics and flavonoids, and osmolytes like polyamines. SamDC is a key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway in plants. In our present communication we have done in silico analysis of the promoter region of SamDC to look for the presence of different cis-regulatory elements contributing to its expression. Based on the presence of different cis-regulatory elements we completed comparative analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice lamina of IR-29 and Nonabokra by qPCR in response to the abiotic stress treatments of salinity, drought, cold and the biotic stress treatments of ABA and light. Additionally, to explore the role of the cis-regulatory elements in regulating the expression of SamDC gene in plants we comparatively analyzed the binding of rice nuclear proteins prepared from IR-29 and Nonabokra undergoing various stress treatments. The intensity of the complex formed was low and inducible in IR-29 in contrast to Nonabokra. Southwestern blot analysis helped in predicting the size of the trans-acting factors binding to these cis-elements. To our knowledge this is the first report on the comprehensive analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice and identification of the trans-acting factors regulating its expression.

  17. Greenhouse gas exchange in grasslands: impacts of climate, intensity of management and other factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. A.

    2003-04-01

    Grasslands occupy some 40% of the terrestrial land surface. They are generally categorised as natural (occurring mainly in those regions where the rainfall is too low to support forest ecosystems), semi-natural (where management, mainly by grazing, has changed the vegetation composition), and artificial (where forests have been cleared to create new pasture land). The soils of the natural and semi-natural grasslands constitute a large reservoir of carbon, and make a substantial contribution to the soil sink for atmospheric CH_4. The conversion of much of the natural temperate grassland to arable agriculture, e.g. in North America and Europe, resulted in a considerable decrease in soil organic carbon, and its release to the atmosphere as CO_2 has made a substantial contribution to the total atmospheric concentration of this gas. The associated increase in cycling of soil N (released from the organic matter) will have contributed to N_2O emissions, and land disturbance and fertilisation has resulted in a depletion of the soil CH_4 sink. Conversion of tropical forests to pastures has also been a major source of CO_2, and these pastures show elevated emissions of N_2O for some years after conversion. Seasonally flooded tropical grasslands are a significant source of CH_4 emissions. Consideration of grassland ecosystems in their entirety, in relation to GHG exchange, necessitates the inclusion of CH_4 production by fauna - domesticated livestock and wild herbivores, as well as some species of termites - in the overall assessment. Stocking rates on pasture land have increased, and the total CH_4 emissions likewise. The relationship between animal production and CH_4 emissions is dependent on the nutritional quality of the vegetation, as well as on animal numbers. In both temperate and tropical regions, increased N inputs as synthetic fertilisers and manures (and increased N deposition) are producing possibly a more-than-linear response in terms of emissions of N_2O. In

  18. Process Stability Identification Through Dynamic Study of Single-bed Ammonia Reactor with Feed-Effluent Heat Exchanger (FEHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Tri Partono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In ammonia reactor system, a feed-effluent heat exchanger (FEHE is typically installed to utilize reaction-generated heat to heat the reactor’s feed. Utilizing energy from exothermic reaction to the incoming feed stream is often called “autothermic operation”. Despite the advantage of FEHE, there is a risk of utilizing FEHE in a reactor system such as instability of process temperature or known as hysteresis. Hysteresis phenomena in chemical process could cause operational problems, for example it could damage the integrity of the equipment’s material. This paper aims to evaluate the dynamic behavior of a single-bed ammonia reactor with FEHE, particularly to propose a way to prevent instability within the system. The dynamic simulation of the single-bed ammonia reactor with FEHE was performed with Aspen HYSYS v8.8. The result of the simulation result shows that hysteresis phenomenon in the ammonia reactor system occurs when the feed’s temperature is below a certain value. If the feed temperature reaches that value, the temperature of the reactor’s outlet oscillates. One of the solution to keep the feed temperature above that critical value is by installing a trim heater within the system. Based on the simulation, trim heater installation within the system is able to prevent hysteresis in the system evaluated.

  19. Human factors issues in aircraft maintenance and inspection : "information exchange and communications".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration sponsored a 2-day meeting in December 1989 as part of a continuing program to address issues of human factors and personnel performance in aviation maintenance and inspection. This meeting focused on issues of "inf...

  20. Factors in electrode fabrication for performance enhancement of anion exchange membrane water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Kyung; Park, Hee-Young; Choe, Seunghoe; Yoo, Sung Jong; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Henkensmeier, Dirk; Lee, So Young; Sung, Yung-Eun; Park, Hyun S.; Jang, Jong Hyun

    2017-04-01

    To improve the cell performance for alkaline anion exchange membrane water electrolysis (AEMWE), the effects of the amount of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) non-ionomeric binder in the anode and the hot-pressing conditions during the fabrication of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) on cell performances are studied. The electrochemical impedance data indicates that hot-pressing at 50 °C for 1 min during MEA construction can reduce the polarization resistance of AEMWE by ∼12%, and increase the initial water electrolysis current density at 1.8 V (from 195 to 243 mA cm-2). The electrochemical polarization and impedance results also suggest that the AEMWE performance is significantly affected by the content of PTFE binder in the anode electrode, and the optimal content is found to be 9 wt% between 5 and 20 wt%. The AEMWE device fabricated with the optimized parameters exhibits good water splitting performance (299 mA cm-2 at 1.8 V) without noticeable degradation in voltage cycling operations.

  1. FACTORS AFFECTING TOBIN'S Q COAL MINING COMPANY REGISTERED IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Batara Manurung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of capital structure (debt to asset ratio and debt to equity ratio, economic value added, and coal reserves towards Tobin’s Q, as a proxy of firms’ value, of coal companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX. This study also aims to examine the contribution of Tobin’s Q towards sectoral stock index price of coal production companies. From a total population of 23 companies, this study took a sample of 16 coal production companies using purposive sampling method. The data used is collected from the companies audited financial statements and annual reports in IDX’s website from 2009 to 2014. The results of multiple linear regression analysis show that there is significant impact of economic value added, coal reserves and profitability dummy towards Tobin’s Q. Furthermore, the results of linear regression analysis show that there is significant impact of Tobin’s Q towards sectoral stock index price of coal production companies. Based on the results of this study, the financial decision makers in coal production companies are advised to use economic value added, availability of coal reserves and profitability in improving firm value reflected in its share price.Keywords: capital structure, coal reserves, economic value added, Tobin’s Q

  2. Northern peatland carbon biogeochemistry. The influence of vascular plants and edaphic factors on carbon dioxide and methane exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oequist, M.

    2001-01-01

    The findings reported in this thesis and in the accompanying papers are based on both laboratory and field investigations of carbon transformation dynamics on the process scale and at the resolution of individual peatland plant communities. The data from one of the studies also is extrapolated in an attempt to identify environmental controls on regional scales in order to predict the response of northern peatlands to climate warming. The laboratory experiments focus on how climate variations, inducing fluctuations in groundwater level and also soil freeze-thaw cycles, influences organic matter mineralisation to carbon dioxide and methane. The field studies investigate year-to-year variations and interdecadal differences in carbon gas exchange at a subarctic peatland, and also how the physiological activities of vascular plants control methane emission rates. The main conclusions presented include: Soil freeze-thaw events may be very important for the annual carbon balance in northern peatlands, because they have the potential to increase mineralisation rates and alter biogeochemical degradation pathways. Vascular plants exert a strong influence on methane flux dynamics during the growing season, both by mediating methane transport and through substrate-based interactions with the soil microbial community. However, there are important species-related factors that govern the nature and extent of this influence. Caution has to be taken when extrapolating field data to estimate regional carbon exchange because the relevance of the specific environmental parameters that control this exchange varies depending on resolution. On broad spatial and temporal scales the best predictor of peatland methane emissions is mean soil temperature, but also microbial substrate availability (expressed as the organic acid concentration in peat water) is of importance. This temperature sensitivity represents a strong potential feedback mechanism on climate change

  3. Protein Kinase A (PKA) Type I Interacts with P-Rex1, a Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Vargas, Lydia; Adame-García, Sendi Rafael; Cervantes-Villagrana, Rodolfo Daniel; Castillo-Kauil, Alejandro; Bruystens, Jessica G. H.; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Taylor, Susan S.; Mochizuki, Naoki; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Vázquez-Prado, José

    2016-01-01

    Morphology of migrating cells is regulated by Rho GTPases and fine-tuned by protein interactions and phosphorylation. PKA affects cell migration potentially through spatiotemporal interactions with regulators of Rho GTPases. Here we show that the endogenous regulatory (R) subunit of type I PKA interacts with P-Rex1, a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor that integrates chemotactic signals. Type I PKA holoenzyme interacts with P-Rex1 PDZ domains via the CNB B domain of RIα, which when expressed by itself facilitates endothelial cell migration. P-Rex1 activation localizes PKA to the cell periphery, whereas stimulation of PKA phosphorylates P-Rex1 and prevents its activation in cells responding to SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor 1). The P-Rex1 DEP1 domain is phosphorylated at Ser-436, which inhibits the DH-PH catalytic cassette by direct interaction. In addition, the P-Rex1 C terminus is indirectly targeted by PKA, promoting inhibitory interactions independently of the DEP1-PDZ2 region. A P-Rex1 S436A mutant construct shows increased RacGEF activity and prevents the inhibitory effect of forskolin on sphingosine 1-phosphate-dependent endothelial cell migration. Altogether, these results support the idea that P-Rex1 contributes to the spatiotemporal localization of type I PKA, which tightly regulates this guanine exchange factor by a multistep mechanism, initiated by interaction with the PDZ domains of P-Rex1 followed by direct phosphorylation at the first DEP domain and putatively indirect regulation of the C terminus, thus promoting inhibitory intramolecular interactions. This reciprocal regulation between PKA and P-Rex1 might represent a key node of integration by which chemotactic signaling is fine-tuned by PKA. PMID:26797121

  4. Model-based identification and use of task complexity factors of human integrated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Dong-Han; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2012-01-01

    Task complexity is one of the conceptual constructs that are critical to explain and predict human performance in human integrated systems. A basic approach to evaluating the complexity of tasks is to identify task complexity factors and measure them. Although a great deal of task complexity factors have been studied, there is still a lack of conceptual frameworks for identifying and organizing them analytically, which can be generally used irrespective of the types of domains and tasks. This study proposes a model-based approach to identifying and using task complexity factors, which has two facets—the design aspects of a task and complexity dimensions. Three levels of design abstraction, which are functional, behavioral, and structural aspects of a task, characterize the design aspect of a task. The behavioral aspect is further classified into five cognitive processing activity types. The complexity dimensions explain a task complexity from different perspectives, which are size, variety, and order/organization. Twenty-one task complexity factors are identified by the combination of the attributes of each facet. Identification and evaluation of task complexity factors based on this model is believed to give insights for improving the design quality of tasks. This model for complexity factors can also be used as a referential framework for allocating tasks and designing information aids. The proposed approach is applied to procedure-based tasks of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as a case study to demonstrate its use. Last, we compare the proposed approach with other studies and then suggest some future research directions.

  5. Identification of a crucial histidine involved in metal transport activity in the Arabidopsis cation/H+ exchanger CAX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigaki, Toshiro; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Miranda-Vergara, Maria Cristina; Zhao, Jian; Pantoja, Omar; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2005-08-26

    In plants, yeast, and bacteria, cation/H+ exchangers (CAXs) have been shown to translocate Ca2+ and other metal ions utilizing the H+ gradient. The best characterized of these related transporters is the plant vacuolar localized CAX1. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to assess the impact of altering the seven histidine residues to alanine within Arabidopsis CAX1. The mutants were expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that is sensitive to Ca2+ and other metals. By utilizing a yeast growth assay, the H338A mutant was the only mutation that appeared to alter Ca2+ transport activity. The CAX1 His338 residue is conserved among various CAX transporters and may be located within a filter for cation selection. We proceeded to mutate His338 to every other amino acid residue and utilized yeast growth assays to estimate the transport properties of the 19 CAX mutants. Expression of 16 of these His338 mutants could not rescue any of the metal sensitivities. However, expression of H338N, H338Q, and H338K allowed for some growth on media containing Ca2+. Most interestingly, H338N exhibited increased tolerance to Cd2+ and Zn2+. Endomembrane fractions from yeast cells were used to measure directly the transport of H338N. Although the H338N mutant demonstrated 25% of the wild type Ca2+/H+ transport, it showed an increase in transport for both Cd2+ and Zn2+ reflected in a decrease in the Km for these substrates. This study provides insights into the CAX cation filter and novel mechanisms by which metals may be partitioned across membranes.

  6. Systematic identification of core transcription factors mediating dysregulated links bridging inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xiao

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows a tight link between inflammation and cancer. However, comprehensive identification of pivotal transcription factors (i.e., core TFs mediating the dysregulated links remains challenging, mainly due to a lack of samples that can effectively reflect the connections between inflammation and tumorigenesis. Here, we constructed a series of TF-mediated regulatory networks from a large compendium of expression profiling of normal colonic tissues, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs and colorectal cancer (CRC, which contains 1201 samples in total, and then proposed a network-based approach to characterize potential links bridging inflammation and cancer. For this purpose, we computed significantly dysregulated relationships between inflammation and their linked cancer networks, and then 24 core TFs with their dysregulated genes were identified. Collectively, our approach provides us with quite important insight into inflammation-associated tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer, which could also be applied to identify functionally dysregulated relationships mediating the links between other different disease phenotypes.

  7. Preventing the threat of credit-card fraud: Factors influencing cashiers' identification-checking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Christopher; Howard, E Henry; Goodwin, Christina; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examined factors influencing cashiers' identification (ID)-checking behavior in order to inform the development of interventions to prevent credit-card fraud. In both studies, research assistants made credit purchases in various stores and noted the cashiers' ID-checking behavior. In the first study, the store type, whether the cashier swiped the credit/debit card, the amount of the purchase, and whether the credit/debit card was signed significantly influenced ID-checking behavior. In the second study, an A-B-A design was used to evaluate the impact of a "Check my ID" prompt placed on the credit/debit card. The prompt increased cashiers' ID-checking behavior from 5.9% at Baseline to 10.3% during the Intervention. When the prompt was removed, the cashiers' ID-checking behavior decreased to 7.2%. Implications for further intervention research to prevent credit-card fraud are discussed.

  8. Identification and Structural Basis of Binding to Host Lung Glycogen by Streptococcal Virulence Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammerts van Bueren,A.; Higgins, M.; Wang, D.; Burke, R.; Boraston, A.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of pathogenic bacteria to recognize host glycans is often essential to their virulence. Here we report structure-function studies of previously uncharacterized glycogen-binding modules in the surface-anchored pullulanases from Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpuA) and Streptococcus pyogenes (PulA). Multivalent binding to glycogen leads to a strong interaction with alveolar type II cells in mouse lung tissue. X-ray crystal structures of the binding modules reveal a novel fusion of tandem modules into single, bivalent functional domains. In addition to indicating a structural basis for multivalent attachment, the structure of the SpuA modules in complex with carbohydrate provides insight into the molecular basis for glycogen specificity. This report provides the first evidence that intracellular lung glycogen may be a novel target of pathogenic streptococci and thus provides a rationale for the identification of the streptococcal {alpha}-glucan-metabolizing machinery as virulence factors.

  9. Institutional and Actor-Oriented Factors Constraining Expert-Based Forest Information Exchange in Europe: A Policy Analysis from an Actor-Centred Institutionalist Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Baycheva-Merger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adequate and accessible expert-based forest information has become increasingly in demand for effective decisions and informed policies in the forest and forest-related sectors in Europe. Such accessibility requires a collaborative environment and constant information exchange between various actors at different levels and across sectors. However, information exchange in complex policy environments is challenging, and is often constrained by various institutional, actor-oriented, and technical factors. In forest policy research, no study has yet attempted to simultaneously account for these multiple factors influencing expert-based forest information exchange. By employing a policy analysis from an actor-centred institutionalist perspective, this paper aims to provide an overview of the most salient institutional and actor-oriented factors that are perceived as constraining forest information exchange at the national level across European countries. We employ an exploratory research approach, and utilise both qualitative and quantitative methods to analyse our data. The data was collected through a semi-structured survey targeted at forest and forest-related composite actors in 21 European countries. The results revealed that expert-based forest information exchange is constrained by a number of compound and closely interlinked institutional and actor-oriented factors, reflecting the complex interplay of institutions and actors at the national level. The most salient institutional factors that stand out include restrictive or ambiguous data protection policies, inter-organisational information arrangements, different organisational cultures, and a lack of incentives. Forest information exchange becomes even more complex when actors are confronted with actor-oriented factors such as issues of distrust, diverging preferences and perceptions, intellectual property rights, and technical capabilities. We conclude that expert-based forest information

  10. The origins of enhanced activity in factor VIIa analogs and the interplay between key allosteric sites revealed by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper D; Andersen, Mette D; Olsen, Ole H

    2008-01-01

    Factor VIIa (FVIIa) circulates in the blood in a zymogen-like state. Only upon association with membrane-bound tissue factor (TF) at the site of vascular injury does FVIIa become active and able to initiate blood coagulation. Here we used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry to invest......Factor VIIa (FVIIa) circulates in the blood in a zymogen-like state. Only upon association with membrane-bound tissue factor (TF) at the site of vascular injury does FVIIa become active and able to initiate blood coagulation. Here we used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry...... to investigate the conformational effects of site-directed mutagenesis at key positions in FVIIa and the origins of enhanced intrinsic activity of FVIIa analogs. The differences in hydrogen exchange of two highly active variants, FVIIa(DVQ) and FVIIa(VEAY), imply that enhanced catalytic efficiency was attained...

  11. Proton Form Factor Puzzle and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) Two-Photon Exchange Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimal, Dipak [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The electromagnetic form factors are the most fundamental observables that encode information about the internal structure of the nucleon. This dissertation explored dependence of R on kinematic variables such as squared four-momentum transfer (Q2) and the virtual photon polarization parameter (ε).

  12. The identification of risk factors for ankle sprains sustained during netball participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, Alison S; Sinclair, Peter J; Sharp, Tristan; Greene, Andrew; Stuelcken, Max; Smith, Richard M; Hiller, Claire E

    2017-01-01

    Ankle sprains account for a large percentage of injuries sustained in netball. The identification of risk factors for ankle sprain is the preliminary action required to inform future prevention strategies. Prospective study. Ninety-four netball players from club and inter-district teams. Preseason data were collected for; vertical jump height, perceived ankle instability, sprain history, arthrometry inversion-eversion angles, star excursion balance test reach distances, the number of foot lifts during unilateral stance and demi-pointe balance test results. Participants were followed for the duration of one netball season and ankle sprains were recorded. Eleven sprains were recorded for eleven players using a time-loss definition of injury. Ankle sprains occurred at an incidence rate of 1.74/1000 h of netball exposure. One risk factor was identified to increase the odds of sustaining an ankle sprain during netball participation - a reach distance in the posterior-medial direction of the star excursion balance test of less than or equal to 77.5% of leg length (OR = 4.04, 95% CI = 1.00-16.35). The identified risk factor can be easily measured and should be considered for preseason injury risk profiling of netball players. Netball players may benefit from training programs aimed at improving single leg balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance of Anidolic Daylighting Systems in tropical climates - Parametric studies for identification of main influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhart, Friedrich; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis [Solar Energy and Building Physics Laboratory (LESO-PB), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Wittkopf, Stephen K. [School of Design and Environment, Department of Architecture, National University of Singapore, 4 Architecture Drive, Singapore 117566 (Singapore)

    2010-07-15

    Making daylight more available in buildings is highly desirable, not only for reasons of energy-efficiency, but also for improvement of occupants' health and well-being. Core-daylighting, that is daylight provision in areas situated at considerable distances from facades and windows, is currently one of the main challenges in sustainable building design. Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADSs) are one very promising technology in the field of core-daylighting, but commercial solutions that are not only well-performing but also financially competitive are not yet widely available. This article presents results of parametric studies on Anidolic Integrated Ceilings (AICs), a special type of ADS, for identification of main influencing factors. The article describes a reliable method for simulating ADS and AIC performance under given sky conditions. Various simulation results for the example location Singapore are discussed in detail, it is concluded that the main influencing factors are coating material, system dimensions and external obstruction, and those influencing factors' potential impacts are quantified. It is shown that AIC overall efficiencies can reach up to almost 50% in Singapore. The essentially new results presented in this article can be of great help to architects, engineers and scientists in the future, when it comes to precisely dimensioning ADS for various buildings and daylight conditions. (author)

  14. On-bead combinatorial synthesis and imaging of chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging agents to identify factors that influence water exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Roberta; Soesbe, Todd C; De León-Rodríguez, Luis M; Sherry, A Dean; Udugamasooriya, D Gomika

    2011-08-24

    The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents is highly dependent on the rate of water exchange between the inner sphere of a paramagnetic ion and bulk water. Normally, identifying a paramagnetic complex that has optimal water exchange kinetics is done by synthesizing and testing one compound at a time. We report here a rapid, economical on-bead combinatorial synthesis of a library of imaging agents. Eighty different 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-tetraamide peptoid derivatives were prepared on beads using a variety of charged, uncharged but polar, hydrophobic, and variably sized primary amines. A single chemical exchange saturation transfer image of the on-bead library easily distinguished those compounds having the most favorable water exchange kinetics. This combinatorial approach will allow rapid screening of libraries of imaging agents to identify the chemical characteristics of a ligand that yield the most sensitive imaging agents. This technique could be automated and readily adapted to other types of MRI or magnetic resonance/positron emission tomography agents as well.

  15. Identification of prognostic factors in patients with brain metastases: a review of 1292 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerwaard, Frank J.; Levendag, Peter C.; Nowak, Peter J.C.M.; Eijkenboom, Wilhelmina M.H.; Hanssens, Patrick E.J.; Schmitz, Paul I.M.

    1999-01-01

    factors in our material, although with lesser importance. In patients with lung primaries, sex was found to have significant impact on survival. In patients with breast primaries, interval between primary tumor and development of brain metastases appeared to be a statistically significant prognostic factor. Histology in patients with lung primaries and distribution of brain metastases were not found to be statistically significant in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: In this large database, the value of established prognostic factors was confirmed and, furthermore, some less well-recognized parameters such as response to steroid treatment, serum lactate dehydrogenase, age, sex in lung primaries, and site of primary tumor were established. From the three strongest prognostic factors--performance status, response to steroids, and evidence of systemic disease--simple identification of favorable and unfavorable subgroups of patients with brain metastases can be constructed

  16. The PDZ domain of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor PDZGEF directs binding to phosphatidic acid during brush border formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah V Consonni

    Full Text Available PDZGEF is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small G protein Rap. It was recently found that PDZGEF contributes to establishment of intestinal epithelial polarity downstream of the kinase Lkb1. By binding to phosphatidic acid enriched at the apical membrane, PDZGEF locally activates Rap2a resulting in induction of brush border formation via a pathway that includes the polarity players TNIK, Mst4 and Ezrin. Here we show that the PDZ domain of PDZGEF is essential and sufficient for targeting PDZGEF to the apical membrane of polarized intestinal epithelial cells. Inhibition of PLD and consequently production of phosphatidic acid inhibitis targeting of PDZGEF to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, localization requires specific positively charged residues within the PDZ domain. We conclude that local accumulation of PDZGEF at the apical membrane during establishment of epithelial polarity is mediated by electrostatic interactions between positively charged side chains in the PDZ domain and negatively charged phosphatidic acid.

  17. Identification of direct regulatory targets of the transcription factor Sox10 based on function and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sanghyuk

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sox10, a member of the Sry-related HMG-Box gene family, is a critical transcription factor for several important cell lineages, most notably the neural crest stem cells and the derivative peripheral glial cells and melanocytes. Thus far, only a handful of direct target genes are known for this transcription factor limiting our understanding of the biological network it governs. Results We describe identification of multiple direct regulatory target genes of Sox10 through a procedure based on function and conservation. By combining RNA interference technique and DNA microarray technology, we have identified a set of genes that show significant down-regulation upon introduction of Sox10 specific siRNA into Schwannoma cells. Subsequent comparative genomics analyses led to potential binding sites for Sox10 protein conserved across several mammalian species within the genomic region proximal to these genes. Multiple sites belonging to 4 different genes (proteolipid protein, Sox10, extracellular superoxide dismutase, and pleiotrophin were shown to directly interact with Sox10 by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. We further confirmed the direct regulation through the identified cis-element for one of the genes, extracellular superoxide dismutase, using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and reporter assay. Conclusion In sum, the process of combining differential expression profiling and comparative genomics successfully led to further defining the role of Sox10, a critical transcription factor for the development of peripheral glia. Our strategy utilizing relatively accessible techniques and tools should be applicable to studying the function of other transcription factors.

  18. Using published data in Mendelian randomization: a blueprint for efficient identification of causal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Stephen; Scott, Robert A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Davey Smith, George; Thompson, Simon G

    2015-07-01

    Finding individual-level data for adequately-powered Mendelian randomization analyses may be problematic. As publicly-available summarized data on genetic associations with disease outcomes from large consortia are becoming more abundant, use of published data is an attractive analysis strategy for obtaining precise estimates of the causal effects of risk factors on outcomes. We detail the necessary steps for conducting Mendelian randomization investigations using published data, and present novel statistical methods for combining data on the associations of multiple (correlated or uncorrelated) genetic variants with the risk factor and outcome into a single causal effect estimate. A two-sample analysis strategy may be employed, in which evidence on the gene-risk factor and gene-outcome associations are taken from different data sources. These approaches allow the efficient identification of risk factors that are suitable targets for clinical intervention from published data, although the ability to assess the assumptions necessary for causal inference is diminished. Methods and guidance are illustrated using the example of the causal effect of serum calcium levels on fasting glucose concentrations. The estimated causal effect of a 1 standard deviation (0.13 mmol/L) increase in calcium levels on fasting glucose (mM) using a single lead variant from the CASR gene region is 0.044 (95 % credible interval -0.002, 0.100). In contrast, using our method to account for the correlation between variants, the corresponding estimate using 17 genetic variants is 0.022 (95 % credible interval 0.009, 0.035), a more clearly positive causal effect.

  19. Review of research on identification of factors influencing social response to technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Many countries are experiencing a period in which traditional values are being questioned. The social response to plans for further technological development has often taken the form of demands for a closer examination of the associated benefits and risks, and consideration of social values in public planning and decision processes. A theoretical framework for interdisciplinary risk assessment studies is presented to allow the balancing of complex technical data with measures of the corresponding social values. The cognitive limitations which affect rationality in intuitive decision-making are summarized as background for the introduction of formal decision methodologies. Methods for obtaining value measures are reviewed and an attitude-based method is developed in detail; this model allows identification of the relative importance of the technical, psychological and social factors which underlie attitudes and indicates which factors differentiate between social groups. A pilot application to nuclear power indicated that, for the subjects tested, attitudes pro and con were primarily determined by strongly differing beliefs about the benefits of nuclear power. Symbolic aspects of the nuclear controversy are reviewed, including psychological associations with nuclear weapons. It is suggested that nuclear energy is providing a forum to evaluate a wide range of social issues, perhaps playing a symbolic role in a dialogue about the shape and direction of a technologically-determined future. (author)

  20. Identification and network-enabled characterization of auxin response factor genes in Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Burks

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Auxin Response Factor (ARF family of transcription factors is an important regulator of environmental response and symbiotic nodulation in the legume Medicago truncatula. While previous studies have identified members of this family, a recent spurt in gene expression data coupled with genome update and reannotation calls for a reassessment of the prevalence of ARF genes and their interaction networks in M. truncatula. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the M. truncatula genome and transcriptome that entailed search for novel ARF genes and the co-expression networks. Our investigation revealed 8 novel M. truncatula ARF (MtARF genes, of the total 22 identified, and uncovered novel gene co-expression networks as well. Furthermore, the topological clustering and single enrichment analysis of several network models revealed the roles of individual members of the MtARF family in nitrogen regulation, nodule initiation, and post-embryonic development through a specialized protein packaging and secretory pathway. In summary, this study not just shines new light on an important gene family, but also provides a guideline for identification of new members of gene families and their functional characterization through network analyses.

  1. Identification of host factors potentially involved in RTM-mediated resistance during potyvirus long distance movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Luc; Cabanillas, Daniel Garcia; Gayral, Mathieu; Téplier, Rachèle; Pouzoulet, Jérôme; Ducousso, Marie; Dufin, Laurène; Bréhélin, Claire; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique; Revers, Frédéric

    2017-07-01

    The long distance movement of potyviruses is a poorly understood step of the viral cycle. Only factors inhibiting this process, referred to as "Restricted TEV Movement" (RTM), have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. On the virus side, the potyvirus coat protein (CP) displays determinants required for long-distance movement and for RTM-based resistance breaking. However, the potyvirus CP was previously shown not to interact with the RTM proteins. We undertook the identification of Arabidopsis factors which directly interact with either the RTM proteins or the CP of lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). An Arabidopsis cDNA library generated from companion cells was screened with LMV CP and RTM proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. Fourteen interacting proteins were identified. Two of them were shown to interact with CP and the RTM proteins suggesting that a multiprotein complex could be formed between the RTM proteins and virions or viral ribonucleoprotein complexes. Co-localization experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana showed that most of the viral and cellular protein pairs co-localized at the periphery of chloroplasts which suggests a putative role for plastids in this process.

  2. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  3. Identification of five time periods on the Indonesian stock exchange index historical data since 1997 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveli, N.; Suroto, B. J.

    2018-05-01

    We are investigating the behavioural changes of the Indonesian financial systems in the last 20 years. Changes in the financial system behaviour were indicated by differences in the statistical properties of the daily log return distribution in two adjacent time windows. To measure how likely two distributions are differ, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) Test was applied. We have found that we can divide our time series data into five segments, where the KS probability values between two adjacent segments are maximum. This finding can be used to study the effect on the financial system imposed by, for example, the socio-economy and political policy by the government, by studying the changes in such factors in the identified time periods.

  4. Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Michal V; Janouš, Dalibor; Taufarová, Klára; Havránková, Kateřina; Pavelka, Marian; Kaplan, Věroslav; Marková, Irena

    2011-05-01

    By comparing five ecosystem types in the Czech Republic over several years, we recorded the highest carbon sequestration potential in an evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). Because of a massive ecosystem respiration, the final carbon gain of the grassland was negative. Climate was shown to be an important factor of carbon uptake by ecosystems: by varying the growing season length (a 22-d longer season in 2005 than in 2007 increased carbon sink by 13%) or by the effect of short- term synoptic situations (e.g. summer hot and dry days reduced net carbon storage by 58% relative to hot and wet days). Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy which is demonstrated by the comparison of seasonal course of carbon uptake between coniferous (Norway spruce) and deciduous (European beech) stands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors associated with the effectiveness of plasma exchange for the treatment of NMO-IgG-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Min; Pyun, So Young; Kang, Bong-Hui; Kim, Jimin; Kim, Kwang-Kuk

    2013-08-01

    To identify factors associated with plasma exchange response in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders, the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 31 NMO-IgG-positive patients receiving plasma exchange for steroid-resistant exacerbations were analyzed. Functional improvement was observed in 65% of the patients. A lower baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale score was associated with favorable response (p = 0.040). Patients without cord atrophy had a higher success rate than patients with atrophy (p = 0.016). Levels of NMO-IgG did not differ between responders and non-responders before and after plasma exchange. In conclusion, a minimal pre-existing disability is the primary determinant of the effectiveness of plasma exchange.

  6. Identification of bacteriology and risk factor analysis of asymptomatic bacterial colonization in pacemaker replacement patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ming Chu

    Full Text Available Recent researches revealed that asymptomatic bacterial colonization on PMs might be ubiquitous and increase the risk of clinical PM infection. Early diagnosis of patients with asymptomatic bacterial colonization could provide opportunity for targeted preventive measures.The present study explores the incidence of bacterial colonization of generator pockets in pacemaker replacement patients without signs of infection, and to analyze risk factors for asymptomatic bacterial colonization.From June 2011 to December 2013, 118 patients underwent pacemaker replacement or upgrade. Identification of bacteria was carried out by bacterial culture and 16S rRNA sequencing. Clinical risk characteristics were analyzed.The total bacterial positive rate was 37.3% (44 cases, and the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus detection rate was the highest. Twenty two (18.6% patients had positive bacterial culture results, of which 50% had coagulase-negative staphylococcus. The bacterial DNA detection rate was 36.4 % (43 cases. Positive bacterial DNA results from pocket tissues and the surface of the devices were 22.0% and 29.7%, respectively. During follow-up (median, 27.0 months, three patients (6.8%, 3/44 became symptomatic with the same genus of microorganism, S. aureus (n=2 and S. epidermidis (n=1. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that history of bacterial infection, use of antibiotics, application of antiplatelet drugs, replacement frequency were independent risk factors for asymptomatic bacterial colonization.There was a high incidence of asymptomatic bacterial colonization in pacemaker patients with independent risk factors. Bacterial culture combined genetic testing could improve the detection rate.

  7. CLARITY – ChiLdhood Arthritis Risk factor Identification sTudY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Justine A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aetiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is largely unknown. We have established a JIA biobank in Melbourne, Australia called CLARITY – ChiLdhood Arthritis Risk factor Identification sTudY, with the broad aim of identifying genomic and environmental disease risk factors. We present here study protocols, and a comparison of socio-demographic, pregnancy, birth and early life characteristics of cases and controls collected over the first 3 years of the study. Methods Cases are children aged ≤18 years with a diagnosis of JIA by 16 years. Controls are healthy children aged ≤18 years, born in the state of Victoria, undergoing a minor elective surgical procedure. Participant families provide clinical, epidemiological and environmental data via questionnaire, and a blood sample is collected. Results Clinical characteristics of cases (n = 262 are similar to those previously reported. Demographically, cases were from families of higher socio-economic status. After taking this into account, the residual pregnancy and perinatal profiles of cases were similar to control children. No case-control differences in breastfeeding commencement or duration were detected, nor was there evidence of increased case exposure to tobacco smoke in utero. At interview, cases were less likely to be exposed to active parental smoking, but disease-related changes to parent behaviour may partly underlie this. Conclusions We show that, after taking into account socio-economic status, CLARITY cases and controls are well matched on basic epidemiological characteristics. CLARITY represents a new study platform with which to generate new knowledge as to the environmental and biological risk factors for JIA.

  8. Factors Related to Initiating Interpersonal Contacts on Internet Dating Sites: A View From the Social Exchange Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivka Shtatfeld

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence dating-site users to initiate contact with potential romantic partners. The study was carried out by observing online behaviors and analyzing the profiles and authentic messages of these users (N = 106 over seven months. Contacts made by and with the research participants were analyzed in terms of the relationships between initiators‘ and receivers‘ demographic variables (marital status, age, level of education, income, writing skills, and stated physical appearance. In addition, the relationship between contacting partners and site accessibility was examined. The findings revealed that dating-site users initiated contact primarily with those having a similar marital status or slightly better characteristics (income, education, writing skills. In regard to writing skills, it was found that skilled writers attracted more contacts than did less skilled writers. However, the factor that was found to be most significantly related to initiating contact was the length of time that elapsed from last connection to the site, which implies the perceived accessibility of potential romantic partners. The findings were explained in terms of the Social Exchange Theory: people are attracted to those who grant them rewards.

  9. Mixture Of Probabilistic Factor Analyzers For Market Risk Measurement: Empirical Evidence From The Tunisian Foreign Exchange Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nidhal Mosbahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new approach for Basel-Compliant Value-at-Risk (VaR estimation in financial portfolio risk management, which combines Gaussian Mixture Models with probabilistic factor analysis models. This new mixed specification provides an alternative, compact, model to handle co-movements, heterogeneity and intra-frame correlations in financial data. This results in a model which concurrently performs clustering and dimensionality reduction, and can be considered as a reduced dimension mixture of probabilistic factor analyzers. For maximum likelihood estimation we have used an iterative approach based on the Alternating Expectation Conditional Maximization (AECM algorithm. Using a set of historical data in a rolling time window, from the Tunisian foreign exchange market, the model structure as well as its parameters are determined and estimated. Then, the fitted model combined with a modified Monte-Carlo simulation algorithm was used to predict the VaR. Through a Backtesting analysis, we found that this new specification exhibits a good fit to the data compared to other competing approaches, improves the accuracy of VaR prediction, possesses more flexibility, and can avoid serious violations when a financial crisis occurs.

  10. Structure of the nucleotide exchange factor eIF2B reveals mechanism of memory-enhancing molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jordan C; Miller-Vedam, Lakshmi E; Anand, Aditya A; Jaishankar, Priyadarshini; Nguyen, Henry C; Renslo, Adam R; Frost, Adam; Walter, Peter

    2018-03-30

    Regulation by the integrated stress response (ISR) converges on the phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2 in response to a variety of stresses. Phosphorylation converts eIF2 from a substrate to a competitive inhibitor of its dedicated guanine nucleotide exchange factor, eIF2B, thereby inhibiting translation. ISRIB, a drug-like eIF2B activator, reverses the effects of eIF2 phosphorylation, and in rodents it enhances cognition and corrects cognitive deficits after brain injury. To determine its mechanism of action, we solved an atomic-resolution structure of ISRIB bound in a deep cleft within decameric human eIF2B by cryo-electron microscopy. Formation of fully active, decameric eIF2B holoenzyme depended on the assembly of two identical tetrameric subcomplexes, and ISRIB promoted this step by cross-bridging a central symmetry interface. Thus, regulation of eIF2B assembly emerges as a rheostat for eIF2B activity that tunes translation during the ISR and that can be further modulated by ISRIB. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  11. Factors determining the stainless steel decontamination efficiency for the steam generator heat exchanger tubes at NPPs with the WWERs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenskij, A.N.; Balaban-Irmenin, Yu.V.

    1983-01-01

    To raise the efficiency of the redox method and decrease the amount of radioactive wastes, a possibility of improving the decontamination process for NPP heat exchanger tubes made of stainless steel is studied. In the home practice the redox method of equipment decontamination is carried out as a multi-cycle process. In each cycle the surface is treated first with a permanganate alkaline solution ther with an oxalic acid solution, with a condensate washing-at between the treatments. Using samples cut out of the steam generator pipelines of the first and third power units of the Novovoronezh NPP the effect of the oXalic acid concentration, as well as washout time and conditions on the decontamination factor are studied. On the basis of analysis of the obtained data a conclusion is drawn that using oxalic acid of low concentrations and increasing its concentrations from cycle to cycle maximum decontamination factor values can be obtained at a minimum salt content in radioactive wastes

  12. Genome-wide identification of the regulatory targets of a transcription factor using biochemical characterization and computational genomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Emmitt R

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in computational genomics is the development of methodologies that allow accurate genome-wide prediction of the regulatory targets of a transcription factor. We present a method for target identification that combines experimental characterization of binding requirements with computational genomic analysis. Results Our method identified potential target genes of the transcription factor Ndt80, a key transcriptional regulator involved in yeast sporulation, using the combined information of binding affinity, positional distribution, and conservation of the binding sites across multiple species. We have also developed a mathematical approach to compute the false positive rate and the total number of targets in the genome based on the multiple selection criteria. Conclusion We have shown that combining biochemical characterization and computational genomic analysis leads to accurate identification of the genome-wide targets of a transcription factor. The method can be extended to other transcription factors and can complement other genomic approaches to transcriptional regulation.

  13. Chaos and order in stateless societies: Intercommunity exchange as a factor impacting the population dynamical patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvinsky, Alexander B., E-mail: medvinsky@iteb.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Rusakov, Alexey V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > We model community dynamics in stateless societies. > Intercommunity barter is shown to be a factor impacting the societies dynamics. > Increase in the human population growth rate can lead to appearance of chaos. > Secular and millennial cycles are found to arise as a result of the barter. - Abstract: The once abstract notions of dynamical chaos now appear naturally in various systems [Kaplan D, Glass L. Understanding nonlinear dynamics. New York: Springer; 1995]. As a result, future trajectories of the systems may be difficult to predict. In this paper, we demonstrate the appearance of chaotic dynamics in model human communities, which consist of producers of agricultural product and producers of agricultural equipment. In the case of a solitary community, the horizon of predictability of the human population dynamics is shown to be dependent on both intrinsic instability of the dynamics and the chaotic attractor sizes. Since a separate community is usually a part of a larger commonality, we study the dynamics of social systems consisting of two interacting communities. We show that intercommunity barter can lead to stabilization of the dynamics in one of the communities, which implies persistence of stable equilibrium under changes of the maximum value of the human population growth rate. However, in the neighboring community, the equilibrium turns into a stable limit cycle as the maximum value of the human population growth rate increases. Following an increase in the maximum value of the human population growth rate leads to period-doubling bifurcations resulting in chaotic dynamics. The horizon of predictability of the chaotic oscillations is found to be limited by 5 years. We demonstrate that the intercommunity interaction can lead to the appearance of long-period harmonics in the chaotic time series. The period of the harmonics is of order 100 and 1000 years. Hence the long-period changes in the population size may be considered as an

  14. Chaos and order in stateless societies: Intercommunity exchange as a factor impacting the population dynamical patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvinsky, Alexander B.; Rusakov, Alexey V.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We model community dynamics in stateless societies. → Intercommunity barter is shown to be a factor impacting the societies dynamics. → Increase in the human population growth rate can lead to appearance of chaos. → Secular and millennial cycles are found to arise as a result of the barter. - Abstract: The once abstract notions of dynamical chaos now appear naturally in various systems [Kaplan D, Glass L. Understanding nonlinear dynamics. New York: Springer; 1995]. As a result, future trajectories of the systems may be difficult to predict. In this paper, we demonstrate the appearance of chaotic dynamics in model human communities, which consist of producers of agricultural product and producers of agricultural equipment. In the case of a solitary community, the horizon of predictability of the human population dynamics is shown to be dependent on both intrinsic instability of the dynamics and the chaotic attractor sizes. Since a separate community is usually a part of a larger commonality, we study the dynamics of social systems consisting of two interacting communities. We show that intercommunity barter can lead to stabilization of the dynamics in one of the communities, which implies persistence of stable equilibrium under changes of the maximum value of the human population growth rate. However, in the neighboring community, the equilibrium turns into a stable limit cycle as the maximum value of the human population growth rate increases. Following an increase in the maximum value of the human population growth rate leads to period-doubling bifurcations resulting in chaotic dynamics. The horizon of predictability of the chaotic oscillations is found to be limited by 5 years. We demonstrate that the intercommunity interaction can lead to the appearance of long-period harmonics in the chaotic time series. The period of the harmonics is of order 100 and 1000 years. Hence the long-period changes in the population size may be considered as an

  15. Identification of fall risk factors in older adult emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher R; Scheatzle, Mark D; D'Antonio, Joyce A; Ricci, Paul T; Coben, Jeffrey H

    2009-03-01

    Falls represent an increasingly frequent source of injury among older adults. Identification of fall risk factors in geriatric patients may permit the effective utilization of scarce preventative resources. The objective of this study was to identify independent risk factors associated with an increased 6-month fall risk in community-dwelling older adults discharged from the emergency department (ED). This was a prospective observational study with a convenience sampling of noninstitutionalized elders presenting to an urban teaching hospital ED who did not require hospital admission. Interviews were conducted to determine the presence of fall risk factors previously described in non-ED populations. Subjects were followed monthly for 6 months through postcard or telephone contact to identify subsequent falls. Univariate and Cox regression analysis were used to determine the association of risk factors with 6-month fall incidence. A total of 263 patients completed the survey, and 161 (61%) completed the entire 6 months of follow-up. Among the 263 enrolled, 39% reported a fall in the preceding year, including 15% with more than one fall and 22% with injurious falls. Among those completing the 6 months of follow-up, 14% reported at least one fall. Cox regression analysis identified four factors associated with falls during the 6-month follow-up: nonhealing foot sores (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.73 to 7.95), a prior fall history (HR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.32 to 5.18), inability to cut one's own toenails (HR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.04 to 4.01), and self-reported depression (HR = 1.72, 95% CI = 0.83 to 3.55). Falls, recurrent falls, and injurious falls in community-dwelling elder ED patients being evaluated for non-fall-related complaints occur at least as frequently as in previously described outpatient cohorts. Nonhealing foot sores, self-reported depression, not clipping one's own toenails, and previous falls are all associated with falls after

  16. Genome-wide identification of soybean WRKY transcription factors in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanchong; Wang, Nan; Hu, Ruibo; Xiang, Fengning

    2016-01-01

    Members of the large family of WRKY transcription factors are involved in a wide range of developmental and physiological processes, most particularly in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stress. Here, an analysis of the soybean genome sequence allowed the identification of the full complement of 188 soybean WRKY genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that soybean WRKY genes were classified into three major groups (I, II, III), with the second group further categorized into five subgroups (IIa-IIe). The soybean WRKYs from each group shared similar gene structures and motif compositions. The location of the GmWRKYs was dispersed over all 20 soybean chromosomes. The whole genome duplication appeared to have contributed significantly to the expansion of the family. Expression analysis by RNA-seq indicated that in soybean root, 66 of the genes responded rapidly and transiently to the imposition of salt stress, all but one being up-regulated. While in aerial part, 49 GmWRKYs responded, all but two being down-regulated. RT-qPCR analysis showed that in the whole soybean plant, 66 GmWRKYs exhibited distinct expression patterns in response to salt stress, of which 12 showed no significant change, 35 were decreased, while 19 were induced. The data present here provide critical clues for further functional studies of WRKY gene in soybean salt tolerance.

  17. Identification and prioritization of effective factors in fire incidents preparation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arvan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in mega cities is the degree of the preparedness of organizations, institutions and people in facing with critical conditions and their immediate reaction according to pre-defined instructions. Identification of priorities and acting accordingly is an undeniable factor in urban crisis management. The purpose of this research was to identify the priorities of preparedness and readiness to immediate responses in case of large fire incident occurrence in the urban areas. District 9 of Tehran municipality was selected as a case study. Considering the Specific regional conditions of this area such as high population, old unstable housing constructions, presence of Mehr-abad air port at the heart of the district, and the gas transmission pipeline mark this district as a vulnerable area to fire incidents. According to the crisis management readiness index, 2 types of questionnaires were distributed among members of the crisis department and fire rescue forces of the district 9. The results reviled that the most important priorities were basic training to residents, equipping the gas valves with automatic cut off switches in an emergency situation, training the responsible personnel to act efficiently in the early hours of accident and performing maneuvers. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis and Cranach’s alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the questionnaire and to test the hypotheses single-sample T -test was used.

  18. Factors involved in the identification of stuttering severity in a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyns, Marjan; Einarsdóttir, Jóhanna T; Van Borsel, John

    2015-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists nowadays are more and more confronted with clients who speak a language different from their own mother tongue. The assessment of persons who speak a foreign language poses particular challenges. The present study investigated the possible role and interplay of factors involved in the identification of stuttering severity in a foreign language. Nineteen speech-language pathologists from five different countries (i.e. Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Belgium) rated stuttering severity of speech samples featuring persons who stutter speaking Icelandic, Swedish, Norwegian, or Dutch. Additionally, they were asked to score how easy they found it to rate the samples. Accuracy of rating stuttering severity in another language appeared to be foremost determined by the client's stuttering severity, while experienced ease of rating stuttering severity was essentially related to closeness of the language of the clinician to that of the client and familiarity of the clinician with the client's language. Stuttering measurement training programmes in different languages are needed.

  19. Demographic Factors Associated with the Early Identification of Children with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Buddin, Richard; Pham, Chung; Cho, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Early and accurate identification of special needs, coupled with an appropriate course of treatment and educational plan, is important to academic progress, in particular for economically disadvantaged children with fewer family resources to catch up if they fall behind. A first step in improving mechanisms to promote early identification is to…

  20. Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1976-04-01

    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  1. A determination of elementary separation factors of isotopes 235U and 238U in the ionic exchange process and of eluents in the water-glycerine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murgulescu, S.E.

    1977-01-01

    In the experiments focused on uranium isotope separation by ion and chemical exchange, the water-glycerine system was employed. The principle of the method consists in shifting a uranium band along an ion-exchange resin column by means of an eluent. The isotope effect of reactions determining the band heading into the column where complex bands between the metal ion and the ligand form and break up under the resin influence, is determined by the difference in affinity between the two isotopes as against the eluent. The isotope effect in question determines a unit deviation of the equilibrium constant for the classical isotope exchange reaction. Starting from the experimental results obtained, it was concluded that the ion and chemical exchange between the IV and VI valence forms of uranium can be applied to isotope separation in terms of the separation unit. As against the methods that have been applied at present (gaseous scattering, hydro-extracting and the nozzle method), for which every new stage corresponds to a separation elementary factor, several separation elementary factors can be cumulated into a single stage in a chemical and ion exchange unit, by the optimization of the shifting band and length. (author)

  2. Exchange nailing for nonunion of diaphyseal fractures of the tibia: our results and an analysis of the risk factors for failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, S T J; Mills, L A; Frantzias, J; Baren, J P; Keating, J F; Simpson, A H R W

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for the failure of exchange nailing in nonunion of tibial diaphyseal fractures. A cohort of 102 tibial diaphyseal nonunions in 101 patients with a mean age of 36.9 years (15 to 74) were treated between January 1992 and December 2012 by exchange nailing. Of which 33 (32%) were initially open injuries. The median time from primary fixation to exchange nailing was 6.5 months (interquartile range (IQR) 4.3 to 9.8 months). The main outcome measures were union, number of secondary fixation procedures required to achieve union and time to union. Univariate analysis and multiple regression were used to identify risk factors for failure to achieve union. Multiple causes for the primary nonunion were found for 28 (27%) tibiae, with infection present in 32 (31%). Six patients were lost to follow-up. Further surgical procedures were required in 35 (36%) nonunions. Other fixation modalities were required in five fractures. A single nail exchange procedure achieved union in 60/96 (63%) of all nonunions. Only 11 out of 31 infected nonunions (35.4%) healed after one exchange nail procedure. Up to five repeated exchange nailings, with or without bone grafting, ultimately achieved union in 89 (93%) fractures. The median time to union after exchange nailing was 8.7 months (IQR 5.7 to 14.0 months). Univariate analysis confirmed that an oligotrophic/atrophic pattern of nonunion (p = 0.002), a bone gap of 5 mm or more (p = 0.04) and infection (p exchange nailing Multiple regression analysis found that infection was the strongest predictor of failure (p Exchange nailing is an effective treatment for aseptic tibial diaphyseal nonunion. However, in the presence of severe infection with a highly resistant organism, or extensive sclerosis of the bone, other fixation modalities, such as Ilizarov treatment, should be considered. Exchange nailing is an effective treatment for aseptic tibial diaphyseal nonunion. ©2016 The British Editorial

  3. Simplified in vitro refolding and purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor using protein folding cation exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Sandeep; Dedaniya, Akshay; Thunuguntla, Rahul; Mallu, Maheswara Reddy; Parupudi, Pavani; Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy

    2015-01-30

    Protein folding-strong cation exchange chromatography (PF-SCX) has been employed for efficient refolding with simultaneous purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). To acquire a soluble form of renatured and purified rhG-CSF, various chromatographic conditions, including the mobile phase composition and pH was evaluated. Additionally, the effects of additives such as urea, amino acids, polyols, sugars, oxidizing agents and their amalgamations were also investigated. Under the optimal conditions, rhG-CSF was efficaciously solubilized, refolded and simultaneously purified by SCX in a single step. The experimental results using ribose (2.0M) and arginine (0.6M) combination were found to be satisfactory with mass yield, purity and specific activity of 71%, ≥99% and 2.6×10(8)IU/mg respectively. Through this investigation, we concluded that the SCX refolding method was more efficient than conventional methods which has immense potential for the large-scale production of purified rhG-CSF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Driving factors of interactions between the exchange rate market and the commodity market: A wavelet-based complex network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shaobo; An, Haizhong; Chen, Zhihua; Liu, Xueyong

    2017-08-01

    In traditional econometrics, a time series must be in a stationary sequence. However, it usually shows time-varying fluctuations, and it remains a challenge to execute a multiscale analysis of the data and discover the topological characteristics of conduction in different scales. Wavelet analysis and complex networks in physical statistics have special advantages in solving these problems. We select the exchange rate variable from the Chinese market and the commodity price index variable from the world market as the time series of our study. We explore the driving factors behind the behavior of the two markets and their topological characteristics in three steps. First, we use the Kalman filter to find the optimal estimation of the relationship between the two markets. Second, wavelet analysis is used to extract the scales of the relationship that are driven by different frequency wavelets. Meanwhile, we search for the actual economic variables corresponding to different frequency wavelets. Finally, a complex network is used to search for the transfer characteristics of the combination of states driven by different frequency wavelets. The results show that statistical physics have a unique advantage over traditional econometrics. The Chinese market has time-varying impacts on the world market: it has greater influence when the world economy is stable and less influence in times of turmoil. The process of forming the state combination is random. Transitions between state combinations have a clustering feature. Based on these characteristics, we can effectively reduce the information burden on investors and correctly respond to the government's policy mix.

  5. Rab14 and its exchange factor FAM116 link endocytic recycling and adherens junction stability in migrating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Andrea; Yoshimura, Shin-ichiro; Nunes Bastos, Ricardo; Langemeyer, Lars; Gerondopoulos, Andreas; Rigden, Daniel J; Barr, Francis A

    2012-05-15

    Rab GTPases define the vesicle trafficking pathways underpinning cell polarization and migration. Here, we find that Rab4, Rab11, and Rab14 and the candidate Rab GDP-GTP exchange factors (GEFs) FAM116A and AVL9 are required for cell migration. Rab14 and its GEF FAM116A localize to and act on an intermediate compartment of the transferrin-recycling pathway prior to Rab11 and after Rab5 and Rab4. This Rab14 intermediate recycling compartment has specific functions in migrating cells discrete from early and recycling endosomes. Rab14-depleted cells show increased N-cadherin levels at junctional complexes and cannot resolve cell-cell junctions. This is due to decreased shedding of cell-surface N-cadherin by the ADAM family protease ADAM10/Kuzbanian. In FAM116A- and Rab14-depleted cells, ADAM10 accumulates in a transferrin-positive endocytic compartment, and the cell-surface level of ADAM10 is correspondingly reduced. FAM116 and Rab14 therefore define an endocytic recycling pathway needed for ADAM protease trafficking and regulation of cell-cell junctions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. BLOC-3 mutated in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is a Rab32/38 guanine nucleotide exchange factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerondopoulos, Andreas; Langemeyer, Lars; Liang, Jin-Rui; Linford, Andrea; Barr, Francis A

    2012-11-20

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a human disease characterized by partial loss of pigmentation and impaired blood clotting. These symptoms are caused by defects in the biogenesis of melanosomes and platelet dense granules, often referred to as lysosome-related organelles. Genes mutated in HPS encode subunits of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complexes (BLOCs). BLOC-1 and BLOC-2, together with the AP-3 clathrin adaptor complex, act at early endosomes to sort components required for melanin formation and melanosome biogenesis away from the degradative lysosomal pathway toward early stage melanosomes. However the molecular functions of the Hps1-Hps4 complex BLOC-3 remain mysterious. Like other trafficking pathways, melanosome biogenesis and transport of enzymes involved in pigmentation involves specific Rab GTPases, in this instance Rab32 and Rab38. We now demonstrate that BLOC-3 is a Rab32 and Rab38 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Silencing of the BLOC-3 subunits Hps1 and Hps4 results in the mislocalization of Rab32 and Rab38 and reduction in pigmentation. In addition, we show that BLOC-3 can promote specific membrane recruitment of Rab32/38. BLOC-3 therefore defines a novel Rab GEF family with a specific function in the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A High-Throughput Assay for Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Based on the Transcreener GDP Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Melvin; Schabdach, Amanda; Kumar, Meera; Zielinski, Tom; Donover, Preston S; Laury-Kleintop, Lisa D; Lowery, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    Ras homologous (Rho) family GTPases act as molecular switches controlling cell growth, movement, and gene expression by cycling between inactive guanosine diphosphate (GDP)- and active guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound conformations. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) positively regulate Rho GTPases by accelerating GDP dissociation to allow formation of the active, GTP-bound complex. Rho proteins are directly involved in cancer pathways, especially cell migration and invasion, and inhibiting GEFs holds potential as a therapeutic strategy to diminish Rho-dependent oncogenesis. Methods for measuring GEF activity suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS) are limited. We developed a simple, generic biochemical assay method for measuring GEF activity based on the fact that GDP dissociation is generally the rate-limiting step in the Rho GTPase catalytic cycle, and thus addition of a GEF causes an increase in steady-state GTPase activity. We used the Transcreener GDP Assay, which relies on selective immunodetection of GDP, to measure the GEF-dependent stimulation of steady-state GTP hydrolysis by small GTPases using Dbs (Dbl's big sister) as a GEF for Cdc42, RhoA, and RhoB. The assay is well suited for HTS, with a homogenous format and far red fluorescence polarization (FP) readout, and it should be broadly applicable to diverse Rho GEF/GTPase pairs. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  8. RINL, guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rab5-subfamily, is involved in the EphA8-degradation pathway with odin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kajiho

    Full Text Available The Rab family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases plays a vital role in membrane trafficking. Its active GTP-bound state is driven by guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs. Ras and Rab interactor (or Ras interaction/interference-like (RINL, which contains a conserved VPS9 domain critical for GEF action, was recently identified as a new Rab5 subfamily GEF in vitro. However, its detailed function and interacting molecules have not yet been fully elucidated. Here we found that RINL has GEF activity for the Rab5 subfamily proteins by measuring their GTP-bound forms in cultured cells. We also found that RINL interacts with odin, a member of the ankyrin-repeat and sterile-alpha motif (SAM domain-containing (Anks protein family. In addition, the Eph tyrosine kinase receptor EphA8 formed a ternary complex with both RINL and odin. Interestingly, RINL expression in cultured cells reduced EphA8 levels in a manner dependent on both its GEF activity and interaction with odin. In addition, knockdown of RINL increased EphA8 level in HeLa cells. Our findings suggest that RINL, as a GEF for Rab5 subfamily, is implicated in the EphA8-degradation pathway via its interaction with odin.

  9. Identification of medication discrepancies during hospital admission in Jordan: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Salameh

    2018-01-01

    unintentional discrepancies at the time of hospital admission was alarmingly high. Majority of these discrepancies were associated with a potential harm to the patients. These findings support the necessity for implementing the medication reconciliation service in the country, engaging healthcare providers in the process of identification and resolution of medication discrepancies. Keywords: Discrepancies, Hospital, Admission, Jordan, Prevalence, Risk factors

  10. A review of research on the identification of factors influencing the social response to technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Many countries are experiencing a period in which traditional values are being questioned; plans for technological development are being met by a variety of individual and group demands for a closer examination of the associated benefits and risks and a consideration of social values and concerns in the regulatory process. This has created conditions of conflict with some groups sponsoring proposals intended to fulfill perceived social needs while other groups, with different perceptions of society's needs, work actively in opposition. Only in recent years, as the rate of technological innovation has increased, has significant attention been given to the rapid rate of social and cultural change and the associated risks which have emerged. The degree to which an individual responds to these changes is related to his perception of their importance in his life; likewise, the repsonse to risk situations, on the individual and societal level, is based upon how the risks are perceived. The social response to the introduction of nuclear power provides an interesting case in point: here several studies have indicated that nuclear power plants might be considered ''safe''; however, nuclear power is nevertheless being opposed in many countries by those who perceive it as an unacceptable source of risk. This paper reviews research oriented toward understanding the response to technological risks through identification of the specific technical, social and psychological factors which influence their perception. Several such factors have been identified which relate to the risk object, the individual at risk, and the risk situation in which the individual encounters this object. Nuclear power was found to be characterised by more of the factors tending to increase risk perception than was any other technology. It is hypothesized that, in part due to its high ''risk visibility'' and an unconscious psychological coupling with the death imagery of nuclear weapons, nuclear energy

  11. Overexpression of GEFT, a Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor, predicts poor prognosis in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Liu, Chunxia; Li, Shugang; Li, Hongan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yuwen; Li, Bingcheng; Cui, Xiaobin; Chen, Yunzhao; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas in children and adolescents with poor prognosis. Yet, there is lack of effective prognostic biomarkers for RMS. The present study, therefore, aimed to explore potential biomarkers for RMS based on our previous findings using array comparative genomic hybridization. We investigated guanine nucleotide exchange factor, GEFT, at expression level in 45 RMS patients and 36 normal striated muscle controls using immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. The expression rate of GEFT in RMS samples (42/45, 93.33%) was significantly higher (Prate of GEFT in RMS (31/45, 68.89%) was also significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in normal controls (0/36, 0.00%). Increased expression of GEFT correlated significantly with advanced disease stages (stages III/IV) (P=0.001), lymph node metastasis (P=0.019), and distant metastasis (P=0.004), respectively, in RMS patients. In addition, RMS patients having overexpressed GEFT experienced worse overall survival (OS) than those having low levels of GEFT (P=0.001). GEFT overexpression was determined to be an independent prognostic factor for poor OS in RMS patients (hazard ratio: 3.491, 95% confidence interval: 1.121-10.871, P=0.004). In conclusion, these observations provide the first evidence of GEFT overexpression in RMS and its correlations with disease aggressiveness and metastasis. These findings suggest that GEFT may serve as a promising biomarker predicting poor prognosis in RMS patients, thus implying its potential as a therapeutic target.

  12. A Novel Method for Lithium-Ion Battery Online Parameter Identification Based on Variable Forgetting Factor Recursive Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizhou Lao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available For model-based state of charge (SOC estimation methods, the battery model parameters change with temperature, SOC, and so forth, causing the estimation error to increase. Constantly updating model parameters during battery operation, also known as online parameter identification, can effectively solve this problem. In this paper, a lithium-ion battery is modeled using the Thevenin model. A variable forgetting factor (VFF strategy is introduced to improve forgetting factor recursive least squares (FFRLS to variable forgetting factor recursive least squares (VFF-RLS. A novel method based on VFF-RLS for the online identification of the Thevenin model is proposed. Experiments verified that VFF-RLS gives more stable online parameter identification results than FFRLS. Combined with an unscented Kalman filter (UKF algorithm, a joint algorithm named VFF-RLS-UKF is proposed for SOC estimation. In a variable-temperature environment, a battery SOC estimation experiment was performed using the joint algorithm. The average error of the SOC estimation was as low as 0.595% in some experiments. Experiments showed that VFF-RLS can effectively track the changes in model parameters. The joint algorithm improved the SOC estimation accuracy compared to the method with the fixed forgetting factor.

  13. Identification of New Virulence Factors and Vaccine Candidates for Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jourdan A. Andersson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Earlier, we reported the identification of new virulence factors/mechanisms of Yersinia pestis using an in vivo signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM screening approach. From this screen, the role of rbsA, which encodes an ATP-binding protein of ribose transport system, and vasK, an essential component of the type VI secretion system (T6SS, were evaluated in mouse models of plague and confirmed to be important during Y. pestis infection. However, many of the identified genes from the screen remained uncharacterized. In this study, in-frame deletion mutants of ypo0815, ypo2884, ypo3614-3168 (cyoABCDE, and ypo1119-1120, identified from the STM screen, were generated. While ypo0815 codes for a general secretion pathway protein E (GspE of the T2SS, the ypo2884-encoded protein has homology to the βγ crystallin superfamily, cyoABCDE codes for the cytochrome o oxidase operon, and the ypo1119-1120 genes are within the Tol-Pal system which has multiple functions. Additionally, as our STM screen identified three T6SS-associated genes, and, based on in silico analysis, six T6SS clusters and multiple homologs of the T6SS effector hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp exist in Y. pestis CO92, we also targeted these T6SS clusters and effectors for generating deletion mutants. These deletion mutant strains exhibited varying levels of attenuation (up to 100%, in bubonic or pneumonic murine infection models. The attenuation could be further augmented by generation of combinatorial deletion mutants, namely ΔlppΔypo0815, ΔlppΔypo2884, ΔlppΔcyoABCDE, ΔvasKΔhcp6, and Δypo2720-2733Δhcp3. We earlier showed that deletion of the lpp gene, which encodes Braun lipoprotein (Lpp and activates Toll-like receptor-2, reduced virulence of Y. pestis CO92 in murine models of bubonic and pneumonic plague. The surviving mice infected with ΔlppΔcyoABCDE, ΔvasKΔhcp6, and Δypo2720-2733Δhcp3 mutant strains were 55–100% protected upon subsequent re-challenge with wild

  14. Identification of New Virulence Factors and Vaccine Candidates for Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jourdan A; Sha, Jian; Erova, Tatiana E; Fitts, Eric C; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Kozlova, Elena V; Kirtley, Michelle L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2017-01-01

    Earlier, we reported the identification of new virulence factors/mechanisms of Yersinia pestis using an in vivo signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) screening approach. From this screen, the role of rbsA , which encodes an ATP-binding protein of ribose transport system, and vasK , an essential component of the type VI secretion system (T6SS), were evaluated in mouse models of plague and confirmed to be important during Y. pestis infection. However, many of the identified genes from the screen remained uncharacterized. In this study, in-frame deletion mutants of ypo0815, ypo2884, ypo3614-3168 (cyoABCDE) , and ypo1119-1120 , identified from the STM screen, were generated. While ypo0815 codes for a general secretion pathway protein E (GspE) of the T2SS, the ypo2884 -encoded protein has homology to the βγ crystallin superfamily, cyoABCDE codes for the cytochrome o oxidase operon, and the ypo1119-1120 genes are within the Tol-Pal system which has multiple functions. Additionally, as our STM screen identified three T6SS-associated genes, and, based on in silico analysis, six T6SS clusters and multiple homologs of the T6SS effector hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp) exist in Y. pestis CO92, we also targeted these T6SS clusters and effectors for generating deletion mutants. These deletion mutant strains exhibited varying levels of attenuation (up to 100%), in bubonic or pneumonic murine infection models. The attenuation could be further augmented by generation of combinatorial deletion mutants, namely Δ lpp Δ ypo0815 , Δ lpp Δ ypo2884 , Δ lpp Δ cyoABCDE , Δ vasK Δ hcp6 , and Δ ypo2720-2733 Δ hcp3 . We earlier showed that deletion of the lpp gene, which encodes Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) and activates Toll-like receptor-2, reduced virulence of Y. pestis CO92 in murine models of bubonic and pneumonic plague. The surviving mice infected with Δ lpp Δ cyoABCDE , Δ vasK Δ hcp6 , and Δ ypo2720-2733 Δ hcp3 mutant strains were 55-100% protected upon subsequent re

  15. Identification of Risk Factors Associated with Transmission of Plague Disease in Eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, Stanley S; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Machang'u, Robert; Mwanza, Jackson; Kilonzo, Bukheti S

    2017-09-01

    Plague is a fatal, primarily rodent-flea-borne zoonotic disease caused by Yersinia pestis . The identification of risk factors of plague was investigated through questionnaire interview and conducting focus group discussion (FGD) in Sinda and Nyimba districts of eastern Zambia. A total of 104 questionnaires were administered to individual respondents and 20 groups consisting of 181 discussants, which comprised FGD team in this study. The study revealed that trapping, transportation, and preparation of rodents for food exposed the community to rodent and their fleas suggesting that plague may have occurred primarily by either flea bites or contact with infected wild rodents. The study also revealed that most people in communities consumed rodents as part of their regular diet; therefore, contact with small wild mammals was a common practice. The mode of transportation of freshly trapped rodents, in particular, carcasses risked human to flea bites. Questionnaire respondents (75%) and FGD discussants (55%) indicated that trappers preferred to carry rodent carcasses in small bags, whereas 55.8% and 20% respectively, reported hunters carrying carcasses in their pockets. Carrying of carcass skewers on trappers' shoulders was reported by 38.4% and 20% of individual respondents and FGD, respectively. All these activities were exposing humans to rodents and their fleas, the natural reservoirs and vectors of plague, respectively. This study also showed that there is a statistically significant (χ 2 = 4.6878, P < 0.05), between digging of rodents from their burrows and the presence of fleas on the hunter's bodies or clothes, which exposes humans to potentially flea bites in an enzootic cycle.

  16. A comprehensive performance evaluation on the prediction results of existing cooperative transcription factors identification algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fu-Jou; Chang, Hong-Tsun; Huang, Yueh-Min; Wu, Wei-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic transcriptional regulation is known to be highly connected through the networks of cooperative transcription factors (TFs). Measuring the cooperativity of TFs is helpful for understanding the biological relevance of these TFs in regulating genes. The recent advances in computational techniques led to various predictions of cooperative TF pairs in yeast. As each algorithm integrated different data resources and was developed based on different rationales, it possessed its own merit and claimed outperforming others. However, the claim was prone to subjectivity because each algorithm compared with only a few other algorithms and only used a small set of performance indices for comparison. This motivated us to propose a series of indices to objectively evaluate the prediction performance of existing algorithms. And based on the proposed performance indices, we conducted a comprehensive performance evaluation. We collected 14 sets of predicted cooperative TF pairs (PCTFPs) in yeast from 14 existing algorithms in the literature. Using the eight performance indices we adopted/proposed, the cooperativity of each PCTFP was measured and a ranking score according to the mean cooperativity of the set was given to each set of PCTFPs under evaluation for each performance index. It was seen that the ranking scores of a set of PCTFPs vary with different performance indices, implying that an algorithm used in predicting cooperative TF pairs is of strength somewhere but may be of weakness elsewhere. We finally made a comprehensive ranking for these 14 sets. The results showed that Wang J's study obtained the best performance evaluation on the prediction of cooperative TF pairs in yeast. In this study, we adopted/proposed eight performance indices to make a comprehensive performance evaluation on the prediction results of 14 existing cooperative TFs identification algorithms. Most importantly, these proposed indices can be easily applied to measure the performance of new

  17. Trimming the fat: identification of risk factors associated with obesity in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundiyil, Josef G; Christiano-Smith, Danielle; Greenberger, Sarah; Cramm, Kelly; Latimer-Pierson, Janese; Modica, Renee F

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess which knowledge deficits and dietary habits in an urban pediatric emergency department (ED) population are risk factors for obesity. This cross-sectional study in an urban pediatric ED used a modified version of the Diet and Health Knowledge Survey, an in-person interview questionnaire, to collect data on demographics, dietary knowledge, and practices. All patients aged 2 to 17 years were enrolled in the study over a 4-month period. Subjects were excluded if they were in extremis, pregnant, incarcerated, institutionalized, considered an emancipated minor, or consumed only a modified consistency diet. One hundred seventy-nine subjects were enrolled in this study. Based on body mass index, the prevalence of obesity in our study population was 24%. Parents with obese children answered a mean of 62.9% (95% confidence interval, 60.4%-65.5%) of knowledge questions correctly, whereas all others scored 60.3% (95% confidence interval, 58.3%-62.3%) correctly. Based on the univariate analysis, 10 predictors met inclusion criteria into logistic regression analysis: screen time (P = 0.03), race (P = 0.08), sex (P = 0.04), parental education (P = 0.08), parental estimation that child is overweight (P obesity were independently associated with obesity. Knowledge deficiencies regarding healthy nutrition among parents in an urban pediatric ED population were not significantly associated with having obese children; however, specific habits were. Emergency physicians may provide a valuable role in identification and brief behavioral intervention in high-risk populations during the current epidemic of childhood obesity.

  18. Transcriptome-wide identification of bread wheat WRKY transcription factors in response to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, Sezer; Derelli, Ebru; Unver, Turgay

    2014-10-01

    The WRKY superfamily of transcription factors was shown to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the major crops largely cultivated and consumed all over the world. Drought is an important abiotic stress resulting in a considerable amount of loss in agronomical yield. Therefore, identification of drought responsive WRKY members in wheat has a profound significance. Here, a total of 160 TaWRKY proteins were characterized according to sequence similarity, motif varieties, and their phylogenetic relationships. The conserved sequences of the TaWRKYs were aligned and classified into three main groups and five subgroups. A novel motif in wheat, WRKYGQR, was identified. To putatively determine the drought responsive TaWRKY members, publicly available RNA-Seq data were analyzed for the first time in this study. Through in silico searches, 35 transcripts were detected having an identity to ten known TaWRKY genes. Furthermore, relative expression levels of TaWRKY16/TaWRKY16-A, TaWRKY17, TaWRKY19-C, TaWRKY24, TaWRKY59, TaWRKY61, and TaWRKY82 were measured in root and leaf tissues of drought-tolerant Sivas 111/33 and susceptible Atay 85 cultivars. All of the quantified TaWRKY transcripts were found to be up-regulated in root tissue of Sivas 111/33. Differential expression of TaWRKY16, TaWRKY24, TaWRKY59, TaWRKY61 and TaWRKY82 genes was discovered for the first time upon drought stress in wheat. These comprehensive analyses bestow a better understanding about the WRKY TFs in bread wheat under water deficit, and increased number of drought responsive WRKYs would contribute to the molecular breeding of tolerant wheat cultivars.

  19. Pediatrician identification of child behavior problems: the roles of parenting factors and cross-practice differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert M; Wildman, Beth G; Langkamp, Diane; Duby, John C

    2012-06-01

    While most primary care pediatricians acknowledge the importance of identifying child behavior problems, fewer than 2% of children with a diagnosable psychological disorder are referred for mental health care in any given year. The present study examined the potential role of parental characteristics (parental affect, parenting style, and parenting self-efficacy) in pediatrician identification of child behavior problems, and determined whether these relationships differed across practices. Parents of 831 children between 2 and 16 years completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, their child's behavior, their affect, their parenting style, and their parenting self-efficacy. Pediatricians completed a brief questionnaire following visits in four community-based primary care practices in the Midwest. Logistic regressions controlling for child behavior and demographic predictors of pediatrician identification found that an authoritarian parenting style, in which parents yell or strongly negatively react to problem behavior, was negatively associated with likelihood of identification in the overall sample. However, the variables that were predictive of pediatrician identification differed depending on the specific practice. Parental characteristics can aid in understanding which children are likely to be identified by their pediatrician as having behavioral problems. The finding that practices differed on which variables were associated with pediatrician identification suggests the need to potentially individualize interventions to certain physicians and practices to improve identification of child behavior problems in primary care.

  20. Factors influencing identification of and response to intimate partner violence: a survey of physicians and nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathen C Nadine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence against women (IPV has been identified as a serious public health problem. Although the health care system is an important site for identification and intervention, there have been challenges in determining how health care professionals can best address this issue in practice. We surveyed nurses and physicians in 2004 regarding their attitudes and behaviours with respect to IPV, including whether they routinely inquire about IPV, as well as potentially relevant barriers, facilitators, experiential, and practice-related factors. Methods A modified Dillman Tailored Design approach was used to survey 1000 nurses and 1000 physicians by mail in Ontario, Canada. Respondents were randomly selected from professional directories and represented practice areas pre-identified from the literature as those most likely to care for women at the point of initial IPV disclosure: family practice, obstetrics and gynecology, emergency care, maternal/newborn care, and public health. The survey instrument had a case-based scenario followed by 43 questions asking about behaviours and resources specific to woman abuse. Results In total, 931 questionnaires were returned; 597 by nurses (59.7% response rate and 328 by physicians (32.8% response rate. Overall, 32% of nurses and 42% of physicians reported routinely initiating the topic of IPV in practice. Principal components analysis identified eight constructs related to whether routine inquiry was conducted: preparedness, self-confidence, professional supports, abuse inquiry, practitioner consequences of asking, comfort following disclosure, practitioner lack of control, and practice pressures. Each construct was analyzed according to a number of related issues, including clinician training and experience with woman abuse, area of practice, and type of health care provider. Preparedness emerged as a key construct related to whether respondents routinely initiated the topic of

  1. The effects of design and operating factors on the frost growth and thermal performance of a flat plate fin-tube heat exchanger under the frosting condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwan Soo; Kim, Woo Seung

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study of the effects of various factors(fin pitch, fin arrangement, air temperature, air humidity, and air velocity) on the frost growth and thermal performance of a fin-tube heat exchanger has been conducted under the frosting condition. It is found that the thermal performance of a heat exchanger is closely related to the blockage ratio of the air flow passages due to the frost growth. The maximum allowable blockage ratio is used to determine the criteria for the optimal operating conditions of a fin-tube heat exchanger. It is also shown that heat transfer rate of heat exchanger with staggered fin arrangement increases about 17% and the time required for heat transfer rate to reach a maximum value becomes longer, compared with those of an inline fin-tube heat exchanger under the frosting condition. The energy transfer resistance between the air and coolant decreases with the increase of inlet air temperature and velocity and with decreasing inlet air humidity

  2. Detachable strong cation exchange monolith, integrated with capillary zone electrophoresis and coupled with pH gradient elution, produces improved sensitivity and numbers of peptide identifications during bottom-up analysis of complex proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Yan, Xiaojing; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-04-21

    A detachable sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation-exchange monolith was synthesized in a fused silica capillary, and used for solid phase extraction with online pH gradient elution during capillary zone electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-MS/MS) proteomic analysis. Tryptic digests were prepared in 50 mM formic acid and loaded onto the strong cation-exchange monolith. Fractions were eluted using a series of buffers with lower concentration but higher pH values than the 50 mM formic acid background electrolyte. This combination of elution and background electrolytes results in both sample stacking and formation of a dynamic pH junction and allows use of relatively large elution buffer volumes while maintaining reasonable peak efficiency and resolution. A series of five pH bumps were applied to elute E. coli tryptic peptides from the monolith, followed by analysis using CZE coupled to an LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer; 799 protein groups and 3381 peptides were identified from 50 ng of the digest in a 2.5 h analysis, which approaches the identification rate for this organism that was obtained with an Orbitrap Fusion. We attribute the improved numbers of peptide and protein identifications to the efficient fractionation by the online pH gradient elution, which decreased the complexity of the sample in each elution step and improved the signal intensity of low abundance peptides. We also performed a comparative analysis using a nanoACQUITY UltraPerformance LCH system. Similar numbers of protein and peptide identifications were produced by the two methods. Protein identifications showed significant overlap between the two methods, whereas peptide identifications were complementary.

  3. Identification of the key ecological factors influencing vegetation degradation in semi-arid agro-pastoral ecotone considering spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu; Wang, Qinghui; Fan, Min

    2017-11-01

    When assessing re-vegetation project performance and optimizing land management, identification of the key ecological factors inducing vegetation degradation has crucial implications. Rainfall, temperature, elevation, slope, aspect, land use type, and human disturbance are ecological factors affecting the status of vegetation index. However, at different spatial scales, the key factors may vary. Using Helin County, Inner-Mongolia, China as the study site and combining remote sensing image interpretation, field surveying, and mathematical methods, this study assesses key ecological factors affecting vegetation degradation under different spatial scales in a semi-arid agro-pastoral ecotone. It indicates that the key factors are different at various spatial scales. Elevation, rainfall, and temperature are identified as crucial for all spatial extents. Elevation, rainfall and human disturbance are key factors for small-scale quadrats of 300 m × 300 m and 600 m × 600 m, temperature and land use type are key factors for a medium-scale quadrat of 1 km × 1 km, and rainfall, temperature, and land use are key factors for large-scale quadrats of 2 km × 2 km and 5 km × 5 km. For this region, human disturbance is not the key factor for vegetation degradation across spatial scales. It is necessary to consider spatial scale for the identification of key factors determining vegetation characteristics. The eco-restoration programs at various spatial scales should identify key influencing factors according their scales so as to take effective measurements. The new understanding obtained in this study may help to explore the forces which driving vegetation degradation in the degraded regions in the world.

  4. State of oral hygiene and identification of the main risk factors for inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues in young people.

    OpenAIRE

    Makarenko, M. V.

    2014-01-01

    A high percentage of prevalence of inflammatory periodontal diseases in young age causes urgency of treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissue in young age. Therefore, the research purpose was to investigate the hygienic condition and identification of the main risk factors for gingivitis in patients aged 18-30 years. 286 people aged from 18 to 30 years were observed in the study. To assess hygienic condition of the oral cavity and to determine the thickness of pl...

  5. Regulation of Ras exchange factors and cellular localization of Ras activation by lipid messengers in T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse E. Jun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ras-MAPK signaling pathway is highly conserved throughout evolution and is activated downstream of a wide range of receptor stimuli. Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs catalyze GTP loading of Ras and play a pivotal role in regulating receptor-ligand induced Ras activity. In T cells, three families of functionally important RasGEFs are expressed: RasGRF, RasGRP, and SOS-family GEFs.Early on it was recognized that Ras activation is critical for T cell development and that the RasGEFs play an important role herein. More recent work has revealed that nuances in Ras activation appear to significantly impact T cell development and selection. These nuances include distinct biochemical patterns of analog versus digital Ras activation, differences in cellular localization of Ras activation, and intricate interplays between the RasGEFs during distinct T cell developmental stages as revealed by various new mouse models. In many instances, the exact nature of these nuances in Ras activation or how these may result from fine-tuning of the RasGEFs is not understood.One large group of biomolecules critically involved in the control of Ras-GEFs´functions are lipid second messengers. Multiple, yet distinct lipid products are generated following T cell receptor (TCR stimulation and bind to different domains in the RasGRP and SOS RasGEFs to facilitate the activation of the membrane-anchored Ras GTPases. In this review we highlight how different lipid-based elements are generated by various enzymes downstream of the TCR and other receptors and how these dynamic and interrelated lipid products may fine-tune Ras activation by RasGEFs in developing T cells.

  6. Neurodevelopmental disease-associated de novo mutations and rare sequence variants affect TRIO GDP/GTP exchange factor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancha, Sara M; Wu, Yi; Zhu, Minsheng; Eipper, Betty A; Koleske, Anthony J; Mains, Richard E

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism and intellectual disability are complex neurodevelopmental disorders, debilitating millions of people. Therapeutic progress is limited by poor understanding of underlying molecular pathways. Using a targeted search, we identified an enrichment of de novo mutations in the gene encoding the 330-kDa triple functional domain (TRIO) protein associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. By generating multiple TRIO antibodies, we show that the smaller TRIO9 isoform is the major brain protein product, and its levels decrease after birth. TRIO9 contains two guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domains with distinct specificities: GEF1 activates both Rac1 and RhoG; GEF2 activates RhoA. To understand the impact of disease-associated de novo mutations and other rare sequence variants on TRIO function, we utilized two FRET-based biosensors: a Rac1 biosensor to study mutations in TRIO (T)GEF1, and a RhoA biosensor to study mutations in TGEF2. We discovered that one autism-associated de novo mutation in TGEF1 (K1431M), at the TGEF1/Rac1 interface, markedly decreased its overall activity toward Rac1. A schizophrenia-associated rare sequence variant in TGEF1 (F1538Intron) was substantially less active, normalized to protein level and expressed poorly. Overall, mutations in TGEF1 decreased GEF1 activity toward Rac1. One bipolar disorder-associated rare variant (M2145T) in TGEF2 impaired inhibition by the TGEF2 pleckstrin-homology domain, resulting in dramatically increased TGEF2 activity. Overall, genetic damage to both TGEF domains altered TRIO catalytic activity, decreasing TGEF1 activity and increasing TGEF2 activity. Importantly, both GEF changes are expected to decrease neurite outgrowth, perhaps consistent with their association with neurodevelopmental disorders. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Modulation of B-cell receptor and microenvironment signaling by a guanine exchange factor in B-cell malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Wei; Sharma, Sanjai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells over-express a guanine exchange factor (GEF), Rasgrf-1. This GEF increases active Ras as it catalyzes the removal of GDP from Ras so that GTP can bind and activate Ras. This study aims to study the mechanism of action of Rasgrf-1 in B-cell malignancies. Methods: N-terminus truncated Rasgrf-1 variants have a higher GEF activity as compared to the full-length transcript therefore a MCL cell line with stable over-expression of truncated Rasgrf-1 was established. The B-cell receptor (BCR) and chemokine signaling pathways were compared in the Rasgrf-1 over-expressing and a control transfected cell line. Results: Cells over-expressing truncated form of Rasgrf-1 have a higher proliferative rate as compared to control transfected cells. BCR was activated by lower concentrations of anti-IgM antibody in Rasgrf-1 over-expressing cells as compared to control cells indicating that these cells are more sensitive to BCR signaling. BCR signaling also phosphorylates Rasgrf-1 that further increases its GEF function and amplifies BCR signaling. This activation of Rasgrf-1 in over-expressing cells resulted in a higher expression of phospho-ERK, AKT, BTK and PKC-alpha as compared to control cells. Besides BCR, Rasgrf-1 over-expressing cells were also more sensitive to microenvironment stimuli as determined by resistance to apoptosis, chemotaxis and ERK pathway activation. Conclusions: This GEF protein sensitizes B-cells to BCR and chemokine mediated signaling and also upregulates a number of other signaling pathways which promotes growth and survival of these cells

  8. Identification of the sodium-calcium exchanger as the major ricin-binding glycoprotein of bovine rod outer segments and its localization to the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.M.; Molday, R.S.; Friedel, U.; Cook, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    After neuraminidase treatment the Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger of bovine rod outer segments was found to specifically bind Ricinus communis agglutinin. SDS gel electrophoresis and Western blotting of ricin-binding proteins purified from rod outer segment membranes by lectin affinity chromatography revealed the existence of two major polypeptides of M r 215K and 103K, the former of which was found to specifically react with PMe 1B3, a monoclonal antibody specific for the 230-kDa non-neuraminidase-treated Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger. Reconstitution of the ricin affinity-purified exchanger into calcium-containing liposomes revealed that neuraminidase treatment had no significant effect on the kinetics of Na + /Ca 2+ exchange activation by sodium. The authors further investigated the density of the Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger in disk and plasma membrane preparations using Western blotting, radioimmunoassays, immunoelectron microscopy, and reconstitution procedures. The results indicate that the Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger is localized in the rod photoreceptor plasma membrane and is absent or present in extremely low concentrations in disk membranes, as they have previously shown to be the case for the cGMP-gated cation channel. Previous reports describing the existence of Na + /Ca 2+ exchange activity in rod outer segment disk membrane preparations may be due to the fusion of plasma membrane components and/or the presence of contaminating plasma membrane vesicles

  9. Influence of some factors on kinetics of boron ions sorption by inorganic anion exchanger of MNG type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leont'eva, G.V.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to the influence of particle size of anion exchanger and boron ion concentration on boron sorption from the solution of the following composition (kg/m 3 ): Na + -71.3; K + - 1.9; Ca 2+ - 43.8; Mg 2+ - 5.7; B 2 O 3 -0.32-1.50; Cl - - 204.6, SO 4 2- - 0.02, CO 3 2+ - 0.40; HCO 3 - - 1.74; pH=8.1; density - 1225 kg/m 3 . Increase of dispersivity of ion-exchange material promotes the elevation of sorption rate. Increase of boron ion concentration in the solution leads to exchange capacity growth and reduction of latent period of nucleation; this results to increase of sorption rate

  10. Identification of seipin-linked factors that act as determinants of a lipid droplet subpopulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenberg-Bord, Michal; Mari, Muriel; Weill, Uri; Rosenfeld-Gur, Eden; Moldavski, Ofer; Castro, Ines G.; Soni, Krishnakant G.; Harpaz, Nofar; Levine, Tim P.; Futerman, Anthony H.; Reggiori, Fulvio; Bankaitis, Vytas A.; Schuldiner, Maya; Bohnert, Maria

    Functional heterogeneity within the lipid droplet (LD) pool of a single cell has been observed, yet the underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. Here, we report on identification of a specialized LD subpopulation characterized by a unique proteome and a defined geographical location at the

  11. Gender Role and Social Identifications: The Two Major Factors to Shape Turkish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden-Imamoglu, Seval

    2013-01-01

    The process of being a woman starts with biological gender but it is shaped by learning the social gender roles. Besides social gender role; age, education, marriage, and motherhood supply social roles and attributions and they have an impact on women identification and their interpersonal relationships. The aim of the study is to investigate…

  12. Identification of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Preetha L

    2014-02-01

    Obesity in the child and adolescent population is a growing problem. This article discusses the identification of obesity and overweight youth using body mass index and anthropometry and reviews literature to show the relationship between obesity and premature cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Traffic Crashes Involving Pedestrians Using Big Data: Investigation of Contributing Factors and Identification of Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kun; Ozbay, Kaan; Kurkcu, Abdullah; Yang, Hong

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to explore the potential of using big data in advancing the pedestrian risk analysis including the investigation of contributing factors and the hotspot identification. Massive amounts of data of Manhattan from a variety of sources were collected, integrated, and processed, including taxi trips, subway turnstile counts, traffic volumes, road network, land use, sociodemographic, and social media data. The whole study area was uniformly split into grid cells as the basic geographical units of analysis. The cell-structured framework makes it easy to incorporate rich and diversified data into risk analysis. The cost of each crash, weighted by injury severity, was assigned to the cells based on the relative distance to the crash site using a kernel density function. A tobit model was developed to relate grid-cell-specific contributing factors to crash costs that are left-censored at zero. The potential for safety improvement (PSI) that could be obtained by using the actual crash cost minus the cost of "similar" sites estimated by the tobit model was used as a measure to identify and rank pedestrian crash hotspots. The proposed hotspot identification method takes into account two important factors that are generally ignored, i.e., injury severity and effects of exposure indicators. Big data, on the one hand, enable more precise estimation of the effects of risk factors by providing richer data for modeling, and on the other hand, enable large-scale hotspot identification with higher resolution than conventional methods based on census tracts or traffic analysis zones. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Monitoring Ras Interactions with the Nucleotide Exchange Factor Son of Sevenless (Sos) Using Site-specific NMR Reporter Signals and Intrinsic Fluorescence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Flavell, Liz; Bobby, Romel; Breeze, Alexander L.; Embrey, Kevin J.; Golovanov, Alexander P.

    2016-01-01

    The activity of Ras is controlled by the interconversion between GTP- and GDP-bound forms partly regulated by the binding of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (Sos). The details of Sos binding, leading to nucleotide exchange and subsequent dissociation of the complex, are not completely understood. Here, we used uniformly 15N-labeled Ras as well as [13C]methyl-Met,Ile-labeled Sos for observing site-specific details of Ras-Sos interactions in solution. Binding of various forms of Ras (loaded with GDP and mimics of GTP or nucleotide-free) at the allosteric and catalytic sites of Sos was comprehensively characterized by monitoring signal perturbations in the NMR spectra. The overall affinity of binding between these protein variants as well as their selected functional mutants was also investigated using intrinsic fluorescence. The data support a positive feedback activation of Sos by Ras·GTP with Ras·GTP binding as a substrate for the catalytic site of activated Sos more weakly than Ras·GDP, suggesting that Sos should actively promote unidirectional GDP → GTP exchange on Ras in preference of passive homonucleotide exchange. Ras·GDP weakly binds to the catalytic but not to the allosteric site of Sos. This confirms that Ras·GDP cannot properly activate Sos at the allosteric site. The novel site-specific assay described may be useful for design of drugs aimed at perturbing Ras-Sos interactions. PMID:26565026

  15. The X-Factor: On the Relevance of Implicit Leadership and Followership Theories for Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Gils (Suzanne); N. van Quaquebeke (Niels); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhile Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) research shows that leaders engage in different kinds of relationships with different followers, it remains somewhat of an enigma why one and the same relationship is often rated differently by a leader and the respective follower. We seek to fill that

  16. The Issue of Power in the Identification of "g" with Lower-Order Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, Dora; Dolan, Conor V.; Molenaar, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    In higher order factor models, general intelligence (g) is often found to correlate perfectly with lower-order common factors, suggesting that g and some well-defined cognitive ability, such as working memory, may be identical. However, the results of studies that addressed the equivalence of g and lower-order factors are inconsistent. We suggest…

  17. Cyclical fluctuations in Brazil's real exchange rate: the role of domestic and external factors (1988-95

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Richard Agénor

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the behavoir of capital inflows and the real exchange rate in Brazil during the period 1988-95. The first part describes the analytical framework. The second part estimates (using monthly data a near-VAR linking capital flows, changes in domestic and foreign nominal interest rates, changes in the expected depreciation rate, the government spending-output ratio, and changes in the real exchange rate. Generalized variance decompositions indicate that world interest rate shocks explain only a fraction of medium-term fluctuations in capital flows, whereas fluctuations in the real exchange rate are driven mostly by its own innovations. Generalized impulse response functions show that a reduction in the world interest rate leads on impact to a fall in domestic interest rates, a reduction in the rate of nominal exchange rate appreciation, a capital inflow, and a depreciation of the real exchange rate.O artigo analisa o comportamento do fluxo de capital e da taxa real de câmbio no Brasil durante o período 1988-95. A primeira parte descreve o modelo analítico. A segunda estima, usando dados mensais, um near-VAR que relaciona fluxo de capital, mudanças nas taxas de juros nominais domésticas e internacionais, mudanças na taxa de depreciação esperada, relação gastos do governo/PIB e mudanças na taxa de câmbio real. As decomposições das variâncias indicam que choques na taxa de juros internacionais explicam apenas uma fração das flutuações de médio prazo nos fluxos de capital, enquanto flutuações na taxa de câmbio real são influenciadas principalmente por inovações nela mesma. As funções impulso resposta mostram que reduções na taxa de juros internacional causam os seguintes impactos: quedas na taxa de juros doméstica, reduções na apreciação da taxa nominal de câmbio, aumentos no fluxo capital e depreciação na taxa real de câmbio.

  18. Factor structure and invariance test of the alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT): Comparison and further validation in a U.S. and Philippines college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuliao, Antover P; Landoy, Bernice Vania N; McChargue, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test's factor structure varies depending on population and culture. Because of this inconsistency, this article examined the factor structure of the test and conducted a factorial invariance test between a U.S. and a Philippines college sample. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a three-factor solution outperforms the one- and two-factor solution in both samples. Factorial invariance analyses further supports the confirmatory findings by showing that factor loadings were generally invariant across groups; however, item intercepts show non-invariance. Country differences between factors show that Filipino consumption factor mean scores were significantly lower than their U.S. counterparts.

  19. The psychology of chronic post-surgical pain: new frontiers in risk factor identification, prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrib, Aliza Z; Azam, Muhammad A; Birnie, Kathryn A; Burns, Lindsay C; Clarke, Hance; Katz, Joel

    2017-11-01

    In an era of considerable advances in anaesthesiology and pain medicine, chronic pain after major surgery continues to be problematic. This article briefly reviews the known psychological risk and protective factors associated with the development of chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP). We begin with a definition of CPSP and then explain what we mean by a risk/protective factor. Next, we summarize known psychological risk and protective factors for CPSP. Psychological interventions that target risk factors and may impact postsurgical pain are reviewed, including the acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT)-based approach to CPSP prevention and management we use in the Transitional Pain Service (TPS) at the Toronto General Hospital. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for research in risk factor identification and psychological interventions to prevent CPSP. Several pre-surgical psychological risk factors for CPSP have been consistently identified in recent years. These include negative affective constructs, such as anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, pain catastrophizing and general psychological distress. In contrast, relatively few studies have examined psychological protective factors for CPSP. Psychological interventions that target known psychological risk factors while enhancing protective psychological factors may reduce new incidence of CPSP. The primary goal of our ACT intervention is to teach patients a mindful way of responding to their postsurgical pain that empowers them to interrupt the negative cycle of pain, distress, behavioural avoidance and escalating opioid use that can limit functioning and quality of life while paradoxically amplifying pain over time. Early clinical outcome data suggest that patients who receive care from TPS physicians reduce their pain and opioid use, yet patients who also receive our ACT intervention have a larger decrease in daily opioid dose while reporting less pain interference and lower depression scores.

  20. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G; Bellinger, D; McCormick, M C

    2007-03-01

    Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature (mathematics. Potential predictor variables were categorized into 4 domains: sociodemographic, neonatal, maternal mental health and early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Regression analysis was used to create a model to predict reading and mathematics scores. Variables from all domains were significant in the model, predicting low achievement scores in reading (R (2) of 0.49, model p-value mathematics (R (2) of 0.44, model p-value intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Lower mathematics scores were predicted by lower maternal education, income and age and Black or Hispanic race (sociodemographic); lower birth weight and higher head circumference (neonatal); lower maternal responsivity (maternal mental health); lower intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Sequential early childhood risk factors in premature and LBW children lead to a cumulative risk for academic difficulties and can be used for early identification.

  1. Identification of potent orally active factor Xa inhibitors based on conjugation strategy and application of predictable fragment recommender system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Tsukasa; Koga, Yuji; Iwatsuki, Yoshiyuki; Hirayama, Fukushi

    2015-01-15

    Anticoagulant agents have emerged as a promising class of therapeutic drugs for the treatment and prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. We investigated a series of novel orally active factor Xa inhibitors designed using our previously reported conjugation strategy to boost oral anticoagulant effect. Structural optimization of anthranilamide derivative 3 as a lead compound with installation of phenolic hydroxyl group and extensive exploration of the P1 binding element led to the identification of 5-chloro-N-(5-chloro-2-pyridyl)-3-hydroxy-2-{[4-(4-methyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)benzoyl]amino}benzamide (33, AS1468240) as a potent factor Xa inhibitor with significant oral anticoagulant activity. We also reported a newly developed Free-Wilson-like fragment recommender system based on the integration of R-group decomposition with collaborative filtering for the structural optimization process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of Site Selection Factors in the U.S. Franchise Restaurant Industry: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kunsoon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and rank the importance of the site selection factors that influence the U.S. franchise restaurant industry as well as rank the confidence level of the experts. To identify the site selection factors, this study sought assistance and support from restaurant professionals. The Delphi technique was used to elicit the opinions of a panel of experts regarding the site selection factors. The panel was composed of restaurant professionals of restaurant c...

  3. Identification af explosive power factors as predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgantov, Zoran; Milić, Mirjana; Katić, Ratko

    2013-05-01

    With the purpose of determining the factor structure of explosive power, as well as the influence of each factor on situational efficiency, 56 young female volleyball players were tested using 14 tests for assessing nonspecific and specific explosive power. By factor analysis, 4 significant factors were isolated which explained the total of over 80% of the common variability in young female volleyball players. The first factor was defined as volleyball-specific jumping, the second factor as nonspecific jumping and sprinting, the third factor as throwing explosive power, while the fourth factor was interpreted as volleyball-specific throwing and spiking speed from the ground. Results obtained by regression analysis in the latent space of explosive power indicate that the identified factors are good predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players. The fourth factor defined as throwing and spiking speed from the ground had the largest influence on player quality, followed by volleyball-specific jumping and nonspecific jumping and sprinting, and to a much lesser extent, by throwing explosive power The results obtained in this age group bring to the fore the ability of spiking and serving a ball of high speed, which hinders the opponents from playing those balls in serve reception and field defence. This ability, combined with a high standing vertical jump reach and spike approach vertical jump reach (which is the basis of the 1st varimax factor) enables successful performance of all volleyball elements by which points are won in complex 1 (spike) and complex 2 (serve and block). Even though the 2nd factor (nonspecific jumping and sprinting) has a slightly smaller impact on situational efficiency in young players, this ability provides preconditions i.e. preparation for successful realisation of all volleyball elements, so greater attention must be paid to perfecting it in young female volleyball players.

  4. Identification of technical factors for assessment of waste management systems (report) for Department of the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Two important characteristics of procedures for dealing with radioactive waste are their cost, and the expected extent to which they result in exposure to ionising radiation on the part of workers and the general population. However there are also other criteria against which such procedures can be evaluated. The purpose of this report is to propose a list of such factors, to define them, and to describe possible methods of evaluation. They are:- 1) Cost, 2) Radiological risk, 3) Other environmental and risk factors, 4) Process and operational factors and 5) Social, economic and political factors. (author)

  5. Analysis of radiation-natural convection interactions in 1-G and low-G environments using the discrete exchange factor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassemi, M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a new numerical method is presented for the analysis of combined natural convection and radiation heat transfer which has application in many engineering situations such as materials processing, combustion and fire research. Because of the recent interest in the performance of these engineering processes in the low-gravity environment of space, attention is devoted to both 1-g and low-g applications. The numerical study is based on a two-dimensional mathematical model represented by a set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy and the integro-differential equations which describe radiative heat transfer. Radiative exchange is formulated using the discrete exchange factor method (DEF). This method considers point to point exchange and provides accurate results over a wide range of radiation parameters. The desirable features of DEF are briefly described. Our numerical results show that radiation significantly influences the flow and heat transfer in the enclosure. In both low-g and 1-g applications, radiation modifies the temperature profiles and enhances the convective heat transfer at the cold wall. In a low-g environment, convection is weak, and radiation can easily become the dominant heat transfer mode. It is also shown that in the top-heated enclosure, volumetric heating by radiation gives rise to an intricate cell pattern in the cavity

  6. Cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors: Identification of predictive factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Ehrenfels, Susanne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2003-01-01

    To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors.......To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors....

  7. Identification of the underlying factor structure of the Derriford Appearance Scale 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Moss

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Derriford Appearance Scale24 (DAS24 is a widely used measure of distress and dysfunction in relation to self-consciousness of appearance. It has been used in clinical and research settings, and translated into numerous European and Asian languages. Hitherto, no study has conducted an analysis to determine the underlying factor structure of the scale.Methods. A large (n = 1,265 sample of community and hospital patients with a visible difference were recruited face to face or by post, and completed the DAS24.Results. A two factor solution was generated. An evaluation of the congruence of the factor solutions on each of the the hospital and the community samples using Tucker’s Coefficient of Congruence (rc = .979 and confirmatory factor analysis, which demonstrated a consistent factor structure. A main factor, general self consciousness (GSC, was represented by 18 items. Six items comprised a second factor, sexual and body self-consciousness (SBSC. The SBSC scale demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity in identifying distress for sexually significant areas of the body.Discussion. The factor structure of the DAS24 facilitates a more nuanced interpretation of scores using this scale. Two conceptually and statistically coherent sub-scales were identified. The SBSC sub-scale offers a means of identifying distress and dysfunction around sexually significant areas of the body not previously possible with this scale.

  8. Identification of the key factors for success in the hotel sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campa-Planas

    2018-02-01

    Design/methodology: A review of the literature has been carried out, which has provided references related to the hotel sector and different factors that impact it. The knowledge provided by the scientific community through the articles and texts consulted are reflected in this document and allow us to determine the existence of the key factors for success.  Contributions/results: Considering the importance of the hotel sector in the Spanish economy, this study identifies the key factors in the different hotel establishments. However, the materialization of these factors provides and shows us which financial aspects, management systems and other more global aspects, such as longevity or location, enable the company to be successful in the hotel sector.  Originality/value: Based on the literature reviewed, a list of key factors for success in the hotel sector was composed. This also revealed a lack of similar studies on this topic.

  9. Identification and Progression of Heart Disease Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients from Longitudinal Electronic Health Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Jonnagaddala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, assessing the risk of its occurrence is a crucial step in predicting serious cardiac events. Identifying heart disease risk factors and tracking their progression is a preliminary step in heart disease risk assessment. A large number of studies have reported the use of risk factor data collected prospectively. Electronic health record systems are a great resource of the required risk factor data. Unfortunately, most of the valuable information on risk factor data is buried in the form of unstructured clinical notes in electronic health records. In this study, we present an information extraction system to extract related information on heart disease risk factors from unstructured clinical notes using a hybrid approach. The hybrid approach employs both machine learning and rule-based clinical text mining techniques. The developed system achieved an overall microaveraged F-score of 0.8302.

  10. Internal risks of factoring business: identification, cause-effect relationships, accounting and management aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygivska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies the risks of the economic activity of a factoring company. The identified risks are divided into internal (fraud risk, credit risk, liquidity, nonpayment, staff, supplier's failure to meet the terms of the supply / factoring contract and external (legal, inflation, currency, interest, industry risks, country risk. The cause-effect relationships of the identified risks have been established. The content of information requests of the leading part of the factoring company, as well as the management subsystems (accounting, economic analysis, control and planning, and the direction of information flows between them (to manage the company's internal risks is determined. These proposals contribute to the improvement of accounting and analytical support for risk management of the factoring business, the choice of alternative risk management methods, the impact on their possible consequences, minimizing the negative impact of risks on the financial condition of the company, and establishing the effectiveness of factoring operations under risk.

  11. Identification of the human factors contributing to maintenance failures in a petroleum operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonovsky, Ari; Pollock, Clare; Straker, Leon

    2014-03-01

    This research aimed to identify the most frequently occurring human factors contributing to maintenance-related failures within a petroleum industry organization. Commonality between failures will assist in understanding reliability in maintenance processes, thereby preventing accidents in high-hazard domains. Methods exist for understanding the human factors contributing to accidents. Their application in a maintenance context mainly has been advanced in aviation and nuclear power. Maintenance in the petroleum industry provides a different context for investigating the role that human factors play in influencing outcomes. It is therefore worth investigating the contributing human factors to improve our understanding of both human factors in reliability and the factors specific to this domain. Detailed analyses were conducted of maintenance-related failures (N = 38) in a petroleum company using structured interviews with maintenance technicians. The interview structure was based on the Human Factor Investigation Tool (HFIT), which in turn was based on Rasmussen's model of human malfunction. A mean of 9.5 factors per incident was identified across the cases investigated.The three most frequent human factors contributing to the maintenance failures were found to be assumption (79% of cases), design and maintenance (71%), and communication (66%). HFIT proved to be a useful instrument for identifying the pattern of human factors that recurred most frequently in maintenance-related failures. The high frequency of failures attributed to assumptions and communication demonstrated the importance of problem-solving abilities and organizational communication in a domain where maintenance personnel have a high degree of autonomy and a wide geographical distribution.

  12. Identification of eight novel coagulation factor XIII subunit A mutations: implied consequences for structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaskevicius, Vytautas; Biswas, Arijit; Bevans, Carville; Schroeder, Verena; Kohler, Hans Peter; Rott, Hannelore; Halimeh, Susan; Petrides, Petro E; Lenk, Harald; Krause, Manuele; Miterski, Bruno; Harbrecht, Ursula; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2010-06-01

    Severe hereditary coagulation factor XIII deficiency is a rare homozygous bleeding disorder affecting one person in every two million individuals. In contrast, heterozygous factor XIII deficiency is more common, but usually not associated with severe hemorrhage such as intracranial bleeding or hemarthrosis. In most cases, the disease is caused by F13A gene mutations. Causative mutations associated with the F13B gene are rarer. We analyzed ten index patients and three relatives for factor XIII activity using a photometric assay and sequenced their F13A and F13B genes. Additionally, structural analysis of the wild-type protein structure from a previously reported X-ray crystallographic model identified potential structural and functional effects of the missense mutations. All individuals except one were heterozygous for factor XIIIA mutations (average factor XIII activity 51%), while the remaining homozygous individual was found to have severe factor XIII deficiency (<5% of normal factor XIII activity). Eight of the 12 heterozygous patients exhibited a bleeding tendency upon provocation. The identified missense (Pro289Arg, Arg611His, Asp668Gly) and nonsense (Gly390X, Trp664X) mutations are causative for factor XIII deficiency. A Gly592Ser variant identified in three unrelated index patients, as well as in 200 healthy controls (minor allele frequency 0.005), and two further Tyr167Cys and Arg540Gln variants, represent possible candidates for rare F13A gene polymorphisms since they apparently do not have a significant influence on the structure of the factor XIIIA protein. Future in vitro expression studies of the factor XIII mutations are required to confirm their pathological mechanisms.

  13. Monitoring Ras Interactions with the Nucleotide Exchange Factor Son of Sevenless (Sos) Using Site-specific NMR Reporter Signals and Intrinsic Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Uybach; Vajpai, Navratna; Flavell, Liz; Bobby, Romel; Breeze, Alexander L; Embrey, Kevin J; Golovanov, Alexander P

    2016-01-22

    The activity of Ras is controlled by the interconversion between GTP- and GDP-bound forms partly regulated by the binding of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of Sevenless (Sos). The details of Sos binding, leading to nucleotide exchange and subsequent dissociation of the complex, are not completely understood. Here, we used uniformly (15)N-labeled Ras as well as [(13)C]methyl-Met,Ile-labeled Sos for observing site-specific details of Ras-Sos interactions in solution. Binding of various forms of Ras (loaded with GDP and mimics of GTP or nucleotide-free) at the allosteric and catalytic sites of Sos was comprehensively characterized by monitoring signal perturbations in the NMR spectra. The overall affinity of binding between these protein variants as well as their selected functional mutants was also investigated using intrinsic fluorescence. The data support a positive feedback activation of Sos by Ras·GTP with Ras·GTP binding as a substrate for the catalytic site of activated Sos more weakly than Ras·GDP, suggesting that Sos should actively promote unidirectional GDP → GTP exchange on Ras in preference of passive homonucleotide exchange. Ras·GDP weakly binds to the catalytic but not to the allosteric site of Sos. This confirms that Ras·GDP cannot properly activate Sos at the allosteric site. The novel site-specific assay described may be useful for design of drugs aimed at perturbing Ras-Sos interactions. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Positive matrix factorization and trajectory modelling for source identification: A new look at Indian Ocean Experiment ship observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprasad, S. G.; Venkataraman, Chandra; Bhushan, Mani

    The sources of aerosols on a regional scale over India have only recently received attention in studies using back trajectory analysis and chemical transport modelling. Receptor modelling approaches such as positive matrix factorization (PMF) and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) are effective tools in source identification of urban and regional-scale pollution. In this work, PMF and PSCF analysis is applied to identify categories and locations of sources that influenced surface concentrations of aerosols in the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) domain measured on-board the research vessel Ron Brown [Quinn, P.K., Coffman, D.J., Bates, T.S., Miller, T.L., Johnson, J.E., Welton, E.J., et al., 2002. Aerosol optical properties during INDOEX 1999: means, variability, and controlling factors. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, 8020, doi:10.1029/2000JD000037]. Emissions inventory information is used to identify sources co-located with probable source regions from PSCF. PMF analysis identified six factors influencing PM concentrations during the INDOEX cruise of the Ron Brown including a biomass combustion factor (35-40%), three industrial emissions factors (35-40%), primarily secondary sulphate-nitrate, balance trace elements and Zn, and two dust factors (20-30%) of Si- and Ca-dust. The identified factors effectively predict the measured submicron PM concentrations (slope of regression line=0.90±0.20; R2=0.76). Probable source regions shifted based on changes in surface and elevated flows during different times in the ship cruise. They were in India in the early part of the cruise, but in west Asia, south-east Asia and Africa, during later parts of the cruise. Co-located sources include coal-fired electric utilities, cement, metals and petroleum production in India and west Asia, biofuel combustion for energy and crop residue burning in India, woodland/forest burning in north sub-Saharan Africa and forest burning in south-east Asia. Significant findings

  15. Determination of Ni{sup 2+} using an equilibrium ion exchange technique: Important chemical factors and applicability to environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worms, Isabelle A.M. [CABE - Analytical and Biophysical Environmental Chemistry, University of Geneva, 30 quai Ernest Ansermet 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Wilkinson, Kevin J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville Montreal, H3C 3J7 (Canada)], E-mail: KJ.Wilkinson@umontreal.ca

    2008-05-26

    In natural waters, the determination of free metal concentrations is a key parameter for studying bioavailability. Unfortunately, few analytical tools are available for determining Ni speciation at the low concentrations found in natural waters. In this paper, an ion exchange technique (IET) that employs a Dowex resin is evaluated for its applicability to measure [Ni{sup 2+}] in freshwaters. The presence of major cations (e.g. Na, Ca and Mg) reduced both the times that were required for equilibration and the partition coefficient to the resin ({lambda}{sup '}{sub Ni}). IET measurements of [Ni{sup 2+}] in the presence of known ligands (citrate, diglycolate, sulfoxine, oxine and diethyldithiocarbamate) were verified by thermodynamic speciation models (MINEQL{sup +} and VisualMINTEQ). Results indicated that the presence of hydrophobic complexes (e.g. Ni(DDC){sub 2}{sup 0}) lead to an overestimation of the Ni{sup 2+} fraction. On the other hand, [Ni{sup 2+}] measurements that were made in the presence of amphiphilic complexes formed with humic substances (standard aquatic humic acid (SRHA) and standard aquatic fulvic acid (SRFA)) were well correlated to free ion concentrations that were calculated using a NICA-DONNAN model. An analytical method is also presented here to reduce the complexity of the calibration (due to the presence of many other cations) for the use of Dowex equilibrium ion exchange technique in natural waters.

  16. [Delirium in stroke patients : Critical analysis of statistical procedures for the identification of risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydahl, P; Margraf, N G; Ewers, A

    2017-04-01

    Delirium is a relevant complication following an acute stroke. It is a multifactor occurrence with numerous interacting risk factors that alternately influence each other. The risk factors of delirium in stroke patients are often based on limited clinical studies. The statistical procedures and clinical relevance of delirium related risk factors in adult stroke patients should therefore be questioned. This secondary analysis includes clinically relevant studies that give evidence for the clinical relevance and statistical significance of delirium-associated risk factors in stroke patients. The quality of the reporting of regression analyses was assessed using Ottenbacher's quality criteria. The delirium-associated risk factors identified were examined with regard to statistical significance using the Bonferroni method of multiple testing for forming incorrect positive hypotheses. This was followed by a literature-based discussion on clinical relevance. Nine clinical studies were included. None of the studies fulfilled all the prerequisites and assumptions given for the reporting of regression analyses according to Ottenbacher. Of the 108 delirium-associated risk factors, a total of 48 (44.4%) were significant, whereby a total of 28 (58.3%) were false positive after Bonferroni correction. Following a literature-based discussion on clinical relevance, the assumption of statistical significance and clinical relevance could be found for only four risk factors (dementia or cognitive impairment, total anterior infarct, severe infarct and infections). The statistical procedures used in the existing literature are questionable, as are their results. A post-hoc analysis and critical appraisal reduced the number of possible delirium-associated risk factors to just a few clinically relevant factors.

  17. Identification of road user related risk factors, Deliverable 5.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filtness, A. & Papadimitriou, E. (Eds.) Leskovšek, B. Focant, N. Martensen, H. Sgarra, V. Usami, D.S. Soteropoulos, A. Stadlbauer, S. Theofilatos, A. Yannis, G. Ziakopoulos, A. Diamandouros, K. Durso, C. Goldenbeld, C. Loenis, B. Schermers, G. Petegem, J.-H. van Elvik, R. Hesjevoll, I.S. Quigley, C. & Papazikou, E.

    2017-01-01

    The present Deliverable (D5.1) describes the identification and evaluation of infrastructure related risk factors. It outlines the results of Task 5.1 of WP5 of SafetyCube, which aimed to identify and evaluate infrastructure related risk factors and related road safety problems by (i) presenting a

  18. In silico identification of transcription factors associated with the biosynthesis of carotenoids in corn ( Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zinati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids, a diverse group of colorful pigments, contribute to the development, light harvesting and photoprotection in plants as well as human health. Due to the interesting properties of carotenoids, enhanced carotenoid biosynthesis has been of ongoing interest. Recent advances in computational biology and bioinformatics make it more feasible to understand the transcriptional regulatory network underlying carotenoid biosynthesis. Studies on carotenoid biosynthesis in corn ( Zea mays L. have indicated the pivotal role of the phytoene synthase gene PSY1 (accession: GRMZM2G300348 in endosperm color and carotenoid accumulation in corn kernels. Computational approaches such as Genomatix, PlantPAN, PlantCARE, PlantTFDB and IGDE6 have been used for promoter prediction, regulatory features and transcription factor identification, as well as pairwise promoter comparisons. Four transcripts have been identified for the PSY1 gene. Based on Genomatix and PlantPAN, the promoter predicted for GRMZM2G300348_T01 was different from that predicted for the other three transcripts (GRMZM2G300348_T02, GRMZM2G300348_T03 and GRMZM2G300348_T04. The results indiated that the promoter of GRMZM2G300348_T01 has more diverse motifs involved in hormonal/environmental stress responses. The most significant result obtained from this study is the discovery of two transcription factors belonging to the HB family that are co-expressed with all four transcripts of PSY1 under environmental stresses. It is, therefore, likely that these transcription factors may act as critical regulators of PSY1 gene expression in corn. Identification of the proteins acting upstream of PSY1 within corn will shed light on the fine tuning of PSY1 expression regulation. Such an understanding would also contribute to metabolic engineering aimed at enhanced carotenoid biosynthesis.

  19. De novo transcriptome analysis of pneumatophores (modified roots in the true mangrove species Avicennia marina and identification of the genes related to root gas exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushothaman Natarajan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves plants which grow in estuaries naturally tolerate extreme conditions of high salinity (90 ppt and high light intensity. Avicennia marina is a true mangrove tree species with physiological adaptations like modified root system (pneumatophores and salt excretion glands in leaves as its one of the unique features to consider. The pneumatophores are a special type of roots with negative geotropism that project above the water surface or the level of flooded soils [1]. In contact with air these roots develop lenticels, which improve gas exchange between roots and environment [2]. In swamps and wetlands the presence of pneumatophores facilitates oxygen diffusion through the tissues, maintaining levels adequate for cellular respiration [3]. Objective of this study was to perform the whole transcriptome analysis of pneumatophore tissue of A. marina by Illumina sequencing and to identify putative genes involved in process of root gas exchange. We generated 19.73 million of paired-end reads and assembled into 86,856 unigenes with an average length of 772 bp. Further, annotation, tissue specific gene expression and genes related to root gas exchange will be presented.

  20. Separation and identification of structural isomers by quadrupole collision-induced dissociation-hydrogen/deuterium exchange-infrared multiphoton dissociation (QCID-HDX-IRMPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucinski, Ashley C; Somogyi, Arpád; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Wysocki, Vicki H

    2010-08-01

    A new approach that uses a hybrid Q-FTICR instrument and combines quadrupole collision-induced dissociation, hydrogen-deuterium exchange, and infrared multiphoton dissociation (QCID-HDX-IRMPD) has been shown to effectively separate and differentiate isomeric fragment ion structures present at the same m/z. This method was used to study protonated YAGFL-OH (free acid), YAGFL-NH(2) (amide), cyclic YAGFL, and YAGFL-OCH(3) (methyl ester). QCID-HDX of m/z 552.28 (C(29)H(38)N(5)O(6)) from YAGFL-OH reveals at least two distributions of ions corresponding to the b(5) ion and a non-C-terminal water loss ion structure. Subsequent IRMPD fragmentation of each population shows distinct fragmentation patterns, reflecting the different structures from which they arise. This contrasts with data for YAGFL-NH(2) and YAGFL-OCH(3), which do not show two distinct H/D exchange populations for the C(29)H(38)N(5)O(6) structure formed by NH(3) and HOCH(3) loss, respectively. Relative extents of exchange for C(29)H(38)N(5)O(6) ions from six sequence isomers (YAGFL, AGFLY, GFLYA, FLYAG, LYAGF, and LFGAY) show a sequence dependence of relative isomer abundance. Supporting action IRMPD spectroscopy data are also presented herein and also show that multiple structures are present for the C(29)H(38)N(5)O(6) species from YAGFL-OH. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Identification of virulence factors and type III effectors of phylotype I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trupti Asolkar

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... (Asia), phylotype II (America), phylotype III (Africa) and phylotype IV (Indonesia). ... terium is the primary virulence factor and impairs water transport within its .... With the availability of genomic data through whole genome ...

  2. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostatni, A.W.; Dostatni, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    In the main patent, a description was given of a heat exchanger with an exchange surface in preformed sheet metal designed for the high pressure and temperature service particularly encountered in nuclear pressurized water reactors and which is characterised by the fact that it is composed of at least one exchanger bundle sealed in a containment, the said bundle or bundles being composed of numerous juxtaposed individual compartments whose exchange faces are built of preformed sheet metal. The present addendun certificate concerns shapes of bundles and their positioning methods in the exchanger containment enabling its compactness to be increased [fr

  3. Identification of risk factors affecting construction of projects: The case of emerging economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipo Mellania Maseko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling project risks has become a daunting task in construction and this can be attributed to issues such as the nature of modern projects. The challenge is that risk appears unannounced at any project phase for various reasons and thereby affecting the performance and the success of unprepared projects. The current studies that explored risk matters include Pehlivan and Öztemir (2015, Katre, and Ghaitidak (2016 amongst others. However, there is absence of unanimity from these studies on risk factors in construction. Thus, this article was instigated in order to identify and classify risk factors that affect the chances of project success. The research methodology selected for this article comprised of peer-reviewed articles between the periods of 2007 to 2017. This approach involved a comprehensive scrutiny into scholarly articles to comprehend risks in construction projects. Following a conceptual analysis, eighty factors were identified and classified under the following; technical, construction, financial, socio-political, physical, organisational, and environmental and other risks. From these categories, political instability was, found to be the most influential risk factor in construction projects and this factor was classified within the socio-political category and this category has total of 11 factors. Finding suggests the need for further empirical study.

  4. Genome-Wide Identification of the Target Genes of AP2-O, a Plasmodium AP2-Family Transcription Factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Kaneko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stage-specific transcription is a fundamental biological process in the life cycle of the Plasmodium parasite. Proteins containing the AP2 DNA-binding domain are responsible for stage-specific transcriptional regulation and belong to the only known family of transcription factors in Plasmodium parasites. Comprehensive identification of their target genes will advance our understanding of the molecular basis of stage-specific transcriptional regulation and stage-specific parasite development. AP2-O is an AP2 family transcription factor that is expressed in the mosquito midgut-invading stage, called the ookinete, and is essential for normal morphogenesis of this stage. In this study, we identified the genome-wide target genes of AP2-O by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and elucidate how this AP2 family transcription factor contributes to the formation of this motile stage. The analysis revealed that AP2-O binds specifically to the upstream genomic regions of more than 500 genes, suggesting that approximately 10% of the parasite genome is directly regulated by AP2-O. These genes are involved in distinct biological processes such as morphogenesis, locomotion, midgut penetration, protection against mosquito immunity and preparation for subsequent oocyst development. This direct and global regulation by AP2-O provides a model for gene regulation in Plasmodium parasites and may explain how these parasites manage to control their complex life cycle using a small number of sequence-specific AP2 transcription factors.

  5. Automatic fuel exchanging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to designate the identification number of a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel thereby surely exchanging the designated assembly within a short time. Constitution: Identification number (or letter) pressed on a grip of a fuel assembly is to be detected by a two-dimensional ultrasonic probe of a pull-up mechanism. When the detected number corresponds with the designated number, a control signal is outputted, whereby the pull-up drive control mechanism or pull-up mechanism responds to pull-up and exchange the fuel assembly of the identified number. With such a constitution, the fuel assembly can rapidly and surely be recognized even if pressed letters deviate to the left or right of the probe, and further, the hinge portion and the signal processing portion can be simplified. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Predicting ion exchange resins decontamination factors. Experiments on synthetic primary coolant containing Ni, Co and Ag and modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachet, Martin; Schneider, Hélène; Jauberty, Loïc; Windt, Laurent De; Dieuleveult, Caroline de; Tevissen, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    Experiments performed under chemical and flow conditions representative of pressurized water reactors (PWR) primary fluid purification by ion exchange resins (Amberlite IRN9882) are modeled with the OPTIPUR code, considering 1D reactive transport in the mixed-bed column with convective/dispersive transport between beads and electro-diffusive transport within the boundary film around the beads. The effectiveness of the purification in these dilute conditions is highly related to film mass transfer restrictions, which are accounted for by adjustment of a common mass transfer coefficient (MTC) on the experimental initial leakage or modeling of species diffusion through the bead film by the Nernst-Planck equation. A detailed analysis of the modeling against experimental data shows that the Nernst-Planck approach with no adjustable parameters performs as well as, or better, than the MTC approach, particularly to simulate the chromatographic elution of silver by nickel and the subsequent enrichment of the solution in the former metal. (author)

  7. Factors Affecting the Return Stock Company in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX LQ45 in Years 2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangki A. Sorongan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the effect of partially and jointly independent variable of Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Return on Equity (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Net Profit Margin (NPM against the dependent variable on the stock return. Objects of this research were companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI LQ45 continuously for four years in the period 2012-2015. Companies that qualify for this research were 28 companies. Based on this research, the conclusions indicate that all four independent variables; Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Return on Equity (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Net Profit Margin (NPM, either jointly or partially give the significant effect on return stock.

  8. Determination of air exchange rates of rooms and deposition factors for fine particles by means of photoelectric aerosol sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skillas, G.; Siegmann, H.C.; Hueglin, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations or airborne fine particles from internal combustion engines have been measured over periods of 24 h with a time resolution of 10 s. With this time series, the ventilation air exchange rate of different rooms has been computed using a novel approach to the solution of the mass balance equation. A 'mixing time' parameter has been introduced in order to account for the initial non-homogeneous distribution of the pollutants in the rooms. It is demonstrated that this method can be used to determine the impact of health relevant outdoor particles on the indoor particle concentration. This yields information on the protection a building offers against pollutants entering from outdoors. (author)

  9. Urinary tract infection (UTI) in newborns: risk factors, identification and prevention of consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Vesna; Puseljić, Silvija; Stimac, Maja; Dobrić, Hana; Lukić, Gordana

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study is identification of urinary tract infections (UTI) and urinary tract anomalies (UTA) already in the perinatal period. The authors attempted to prevent serious consequences of the above conditions in the examined children. Family history data, certain conditions in pregnancy and appertaining symptoms in children were elaborated to specify selective distinctive criteria for children at risk. Newborns (1200) were selected for potential existence of a UTI. All the examined newborns underwent a urinalysis. Those with significant bacteriuria were taken urine specimens, C-reactive protein (RVP), Complete Blood Count (CBC) and bilirubin. The newborns with a UTI and a suspected UTA were sent to ultrasound examination, direct radio nuclide cystography and Tc99m MAG3 dynamic scanning. The frequency of a UTI in the perinatal period amounted to 4.5%. A UTA was found in 29.6% of the examinees. The infection was more likely to appear among newborns with a UTA in their families, a UTI, pre-eclampsia and a febrile infection in mother, intrauterine growth retardation, premature rupture of membranes (RVP), umbilical cord strangulation, jaundice, cyanosis, breathing difficulties, seizures and asphyxia.

  10. Identification of advanced human factors engineering analysis, design and evaluation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plott, C.; Ronan, A. M.; Laux, L.; Bzostek, J.; Milanski, J.; Scheff, S.

    2006-01-01

    NUREG-0711 Rev.2, 'Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model,' provides comprehensive guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in assessing the human factors practices employed by license applicants for Nuclear Power Plant control room designs. As software based human-system interface (HSI) technologies supplant traditional hardware-based technologies, the NRC may encounter new HSI technologies or seemingly unconventional approaches to human factors design, analysis, and evaluation methods which NUREG-0711 does not anticipate. A comprehensive survey was performed to identify advanced human factors engineering analysis, design and evaluation methods, tools, and technologies that the NRC may encounter in near term future licensee applications. A review was conducted to identify human factors methods, tools, and technologies relevant to each review element of NUREG-0711. Additionally emerging trends in technology which have the potential to impact review elements, such as Augmented Cognition, and various wireless tools and technologies were identified. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the survey results and to highlight issues that could be revised or adapted to meet with emerging trends. (authors)

  11. ERP adoption cost factors identification and classification: a study in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutaz Haddara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise resource planning (ERP systems adoptions require substantial resources and investments. The majority of businesses around the globe can be considered to be small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. Thus, SMEs are seen to be typical companies that are the cornerstone of most economies. Compared with large enterprises, an SME-context contains several characteristics, and scarcity of resources is among the top of them. For SMEs, unplanned costs escalation could pose a serious threat to their stability and survival in the market. Frequently, ERP projects have crossed their estimated budgets and schedules. Researchers and practitioners state that a prevailing number of ERP adoption projects fail due to inaccurate or to too optimistic budgets/schedules. In addition, many organizations face difficulties in identifying the potential cost factors that could occur during their ERP adoption lifecycle. While focusing on the SME-context, this research attempts to identify potential costs that could occur in ERP adoptions. The research method employed in this study targeted diverse stakeholders and experts involved in ERP projects in Egypt. This research provides a list of cost factors and their classifications that could aid adopting organizations to better estimate their needed ERP project budgets. In particular, this research explores the direct and indirect cost factors that occur in ERP adoptions in Egyptian SMEs. Also, this study investigates the influence of some SME-specific contextual factors on costs. Moreover, the paper provides a ranking of cost factors according to their impact on total adoption costs.

  12. Identification of factors that affect the adoption of an ergonomic intervention among Emergency Medical Service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Monica R; Lavender, Steven A; Crawford, J Mac; Reichelt, Paul A; Conrad, Karen M; Browne, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    This study explored factors contributing to intervention adoption decisions among Emergency Medical Service (EMS) workers. Emergency Medical Service workers (n = 190), from six different organisations, participated in a two-month longitudinal study following the introduction of a patient transfer-board (also known as slide-board) designed to ease lateral transfers of patients to and from ambulance cots. Surveys administered at baseline, after one month and after two months sampled factors potentially influencing the EMS providers' decision process. 'Ergonomics Advantage' and 'Patient Advantage' entered into a stepwise regression model predicting 'intention to use' at the end of month one (R (2 )= 0.78). After the second month, the stepwise regression indicated only two factors were predictive of intention to use: 'Ergonomics Advantage,' and 'Endorsed by Champions' (R (2 )= 0.58). Actual use was predicted by: 'Ergonomics Advantage' and 'Previous Tool Experience.' These results relate to key concepts identified in the diffusion of innovation literature and have the potential to further ergonomics intervention adoption efforts. Practitioner Summary. This study explored factors that potentially facilitate the adoption of voluntarily used ergonomics interventions. EMS workers were provided with foldable transfer-boards (slideboards) designed to reduce the physical demands when laterally transferring patients. Factors predictive of adoption measures included perceived ergonomics advantage, the endorsement by champions, and prior tool experience.

  13. Identification of epidemiological risk factors for hepatitis C in Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghias, M.; Pervaiz, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major health issues in Punjab, Pakistan. About 3% of the world population have been infected by hepatitis C virus. The objective of this study was to find out significantly associated factors with Hepatitis C in the region. Demographic, socio-economic and clinical factors were taken in consideration to determine the predictive strength of these associated factors by the logistic regression model approach. This was a hospital based case-control study of 400 patients; out of which 119 were controlled patients (HCV negative) while 281 were cases (HCV positive). Patients admitted in gastroenterology wards of Jinnah, Shaikh Zayed, and Mayo hospitals in Lahore city were interviewed to gather risk factors information. Data was collected in six months starting from April 2006 to September 2006. results from multiple linear logistic regression model for overall data showed that age (OR=1.035, p=0.001), history of blood transfusion (OR=9.204, p=0.004), history of hospitalization (OR=2.979, p=0.043), Tattooing (OR=27.484, p=0.013), family history of hepatitis (OR=4.069, p=0.000), surgical operation (OR=4.290, p=0.030) were found to have significant and positively association with Hepatitis C. Hence our estimated logit model can be used to predict the chance of hepatitis C under the presence or absence of certain significant factors. (author)

  14. Identification of RNA Binding Proteins Associated with Dengue Virus RNA in Infected Cells Reveals Temporally Distinct Host Factor Requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V Viktorovskaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no vaccines or antivirals available for dengue virus infection, which can cause dengue hemorrhagic fever and death. A better understanding of the host pathogen interaction is required to develop effective therapies to treat DENV. In particular, very little is known about how cellular RNA binding proteins interact with viral RNAs. RNAs within cells are not naked; rather they are coated with proteins that affect localization, stability, translation and (for viruses replication.Seventy-nine novel RNA binding proteins for dengue virus (DENV were identified by cross-linking proteins to dengue viral RNA during a live infection in human cells. These cellular proteins were specific and distinct from those previously identified for poliovirus, suggesting a specialized role for these factors in DENV amplification. Knockdown of these proteins demonstrated their function as viral host factors, with evidence for some factors acting early, while others late in infection. Their requirement by DENV for efficient amplification is likely specific, since protein knockdown did not impair the cell fitness for viral amplification of an unrelated virus. The protein abundances of these host factors were not significantly altered during DENV infection, suggesting their interaction with DENV RNA was due to specific recruitment mechanisms. However, at the global proteome level, DENV altered the abundances of proteins in particular classes, including transporter proteins, which were down regulated, and proteins in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, which were up regulated.The method for identification of host factors described here is robust and broadly applicable to all RNA viruses, providing an avenue to determine the conserved or distinct mechanisms through which diverse viruses manage the viral RNA within cells. This study significantly increases the number of cellular factors known to interact with DENV and reveals how DENV modulates and usurps

  15. Identification of a Transcription Factor Controlling pH-Dependent Organic Acid Response in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2012-01-01

    exhibiting an oxalate overproducing phenotype were identified. The yield of oxalate was increased up to 158% compared to the wild type and the corresponding transcription factor was therefore entitled Oxalic Acid repression Factor, OafA. Detailed physiological characterization of one of the ΔoafA mutants......, compared to the wild type, showed that both strains produced substantial amounts of gluconic acid, but the mutant strain was more efficient in re-uptake of gluconic acid and converting it to oxalic acid, particularly at high pH (pH 5.0). Transcriptional profiles showed that 241 genes were differentially......Acid formation in Aspergillus niger is known to be subjected to tight regulation, and the acid production profiles are fine-tuned to respond to the ambient pH. Based on transcriptome data, putative trans-acting pH responding transcription factors were listed and through knock out studies, mutants...

  16. Identification of risk factors for mucosal injury during laparoscopic Heller myotomy for achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Kazuto; Omura, Nobuo; Yano, Fumiaki; Hoshino, Masato; Yamamoto, Se-Ryung; Akimoto, Shusuke; Masuda, Takahiro; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2016-02-01

    Mucosal injury during myotomy is the most frequent complication seen with the Heller-Dor procedure for achalasia. The present study aimed to examine risk factors for such mucosal injury during this procedure. This was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent the laparoscopic Heller-Dor procedure for achalasia at a single facility. Variables for evaluation included patient characteristics, preoperative pathophysiological findings, and surgeon's operative experience. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors. We also examined surgical outcomes and the degree of patient satisfaction in relation to intraoperative mucosal injury. Four hundred thirty-five patients satisfied study criteria. Intraoperative mucosal injury occurred in 67 patients (15.4%). In univariate analysis, mucosal injury was significantly associated with the patient age ≥60 years, disease history ≥10 years, prior history of cardiac diseases, preoperative esophageal transverse diameter ≥80 mm, and surgeon's operative experience with fewer than five cases. In multivariate analysis involving these factors, the following variables were identified as risk factors: age ≥60 years, esophageal transverse diameter ≥80 mm, and surgeon's operative experience with fewer than five cases. The mucosal injury group had significant extension of the operative time and increased blood loss. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidence of reflux esophagitis or the degree of symptom alleviation postoperatively. The fragile esophagus caused by advanced patient age and/or dilatation were risk factor for mucosal injury during laparoscopic Heller-Dor procedure. And novice surgeon was also identified as an isolated risk factor for mucosal injury.

  17. Identification of factors influencing the restoration of cyanobacteria-dominated biological soil crusts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongfeng Bu

    Full Text Available Biological soil crusts (BSCs cover >35% of the Earth's land area and contribute to important ecological functions in arid and semiarid ecosystems, including erosion reduction, hydrological cycling, and nutrient cycling. Artificial rapid cultivation of BSCs can provide a novel alternative to traditional biological methods for controlling soil and water loss such as the planting of trees, shrubs, and grasses. At present, little is known regarding the cultivation of BSCs in the field due to lack of knowledge regarding the influencing factors that control BSCs growth. Thus, we determined the effects of various environmental factors (shade; watering; N, P, K, and Ca concentrations on the growth of cyanobacteria-dominated BSCs from the Sonoran Desert in the southwestern United States. The soil surface changes and chlorophyll a concentrations were used as proxies of BSC growth and development. After 4 months, five factors were found to impact BSC growth with the following order of importance: NH4NO3 ≈ watering frequency>shading>CaCO3 ≈ KH2PO4. The soil water content was the primary positive factor affecting BSC growth, and BSCs that were watered every 5 days harbored greater biomass than those watered every 10 days. Groups that received NH4NO3 consistently exhibited poor growth, suggesting that fixed N amendment may suppress BSC growth. The effect of shading on the BSC biomass was inconsistent and depended on many factors including the soil water content and availability of nutrients. KH2PO4 and CaCO3 had nonsignificant effects on BSC growth. Collectively, our results indicate that the rapid restoration of BSCs can be controlled and realized by artificial "broadcasting" cultivation through the optimization of environmental factors.

  18. Identification of transcription-factor genes expressed in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Il-Ho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In flowering plants, the female gametophyte is typically a seven-celled structure with four cell types: the egg cell, the central cell, the synergid cells, and the antipodal cells. These cells perform essential functions required for double fertilization and early seed development. Differentiation of these distinct cell types likely involves coordinated changes in gene expression regulated by transcription factors. Therefore, understanding female gametophyte cell differentiation and function will require dissection of the gene regulatory networks operating in each of the cell types. These efforts have been hampered because few transcription factor genes expressed in the female gametophyte have been identified. To identify such genes, we undertook a large-scale differential expression screen followed by promoter-fusion analysis to detect transcription-factor genes transcribed in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte. Results Using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, we analyzed 1,482 Arabidopsis transcription-factor genes and identified 26 genes exhibiting reduced mRNA levels in determinate infertile 1 mutant ovaries, which lack female gametophytes, relative to ovaries containing female gametophytes. Spatial patterns of gene transcription within the mature female gametophyte were identified for 17 transcription-factor genes using promoter-fusion analysis. Of these, ten genes were predominantly expressed in a single cell type of the female gametophyte including the egg cell, central cell and the antipodal cells whereas the remaining seven genes were expressed in two or more cell types. After fertilization, 12 genes were transcriptionally active in the developing embryo and/or endosperm. Conclusions We have shown that our quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR differential-expression screen is sufficiently sensitive to detect transcription-factor genes transcribed in the female gametophyte. Most of the genes identified in this

  19. Identification of a novel and unique transcription factor in the intraerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Komaki-Yasuda

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of stage-specific gene regulation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are largely unclear, with only a small number of specific regulatory transcription factors (AP2 family having been identified. In particular, the transcription factors that function in the intraerythrocytic stage remain to be elucidated. Previously, as a model case for stage-specific transcription in the P. falciparum intraerythrocytic stage, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of pf1-cys-prx, a trophozoite/schizont-specific gene, and suggested that some nuclear factors bind specifically to the cis-element of pf1-cys-prx and enhance transcription. In the present study, we purified nuclear factors from parasite nuclear extract by 5 steps of chromatography, and identified a factor termed PREBP. PREBP is not included in the AP2 family, and is a novel protein with four K-homology (KH domains. The KH domain is known to be found in RNA-binding or single-stranded DNA-binding proteins. PREBP is well conserved in Plasmodium species and partially conserved in phylum Apicomplexa. To evaluate the effects of PREBP overexpression, we used a transient overexpression and luciferase assay combined approach. Overexpression of PREBP markedly enhanced luciferase expression under the control of the pf1-cys-prx cis-element. These results provide the first evidence of a novel transcription factor that activates the gene expression in the malaria parasite intraerythrocytic stage. These findings enhance our understanding of the evolution of specific transcription machinery in Plasmodium and other eukaryotes.

  20. Current Account and Real Exchange Rate Dynamics in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firman Mochtar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the role of both permanent and temporary factors in affecting the Indonesian current account and real exchange dynamics before and after 2000. Adopting Lee and Chinn (1998; 2006 approach as well as Chinn et al. (2007, two results stand out. First, we confirm that the behavior of the real exchange rate has altered since 2000. Identifications show that permanent shocks are the primary causes for the movement of the real exchange rate after 2000, while in the period before 2000, the Indonesian real exchange rate changes are characterized by greater dominance of temporary shocks. The apparent change in the real exchange rate behavior may be strongly justified by the implementation of free-floating exchange rate system since August 1997. Second, the shift of the real exchange rate behavior after 2000 does not necessarily affect the current account dynamics. Empirical evidence confirms that the variance of current account post 2000 remains largely due to temporary shocks. Albeit having increasing influence, permanent shocks have insignificant effect in explaining fluctuations of the current account. In this sense, the current account surplus after 2000 is attributed largely to nominal variables such as price increase, while the impact of productivity improvement is still limited.

  1. Identification of risk factors for vascular thrombosis may reduce early renal graft loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Anna Krarup; Jorgensen, Troels Munch; Jespersen, Bente

    2012-01-01

    of avoiding thrombotic events and saving thrombosed grafts. The incidence of arterial thrombosis was reported to 0.2-7.5% and venous thrombosis 0.1-8.2%, with the highest incidence among children and infants, and the lowest in living donor reports. The most significant risk factors for developing thrombosis...... were donor-age below 6 or above 60 years, or recipient-age below 5-6 years, per- or postoperative hemodynamic instability, peritoneal dialysis, diabetic nephropathy, a history of thrombosis, deceased donor, or >24 hours cold ischemia. Multiple arteries were not a risk factor, and a right kidney graft...

  2. Identification of a liver growth factor as an albumin-bilirubin complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Gil, J J; Gavilanes, J G; Sánchez, G; García-Cañero, R; García-Segura, J M; Santamaría, L; Trilla, C; Escartín, P

    1987-01-01

    We have reported the purification and characterization of a protein that behaves as a liver growth factor, showing activity either in vivo or in vitro [Díaz-Gil et al. (1986) Biochem. J. 235, 49-55]. In the present paper, we identify this liver growth factor (LGF) as an albumin-bilirubin complex. This conclusion is supported by the results of chemical and spectroscopic characterization of this protein as well as by experiments in vivo. Incubation of albumin isolated from normal rats with bili...

  3. Measurements of VOC/SVOC emission factors from burning incenses in an environmental test chamber: influence of temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, A; Buiron, D; Temime-Roussel, B; Wortham, H; Quivet, E

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of three environmental indoor parameters (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate) on the emission of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) during incense burning. Experiments have been carried out using an environmental test chamber. Statistical results from a classical two-level full factorial design highlight the predominant effect of ventilation on emission factors. The higher the ventilation, the higher the emission factor. Moreover, thanks to these results, an estimation of the concentration range for the compounds under study can be calculated and allows a quick look of indoor pollution induced by incense combustion. Carcinogenic substances (i.e., benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and formaldehyde) produced from the incense combustion would be predicted in typical living indoors conditions to reach instantaneous concentration levels close to or higher than air quality exposure threshold values.

  4. Identification of an algal carbon fixation-enhancing factor extracted from Paramecium bursaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yutaka; Imamura, Nobutaka

    2011-01-01

    The green ciliate Paramecium bursaria contains several hundred symbiotic Chlorella species. We previously reported that symbiotic algal carbon fixation is enhanced by P. bursaria extracts and that the enhancing factor is a heat-stable, low-molecular-weight, water-soluble compound. To identify the factor, further experiments were carried out. The enhancing activity remained even when organic compounds in the extract were completely combusted at 700 degrees C, suggesting that the factor is an inorganic substance. Measurement of the major cations, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+, by an electrode and titration of the extract resulted in concentrations of 0.90 mM, 0.55 mM, and 0.21 mM, respectively. To evaluate the effect of these cations, a mixture of the cations at the measured concentrations was prepared, and symbiotic algal carbon fixation was measured in the solution. The results demonstrated that the fixation was enhanced to the same extent as with the P. bursaria extract, and thus this mixture of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ was concluded to be the carbon fixation-enhancing factor. There was no effect of the cation mixture on free-living C. vulgaris. Comparison of the cation concentrations of nonsymbiotic and symbiotic Paramecium extracts revealed that the concentrations of K+ and Mg2+ in nonsymbiotic Paramecium extracts were too low to enhance symbiotic algal carbon fixation, suggesting that symbiotic P. bursaria provide suitable cation conditions for photosynthesis to its symbiotic Chlorella.

  5. Identification of environmental factors affecting the speed of purebred Arabian racehorses in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Theunissen, H.; Ducro, B.J.; Bijma, P.; Grevenhof, van E.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of our study was to identify environmental factors affecting the speed of purebred Arabian racehorses in The Netherlands. Data contained 380 records on 88 purebred Arabian racehorses of varying age and sex. Data were collected from March 2005 through June 2006 during 52 races of varying

  6. Identification of factors associated with the development of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, van den R.; Ducro, B.J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    An Internet-based questionnaire among horse owners was carried out to identify factors affecting the incidence of insect bite hypersensitivity (IBHI) among horses in the Netherlands. Information was obtained for 794 horses of various breeds, but the breed distribution was not representative for the

  7. Reshaping Computer Literacy Teaching in Higher Education: Identification of Critical Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Estelle; Goede, Roelien; Steyn, Tjaart

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Acquiring computer skills is more important today than ever before, especially in a developing country. Teaching of computer skills, however, has to adapt to new technology. This paper aims to model factors influencing the success of the learning of computer literacy by means of an e-learning environment. The research question for this…

  8. Identification of risk factors and demographic features of patients with peri partum cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharieff, S.; Khan, Shah-e-Zaman

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe and identify the demographic features and risk factors for peri partum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Design: A prospective study: The study was conducted at the department of Adult Cardiology, National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases (NICVD), Karachi, Pakistan from December 1999 to August 2001. Subjects and Methods: A total of 35 consecutive patients diagnosed to have peri partum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) on echocardiogram were enrolled. Proforma containing demographic characteristics and established risk factors for PPCM was established and filled carefully. The data gathered was analyzed statistically. Results: The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 30.8-6.74 years. Urdu speaking (Mohajir) population was found to be more affected ethnic group (42.9%) Majority of the patients was from lower socio-economic group with poor nutritional status (77%) and multiparous (77.14%). 25.7% had past history of PPCM and 71.4% presented during postpartum period. Mortality at six months was 22.8% while 42.9% had persistent disease and only 34.3% recovered completely. Conclusion: Advanced age, lower economic group with poor nutritional status, multi parity and past history of peri partum cardiomyopathy were identified as risk factors for the development of PPCM, especially among Mohajir population. There was no statistically significant difference between the clinical features and outcome of patients presented first time or with recurrent PPCM. We identified advanced age (>30 years), high LVEDD, and low ejection fraction (EF) at initial presentation as poor prognostic factors. (author)

  9. Identification of the Predictive Power of Five Factor Personality Traits for Individual Instrument Performance Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Gökhan; Dalkiran, Esra

    2017-01-01

    This study, with the aim of identifying the predictive power of the five-factor personality traits of music teacher candidates on individual instrument performance anxiety, was designed according to the relational screening model. The study population was students attending the Music Education branch of Fine Arts Education Departments in…

  10. Identification of Factors of Influence upon the Cost of Fixed Coupon Securities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlotov Yevhen O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies fixed coupon securities (bonds. It provides a calculation of the cash flow, generated by fixed coupon securities, with enclosed discounted face value of securities. It analyses time indicator – average weighted duration of payments, which characterises sensitivity of the price of securities to changes of interest rates in the market. It proves availability of two groups of interconnections between the cost of a bond, coupon rate, market rate (rate of return and term of its payment. The first group of interconnections reflects interconnections between the cost of a bond, coupon rate and market rate (rate of return. The second group characterises connection between the bond cost and term of its payment. The authors study the average weighted duration of payments. It plays an important role in analysis of long-term securities with fixed income. To simplify calculations it was accepted that the coupon payment is done once a year. The article offers a formula for identifying inaccuracy of the bond price depending on the expected change of profitability on payment. Analysing duration properties the article identifies shortcomings inherent in this indicator. Taking into account the average weighted duration of payments the article recommends a formula, as more efficient, for identification of the future bond price depending on change of profitability. The conducted studies are a theoretical ground for development of models of management of fixed income securities portfolios. The obtained scientific results could be used in the educational process both in colleges and specialised trainings of securities specialists. The scientific results could be used for developing information technologies when identifying cost of securities (fixed coupon bonds.

  11. [Clinical features of suicide occurring in schizophrenia (I). Risk-factors identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnier, N; Gavaudan, G; Navez, A; Adida, M; Jollant, F; Courtet, P; Lançon, C

    2009-04-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of premature death in schizophrenia. Approximately 10 to 13% of deaths in schizophrenia are explained by suicide, despite widespread availability of generally effective antipsychotic treatments and suicide attempts have been reported among 20 to 50% of patients. This relatively low ratio of attempts/suicide is consistent with greater lethality of means - more violent - and intents - less ambivalence - in this population. Many studies have focused on risk factors and clinical characteristics for completed and/or attempted suicide. Commonly, sociodemographic risk factors for suicide are male sex, younger age and, among women, being unmarried, divorced or widowed. Previous suicidal behaviour is a strong risk factor for suicide and contrary to the common view, schizophrenic patients often communicate their suicidal intents shortly before death. Moreover, family history of suicide is associated with a heightened risk of suicide and is independent of the diagnosis, according to the growing literature that shows that vulnerability to suicidal behaviour is independent of psychiatric diagnosis. Suicide can occur throughout the entire course of schizophrenia. This is particularly true in those high-risk periods: early phase of the disease, active illness phase, period of relapse or during a depressive episode. The role of insight and positive symptoms remains unclear and probably needs further studies. Although not specifically for people with schizophrenia, hopelessness is a major risk factor and tragic loss is often presented as a trigger for suicide. It has been suggested that treatment side-effects, such as akathisia are associated with suicidal behaviour. A better knowledge of risk and protective factors is necessary to prevent suicide and suicidality.

  12. [Identification of an auxin response factor-like protein cDNA from mango cotyledon section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie-Ning; Huang, Xue-Lin; Huang, Xia; Li, Xiao-Ju

    2004-01-01

    Auxin-responsive elements (AuxRE) interact with a new class of plant-specific transcription factors, auxin response factors (ARFs). Some of ARFs have been shown to repress or activate expression of genes with an AuxRE promotor element. In Arabidopsis, ARFs play important roles in early embryo development and vascular strand formation (ARF5), floral patterning (ARF3) and photo- and gravitropic responses (ARF7). Two cut surfaces (distal and proximal) of mango (Mangifera indica L. var. Zi-Hua) cotyledon showed different patterns of adventitious root formation, with only the proximal cut surface, but not the distal one, could be induced to form the roots. Thus, the mango cotyledon is a good system for studying adventitious root formation. A cDNA fragment homologous to the Arabidopsis auxin response factor-like protein and relates to adventitious root formation from the cut sections were isolated using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). Two cDNA clones, designated as MiARF1 (mango auxin response factor 1 gene, GenBank accession number AY255705) and MiARF2 (mango auxin response factor 2 gene, GenBank accession number is AY300808), were identified by 3'RACE. MiARF1, 3 272bp long, contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 523bp, 5'UTR of 285bp and 3'UTR of 464bp, MiARF2, 1 474bp long, contains an ORF of 981bp, 5' UTR of 285bp and 3'UTR of 208bp. The deduced MiARF1 and MiARF2 are homologues of auxin response factor (ARF) family of transcriptional regulators, and show high similarity to ARF of Arabidopsis in conserved domains. The motifs of MiARF1 EL-WHACAGPL in DBD (DNA binding domain) and GDDPW in IV domain are identical to that of ARF-like protein of Arabidopsis. MiARF2 is identical to MiARF1 in a large part of DBD, but lacks a carboxyl-terminal domain containing conserved motifs III and IV. Virtual Northern blot showed that the expression of MiARF2 was high in rooting tissue of cultured cotyledon sections but low in non-rooting tissue, and the MiARF1 was

  13. Exploration of the (Interrater) Reliability and Latent Factor Structure of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) in a Sample of Dutch Probationers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Martin; Noteborn, Mirthe G C

    2015-01-01

    The use of brief, reliable, valid, and practical measures of substance use is critical for conducting individual (risk and need) assessments in probation practice. In this exploratory study, the basic psychometric properties of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) are evaluated. The instruments were administered as an oral interview instead of a self-report questionnaire. The sample comprised 383 offenders (339 men, 44 women). A subset of 56 offenders (49 men, 7 women) participated in the interrater reliability study. Data collection took place between September 2011 and November 2012. Overall, both instruments have acceptable levels of interrater reliability for total scores and acceptable to good interrater reliabilities for most of the individual items. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) indicated that the a priori one-, two- and three-factor solutions for the AUDIT did not fit the observed data very well. Principal axis factoring (PAF) supported a two-factor solution for the AUDIT that included a level of alcohol consumption/consequences factor (Factor 1) and a dependence factor (Factor 2), with both factors explaining substantial variance in AUDIT scores. For the DUDIT, CFA and PAF suggest that a one-factor solution is the preferred model (accounting for 62.61% of total variance). The Dutch language versions of the AUDIT and the DUDIT are reliable screening instruments for use with probationers and both instruments can be reliably administered by probation officers in probation practice. However, future research on concurrent and predictive validity is warranted.

  14. Identification of a conserved archaeal RNA polymerase subunit contacted by the basal transcription factor TFB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, C P; Jackson, S P; Bell, S D

    2001-12-14

    Archaea possess two general transcription factors that are required to recruit RNA polymerase (RNAP) to promoters in vitro. These are TBP, the TATA-box-binding protein and TFB, the archaeal homologue of TFIIB. Thus, the archaeal and eucaryal transcription machineries are fundamentally related. In both RNAP II and archaeal transcription systems, direct contacts between TFB/TFIIB and the RNAP have been demonstrated to mediate recruitment of the polymerase to the promoter. However the subunit(s) directly contacted by these factors has not been identified. Using systematic yeast two-hybrid and biochemical analyses we have identified an interaction between the N-terminal domain of TFB and an evolutionarily conserved subunit of the RNA polymerase, RpoK. Intriguingly, homologues of RpoK are found in all three nuclear RNA polymerases (Rpb6) and also in the bacterial RNA polymerase (omega-subunit).

  15. Identification of factors that influence the stiffness of high-damping elastomer seismic isolation bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    During the past decade, high-damping elastomer, steel-laminated seismic isolation bearings have gained acceptance as a device for isolating large buildings and structures from earthquake damage. In the United States, architectural engineering firms custom design isolators for each project and ten have the isolators manufactured by one of less than a hand-full of manufactures. The stiffness of the bearing is the single most important design parameter that the molded bearing must meet because it determines the fundamental frequency of the isolation system. This paper reports on recent research that examined several factors that cause real and potential variations to the stiffness of the bearing. The resulting changes to the fundamental frequency of the isolated structure are quantified for each factor. The following were examined: (1) dimensional tolerances, (2) frequency effects, (3) temperature effects, (4) cyclical effects, and (5) aging effects. It was found that geometric variations barely affect the stiffness whereas temperature variations greatly affect the stiffness

  16. Identification of Zika Virus and Dengue Virus Dependency Factors using Functional Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Savidis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The flaviviruses dengue virus (DENV and Zika virus (ZIKV are severe health threats with rapidly expanding ranges. To identify the host cell dependencies of DENV and ZIKV, we completed orthologous functional genomic screens using RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 approaches. The screens recovered the ZIKV entry factor AXL as well as multiple host factors involved in endocytosis (RAB5C and RABGEF, heparin sulfation (NDST1 and EXT1, and transmembrane protein processing and maturation, including the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex (EMC. We find that both flaviviruses require the EMC for their early stages of infection. Together, these studies generate a high-confidence, systems-wide view of human-flavivirus interactions and provide insights into the role of the EMC in flavivirus replication.

  17. [Biologically active fragment of the differentiation factor from HL-60 cell line. Identification and properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanian, I A; Astapova, M V; Navolotskaia, E V; Lepikhova, T N; Dranitsyna, S M; Telegin, G B; Rodionov, I L; Baĭdakova, L K; Zolotarev, Iu A; Molotkovskaia, I M; Lipkin, V M

    2000-07-01

    Six-membered peptide fragment TGENHR (HLDF-6) was identified in the HL-60 cell culture of human promyelocyte leukemia treated with retinoic acid when studying the differentiation factor HLDF of this cell line. HLDF-6 retains the ability of the full-size factor to induce the differentiation and arrest the proliferation of the starting HL-60 cells. It was shown that the synthetic peptide HLDF-6 has no specific receptors on the surface of the HL-60 cells but can affect the binding of interleukin IL-1 beta, a cytokine involved in proliferation, to the cell surface. It was found on a model of transplantable NSO myeloma that HLDF-6 has an antitumor activity.

  18. Identification and analysis of explanatory variables for a multi-factor productivity model of passenger airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Henriques de Araújo Jr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to identify and analyze the explanatory variables for airlines productivity during 2000 2005, by testing the Pearson correlation between the single factor productivity capital, energy and labor of a sample of 45 selected international airlines (4 Brazilian carriers among them and their productivity explanatory variables like medium stage length, aircraft load factor, hours flown and cruise speed for selected routes besides aircraft seat configuration and airlines number of employees. The research demonstrated, that a set of variables can explain differences in productivity for passenger airlines, such as: investment in personnel training processes, automation, airplane seat density, occupation of aircraft, average flight stage length, density and extension of routes, among others.

  19. Preliminary identification of the bioremediation limiting factors of a clay bearing soil contaminated with crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Andréa C. L.; Cunha, Claudia D. da; Santos, Ronaldo L. C.; Santos, Renata M.; Magalhães, Hugo M.; Leite, Selma G. F.; Soriano, Adriana U.

    2008-01-01

    Bioremediation is an attractive alternative to treat soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. However, the effectiveness of biodegradation process can be limited by both contaminant characteristics and its bioavailability in soil. This work aims at establishing a preliminary procedure to identify the main factor (hydrocarbon recalcitrance or its bioavailability) that impairs the biodegradation, possibly resulting in low remediation efficiencies. Tests in soil microcosms were carried ou...

  20. Identification of Virulence Factors in Nematode-Trapping Fungi - Insights from Genomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Karl-Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are soil-living organisms with the unique ability to capture and infect free-living nematodes. The interest in studying these fungi arises from their potential use as biological control agents for plant- and animal-parasitic nematodes. To enter the parasitic stage, nematode-trapping fungi develop different kinds of trapping structures. In order to understand more about the evolution of parasitism in the nematode-trapping fungi and to identify virulence factors in these...

  1. Identification of novel transcription factors regulating secondary cell wall formation in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua eCassan-Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of lignin in secondary cell walls (SCW is a major factor preventing hydrolytic enzymes from gaining access to cellulose, thereby limiting the saccharification potential of plant biomass. To understand how lignification is regulated is a prerequisite for selecting plant biomass better adapted to bioethanol production. Because transcriptional regulation is a major mechanism controlling the expression of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis, our aim was to identify novel transcription factors dictating lignin profiles in the model plant Arabidopsis. To this end, we have developed a post-genomic approach by combining four independent in-house SCW-related transcriptome datasets obtained from (i the fiber cell wall-deficient wat1 Arabidopsis mutant, (ii Arabidopsis lines over-expressing either the master regulatory activator EgMYB2 or (iii the repressor EgMYB1 and finally (iv Arabidopsis orthologs of Eucalyptus xylem-expressed genes. This allowed us to identify 502 up- or down-regulated transcription factors. We preferentially selected those present in more than one dataset and further analyzed their in silico expression patterns as an additional selection criteria. This selection process led to 80 candidates. Notably, 16 of them were already proven to regulate SCW formation, thereby validating the overall strategy. Then, we phenotyped 43 corresponding mutant lines focusing on histological observations of xylem and interfascicular fibers. This phenotypic screen revealed six mutant lines exhibiting altered lignification patterns. Two of them (blh6 and a zinc finger transcription factor presented hypolignified SCW. Three others (myb52, myb-like TF, hb5 showed hyperlignified SCW whereas the last one (hb15 showed ectopic lignification. In addition, our meta-analyses highlighted a reservoir of new potential regulators adding to the gene network regulating SCW but also opening new avenues to ultimately improve SCW composition for biofuel

  2. Identification of a transcription factor controlling pH-dependent organic acid response in Aspergillus niger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Poulsen

    Full Text Available Acid formation in Aspergillus niger is known to be subjected to tight regulation, and the acid production profiles are fine-tuned to respond to the ambient pH. Based on transcriptome data, putative trans-acting pH responding transcription factors were listed and through knock out studies, mutants exhibiting an oxalate overproducing phenotype were identified. The yield of oxalate was increased up to 158% compared to the wild type and the corresponding transcription factor was therefore entitled Oxalic Acid repression Factor, OafA. Detailed physiological characterization of one of the ΔoafA mutants, compared to the wild type, showed that both strains produced substantial amounts of gluconic acid, but the mutant strain was more efficient in re-uptake of gluconic acid and converting it to oxalic acid, particularly at high pH (pH 5.0. Transcriptional profiles showed that 241 genes were differentially expressed due to the deletion of oafA and this supported the argument of OafA being a trans-acting transcription factor. Furthermore, expression of two phosphoketolases was down-regulated in the ΔoafA mutant, one of which has not previously been described in fungi. It was argued that the observed oxalate overproducing phenotype was a consequence of the efficient re-uptake of gluconic acid and thereby a higher flux through glycolysis. This results in a lower flux through the pentose phosphate pathway, demonstrated by the down-regulation of the phosphoketolases. Finally, the physiological data, in terms of the specific oxygen consumption, indicated a connection between the oxidative phosphorylation and oxalate production and this was further substantiated through transcription analysis.

  3. Identification of dietary patterns using factor analysis in an epidemiological study in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Diet and nutrition are environmental factors in health/disease relationships. From the epidemiological viewpoint, diet represents a complex set of highly correlated exposures. Our objective was to identify patterns of food intake in a group of individuals living in São Paulo, and to develop objective dietary measurements for epidemiological purposes. DESIGN AND LOCAL: Exploratory factor analysis of data in a case-control study in seven teaching hospitals in São Paulo. METHODS: The participants were 517 patients (260 oral cancer cases and 257 controls admitted to the study hospitals between November 1998 and March 2001. The weekly intake frequencies for dairy products, cereals, meat, processed meat, vegetables, pulses, fruits and sweets were assessed by means of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis, based on the intake of the eight food groups, using principal component analysis as an extraction method followed by varimax rotation. RESULTS: Factor analysis identified three patterns that accounted for 55% of the total variability within the sample. The first pattern ("prudent" was characterized by vegetable, fruit and meat intake; the second ("traditional" by cereals (mainly rice and pulses (mainly beans; and the third ("snacks" by dairy products and processed meat. CONCLUSION: This study identified food intake patterns through an a posteriori approach. Such analysis may be useful for nutritional intervention programs and, after computing scores for each individual according to the patterns identified, for establishing a relationship between diet and other epidemiological measurements of interest.

  4. Identification of transcription factors linked to cell cycle regulation in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Cell cycle is an essential process in growth and development of living organisms consists of the replication and mitotic phases separated by 2 gap phases; G1 and G2. It is tightly controlled at the molecular level and especially at the level of transcription. Precise regulation of the cell cycle is of central significance for plant growth and development and transcription factors are global regulators of gene expression playing essential roles in cell cycle regulation. This study has uncovere...

  5. Identification and classification of open book accounting dimensions by considering inter-organizational cost management: A case study of petrochemical companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sadeghi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and to classify Open book accounting (OBA dimensions according to inter-organizational cost management (IOCM in petrochemical companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. In this research, there are 18 statistical society financial and accounting experts listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. By studying the theoretical literature and conducted investigations inside and outside of the country and also the experts’ comments, the OBA dimensions were identified and then classified by analytical hierarchy process technique. According to the studies and experts’ ideas, four dimensions including nature of data and accounting data disclosure practices, uses of disclosed accounting data, conditions of OBA, cost implementation of OBA were identified as OBA dimensions. The results of examinations were shown that, considering the comments on dimensions of nature of data and accounting data disclosure practices, the form of data disclosure plays a more important role. In uses of disclosed accounting data dimension, coordination and planning among team members play the most important role. According to conditions of OBA dimension, trust is the most important one and in cost implementation of OBA dimension, the cost of the other party plays the most important role.

  6. Identification of biofloc microscopic composition as the natural bioremediation in zero water exchange of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, culture in closed hatchery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, Hidayah; Moh, Julia Hwei Zhong; Kasan, Nor Azman; Suratman, Suhaimi; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2017-09-01

    Study on the microscopic composition of biofloc in closed hatchery culture system was carried out to determine the interaction between the aggregation flocs in the bioremediation process for the decomposition and degradation of organic matter loaded in the shrimp culture tanks. The study was done for 105 days of culture period in zero water exchange. All of the organic loaded in the culture tanks identified comes from the shrimp feces, uneaten fed, and the decomposed macro- and microorganisms died in the culture tanks. All of the microscopic organisms in the biofloc were identified using Advance microscopes Nikon 80i. From the present study, there were abundances and high varieties of phytoplankton, zooplankton, protozoa, nematodes and algae species identified as aggregates together in the flocs accumulation. All of these microscopic organisms identified implemented the symbiotic process together for food supply, become the algae grazer, act as natural water stabilizer in regulating the nutrients in culture tank and serve as decomposer for dead organic matter in the water environment. Heterotrophic bacteria identified from Pseudomonas and Aeromonas family consumed the organic matter loaded at the bottom of culture tank and converted items through chemical process as useful protein food to be consumed back by the shrimp. Overall it can be concluded that the biofloc organisms identified really contributed as natural bioremediation agents in zero water exchange culture system to ensure the water quality in the optimal condition until the end of culture period.

  7. [Factors related to nurses' patient identification behavior and the moderating effect of person-organization value congruence climate within nursing units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Mee; Kang, Seung Wan; Kim, Se Young

    2014-04-01

    This research was an empirical study designed to identify precursors and interaction effects related to nurses' patient identification behavior. A multilevel analysis methodology was used. A self-report survey was administered to registered nurses (RNs) of a university hospital in South Korea. Of the questionnaires, 1114 were analyzed. The individual-level factors that had a significantly positive association with patient identification behavior were person-organization value congruence, organizational commitment, occupational commitment, tenure at the hospital, and tenure at the unit. Significantly negative group-level precursors of patient identification behavior were burnout climate and the number of RNs. Two interaction effects of the person-organization value congruence climate were identified. The first was a group-level moderating effect in which the negative relationship between the number of RNs and patient identification behavior was weaker when the nursing unit's value congruence climate was high. The second was a cross-level moderating effect in which the positive relationship between tenure at the unit and patient identification behavior was weaker when value congruence climate was high. This study simultaneously tested both individual-level and group-level factors that potentially influence patient identification behavior and identified the moderating role of person-organization value congruence climate. Implications of these results are discussed.

  8. Transcription Factors Expressed in Lateral Organ Boundaries: Identification of Downstream Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Patricia S

    2010-07-12

    The processes of lateral organ initiation and patterning are central to the generation of mature plant form. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes is essential to our understanding of plant development. Communication between the shoot apical meristem and initiating organ primordia is important both for functioning of the meristem and for proper organ patterning, and very little is known about this process. In particular, the boundary between meristem and leaf is emerging as a critical region that is important for SAM maintenance and regulation of organogenesis. The goal of this project was to characterize three boundary-expressed genes that encode predicted transcription factors. Specifically, we have studied LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB), LATERAL ORGAN FUSION1 (LOF1), and LATERAL ORGAN FUSION2 (LOF2). LOB encodes the founding member of the LOB-DOMAIN (LBD) plant-specific DNA binding transcription factor family and LOF1 and LOF2 encode paralogous MYB-domain transcription factors. We characterized the genetic relationship between these three genes and other boundary and meristem genes. We also used an ectopic inducible expression system to identify direct targets of LOB.

  9. Identification of Barriers to Stroke Awareness and Risk Factor Management Unique to Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Barriers to risk factor control may differ by race/ethnicity. The goal of this study was to identify barriers to stroke awareness and risk factor management unique to Hispanics as compared to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs. We performed a prospective study of stroke patients from an academic Stroke Center in Arizona and surveyed members of the general community. Questionnaires included: the Duke Social Support Index (DSSI, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC Scale, a stroke barriers questionnaire, and a Stroke Awareness Test. Of 145 stroke patients surveyed (72 Hispanic; 73 NHW, Hispanics scored lower on the Stroke Awareness Test compared to NHWs (72.5% vs. 79.1%, p = 0.029. Hispanic stroke patients also reported greater barriers related to medical knowledge, medication adherence, and healthcare access (p < 0.05 for all. Hispanics scored higher on the “powerful others” sub-scale (11.3 vs. 10, p < 0.05 of the MHLC. Of 177 members of the general public surveyed, Hispanics had lower stroke awareness compared to NHWs and tended to have lower awareness than Hispanic stroke patients. These results suggest that Hispanic stroke patients perceive less control over their health, experience more healthcare barriers, and demonstrate lower rates of stroke literacy. Interventions for stroke prevention and education in Hispanics should address these racial/ethnic differences in stroke awareness and barriers to risk factor control.

  10. Identification determinant factors on willingness to pay for health services in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan-Noughabi, Javad; Kavosi, Zahra; Faramarzi, Ahmad; Khammarnia, Mohammad

    2017-11-21

    A common method used to examine the relationship between internal preferences and caring externalities is willingness to pay (WTP) approach. We aimed to estimate WTP for health status with different severity level and identify determinant factors on WTP. For determining main factors in WTP, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Shiraz in the southeast of Iran, in March to April 2015. The open-ended method was used to estimate monthly WTP in private and altruistic section. Multivariate regression analyses using ordinary least squares were applied to examine the effect of Scio-demographic factors on WTP using SPSS software 21. Participants were willing to pay an average amount of $ 295 in health status 1 and an average amount of $ 596 in health status 6 (worst status) for internal preferences. Altruistic WTP for health status 1 was $ 294 and participants were willing to pay an average amount of $ 416 in health status 6. Multiple regression analysis identified monthly income as the key determinant of WTP for internal preferences and caring externalities (P < 0.01). With an increase of 1% in income, private WTP increase 1.38% in health status 1. The finding indicates that the mean of WTP increases at severe health status; therefore, health policy maker should allocate resources toward severe health status.

  11. Identification of risk factors for enteral feeding intolerance screening in critically ill patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting; Chen, Ting; Yang, Wen-Qun; Liang, Ze-Ping; Zhu, Jing-Ci

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To identify risk factors for enteral feeding intolerance screening in critically ill patients, thereby, provide some reference for healthcare staff to assess the risk of feeding intolerance, and lay the foundation for future scale development. Methods: This study used a mixed methodology, including a literature review, semi-structured interviews, the Delphi technique, and the analytic hierarchy process. We used the literature review and semi-structured interviews (n=22) to draft a preliminarily item pool for feeding intolerance, Delphi technique (n=30) to screen and determine the items, and the analytic hierarchy process to calculate the weight of each item. The study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2015 in Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China. Results: Twenty-three risk factors were selected for the scale, including 5 dimensions. We assigned a weight to each item according to their impact on the feeding intolerance, with a higher score indicating a greater impact. The weight of each dimension was decreasing as follows: patient conditions, weight score equals 42; general conditions, weight score equals 23; gastrointestinal functions, weight score equals 15; biochemical indexes, weight score equals 14; and treatment measures, weight score equals 6. Conclusion: Developed list of risk factors based on literature review, survey among health care professionals and expert consensus should provide a basis for future studies assessing the risk of feeding intolerance in critically ill patients. PMID:28762434

  12. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the chicken basic helix-loop-helix factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Yi; Zhao, Chun-Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors play important roles in a wide range of developmental processes. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide survey using the chicken (Gallus gallus) genomic database, and identified 104 bHLH sequences belonging to 42 gene families in an effort to characterize the chicken bHLH transcription factor family. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that chicken has 50, 21, 15, 4, 8, and 3 bHLH members in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, while three members belonging to none of these groups were classified as ''orphans". A comparison between chicken and human bHLH repertoires suggested that both organisms have a number of lineage-specific bHLH members in the proteomes. Chromosome distribution patterns and phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the bHLH members should have arisen through gene duplication at an early date. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment statistics showed 51 top GO annotations of biological processes counted in the frequency. The present study deepens our understanding of the chicken bHLH transcription factor family and provides much useful information for further studies using chicken as a model system.

  13. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the Chicken Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-yi Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH family of transcription factors play important roles in a wide range of developmental processes. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide survey using the chicken (Gallus gallus genomic database, and identified 104 bHLH sequences belonging to 42 gene families in an effort to characterize the chicken bHLH transcription factor family. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that chicken has 50, 21, 15, 4, 8, and 3 bHLH members in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, while three members belonging to none of these groups were classified as ‘‘orphans’’. A comparison between chicken and human bHLH repertoires suggested that both organisms have a number of lineage-specific bHLH members in the proteomes. Chromosome distribution patterns and phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the bHLH members should have arisen through gene duplication at an early date. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment statistics showed 51 top GO annotations of biological processes counted in the frequency. The present study deepens our understanding of the chicken bHLH transcription factor family and provides much useful information for further studies using chicken as a model system.

  14. A study on the identification of cognitive complexity factors related to the complexity of procedural steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jeong, Kwang Sup; Jung, Won Dea [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    In complex systems, it is well recognized that the provision of understandable procedures that allow operators to clarify 'what needs to be done' and 'how to do it' is one of the requisites to confirm their safety. In this regard, the step complexity (SC) measure that can quantify the complexity of procedural steps in emergency operating procedures (EOPs) of a nuclear power plant (NPP) was suggested. However, the necessity of additional complexity factors that can consider a cognitive aspect in evaluating the complexity of procedural steps is evinced from the comparisons between SC scores and operators' performance data. To this end, the comparisons between operators' performance data with their behavior in conducting prescribed activities of procedural steps are conducted in this study. As a result, two kinds of complexity factors (the abstraction level of knowledge and the level of engineering decision) that could affect operators' cognitive burden are identified. Although a well-designed experiment is indispensable in confirming the appropriateness of cognitive complexity factors, it is strongly believed that the change of an operator's performance can be more authentically explained if they are taken into consideration.

  15. A study on the identification of cognitive complexity factors related to the complexity of procedural steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jeong, Kwang Sup; Jung, Won Dea

    2004-01-01

    In complex systems, it is well recognized that the provision of understandable procedures that allow operators to clarify 'what needs to be done' and 'how to do it' is one of the requisites to confirm their safety. In this regard, the step complexity (SC) measure that can quantify the complexity of procedural steps in emergency operating procedures (EOPs) of a nuclear power plant (NPP) was suggested. However, the necessity of additional complexity factors that can consider a cognitive aspect in evaluating the complexity of procedural steps is evinced from the comparisons between SC scores and operators' performance data. To this end, the comparisons between operators' performance data with their behavior in conducting prescribed activities of procedural steps are conducted in this study. As a result, two kinds of complexity factors (the abstraction level of knowledge and the level of engineering decision) that could affect operators' cognitive burden are identified. Although a well-designed experiment is indispensable in confirming the appropriateness of cognitive complexity factors, it is strongly believed that the change of an operator's performance can be more authentically explained if they are taken into consideration

  16. The identification of factors affecting intracranial meningioma recurrence two years postoperatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, M. M.; Aman, R. A.; Tjahjadi, H.; Safri, A. Y.; Aninditha, T.

    2017-08-01

    The study objective was to determine the recurrence rate of intracranial meningioma and the risk factors that are contributory to an increase in the incidence of recurrence. A prospective design was used in this study on meningioma patients treated at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital between 2010 and mid-2015. Data on the subjects were collected from the Departments of Neurology, Neurology, and Pathology, at the Universitas Indonesia/Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. The subjects were adults who had been previously diagnosed with meningioma. Follow-up was performed to assess the patients in relation to their initial clinical presentation. Neuroimaging was carried out to determine recurrence. The histopathological findings, extent of tumor resection (using Simpson’s criteria), and Word Health Organization grade, were also determined. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression of progesterone receptor (PR), Ki-67, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The recurrence rate was then analyzed to determine any correlation with the aforementioned risk factors. The recurrence rate was found to be 13%. Ki67, VEGF, and PR expression was positive in 9%, 73%, and 50% of the subjects, respectively. A significant correlation was not found between the study variables (tumor location, the scope of resection based on Simpson’s criteria, histopathologic grade, mitotic index, i.e., Ki-67, and PR and VEGF expression in the meningioma tissue) and the recurrence of meningioma.

  17. Identification of risk factors for post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis in a high volume center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit Phillip

    Full Text Available Pancreatitis is the most common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP. Several patients´ or procedure related risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP have been suggested. The aim of this study was to validate the risk factors for PEP in a high-volume center.All patients undergoing first time ERCP at a tertiary referral center between December 2010 and October 2013 were retrospectively included. PEP was defined according to the Atlanta Classification.344 patients were included in the final analysis. The risk to develop PEP was increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis (odds ratio 3.7 and after inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct (odds ratio 2.2, which occurred in 26.5% of the patients. Inadvertent cannulation occurred significantly more frequently in patients with difficult cannulation of the papilla duodeni major (odds ratio 12.7; p<0.001. ERCP on call was associated with an increased risk for difficult cannulation (odds ratio 3.0.Inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct is a procedure related risk factor for PEP. Measurements on preventing inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct should be established and studies on prophylactic measurements should focus particularly on patients with inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct.

  18. Identification of risk factors for post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis in a high volume center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Veit; Schwab, Miriam; Haf, David; Algül, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatitis is the most common complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Several patients´ or procedure related risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) have been suggested. The aim of this study was to validate the risk factors for PEP in a high-volume center. All patients undergoing first time ERCP at a tertiary referral center between December 2010 and October 2013 were retrospectively included. PEP was defined according to the Atlanta Classification. 344 patients were included in the final analysis. The risk to develop PEP was increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis (odds ratio 3.7) and after inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct (odds ratio 2.2), which occurred in 26.5% of the patients. Inadvertent cannulation occurred significantly more frequently in patients with difficult cannulation of the papilla duodeni major (odds ratio 12.7; passociated with an increased risk for difficult cannulation (odds ratio 3.0). Inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct is a procedure related risk factor for PEP. Measurements on preventing inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct should be established and studies on prophylactic measurements should focus particularly on patients with inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct.

  19. Development of Coagulation Factor Probes for the Identification of Procoagulant Circulating Tumor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Cianchetti, Flor A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Bock, Paul E. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); McCarty, Owen J. T., E-mail: tormoeng@ohsu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States)

    2012-09-06

    Metastatic cancer is associated with a hypercoagulable state, and pathological venous thromboembolic disease is a significant source of morbidity and the second leading cause of death in patients with cancer. Here we aimed to develop a novel labeling strategy to detect and quantify procoagulant circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from patients with metastatic cancer. We hypothesize that the enumeration of procoagulant CTCs may be prognostic for the development of venous thrombosis in patients with cancer. Our approach is based on the observation that cancer cells are capable of initiating and facilitating cell-mediated coagulation in vitro, whereby activated coagulation factor complexes assemble upon cancer cell membrane surfaces. Binding of fluorescently labeled, active site-inhibited coagulation factors VIIa, Xa, and IIa to the metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, non-metastatic colorectal cell line, SW480, or metastatic colorectal cell line, SW620, was characterized in a purified system, in anticoagulated blood and plasma, and in plasma under conditions of coagulation. We conclude that a CTC labeling strategy that utilizes coagulation factor-based fluorescent probes may provide a functional assessment of the procoagulant potential of CTCs, and that this strategy is amenable to current CTC detection platforms.

  20. Identification of Socio-demographic and Psychological Factors Affecting Women's Propensity to Breastfeed: An Italian Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattei, Valentina E; Carnelli, Letizia; Bernardi, Martina; Jongerius, Chiara; Brombin, Chiara; Cugnata, Federica; Ogliari, Anna; Rinaldi, Stefania; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months postpartum is a World Health Organization objective and benefits have been demonstrated for both mother and infant. It is important to clarify which factors influence breastfeeding intentions. Our objective was to assess and identify socio-demographic and psychological factors associated with breastfeeding intention in a sample of pregnant Italian women. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 160 pregnant women. The following psychological constructs were measured using standardized questionnaires: anxiety, prenatal attachment, adult attachment, personality traits, and intention to breastfeed. Socio-demographic data were also collected using a self-report questionnaire. Assessment took place after the 20th gestational week. Results: Self-employment, age and feeding received as an infant were significantly related to breastfeeding intention. Regarding psychological factors, we also found that Neuroticism was negatively associated with mother's breastfeeding intentions. Relationships between psychological constructs and breastfeeding attitude were examined and represented within a graphical modeling framework. Conclusion: It may be possible to identify women that are less inclined to breastfeed early on in pregnancy. This may aid healthcare staff to pay particular attention to women who show certain socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, so as to fulfill more focused programs.

  1. VEGF-induced Rac1 activation in endothelial cells is regulated by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, Tiana A.; van Buul, Jaap D.; Burridge, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling is critical for both normal and disease-associated vascular development. Dysregulated VEGF signaling has been implicated in ischemic stroke, tumor angiogenesis, and many other vascular diseases. VEGF signals through several effectors, including the

  2. Growing season length as a key factor of cumulative net ecosystem exchange over the pine forest ecosystems in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielewska, A.; Urbaniak, M.; Olejnik, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2015), s. 129-135 ISSN 0236-8722 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : forest * carbon dioxide * eddy covariance * growing season length Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.067, year: 2015

  3. Identification of controlling factors for the initiation of corrosion of fresh concrete sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Xiaoyan; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2015-09-01

    The development of concrete corrosion in new sewer pipes undergoes an initiation process before reaching an active corrosion stage. This initiation period is assumed to last several months to years but the key factors affecting the process, and its duration, are not well understood. This study is therefore focused on this initial stage of the corrosion process and the effect of key environmental factors. Such knowledge is important for the effective management of corrosion in new sewers, as every year of life extension of such systems has a very high financial benefit. This long-term (4.5 year) study has been conducted in purpose-built corrosion chambers that closely simulated the sewer environment, but with control of three key environmental factors being hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas phase concentration, relative humidity and air temperature. Fresh concrete coupons, cut from an industry-standard sewer pipe, were exposed to the corrosive conditions in the chambers, both in the gas phase and partially submerged in wastewater. A total of 36 exposure conditions were investigated to determine the controlling factors by regular retrieval of concrete coupons for detailed analysis of surface pH, sulfur compounds (elemental sulfur and sulfate) and concrete mass loss. Corrosion initiation times were thus determined for different exposure conditions. It was found that the corrosion initiation time of both gas-phase and partially-submerged coupons was positively correlated with the gas phase H2S concentration, but only at levels of 10 ppm or below, indicating that sulfide oxidation rate rather than the H2S concentration was the limiting factor during the initiation stage. Relative humidity also played a role for the corrosion initiation of the gas-phase coupons. However, the partially-submerged coupons were not affected by humidity as these coupons were in direct contact with the sewage and hence did have sufficient moisture to enable the microbial processes to proceed. The

  4. Identification of Risk Factors Affecting Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes in Adult Patients from Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Yin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Besides genetic factors, the occurrence of diabetes is influenced by lifestyles and environmental factors as well as trace elements in diet materials. Subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG have an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM. This study aimed to explore risk factors affecting IFG and diabetes in patients from Northeast China. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional survey of chronic diseases and related risk factors was conducted in Jilin Province of Northeast China. All adult residents, aged 18–79, were invited to participate in this survey using the method of multistage stratified random cluster sampling. One hundred thirty-four patients with IFG or DM and 391 healthy control subjects were recruited. We compared demographic factors, body size measurements, healthy-related behaviors, and hair metallic element contents between IFG/diabetes patients and healthy individuals. Results: IFG/diabetes patients had a greater weight, waist, hip, and body mass index (BMI than control subjects. Significant differences in the content of zinc (Zn, potassium (K, copper (Ca, and sodium (Na as well as Cu/Zn ratios between IFG or DM patients and control subjects (p < 0.05 were also observed. Hair Cu, selenium (Se, and Na contents were positively correlated with blood glucose levels (Cu: rs = 0.135, p = 0.002; Se: rs = 0.110, p = 0.012; Na: rs = 0.091, p = 0.038. Polytomous logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, family history of diabetes and BMI, showed that subjects with high BMI were more likely to develop IFG and DM (IFG: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.02–1.29; DM: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.01–1.33. Moreover, rarely or never eating fruits was a risk factor for DM (OR = 5.46, OR 95% CI = 1.87–15.98 but not for IFG (OR = 1.70, OR 95% CI = 0.72–4.02. Subjects with abdominal obesity or DM history were more susceptible to DM (abdominal obesity: OR = 2.99, OR 95% CI = 1.07–8.37; DM history: OR = 2.69, OR 95

  5. Standardized Elemental Basis for Gas-Turbine Engine Heat Exchangers is the Key Factor for Their Cost Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soudarev A.V; Soudarev B.V; Kondratiev V.V; Lazarev M.V

    2001-01-01

    The competitiveness of the small gas turbine units (GTUs) (Ne<300 kW) in the world power market is dependent on both the maintenance expenses and the capital costs of production. Reduction in the maintenance expenditures could be achieved by increasing the plant efficiency. This task could be solved by some methods: increasing the cycle inlet temperature TIT, getting the cycle more complex (use of heat regeneration and compressed air intermediate cooling), cutting the power consumption on heat-stressed parts cooling. Putting the above into effect is linked with introduction of novel structural materials, a sharp increase in the mass-size values and the plant manufacture expenditures, in particular, at provision of its self-regulation.In connection with the above, the development of the combined metal-ceramic airheaters and standardization of the elemental basis of the metal gas-gas heat exchangers will promote reduction in the expenditures of the maintenance and the manufacture of the small-size independent power GTEs.

  6. Reversible thermal transition in GrpE, the nucleotide exchange factor of the DnaK heat-shock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, J P; Jelesarov, I; Schönfeld, H J; Christen, P

    2001-03-02

    DnaK, a Hsp70 acting in concert with its co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE, is essential for Escherichia coli to survive environmental stress, including exposure to elevated temperatures. Here we explored the influence of temperature on the structure of the individual components and the functional properties of the chaperone system. GrpE undergoes extensive but fully reversible conformational changes in the physiologically relevant temperature range (transition midpoint at approximately 48 degrees C), as observed with both circular dichroism measurements and differential scanning calorimetry, whereas no thermal transitions occur in DnaK and DnaJ between 15 degrees C and 48 degrees C. The conformational changes in GrpE appear to be important in controlling the interconversion of T-state DnaK (ATP-liganded, low affinity for polypeptide substrates) and R-state DnaK (ADP-liganded, high affinity for polypeptide substrates). The rate of the T --> R conversion of DnaK due to DnaJ-triggered ATP hydrolysis follows an Arrhenius temperature dependence. In contrast, the rate of the R --> T conversion due to GrpE-catalyzed ADP/ATP exchange increases progressively less with increasing temperature and even decreases at temperatures above approximately 40 degrees C, indicating a temperature-dependent reversible inactivation of GrpE. At heat-shock temperatures, the reversible structural changes of GrpE thus shift DnaK toward its high-affinity R state.

  7. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bypass heat exchanger. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger is a device, consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood or... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger. 870.4240...

  8. Identification of pathogenic factors potentially involved in Staphylococcus aureus keratitis using proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shamila; Cole, Nerida; Hume, Emma B H; Garthwaite, Linda L; Nguyen-Khuong, Terry; Walsh, Bradley J; Willcox, Mark D P

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus is a leading cause of microbial keratitis, characterized by destruction of the cornea by bacterial exoproteins and host-associated factors. The aim of this study was to compare extracellular and cell-associated proteins produced by two different isolates of S. aureus, a virulent clinical isolate (Staph 38) and a laboratory strain (Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4) of weaker virulence in the mouse keratitis model. Proteins were analyzed using 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified by subsequent mass spectrometry. Activity of staphylococcal adhesins was assessed by allowing strains to bind to various proteins adsorbed onto polymethylmethacrylate squares. Thirteen proteins in the extracellular fraction and eight proteins in the cell-associated fractions after bacterial growth were produced in increased amounts in the clinical isolate Staph 38. Four of these proteins were S. aureus virulence factor adhesins, fibronectin binding protein A, staphopain, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 and extracellular adherence protein. The clinical isolate Staph 38 adhered to a greater extent to all mammalian proteins tested, indicating the potential of the adhesins to be active on its surface. Other proteins with increased expression in Staph 38 included potential moonlighting proteins and proteins involved in transcription or translation. This is the first demonstration of the proteome of S. aureus isolates from keratitis. These results indicate that the virulent clinical isolate produces more potentially important virulence factors compared to the less virulent laboratory strain and these may be associated with the ability of a S. aureus strain to cause more severe keratitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of burden hotspots and risk factors for cholera in India: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Sen Gupta, Sanjukta; Arora, Nisha; Khasnobis, Pradeep; Venkatesh, Srinivas; Sur, Dipika; Nair, Gopinath B; Sack, David A; Ganguly, Nirmal K

    2017-01-01

    Even though cholera has existed for centuries and many parts of the country have sporadic, endemic and epidemic cholera, it is still an under-recognized health problem in India. A Cholera Expert Group in the country was established to gather evidence and to prepare a road map for control of cholera in India. This paper identifies cholera burden hotspots and factors associated with an increased risk of the disease. We acquired district level data on cholera case reports of 2010-2015 from the Integrated Disease Surveillance Program. Socioeconomic characteristics and coverage of water and sanitation was obtained from the 2011 census. Spatial analysis was performed to identify cholera hotspots, and a zero-inflated Poisson regression was employed to identify the factors associated with cholera and predicted case count in the district. 27,615 cholera cases were reported during the 6-year period. Twenty-four of 36 states of India reported cholera during these years, and 13 states were classified as endemic. Of 641 districts, 78 districts in 15 states were identified as "hotspots" based on the reported cases. On the other hand, 111 districts in nine states were identified as "hotspots" from model-based predicted number of cases. The risk for cholera in a district was negatively associated with the coverage of literate persons, households using treated water source and owning mobile telephone, and positively associated with the coverage of poor sanitation and drainage conditions and urbanization level in the district. The study reaffirms that cholera continues to occur throughout a large part of India and identifies the burden hotspots and risk factors. Policymakers may use the findings of the article to develop a roadmap for prevention and control of cholera in India.

  10. Identification of Factors Determining Market Value of the Most Valuable Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Majewski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The problem of identifying the most important determinants of the market value of football players is quite well described in the literature. There are many works that try to identify these factors. Some of them are focused on variables to make a set complete and others are on models and methods. The aim of this article is to present the variables influencing the valuation and to build an econometric model valuing footballers playing on the forward position, taking into consideration the assumptions of the econometric modelling. Such an approach indicates managers as other sources for obtaining information. Methodology: Econometric models were used to verify the hypothesis formulated in this research. The database was created on the basis of variables presented on the website www.transfermarkt. de that presents the values of the most valuable football players in the world playing on the forward position. The Gretl program was used in the research. Findings: The literature review showed that there are many independent variables having an impact on the value of the player. There are also many different models used to valuate footballers’ performance rights. The results of estimation of models in the research indicated that such factors as Canadian classification points adjusted the market value of the team and dummy variables describing “goodwill” (only for the best players had an impact on the market value of footballers’ performance rights. Limitations/implications: Information about different factors having an impact on football players’ market value could support the investment decision process of football managers. Originality/value: The results were part of a study concerning economics of sport, particularly processes of management of football clubs and valuation of intangible assets.

  11. Identification and synthetic modeling of factors affecting American black duck populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Michael J.; Miller, Mark W.; Hines, James E.

    2002-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on factors potentially affecting the population status of American black ducks (Anas rupribes). Our review suggests that there is some support for the influence of 4 major, continental-scope factors in limiting or regulating black duck populations: 1) loss in the quantity or quality of breeding habitats; 2) loss in the quantity or quality of wintering habitats; 3) harvest, and 4) interactions (competition, hybridization) with mallards (Anas platyrhychos) during the breeding and/or wintering periods. These factors were used as the basis of an annual life cycle model in which reproduction rates and survival rates were modeled as functions of the above factors, with parameters of the model describing the strength of these relationships. Variation in the model parameter values allows for consideration of scientific uncertainty as to the degree each of these factors may be contributing to declines in black duck populations, and thus allows for the investigation of the possible effects of management (e.g., habitat improvement, harvest reductions) under different assumptions. We then used available, historical data on black duck populations (abundance, annual reproduction rates, and survival rates) and possible driving factors (trends in breeding and wintering habitats, harvest rates, and abundance of mallards) to estimate model parameters. Our estimated reproduction submodel included parameters describing negative density feedback of black ducks, positive influence of breeding habitat, and negative influence of mallard densities; our survival submodel included terms for positive influence of winter habitat on reproduction rates, and negative influences of black duck density (i.e., compensation to harvest mortality). Individual models within each group (reproduction, survival) involved various combinations of these factors, and each was given an information theoretic weight for use in subsequent prediction. The reproduction model with highest

  12. Hyperspectral information identification for characterizing metallogenic factors of Taoshan uranium ore-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jielin

    2007-01-01

    The application of high resolution remote sensing technology to uranium mineralization is discussed in detail. By utilizing field hyperspectrum measurement method (VIS/NIR-SWIR-FIR) and fusion technology of ETM image and Radarsat data, the spectral characteristic of uranium mineralization factors including rock mass, ore-control fault and hydrothermal alteration are studied in Taoshan granite type uranium deposits. The main ore-control structure has been identified based on remote sensing image feature. Those results and experiences provide the new remote sensing approaches to the prospecting and evaluation of uranium resources. (authors)

  13. Functionality of road safety devices – identification and analysis of factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeliński Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety devices are designed to protect road users from the risk of injury or death. The principal type of restraint is the safety barrier. Deployed on sites with the highest risk of run-off-road accidents, safety barriers are mostly found on bridges, flyovers, central reservations, and on road edges which have fixed obstacles next to them. If properly designed and installed, safety barriers just as other road safety devices, should meet a number of functional features. This report analyses factors which may deteriorate functionality, ways to prevent this from happening and the thresholds for loss of road safety device functionality.

  14. Protein Kinase A (PKA) Type I Interacts with P-Rex1, a Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor: EFFECT ON PKA LOCALIZATION AND P-Rex1 SIGNALING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Vargas, Lydia; Adame-García, Sendi Rafael; Cervantes-Villagrana, Rodolfo Daniel; Castillo-Kauil, Alejandro; Bruystens, Jessica G H; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Taylor, Susan S; Mochizuki, Naoki; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Vázquez-Prado, José

    2016-03-18

    Morphology of migrating cells is regulated by Rho GTPases and fine-tuned by protein interactions and phosphorylation. PKA affects cell migration potentially through spatiotemporal interactions with regulators of Rho GTPases. Here we show that the endogenous regulatory (R) subunit of type I PKA interacts with P-Rex1, a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor that integrates chemotactic signals. Type I PKA holoenzyme interacts with P-Rex1 PDZ domains via the CNB B domain of RIα, which when expressed by itself facilitates endothelial cell migration. P-Rex1 activation localizes PKA to the cell periphery, whereas stimulation of PKA phosphorylates P-Rex1 and prevents its activation in cells responding to SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor 1). The P-Rex1 DEP1 domain is phosphorylated at Ser-436, which inhibits the DH-PH catalytic cassette by direct interaction. In addition, the P-Rex1 C terminus is indirectly targeted by PKA, promoting inhibitory interactions independently of the DEP1-PDZ2 region. A P-Rex1 S436A mutant construct shows increased RacGEF activity and prevents the inhibitory effect of forskolin on sphingosine 1-phosphate-dependent endothelial cell migration. Altogether, these results support the idea that P-Rex1 contributes to the spatiotemporal localization of type I PKA, which tightly regulates this guanine exchange factor by a multistep mechanism, initiated by interaction with the PDZ domains of P-Rex1 followed by direct phosphorylation at the first DEP domain and putatively indirect regulation of the C terminus, thus promoting inhibitory intramolecular interactions. This reciprocal regulation between PKA and P-Rex1 might represent a key node of integration by which chemotactic signaling is fine-tuned by PKA. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Identification of factors affecting colostrum quality of dairy Lacaune ewes assessed with the Brix refractometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rovira, Laura; Pesantez-Pacheco, Jose-Luis; Hernandez, Fernando; Elvira-Partida, Laura; Perez-Solana, Maria-Luz; Gonzalez-Martin, Juan-Vicente; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Astiz, Susana

    2017-11-01

    In this Research Communication we assessed factors affecting colostrum quality of dairy Lacaune ewes using the Brix-refractometer. Colostrum from 536 lambings from one commercial intensive dairy Lacaune farm were analysed for the following factors with potential influence in colostrum quality: (1) ewe parity (n = 84-132), (2) length of previous dry period (PDP) (n = 23-214), (3) age at first lambing (AFL) of primiparous ewes (n = 9-88), (4) lambing season (n = 192 or 344), and (5) year (2011-2013, n = 142-203). Parity significantly affected colostrum quality, with primiparous ewes showing the highest Brix refractometer values (22·6 ± 5·6%, P ewes. PDP length also significantly affected colostrum quality: ewes with the shortest PDP showed the worst quality (16·8 ± 4·2%, P ewes under intensive management conditions and they further show the usefulness of the Brix refractometer for providing a rough estimation of colostrum quality on-farm. However, further studies are needed to determine a validated cut-off Brix value for identifying good-quality colostra in ovine species.

  16. Screening and identification of host factors interacting with UL14 of herpes simplex virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuqing; Xing, Junji; Wang, Shuai; Li, Meili; Zheng, Chunfu

    2011-08-01

    The UL14 protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is highly conserved in herpesvirus family. However, its exact function during the HSV-1 replication cycle is little known. In the present study, a high throughput yeast two-hybrid system was employed to screen the cellular factors interacting with UL14, and five target candidates were yielded: (1) TSC22 domain family protein 3 (TSC22D3); (2) Mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 8 isoform 1(MED8); (3) Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3); (4) Arrestin beta-2 (ARRB2); (5) Cereblon (CRBN). Indirect immunofluorescent assay showed that both TSC22D3 and MED8 co-localized with UL14. Co-immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that UL14 could be immunoprecipitated by TSC22D3, suggesting that UL14 interacted with TSC22D3 under physiological condition. In summary, this study opened up new avenues toward delineating the function and physiological significance of UL14 during the HSV-1 replication cycle.

  17. Identification and ranking of the risk factors of cloud computing in State-Owned organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mohammad Yaghoubi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of processing and storage technologies and the success of the Internet have made computing resources cheaper, more powerful and more available than before. This technological trend has enabled the realization of a new computing model called cloud computing. Recently, the State-Owned organizations have begun to utilize cloud computing architectures, platforms, and applications to deliver services and meet constituents’ needs. Despite all of the advantages and opportunities of cloud computing technology, there are so many risks that State-Owned organizations need to know about before their migration to cloud environment. The purpose of this study is to identify and rank the risks factors of cloud computing in State-Owned organizations by making use of IT experts’ opinion. Firstly, by reviewing key articles, a comprehensive list of risks factors were extracted and classified into two categories: tangible and intangible. Then, six experts were interviewed about these risks and their classifications, and 10 risks were identified. After that, process of ranking the risks was done by seeking help from 52 experts and by fuzzy analytic hierarchy process. The results show that experts have identified intangible risks as the most important risks in cloud computing usage by State-Owned organizations. As the results indicate, "data confidentiality" risk has the highest place among the other risks.

  18. Identification of Risk Factors for Intravenous Infiltration among Hospitalized Children: A Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Mi Park

    Full Text Available This retrospective study was aimed to identify risk factors of intravenous (IV infiltration for hospitalized children. The participants were 1,174 children admitted to a general hospital, who received peripheral intravenous injection therapy at least once, and had complete records. Data were analyzed with frequency and percentage or mean and standard deviation were calculated, and odds ratio (OR from univariate and multiple logistic regressions. The number and % of infiltrations were 92 and 7.8%, respectively. IV infiltration risk factors were lower limb (OR = 1.72, phenytoin (OR = 11.03, 10% dextrose (OR = 6.55, steroids (OR = 6.21, vancomycin (OR = 4.10, high-concentration electrolytes (OR = 3.49, and ampicillin/sulbactam combination (OR = 3.37. Nurses working at children's hospitals should consider the risk of IV infiltration for children receiving IV infusion therapy and make a preventive effort to identify IV infiltration in high-risk children at an early stage.

  19. Identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor (ARF) genes in Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Wang, Feiyan; Cheng, Lin; Kong, Fuling; Peng, Zhen; Liu, Songyu; Yu, Xiaolin; Lu, Gang

    2011-11-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) encode transcriptional factors that bind specifically to the TGTCTC-containing auxin response elements found in the promoters of primary/early auxin response genes that regulate plant development. In this study, investigation of the tomato genome revealed 21 putative functional ARF genes (SlARFs), a number comparable to that found in Arabidopsis (23) and rice (25). The full cDNA sequences of 15 novel SlARFs were isolated and delineated by sequencing of PCR products. A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of this gene family is presented, including the gene structures, chromosome locations, phylogeny, and conserved motifs. In addition, a comparative analysis between ARF family genes in tomato and maize was performed. A phylogenetic tree generated from alignments of the full-length protein sequences of 21 OsARFs, 23 AtARFs, 31 ZmARFs, and 21 SlARFs revealed that these ARFs were clustered into four major groups. However, we could not find homologous genes in rice, maize, or tomato with AtARF12-15 and AtARF20-23. The expression patterns of tomato ARF genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Our comparative analysis will help to define possible functions for many of these newly isolated ARF-family genes in plant development.

  20. Level crossing, spin structure factor and quantum phases of the frustrated spin-1/2 chain with first and second neighbor exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoranjan; Parvej, Aslam; Soos, Zoltán G

    2015-08-12

    The spin-1/2 chain with isotropic Heisenberg exchange J1, J2  >  0 between first and second neighbors is frustrated for either sign of J1. Its quantum phase diagram has critical points at fixed J1/J2 between gapless phases with nondegenerate ground state (GS) and quasi-long-range order (QLRO) and gapped phases with doubly degenerate GS and spin correlation functions of finite range. In finite chains, exact diagonalization (ED) estimates critical points as level crossing of excited states. GS spin correlations enter in the spin structure factor S(q) that diverges at wave vector qm in QLRO(q(m)) phases with periodicity 2π/q(m) but remains finite in gapped phases. S(q(m)) is evaluated using ED and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. Level crossing and the magnitude of S(q(m)) are independent and complementary probes of quantum phases, based respectively on excited and ground states. Both indicate a gapless QLRO(π/2) phase between  -1.2  quantum critical points at small frustration J2 but disagree in the sector of weak exchange J1 between Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains on sublattices of odd and even-numbered sites.

  1. Identification of risk factors for postoperative dysphagia after primary anti-reflux surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Kazuto; Lee, Tommy H; Legner, András; Yano, Fumiaki; Dworak, Thomas; Mittal, Sumeet K

    2011-03-01

    Transient postoperative dysphagia is not uncommon after antireflux surgery and usually runs a self-limiting course. However, a subset of patients report long-term dysphagia. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for persistent postoperative dysphagia at 1 year after surgery. All patients who underwent antireflux surgery were entered into a prospectively maintained database. After obtaining institutional review board approval, the database was queried to identify patients who underwent primary antireflux surgery and were at least 1 year from surgery. Postoperative severity of dysphagia was evaluated using a standardized questionnaire (scale 0-3). Patients with scores of 2 or 3 were defined as having significant dysphagia. A total of 316 consecutive patients underwent primary antireflux surgery by a single surgeon. Of these, 219 patients had 1 year postoperative symptom data. Significant postoperative dysphagia at 1 year was reported by 19 (9.1%) patients. Thirty-eight patients (18.3%) required postoperative dilation for dysphagia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified preoperative dysphagia (odds ratio (OR), 4.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-15.5; p = 0.023) and preoperative delayed esophageal transit by barium swallow (OR, 8.2; 95% CI, 1.6-42.2; p = 0.012) as risk factors for postoperative dysphagia. Female gender was a risk factor for requiring dilation during the early postoperative period (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3-10.2; p = 0.016). No correlations were found with preoperative manometry. There also was no correlation between a need for early dilation and persistent dysphagia at 1 year of follow-up (p = 0.109). Patients with preoperative dysphagia and delayed esophageal transit on preoperative contrast study were significantly more likely to report moderate to severe postoperative dysphagia 1 year after antireflux surgery. This study confirms that the manometric criteria used to define esophageal dysmotility are not reliable

  2. External beam irradiation for choroid metastases: identification of factors predisposing to long-term sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudoler, Shari B.; Corn, Benjamin W.; Shields, Carol L.; De Potter, Patrick; Hyslop, Terry; Shields, Jerry A.; Curran, Walter J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To improve overall quality of life, palliative treatments should attempt to minimize associated complications while effectively controlling specific symptoms. We reviewed our experience treating posterior uveal metastases with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to determine the complication rate and to identify the relationship between patient, tumor, or treatment-related factors and the development of ocular complications. Methods and Materials: 483 consecutive patients (pts) (578 eyes) were diagnosed with intraocular metastatic disease from solid tumors between 1972-1995. Of these, 233 eyes (188 pts) had lesions of the posterior uveal tract and received EBRT. Median follow-up time was 5.8 months (range: 0.7-170.0 months). Follow-up information regarding the development of complications was documented for 230 eyes. Complete EBRT details were available for 189 eyes. Seventy-two percent of the patients received 30.0-40.0 Gy in 2.0-3.0 Gy fractions. Biologically effective dose (BED) was calculated to allow meaningful comparisons between various fractionation regimens and total doses. Concurrent chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy was used for 101 eyes (44%). Results: Median BED was 61 Gy 3 (range, 6.7-105 Gy 3 ), and 80% of treated eyes received BED 50-70 Gy 3 . EBRT energies included photons (70%), 60 Co (19%), electrons (6%), mixed energies (3%), and orthovoltage (2%). Lens-sparing techniques were used in 136 eyes (71%). At last follow-up 28 eyes (12%) developed one or more significant complications, including cataracts (16 eyes), radiation retinopathy (6 eyes), optic neuropathy (5 eyes), exposure keratopathy (5 eyes), and neovascularization of the iris (4 eyes). Two eyes developed narrow-angle glaucoma, and one of these required enucleation. On univariate analysis, Caucasian race (vs. Black/Hispanic, p = 0.03), increased intraocular pressure at diagnosis (>21 mmHg, p = 0.02), and diagnosis by biopsy (vs. no biopsy, p = 0.03) predisposed toward the

  3. Identification of risk factors for hepatitis B and C in Peshawar, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiq M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Shafiq,1 Muhammad Nadeem,2 Zeeshan Sattar,3 Sohaib Mohammad Khan,2 Sheikh Muhammad Faheem,4 Irfan Ahsan,5 Rabia Naheed,6 Tahir Mehmood Khattak,2 Shahzad Akbar,7 Muhammad Talha Khan,3 Muhammad Ilyas Khan,1 Muhammad Zubair Khan8 1Department of Internal Medicine, Khyber Teaching Hospital, University Town, Peshawar, 2Department of General Surgery, Nishtar Medical College and Hospital, Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Khyber Medical College, University Campus, Peshawar, 4Department of Neurology, King Edward Medical University, Anarkali, Lahore, Pakistan; 5Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 6Department of Internal Medicine, Fatima Memorial Hospital, Lahore, 7Department of Internal Medicine, Lady Reading Hospital, Andar Shehr, Peshawar, 8Department of Internal Medicine, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Hayat Abad, Pakistan Background: Hepatitis B and C need immediate worldwide attention as the infection rates are too high. More than 240 million people have chronic (long-term liver infections. Every year, about 600,000 people die globally due to the acute or chronic consequences of hepatitis B and more than 350,000 people die from hepatitis C-related liver diseases. Methods: Our study was designed as a case-control, descriptive study. It was conducted through formal interviews by using structured questionnaires. A total of 100 cases were included, with four controls for each case. Results: This study confirms household contact, history of dental work, history of surgery, sexual contact, and history of transfusion (blood and its components as the main risk factors which are responsible for the increased prevalence of hepatitis. Conclusion: The important risk factors, responsible for the high prevalence of hepatitis B and C in our society are household contact, history of dental work, history of surgery, sexual contact, and history of transfusion (blood and its components. The odds ratio of

  4. Body weight concerns: Cross-national study and identification of factors related to eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Wanderson Roberto; Santana, Moema de Souza; Maroco, João; Maloa, Benvindo Felismino Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Background Body weight concerns are common among individuals with eating disorders, and this construct can be assessed using psychometric instruments. The Weight Concerns Scale (WCS) is commonly used to assess body weight concerns. Aims To evaluate the psychometric properties of the WCS with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican female college students; to estimate body weight concerns; and to identify factors related to eating disorders. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Factorial, convergent, concurrent, and divergent validity, as well as reliability, were assessed. Cross-national invariance was tested by means of multigroup analysis. Structural models were tested using the WCS as the dependent variable, while demographic and academic variables and body mass index were used as independent variables. Logistic models were tested to estimate the likelihood of eating disorders being developed in specific groups. Results Participants were 2,068 female students. The psychometric properties of the WCS were adequate for the Portuguese sample; however, for the Brazilian and Mozambican samples, it was necessary to correlate the errors of two items to improve model fit. The WCS did not show cross-national invariance. The variables “thoughts about dropping out of college,” “medication use because of studies,” “medication and supplements use for body change,” “body mass index,” “socioeconomic status,” “age,” and “performance in course” were significant predictors of body weight concerns. Overall, 24.4% (95% confidence interval = 22.9–26.7) of the students were likely to develop eating disorders. Students under 21 years old, who use medication and supplements for body change, and who were classified as overweight/obese have increased likelihood of developing eating disorders. Conclusion The WCS showed good psychometric properties with Brazilian, Portuguese, and Mozambican students; however, it did not show cross

  5. State of oral hygiene and identification of the main risk factors for inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarenko M.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A high percentage of prevalence of inflammatory periodontal diseases in young age causes urgency of treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissue in young age. Therefore, the research purpose was to investigate the hygienic condition and identification of the main risk factors for gingivitis in patients aged 18-30 years. 286 people aged from 18 to 30 years were observed in the study. To assess hygienic condition of the oral cavity and to determine the thickness of plaque indices OHI-S (simplified oral hygiene index Green Vermilyona and Silness Loe were used. Studies of oral hygiene status suggests that in patients with different etiologies of periodontal tissue inflammation, oral hygienic condition ranged from "satisfactory" to "poor." Therefore the results of study of hygiene and periodontal indices and samples confirmed presence of moderately expressed inflammation in the gums in young adults with chronic catarrhal gingivitis. Most often inflammation in the gums, namely, chronic catarrhal gingivitis was determined in patients with fixed prosthesis designs in the mouth or in violation of the bite, related to the major risk factors for periodontal disease occurring in young adults aged from 18 to 30 years.

  6. Identification of the Uncertainties for the Calibration of the Partial Safety Factors for Load in Tidal Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaizka Zarraonandia Simeón

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tidal energy is nowadays one of the fastest growing types of marine renewable energy. In particular, Horizontal Axis Tidal Turbines (HATTs are the most advanced designs and the most appropriate for standardization. This paper presents a review of actual design criteria focusing on the identification of the uncertainties that technology developers need to address during the design process. Key environmental parameters like turbine inflow conditions or predictions of extreme values are still grey areas due to the lack of site measurements and the uncertainty in metocean model predictions. A comparison of turbulence intensity characterization using different tools and at different points in time shows the uncertainty in the prediction of this parameter. Numerical models of HATTs are still quite uncertain, often dependent on experience of the people running them. In the reliability-based calibration of partial safety factors, the uncertainties need to be reflected on the limit state formulation. This paper analyses the different types of uncertainties present in the limit state equation. These uncertainties are assessed in terms of stochastic variables in the limit state equation. In some cases, advantage can be taken from the experience from offshore wind and oil and gas industries. Tidal turbines have a mixture of the uncertainties present in both industries with regard to partial safety factor calibration.

  7. Identification and quantification of mRNA for nerve growth factor in histological preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, P A; Rush, R A; Scott, J; Penschow, J; Coghlan, J

    1986-03-14

    Hybridization histochemistry has been used to detect mRNA for nerve growth factor (NGF) in histological preparations of mouse salivary glands and rat iris using a /sup 32/P-labelled cDNA probe and autoradiography. Label was visible over the tubular cells of the male mouse submaxillary gland but not the sublingual gland. A much lower label density was found over the tubular cells of the female submaxillary gland, whereas sections of liver and pancreas were negative. Quantitative autoradiography allowed the detection of low levels of mRNA for NGF in the rat iris which was elevated by prior culture of the tissue. The results provide direct histological evidence for the presence of specific NGF-mRNA in the mouse submaxillary gland and rat iris, with increased levels following culture. 15 refs.

  8. A proteome study of secreted prostatic factors affecting osteoblastic activity, identification and characterisation of cyclophilin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.; Jensen, O.N.; Eriksen, E.F.

    2003-01-01

    ranging from 5 to 30 kDa were analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). One of these spots was identified as cyclophilin A. We examined whether cyclophilin A alone or in combination with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) had any effects...... was to characterise the protein profile of conditioned medium (CM) from PC3 cells in the molecular weight range of 5-30 kDa using proteome analysis. A protein profile of the CM from PC3 cells was performed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Thirty protein spots with molecular weights...

  9. Identification Of Risk Factors In Sexually Transmitted Diseases : Role Of Health Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaubey D

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at STD clinic and Department of Dermatology, safdarjang hospital, New Delhi. It included 150 newly diagnosed STD cases and 150 patients with minor skin ailments who were age and sex matched. The Analysis on “multiple Logistic Regressio” package showed the following risk factors as significantly associated with acquisition of STDs in descending order of strength of association; extra-material sexual contacts, disharmonious relations with spouse, pre-marital contacts, multiple partners and exposures, homosexuality, non-usage of condoms, alcoholism, delayed sex hygiene, contact with prostitutes, severe depression, unaware about STDs and symptoms, sharing of personal items and psychological morbidity. Health education is vital to change/ modify high risk sexual behaviour and to educate people about the mode of transmission, treatment available and complications. Individual psychological assessment and psychological therapy are also essential whenever applicable.

  10. Identification of Burkholderia cenocepacia strain H111 virulence factors using nonmammalian infection hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwager, Stephan; Agnoli, Kirsty; Köthe, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia H111, a strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient, has been shown to effectively kill the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We used the C. elegans model of infection to screen a mini-Tn5 mutant library of B. cenocepacia H111 for attenuated virulence....... Of the approximately 5,500 B. cenocepacia H111 random mini-Tn5 insertion mutants that were screened, 22 showed attenuated virulence in C. elegans. Except for the quorum-sensing regulator cepR, none of the mutated genes coded for the biosynthesis of classical virulence factors such as extracellular proteases...... or siderophores. Instead, the mutants contained insertions in metabolic and regulatory genes. Mutants attenuated in virulence in the C. elegans infection model were also tested in the Drosophila melanogaster pricking model, and those also attenuated in this model were further tested in Galleria mellonella. Six...

  11. Identification and function of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang

    Full Text Available Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 is a universal and essential signaling protein in Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B. In this study, two MyD88 protein variants (LvMyD88 and LvMyD88-1 were identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. The LvMyD88 cDNA is 1,848 bp in length and contains an open reading frame (ORF of 1,428 bp, whereas the LvMyD88-1 cDNA is 1,719 bp in length and has an ORF of 1,299 bp. Both variants encode proteins with death and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains and share 91% sequence identity. In healthy L. vannamei, the LvMyD88 genes were highly expressed in hemocytes but at a low level in the hepatopancreas. The LvMyD88s expression was induced in hemocytes after challenge with lipopolysaccharide, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphyloccocus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus, but not by poly I∶C. Overexpression of LvMyD88 and LvMyD88-1 in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells led to activation of antimicrobial peptide genes and wsv069 (ie1, wsv303, and wsv371. These results suggested that LvMyD88 may play a role in antibacterial and antiviral response in L. vannamei. To our knowledge, this is the first report on MyD88 in shrimp and a variant of MyD88 gene in invertebrates.

  12. Convenience-based food purchase patterns: identification and associations with dietary quality, sociodemographic factors and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltner, Jonas; Thiele, Silke

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to derive food purchase patterns considering the convenience level of foods. Associations between identified patterns and dietary quality were analysed, as well as household characteristics associated with the dietary patterns. A Convenience Food Classification Scheme (CFCS) was developed. After classifying basic food groups into the CFCS, the formed groups were used to apply a factor analysis to identify convenience-based food purchase patterns. For these patterns nutrient and energy densities were examined. Using regression analysis, associations between the adherence to the patterns and household characteristic and attitude variables were analysed. The study used representative German food purchase data from 2011. Approximately 12 million purchases of 13 131 households were recorded in these data. Three convenience-based patterns were identified: a low-convenience, a semi-convenience and a ready-to-eat food pattern. Tighter adherence to the semi-convenience pattern was shown to result in the lowest nutrient and highest energy densities. Important factors influencing adherence to the patterns were household size, presence of children and attitudes. Working full-time was negatively associated with adherence to the low-convenience pattern and positively with the ready-to-eat pattern. Convenience foods were an important part of households' food baskets which in some cases led to lower nutritional quality. Therefore, it is important to offer convenience foods higher in nutrient density and lower in energy density. Interventions targeted on enhancing cooking skills could be an effective strategy to increase purchases of unprocessed foods, which, in turn, could also contribute to an improved diet quality.

  13. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought and depletion in north-western Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Syed Md. Touhidul; Abdollahi, Khodayar; Verbeiren, Boud; Huysmans, Marijke

    2017-08-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of hydrological drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of different climatic and anthropogenic factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of (ground) water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in north-western Bangladesh, to understand the forcing mechanisms. A multi-step methodology is proposed to achieve this objective. The standardised precipitation index (SPI) and reconnaissance drought index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere, i.e. meteorological drought. The influence of land-cover patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land cover. Groundwater drought is defined by a threshold method. The results show that the evapotranspiration and rainfall deficits are determining meteorological drought, which shows a direct relation with groundwater recharge deficits. Land-cover change has a small effect on groundwater recharge but does not seem to be the main cause of groundwater-level decline (depletion) in the study area. The groundwater depth and groundwater-level deficit (drought) is continuously increasing with little correlation to meteorological drought or recharge anomalies. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation seems to be the main cause of groundwater-level decline in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management.

  14. Identification of transcriptional factors and key genes in primary osteoporosis by DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wengui; Ji, Lixin; Zhao, Teng; Gao, Pengfei

    2015-05-09

    A number of genes have been identified to be related with primary osteoporosis while less is known about the comprehensive interactions between regulating genes and proteins. We aimed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and regulatory effects of transcription factors (TFs) involved in primary osteoporosis. The gene expression profile GSE35958 was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 5 primary osteoporosis and 4 normal bone tissues. The differentially expressed genes between primary osteoporosis and normal bone tissues were identified by the same package in R language. The TFs of these DEGs were predicted with the Essaghir A method. DAVID (The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) was applied to perform the GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs. After analyzing regulatory effects, a regulatory network was built between TFs and the related DEGs. A total of 579 DEGs was screened, including 310 up-regulated genes and 269 down-regulated genes in primary osteoporosis samples. In GO terms, more up-regulated genes were enriched in transcription regulator activity, and secondly in transcription factor activity. A total 10 significant pathways were enriched in KEGG analysis, including colorectal cancer, Wnt signaling pathway, Focal adhesion, and MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, total 7 TFs were enriched, of which CTNNB1, SP1, and TP53 regulated most up-regulated DEGs. The discovery of the enriched TFs might contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of primary osteoporosis. Further research on genes and TFs related to the WNT signaling pathway and MAPK pathway is urgent for clinical diagnosis and directing treatment of primary osteoporosis.

  15. Systematic identification of yeast cell cycle transcription factors using multiple data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wen-Hsiung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic cell cycle is a complex process and is precisely regulated at many levels. Many genes specific to the cell cycle are regulated transcriptionally and are expressed just before they are needed. To understand the cell cycle process, it is important to identify the cell cycle transcription factors (TFs that regulate the expression of cell cycle-regulated genes. Results We developed a method to identify cell cycle TFs in yeast by integrating current ChIP-chip, mutant, transcription factor binding site (TFBS, and cell cycle gene expression data. We identified 17 cell cycle TFs, 12 of which are known cell cycle TFs, while the remaining five (Ash1, Rlm1, Ste12, Stp1, Tec1 are putative novel cell cycle TFs. For each cell cycle TF, we assigned specific cell cycle phases in which the TF functions and identified the time lag for the TF to exert regulatory effects on its target genes. We also identified 178 novel cell cycle-regulated genes, among which 59 have unknown functions, but they may now be annotated as cell cycle-regulated genes. Most of our predictions are supported by previous experimental or computational studies. Furthermore, a high confidence TF-gene regulatory matrix is derived as a byproduct of our method. Each TF-gene regulatory relationship in this matrix is supported by at least three data sources: gene expression, TFBS, and ChIP-chip or/and mutant data. We show that our method performs better than four existing methods for identifying yeast cell cycle TFs. Finally, an application of our method to different cell cycle gene expression datasets suggests that our method is robust. Conclusion Our method is effective for identifying yeast cell cycle TFs and cell cycle-regulated genes. Many of our predictions are validated by the literature. Our study shows that integrating multiple data sources is a powerful approach to studying complex biological systems.

  16. Identification of the Staphylococcus aureus vfrAB operon, a novel virulence factor regulatory locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jeffrey L; Daly, Seth M; Hall, Pamela R; Bayles, Kenneth W

    2014-05-01

    During a screen of the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library, we identified 71 mutations in the Staphylococcus aureus genome that altered hemolysis on blood agar medium. Although many of these mutations disrupted genes known to affect the production of alpha-hemolysin, two of them were associated with an apparent operon, designated vfrAB, that had not been characterized previously. Interestingly, a ΔvfrB mutant exhibited only minor effects on the transcription of the hla gene, encoding alpha-hemolysin, when grown in broth, as well as on RNAIII, a posttranscriptional regulatory RNA important for alpha-hemolysin translation, suggesting that VfrB may function at the posttranscriptional level. Indeed, a ΔvfrB mutant had increased aur and sspAB protease expression under these conditions. However, disruption of the known secreted proteases in the ΔvfrB mutant did not restore hemolytic activity in the ΔvfrB mutant on blood agar. Further analysis revealed that, in contrast to the minor effects of VfrB on hla transcription when strains were cultured in liquid media, the level of hla transcription was decreased 50-fold in the absence of VfrB on solid media. These results demonstrate that while VfrB represses protease expression when strains are grown in broth, hla regulation is highly responsive to factors associated with growth on solid media. Intriguingly, the ΔvfrB mutant displayed increased pathogenesis in a model of S. aureus dermonecrosis, further highlighting the complexity of VfrB-dependent virulence regulation. The results of this study describe a phenotype associated with a class of highly conserved yet uncharacterized proteins found in Gram-positive bacteria, and they shed new light on the regulation of virulence factors necessary for S. aureus pathogenesis.

  17. Identification of factors contributing to successful self-directed weight loss: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, N; Gill, T

    2017-11-21

    Despite the number of weight management programmes and their wide promotion, most overweight and obese individuals tend to lose weight on their own. The present study aimed to understand the characteristics and strategies of those who successfully engage in self-directed weight loss, which could empower other overweight and obese individuals with information and strategies to manage their weight on their own. Men and women who had lost at least 5% of their body weight without direct interaction with professionals or weight management programmes were recruited. Demographic data were collected by questionnaire and participants' weight-loss experiences were explored using semi- structured interviews to elicit in-depth individual experiences and perspectives. Iterative thematic method data analysis was used to generate themes describing contributing factors to the success of self-directed weight loss identified by participants. Most characteristics of those who successfully self-managed their weight loss were in line with those reported by successful weight losers participating in professional-led projects. However, strategies such as early embedding of new lifestyle behaviours into daily routine, the ability to learn from previous weight-loss experiences, and not requiring social support were identified as distinctive factors that contributed to the success of self-directed weight loss by participants of the present study. Overweight or obese individuals with strong internal motivation, problem-solving skills and self-reliance are more likely to be successful at achieving self-directed weight loss. The patients identified with these characteristics could be encouraged to self-manage their weight-loss process, leaving the places available in more resource-intensive professional-led programmes to those individuals unlikely to succeed on their own. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Identification and Characterization of msf, a Novel Virulence Factor in Haemophilus influenzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Kress-Bennett

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae is an opportunistic pathogen. The emergence of virulent, non-typeable strains (NTHi emphasizes the importance of developing new interventional targets. We screened the NTHi supragenome for genes encoding surface-exposed proteins suggestive of immune evasion, identifying a large family containing Sel1-like repeats (SLRs. Clustering identified ten SLR-containing gene subfamilies, each with various numbers of SLRs per gene. Individual strains also had varying numbers of SLR-containing genes from one or more of the subfamilies. Statistical genetic analyses of gene possession among 210 NTHi strains typed as either disease or carriage found a significant association between possession of the SlrVA subfamily (which we have termed, macrophage survival factor, msf and the disease isolates. The PittII strain contains four chromosomally contiguous msf genes. Deleting all four of these genes (msfA1-4 (KO resulted in a highly significant decrease in phagocytosis and survival in macrophages; which was fully complemented by a single copy of the msfA1 gene. Using the chinchilla model of otitis media and invasive disease, the KO strain displayed a significant decrease in fitness compared to the WT in co-infections; and in single infections, the KO lost its ability to invade the brain. The singly complemented strain showed only a partial ability to compete with the WT suggesting gene dosage is important in vivo. The transcriptional profiles of the KO and WT in planktonic growth were compared using the NTHi supragenome array, which revealed highly significant changes in the expression of operons involved in virulence and anaerobiosis. These findings demonstrate that the msfA1-4 genes are virulence factors for phagocytosis, persistence, and trafficking to non-mucosal sites.

  19. Multiple Identification and Risks: Examination of Peer Factors Across Multiracial and Single-Race Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonsun; He, Michael; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Multiracial youth are thought to be more vulnerable to peer-related risk factors than are single-race youth. However, there have been surprisingly few well-designed studies on this topic. This study empirically investigated the extent to which multiracial youth are at higher risk for peer influenced problem behavior. Data are from a representative and longitudinal sample of youth from Washington State (N = 1,760, mean age = 14.13, 50.9% girls). Of those in the sample, 225 youth self-identified as multiracial (12.8%), 1,259 as White (71.5%), 152 as Latino (8.6%), and 124 as Asian American (7.1%). Results show that multiracial youth have higher rates of violence and alcohol use than Whites and more marijuana use than Asian Americans. Higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage and single-parent family status partly explained the higher rates of problem behaviors among multiracial youth. Peer risk factors of substance-using or antisocial friends were higher for multiracial youth than Whites, even after socioeconomic variables were accounted for, demonstrating a higher rate of peer risks among multiracial youth. The number of substance-using friends was the most consistently significant correlate and predictor of problems and was highest among multiracial youth. However, interaction tests did not provide consistent evidence of a stronger influence of peer risks among multiracial youth. Findings underscore the importance of a differentiated understanding of vulnerability in order to better target prevention and intervention efforts as well as the need for further research that can help identify and explain the unique experiences and vulnerabilities of multiracial youth. PMID:22395776

  20. Identification and characterization of a novel nanobody against human placental growth factor to modulate angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezumand, Roghaye; Mahdian, Reza; Zeinali, Sirous; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza; Mansouri, Kamran; Khanahmad, Hossein; Namvar-Asl, Nabiollah; Rahimi, Hamzeh; Behdani, Mahdi; Cohan, Reza Ahangari; Eavazalipour, Mehdi; Ramazani, Ali; Muyldermans, Serge

    2016-10-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) family, is considered as an important antigen associated with pathological conditions such as cancer cell growth, and metastasis. PlGF-targeting via nanobody (Nb) therefore could be beneficial to modulate these pathologies. In this work, phage-display and computational approach was employed to develop a high affinity PlGF-specific Nb. An Nb library was constructed against human recombinant PlGF (rPlGF). After panning on immobilized rPlGF the periplasmic-extract (PE) of individual colonies were screened by ELISA (PE-ELISA). The 3D structures of selected Nbs were then homology modeled and energy minimized using the AMBER force field. Binding score calculations were also assessed to reveal possible Nb-PlGF interactions. Via ELISA-based affinity/specificity determinations, the best-qualified Nb was further evaluated by proliferation, migration, 3D capillary formation, invasion assays and on Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. An immune library of 1.5×10 7 individual Nb clones was constructed. By PE-ELISA 12 clones with strong signals were selected. Three out of 12 sequenced Nbs (Nb-C13, Nb-C18 and Nb-C62) showed high binding scores ranging between -378.7 and -461kcal/mol. Compared to a control Nb, Nb-C18 significantly inhibited proliferation, migration and the 3D-capillary formation of HUVEC cells (p<0.05) with an EC 50 of 35nM, 42nM and 24nM and invasion of MDA-MB231was significantly suppressed (p<0.05) with an EC 50 of57nM. The result of the CAM assay shows that Nb-C18 could inhibit the vascular formation in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. This Nb can be used as anti-angiogenesis agent in future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High prevalence of hepatitis C infection in a Brazilian prison: identification of risk factors for infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Guimarães

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV causes infectious hepatitis worldwide. It is transmitted mainly by blood products and sharing of intravenous paraphernalia during illicit drug use. High prevalence rates have been described among specific groups considered to be at higher risk for HCV infection, including prison inmates. The objectives of this study were: to determine the HCV seroprevalence among inmates of Casa de Detenção de São Paulo; to identify risk factors for HCV infection; and to compare the seroprevalence of HCV to other blood borne or sexually transmitted diseases. From December, 1993, to January, 1994, a total of 779 inmates were interviewed to collect information on sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, and past experience with illicit drugs. Blood samples were obtained from 756 inmates for serological tests. 310 (41% blood samples were positive for anti-HCV, 425 (56.2% were negative, and 21 (2.8% showed indeterminate results. In this population, we found a seroprevalence of 13.7% for HIV, 3.3% for syphilis (VDRL, and 68.1% for hepatitis B virus previous infection. Four variables were each identified as associated with a positive anti-HCV serologic test: a positive VDRL (OR = 2.63 IC 95% 1.08 to 6.36; a time of current imprisonment longer than 130 months (OR = 2.44 IC 95% 1.04 to 5.71; previous incarceration at Casa de Detenção de São Paulo (OR = 1.73 IC 95% 1.19 to 2.52 and; illicit drug use before admission to the Casa de Detenção de São Paulo (OR = 1.64 IC 95% 1.15 to 2.33. The seroprevalence of HCV antibodies among the study population was high (41%, indeed, one of the highest clusters of HCV infection recorded until now. Four variables were each shown to be associated with HCV infection. The simultaneous presence of these 4 variables is associated with an 82% probability of being anti-HCV positive. Although risk factor analysis indicates most HCV infections occur prior to inprisonment, initiation of control measures to prevent

  2. Identification of the sources of PM10 in a subway tunnel using positive matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duckshin; Lee, Taejeong; Hwang, Doyeon; Jung, Wonseok; Lee, Yongil; Cho, KiChul; Kim, Dongsool; Lees, Kiyoung

    2014-12-01

    The level of particulate matter of less than 10 μm diameter (PM10) at subway platforms can be significantly reduced by installing a platform screen-door system. However, both workers and passengers might be exposed to higher PM10 levels while the cars are within the tunnel because it is a more confined environment. This study determined the PM10 levels in a subway tunnel, and identified the sources of PM10 using elemental analysis and receptor modeling. Forty-four PM10 samples were collected in the tunnel between the Gireum and Mia stations on Line 4 in metropolitan Seoul and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and ion chromatography. The major PM10 sources were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF). The average PM10 concentration in the tunnels was 200.8 ± 22.0 μg/m3. Elemental analysis indicated that the PM10 consisted of 40.4% inorganic species, 9.1% anions, 4.9% cations, and 45.6% other materials. Iron was the most abundant element, with an average concentration of 72.5 ± 10.4 μg/m3. The PM10 sources characterized by PMF included rail, wheel, and brake wear (59.6%), soil combustion (17.0%), secondary aerosols (10.0%), electric cable wear (8.1%), and soil and road dust (5.4%). Internal sources comprising rail, wheel, brake, and electric cable wear made the greatest contribution to the PM10 (67.7%) in tunnel air. Implications: With installation of a platform screen door, PM10 levels in subway tunnels were higher than those on platforms. Tunnel PM10 levels exceeded 150 µg/m3 of the Korean standard for subway platform. Elemental analysis of PM10 in a tunnel showed that Fe was the most abundant element. Five PM10 sources in tunnel were identified by positive matrix factorization. Railroad-related sources contributed 68% of PM10 in the subway tunnel.

  3. The Language Environments of Exchange Students at some Scandinavian Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    Language Environments of Exchange Students at Scandinavian Universities One aspect of, and one reason for, the internationalisation of Scandinavian universities is the increasing number of exchange students and postgraduates from outside Scandinavia attending courses here. Few of these students...... are primarily motivated by a desire to learn the local language. In fact it is widely believed that many of them live in a lingua-franca English-speaking environment, so that Erasmus contributes to linguistic homogenisation rather than plurilingualism. This paper reports results of an ongoing study...... of the language environment and language learning experiences of some hundred (so far) Erasmus exchange students in two institutions in Sweden and two in Denmark. Subjects had French, German and Spanish as mother tongues. This design is intended to enable the identification of language/culturespecific factors...

  4. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor αPIX leads to activation of the Rac 1 GTPase/glycogen phosphorylase pathway in interleukin (IL)-2-stimulated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llavero, Francisco; Urzelai, Bakarne; Osinalde, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have reported that the active form of Rac 1 GTPase binds to the glycogen phosphorylase muscle isoform (PYGM) and modulates its enzymatic activity leading to T cell proliferation. In the lymphoid system, Rac 1 and in general other small GTPases of the Rho family participate...... in the signaling cascades that are activated after engagement of the T cell antigen receptor. However, little is known about the IL-2-dependent Rac 1 activator molecules. For the first time, a signaling pathway leading to the activation of Rac 1/PYGM in response to IL-2-stimulated T cell proliferation is described....... More specifically, αPIX, a known guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPases of the Rho family, preferentially Rac 1, mediates PYGM activation in Kit 225 T cells stimulated with IL-2. Using directed mutagenesis, phosphorylation of αPIX Rho-GEF serines 225 and 488 is required for activation...

  5. USE OF STRONG ACID RESIN PUROLITE C100E FOR REMOVING PERMANENT HARDNESS OF WATER – FACTORS AFFECTING CATIONIC EXCHANGE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN BANDRABUR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper experimentally investigates the performance and capacity of Purolite C100E commercial resin recommended for water softening applications in the food industry. The practical ion exchange capacity and the softening process efficiency are studied in batch mode as a function of the sorption specific process factors. Optimum operation conditions were determined as initial pH 7.1, resin dose 8 g dry resin•L-1, temperature 25 oC, contact time of 360 min, and in those conditions the retention capacity for the Ca2+ ions is 17.18 mg•g-1 that corresponds to a removal efficiency equal to 85.7%.

  6. p55-hGRF, a short natural form of the Ras-GDP exchange factor high yield production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, P; Janin, J; Baudet-Nessler, S

    1999-08-01

    p55-hGRF, a natural short form of the guanine-nucleotide-releasing factor for p21-Ras from human brain, was expressed at high level in Escherichia coli as well as an engineered truncated form, p39-hGRF. A T7 polymerase expression system was used, resulting in the formation of insoluble cytoplasmic protein aggregates. The recombinant products were resolubilized, renatured and purified to homogeneity. The exchange activity of the refolded hGRF samples on H-Ras was comparable with that published for the soluble catalytic domain of the mouse counterpart, CDC25 Mm. Both p55-hGRF and p39-hGRF form dimers. We established a procedure to prepare and purify the complex with Ras. The results of the characterization study are consistent with a stoichiometry of 1:1 and an equilibrium between dimeric and monomeric forms of the complex.

  7. Parathyroid hormone inhibition of Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger 3 transcription: Intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factor expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Elida Adalgisa; Bezerra, Camila Nogueira Alves, E-mail: camilab@icb.usp.br; Queiroz-Leite, Gabriella Duarte; Polidoro, Juliano Zequini; Rebouças, Nancy Amaral

    2015-06-12

    The main transport mechanism of reabsorption of sodium bicarbonate and fluid in the renal proximal tubules involves Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger 3 (NHE3), which is acutely and chronically downregulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Although PTH is known to exert an inhibitory effect on NHE3 expression and transcription, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that, in opossum kidney proximal tubule (OKP) cells, PTH-induced inhibition of Nhe3 gene promoter occurs even in the core promoter that controls expression of the reporter gene. We found that inhibition of the protein kinase A (PKA) and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways transformed PTH from an inhibitor of promoter activity into an activator of that same activity, as did point mutations in the EGR1, Sp1, and Sp3 binding consensus elements in the promoter. In nuclear extracts of PTH-treated OKP cells, we also observed increased expression of EGR1 mRNA and of some Sp3 isoforms. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed a supershift of the −61 to −42-bp probe with an anti-EGR1 antibody in PTH-treated cells, suggesting that EGR1 binding is relevant for the inhibitory activity of PTH. We conclude that PTH-induced inhibition of NHE3 transcription is related to higher EGR1 expression; to EGR1 binding to the proximal and core promoters; and to PKA and JAK/STAT pathway activation. This mechanism might be responsible, at least in part, for lower NHE3 expression and sodium reabsorption in renal proximal tubules in the presence of high PTH levels. - Highlights: • PTH regulation of Nhe3 promoter depends on EGR1 binding. • EGR1, PKA and JAK/STAT are involved in PTH inhibition of the Nhe3 promoter. • PTH alters expression of EGR1 and Sp3. • PTH inhibits the Nhe3 promoter by regulating PKA and JAK/STAT signaling.

  8. Factors affecting spatial and temporal variability in material exchange between the Southern Everglades wetlands and Florida Bay (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutula, Martha A.; Perez, Brian C.; Reyes, Enrique; Childers, Daniel L.; Davis, Steve; Day, John W.; Rudnick, David; Sklar, Fred

    2003-08-01

    Physical and biological processes controlling spatial and temporal variations in material concentration and exchange between the Southern Everglades wetlands and Florida Bay were studied for 2.5 years in three of the five major creek systems draining the watershed. Daily total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) fluxes were measured for 2 years in Taylor River, and ten 10-day intensive studies were conducted in this creek to estimate the seasonal flux of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), total organic carbon (TOC), and suspended matter. Four 10-day studies were conducted simultaneously in Taylor, McCormick, and Trout Creeks to study the spatial variation in concentration and flux. The annual fluxes of TOC, TN, and TP from the Southern Everglades were estimated from regression equations. The Southern Everglades watershed, a 460-km 2 area that includes Taylor Slough and the area south of the C-111 canal, exported 7.1 g C m -2, 0.46 g N m -2, and 0.007 g P m -2, annually. Everglades P flux is three to four orders of magnitude lower than published flux estimates from wetlands influenced by terrigenous sedimentary inputs. These low P flux values reflect both the inherently low P content of Everglades surface water and the efficiency of Everglades carbonate sediments and biota in conserving and recycling this limiting nutrient. The seasonal variation of freshwater input to the watershed was responsible for major temporal variations in N, P, and C export to Florida Bay; approximately 99% of the export occurred during the rainy season. Wind-driven forcing was most important during the later stages of the dry season when low freshwater head coincided with southerly winds, resulting in a net import of water and materials into the wetlands. We also observed an east to west decrease in TN:TP ratio from 212:1 to 127:1. Major spatial gradients in N:P ratios and nutrient concentration and flux among the creek were consistent with the westward decrease in

  9. Identification and Evaluation of Human Factors Issues Associated with Emerging Nuclear Plant Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Brown, William S.

    2009-01-01

    This study has identified human performance research issues associated with the implementation of new technology in nuclear power plants (NPPs). To identify the research issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were prioritized into four categories based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts representing vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. The study also identifies the priority of each issue and the rationale for those in the top priority category. The top priority issues were then organized into research program areas of: New Concepts of Operation using Multi-agent Teams, Human-system Interface Design, Complexity Issues in Advanced Systems, Operating Experience of New and Modernized Plants, and HFE Methods and Tools. The results can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas to support the safe operation of new NPPs.

  10. Identification of the Drosophila Mes4 gene as a novel target of the transcription factor DREF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyari, Osamu; Ida, Hiroyuki [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuhide; Kato, Yasuko; Hashimoto, Reina [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Venture Laboratory, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masamitsu, E-mail: myamaguc@kit.ac.jp [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2009-05-01

    The Mes4 gene has been identified as one of the maternal Dorsal target genes in Drosophila. In the present study, we found a DNA replication-related element (DRE, 5'-TATCGATA) in the Mes4 promoter recognized by the DRE-binding factor (DREF). Luciferase transient expression assays in S2 cells using Mes4 promoter-luciferase fusion plasmids revealed that the DRE sequence is essential for Mes4 promoter activity. Requirement of DRE for Mes4 promoter activity was further confirmed by anti-{beta}-galactosidase antibody-staining of various tissues from transgenic flies carrying Mes4 promoter-lacZ fusion genes. Furthermore, wild type Mes4 promoter activity was decreased by 40% in DREF-depleted S2 cells. These results indicate that DREF positively regulates Mes4 gene expression. Band mobility shift analyses using Kc cell nuclear extracts further indicated that the DRE sequence in the Mes4 promoter is especially important for binding to DREF. Moreover, specific binding of DREF to the involved genomic region could be demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using anti-DREF antibodies. These results, taken together, indicate that the DRE/DREF system activates transcription of the Mes4 gene. In addition, knockdown of the Mes4 gene in wing imaginal discs using the GAL4-UAS system caused an atrophied wing phenotype, suggesting that Mes4 is required for wing morphogenesis.

  11. Identification and expression analyses of MYB and WRKY transcription factor genes in Papaver somniferum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeshpour, Tayebeh; Nayebi, Shadi; Rashidi Monfared, Sajad; Moieni, Ahmad; Karimzadeh, Ghasem

    2015-10-01

    Papaver somniferum L. is an herbaceous, annual and diploid plant that is important from pharmacological and strategic point of view. The cDNA clones of two putative MYB and WRKY genes were isolated (GeneBank accession numbers KP411870 and KP203854, respectively) from this plant, via the nested-PCR method, and characterized. The MYB transcription factor (TF) comprises 342 amino acids, and exhibits the structural features of the R2R3MYB protein family. The WRKY TF, a 326 amino acid-long polypeptide, falls structurally into the group II of WRKY protein family. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses indicate the presence of these TFs in all organs of P. somniferum L. and Papaver bracteatum L. Highest expression levels of these two TFs were observed in the leaf tissues of P. somniferum L. while in P. bracteatum L. the espression levels were highest in the root tissues. Promoter analysis of the 10 co-expressed gene clustered involved in noscapine biosynthesis pathway in P. somniferum L. suggested that not only these 10 genes are co-expressed, but also share common regulatory motifs and TFs including MYB and WRKY TFs, and that may explain their common regulation.

  12. Genome-wide identification of the potato WRKY transcription factor family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Dongdong; Yang, Chenghui; Kong, Nana; Shi, Zheng; Zhao, Peng; Nan, Yunyou; Nie, Tengkun; Wang, Ruoqiu; Ma, Haoli; Chen, Qin

    2017-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play pivotal roles in regulation of stress responses. This study identified 79 WRKY genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Based on multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic relationships, WRKY genes were classified into three major groups. The majority of WRKY genes belonged to Group II (52 StWRKYs), Group III had 14 and Group I consisted of 13. The phylogenetic tree further classified Group II into five sub-groups. All StWRKY genes except StWRKY79 were mapped on potato chromosomes, with eight tandem duplication gene pairs and seven segmental duplication gene pairs found from StWRKY family genes. The expression analysis of 22 StWRKYs showed their differential expression levels under various stress conditions. Cis-element prediction showed that a large number of elements related to drought, heat and salicylic acid were present in the promotor regions of StWRKY genes. The expression analysis indicated that seven StWRKYs seemed to respond to stress (heat, drought and salinity) and salicylic acid treatment. These genes are candidates for abiotic stress signaling for further research.

  13. An investigation for identification of factors governing F and P phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, M.K.S.; Saini, R.D.; Kutty, K.K.; Das, D.

    1992-01-01

    A series of experiments were carried out in divided electrolytic cells in an attempt to identify factors governing the occurence of Fleischmann and Pons (F and P) phenomenon. Despite wide variation in operating parameters (cathode characteristics, type and concentration of electrolyte) and perturbation of deuterated cathodes and sharp change in their temperatures, experiments yielded no evidence of the phenomenon even though high loading (sometimes upto D/Pd ∼2) could be achieved repeatedely. However, large excess heat liberation, not accountable by probable physicochemical processes, was observed following perturbation of the state of equilibrium of a deuterated cathode (having a portion of it free of scale and bright in appearance) by air. Instances of anomalies in tritium distribution between gas and liquid phase resulting from such perturbation were also noticed. These observations, when analysed in global perspective, clearly indicate the essentiality of oxygen and scale free surface for occurrence of the phenomenon. Study of desorption dynamics and related parameters revealed that the overall effect of oxygen is to enhance the escaping tendency of deuterium from Pd lattice and that the phenomenon is in someway related to desorption. Significant increase in tritium activity in gas phase observed following repeated perturbation of deuterated cathode by induced pulsed magnetic field is suggestive of a possible mechanism in which strong electron affinity of oxygen is of paramount importance. (author). 53 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs., 4 appendixes

  14. Identification of risk factors for plague in the West Nile Region of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca J; MacMillan, Katherine; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Graham, Christine B; Boegler, Karen A; Enscore, Russell E; Gage, Kenneth L

    2014-06-01

    Plague is an often fatal, primarily flea-borne rodent-associated zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis. We sought to identify risk factors for plague by comparing villages with and without a history of human plague cases within a model-defined plague focus in the West Nile Region of Uganda. Although rat (Rattus rattus) abundance was similar inside huts within case and control villages, contact rates between rats and humans (as measured by reported rat bites) and host-seeking flea loads were higher in case villages. In addition, compared with persons in control villages, persons in case villages more often reported sleeping on reed or straw mats, storing food in huts where persons sleep, owning dogs and allowing them into huts where persons sleep, storing garbage inside or near huts, and cooking in huts where persons sleep. Compared with persons in case villages, persons in control villages more commonly reported replacing thatch roofing, and growing coffee, tomatoes, onions, and melons in agricultural plots adjacent to their homesteads. Rodent and flea control practices, knowledge of plague, distance to clinics, and most care-seeking practices were similar between persons in case villages and persons in control villages. Our findings reinforce existing plague prevention recommendations and point to potentially advantageous local interventions. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Identification of the Drosophila Mes4 gene as a novel target of the transcription factor DREF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyari, Osamu; Ida, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Yasuhide; Kato, Yasuko; Hashimoto, Reina; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2009-01-01

    The Mes4 gene has been identified as one of the maternal Dorsal target genes in Drosophila. In the present study, we found a DNA replication-related element (DRE, 5'-TATCGATA) in the Mes4 promoter recognized by the DRE-binding factor (DREF). Luciferase transient expression assays in S2 cells using Mes4 promoter-luciferase fusion plasmids revealed that the DRE sequence is essential for Mes4 promoter activity. Requirement of DRE for Mes4 promoter activity was further confirmed by anti-β-galactosidase antibody-staining of various tissues from transgenic flies carrying Mes4 promoter-lacZ fusion genes. Furthermore, wild type Mes4 promoter activity was decreased by 40% in DREF-depleted S2 cells. These results indicate that DREF positively regulates Mes4 gene expression. Band mobility shift analyses using Kc cell nuclear extracts further indicated that the DRE sequence in the Mes4 promoter is especially important for binding to DREF. Moreover, specific binding of DREF to the involved genomic region could be demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using anti-DREF antibodies. These results, taken together, indicate that the DRE/DREF system activates transcription of the Mes4 gene. In addition, knockdown of the Mes4 gene in wing imaginal discs using the GAL4-UAS system caused an atrophied wing phenotype, suggesting that Mes4 is required for wing morphogenesis.

  16. Identification of vital and dispensable sulfur utilization factors in the Plasmodium apicoplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana M Haussig

    Full Text Available Iron-sulfur [Fe-S] clusters are ubiquitous and critical cofactors in diverse biochemical processes. They are assembled by distinct [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis pathways, typically in organelles of endosymbiotic origin. Apicomplexan parasites, including Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, harbor two separate [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis pathways in the their mitochondrion and apicoplast. In this study, we systematically targeted the five nuclear-encoded sulfur utilization factors (SUF of the apicoplast [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis pathway by experimental genetics in the murine malaria model parasite Plasmodium berghei. We show that four SUFs, namely SUFC, D, E, and S are refractory to targeted gene deletion, validating them as potential targets for antimalarial drug development. We achieved targeted deletion of SUFA, which encodes a potential [Fe-S] transfer protein, indicative of a dispensable role during asexual blood stage growth in vivo. Furthermore, no abnormalities were observed during Plasmodium life cycle progression in the insect and mammalian hosts. Fusion of a fluorescent tag to the endogenous P. berghei SUFs demonstrated that all loci were accessible to genetic modification and that all five tagged SUFs localize to the apicoplast. Together, our experimental genetics analysis identifies the key components of the SUF [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis pathway in the apicoplast of a malarial parasite and shows that absence of SUFC, D, E, or S is incompatible with Plasmodium blood infection in vivo.

  17. Decommissioning: Regulatory activities and identification of key organizational and human factors safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, N.E.; Melber, B.D.; Lekberg, A.

    2001-12-01

    In the late 1990's the Swedish government decided to shut down Unit 1 of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant. This report documents some of the efforts made by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) to address human factors and organizational issues in nuclear safety during decommissioning of a nuclear facility. This report gives a brief review of the background to the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1 and points out key safety issues that can arise during decommissioning. The main regulatory activities that were undertaken were requirements that the plant provide special safety reports on decommissioning focusing on first, the operation of both units until closure of Unit 1 and second, the operation of Unit 2 when Unit 1 was closed. In addition, SKI identified areas that might be affected by decommissioning and called these areas out for special attention. With regard to these areas of special attention, SKI required that the plant provide monthly reports on changing and emerging issues as well as self-assessments of the areas to be addressed in the special safety reports. Ten key safety issues were identified and evaluated with regard to different stages of decommissioning and with regard to the actions taken by Barsebaeck. Some key conclusions from SKI's experience in regulating a decommissioning nuclear power plant conclude the report

  18. Identification of a second putative receptor of platelet activating factor on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Due to multiple molecular species of platelet activating factor (PAF) and the existence of high affinity binding sites in a variety of cells and tissues, possible existence of PAF receptor subtypes has been suggested. This report shows differences between specific PAF receptors on human leukocytes and platelets. Human PMN leukocyte membranes showed high affinity binding sites for PAF with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 4.7 (+/- 1.4) x 10 -10 M. The maximal number (B/sub max/) of receptor sites was estimated to be 3.13 (+/- 1.4) x 10 -13 mol/mg protein. They compared the relative potencies of several PAF agonists and receptor antagonists between human platelet and human leukocyte membranes. One antagonist (Ono-6240) was found to be 8 times less potent at inhibiting the [ 3 H]PAF specific receptor binding to human leukocytes than to human platelets. Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and K + ions potentiated the [ 3 H]PAF specific binding in both systems. Na + ions inhibited the [ 3 H]PAF specific binding to human platelets but showed no effects in human leukocytes. K + ions decreased the Mg 2+ -potentiated [ 3 H]PAF binding in human leukocytes but showed no effects in human platelets. These results suggest that the PAF specific receptors in human leukocytes are different structurally and possibly functionally from the receptors identified in human platelets

  19. Identification of target genes of transcription factor activator protein 2 gamma in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ailan, He; Shuanglin, Xiang; Xiangwen, Xiao; Daolong, Ren; Lu, Gan; Xiaofeng, Ding; Xi, Qiao; Xingwang, Hu; Rushi, Liu; Jian, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Activator protein 2 gamma (AP-2γ) is a member of the transcription factor activator protein-2 (AP-2) family, which is developmentally regulated and plays a role in human neoplasia. AP-2γ has been found to be overexpressed in most breast cancers, and have a dual role to inhibit tumor initiation and promote tumor progression afterwards during mammary tumorigensis. To identify the gene targets that mediate its effects, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to isolate AP-2γ binding sites on genomic DNA from human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-453. 20 novel DNA fragments proximal to potential AP-2γ targets were obtained. They are categorized into functional groups of carcinogenesis, metabolism and others. A combination of sequence analysis, reporter gene assays, quantitative real-time PCR, electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays and immunoblot analysis further confirmed the four AP-2γ target genes in carcinogenesis group: ErbB2, CDH2, HPSE and IGSF11. Our results were consistent with the previous reports that ErbB2 was the target gene of AP-2γ. Decreased expression and overexpression of AP-2γ in human breast cancer cells significantly altered the expression of these four genes, indicating that AP-2γ directly regulates them. This suggested that AP-2γ can coordinate the expression of a network of genes, involving in carcinogenesis, especially in breast cancer. They could serve as therapeutic targets against breast cancers in the future

  20. Identification of upstream transcription factors (TFs) for expression signature genes in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Hongyan; Li, Ning; Pan, Yuling; Hao, Jingguang

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is a common malignancy among women with a rising incidence. Our intention was to detect transcription factors (TFs) for deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of breast cancer. Integrated analysis of gene expression datasets of breast cancer was performed. Then, functional annotation of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was conducted, including Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment. Furthermore, TFs were identified and a global transcriptional regulatory network was constructed. Seven publically available GEO datasets were obtained, and a set of 1196 DEGs were identified (460 up-regulated and 736 down-regulated). Functional annotation results showed that cell cycle was the most significantly enriched pathway, which was consistent with the fact that cell cycle is closely related to various tumors. Fifty-three differentially expressed TFs were identified, and the regulatory networks consisted of 817 TF-target interactions between 46 TFs and 602 DEGs in the context of breast cancer. Top 10 TFs covering the most downstream DEGs were SOX10, NFATC2, ZNF354C, ARID3A, BRCA1, FOXO3, GATA3, ZEB1, HOXA5 and EGR1. The transcriptional regulatory networks could enable a better understanding of regulatory mechanisms of breast cancer pathology and provide an opportunity for the development of potential therapy.

  1. Identification and comparative analysis of factors influencing road safety in US regions and in Polish voivodeships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna WACHNICKA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of road safety at national level have been run for many years and large number of publications concerning them appeared so far. How interdisciplinary the issue is, has been shown by literature studies done by the author of the paper. It appears that economists, mathematicians, doctors as well as engineers have studied the issue. It is not an easy one, as results of many analyses lead to conflicting conclusions and often fail to provide straightforward answers to questions asked. The administrative actions taken to improve road safety, uniform for the whole country, frequently fail to give expected results, including Poland’s case. Therefore there is a need to analyse what makes some provinces, and not the others, report improvement in road safety. This paper presents part of the work on author’s doctoral thesis, which analyses how regional characteristics may impact road safety in respective regions. However, during collection of data for the purpose of the doctoral thesis it turned out that many variables mentioned in literature as significant had not been collected on regional level in Europe, including Poland. There are, though, available data on respective American states, so the search for the best describing independent variables started from the analyses of US data. The analyses showed the impact of factors such as annual income per capita, transport activity, density of population, seatbelt rates, road and vehicle density, rate of doctors.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF FACTORS AFFECTING LEAN MANUFACTURING IMPLEMENTATION IN PUMP MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN INDIA - A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Badgujar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lean Manufacturing has now become a common word in the industrial corridors. It has now been applied to the industries of several domains. No wonder that the Pump manufacturing has also witnessed profound influence of Lean philosophy. Pump manufacturing in India has a history as old as 80 years with more than 500 pump manufacturing units presently working. The present research is an explorative study and was undertaken to identify various factors affecting lean manufacturing implementation in pump manufacturing industry. Analysis of results revealed that the companies registered increase in productivity and reduction in costs and wastes. Lack of understanding, Supply chain and Company culture are found to be the strongest barriers of lean manufacturing implementation. The multiple regression model revealed that Lack of workers support can be fairly reduced by educating them about Lean Manufacturing and establishing a healthy communication with workers. An analysis across different management levels revealed disparity in perceptions and views of personnel. There is a need for top management to align organization toward common goals so as to achieve better success in implementing lean manufacturing.

  3. Identification of anthranilamide derivatives as potential factor Xa inhibitors: drug design, synthesis and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Junhao; Yang, Lingyun; Li, Hui; Li, Qing; Zhao, Leilei; Wang, Xinning; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Muxing; Zhou, Jinpei; Zhang, Huibin

    2015-05-05

    The coagulation enzyme factor Xa (fXa) plays a crucial role in the blood coagulation cascade. In this study, three-dimensional fragment based drug design (FBDD) combined with structure-based pharmacophore (SBP) model and structural consensus docking were employed to identify novel fXa inhibitors. After a multi-stage virtual screening (VS) workflow, two hit compounds 3780 and 319 having persistent high performance were identified. Then, these two hit compounds and several analogs were synthesized and screened for in-vitro inhibition of fXa. The experimental data showed that most of the designed compounds displayed significant in vitro potency against fXa. Among them, compound 9b displayed the greatest in vitro potency against fXa with the IC50 value of 23 nM and excellent selectivity versus thrombin (IC50 = 40 μM). Moreover, the prolongation of the prothrombin time (PT) was measured for compound 9b to evaluate its in vitro anticoagulant activity. As a result, compound 9b exhibited pronounced anticoagulant activity with the 2 × PT value of 8.7 μM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of risk factors and perspectives of adolescents regarding pregnancy, sexuality and contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Carrillo Soto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Describe the risk factors and perspectives of adolescents regarding pregnancy, sexuality and contraception at the Hospital General de Jerez, Zacatecas. Material and methods. Transversal, observational and descriptive study. The population consisted of 137 teenagers or young mothers with a history of pregnancy who attended a consultation in the General Hospital of Jerez and who were between 14 and 22 years old. Results. The average age of the 137 adolescents surveyed was 19.8 ± 1.9 years. 56.2% were single, 68.5% have primary and/or secondary, 75.9% of them depended economically on their father before getting pregnant and currently only 34.3% of them Conclusion. The information regarding the risks of pregnancy in adolescents presented in this document is insufficient. It is necessary to reinforce in schools, community health centers, hospitals, neighborhoods and homes, preventive education to avoid pregnancy at an early age and that this brings consequences for the adolescent mother, the child and her family.

  5. Identification and Expression Profiling of the Auxin Response Factors in Dendrobium officinale under Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhehao; Yuan, Ye; Fu, Di; Shen, Chenjia; Yang, Yanjun

    2017-05-04

    Auxin response factor (ARF) proteins play roles in plant responses to diverse environmental stresses by binding specifically to the auxin response element in the promoters of target genes. Using our latest public Dendrobium transcriptomes, a comprehensive characterization and analysis of 14 DnARF genes were performed. Three selected DnARFs , including DnARF1 , DnARF4 , and DnARF6 , were confirmed to be nuclear proteins according to their transient expression in epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Furthermore, the transcription activation abilities of DnARF1 , DnARF4 , and DnARF6 were tested in a yeast system. Our data showed that DnARF6 is a transcriptional activator in Dendrobium officinale . To uncover the basic information of DnARF gene responses to abiotic stresses, we analyzed their expression patterns under various hormones and abiotic treatments. Based on our data, several hormones and significant stress responsive DnARF genes have been identified. Since auxin and ARF genes have been identified in many plant species, our data is imperative to reveal the function of ARF mediated auxin signaling in the adaptation to the challenging Dendrobium environment.

  6. Kinematics and kinetics of gait on stilts: identification of risk factors associated with construction stilt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Sharon S; Pan, Christopher S; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated kinematics and kinetic strategies and identified risk factors associated with gait on stilts. A six-camera motion-analysis system and two force platforms were used to test 20 construction workers for straight walking or turning, with or without carrying tools while wearing safety shoes or stilts at different heights. The results indicated that gait on stilts is characterised by increases in stride length, step width and the percentage of double support period, decreases in cadence, minimum foot clearance and a weaker heel-strike and push-off. Stilts place greater joint loadings on lower extremities to compensate for the added weight and limitation in joint mobility. Smaller foot clearances found for gait on stilts constitute an increased risk for tripping over obstacles. Workers may need to avoid prolonged use of stilts to alleviate stresses on the joints. This study was conducted to determine to what extent stilts alter the gait strategies and to explain the compensatory movements. Prior to this study, there has been little substantive research to evaluate the stresses and potential injuries associated with stilts.

  7. Nitrous oxide exchanges with the atmosphere of a constructed wetland treating wastewater. Parameters and implications for emission factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, A.E.; Svenssom, B.H. [Linkoeing Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Water and Environmental Studies; Kasimir Klemedtsson, Aa. [Trollhaettan/Uddevalla Univ. College, Trollhaettan (Sweden). Dept. of Informatics and Mathematics; Klemedtsson, L. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Botanical Inst.

    2003-07-01

    Static chamber measurements of N{sub 2}O fluxes were taken during the 1998 and 1999 growth seasons in a Swedish constructed wetland receiving wastewater. The dominating plant species in different parts of the wetland were Lemna minor L., Typha latifolia L., Spirogyra sp. and Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) and Phalaris arundinacea (L.), respectively. There were large temporal and spatial variations in N{sub 2}O fluxes, which ranged from consumption at -350 to emissions at 1791 {mu}g N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2}/h. The largest positive flux occurred in October 1999 and the lowest in the middle of July 1999. The average N{sub 2}O flux for the two years was 130 {mu}g N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2}/h (SD = 220). No significant differences in N{sub 2}O fluxes were found between the years, even though the two growing seasons differed considerably with respect to both air temperature and precipitation. 15% of the fluxes were negative, showing a consumption of N{sub 2}O. Consumption occurred on a few occasions at most measurement sites and ranged from 1 - 350 {mu}g N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2}/h. 13 - 43% of the variation in N{sub 2}O fluxes was explained by multiple linear regression analysis including principal components. Emission factors were calculated according to IPCC methods from the N{sub 2}O fluxes in the constructed wetland. The calculated emission factors were always lower (0.02 - 0.27%) compared to the default factor provided by the IPCC (0.75%). Thus, direct application of the IPCC default factor may lead to overestimation of N{sub 2}O fluxes from constructed wastewater-treating wetlands.

  8. Nitrous oxide exchanges with the atmosphere of a constructed wetland treating wastewater. Parameters and implications for emission factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, A.E.; Svenssom, B.H.; Kasimir Klemedtsson, Aa.; Klemedtsson, L.

    2003-01-01

    Static chamber measurements of N 2 O fluxes were taken during the 1998 and 1999 growth seasons in a Swedish constructed wetland receiving wastewater. The dominating plant species in different parts of the wetland were Lemna minor L., Typha latifolia L., Spirogyra sp. and Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) and Phalaris arundinacea (L.), respectively. There were large temporal and spatial variations in N 2 O fluxes, which ranged from consumption at -350 to emissions at 1791 μg N 2 O/m 2 /h. The largest positive flux occurred in October 1999 and the lowest in the middle of July 1999. The average N 2 O flux for the two years was 130 μg N 2 O/m 2 /h (SD = 220). No significant differences in N 2 O fluxes were found between the years, even though the two growing seasons differed considerably with respect to both air temperature and precipitation. 15% of the fluxes were negative, showing a consumption of N 2 O. Consumption occurred on a few occasions at most measurement sites and ranged from 1 - 350 μg N 2 O/m 2 /h. 13 - 43% of the variation in N 2 O fluxes was explained by multiple linear regression analysis including principal components. Emission factors were calculated according to IPCC methods from the N 2 O fluxes in the constructed wetland. The calculated emission factors were always lower (0.02 - 0.27%) compared to the default factor provided by the IPCC (0.75%). Thus, direct application of the IPCC default factor may lead to overestimation of N 2 O fluxes from constructed wastewater-treating wetlands

  9. Transcriptome-wide identification and screening of WRKY factors involved in the regulation of taxol biosynthesis in Taxus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Chen, Ying; Nie, Lin; Jin, Xiaofei; Liao, Weifang; Zhao, Shengying; Fu, Chunhua; Yu, Longjiang

    2018-03-26

    WRKY, a plant-specific transcription factor family, plays important roles in pathogen defense, abiotic cues, phytohormone signaling, and regulation of plant secondary metabolism. However, little is known about the roles, functions, and mechanisms of WRKY in taxane biosynthesis in Taxus spp. In this study, 61 transcripts were identified from Taxus chinensis transcriptome datasets by using hidden Markov model search. All of these transcripts encoded proteins containing WRKY domains, which were designated as TcWRKY1-61. After phylogenetic analysis of the WRKY domains of TcWRKYs and AtWRKYs, 16, 8, 10, 14, 5, 7, and 1 TcWRKYs were cladded into Group I, IIa-IIe, and III, respectively. Then, six representative TcWRKYs were selected to classify their effects on taxol biosynthesis. After MeJA (methyl jasmonate acid) and SA (salicylic acid) treatments, all of the six TcWRKYs were upregulated by MeJA treatment. TcWRKY44 (IId) and TcWRKY47 (IIa) were upregulated, whereas TcWRKY8 (IIc), TcWRKY20 (III), TcWRKY26 (I), TcWRKY41 (IIe), and TcWRKY52 (IIb) were downregulated by SA treatment. Overexpression experiments showed that the six selected TcWRKYs exerted different effects on taxol biosynthesis. In specific, TcWRKY8 and TcWRKY47 significantly improved the expression levels of taxol-biosynthesis-related genes. Transcriptome-wide identification of WRKY factors in Taxus not only enhances our understanding of plant WRKY factors but also identifies candidate regulators of taxol biosynthesis.

  10. Identification of diacetonamine from soybean curd residue as a sporulation-inducing factor toward Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Aki; Kim, Dongyeop; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2017-12-01

    Under bioassay-guided investigation, a sporulation-inducing factor (SIF) toward Bacillus spp. was searched for in methanol (MeOH) extracts of soybean curd residues, and diacetonamine (1) was identified as the active compound. SIF was first isolated as a monoacetylated derivative (2, 4.1 mg from 655 g soybean curd residues), and its chemical structure was elucidated by field desorption mass spectrometry, electron ionization mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. After 48-h incubation, 40 µM diacetonamine hydrochloride (1b) exhibited sporulation-inducing activity with 35% sporulation frequency toward a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens wild-type strain (AHU 2170), whereas 40 µM diacetone acrylamide (3) showed 99% sporulation induction, which was much higher than that of 1b. Although Bacillus megaterium NBRC 15308 was sporulated by the treatment with 400 µM 1b with 36 and 70% sporulation frequency after 72- and 96-h incubation respectively, 3 at the same concentration showed only 2% sporulation after 72-h incubation. Hence, diacetonamine (1) was characterized as a genuine SIF from soybean curd residues, but it was uncertain whether 1 is a natural product or an artifact. Spores of B. amyloliquefaciens induced by 1b survived after treatment with heating at 95 °C for 10 min, also suggesting that 1 is genuine SIF in soybean curd residue. As sporulation induction is likely linked to activation of antibiotic production in some spore-forming Firmicutes bacteria, compound 1 would be a possible chemical tool to develop an effective fermentation technology in Bacillus species.

  11. Source identification, geochemical normalization and influence factors of heavy metals in Yangtze River Estuary sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xueshi; Fan, Dejiang; Liu, Ming; Tian, Yuan; Pang, Yue; Liao, Huijie

    2018-06-18

    Sediment samples, including 40 surface samples and 12 sediment cores, were collected from 52 stations of the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) in 2015 and 2016. The 95% linear prediction intervals (LPI) and principal components analysis (PCA), were conducted to evaluate the metal sources and grain-size effect (GSE). The in situ physico-chemical properties of pH, Eh, DO, salinity, temperature and turbidity were combined to elucidate the relationships between environmental factors and the fate of heavy metals in the river-estuary-shelf system. This study indicates a decreasing trend of metals in sediments from the estuary towards the adjacent shelf and the river channel and that Zn, Cu and Cr are mainly derived from natural processes throughout the catchment, whereas Pb appears to have anthropogenic inputs via atmospheric deposition. Furthermore, considering the best fit regression lines between the concentrations of Al and heavy metals as well as the deficiencies of the conventional C elements /C Al method, we introduce an approach (Al-SN: Al-scope normalization) that can eliminate the GSE on heavy metals and be applied to other estuaries. After Al-scope normalization, the relatively constant levels of Zn, Cu and Cr that remain in sediments from the river channel to the estuary and shelf confirmed that the variation of grain size in sediments almost entirely explained the distribution patterns of sediment toxicity in the YRE, while the enrichment of Pb in estuarine sediments could be attributed to its chemical species and physico-chemical properties. The results further suggest that the relationship between grain size and spatial behavior of sediment pollutants should be given priority over the contamination assessment and provenance discrimination in estuarine or similar environments with complex sediment compositions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of factors involved in dimorphism and pathogenicity of Zymoseptoria tritici.

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    Alexander Yemelin

    Full Text Available A forward genetics approach was applied in order to investigate the molecular basis of morphological transition in the wheat pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici. Z. tritici is a dimorphic plant pathogen displaying environmentally regulated morphogenetic transition between yeast-like and hyphal growth. Considering the infection mode of Z. tritici, the switching to hyphal growth is essential for pathogenicity allowing the fungus the host invasion through natural openings like stomata. We exploited a previously developed Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT to generate a mutant library by insertional mutagenesis including more than 10,000 random mutants. To identify genes involved in dimorphic switch, a plate-based screening system was established. With this approach eleven dimorphic switch deficient random mutants were recovered, ten of which exhibited a yeast-like mode of growth and one mutant predominantly growing filamentously, producing high amount of mycelium under different incubation conditions. Using genome walking approach previously established, the T-DNA integration sites were recovered and the disrupted genomic loci of corresponding mutants were identified and validated within reverse genetics approach. As prove of concept, two of the random mutants obtained were selected for further investigation using targeted gene inactivation. Both genes deduced were found to encode known factors, previously characterized in other fungi: Ssk1p being constituent of HOG pathway and Ade5,7p involved in de novo purine biosynthesis. The targeted mutant strains defective in these genes exhibit a drastically impaired virulence within infection assays on whole wheat plants. Moreover exploiting further physiological assays the predicted function for both gene products could be confirmed in concordance with conserved biological role of homologous proteins previously described in other fungal organisms.

  13. Steel Rack Connections: Identification of Most Influential Factors and a Comparison of Stiffness Design Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N R Shah

    Full Text Available Steel pallet rack (SPR beam-to-column connections (BCCs are largely responsible to avoid the sway failure of frames in the down-aisle direction. The overall geometry of beam end connectors commercially used in SPR BCCs is different and does not allow a generalized analytic approach for all types of beam end connectors; however, identifying the effects of the configuration, profile and sizes of the connection components could be the suitable approach for the practical design engineers in order to predict the generalized behavior of any SPR BCC. This paper describes the experimental behavior of SPR BCCs tested using a double cantilever test set-up. Eight sets of specimens were identified based on the variation in column thickness, beam depth and number of tabs in the beam end connector in order to investigate the most influential factors affecting the connection performance. Four tests were repeatedly performed for each set to bring uniformity to the results taking the total number of tests to thirty-two. The moment-rotation (M-θ behavior, load-strain relationship, major failure modes and the influence of selected parameters on connection performance were investigated. A comparative study to calculate the connection stiffness was carried out using the initial stiffness method, the slope to half-ultimate moment method and the equal area method. In order to find out the more appropriate method, the mean stiffness of all the tested connections and the variance in values of mean stiffness according to all three methods were calculated. The calculation of connection stiffness by means of the initial stiffness method is considered to overestimate the values when compared to the other two methods. The equal area method provided more consistent values of stiffness and lowest variance in the data set as compared to the other two methods.

  14. Identification of transcription factors potential related to brown planthopper resistance in rice via microarray expression profiling

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    Wang Yubing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. The molecular responses of plants to sucking insects resemble responses to pathogen infection. However, the molecular mechanism of BPH-resistance in rice remains unclear. Transcription factors (TF are up-stream regulators of various genes that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription from DNA to mRNA. They are key regulators for transcriptional expression in biological processes, and are probably involved in the BPH-induced pathways in resistant rice varieties. Results We conducted a microarray experiment to analyze TF genes related to BPH resistance in a Sri Lankan rice cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RHT. We compared the expression profiles of TF genes in RHT with those of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichun Native 1 (TN1. We detected 2038 TF genes showing differential expression signals between the two rice varieties. Of these, 442 TF genes were probably related to BPH-induced resistance in RHT and TN1, and 229 may be related to constitutive resistance only in RHT. These genes showed a fold change (FC of more than 2.0 (P10, there were 37 induced TF genes and 26 constitutive resistance TF genes. Of these, 13 were probably involved in BPH-induced resistance, and 8 in constitutive resistance to BPH in RHT. Conclusions We explored the molecular mechanism of resistance to BPH in rice by comparing expressions of TF genes between RHT and TN1. We speculate that the level of gene repression, especially for early TF genes, plays an important role in the defense response. The fundamental point of the resistance strategy is that plants protect themselves by reducing their metabolic level to inhibit feeding by BPH and prevent damage from water and nutrient loss. We have selected 21 TF genes related to BPH resistance for further analyses to understand the molecular responses to BPH feeding in rice.

  15. Serum OPN expression for identification of gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis and its influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiejun; Sun, Liping; He, Caiyun; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Qian; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Most studies have found that osteopontin (OPN) expression level is related to the poor prognosis of gastric cancer. However, few studies have examined the relationship between OPN expression and gastric precancerous diseases, and the potential role of OPN in the formation and development of GC. We investigated the relationships between serum OPN levels and the risks of gastric cancer (GC) and its precancerous disease, to explore the diagnostic efficacy of serum OPN level for GC and atrophic gastritis and its influencing factors. A total of 1,452 patients were enrolled, including 609 with mild superficial gastritis (SG), 594 with atrophic gastritis (AG) and 249 with GC. The levels of serum OPN and serum Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum OPN levels increased from mild SG (1.99 ± 1.91 ng/ml) to AG (2.37 ± 2.27 ng/ml) to GC (5.94 ± 4.52 ng/ml) (P ≤ 0.002), along with increasing severity of gastric disease. OPN levels were significantly higher in patients with GC compared with the non-cancer population (2.17 ± 2.10, P < 0.0001). Serum OPN level was positively correlated with age and was higher in men than women, but was not correlated with H. pylori infection status. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.805, the optimal cutoff was 2.56 ng/ml and the sensitivity and specificity were 74.3% and 71.8%, respectively, for the ability of serum OPN to discriminate GC. Serum OPN expression was closely related to the risks of GC and AG, and it might be a useful marker for the discrimination of GC. OPN level was positively correlated with age and male sex, but was not affected by H. pylori infection, and it was promoted by smoking and drinking, in patients with mild SG.

  16. Steel Rack Connections: Identification of Most Influential Factors and a Comparison of Stiffness Design Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S. N. R.; Sulong, N. H. Ramli; Shariati, Mahdi; Jumaat, M. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Steel pallet rack (SPR) beam-to-column connections (BCCs) are largely responsible to avoid the sway failure of frames in the down-aisle direction. The overall geometry of beam end connectors commercially used in SPR BCCs is different and does not allow a generalized analytic approach for all types of beam end connectors; however, identifying the effects of the configuration, profile and sizes of the connection components could be the suitable approach for the practical design engineers in order to predict the generalized behavior of any SPR BCC. This paper describes the experimental behavior of SPR BCCs tested using a double cantilever test set-up. Eight sets of specimens were identified based on the variation in column thickness, beam depth and number of tabs in the beam end connector in order to investigate the most influential factors affecting the connection performance. Four tests were repeatedly performed for each set to bring uniformity to the results taking the total number of tests to thirty-two. The moment-rotation (M-θ) behavior, load-strain relationship, major failure modes and the influence of selected parameters on connection performance were investigated. A comparative study to calculate the connection stiffness was carried out using the initial stiffness method, the slope to half-ultimate moment method and the equal area method. In order to find out the more appropriate method, the mean stiffness of all the tested connections and the variance in values of mean stiffness according to all three methods were calculated. The calculation of connection stiffness by means of the initial stiffness method is considered to overestimate the values when compared to the other two methods. The equal area method provided more consistent values of stiffness and lowest variance in the data set as compared to the other two methods. PMID:26452047

  17. Informed consent in contrast-enhanced CT. Understanding of risks and identification of possible prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehrl, S.; Dendl, L.M.; Scharf, G.; Stroszczynski, C.; Schreyer, A.G.; Zeman, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aim of our study was to assess understanding of risks associated with intravascular application of contrast media in patients undergoing CT examination. We wanted to evaluate epidemiologic and socio-economic prognostic factors for a higher understanding of risks. Additionally, we evaluated a possible correlation between an extensive, outcome-oriented oral informed consent and better understanding of risks. 120 patients distributed in 2 study arms participated in this prospective study. In study arm I, the treating physician was not informed that his patients participated in a study whereas the physician in study arm II knew about the survey. After the informed consent we performed a standardized, semi-structured interview to enquire the 3 most frequent risks of intravascular application of contrast agents (anaphylactoid reactions, nephropathy and thyrotoxic crisis) and epidemiologic data. The understanding of the risks was evaluated using a 6 point scale. Patients scored 3.73 points in study arm I and 4.93 points in arm II on average. The statistical difference between both study arms was highly significant (p < 0.001). In a combined logistic regression analysis, only ''higher education'' (p = 0.001) and participation in study arm II (p =0.001) showed a significant connection to a better understanding of risks. Patients profit from an outcome-oriented and individualized informed consent. Due to the significant correlation between educational level and understanding of risks, informed consent should be adjusted to the educational status of the individual patient, e.g. by using didactic aids or individualized information sheets.

  18. Genome-wide identification and function analyses of heat shock transcription factors in potato

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    Ruimin eTang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs play vital roles in the regulation of tolerance to various stresses in living organisms. To dissect the mechanisms of the Hsfs in potato adaptation to abiotic stresses, genome and transcriptome analyses of Hsf gene family were investigated in Solanum tuberosum L. Twenty-seven StHsf members were identified by bioinformatics and phylogenetic analyses and were classified into A, B and C groups according to their structural and phylogenetic features. StHsfs in the same class shared similar gene structures and conserved motifs. The chromosomal location analysis showed that 27 Hsfs were located in 10 of 12 chromosomes (except chromosome 1 and chromosome 5 and that 18 of these genes formed 9 paralogous pairs. Expression profiles of StHsfs in 12 different organs and tissues uncovered distinct spatial expression patterns of these genes and their potential roles in the process of growth and development. Promoter and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR detections of StHsfs were conducted and demonstrated that these genes were all responsive to various stresses. StHsf004, StHsf007, StHsf009, StHsf014 and StHsf019 were constitutively expressed under non-stress conditions, and some specific Hsfs became the predominant Hsfs in response to different abiotic stresses, indicating their important and diverse regulatory roles in adverse conditions. A co-expression network between StHsfs and StHsf-co-expressed genes was generated based on the publicly-available potato transcriptomic databases and identified key candidate StHsfs for further functional studies.

  19. Evaluation of the flow at the contraction of a heat exchanger. Pt. 2. Effect of thermal-hydraulic factors on scale deposition at the contraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Yasuo, Akira; Inada, Fumio; Furuya, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    In heat exchangers used in power plants, scale may deposit on the tube support plates of heat transfer tubes, especially at the leading edge where the flow passes a sudden contraction. This phenomenon can lead to flow path blockage, which in turn can affect plant performance. As a result, the mechanism of scale deposition and growth needs to be clarified. This phenomenon is assumed to be caused by a complex of thermal-hydraulic and electrochemical factors. In this study, flashing induced by pressure drop and turbulence at the leading edge of a contraction were assumed to be the main factors from the thermal-hydraulic point of view. And these factors in two different type of contractions were evaluated with a High Pressure / High Temperature steam-water two-phase flow experiment and 3D numerical analysis. Considerable differences in amount of steam caused by flashing and turbulence magnitude were observed between the two contractions which have same flow path area but different hydraulic diameter. It was also found that the size of bubbles passing the leading edge of contraction were smaller than 1 mm, while the bubbles in the upstream part were more than 10 times larger than those of the leading edge. (author)

  20. Identification of colonic fibroblast secretomes reveals secretory factors regulating colon cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sun-Xia; Xu, Xiao-En; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Cui, Shu-Jian; Xu, Lei-Lei; Jiang, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Qian; Qiao, Jie; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Feng

    2014-10-14

    Stromal microenvironment influences tumor cell proliferation and migration. Fibroblasts represent the most abundant stromal constituents. Here, we established two pairs of normal fibroblast (NF) and cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) cultures from colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues and the normal counterparts. The NFs and CAFs were stained positive for typical fibroblast markers and inhibited colon cancer (CC) cell proliferation in in vitro cocultures and in xenograft mouse models. The fibroblast conditioned media were analyzed using LC-MS and 227 proteins were identified at a false discovery rate of 1.3%, including 131 putative secretory and 20 plasma membrane proteins. These proteins were enriched for functional categories of extracellular matrix, adhesion, cell motion, inflammatory response, redox homeostasis and peptidase inhibitor. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, transgelin, follistatin-related protein 1 (FSTL1) and decorin was abundant in the fibroblast secretome as confirmed by Western blot. Silencing of FSTL1 and transgelin in colonic fibroblast cell line CCD-18Co induced an accelerated proliferation of CC cells in cocultures. Exogenous FSTL1 attenuates CC cell proliferation in a negative fashion. FSTL1 was upregulated in CC patient plasma and cancerous tissues but had no implication in prognosis. Our results provided novel insights into the molecular signatures and modulatory role of CC associated fibroblasts. In this study, a label-free LC-MS was performed to analyze the secretomes of two paired primary fibroblasts, which were isolated from fresh surgical specimen of colorectal adenocarcinoma and adjacent normal colonic tissues and exhibited negative modulatory activity for colon cancer cell growth in in vitro cocultures and in vivo xenograph mouse models. Follistatin-related protein 1 was further revealed to be one of the stroma-derived factors of potential suppression role for colon cancer cell proliferation. Our results provide novel

  1. Identification of transcription factors potential related to brown planthopper resistance in rice via microarray expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubing; Guo, Huimin; Li, Haichao; Zhang, Hao; Miao, Xuexia

    2012-12-10

    Brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. The molecular responses of plants to sucking insects resemble responses to pathogen infection. However, the molecular mechanism of BPH-resistance in rice remains unclear. Transcription factors (TF) are up-stream regulators of various genes that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription from DNA to mRNA. They are key regulators for transcriptional expression in biological processes, and are probably involved in the BPH-induced pathways in resistant rice varieties. We conducted a microarray experiment to analyze TF genes related to BPH resistance in a Sri Lankan rice cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RHT). We compared the expression profiles of TF genes in RHT with those of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichun Native 1 (TN1). We detected 2038 TF genes showing differential expression signals between the two rice varieties. Of these, 442 TF genes were probably related to BPH-induced resistance in RHT and TN1, and 229 may be related to constitutive resistance only in RHT. These genes showed a fold change (FC) of more than 2.0 (Pgenes related to BPH-induced resistance, most of them were readily induced in TN1 than in RHT by BPH feeding, for instance, 154 TF genes were up-regulated in TN1, but only 31 TF genes were up-regulated in RHT at 24 hours after BPH infestation; 2-4 times more TF genes were induced in TN1 than in RHT by BPH. At an FC threshold of >10, there were 37 induced TF genes and 26 constitutive resistance TF genes. Of these, 13 were probably involved in BPH-induced resistance, and 8 in constitutive resistance to BPH in RHT. We explored the molecular mechanism of resistance to BPH in rice by comparing expressions of TF genes between RHT and TN1. We speculate that the level of gene repression, especially for early TF genes, plays an important role in the defense response. The fundamental point of the resistance strategy is that plants

  2. Survey of 2002 cases of liver cirrhosis: Identification of etiological factors and related complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AI Min

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo identify the etiologies and associated complications of liver cirrhosis for new cases emerging over the past decade in the region served by the Second Affiliated Clinical College of Chongqing University of Medical Sciences. MethodsThe institute′s inpatient medical record database was searched for all individuals admitted with a new diagnosis of liver cirrhosis between January 2002 and December 2011. Data on demographics and clinical findings were collected for retrospective analysis to determine the regional and temporal profiles of etiologies and complications. The count data, expressed as percent of total, was analyzed by the Chi-squared test. ResultsAmong the total 2002 liver cirrhosis cases, the most frequent etiologies (>1.5% of total were viral hepatitis type B (60.6%, fatty liver caused by both hepatitis B virus (HBV and alcohol (16.6%, alcoholic fatty liver (6.6%, autoimmune liver disease (3.4%, autoimmune liver disease and alcohol (3.2%, and nonalcoholic fatty liver (1.7%. From the first half of the decade to the second half (January 2002-December 2006 vs. January 2007-December 2011, the incidences of two etiologies significantly increased (HBV and alcohol: 13.6% vs. 17.7%, P<0.05 and autoimmune liver disease: 3.5% vs. 7.1%, P<0.05 and the incidence of HBV significantly decreased (641% vs. 59.3%, P<0.05. The most common major complications of cirrhosis were primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; 221%, spontaneous peritonitis (21.3%, upper gastrointestinal bleeding (193%, hepatic encephalopathy (7.3%, and hepatorenal syndrome (4.0%. The incidence of liver cancer was significantly higher in patients with a family history of hepatitis B (31.1% vs. 222%, P<0.05 and positively correlated with HBV DNA load (χ2 = 10.88, P<0.05. ConclusionIn Chongqing, HBV remains a major cause of cirrhosis, even though alcoholism and autoimmune disease are rising in importance as etiological factors, and HCC is still the

  3. Identification of New Factors Modulating Adhesion Abilities of the Pioneer Commensal Bacterium Streptococcus salivarius

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    Benoit Couvigny

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation is crucial for bacterial community development and host colonization by Streptococcus salivarius, a pioneer colonizer and commensal bacterium of the human gastrointestinal tract. This ability to form biofilms depends on bacterial adhesion to host surfaces, and on the intercellular aggregation contributing to biofilm cohesiveness. Many S. salivarius isolates auto-aggregate, an adhesion process mediated by cell surface proteins. To gain an insight into the genetic factors of S. salivarius that dictate host adhesion and biofilm formation, we developed a screening method, based on the differential sedimentation of bacteria in semi-liquid conditions according to their auto-aggregation capacity, which allowed us to identify twelve mutations affecting this auto-aggregation phenotype. Mutations targeted genes encoding (i extracellular components, including the CshA surface-exposed protein, the extracellular BglB glucan-binding protein, the GtfE, GtfG and GtfH glycosyltransferases and enzymes responsible for synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides (CwpB, CwpK, (ii proteins responsible for the extracellular localization of proteins, such as structural components of the accessory SecA2Y2 system (Asp1, Asp2, SecA2 and the SrtA sortase, and (iii the LiaR transcriptional response regulator. These mutations also influenced biofilm architecture, revealing that similar cell-to-cell interactions govern assembly of auto-aggregates and biofilm formation. We found that BglB, CshA, GtfH and LiaR were specifically associated with bacterial auto-aggregation, whereas Asp1, Asp2, CwpB, CwpK, GtfE, GtfG, SecA2 and SrtA also contributed to adhesion to host cells and host-derived components, or to interactions with the human pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum. Our study demonstrates that our screening method could also be used to identify genes implicated in the bacterial interactions of pathogens or probiotics, for which aggregation is either a virulence

  4. Identification of the factors associated with outcomes in a Condition Management Programme

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    Demou Evangelia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A requirement of the Government’s Pathways to Work (PtW agenda was to introduce a Condition Management Programme (CMP. The aim of the present study was to identify the differences between those who engaged and made progress in this telephone-based biopsychosocial intervention, in terms of their health, and those who did not and to determine the client and practitioner characteristics and programme elements associated with success in a programme aimed at improving health. Methods Data were obtained from the CMP electronic spreadsheets and clients paper-based case records. CMP standard practice was that questionnaires were administered during the pre- and post-assessment phases over the telephone. Each client’s record contains their socio-demographic data, their primary health condition, as well as the pre- and post-intervention scores of the health assessment tool administered. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis was used to investigate the relationships between the database variables. Clients were included in the study if their records were available for analysis from July 2006 to December 2007. Results On average there were 112 referrals per month, totalling 2016 referrals during the evaluation period. The majority (62.8% of clients had a mental-health condition. Successful completion of the programme was 28.5% (575 “completers”; 144 “discharges”. Several factors, such as age, health condition, mode of contact, and practitioner characteristics, were significant determinants of participation and completion of the programme. The results showed that completion of the CMP was associated with a better mental-health status, by reducing the number of clients that were either anxious, depressed or both, before undertaking the programme, from 74% to 32.5%. Conclusions Our findings showed that an individual's characteristics are associated with success in the programme, defined as completing the intervention

  5. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  6. [Choice of informative laboratory biomarkers for the early identification of changes in neurohumoral regulation and carbohydrate exchange in workers of the mining and mechanical engineering industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapko, I V; Kiryakov, V A; Pavlovskaya, N A; Oshkoderov, O A; Klimkina, K V

    The diagnostic significance of hormones and integral indices of pituitary-adrenal, pituitary-thyroid and pituitary-gonadal system and carbohydrate metabolism (ACTH (corticotropin), aldosterone, cortisol, TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), total and free testosterone, insulin, integral pituitary-adrenal index (IPAI), the pituitary-thyroid index (PTI), indices of carbohydrate metabolism (Caro and HOMA-IR) was studied for the early diagnostics of disorders of neurohumoral regulation in workers of mining and mechanical engineering industries. The most informative indices, permitting to identify disorders of carbohydrate metabolism are established to be indices of insulin resistance (index Caro and index NOMA-IR) and the determination of insulin in serum. For the identification of changes in pituitary adrenal, pituitary-thyroid and pituitary-gonadal system in patients with vibration disease, sensory-neural hearing loss, comorbidity indexes IGNI, ITI, concentrations of LH and total testosterone are of the most diagnostically significance.

  7. Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric (LC/ESI-MS/MS) Study for the Identification and Characterization of In Vivo Metabolites of Cisplatin in Rat Kidney Cancer Tissues: Online Hydrogen/Deuterium (H/D) Exchange Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandu, Raju; Ahn, Hyun Soo; Lee, Joon Won; Kim, Yong Woo; Choi, Seon Hee; Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    2015-01-01

    In vivo rat kidney tissue metabolites of an anticancer drug, cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum [II]) (CP) which is used for the treatment of testicular, ovarian, bladder, cervical, esophageal, small cell lung, head and neck cancers, have been identified and characterized by using liquid chromatography positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) in combination with on line hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) experiments. To identify in vivo metabolites, kidney tissues were collected after intravenous administration of CP to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 3 per group). The tissue samples were homogenized and extracted using newly optimized metabolite extraction procedure which involves liquid extraction with phosphate buffer containing ethyl acetate and protein precipitation with mixed solvents of methanol-water-chloroform followed by solid-phase clean-up procedure on Oasis HLB 3cc cartridges and then subjected to LC/ESI-HRMS analysis. A total of thirty one unknown in vivo metabolites have been identified and the structures of metabolites were elucidated using LC-MS/MS experiments combined with accurate mass measurements. Online HDX experiments have been used to further support the structural characterization of metabolites. The results showed that CP undergoes a series of ligand exchange biotransformation reactions with water and other nucleophiles like thio groups of methionine, cysteine, acetylcysteine, glutathione and thioether. This is the first research approach focused on the structure elucidation of biotransformation products of CP in rats, and the identification of metabolites provides essential information for further pharmacological and clinical studies of CP, and may also be useful to develop various effective new anticancer agents.

  8. Identification and Genetic Analysis of a Factor IX Gene Intron 3 Mutation in a Hemophilia B Pedigree in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hua Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hemophilia B is caused by coagulation defects in the factor IX gene located in Xq27.1 on the X chromosome. A wide range of mutations, showing extensive molecular heterogeneity, have been described in hemophilia B patients. Our study was aimed at genetic analysis and prenatal diagnosis of hemophilia B in order to further elucidate the pathogenesis of the hemophilia B pedigree in China. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing of all the coding regions was conducted in hemophilia B patients and carriers. Prenatal diagnosis of the proband was conducted at 20 weeks. RESULTS: We identified the novel point mutation 10.389 A>G, located upstream of the intron 3 acceptor site in hemophilia B patients. The fetus of the proband’s cousin was identified as a carrier. CONCLUSION: Our identification of a novel mutation in the F9 gene associated with hemophilia B provides novel insight into the pathogenesis of this genetically inherited disorder and also represents the basis of prenatal diagnosis.

  9. Identification of factors promoting ex vivo maintenance of mouse hematopoietic stem cells by long-term single-cell quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkaliaris, Konstantinos D; Drew, Erin; Endele, Max; Loeffler, Dirk; Hoppe, Philipp S; Hilsenbeck, Oliver; Schauberger, Bernhard; Hinzen, Christoph; Skylaki, Stavroula; Theodorou, Marina; Kieslinger, Matthias; Lemischka, Ihor; Moore, Kateri; Schroeder, Timm

    2016-09-01

    The maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during ex vivo culture is an important prerequisite for their therapeutic manipulation. However, despite intense research, culture conditions for robust maintenance of HSCs are still missing. Cultured HSCs are quickly lost, preventing their improved analysis and manipulation. Identification of novel factors supporting HSC ex vivo maintenance is therefore necessary. Coculture with the AFT024 stroma cell line is capable of maintaining HSCs ex vivo long-term, but the responsible molecular players remain unknown. Here, we use continuous long-term single-cell observation to identify the HSC behavioral signature under supportive or nonsupportive stroma cocultures. We report early HSC survival as a major characteristic of HSC-maintaining conditions. Behavioral screening after manipulation of candidate molecules revealed that the extracellular matrix protein dermatopontin (Dpt) is involved in HSC maintenance. DPT knockdown in supportive stroma impaired HSC survival, whereas ectopic expression of the Dpt gene or protein in nonsupportive conditions restored HSC survival. Supplementing defined stroma- and serum-free culture conditions with recombinant DPT protein improved HSC clonogenicity. These findings illustrate a previously uncharacterized role of Dpt in maintaining HSCs ex vivo. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  10. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  11. Schistosomiasis mansoni incidence data in Rwanda can improve prevalence assessments, by providing high-resolution hotspot and risk factors identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyandwi, E; Veldkamp, A; Amer, S; Karema, C; Umulisa, I

    2017-10-25

    Schistosomiasis mansoni constitutes a significant public health problem in Rwanda. The nationwide prevalence mapping conducted in 2007-2008 revealed that prevalence per district ranges from 0 to 69.5% among school children. In response, mass drug administration campaigns were initiated. However, a few years later some additional small-scale studies revealed the existence of areas of high transmission in districts formerly classified as low endemic suggesting the need for a more accurate methodology for identification of hotspots. This study investigated if confirmed cases of schistosomiasis recorded at health facility level can be used to, next to existing prevalence data, detect geographically more accurate hotspots of the disease and its associated risk factors. A GIS-based spatial and statistical analysis was carried out. Confirmed cases, recorded at primary health facilities level, were combined with demographic data to calculate incidence rates for each of 367 health facility service area. Empirical Bayesian smoothing was used to deal with rate instability. Incidence rates were compared with prevalence data to identify their level of agreement. Spatial autocorrelation of the incidence rates was analyzed using Moran's Index, to check if spatial clustering occurs. Finally, the spatial relationship between schistosomiasis distribution and potential risk factors was assessed using multiple regression. Incidence rates for 2007-2008 were highly correlated with prevalence values (R 2  = 0.79), indicating that in the case of Rwanda incidence data can be used as a proxy for prevalence data. We observed a focal distribution of schistosomiasis with a significant spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I > 0: 0,05-0.20 and p ≤ 0,05), indicating the occurrence of hotspots. Regarding risk factors, it was identified that the spatial pattern of schistosomiasis is significantly associated with wetland conditions and rice cultivation. In Rwanda the high density of health

  12. Sites involved in intra- and interdomain allostery associated with the activation of factor VIIa pinpointed by hydrogen-deuterium exchange and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongjian; Olsen, Ole H; Persson, Egon; Rand, Kasper D

    2014-12-19

    Factor VIIa (FVIIa) is a trypsin-like protease that plays an important role in initiating blood coagulation. Very limited structural information is available for the free, inactive form of FVIIa that circulates in the blood prior to vascular injury and the molecular details of its activity enhancement remain elusive. Here we have applied hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry coupled to electron transfer dissociation to pinpoint individual residues in the heavy chain of FVIIa whose conformation and/or local interaction pattern changes when the enzyme transitions to the active form, as induced either by its cofactor tissue factor or a covalent active site inhibitor. Identified regulatory residues are situated at key sites across one continuous surface of the protease domain spanning the TF-binding helix across the activation pocket to the calcium binding site and are embedded in elements of secondary structure and at the base of flexible loops. Thus these residues are optimally positioned to mediate crosstalk between functional sites in FVIIa, particularly the cofactor binding site and the active site. Our results unambiguously show that the conformational allosteric activation signal extends to the EGF1 domain in the light chain of FVIIa, underscoring a remarkable intra- and interdomain allosteric regulation of this trypsin-like protease. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Aerosol release factor for Pu as a consequence of an ion exchange resin fire in the process cell of a fuel reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhanti, D.P.; Malvankar, S.V.; Kotrappa, P.; Somasundaram, S.; Raghunath, B.; Curtay, A.M.

    1988-12-01

    One of the upper limit accidents usually considered in the safety analysis of a fuel reprocessing plant is an accidental explosion, followed by a fire, of an ion exchange column containing resin loaded with large quantities of plutonium. In such accidents, a certain fraction (release factor) of Pu is released in the form of an aerosol into the ventilation system, and finally to the environment through HEPA filters and the stack. The present study was undertaken to determine the aerosol release factor for Pu in the process cell of a typical fuel reprocessing plant. Geometrically similar scaled-down models of three different sizes were built, and suitably scaled-down quantities of resin loaded with thorium in nitric acid medium were burnt in these model cells. Thorium was used in place of Pu because of its physical and chemical similarities with Pu. The release factor was obtained by comparing the amount of Th in air with the total. The study also dealt with aerosol characteristics and kinematics of process of fire. The aerosol release factors for the three models were found to lie in the range 0.01-0.07%, and varied non-monotonically with model size. The analysis of scaled down results in conjunction with simplified aerosol modelling yielded the release factor for the actual cell conditions as 0.012% with an upper limit value of 0.1%. The particle size analysis based on Th-radioactivity and particle-mass indicated nonuniform tagging of Th to aerosol particles. These particles were irregularly shaped, but not as long chain-like aggregates. The study proposes, with a reasonable degree of conservatism, the release factor of 0.1% for such fires, and aerosol parameters, AMAD and sigma/sub g/, as 2 m and 2 respectively. However, for situations significantly different from the present one, the release factor of 1% recommended by the American National Standards Institute may be used with a greater degree of confidence in the light of the present work.

  14. Heat exchanger vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, D.J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration

  15. Heat exchanger vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, D J.W. [CERL, CEGB, Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1977-12-01

    The heat exchangers of various types are common items of plant in the generation and transmission of electricity. The amount of attention given to the flow-induced vibrations of heat exchangers by designers is usually related to the operational history of similar items of plant. Consequently, if a particular design procedure yields items of plant which behave in a satisfactory manner during their operational life, there is little incentive to improve or refine the design procedure. On the other hand, failures of heat exchangers clearly indicate deficiencies in the design procedures or in the data available to the designer. When such failures are attributable to flow-induced vibrations, the identification of the mechanisms involved is a prime importance. Ideally, basic research work provides the background understanding and the techniques necessary to be able to identify the important mechanisms. In practice, the investigation of a flow-induced vibration problem may identify the presence of mechanisms but may not be able to quantify their effects adequately. In these circumstances the need for additional work is established and the objectives of the research programme emerge. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background to the current research programme at C.E.R.L. on heat exchanger vibration.

  16. Climate and site management as driving factors for the atmospheric greenhouse gas exchange of a restored wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herbst

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG budget of a restored wetland in western Denmark was established for the years 2009–2011 from eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 fluxes. The water table in the wetland, which was restored in 2002, was unregulated, and the vegetation height was limited through occasional grazing by cattle and grass cutting. The annual net CO2 uptake varied between 195 and 983 g m−2 and the annual net CH4 release varied between 11 and 17 g m−2. In all three years the wetland was a carbon sink and removed between 42 and 259 g C m−2 from the atmosphere. However, in terms of the full annual GHG budget (assuming that 1 g CH4 is equivalent to 25 g CO2 with respect to the greenhouse effect over a time horizon of 100 years the wetland was a sink in 2009, a source in 2010 and neutral in 2011. Complementary observations of meteorological factors and management activities were used to explain the large inter-annual variations in the full atmospheric GHG budget of the wetland. The largest impact on the annual GHG fluxes, eventually defining their sign, came from site management through changes in grazing duration and animal stocking density. These changes accounted for half of the observed variability in the CO2 fluxes and about two thirds of the variability in CH4 fluxes. An unusually long period of snow cover in 2010 had the second largest effect on the annual CO2 flux, whose interannual variability was larger than that of the CH4 flux. Since integrated CO2 and CH4 flux data from restored wetlands are still very rare, it is concluded that more long-term flux measurements are needed to quantify the effects of ecosystem disturbance, in terms of management activities and exceptional weather patterns, on the atmospheric GHG budget more

  17. Methodology for the identification of the factors that can influence the performance of operators of nuclear power plants control room under emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, Bernardo Spitz; Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti

    2009-01-01

    In order to minimize the human errors of the operators in a nuclear power plan control room, during emergency situations, it has to be considered the factors which affect the human performance. Work situations adequately projected, compatible with the necessities, capacities and human limitations, taking into consideration the factors which affect the operator performance . This paper aims to develop a methodology for identification of the factors affecting the operator performance under emergency situation, using the aspects defined by the human reliability analysis focusing the judgment done by specialists

  18. Can Exchange Rates Be Predicted?

    OpenAIRE

    Siriwutiset, Trin

    2007-01-01

    Foreign exchange rates produce significant impacts on both the macroeconomic and microeconomic scale. Countries� government and multinational companies have been seeking ways to stabilize the exchange rates for a few decades. However, there is no perfect consensus on methods to control and stabilize the exchange rates. In fact, there are several occasions in history where turbulence movements caused crisis in the economies. There are several factors that are identified by economis...

  19. Tracing the factors responsible for arsenic enrichment in groundwater of the middle Gangetic Plain, India: a source identification perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Kumar, Manish; Ramanathan, A L; Tsujimura, Maki

    2010-04-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater is of increasing concern because of its high toxicity and widespread occurrence. This study is an effort to trace the factors responsible for arsenic enrichment in groundwater of the middle Gangetic Plain of India through major ion chemistry, arsenic speciation, sediment grain-size analyses, and multivariate statistical techniques. The study focuses on the distinction between the contributions of natural weathering and anthropogenic inputs of arsenic with its spatial distribution and seasonal variations in the plain of the state Bihar of India. Thirty-six groundwater and one sediment core samples were collected in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Various graphical plots and statistical analysis were carried out using chemical data to enable hydrochemical evaluation of the aquifer system based on the ionic constituents, water types, hydrochemical facies, and factors controlling groundwater quality. Results suggest that the groundwater is characterized by slightly alkaline pH with moderate to strong reducing nature. The general trend of various ions was found to be Ca(2+) > Na(+) > Mg(2+) > K(+) > NH(4) (+); and HCO(3) (-) > Cl(-) > SO(4) (2-) > NO(3) (-) > PO(4) (3-) > F(-) in both seasons. Spatial and temporal variations showed a slightly higher arsenic concentration in the pre-monsoon period (118 microg/L) than in the post-monsoon period (114 microg/L). Results of correlation analyses indicate that arsenic contamination is strongly associated with high concentrations of Fe, PO(4) (3-), and NH(4) (+) but relatively low Mn concentrations. Further, the enrichment of arsenic is more prevalent in the proximity of the Ganges River, indicating that fluvial input is the main source of arsenic. Grain size analyses of sediment core samples revealed clay (fine-grained) strata between 4.5 and 7.5 m deep that govern the vertical distribution of arsenic. The weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals along with surface

  20. Influence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes and confounding factors on the frequency of sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus among road construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Yadav, Anita; Giri, Shiv Kumar; Dev, Kapil; Gautam, Sanjeev Kumar; Gupta, Ranjan; Aggarwal, Neeraj

    2011-07-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the influence of polymorphism of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and confounding factors such as age, sex, exposure duration and consumption habits on cytogenetic biomarkers. Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), high frequency cell (HFC) and cytokinesis blocked micronuclei (CBMN) were evaluated in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 115 occupationally exposed road construction workers and 105 unexposed individuals. The distribution of null and positive genotypes of glutathione-S transferase gene was evaluated by multiplex PCR among control and exposed subjects. An increased frequency of CBMN (7.03±2.08); SCE (6.95±1.76) and HFC (6.28±1.69) were found in exposed subjects when compared to referent (CBMN - 3.35±1.10; SCE - 4.13±1.30 and HFC - 3.98±1.56). These results were found statistically significant at p<0.05. When the effect of confounding factors on the frequency of studied biomarkers was evaluated, a strong positive interaction was found. The individuals having GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes had higher frequency of CBMN, SCE and HFC. The association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes and studied biomarkers was found statistically significant at p<0.05. Our findings suggest that individuals having null type of GST are more susceptible to cytogenetic damage by occupational exposure regardless of confounding factors. There is a significant effect of polymorphism of these genes on cytogenetic biomarkers which are considered as early effects of genotoxic carcinogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Further Identification of the Effect of Bradykinin Potentiating Factor Isolated From Scorpion Venom on Irradiated White Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Scorpion venom of Androctonus amoreuxi contains a strong bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF) that augments bradykinin effect through enhancing its release and acts as an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI). Both irradiation and stimulation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) induce oxidative stress. Possible interruption of the RAS with an ACEI induced by BPF isolated from the scorpion, Androctonus amoreuxi venom or the presence of angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) losartan and/or γ- radiation were evaluated. The examined parameters included blood erythrocytes count (RBC), total leucocytic count (WBC), haemoglobin content (Hb) and hematocrit value (Hct) as well as, glutathione content (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP) of kidney homogenate besides aldosterone, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, urea, creatinine and uric acid levels of serum. A group of rats (70 - 80 gm each) were received i.p. injection of BPIF (1μg / g body wt) twice per week for three weeks, while the other group received i.p. injection of losartan (5μg / g body wt) twice per week for three weeks. γ-Irradiation was performed at a dose level of 4Gy. All animals were examined after an investigation period of 21 days from γ- irradiation. Either BPF or losartan was performed together with irradiation. The results pointed out that irradiation discerned a significant elevation in the level of MDA, AOPP, aldosterone, sodium, urea and creatinine, and a significant drop in the haematological values (RBCs, WBCs, Hb and Hct), GSH, calcium and uric acid. Repeated injections of BPF or losartan had a beneficial result against the deleterious effect of γ- irradiation. The present investigation clarifies comparable effects for treatment of radiation damage to the kidney through RAS by BPF as (ACEI) and losartan as (ARB). The present work adds further identification to the properties of BPF in controlling of radiation damage. Therapeutic agents from

  2. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  3. Resonance charge exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duman, E.L.; Evseev, A.V.; Eletskij, A.V.; Radtsig, A.A.; Smirnov, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The calculation results for the resonance charge exchange cross sections for positive and negative atomic and molecular ions are given. The calculations are performed on the basis of the asymptotic theory. The factors affecting the calculation accuracy are analysed. The calculation data for 28 systems are compared with the experiment

  4. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  5. The behaviour of the lande factor and effective exchange parameter in a group of Pr intermetallics observed through reduced level scheme models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranke, P.J. von; Caldas, A.; Palermo, L.

    1993-01-01

    The present work constitutes a portion of a continuing series of studies dealing with models, in which we retain only the two lowest levels of the crystal field splitting scheme of rare-earth ion in rare-earth intermetallics. In these reduced level scheme models, the crystal field and the magnetic Hamiltonians are represented in matrix notation. These two matrices constitute the model Hamiltonian proposed in this paper, from which we derive the magnetic state equations of interest for this work. Putting into these equations a group of adequate experimental data found in the literature for a particular rare-earth intermetallic we obtain the Lande factor and effective exchange parameter related to this rare-earth intermetallic. This study will be applied to a group of Pr intermetallics, in cubic symmetry, in which the ground level may be a non-magnetic singlet level or a non-magnetic doublet level. In both cases, the first excited level is a triplet one. (orig.)

  6. A Histidine pH sensor regulates activation of the Ras-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercoulen, Yvonne; Kondo, Yasushi; Iwig, Jeffrey S; Janssen, Axel B; White, Katharine A; Amini, Mojtaba; Barber, Diane L; Kuriyan, John; Roose, Jeroen P

    2017-09-27

    RasGRPs are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that are specific for Ras or Rap, and are important regulators of cellular signaling. Aberrant expression or mutation of RasGRPs results in disease. An analysis of RasGRP1 SNP variants led to the conclusion that the charge of His 212 in RasGRP1 alters signaling activity and plasma membrane recruitment, indicating that His 212 is a pH sensor that alters the balance between the inactive and active forms of RasGRP1. To understand the structural basis for this effect we compared the structure of autoinhibited RasGRP1, determined previously, to those of active RasGRP4:H-Ras and RasGRP2:Rap1b complexes. The transition from the autoinhibited to the active form of RasGRP1 involves the rearrangement of an inter-domain linker that displaces inhibitory inter-domain interactions. His 212 is located at the fulcrum of these conformational changes, and structural features in its vicinity are consistent with its function as a pH-dependent switch.

  7. A bacterial cytotoxin identifies the RhoA exchange factor Net1 as a key effector in the response to DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Guerra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure of adherent cells to DNA damaging agents, such as the bacterial cytolethal distending toxin (CDT or ionizing radiations (IR, activates the small GTPase RhoA, which promotes the formation of actin stress fibers and delays cell death. The signalling intermediates that regulate RhoA activation and promote cell survival are unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that the nuclear RhoA-specific Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF Net1 becomes dephosphorylated at a critical inhibitory site in cells exposed to CDT or IR. Expression of a dominant negative Net1 or Net1 knock down by iRNA prevented RhoA activation, inhibited the formation of stress fibers, and enhanced cell death, indicating that Net1 activation is required for this RhoA-mediated responses to genotoxic stress. The Net1 and RhoA-dependent signals involved activation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 and its downstream target MAPK-activated protein kinase 2. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data highlight the importance of Net1 in controlling RhoA and p38 MAPK mediated cell survival in cells exposed to DNA damaging agents and illustrate a molecular pathway whereby chronic exposure to a bacterial toxin may promote genomic instability.

  8. An unexpected role for the yeast nucleotide exchange factor Sil1 as a reductant acting on the molecular chaperone BiP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Kevin D; Pareja, Kristeen A; Wang, Jie; Sevier, Carolyn S

    2017-01-01

    Unfavorable redox conditions in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can decrease the capacity for protein secretion, altering vital cell functions. While systems to manage reductive stress are well-established, how cells cope with an overly oxidizing ER remains largely undefined. In previous work (Wang et al., 2014), we demonstrated that the chaperone BiP is a sensor of overly oxidizing ER conditions. We showed that modification of a conserved BiP cysteine during stress beneficially alters BiP chaperone activity to cope with suboptimal folding conditions. How this cysteine is reduced to reestablish 'normal' BiP activity post-oxidative stress has remained unknown. Here we demonstrate that BiP's nucleotide exchange factor – Sil1 – can reverse BiP cysteine oxidation. This previously unexpected reductant capacity for yeast Sil1 has potential implications for the human ataxia Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome, where it is interesting to speculate that a disruption in ER redox-signaling (due to genetic defects in SIL1) may influence disease pathology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24141.001 PMID:28257000

  9. Mammalian translation elongation factor eEF1A2: X-ray structure and new features of GDP/GTP exchange mechanism in higher eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepin, Thibaut; Shalak, Vyacheslav F; Yaremchuk, Anna D; Vlasenko, Dmytro O; McCarthy, Andrew; Negrutskii, Boris S; Tukalo, Michail A; El'skaya, Anna V

    2014-11-10

    Eukaryotic elongation factor eEF1A transits between the GTP- and GDP-bound conformations during the ribosomal polypeptide chain elongation. eEF1A*GTP establishes a complex with the aminoacyl-tRNA in the A site of the 80S ribosome. Correct codon-anticodon recognition triggers GTP hydrolysis, with subsequent dissociation of eEF1A*GDP from the ribosome. The structures of both the 'GTP'- and 'GDP'-bound conformations of eEF1A are unknown. Thus, the eEF1A-related ribosomal mechanisms were anticipated only by analogy with the bacterial homolog EF-Tu. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the mammalian eEF1A2*GDP complex which indicates major differences in the organization of the nucleotide-binding domain and intramolecular movements of eEF1A compared to EF-Tu. Our results explain the nucleotide exchange mechanism in the mammalian eEF1A and suggest that the first step of eEF1A*GDP dissociation from the 80S ribosome is the rotation of the nucleotide-binding domain observed after GTP hydrolysis. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Acute Confusional State in Elderly Patients with Hip Fracture. Identification of risk factors and intervention using a prehospital and perioperative management program

    OpenAIRE

    Björkman Björkelund, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The overall aim of this thesis was to increase knowledge about underlying causes and perioperative risk factors of Acute Confusional State (ACS) in elderly patients with hip fracture and to investigate the effect of a multi-factorial intervention program in order to decrease the number of patients who develop ACS. The aim in paper I was to describe elderly patients with hip fracture on the basis of the American Society of Anesthesiologists’ ASA classification system and to identif...

  11. The cAMP-activated GTP exchange factor, Epac1 Upregulates Plasma Membrane and Nuclear Akt Kinase Activities in 8-CPT-2-O-Me-cAMP-Stimulated Macrophages: Gene silencing of the cAMP-activated GTP exchange Epac1 prevents 8-CPT-2-O-Me-cAMP activation of Akt activity in macrophages*

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Uma K.; Kaczowka, Steven; Pizzo, Salvatore V.

    2008-01-01

    cAMP regulates a wide range of processes through its downstream effectors including PKA, and the family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors. Depending on the cell type, cAMP inhibits or stimulates growth and proliferation in a PKA-dependent or independent manner. PKA-independent effects are mediated by PI 3-kinases-Akt signaling and EPAC1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP) activation. Recently, we reported PKA-independent activation of the protein kinase Akt as well co-immunopre...

  12. ARF6 Activated by the LHCG Receptor through the Cytohesin Family of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Mediates the Receptor Internalization and Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Thompson, Aiysha; Kelly, Eamonn; López Bernal, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) is a Gs-coupled GPCR that is essential for the maturation and function of the ovary and testis. LHCGR is internalized following its activation, which regulates the biological responsiveness of the receptor. Previous studies indicated that ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)6 and its GTP-exchange factor (GEF) cytohesin 2 regulate LHCGR internalization in follicular membranes. However, the mechanisms by which ARF6 and cytohesin 2 regulate LHCGR internalization remain incompletely understood. Here we investigated the role of the ARF6 signaling pathway in the internalization of heterologously expressed human LHCGR (HLHCGR) in intact cells using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, siRNA and the expression of mutant proteins. We found that human CG (HCG)-induced HLHCGR internalization, cAMP accumulation and ARF6 activation were inhibited by Gallein (βγ inhibitor), Wortmannin (PI 3-kinase inhibitor), SecinH3 (cytohesin ARF GEF inhibitor), QS11 (an ARF GAP inhibitor), an ARF6 inhibitory peptide and ARF6 siRNA. However, Dynasore (dynamin inhibitor), the dominant negative mutants of NM23-H1 (dynamin activator) and clathrin, and PBP10 (PtdIns 4,5-P2-binding peptide) inhibited agonist-induced HLHCGR and cAMP accumulation but not ARF6 activation. These results indicate that heterotrimeric G-protein, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase (PI3K), cytohesin ARF GEF and ARF GAP function upstream of ARF6 whereas dynamin and clathrin act downstream of ARF6 in the regulation of HCG-induced HLHCGR internalization and signaling. In conclusion, we have identified the components and molecular details of the ARF6 signaling pathway required for agonist-induced HLHCGR internalization. PMID:22523074

  13. A Qualitative Study on Knowledge and Attitude towards Risk Factors, Early Identification and Intervention of Infant Hearing Loss among Puerperal Mothers- A Short Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudda, Ravi; Muniyappa, Hanumanth Prasad; Puttaraju, Sahana; Lakshmi, M S

    2017-07-01

    Maternal active participation and their support are critical for the success of early hearing loss detection program. Erroneous maternal decisions may have large life long consequences on the infant's life. The mothers' knowledge and their attitudes towards infant hearing loss is the basis for their decisions. The present study was done to determine the mothers' knowledge and their attitude towards risk factors of infant hearing loss, its early identification and intervention and also awareness of effect of consanguinity on hearing loss. In this cross-sectional questionnaire survey study, a total of 100 mothers were interviewed using the questionnaire which consisted of three sections namely risk factors, early identification and early intervention of hearing loss. Chi-square test was used to establish relationship between consanguineous and non-consanguineous mother's responses to its effect on hearing loss. A p-value consanguinity and benefits of early identification. However, mothers were least aware of neonatal jaundice, NICU admission (>5 days), signs of late-onset and neural hearing loss, management of hearing loss, hearing aid fitting and therapy necessity, which might interfere in early detection and intervention of hearing loss. It is crucial to educate mothers on few risk factors and management of hearing loss to reduce its consequences.

  14. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  15. Heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof

  16. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  17. Exchange rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Bev

    2003-09-01

    IN MAY this year, I was lucky enough to go to Larissa in northern Greece as part of Hope Exchange 2003, an annual study tour organised by the European Union's hospital committee and administered by the Institute of Healthcare Management (IHM).

  18. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  19. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type is described in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration

  20. The signaling pathway of Campylobacter jejuni-induced Cdc42 activation: Role of fibronectin, integrin beta1, tyrosine kinases and guanine exchange factor Vav2

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Krause-Gruszczynska, Malgorzata

    2011-12-28

    Abstract Background Host cell invasion by the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is considered as one of the primary reasons of gut tissue damage, however, mechanisms and key factors involved in this process are widely unclear. It was reported that small Rho GTPases, including Cdc42, are activated and play a role during invasion, but the involved signaling cascades remained unknown. Here we utilised knockout cell lines derived from fibronectin-\\/-, integrin-beta1-\\/-, focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-\\/- and Src\\/Yes\\/Fyn-\\/- deficient mice, and wild-type control cells, to investigate C. jejuni-induced mechanisms leading to Cdc42 activation and bacterial uptake. Results Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, GTPase pulldowns, G-Lisa and gentamicin protection assays we found that each studied host factor is necessary for induction of Cdc42-GTP and efficient invasion. Interestingly, filopodia formation and associated membrane dynamics linked to invasion were only seen during infection of wild-type but not in knockout cells. Infection of cells stably expressing integrin-beta1 variants with well-known defects in fibronectin fibril formation or FAK signaling also exhibited severe deficiencies in Cdc42 activation and bacterial invasion. We further demonstrated that infection of wild-type cells induces increasing amounts of phosphorylated FAK and growth factor receptors (EGFR and PDGFR) during the course of infection, correlating with accumulating Cdc42-GTP levels and C. jejuni invasion over time. In studies using pharmacological inhibitors, silencing RNA (siRNA) and dominant-negative expression constructs, EGFR, PDGFR and PI3-kinase appeared to represent other crucial components upstream of Cdc42 and invasion. siRNA and the use of Vav1\\/2-\\/- knockout cells further showed that the guanine exchange factor Vav2 is required for Cdc42 activation and maximal bacterial invasion. Overexpression of certain mutant constructs indicated that Vav2 is a linker

  1. The signaling pathway of Campylobacter jejuni-induced Cdc42 activation: Role of fibronectin, integrin beta1, tyrosine kinases and guanine exchange factor Vav2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause-Gruszczynska Malgorzata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host cell invasion by the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is considered as one of the primary reasons of gut tissue damage, however, mechanisms and key factors involved in this process are widely unclear. It was reported that small Rho GTPases, including Cdc42, are activated and play a role during invasion, but the involved signaling cascades remained unknown. Here we utilised knockout cell lines derived from fibronectin-/-, integrin-beta1-/-, focal adhesion kinase (FAK-/- and Src/Yes/Fyn-/- deficient mice, and wild-type control cells, to investigate C. jejuni-induced mechanisms leading to Cdc42 activation and bacterial uptake. Results Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, GTPase pulldowns, G-Lisa and gentamicin protection assays we found that each studied host factor is necessary for induction of Cdc42-GTP and efficient invasion. Interestingly, filopodia formation and associated membrane dynamics linked to invasion were only seen during infection of wild-type but not in knockout cells. Infection of cells stably expressing integrin-beta1 variants with well-known defects in fibronectin fibril formation or FAK signaling also exhibited severe deficiencies in Cdc42 activation and bacterial invasion. We further demonstrated that infection of wild-type cells induces increasing amounts of phosphorylated FAK and growth factor receptors (EGFR and PDGFR during the course of infection, correlating with accumulating Cdc42-GTP levels and C. jejuni invasion over time. In studies using pharmacological inhibitors, silencing RNA (siRNA and dominant-negative expression constructs, EGFR, PDGFR and PI3-kinase appeared to represent other crucial components upstream of Cdc42 and invasion. siRNA and the use of Vav1/2-/- knockout cells further showed that the guanine exchange factor Vav2 is required for Cdc42 activation and maximal bacterial invasion. Overexpression of certain mutant constructs indicated that Vav2 is a linker

  2. Differential multiple quantum relaxation caused by chemical exchange outside the fast exchange limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunyu; Palmer, Arthur G.

    2002-01-01

    Differential relaxation of multiple quantum coherences is a signature for chemical exchange processes in proteins. Previous analyses of experimental data have used theoretical descriptions applicable only in the limit of fast exchange. Theoretical expressions for differential relaxation rate constants that are accurate outside fast exchange are presented for two-spin-system subject to two-site chemical exchange. The theoretical expressions are validated using experimental results for 15 N- 1 H relaxation in basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. The new theoretical expression is valuable for identification and characterization of exchange processes in proteins using differential relaxation of multiple quantum coherences

  3. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors under Multiple Stresses in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yajun; Mao, Shaoshuai; Gao, Yulong; Zhu, Liying; Wu, Daoming; Cui, Yixin; Li, Jiana; Qian, Wei

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play important roles in responses to environmental stress stimuli. Using a genome-wide domain analysis, we identified 287 WRKY genes with 343 WRKY domains in the sequenced genome of Brassica napus, 139 in the A sub-genome and 148 in the C sub-genome. These genes were classified into eight groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In the 343 WRKY domains, a total of 26 members showed divergence in the WRKY domain, and 21 belonged to group I. This finding suggested that WRKY genes in group I are more active and variable compared with genes in other groups. Using genome-wide identification and analysis of the WRKY gene family in Brassica napus, we observed genome duplication, chromosomal/segmental duplications and tandem duplication. All of these duplications contributed to the expansion of the WRKY gene family. The duplicate segments that were detected indicated that genome duplication events occurred in the two diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. olearecea before they combined to form B. napus. Analysis of the public microarray database and EST database for B. napus indicated that 74 WRKY genes were induced or preferentially expressed under stress conditions. According to the public QTL data, we identified 77 WRKY genes in 31 QTL regions related to various stress tolerance. We further evaluated the expression of 26 BnaWRKY genes under multiple stresses by qRT-PCR. Most of the genes were induced by low temperature, salinity and drought stress, indicating that the WRKYs play important roles in B. napus stress responses. Further, three BnaWRKY genes were strongly responsive to the three multiple stresses simultaneously, which suggests that these 3 WRKY may have multi-functional roles in stress tolerance and can potentially be used in breeding new rapeseed cultivars. We also found six tandem repeat pairs exhibiting similar expression profiles under the various stress conditions, and three pairs were mapped in the stress related QTL regions

  4. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors under Multiple Stresses in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun He

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors play important roles in responses to environmental stress stimuli. Using a genome-wide domain analysis, we identified 287 WRKY genes with 343 WRKY domains in the sequenced genome of Brassica napus, 139 in the A sub-genome and 148 in the C sub-genome. These genes were classified into eight groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In the 343 WRKY domains, a total of 26 members showed divergence in the WRKY domain, and 21 belonged to group I. This finding suggested that WRKY genes in group I are more active and variable compared with genes in other groups. Using genome-wide identification and analysis of the WRKY gene family in Brassica napus, we observed genome duplication, chromosomal/segmental duplications and tandem duplication. All of these duplications contributed to the expansion of the WRKY gene family. The duplicate segments that were detected indicated that genome duplication events occurred in the two diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. olearecea before they combined to form B. napus. Analysis of the public microarray database and EST database for B. napus indicated that 74 WRKY genes were induced or preferentially expressed under stress conditions. According to the public QTL data, we identified 77 WRKY genes in 31 QTL regions related to various stress tolerance. We further evaluated the expression of 26 BnaWRKY genes under multiple stresses by qRT-PCR. Most of the genes were induced by low temperature, salinity and drought stress, indicating that the WRKYs play important roles in B. napus stress responses. Further, three BnaWRKY genes were strongly responsive to the three multiple stresses simultaneously, which suggests that these 3 WRKY may have multi-functional roles in stress tolerance and can potentially be used in breeding new rapeseed cultivars. We also found six tandem repeat pairs exhibiting similar expression profiles under the various stress conditions, and three pairs were mapped in the stress related

  5. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  6. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A heat exchanger such as forms, for example, part of a power steam boiler is made up of a number of tubes that may be arranged in many different ways, and it is necessary that the tubes be properly supported. The means by which the tubes are secured must be as simple as possible so as to facilitate construction and must be able to continue to function effectively under the varying operating conditions to which the heat exchanger is subject. The arrangement described is designed to meet these requirements, in an improved way. The tubes are secured to a member extending past several tubes and abutment means are provided. At least some of the abutment means comprise two abutment pieces and a wedge secured to the supporting member, that acts on these pieces to maintain the engagement. (U.K.)

  7. Identification of a novel immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-containing molecule, STAM2, by mass spectrometry and its involvement in growth factor and cytokine receptor signaling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, A; Fernandez, M M; Steen, H

    2000-01-01

    In an effort to clone novel tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates of the epidermal growth factor receptor, we have initiated an approach coupling affinity purification using anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies to mass spectrometry-based identification. Here, we report the identification of a signaling m...

  8. Solo, a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is critical for hemidesmosome formation and acinar development in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Sachiko; Matsui, Tsubasa S; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Deguchi, Shinji; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2018-01-01

    Cell-substrate adhesions are essential for various physiological processes, including embryonic development and maintenance of organ functions. Hemidesmosomes (HDs) are multiprotein complexes that attach epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Formation and remodeling of HDs are dependent on the surrounding mechanical environment; however, the upstream signaling mechanisms are not well understood. We recently reported that Solo (also known as ARHGEF40), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor targeting RhoA, binds to keratin8/18 (K8/K18) intermediate filaments, and that their interaction is important for force-induced actin and keratin cytoskeletal reorganization. In this study, we show that Solo co-precipitates with an HD protein, β4-integrin. Co-precipitation assays revealed that the central region (amino acids 330-1057) of Solo binds to the C-terminal region (1451-1752) of β4-integrin. Knockdown of Solo significantly suppressed HD formation in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Similarly, knockdown of K18 or treatment with Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), suppressed HD formation. As Solo knockdown or Y-27632 treatment is known to disorganize K8/K18 filaments, these results suggest that Solo is involved in HD formation by regulating K8/K18 filament organization via the RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway. We also showed that knockdown of Solo impairs acinar formation in MCF10A cells cultured in 3D Matrigel. In addition, Solo accumulated at the site of traction force generation in 2D-cultured MCF10A cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Solo plays a crucial role in HD formation and acinar development in epithelial cells by regulating mechanical force-induced RhoA activation and keratin filament organization.

  9. Rac1 Activation Caused by Membrane Translocation of a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor in Akt2-Mediated Insulin Signaling in Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Takenaka

    Full Text Available Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT4, which is translocated to the plasma membrane following insulin stimulation. Several lines of evidence suggested that the protein kinase Akt2 plays a key role in this insulin action. The small GTPase Rac1 has also been implicated as a regulator of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, acting downstream of Akt2. However, the mechanisms whereby Akt2 regulates Rac1 activity remain obscure. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor FLJ00068 has been identified as a direct regulator of Rac1 in Akt2-mediated signaling, but its characterization was performed mostly in cultured myoblasts. Here, we provide in vivo evidence that FLJ00068 indeed acts downstream of Akt2 as a Rac1 regulator by using mouse skeletal muscle. Small interfering RNA knockdown of FLJ00068 markedly diminished GLUT4 translocation to the sarcolemma following insulin administration or ectopic expression of a constitutively activated mutant of either phosphoinositide 3-kinase or Akt2. Additionally, insulin and these constitutively activated mutants caused the activation of Rac1 as shown by immunofluorescent microscopy using a polypeptide probe specific to activated Rac1 in isolated gastrocnemius muscle fibers and frozen sections of gastrocnemius muscle. This Rac1 activation was also abrogated by FLJ00068 knockdown. Furthermore, we observed translocation of FLJ00068 to the cell periphery following insulin stimulation in cultured myoblasts. Localization of FLJ00068 in the plasma membrane in insulin-stimulated, but not unstimulated, myoblasts and mouse gastrocnemius muscle was further affirmed by subcellular fractionation and subsequent immunoblotting. Collectively, these results strongly support a critical role of FLJ00068 in Akt2-mediated Rac1 activation in mouse skeletal muscle insulin signaling.

  10. Identification and functional characterization of Rca1, a transcription factor involved in both antifungal susceptibility and host response in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, Patrick; Pradervand, Sylvain; Ischer, Françoise; Coste, Alix T; Ferrari, Sélène; Harshman, Keith; Sanglard, Dominique

    2012-07-01

    The identification of novel transcription factors associated with antifungal response may allow the discovery of fungus-specific targets for new therapeutic strategies. A collection of 241 Candida albicans transcriptional regulator mutants was screened for altered susceptibility to fluconazole, caspofungin, amphotericin B, and 5-fluorocytosine. Thirteen of these mutants not yet identified in terms of their role in antifungal response were further investigated, and the function of one of them, a mutant of orf19.6102 (RCA1), was characterized by transcriptome analysis. Strand-specific RNA sequencing and phenotypic tests assigned Rca1 as the regulator of hyphal formation through the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signaling pathway and the transcription factor Efg1, but also probably through its interaction with a transcriptional repressor, most likely Tup1. The mechanisms responsible for the high level of resistance to caspofungin and fluconazole observed resulting from RCA1 deletion were investigated. From our observations, we propose that caspofungin resistance was the consequence of the deregulation of cell wall gene expression and that fluconazole resistance was linked to the modulation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway activity. In conclusion, our large-scale screening of a C. albicans transcription factor mutant collection allowed the identification of new effectors of the response to antifungals. The functional characterization of Rca1 assigned this transcription factor and its downstream targets as promising candidates for the development of new therapeutic strategies, as Rca1 influences host sensing, hyphal development, and antifungal response.

  11. Exchange rate formation in Ukraine and its impact on macroeconomic indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Koroliuk Tatiana Aleksandrovna

    2014-01-01

    The factors of exchange rate formation in Ukraine are analyzes in this paper, the influence of exchange rate on macroeconomic indicators of development and the main priorities of the exchange rate policy are determined exchange.

  12. The Effect of Organizational Justice and Perceived Organizational Support on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: The Mediating Role of Organizational Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Kamile

    2015-01-01

    Problem of Study: Research on social exchange relationships does not take into account another vital component of organizational life--namely an individual's sense of belonging and identity. Organizational identification is one of the most crucial factors holding employees together and keeping them committed to the organization. Many studies…

  13. Exchanging information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The Agency has a statutory mandate to foster 'the exchange of scientific and technical information on the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. The prime responsibility for this work within the Agency lies with the Division of Scientific and Technical Information, a part of the Department of Technical Operations. The Division accomplishes its task by holding conferences and symposia (Scientific Conferences Section), through the Agency Library, by publishing scientific journals, and through the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The Computer Section of the Division, which offers services to the Agency as a whole, provides resources for the automation of data storage and retrieval. (author)

  14. Clinical evaluation of dengue and identification of risk factors for severe disease: protocol for a multicentre study in 8 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Jaenisch, Thomas; Tam, Dong Thi Hoai; Kieu, Nguyen Tan Thanh; Van Ngoc, Tran; Nam, Nguyen Tran; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Yacoub, Sophie; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; Kumar, Varun; See, Lucy Lum Chai; Sathar, Jameela; Sandoval, Ernesto Pleit?s; Alfaro, Gabriela Maria Mar?n; Laksono, Ida Safitri; Mahendradhata, Yodi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The burden of dengue continues to increase globally, with an estimated 100 million clinically apparent infections occurring each year. Although most dengue infections are asymptomatic, patients can present with a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms ranging from mild febrile illness through to severe manifestations of bleeding, organ impairment, and hypovolaemic shock due to a systemic vascular leak syndrome. Clinical diagnosis of dengue and identification of which patients are like...

  15. An investigation into the factors that influence toolmark identifications on ammunition discharged from semi-automatic pistols recovered from car fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collender, Mark A; Doherty, Kevin A J; Stanton, Kenneth T

    2017-01-01

    Following a shooting incident where a vehicle is used to convey the culprits to and from the scene, both the getaway car and the firearm are often deliberately burned in an attempt to destroy any forensic evidence which may be subsequently recovered. Here we investigate the factors that influence the ability to make toolmark identifications on ammunition discharged from pistols recovered from such car fires. This work was carried out by conducting a number of controlled furnace tests in conjunction with real car fire tests in which three 9mm semi-automatic pistols were burned. Comparisons between pre-burn and post burn test fired ammunition discharged from these pistols were then performed to establish if identifications were still possible. The surfaces of the furnace heated samples and car fire samples were examined following heating/burning to establish what factors had influenced their surface morphology. The primary influence on the surfaces of the furnace heated and car fire samples was the formation of oxide layers. The car fire samples were altered to a greater extent than the furnace heated samples. Identifications were still possible between pre- and post-burn discharged cartridge cases, but this was not the case for the discharged bullets. It is suggested that the reason for this is a difference between the types of firearms discharge-generated toolmarks impressed onto the base of cartridge cases compared to those striated along the surfaces of bullets. It was also found that the temperatures recorded in the front foot wells were considerably less than those recorded on top of the rear seats during the car fires. These factors should be assessed by forensic firearms examiners when performing casework involving pistols recovered from car fires. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of important phenomena under sodium fire accidents based on PIRT process with factor analysis in sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Mitsuhiro; Uchibori, Akihiro; Kikuchi, Shin; Takata, Takashi; Ohno, Shuji; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table) process is an effective method to identify key phenomena involved in safety issues in nuclear power plants. The present PIRT process is aimed to validate sodium fire analysis codes. Because a sodium fire accident in sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) involves complex phenomena, various figures of merit (FOMs) could exist in this PIRT process. In addition, importance evaluation of phenomena for each FOM should be implemented in an objective manner under the PIRT process. This paper describes the methodology for specification of FOMs, identification of associated phenomena and importance evaluation of each associated phenomenon in order to complete a ranking table of important phenomena involved in a sodium fire accident in an SFR. The FOMs were specified through factor analysis in this PIRT process. Physical parameters to be quantified by a sodium fire analysis code were identified by considering concerns resulting from sodium fire in the factor analysis. Associated phenomena were identified through the element- and sequence-based phenomena analyses as is often conducted in PIRT processes. Importance of each associated phenomenon was evaluated by considering the sequence-based analysis of associated phenomena correlated with the FOMs. Then, we complete the ranking table through the factor and phenomenon analyses. (author)

  17. Rate of recurrence in Indian patients presenting with acute pancreatitis and identification of chronicity on follow up: Possible risk factors for progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Rishikesh; Abraham, Philip; Desai, Devendra C; Joshi, Anand; Gupta, Tarun

    2018-03-01

    To study the profile and long-term outcome of Indian patients presenting with acute pancreatitis and the possible risk factors for progression. Consecutive patients with acute or recurrent acute pancreatitis seen in our department during July 2013 to December 2014 were included. Details of past episodes were collected and patients were followed up till March 2015. In the 97 patients included (mean age 47.2 [SD 16.9] years; 74 men), gallstones (37 [38.1%]) and alcohol (19 [19.6%]) were the major identified etiologies; the idiopathic (31 [32%]) group constituted a third of patients. Recurrences were more common with idiopathic etiology (14 patients out of 30 had recurrences [46.7%]) as compared to alcoholic (5 out of 19 [26.3%]) and biliary (4 out of 37 [10.8%]) pancreatitis and with mild index episode. Following the episode of acute pancreatitis, identification of chronic pancreatitis was more common with alcoholic (6 out of 18 [33%]) and idiopathic (9 out of 30 [30%]) etiology as compared to other etiologies. Longer duration of follow up, but not number of recurrent episodes, was associated with identification of chronicity in patients presenting as acute pancreatitis. Out of 97 patients with acute pancreatitis, 27 (27.8%) developed recurrences with risk factors being idiopathic etiology and mild index episode. Eighteen of 97 (18.6%) patients had evidence of chronic pancreatitis on follow up, risk factors being the alcoholic and idiopathic varieties, and longer duration of follow up.

  18. Matchmaker Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreira, Nara L M; Arachchi, Harindra; Buske, Orion J; Chong, Jessica X; Hutton, Ben; Foreman, Julia; Schiettecatte, François; Groza, Tudor; Jacobsen, Julius O B; Haendel, Melissa A; Boycott, Kym M; Hamosh, Ada; Rehm, Heidi L

    2017-10-18

    In well over half of the individuals with rare disease who undergo clinical or research next-generation sequencing, the responsible gene cannot be determined. Some reasons for this relatively low yield include unappreciated phenotypic heterogeneity; locus heterogeneity; somatic and germline mosaicism; variants of uncertain functional significance; technically inaccessible areas of the genome; incorrect mode of inheritance investigated; and inadequate communication between clinicians and basic scientists with knowledge of particular genes, proteins, or biological systems. To facilitate such communication and improve the search for patients or model organisms with similar phenotypes and variants in specific candidate genes, we have developed the Matchmaker Exchange (MME). MME was created to establish a federated network connecting databases of genomic and phenotypic data using a common application programming interface (API). To date, seven databases can exchange data using the API (GeneMatcher, PhenomeCentral, DECIPHER, MyGene2, matchbox, Australian Genomics Health Alliance Patient Archive, and Monarch Initiative; the latter included for model organism matching). This article guides usage of the MME for rare disease gene discovery. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  19. Heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, F; Yanagida, T; Fujie, K; Futawatari, H

    1975-04-30

    The purpose of this construction is the improvement of heat transfer in finned tube heat exchangers, and therefore the improvement of its efficiency or its output per unit volume. This is achieved by preventing the formation of flow boundary layers in gaseous fluid. This effect always occurs on flow of smooth adjacent laminae, and especially if these have pipes carrying liquid passing through them; it worsens the heat transfer of such a boundary layer considerably compared to that in the turbulent range. The fins, which have several rows of heat exchange tubes passing through them, are fixed at a small spacing on theses tubes. The fins have slots cut in them by pressing or punching, where the pressed-out material remains as a web, which runs parallel to the level of the fin and at a small distance from it. These webs and slots are arranged radially around every tube hole, e.g. 6 in number. For a suitable small tube spacing, two adjacent tubes opposite each other have one common slot. Many variants of such slot arrangements are illustrated.

  20. Low cultural identification, low parental involvement and adverse peer influences as risk factors for delinquent behaviour among Filipino youth in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Anthony P S; Nishimura, Stephanie T; Chang, Janice Y; Ona, Celia; Cunanan, Vanessa L; Hishinuma, Earl S

    2010-07-01

    Among Filipino youth in Hawai'i, low Filipino cultural identification and low family support may be important risk factors for delinquency. To examine, in a sample of Filipino youth in Hawai'i, correlations between delinquent behaviour and the aforementioned - as well as other, potentially mediating - variables. A youth risk survey and Filipino Culture Scale were administered to Filipino students (N = 150) in Hawai'i. A parent risk survey was administered to available and consenting parents. Delinquent behaviour correlated positively with acculturative stress, low cultural identification and adverse peer influences; and negatively with total Filipino Culture Scale score. Structural equation modelling suggested that absent/ineffective adults and adverse peer influences might be more important variables compared to low self-esteem and less religiosity, linking low cultural identification to delinquent behaviour. Although further studies are warranted, to be effective, efforts to prevent delinquency by enhancing Filipino youths' cultural connectedness may also need to enhance family connectedness and address adverse peer influences.

  1. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  2. Ion-exchange concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Bondareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of natural waters in the present time - consuming process, the accuracy of which is influenced by many factors: the composition of water, the presence of impurities and "interfering" components. The water sample preparation process includes the step of concentration and separation of ions determined. The most versatile, efficient, and frequently used method is the concentration of inorganic anions from aqueous solutions by ion exchanger, which can optimize the composition of water to the optimal for identification and quantitative determination of anions. The characteristics of sorption chloride, nitrate and sulfate ions of basic anion exchange resin AВ-17 and Purolite A430 were compared in the article. The constants of protolysis of ion exchangers both AB 17 and Purolite A430 are the same and equal 0.037 ± 0,002. The value of total capacity (POE Purolite A430 was 4.3 mmol/g, AB 17 – 3.4 mmol/g. The studied ion exchangers have the same type of ionic groups – quaternary ammonium, but their number and denotes differ. The number of quaternary ammonium groups is higher in Purolite A430, respectively the number of absorbed anions of these ion exchanger is higher. The values of dynamic exchange capacity (DOE of ion exchanger Purolite A430 is higher than these values of AB-17 and equal to 1.48 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for chloride ion, 1.50 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for nitrate ion, 1.62 ± 0.03 mmol / dm3 for sulfate ion. The values of the POE and DOE of anion-exchange resins Purolite A430 and AV-17 and the characteristics of the individual sorption of chloride, nitrate, sulfate ions showed an advantage of the Purolite for the concentrationing of anions. It is found that times of anions sorption from triple-anion solutions by Purolite A430 are significantly different for different anions, and these times are close for anion-exchanger AV-17. It proves the possibility of quantitative separation and concentration by anion-exchanger Purolite A430.

  3. Identification of decisive factors for greenhouse gas emissions in comparative life cycle assessments of food waste management – an analytical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstad, Anna; Wenzel, Henrik; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2016-01-01

    . Secondly, to identify decisive factors in general and related to system boundary settings in particular, in reviewed studies. A number of criteria were constructed for identification of relevant comparative life cycle assessments, resulting in selection of nineteen studies, containing 103 different......A review of existing life cycle assessments on food waste management was made with two main aims. Firstly, to make an overview of the assessments of the global warming potential from the treatment alternatives incineration, landfill, anaerobic digestion and compost in studies reported in literature...

  4. A pilot study using scripted ventilation conditions to identify key factors affecting indoor pollutant concentration and air exchange rate in a residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ted; Myers, Jeffrey; Kelly, Thomas; Wisbith, Anthony; Ollison, Will

    2004-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted using an occupied, single-family test house in Columbus, OH, to determine whether a script-based protocol could be used to obtain data useful in identifying the key factors affecting air-exchange rate (AER) and the relationship between indoor and outdoor concentrations of selected traffic-related air pollutants. The test script called for hourly changes to elements of the test house considered likely to influence air flow and AER, including the position (open or closed) of each window and door and the operation (on/off) of the furnace, air conditioner, and ceiling fans. The script was implemented over a 3-day period (January 30-February 1, 2002) during which technicians collected hourly-average data for AER, indoor, and outdoor air concentrations for six pollutants (benzene, formaldehyde (HCHO), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x))), and selected meteorological variables. Consistent with expectations, AER tended to increase with the number of open exterior windows and doors. The 39 AER values measured during the study when all exterior doors and windows were closed varied from 0.36 to 2.29 h(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.77 h(-1) and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.435. The 27 AER values measured when at least one exterior door or window was opened varied from 0.50 to 15.8 h(-1) with a GM of 1.98 h(-1) and a GSD of 1.902. AER was also affected by temperature and wind speed, most noticeably when exterior windows and doors were closed. Results of a series of stepwise linear regression analyses suggest that (1) outdoor pollutant concentration and (2) indoor pollutant concentration during the preceding hour were the "variables of choice" for predicting indoor pollutant concentration in the test house under the conditions of this study. Depending on the pollutant and ventilation conditions, one or more of the following variables produced a small, but

  5. Use of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to assess factors influencing the identification of students at clinical high-risk for psychosis in 16+ Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Debra A; Stochl, Jan; Painter, Michelle; Shelley, Gillian F; Jones, Peter B; Perez, Jesus

    2015-09-23

    The longer psychotic disorders are untreated the worse their prognosis. Increasing the awareness of early psychosis by professionals who come into regular contact with young people is one strategy that could reduce treatment delay. As teachers engage with students on a daily basis, their role could be exploited to increase awareness of the early signs of psychosis. This study employed the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify and measure factors that influence identification of students at high-risk (HR) of developing psychosis in 16+ educational institutions. An elicitation phase revealed beliefs underlying teachers' motivations to detect HR students and informed the construction of a preliminary 114-item questionnaire incorporating all constructs outlined in the TPB. To define the determinants of teachers' intention to identify HR students, 75 teachers from secondary and further education institutions in 12 counties surrounding Cambridgeshire completed the questionnaire. A psychometric model of item response theory was used to identify redundant items and produce a reduced questionnaire that would be acceptable to teachers. The final instrument comprised 73 items and showed acceptable reliability (α  = 0.69-0.81) for all direct measures. Teacher's confidence and control over identification of HR students was low. Although identification of HR students was considered worthwhile, teachers believed that their peers, students and particularly their managers might not approve. Path analysis revealed that direct measures of attitude and PBC significantly predicted intention, but subjective norm did not. PBC was the strongest predictor of intention. Collectively, the direct measures explained 37 % of the variance of intention to identify HR for psychosis. This research demonstrated how the TPB can be used to identify and measure factors that influence identification of students at HR of developing psychosis in 16+ educational institutions and confirmed the

  6. Identification of Decisive Factors Determining the Continued Use of Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Agriculture Irrigation in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The success or failure of operating a rainwater harvesting system (RWH depends on both technological and non-technological factors. The importance of non-technological factors in attaining sustainable RWH operation is rarely emphasized. This study aims to assess the contribution of non-technological factors through determining decisive factors involved in the use of RWHs for agriculture irrigation in Beijing. The RWHs for agriculture irrigation in Beijing are not operating as well as expected. If the decisive factors are identified to be non-technological, the significance of non-technological factors will be highlighted. Firstly, 10 impact factors comprising non-technological and technological factors are selected according to both a literature review and interviews with RWH managers. Following this, through an artificial data mining method, rough set analysis, the decisive factors are identified. Results show that two non-technological factors, “doubts about rainwater quality” and “the availability of groundwater” determine whether these systems will continue or cease RWH operation in Beijing. It is, thus, considered necessary to improve public confidence in and motivation on using rainwater for agriculture irrigation, as this is the main obstacle in the sustainable and successful operation of RWHs. Through a case study of RWHs in Beijing, the study verifies the importance of acknowledging non-technological factors to achieve sustainable water management and considers that such factors should receive more attention by decision makers and researchers.

  7. Improving Fall Risk Factor Identification and Documentation of Risk Reduction Strategies by Rehabilitation Therapists through Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, Michele J.

    2011-01-01

    This static group comparison stu