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Sample records for exchange factor ii

  1. Non-muscle myosin II regulates neuronal actin dynamics by interacting with guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-muscle myosin II (NM II regulates a wide range of cellular functions, including neuronal differentiation, which requires precise spatio-temporal activation of Rho GTPases. The molecular mechanism underlying the NM II-mediated activation of Rho GTPases is poorly understood. The present study explored the possibility that NM II regulates neuronal differentiation, particularly morphological changes in growth cones and the distal axon, through guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs of the Dbl family. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NM II colocalized with GEFs, such as βPIX, kalirin and intersectin, in growth cones. Inactivation of NM II by blebbistatin (BBS led to the increased formation of short and thick filopodial actin structures at the periphery of growth cones. In line with these observations, FRET analysis revealed enhanced Cdc42 activity in BBS-treated growth cones. BBS treatment also induced aberrant targeting of various GEFs to the distal axon where GEFs were seldom observed under physiological conditions. As a result, numerous protrusions and branches were generated on the shaft of the distal axon. The disruption of the NM II-GEF interactions by overexpression of the DH domains of βPIX or Tiam1, or by βPIX depletion with specific siRNAs inhibited growth cone formation and induced slender axons concomitant with multiple branches in cultured hippocampal neurons. Finally, stimulation with nerve growth factor induced transient dissociation of the NM II-GEF complex, which was closely correlated with the kinetics of Cdc42 and Rac1 activation. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that NM II maintains proper morphology of neuronal growth cones and the distal axon by regulating actin dynamics through the GEF-Rho GTPase signaling pathway.

  2. Iron Atom Exchange between Hematite and Aqueous Fe(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierdich, Andrew J; Helgeson, Maria; Liu, Chengshuai; Wang, Chongmin; Rosso, Kevin M; Scherer, Michelle M

    2015-07-21

    Aqueous Fe(II) has been shown to exchange with structural Fe(III) in goethite without any significant phase transformation. It remains unclear, however, whether aqueous Fe(II) undergoes similar exchange reactions with structural Fe(III) in hematite, a ubiquitous iron oxide mineral. Here, we use an enriched (57)Fe tracer to show that aqueous Fe(II) exchanges with structural Fe(III) in hematite at room temperature, and that the amount of exchange is influenced by particle size, pH, and Fe(II) concentration. Reaction of 80 nm-hematite (27 m(2) g(-1)) with aqueous Fe(II) at pH 7.0 for 30 days results in ∼5% of its structural Fe(III) atoms exchanging with Fe(II) in solution, which equates to about one surface iron layer. Smaller, 50 nm-hematite particles (54 m(2) g(-1)) undergo about 25% exchange (∼3× surface iron) with aqueous Fe(II), demonstrating that structural Fe(III) in hematite is accessible to the fluid in the presence of Fe(II). The extent of exchange in hematite increases with pH up to 7.5 and then begins to decrease as the pH progresses to 8.0, likely due to surface site saturation by sorbed Fe(II). Similarly, when we vary the initial amount of added Fe(II), we observe decreasing amounts of exchange when aqueous Fe(II) is increased beyond surface saturation. This work shows that Fe(II) can catalyze iron atom exchange between bulk hematite and aqueous Fe(II), despite hematite being the most thermodynamically stable iron oxide.

  3. GLYDE-II: The GLYcan data exchange format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Ranzinger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The GLYcan Data Exchange (GLYDE standard has been developed for the representation of the chemical structures of monosaccharides, glycans and glycoconjugates using a connection table formalism formatted in XML. This format allows structures, including those that do not exist in any database, to be unambiguously represented and shared by diverse computational tools. GLYDE implements a partonomy model based on human language along with rules that provide consistent structural representations, including a robust namespace for specifying monosaccharides. This approach facilitates the reuse of data processing software at the level of granularity that is most appropriate for extraction of the desired information. GLYDE-II has already been used as a key element of several glycoinformatics tools. The philosophical and technical underpinnings of GLYDE-II and recent implementation of its enhanced features are described.

  4. Allosteric activation of coagulation factor VIIa visualized by hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper Dyrberg; Jørgensen, Thomas; Olsen, Ole H

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is a serine protease that, after binding to tissue factor (TF), plays a pivotal role in the initiation of blood coagulation. We used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry to visualize the details of FVIIa activation by comparing the exchange kinetics...

  5. Two-photon exchange effect on deuteron electromagnetic form factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yu Bing; Chen, D. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Corrections of two-photon exchange to proton and neutron electromagnetic form factors are employed to study the effect of two-photon exchange on the deuteron electromagnetic form factors. Numerical results of the effect are given. It is suggested to test the effect in the measurement of $P_z$ in a small angle limit.

  6. The Mechanism of Graviton Exchange between Bodies, Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational Law by space-time curvature. Quantum gravity is a part of quantum mechanics which is expected to combine these two theories, and it describes gravity force according to the principles of quantum mechanics which has not got the desired result, yet. In CPH theory, after reconsidering and analyzing...... the behavior of photon in the gravitational field, a new definition of graviton based on carrying the gravity force is given. By using this definition, graviton exchange mechanism between bodies/objects is described. As the purpose of quantum gravity is describing the force of gravity by using the principles...... given in which the relation between gravity (graviton) and electromagnetic (photon) have been described. In this part, the graviton exchange mechanism in the beneath of layer have studied and analyzed and it finally has been tried to generalize and extend the graviton exchange mechanism from between...

  7. Inhibition of endogenous heat shock protein 70 attenuates inducible nitric oxide synthase induction via disruption of heat shock protein 70/Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1-Ca(2+) -calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II/transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1-nuclear factor-κB signals in BV-2 microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Lu, Xu; Wang, Jia; Tong, Lijuan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) critically contributes to inflammation and host defense. The inhibition of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) prevents iNOS induction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. However, the role and mechanism of endogenous Hsp70 in iNOS induction in microglia remains unclear. This study addresses this issue in BV-2 microglia, showing that Hsp70 inhibition or knockdown prevents LPS-induced iNOS protein expression and nitric oxide production. Real-time PCR experiments showed that LPS-induced iNOS mRNA transcription was blocked by Hsp70 inhibition. Further studies revealed that the inhibition of Hsp70 attenuated LPS-stimulated nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB)-α and phosphorylation of IκB kinase β (IKKβ). This prevention effect of Hsp70 inhibition on IKKβ-NF-κB activation was found to be dependent on the Ca(2+) /calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)/transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) signals based on the following observations: 1) chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) or inhibition of CaMKII reduced LPS-induced increases in TAK1 phosphorylation and 2) Hsp70 inhibition reduced LPS-induced increases in CaMKII/TAK1 phosphorylation, intracellular pH value, [Ca(2+) ]i , and CaMKII/TAK1 association. Mechanistic studies showed that Hsp70 inhibition disrupted the association between Hsp70 and Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1), which is an important exchanger responsible for Ca(2+) influx in LPS-stimulated cells. These studies demonstrate that the inhibition of endogenous Hsp70 attenuates the induction of iNOS, which likely occurs through the disruption of NHE1/Hsp70-Ca(2+) -CaMKII/TAK1-NF-κB signals in BV-2 microglia, providing further insight into the functions of Hsp70 in the CNS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Eco-physiological investigations on wild and cultivated plants in the Negev Desert : II. The influence of climatic factors on carbon dioxide exchange and transpiration at the end of the dry period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, E -D; Lange, O L; Koch, W

    1972-12-01

    The influence of climatic factors on net photosynthesis, dark respiration and transpiration was investigated in the Negev Desert at the end of the dry summer period when plant water stress was at a maximum. Species studied included: dominant species of the natural vegetation (Artemisia herba-alba, Hammada scoparia, Noaea mucronata, Reaumuria negevensis, Salsola inermis, Zygophyllum dumosum), cultivated plants receiving rainfall and run-off water during the winter season in the run-off farm Avdat (Prunus armeniaca, Vitis vinifera), and irrigated cultivated plants receiving additional water during the summer season (Citrullus colocynthis, Datura metel). 1. Light saturation of net photosynthesis was reached at 60-90 klx conforming to the high solar radiation intensities of the desert. 2. Maximum rates of CO2 uptake per unit of dry weight for the irrigated mesomorphic plants was ten times that of the wild plants. However, in comparison to the other species, maximal rates of CO2 uptake for wild plants were higher when calculated on a leaf area basis than when represented on a dry weight basis. Maximum rates of net photosynthesis per unit chlorophyll content for some of the wild plants (Salsola and Noaea) were comparable to those of the cultivated Vitis and irrigated Citrullus and Datura, Hammada exhibited even higher rates than Prunus. This demonstrates the great photosynthetic capacity of the wild plants even at the end of the dry season. 3. The upper temperature compensation point for net photosynthesis of the wild plants was unusually high as an adaptation to the temperatures of the habitat. Compensation points higher than 49°C exceed the maxima known so far for other flowering species. Maximum rates of net photosynthesis of Hammada were measured when the temperature of the photosynthetic organs was 37°C; at 49°C photosynthesis was only reduced by 50%. 4. Leaf temperature affects plant gas exchange by influencing stomatal aperture. Diffusion resistance of leaves

  9. United States: Ukraine Technical Exchange II trip report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moak, D.J.; Wendling, M.A.

    1995-02-01

    May 15--21, 1994, the first technical conference was held at Hanford between Ukraine-Chornobyl, Westinghouse Hanford, and SAIC, to exchange technical information and experience gained in cleanup and stabilization of radioactive contamination at Hanford and Chornobyl. Protocol was signed for a second exchange and technology demonstration program in Kiev and near Chornobyl power plants. Technical Exchange No. 2 was held from August 28--September 9, 1994, with 3 focus areas: field demonstration of DOE-Hanford technologies and application to cleanup of contaminated lands resulting from 1986 Chornobyl accident; application of other US DOE-technologies; and observation/evaluation of Ukraine-developed technologies for potential application in USA. Three radiological mapping systems were demonstrated near Chornobyl: man-carried Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System, a mobile radiological data system, and NOMAD field gamma spectroscopy system. The Ukraine-Chornobyl team hosted technical presentations, discussions and field trips for 4.5 days, providing insight on the Chornobyl problem and allowing the US team to present overviews on DOE technologies that may be applicable to the Chornobyl situation. It is concluded that Ukrainian scientists have tremendous talent and expended considerable energy in attempting to tackle such a problem, but economic and cultural conditions with Ukraine have prevented them from acquiring the resources to implement basic aspects of characterization and remediation activities. Most of their publications are in Russian only. Their translation, plus resources to carry out proposals for bench scale and field demonstration projects, could benefit the DOE complex and other nuclear programs. The considerable cultural and economic change occurring in Ukraine, is providing opportunities for private industries to assist in the changes and for DOE, others to apply cleanup technologies, and it is essential that close institutional relations be established.

  10. Analyzing the effect of ion exchange on flexural strength of cermaco II and colorlogic veneer porcelains

    OpenAIRE

    N. Rashidan; HA. Mahgoli

    1998-01-01

      The major foible of dental ceramics is their brittle nature. Therefore, the producers of these materials have focused on the “strength” issue. A method of increasing strength is ion exchange on porcelain surface which leads to formation of a compressive crust that opposing forces should overcome before developing a crack. In current study, ion exchange in two types of porcelain, Ceramco II which is used in PFM restorations and Colorloic veneer which is used for laminates, veneers, inlays an...

  11. A thermoelectric power generating heat exchanger: Part II – Numerical modeling and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Bjørk, Rasmus; Lindeburg, N.

    2016-01-01

    In Part I of this study, the performance of an experimental integrated thermoelectric generator (TEG)-heat exchanger was presented. In the current study, Part II, the obtained experimental results are compared with those predicted by a finite element (FE) model. In the simulation of the integrated...... TEG-heat exchanger, the thermal contact resistance between the TEG and the heat exchanger is modeled assuming either an ideal thermal contact or using a combined Cooper–Mikic–Yovanovich (CMY) and parallel plate gap formulation, which takes into account the contact pressure, roughness and hardness...

  12. Analyzing the effect of ion exchange on flexural strength of cermaco II and colorlogic veneer porcelains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rashidan

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available   The major foible of dental ceramics is their brittle nature. Therefore, the producers of these materials have focused on the “strength” issue. A method of increasing strength is ion exchange on porcelain surface which leads to formation of a compressive crust that opposing forces should overcome before developing a crack. In current study, ion exchange in two types of porcelain, Ceramco II which is used in PFM restorations and Colorloic veneer which is used for laminates, veneers, inlays and onlays, are evaluated. Additionally, laminate porcelains, etching effect on strength of porcelain and interaction of acid etching and ion exchange have been studied.

  13. Stochastic Simulation of Isotopic Exchange Mechanisms for Fe(II)-Catalyzed Recrystallization of Goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzycki, Piotr [Energy; Institute; Rosso, Kevin M. [Pacific Northwest

    2017-06-15

    Understanding Fe(II)-catalyzed transformations of Fe(III)- (oxyhydr)oxides is critical for correctly interpreting stable isotopic distributions and for predicting the fate of metal ions in the environment. Recent Fe isotopic tracer experiments have shown that goethite undergoes rapid recrystallization without phase change when exposed to aqueous Fe(II). The proposed explanation is oxidation of sorbed Fe(II) and reductive Fe(II) release coupled 1:1 by electron conduction through crystallites. Given the availability of two tracer exchange data sets that explore pH and particle size effects (e.g., Handler et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2014, 48, 11302-11311; Joshi and Gorski Environ. Sci. Technol. 2016, 50, 7315-7324), we developed a stochastic simulation that exactly mimics these experiments, while imposing the 1:1 constraint. We find that all data can be represented by this model, and unifying mechanistic information emerges. At pH 7.5 a rapid initial exchange is followed by slower exchange, consistent with mixed surface- and diffusion-limited kinetics arising from prominent particle aggregation. At pH 5.0 where aggregation and net Fe(II) sorption are minimal, that exchange is quantitatively proportional to available particle surface area and the density of sorbed Fe(II) is more readily evident. Our analysis reveals a fundamental atom exchange rate of ~10-5 Fe nm-2 s-1, commensurate with some of the reported reductive dissolution rates of goethite, suggesting Fe(II) release is the rate-limiting step in the conduction mechanism during recrystallization.

  14. Hydration structure and water exchange dynamics of Fe(II) ion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer simulation studies of the hydration structure and water exchange dynamics in the first hydration shell for Fe(II) in water are presented. The structure of the hydrated ion is discussed in terms of radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, and angular distributions. The average first-shell hydration structure is ...

  15. Flooding tolerance of Carex species. II. Root gas-exchange capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moog, PR; Bruggemann, W

    1998-01-01

    Root CO2 and O-2 gas exchange were measured in young Carer extensa Good. (flooding sensitive), C. remota L. and C. pseudocyperus L. (both flooding tolerant) plants, precultured either aerobically or anaerobically. Temperature changes form 21 to II degrees C had small effects on root CO2 release from

  16. Removal of Ca(II) and Mg(II) from potassium chromate solution on Amberlite IRC 748 synthetic resin by ion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhihui; Qi, Tao; Qu, Jingkui; Wang, Lina; Chu, Jinglong

    2009-08-15

    Experimental measurements have been made on the batch ion exchange of Ca(II) and Mg(II) from potassium chromate solution using cation exchanger of Amberlite IRC 748 as K+ form. The ion exchange behavior of two alkaline-earth metals on the resin, depending on contact time, pH, temperature and resin dosage was studied. The adsorption isotherms were described by means of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. For Ca(II) ion, the Langmuir model represented the adsorption process better than the Freundlich model. The maximum ion exchange capacity was found to be 47.21 mg g(-1) for Ca(II) and 27.70 mg g(-1) for Mg(II). The kinetic data were tested using Lagergren-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Kinetic data correlated well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating that the chemical adsorption was the rate-limiting step. Various thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (DeltaG degrees ), enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ) and entropy (DeltaS degrees ) were also calculated. These parameters showed that the ion exchange of Ca(II) and Mg(II) from potassium chromate solution was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic process in nature. The activation energy of ion-exchange (E(a)) was determined as 12.34 kJ mol(-1) for Ca(II) and 9.865 kJ mol(-1) for Mg(II) according to the Arrhenius equation.

  17. Adsorption Properties of Ni(II by D301R Anion Exchange Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xiuling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Ni(II with D301R resin was investigated in this paper. The results showed that the saturated extent of adsorption Ni(II by the resin was 84.3 mg/g. The equilibrium data of Ni(II sorption was better described by Langmuir isotherm model (r2=0.994 while that of Ni(II sorption also fitted in Freundlich isotherm model within the experimental concentration range. The amount of the constant (q0 of Ni(II under 298 K in Langmuir model was 76.92 mg/g, which was close to the experimental results. The constant n was within 2–10 in Freundlich model; it was shown that adsorption of Ni(II by the resin was easy to take place. The uptake kinetics followed the Lagergren pseudo-first-order rate equation (r2=0.9813. The particle diffusion controlled the adsorption process of Ni(II. The coefficient of the intraparticle diffusion increased with the increase of the pH values and the concentration of Ni(II in aqueous solution. There was a drop of 20.1 cm−1 for the bending vibration frequency of N–H bond. Results showed that the adsorption of Ni(II by D301R anion exchange resin was the surface complexation through the infrared spectrum analysis.

  18. Exchange interactions in a dinuclear manganese (II) complex with cyanopyridine-N-oxide bridging ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markosyan, A.S. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University (United States); Gaidukova, I.Yu.; Ruchkin, A.V. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Anokhin, A.O. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division of the Russian, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Irkhin, V.Yu., E-mail: valentin.irkhin@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division of the Russian, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ryazanov, M.V.; Kuz’mina, N.P. [Faculty of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikiforov, V.N. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic properties of dinuclear manganese(II) complex [Mn(hfa){sub 2}cpo]{sub 2} (where hfa is hexafluoroacetylacetonate anion and cpo is 4-cyanopyridine-N-oxide) are presented. The non-monotonous dependence of magnetic susceptibility is explained in terms of the hierarchy of exchange parameters by using exact diagonalization. The thermodynamic behavior of pure cpo and [Mn(hfa){sub 2}(cpo)]{sub 2} is simulated numerically by an extrapolation to spin S=5/2. The Mn–Mn exchange integral is evaluated.

  19. A GTP-exchange factor required for cell orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nern, A; Arkowitz, R A

    1998-01-08

    The Rho-family of GTPases and their regulators are essential for cytoskeletal reorganization and transcriptional activation in response to extracellular signals. Little is known about what links these molecules to membrane receptors. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, haploid cells respond to mating pheromone through a G-protein-coupled receptor and the betagamma subunit of the G protein, resulting in arrest of the cell cycle, transcriptional activation, and polarized growth towards a mating partner. The Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 and its exchange factor Cdc24 have been implicated in the mating process, but their specific role is unknown. Here we report the identification of cdc24 alleles that do not affect vegetative growth but drastically reduce the ability of yeast cells to mate. When exposed to mating pheromone, these mutants arrest growth, activate transcription, and undergo characteristic morphological and actin-cytoskeleton polarization. However, the mutants are unable to orient towards a pheromone gradient, and instead position their mating projection adjacent to their previous bud site. The mutants are specifically defective in the binding of Cdc24 to the G-protein betagamma subunit. Our results demonstrate that the association of an exchange factor and the betagamma subunit of a hetero-trimeric G protein links receptor-mediated activation to oriented cell growth.

  20. Factors contributing to attitude exchange amongst preservice elementary teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David H.

    2002-01-01

    Previous research has shown that elementary education majors often dislike science and lack confidence in their ability to teach it. This is an important problem because students who hold these attitudes are likely to avoid teaching science, or teach it poorly, when they become teachers. It is therefore necessary to identify preservice elementary teachers who hold negative attitudes towards science, and attempt to convert these attitudes to positive before they become teachers. This study was designed to identify students whose attitudes had changed from negative to positive (i.e., attitude exchange had occurred) after participating in a one-semester elementary science education course, and to identify the course factors that were responsible. Four participants were individually interviewed. The transcripts indicated that attitude exchange had occurred for each of the four students. Each student described several features of the course that had a positive influence. These were of three main types: personal attributes of the tutor, specific teaching strategies, and external validation. It was proposed that many of the individual factors were effective because they represented either performance accomplishments or vicarious experience as defined by Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 1977, 191-215).

  1. Charge-Exchange Neutral Particle Analyzer Diagnostic of TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontdecaba, J. M.; Balbin, R.; Petrov, S.; TJ-II team

    2003-07-01

    A description of the Charge Exchange Neutral Particle Analyzers in operation in the heliac flexible TJ-II is reported. A description of the detectors, as well as the operation characteristics, hardware and software used in the control and analysis of the data obtained with the diagnostic is detailed. Two NPAs are in operation in TJ-II. One of them is a 5-channel analyzer and another one is an Acord-12. The 5-channel analyzer provides measurements of charge exchange neutral fluxes at five energy channels, whereas the Acord-12 can measure simultaneously two different hydrogen isotopes (H and D) at six energy channels. Their lines of sight can be varied poloidally in order to observe the different sections of the plasma. (Author) 10 refs.

  2. HeartMate II Left Ventricular Assist Device Pump Exchange: A Single-Institution Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Asad F; Joseph, Susan M; Lima, Brian; Hall, Shelley A; Malyala, Rajasekhar; Rafael, Aldo E; Gonzalez-Stawinski, Gonzalo V; Chamogeorgakis, Themistokles

    2017-08-01

    Background  Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have revolutionized the treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. These devices are replaced when pump complications arise if heart transplant is not possible. We present our experience with HeartMate II (HMII (Thoratec, Plesanton, California, United States)) LVAD pump exchange. Materials and Methods  We retrospectively reviewed all cases that required pump exchange due to LVAD complication from November 2011 until June 2016 at a single high-volume institution. The indications, demographics, and outcome were extracted and analyzed. Results  Of 250 total patients with implanted HMII LVADs, 16 (6%) required pump exchange during the study period. The initial indications for LVAD placement in these patients were bridge to transplantation ( n  = 6 [37.5%]) or destination therapy ( n  = 10 [62.5%]). Fifteen patients (93.8%) required pump exchange due to pump thrombosis and 1 (6.2%) due to refractory driveline infection. Nine patients (56.2%) underwent repeat median sternotomy while a left subcostal approach was used in the remaining seven patients. Fifteen patients (93.7%) survived until hospital discharge. During the follow-up period (median, 155 days), 11 patients remained alive and 4 of these underwent successful cardiac transplantation. Conclusion  HMII LVAD pump exchange can be safely performed for driveline infection or pump thrombosis when heart transplantation is not an option. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Vav family exchange factors: an integrated regulatory and functional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustelo, Xosé R

    2014-01-01

    The Vav family is a group of tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated signal transduction molecules hierarchically located downstream of protein tyrosine kinases. The main function of these proteins is to work as guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for members of the Rho GTPase family. In addition, they can exhibit a variety of catalysis-independent roles in specific signaling contexts. Vav proteins play essential signaling roles for both the development and/or effector functions of a large variety of cell lineages, including those belonging to the immune, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. They also contribute to pathological states such as cancer, immune-related dysfunctions, and atherosclerosis. Here, I will provide an integrated view about the evolution, regulation, and effector properties of these signaling molecules. In addition, I will discuss the pros and cons for their potential consideration as therapeutic targets.

  4. Dock-family exchange factors in cell migration and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadea, Gilles; Blangy, Anne

    2014-10-01

    Dock family proteins are evolutionary conserved exchange factors for the Rho GTPases Rac and Cdc42. There are 11 Dock proteins in mammals, named Dock1 (or Dock180) to Dock11 that play different cellular functions. In particular, Dock proteins regulate actin cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and migration. Not surprisingly, members of the Dock family have been involved in various pathologies, including cancer and defects in the central nervous and immune systems. This review proposes an update of the recent findings regarding the function of Dock proteins, focusing on their role in the control of cell migration and invasion and the consequences in human diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Cooling Strings of Superconducting Devices below 2 K the Helium II Bayonet Heat Exchanger

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P; Tavian, L; Van Weelderen, R

    1998-01-01

    High-energy particle accelerators and colliders contain long strings of superconducting devices - acceleration RF cavities and magnets - operating at high field, which may require cooling in helium II below 2 K. In order to maintain adequate operating conditions, the applied or generated heat loads must be extracted and transported with minimum temperature difference. Conventional cooling schemes based on conductive or convective heat transport in pressurized helium II very soon reach their intrinsic limits of thermal impedance over extended lengths. We present the concept of helium II bayonet heat exchanger, which has been developed at CERN for the magnet cooling scheme of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and describe its specific advantages as a slim, quasi-isothermal heat sink. Experimental results obtained on several test set-ups, and a prototype magnet string have permitted to validate its performance and sizing rules, for transporting linear heat loads in the W.m-1 range over distances of several tens o...

  6. Removal of Ca(II) and Mg(II) from potassium chromate solution on Amberlite IRC 748 synthetic resin by ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Zhihui [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qi Tao, E-mail: tqgreen@home.ipe.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qu Jingkui; Wang Lina; Chu Jinglong [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-08-15

    Experimental measurements have been made on the batch ion exchange of Ca(II) and Mg(II) from potassium chromate solution using cation exchanger of Amberlite IRC 748 as K{sup +} form. The ion exchange behavior of two alkaline-earth metals on the resin, depending on contact time, pH, temperature and resin dosage was studied. The adsorption isotherms were described by means of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. For Ca(II) ion, the Langmuir model represented the adsorption process better than the Freundlich model. The maximum ion exchange capacity was found to be 47.21 mg g{sup -1} for Ca(II) and 27.70 mg g{sup -1} for Mg(II). The kinetic data were tested using Lagergren-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Kinetic data correlated well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating that the chemical adsorption was the rate-limiting step. Various thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}), enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}) and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) were also calculated. These parameters showed that the ion exchange of Ca(II) and Mg(II) from potassium chromate solution was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic process in nature. The activation energy of ion-exchange (E{sub a}) was determined as 12.34 kJ mol{sup -1} for Ca(II) and 9.865 kJ mol{sup -1} for Mg(II) according to the Arrhenius equation.

  7. Charge exchange contamination of CRIT-II barium CIV experiment. [critical ionization velocity in ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, G. R.; Mende, S. B.; Meyerott, R. E.; Rairden, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments have been recently performed which attempted to confirm critical ionization velocity (CIV) ionization by deploying chemicals at high velocity in the ionosphere. Specifically, the CRIT-II rocket performed a barium release in the ionosphere, where observations of Ba(+) resonant emissions following the release are believed to have resulted from the CIV process. Calculations are presented which suggest a significant fraction (if not all) of the Ba(+) observed likely resulted from charge exchange with the thermosphere ions and not through CIV processes. The results presented here are pertinent to other CIV experiments performed in the ionosphere. It is recommended that laboratory measurements should be made of the charge exchange cross section between O(+) and Ba as well as other metal vapors used in CIV experiments.

  8. Atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe in clay minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Anke; Wu, Lingling; Li, Weiqiang; Beard, Brian L; Johnson, Clark M; Rosso, Kevin M; Frierdich, Andrew J; Scherer, Michelle M

    2015-03-03

    Due to their stability toward reductive dissolution, Fe-bearing clay minerals are viewed as a renewable source of Fe redox activity in diverse environments. Recent findings of interfacial electron transfer between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe in clay minerals and electron conduction in octahedral sheets of nontronite, however, raise the question whether Fe interaction with clay minerals is more dynamic than previously thought. Here, we use an enriched isotope tracer approach to simultaneously trace Fe atom movement from the aqueous phase to the solid ((57)Fe) and from the solid into the aqueous phase ((56)Fe). Over 6 months, we observed a significant decrease in aqueous (57)Fe isotope fraction, with a fast initial decrease which slowed after 3 days and stabilized after about 50 days. For the aqueous (56)Fe isotope fraction, we observed a similar but opposite trend, indicating that Fe atom movement had occurred in both directions: from the aqueous phase into the solid and from the solid into aqueous phase. We calculated that 5-20% of structural Fe in clay minerals NAu-1, NAu-2, and SWa-1 exchanged with aqueous Fe(II), which significantly exceeds the Fe atom layer exposed directly to solution. Calculations based on electron-hopping rates in nontronite suggest that the bulk conduction mechanism previously demonstrated for hematite1 and suggested as an explanation for the significant Fe atom exchange observed in goethite2 may be a plausible mechanism for Fe atom exchange in Fe-bearing clay minerals. Our finding of 5-20% Fe atom exchange in clay minerals indicates that we need to rethink how Fe mobility affects the macroscopic properties of Fe-bearing phyllosilicates and its role in Fe biogeochemical cycling, as well as its use in a variety of engineered applications, such as landfill liners and nuclear repositories.

  9. Thermal Characterization of the HeII LHC Heat Exchanger Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, D; Policella, C; Rieubland, Jean Michel; Vandoni, Giovanna; Van Weelderen, R

    1998-01-01

    The LHC magnet cooling scheme is based on a HeII bayonet heat exchanger, which acts as a quasi isothermal heat sink. In order to assess the thermal performance of the oxygen free, annealed/cold worked copper tube, measurements of the total thermal conductance of the tube were performed in a laboratory set-up. This paper describes the experimental technique, which permits to separate the contributio n of the Kapitza interface resistance from the total transverse conductance. The influence of the surface treatment on the Kapitza resistance is also discussed.

  10. Chlamydial entry involves TARP binding of guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Josh Lane

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis attachment to cells induces the secretion of the elementary body-associated protein TARP (Translocated Actin Recruiting Protein. TARP crosses the plasma membrane where it is immediately phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by unknown host kinases. The Rac GTPase is also activated, resulting in WAVE2 and Arp2/3-dependent recruitment of actin to the sites of chlamydia attachment. We show that TARP participates directly in chlamydial invasion activating the Rac-dependent signaling cascade to recruit actin. TARP functions by binding two distinct Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, Sos1 and Vav2, in a phosphotyrosine-dependent manner. The tyrosine phosphorylation profile of the sequence YEPISTENIYESI within TARP, as well as the transient activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K, appears to determine which GEF is utilized to activate Rac. The first and second tyrosine residues, when phosphorylated, are utilized by the Sos1/Abi1/Eps8 and Vav2, respectively, with the latter requiring the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate. Depletion of these critical signaling molecules by siRNA resulted in inhibition of chlamydial invasion to varying degrees, owing to a possible functional redundancy of the two pathways. Collectively, these data implicate TARP in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton remodeling machinery, demonstrating a mechanism by which C.trachomatis invades non-phagocytic cells.

  11. EPR study on the ligand-exchange reaction between bis(diethyldiselenocarbamato)copper(II) and bis(octyldithiocarbonato)copper(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Dimitrova, Anna

    2006-03-01

    EPR study on the ligand-exchange reaction between bis(diethyldiselenocarbamato)copper(II), Cu(Et 2dsc) 2, and bis(octyldithiocarbonato)copper(II), Cu(octxant) 2, in CH 2Cl 2, CHCl 3, CCl 4, C 6H 6 and C 6H 5·CH 3 is reported for the first time. Mixing of equimolar amounts of the parents (chromophores CuSe 4 and CuS 4, respectively) in C 6H 6, C 6H 5·CH 3 and CH 2Cl 2 makes EPR signals of both parents superimposed by the spectrum of a mixed-chelate Cu(xant)(dsc) complex (chromophore CuS 2Se 2). A new additional EPR spectrum appears in CHCl 3 or CCl 4 due to a five-coordinate mixed-ligand complex with the chromophore Cu(S 3Se)S as follows by comparing the g-values of parents and mixed-ligand complexes. The appearance of this complex could be explained having in mind donor-acceptor properties of complexes, solvents and the resultant reaction of Cu(octxant) 2 with the ester of diselenocarbamic acid yielded in Cu(Et 2dsc) 2 destruction by CCl 4 or CHCl 3.

  12. Metal-ion exchange induced structural transformation as a way of forming novel Ni(II)− and Cu(II)−salicylaldimine structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jing-Yun, E-mail: jyunwu@ncnu.edu.tw; Tsai, Chi-Jou; Chang, Ching-Yun; Wu, Yung-Yuan

    2017-02-15

    A Zn(II)−salicylaldimine complex [Zn(L{sup salpyca})(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (1, where H{sub 2}L{sup salpyca}=4-hydroxy-3-(((pyridin-2-yl)methylimino)methyl)benzoic acid), with a one-dimensional (1D) chain structure, has been successfully converted to a discrete Ni(II)−salicylaldimine complex [Ni(L{sup salpyca})(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}] (2) and an infinite Cu(II)−salicylaldimine complex ([Cu(L{sup salpyca})]·3H{sub 2}O){sub n} (3) through a metal-ion exchange induced structural transformation process. However, such processes do not worked by Mn(II) and Co(II) ions. Solid-state structure analyses reveal that complexes 1–3 form comparable coordinative or supramolecular zigzag chains running along the crystallographic [201] direction. In addition, replacing Zn(II) ion by Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions caused changes in coordination environment and sphere of metal centers, from a 5-coordinate intermediate geometry of square pyramidal and trigonal bipyramidal in 1 to a 6-coordinate octahedral geometry in 2, and to a 4-coordiante square planar geometry in 3. This study shows that metal-ion exchange serves as a very efficient way of forming new coordination complexes that may not be obtained through direct synthesis. - Graphical abstract: A Zn(II)−salicylaldimine zigzag chain has been successfully converted to a Ni(II)−salicylaldimine supramolecular zigzag chain and a Cu(II)−salicylaldimine coordinative zigzag chain through metal-ion exchange induced structural transformations, which is not achieved by Mn(II) and Co(II) ions.

  13. Mutations in elongation factor 1beta, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, enhance translational fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Schmid, A; Valente, L; Loik, V I; Williams, T; Starita, L M; Kinzy, T G

    1999-08-01

    Translation elongation factor 1beta (EF-1beta) is a member of the family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors, proteins whose activities are important for the regulation of G proteins critical to many cellular processes. EF-1beta is a highly conserved protein that catalyzes the exchange of bound GDP for GTP on EF-1alpha, a required step to ensure continued protein synthesis. In this work, we demonstrate that the highly conserved C-terminal region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EF-1beta is sufficient for normal cell growth. This region of yeast and metazoan EF-1beta and the metazoan EF-1beta-like protein EF-1delta is highly conserved. Human EF-1beta, but not human EF-1delta, is functional in place of yeast EF-1beta, even though both EF-1beta and EF-1delta have previously been shown to have guanine nucleotide exchange activity in vitro. Based on the sequence and functional homology, mutagenesis of two C-terminal residues identical in all EF-1beta protein sequences was performed, resulting in mutants with growth defects and sensitivity to translation inhibitors. These mutants also enhance translational fidelity at nonsense codons, which correlates with a reduction in total protein synthesis. These results indicate the critical function of EF-1beta in regulating EF-1alpha activity, cell growth, translation rates, and translational fidelity.

  14. Mutations in Elongation Factor 1β, a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, Enhance Translational Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Schmid, Anne; Valente, Louis; Loik, Valerie I.; Williams, Tanishia; Starita, Lea M.; Kinzy, Terri Goss

    1999-01-01

    Translation elongation factor 1β (EF-1β) is a member of the family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors, proteins whose activities are important for the regulation of G proteins critical to many cellular processes. EF-1β is a highly conserved protein that catalyzes the exchange of bound GDP for GTP on EF-1α, a required step to ensure continued protein synthesis. In this work, we demonstrate that the highly conserved C-terminal region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EF-1β is sufficient for normal cell growth. This region of yeast and metazoan EF-1β and the metazoan EF-1β-like protein EF-1δ is highly conserved. Human EF-1β, but not human EF-1δ, is functional in place of yeast EF-1β, even though both EF-1β and EF-1δ have previously been shown to have guanine nucleotide exchange activity in vitro. Based on the sequence and functional homology, mutagenesis of two C-terminal residues identical in all EF-1β protein sequences was performed, resulting in mutants with growth defects and sensitivity to translation inhibitors. These mutants also enhance translational fidelity at nonsense codons, which correlates with a reduction in total protein synthesis. These results indicate the critical function of EF-1β in regulating EF-1α activity, cell growth, translation rates, and translational fidelity. PMID:10409717

  15. Water exchange in manganese-based water-oxidizing catalysts in photosynthetic systems: from the water-oxidizing complex in photosystem II to nano-sized manganese oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Isaloo, Mohsen Abbasi; Eaton-Rye, Julian J; Tomo, Tatsuya; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Satoh, Kimiyuki; Carpentier, Robert; Shen, Jian-Ren; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2014-09-01

    The water-oxidizing complex (WOC), also known as the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), of photosystem II in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms efficiently catalyzes water oxidation. It is, therefore, responsible for the presence of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere. The WOC is a manganese-calcium (Mn₄CaO₅(H₂O)₄) cluster housed in a protein complex. In this review, we focus on water exchange chemistry of metal hydrates and discuss the mechanisms and factors affecting this chemical process. Further, water exchange rates for both the biological cofactor and synthetic manganese water splitting are discussed. The importance of fully unveiling the water exchange mechanism to understand the chemistry of water oxidation is also emphasized here. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  17. Porphyromonas gingivalis Uses Specific Domain Rearrangements and Allelic Exchange to Generate Diversity in Surface Virulence Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashper, Stuart G.; Mitchell, Helen L.; Seers, Christine A.; Gladman, Simon L.; Seemann, Torsten; Bulach, Dieter M.; Chandry, P. Scott; Cross, Keith J.; Cleal, Steven M.; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen of chronic periodontitis. The virulence of P. gingivalis is reported to be strain related and there are currently a number of strain typing schemes based on variation in capsular polysaccharide, the major and minor fimbriae and adhesin domains of Lys-gingipain (Kgp), amongst other surface proteins. P. gingivalis can exchange chromosomal DNA between strains by natural competence and conjugation. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variability of P. gingivalis strains sourced from international locations over a 25-year period and to determine if variability in surface virulence factors has a phylogenetic basis. Whole genome sequencing was performed on 13 strains and comparison made to 10 previously sequenced strains. A single nucleotide polymorphism-based phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a shallow tri-lobed phylogeny. There was a high level of reticulation in the phylogenetic network, demonstrating extensive horizontal gene transfer between the strains. Two highly conserved variants of the catalytic domain of the major virulence factor the Kgp proteinase (KgpcatI and KgpcatII) were found. There were three variants of the fourth Kgp C-terminal cleaved adhesin domain. Specific variants of the cell surface proteins FimA, FimCDE, MfaI, RagAB, Tpr, and PrtT were also identified. The occurrence of all these variants in the P. gingivalis strains formed a mosaic that was not related to the SNP-based phylogeny. In conclusion P. gingivalis uses domain rearrangements and genetic exchange to generate diversity in specific surface virulence factors. PMID:28184216

  18. Growth factors II: insuline-like growth binging proteins (GFBPs Factores de crecimiento II: factores insulinoides de crecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Norha Jaramillo Londoño

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent knowledge concerning Insulin.like growth factors I and II, with emphasis on their biochemical structure, concentrations, binding proteins, receptors, mechanisms of action, biological effects, and alterations of their concentrations in biological fluids. Se revisan los Factores Insulinoides de Crecimiento, también denominados ";Factores de Crecimiento Similares a la Insulina";, sobre los cuales se dispone de abundante información. Se sintetizan conocimientos recientes sobre dichos factores con énfasis en los siguientes aspectos: estructura bioquímica, concentraciones y sus cambios en los líquidos biológicos, proteínas fijadoras, receptores, mecanismos de acción y efectos biológicos.

  19. Alveolar Gas Exchange and Pulmonary Functions in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Anandhalakshmi; S, Manikandan; P, Ganeshkumar; C, Ramachandran

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing tremendously throughout the world especially in the developing countries. This disease affects various organs like eyes, nerves, kidneys and the heart. In this study, we investigated whether lungs are also one of the target organs of diabetes mellitus or not. To assess the pulmonary function parameters including alveolar gas exchange in patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and to find the influence of hyperglycaemia and duration of diabetes. This cross sectional study involved 30 type II diabetic patients of age 30-60 years attending the diabetic outpatient department of SRM Medical College & Research Centre and 30 age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects as controls. The glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, fasting and post prandial blood glucose levels, pulmonary function parameters such as Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Volume Percentage (FEV1 /FVC), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR), Forced Expiratory Flow (25 - 75%), Peak Inspiratory flow ( PIF), Forced Inspiratory Vital Capacity ( FIVC), Total Lung Capacity ( TLC),Diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide( DLCO) were measured for all the participants using Easyone Pro computerised spirometer. DLCO was measured by single breath Carbon Monoxide (CO) diffusion test. The alveolar membrane permeability was assessed by evaluating the ratio of DLCO to Alveolar Ventilation (VA). The pulmonary function parameters FVC, FEV1, PEFR, PIF, FIVC, TLC , DLCO and DLCO/VA were significantly low (pII diabetes mellitus when compared to control group. The DLCO and DLCO/VA were significantly lower (p 7). We conclude that the pulmonary function parameters like FVC, FEV1, PEFR, PIF, FIVC, TLC and alveolar gas exchange were significantly reduced in patients with type II diabetes. The patients with Type II diabetes mellitus had a restrictive pattern of respiratory abnormality. The patients with poor glycaemic control( HbA1c > 7

  20. Common factors and the exchange rate: results from the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rafael de Oliveira Felício

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the usefulness of factor models in explaining the dynamics of the exchange rate Real / Dollar from January 1999 to August 2011. The paper verifies that the inclusion of factors embedded on the common movements of exchange rates of a set of countries significantly improves the in-sample and out-of-sample predictive power of the models comprising only macroeconomic fundamentals commonly used in the literature to forecast the exchange rate. The paper also links the information contained in the factors to global shocks like the demand for dollars - a "dollar effect", volatility and liquidity of global financial markets.

  1. Molecular (Feshbach) treatment of charge exchange Li/sup 3 +/+He collisions. II. Cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Martin, F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.; Yanez, M.

    1986-05-15

    Using the wave functions calculated in the preceding article, and a common translation factor, the charge exchange cross section for the Li/sup 3 +/+He(1s/sup 2/) reaction is calculated, and the mechanism of the process discussed. We show how small deviations from the Landau--Zener model, which are unrelated to Nikitin's conditions for its validity, lead to a minimum of the cross section at an impact energy Eapprox. =1 keV, and to larger values of sigma at intermediate nuclear velocities.

  2. Analysis of factors affecting gas exchange in intravascular blood gas exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, S C; Clark, J W; San, K Y; Zwischenberger, J B; Bidani, A

    1994-10-01

    A mathematical model of an intravascular hollow-fiber gas-exchange device, called IVOX, has been developed using a Krogh cylinder-like approach with a repeating unit structure comprised of a single fiber with gas flowing through its lumen surrounded by a coaxial cylinder of blood flowing in the opposite direction. Species mass balances on O2 and CO2 result in a nonlinear coupled set of convective-diffusion parabolic partial differential equations that are solved numerically using an alternating-direction implicit finite-difference method. Computed results indicated the presence of a large resistance to gas transport on the external (blood) side of the hollow-fiber exchanger. Increasing gas flow through the device favored CO2 removal from but not O2 addition to blood. Increasing blood flow over the device favored both CO2 removal as well as O2 addition. The rate of CO2 removal increased linearly with the transmural PCO2 gradient imposed across the device. The effect of fiber crimping on blood phase mass transfer resistance was evaluated indirectly by varying species blood diffusivity. Computed results indicated that CO2 excretion by IVOX can be significantly enhanced with improved bulk mixing of vena caval blood around the IVOX fibers.

  3. Factoring handedness data: II. Geschwind's multidimensional hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, H B; Messinger, M I

    1996-06-01

    The challenge in this journal by Peters and Murphy to the validity of two published factor analyses of handedness data because of bimodality was dealt with in Part I by identifying measures to normalize the handedness item distributions. A new survey using Oldfield's questionnaire format had 38 bell-shaped (unimodal) handedness-item distributions and 11 that were only marginally bimodal out of the 55 items used in Geschwind's 1986 study. Yet they were still non-normal and the factor analysis was unsatisfactory; bimodality is not the only problem. By choosing a transformation for each item that was optimal as assessed by D'Agostino's K2 statistic, all but two items could be normalized. Seven factors were derived that showed high congruence between maximum likelihood and principal components extractions before and after varimax rotation. Geschwind's assertion that handedness is not unidimensional is therefore supported.

  4. Influence of market factors on the pricing of exchange traded metals in the medium term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, S. V.; Shevelev, I. M.; Chernyi, S. A.

    2017-06-01

    On the basis of comparison of the influence of the stock exchange factors on the pricing of nonferrous metals for medium term with similar results for short term, it has been established that the main attention should be paid to the changes in the pricing environment on the metal market as a function of the prices of exchange traded metals. The situation on the market of energy carriers (hydrocarbons) and the European, American, and Asian stock exchanges can be based on parity and even significantly influence the variation of the metal prices. In the medium term, constructive development of metal trade should be reasonably promoted by changing the elasticity of supply with regard to prices for exchange traded metals and by applying the stock exchange factors that positively influence the pricing on commodity and stock markets.

  5. Risk factors for transient dysfunction of gas exchange after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Delgado Alves Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A retrospective cohort study was preformed aiming to verify the presence of transient dysfunction of gas exchange in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery and determine if this disorder is linked to cardiorespiratory events. Methods: We included 942 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery and cardiac procedures who were referred to the Intensive Care Unit between June 2007 and November 2011. Results: Fifteen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (2%, 199 (27.75% had mild transient dysfunction of gas exchange, 402 (56.1% had moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange, and 39 (5.4% had severe transient dysfunction of gas exchange. Hypertension and cardiogenic shock were associated with the emergence of moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange postoperatively (P=0.02 and P=0.019, respectively and were risk factors for this dysfunction (P=0.0023 and P=0.0017, respectively. Diabetes mellitus was also a risk factor for transient dysfunction of gas exchange (P=0.03. Pneumonia was present in 8.9% of cases and correlated with the presence of moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange (P=0.001. Severe transient dysfunction of gas exchange was associated with patients who had renal replacement therapy (P=0.0005, hemotherapy (P=0.0001, enteral nutrition (P=0.0012, or cardiac arrhythmia (P=0.0451. Conclusion: Preoperative hypertension and cardiogenic shock were associated with the occurrence of postoperative transient dysfunction of gas exchange. The preoperative risk factors included hypertension, cardiogenic shock, and diabetes. Postoperatively, pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, renal replacement therapy, hemotherapy, and cardiac arrhythmia were associated with the appearance of some degree of transient dysfunction of gas exchange, which was a risk factor for reintubation, pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and renal replacement therapy in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery and

  6. Violence against radiologists. II: Psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, N; Fileni, A

    2012-09-01

    Violence against radiologists is a growing problem. This study evaluated the psychosocial factors associated with this phenomenon. A questionnaire was administered to 992 Italian radiologists. Physical violence experienced in the previous 12-month period was associated with the radiologist's poor mental health [odds ratio (OR) 1.11] and overcommitment to work (OR 1.06), whereas radiologists in good physical health (OR 0.64), with job satisfaction (OR 0.96) and with overall happiness (OR 0.67) were less exposed. Nonphysical abuse was equally associated with the radiologist's poor mental health (OR 1.10) and overcommitment (OR 1.14) and negatively associated with physical health (OR 0.54), job satisfaction (OR 0.96), happiness (OR 0.81), organisational justice (OR 0.94) and social support (OR 0.80). Preventive intervention against violence in the workplace should improve workplace organisation and relationships between workers.

  7. Exchange rate prediction with multilayer perceptron neural network using gold price as external factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fathian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of predicting the exchange rate time series in the foreign exchange rate market is going to be solved using a time-delayed multilayer perceptron neural network with gold price as external factor. The input for the learning phase of the artificial neural network are the exchange rate data of the last five days plus the gold price in two different currencies of the exchange rate as the external factor for helping the artificial neural network improving its forecast accuracy. The five-day delay has been chosen because of the weekly cyclic behavior of the exchange rate time series with the consideration of two holidays in a week. The result of forecasts are then compared with using the multilayer peceptron neural network without gold price external factor by two most important evaluation techniques in the literature of exchange rate prediction. For the experimental analysis phase, the data of three important exchange rates of EUR/USD, GBP/USD, and USD/JPY are used.

  8. Concentration of ions Co(II), Ni(II) at the Tokem-250 carboxylic cation exchange for catalysts development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, Valentina; Bobkova, Ludmila; Brichkov, Anton; Kozik, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Sorption and catalytic properties of the cation exchanger are investigated. It was found that the Tokem-250 has a wide operating range of pH. The value of the effective ionization constant of the functional groups of the cation exchanger (pKa) is 6.59. The Tokem-250 cation exchanger exhibits selectivity to Ni2+ ions to Co2+ (D˜103). This is probably due to the stability of ion-exchange complexes detected by the method of diffuse reflectance electron spectroscopy (ESDD). According to these data, for Co2+ ions, in contrast to Ni2+, tetragonal distortion of octahedral coordination is characteristic, which has a positive effect on the stability of complexes with Co2+. To obtain spherical catalysts on the basis of Tokem-250, cobalt-containing samples of cation exchanger were used. The developed spherical materials have catalytic activity in the reactions of deep and partial oxidation of n-heptane.

  9. Advanced view factor analysis method for radiation exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sookuk; Tuller, Stanton E

    2014-03-01

    A raster-based method for determining complex view factor patterns is presented (HURES model). The model uses Johnson and Watson's view factor analysis method for fisheye lens photographs. The entire sphere is divided into 13 different view factors: open sky; sunny and shaded building walls, vegetation (trees) and ground surfaces above and below 1.2 m from the ground surface. The HURES model gave reasonable view factor results in tests at two urban study sites on summer days: downtown Nanaimo, B.C., Canada and Changwon, Republic of Korea. HURES gave better estimates of open sky view factors determined from fisheye lens photographs than did ENVI-met 3.1 and RayMan Pro. However, all three models underestimated sky view factor. For view factor analysis in outdoor urban areas, the 10° interval of rotation angle at 100 m distance of annuli will be suitable settings for three-dimensional computer simulations. The HURES model can be used for the rapid determination of complex view factor patterns which facilitates the analysis of their effects. Examples of how differing view factor patterns can affect human thermal sensation indices are given. The greater proportion of sunny view factors increased the computed predicted mean vote (PMV) by 1.3 on the sunny side of the street compared with the shady side during mid-morning in downtown Nanaimo. In another example, effects of differing amounts of open sky, sunny ground, sunny buildings and vegetation combined to produce only slight differences in PMV and two other human thermal sensation indices, PET and UTCI.

  10. Clinical Experience With Sternotomy Versus Subcostal Approach for Exchange of HeartMate II Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Behzad; Stephenson, Edward R; Price, Lauren C; El-Banayosy, Aly; Pae, Walter E

    2015-11-01

    The safety and efficacy of exchanging the HeartMate II (Thoratec Corp, Pleasanton, CA) left ventricular assist device (LVAD) through a less invasive subcostal approach remains unclear. We reviewed the records of 17 patients who underwent exchange of their HeartMate II device at our institution since 2007. We divided the cohort into devices exchanged through a subcostal (SC) approach versus a median sternotomy (MS) approach and obtained data pertaining to the short- and long-term outcomes. Nine patients had pump exchange through an MS approach versus 8 patients who underwent an SC approach. The mean duration of support with the first pump was 540 ± 450 days. The reason for exchange was electromechanical failure (7 patients), thrombosis (8 patients), and infection (2 patients). There were no 30-day perioperative deaths with either approach. Compared with sternotomy, patients who underwent an SC approach had significantly shorter operative times (131 vs 222 minutes; p = 0.001) and lower reoperation rates for bleeding (0 vs 44.4%; P = 0.05) and required fewer transfused blood products (packed red cells, 3.5 units vs 7.1 units; p approach had shorter postoperative stays in the intensive care unit (ICU) (5 days vs 13.8 days; p approach. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. EPICOR-II: a field leaching test of solidified radioactively loaded ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Marshall, D.S.; Todd, R.A.; Craig, P.M.

    1986-08-01

    As part of an ongoing research program investigating the disposal of radioactive solid wastes in the environment' the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is participating with Argonne National Laboratory, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in a study of the leachability of solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resin under simulated disposal conditions. To simulate disposal, a group of five 2-m/sup 3/ soil lysimeters has been installed in Solid Waste Storage Area Six at ORNL, with each lysimeter containing a small sample of solidified resin at its center. Two solidification techniques are being investigated: a Portland cement and a vinyl ester-styrene treatment. During construction, soil moisture temperature cells were placed in each lysimeter, along with five porous ceramic tubes for sampling water near the waste source. A meteorological station was set up at the study site to monitor climatic conditions (primarily precipitation and air temperature), and a data acquisition system was installed to keep daily records of these meteorological parameters as well as lysimeter soil moisture and temperature conditions. This report documents the first year of the long-term field study and includes discussions of lysimeter installation, calibration of soil moisture probes, installation of the site meteorological station, and the results of the first-quarter sampling for radionuclides in lysimeter leachate. In addition, the data collection and processing system developed for this study is documented, and the results of the first three months of data collection are summarized in Appendix D.

  12. Factors Influencing the Thermal Efficiency of Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Di Sipio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The performance of very shallow geothermal systems (VSGs, interesting the first 2 m of depth from ground level, is strongly correlated to the kind of sediment locally available. These systems are attractive due to their low installation costs, less legal constraints, easy maintenance and possibility for technical improvements. The Improving Thermal Efficiency of horizontal ground heat exchangers Project (ITER aims to understand how to enhance the heat transfer of the sediments surrounding the pipes and to depict the VSGs behavior in extreme thermal situations. In this regard, five helices were installed horizontally surrounded by five different backfilling materials under the same climatic conditions and tested under different operation modes. The field test monitoring concerned: (a monthly measurement of thermal conductivity and moisture content on surface; (b continuous recording of air and ground temperature (inside and outside each helix; (c continuous climatological and ground volumetric water content (VWC data acquisition. The interactions between soils, VSGs, environment and climate are presented here, focusing on the differences and similarities between the behavior of the helix and surrounding material, especially when the heat pump is running in heating mode for a very long time, forcing the ground temperature to drop below 0 °C.

  13. Failure analysis of leakage on titanium tubes within heat exchangers in a nuclear power plant. Part II: Mechanical degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Y.; Yang, Z.G. [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Yuan, J.Z. [Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Haiyan, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2012-01-15

    Serious failure incidents like clogging, quick thinning, and leakage frequently occurred on lots of titanium tubes of heat exchangers in a nuclear power plant in China. In the Part I of the whole failure analysis study with totally two parts, factors mainly involving three kinds of electrochemical corrosions were investigated, including galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and hydrogen-assisted corrosion. In the current Part II, through microscopically analyzing the ruptures on the leaked tubes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), another four causes dominantly lying in the aspect of mechanical degradation were determined - clogging, erosion, mechanical damaging, and fretting. Among them, the erosion effect was the primary one, thus the stresses it exerted on the tube wall were also supplementarily evaluated by finite element method (FEM). Based on the analysis results, the different degradation extents and morphologies by erosion on the tubes when they were clogged by different substances such as seashell, rubber debris, and sediments were compared, and relevant mechanisms were discussed. Finally, countermeasures were put forward as well. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Stochastic Discount Factor Approach to International Risk-Sharing: Evidence from Fixed Exchange Rate Episodes

    OpenAIRE

    Hadzi-Vaskov, M.; C.J.M. Kool

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of the stochastic discount factor approach to international risk-sharing applied to fixed exchange rate regimes. We calculate risk-sharing indices for two episodes of fixed or very rigid exchange rates: the Eurozone before and after the introduction of the Euro, and several emerging economies in the period 1993-2005. This approach suggests almost perfect bilateral risk-sharing among all countries from the Eurozone. Moreover, it implies that emerging markets with f...

  15. The Emerging Role of Guanine Exchange Factors in ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian eDroppelmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Small GTPases participate in a broad range of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and migration. The exchange of GDP for GTP resulting in the activation of these GTPases is catalyzed by a group of enzymes called guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, of which two classes: Dbl-related exchange factors and the more recently described Dock family exchange factors. Increasingly, deregulation of normal GEF activity or function has been associated with a broad range of disease states, including neurodegeneration and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this review, we examine this evidence with special emphasis on the novel role of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RGNEF/p190RhoGEF in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. RGNEF is the first neurodegeneration-linked GEF that regulates not only RhoA GTPase activation but also functions as an RNA binding protein that directly acts with low molecular weight neurofilament (NEFL mRNA 3’UTR to regulate its stability. This dual role for RGNEF, coupled with the increasing understanding of the key role for GEFs in modulating the GTPase function in cell survival suggests a prominent role for GEFs in mediating a critical balance between cytotoxicity and neuroprotection which, when disturbed, contributes to neuronal loss.

  16. MHC class II complexes sample intermediate states along the peptide exchange pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Marek; Sticht, Jana; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Günther, Sebastian; Wehmeyer, Christoph; El Habre, Zeina; Álvaro-Benito, Miguel; Noé, Frank; Freund, Christian

    2016-11-09

    The presentation of peptide-MHCII complexes (pMHCIIs) for surveillance by T cells is a well-known immunological concept in vertebrates, yet the conformational dynamics of antigen exchange remain elusive. By combining NMR-detected H/D exchange with Markov modelling analysis of an aggregate of 275 microseconds molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal that a stable pMHCII spontaneously samples intermediate conformations relevant for peptide exchange. More specifically, we observe two major peptide exchange pathways: the kinetic stability of a pMHCII's ground state defines its propensity for intrinsic peptide exchange, while the population of a rare, intermediate conformation correlates with the propensity of the HLA-DM-catalysed pathway. Helix-destabilizing mutants designed based on our model shift the exchange behaviour towards the HLA-DM-catalysed pathway and further allow us to conceptualize how allelic variation can shape an individual's MHC restricted immune response.

  17. MHC class II complexes sample intermediate states along the peptide exchange pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Marek; Sticht, Jana; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Günther, Sebastian; Wehmeyer, Christoph; El Habre, Zeina; Álvaro-Benito, Miguel; Noé, Frank; Freund, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The presentation of peptide-MHCII complexes (pMHCIIs) for surveillance by T cells is a well-known immunological concept in vertebrates, yet the conformational dynamics of antigen exchange remain elusive. By combining NMR-detected H/D exchange with Markov modelling analysis of an aggregate of 275 microseconds molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal that a stable pMHCII spontaneously samples intermediate conformations relevant for peptide exchange. More specifically, we observe two major peptide exchange pathways: the kinetic stability of a pMHCII's ground state defines its propensity for intrinsic peptide exchange, while the population of a rare, intermediate conformation correlates with the propensity of the HLA-DM-catalysed pathway. Helix-destabilizing mutants designed based on our model shift the exchange behaviour towards the HLA-DM-catalysed pathway and further allow us to conceptualize how allelic variation can shape an individual's MHC restricted immune response. PMID:27827392

  18. Solvent deuterium isotope effects in the catalysis of oxygen-18 exchange by human carbonic anhydrase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, C K; Silverman, D N

    1982-12-07

    By measuring the rate of exchange at chemical equilibrium of 18O between HCO3- and H2O catalyzed by human carbonic anhydrase II in the absence of buffers, we have determined the rate of release from the enzyme of water bearing substrate oxygen. The ratio of this rate measured in H2O to the rate measured in D2O, the solvent deuterium isotope effect, is between 4 and 9 in the range of pH(D) from 5.8 to 8.0, with a value of 8.0 +/- 0.7 at pH(D) 6.6 (uncorrected pH meter reading). The magnitude of this isotope effect at pH(D) 6.6 has an exponential dependence on the atom fraction of deuterium in solvent water. We conclude that an intramolecular proton transfer between a proton shuttle group on the enzyme and the active site is rate limiting for the release from the enzyme of water bearing substrate oxygen and involves a change in bonding of more than one proton. In contrast, the solvent deuterium isotope effect on the intermolecular proton transfer between the external buffer imidazole and the active site (or proton shuttle group) of the enzyme is small, 2.3 at pH(D) 7.0, as determined from initial velocity experiments. With a rate constant near 9 X 10(8) M-1 s-1, this intermolecular transfer is limited to a significant extent by diffusion processes.

  19. Anchor side chains of short peptide fragments trigger ligand-exchange of class II MHC molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Gupta

    Full Text Available Class II MHC molecules display peptides on the cell surface for the surveillance by CD4+ T cells. To ensure that these ligands accurately reflect the content of the intracellular MHC loading compartment, a complex processing pathway has evolved that delivers only stable peptide/MHC complexes to the surface. As additional safeguard, MHC molecules quickly acquire a 'non-receptive' state once they have lost their ligand. Here we show now that amino acid side chains of short peptides can bypass these safety mechanisms by triggering the reversible ligand-exchange. The catalytic activity of dipeptides such as Tyr-Arg was stereo-specific and could be enhanced by modifications addressing the conserved H-bond network near the P1 pocket of the MHC molecule. It affected both antigen-loading and ligand-release and strictly correlated with reported anchor preferences of P1, the specific target site for the catalytic side chain of the dipeptide. The effect was evident also in CD4+ T cell assays, where the allele-selective influence of the dipeptides translated into increased sensitivities of the antigen-specific immune response. Molecular dynamic calculations support the hypothesis that occupation of P1 prevents the 'closure' of the empty peptide binding site into the non-receptive state. During antigen-processing and -presentation P1 may therefore function as important "sensor" for peptide-load. While it regulates maturation and trafficking of the complex, on the cell surface, short protein fragments present in blood or lymph could utilize this mechanism to alter the ligand composition on antigen presenting cells in a catalytic way.

  20. Electron transfer and atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe(III) in clays. Role in U and Hg(II) transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Michelle [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    During this project, we investigated Fe electron transfer and atom exchange between aqueous Fe(II) and structural Fe(III) in clay minerals. We used selective chemical extractions, enriched Fe isotope tracer experiments, computational molecular modeling, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Our findings indicate that structural Fe(III) in clay minerals is reduced by aqueous Fe(II) and that electron transfer occurs when Fe(II) is sorbed to either basal planes and edge OH-groups of clay mineral. Findings from highly enriched isotope experiments suggest that up to 30 % of the Fe atoms in the structure of some clay minerals exhanges with aqueous Fe(II). First principles calculations using a small polaron hopping approach suggest surprisingly fast electron mobility at room temperature in a nontronite clay mineral and are consistent with temperature dependent Mössbauer data Fast electron mobility suggests that electrons may be able to conduct through the mineral fast enough to enable exchange of Fe between the aqueous phase and clay mineral structure. over the time periods we observed. Our findings suggest that Fe in clay minerals is not as stable as previously thought.

  1. Radial multipliers on amalgamated free products of II-factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Sören

    2014-01-01

    Let ℳi be a family of II1-factors, containing a common II1-subfactor 풩, such that [ℳi : 풩] ∈ ℕ0 for all i. Furthermore, let ϕ: ℕ0 → ℂ. We show that if a Hankel matrix related to ϕ is trace-class, then there exists a unique completely bounded map Mϕ on the amalgamated free product of the ℳi...... with amalgamation over 풩, which acts as a radial multiplier. Hereby, we extend a result of Haagerup and the author for radial multipliers on reduced free products of unital C*- and von Neumann algebras....

  2. Structural outline of the detailed mechanism for elongation factor Ts-mediated guanine nucleotide exchange on elongation factor Tu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirup, Søren S; Van, Lan Bich; Nielsen, Tine K; Knudsen, Charlotte R

    2015-07-01

    Translation elongation factor EF-Tu belongs to the superfamily of guanine-nucleotide binding proteins, which play key cellular roles as regulatory switches. All G-proteins require activation via exchange of GDP for GTP to carry out their respective tasks. Often, guanine-nucleotide exchange factors are essential to this process. During translation, EF-Tu:GTP transports aminoacylated tRNA to the ribosome. GTP is hydrolyzed during this process, and subsequent reactivation of EF-Tu is catalyzed by EF-Ts. The reaction path of guanine-nucleotide exchange is structurally poorly defined for EF-Tu and EF-Ts. We have determined the crystal structures of the following reaction intermediates: two structures of EF-Tu:GDP:EF-Ts (2.2 and 1.8Å resolution), EF-Tu:PO4:EF-Ts (1.9Å resolution), EF-Tu:GDPNP:EF-Ts (2.2Å resolution) and EF-Tu:GDPNP:pulvomycin:Mg(2+):EF-Ts (3.5Å resolution). These structures provide snapshots throughout the entire exchange reaction and suggest a mechanism for the release of EF-Tu in its GTP conformation. An inferred sequence of events during the exchange reaction is presented. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multinational telecommunications operators : impact of market factors and foreign currency exchange rate variations in their stock returns

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Maria da Conceição T. F. Monteiro H.

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Finanças Firms are exposed to foreign exchange risk when the results of their projects depend on future exchange rates and those exchange rates can not be fully anticipated. Through the last 50 years, exchange risk management has received increasing attention in both corporate practice and literature. Firms are also exposed to other market factors, domestic and internationally, with a major impact on their stock returns. During the past decade the telecommunications sector has ...

  4. Trends in metal-biradical exchange interaction for first-row M(II)(nitronyl nitroxide-semiquinone) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, David A; Vostrikova, Kira E; Bodnar, Scot H; Koo, Hyun-Joo; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Kirk, Martin L; Depperman, Ezra C; Kampf, Jeff W

    2003-02-12

    We report molecular structures and temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility data for several new metal complexes of heterospin triplet ground-state biradical ligands. The ligands are comprised of both nitronyl-nitroxide (NN) and semiquinone (SQ) spin carriers. Five compounds are five-coordinate M(II) complexes (M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn), and one is a six-coordinate Ni(II) complex. Five compounds were structurally characterized. During copper complex formation a reaction with methanol occurs to form a unique methoxy-substituted SQ ring. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility studies are consistent with strong intraligand (NN-SQ and NN-PhSQ) ferromagnetic exchange coupling. For the five-coordinate Mn, Co, and Ni complexes, the S = 1 ligand is antiferromagnetically coupled to the metal. For both the five-coordinate Cu complex and the six-coordinate Ni complex, the ligand is ferromagnetically coupled to the metal spins in accordance with orbital symmetry arguments. Despite the low molecular symmetries, the predicted trend in metal-ligand exchange interactions is supported by spin dimer analysis based on extended Hückel calculations. For (NN-SQ)NiTp(Cum,Me)() (Tp(Cum,Me)() = hydro-tris(3-cumenyl-5-methylpyrazolyl)borate), an antisymmetric exchange term was required for the best fit of the magnetic susceptibility data. Antisymmetric exchange was less important for the other complexes due to inherently smaller Deltag. Finally, it is shown that intraligand exchange coupling is of paramount importance in stabilizing high-spin states of mixed metal-biradical complexes.

  5. KRAS G12C Drug Development: Discrimination between Switch II Pocket Configurations Using Hydrogen/Deuterium-Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jia; Harrison, Rane A.; Li, Lianbo; Zeng, Mei; Gondi, Sudershan; Scott, David; Gray, Nathanael S.; Engen, John R.; Westover, Kenneth D. (NEU); (DFCI); (UTSMC); (Harvard-Med)

    2017-09-01

    KRAS G12C, the most common RAS mutation found in non-small-cell lung cancer, has been the subject of multiple recent covalent small-molecule inhibitor campaigns including efforts directed at the guanine nucleotide pocket and separate work focused on an inducible pocket adjacent to the switch motifs. Multiple conformations of switch II have been observed, suggesting that switch II pocket (SIIP) binders may be capable of engaging a range of KRAS conformations. Here we report the use of hydrogen/deuterium-exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS) to discriminate between conformations of switch II induced by two chemical classes of SIIP binders. We investigated the structural basis for differences in HDX MS using X-ray crystallography and discovered a new SIIP configuration in response to binding of a quinazoline chemotype. These results have implications for structure-guided drug design targeting the RAS SIIP.

  6. On factors influencing air-water gas exchange in emergent wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, David T.; Engel, Victor C.; Ferron, Sara; Hickman, Benjamin; Choi, Jay; Harvey, Judson W.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of gas exchange in wetlands is important in order to determine fluxes of climatically and biogeochemically important trace gases and to conduct mass balances for metabolism studies. Very few studies have been conducted to quantify gas transfer velocities in wetlands, and many wind speed/gas exchange parameterizations used in oceanographic or limnological settings are inappropriate under conditions found in wetlands. Here six measurements of gas transfer velocities are made with SF6 tracer release experiments in three different years in the Everglades, a subtropical peatland with surface water flowing through emergent vegetation. The experiments were conducted under different flow conditions and with different amounts of emergent vegetation to determine the influence of wind, rain, water flow, waterside thermal convection, and vegetation on air-water gas exchange in wetlands. Measured gas transfer velocities under the different conditions ranged from 1.1 cm h−1 during baseline conditions to 3.2 cm h−1 when rain and water flow rates were high. Commonly used wind speed/gas exchange relationships would overestimate the gas transfer velocity by a factor of 1.2 to 6.8. Gas exchange due to thermal convection was relatively constant and accounted for 14 to 51% of the total measured gas exchange. Differences in rain and water flow among the different years were responsible for the variability in gas exchange, with flow accounting for 37 to 77% of the gas exchange, and rain responsible for up to 40%.

  7. Coming to Canada to Study: Factors that Influence Student's Decisions to Participate in International Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Jennifer; Burrow, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students are participating in study abroad programs. Outcomes associated with these programs have been studied extensively, but relatively little is known about what motivates and influences students to participate. This study investigated factors that motivate and influence students to study on exchange and explored how…

  8. Membrane association of the Arabidopsis ARF exchange factor GNOM involves interaction of conserved domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anders, Nadine; Nielsen, Michael M.; Keicher, Jutta

    2008-01-01

    The GNOM protein plays a fundamental role in Arabidopsis thaliana development by regulating endosome-to-plasma membrane trafficking required for polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1. GNOM is a family member of large ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs), which regulate...

  9. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and Psychosocial Factors at Work Among Healthcare Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson Hanse, Jan; Harlin, Ulrika; Jarebrant, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The study aims to examine the associations between leader–member exchange (LMX) and psychosocial factors at work. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was undertaken at four units in two not-for-profit hospitals in southwestern Sweden. The study sample included 240 employees...

  10. Ocean Margin EXchange II database from the upwelling region of the narrow Iberian margin from 1997 to 2000 (NODC Accession 0000560)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Margin EXchange (OMEX) II aims at studying, measuring and modeling the processes and fluxes occurring along and across the European shelf break facing the...

  11. Factors influencing intentions to use social recommender systems: a social exchange perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsung-Sheng; Hsiao, Wei-Hung

    2013-05-01

    This study employs the perspective of social exchange theory and seeks to understand users' intentions to use social recommender systems (SRS) through three psychological factors: trust, shared values, and reputation. We use structural equation modeling to analyze 221 valid questionnaires. The results show that trust has a direct positive influence on the intention to use SRS, followed by shared values, whereas reputation has an indirect influence on SRS use. We further discuss specific recommendations concerning these factors for developing SRS.

  12. Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Causes and Contributing Factors Leading to Exchange Transfusion at Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Heydarian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbilirubinemia is common in neonates; it can have a serious rising course. Due to its critical morbidity called "kernicterus", severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia causes which lead to exchange transfusion, should be clarified. This descriptive cross sectional study performed with reviewing of files of 118 neonates weighting 2kg and more who had exchange transfusion in pediatrics ward at Ghaem training hospital in Mashhad from April 2004 to March 2007. Among 118 patients, 75 (63.6% were male, and 43 patients (36.4% were female. The most common cause of exchange transfusion was ABO incompatibility (38.1%. In order of frequency, unknown etiology (25.4%, Rh incompatibility (16.1% with no immune hydrops, Sepsis(8.5%, urinary tract infection (5.1% and others (3.4% (Including Crigler-Najjar and cephalohematoma were next ones. Vaginal delivery and exclusive breast feeding were detected as associated factors. Mean serum bilirubin levels was 28.7 mg/dl (SD. 9.2 ABO incompatibility. ABO incompatibility was the main cause of exchange transfusion. Male gender, vaginal delivery and exclusive breast feeding were seen more among patients who need to be exchanged. So in case of ABO incompatibility especially when delivery route is vaginal, newborns should be visited soon again after early discharge from hospital.

  13. Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Causes and Contributing Factors Leading to Exchange Transfusion at Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Heydarian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "nHyperbilirubinemia is common in neonates; it can have a serious rising course. Due to its critical morbidity called "kernicterus", severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia causes which lead to exchange transfusion, should be clarified. This descriptive cross sectional study performed with reviewing of files of 118 neonates weighting 2kg and more who had exchange transfusion in pediatrics ward at Ghaem training hospital in Mashhad from April 2004 to March 2007. Among 118 patients, 75 (63.6% were male, and 43 patients (36.4% were female. The most common cause of exchange transfusion was ABO incompatibility (38.1%. In order of frequency, unknown etiology (25.4%, Rh incompatibility (16.1% with no immune hydrops, Sepsis(8.5%, urinary tract infection (5.1% and others (3.4% (Including Crigler-Najjar and cephalohematoma were next ones. Vaginal delivery and exclusive breast feeding were detected as associated factors. Mean serum bilirubin levels was 28.7 mg/dl (SD. 9.2 ABO incompatibility. ABO incompatibility was the main cause of exchange transfusion. Male gender, vaginal delivery and exclusive breast feeding were seen more among patients who need to be exchanged. So in case of ABO incompatibility especially when delivery route is vaginal, newborns should be visited soon again after early discharge from hospital.

  14. Dowex anion exchanger-loaded-baker's yeast as bi-functionalized biosorbents for selective extraction of anionic and cationic mercury(II) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed E; Yakout, Amr A; Osman, Maher M

    2009-05-30

    Dowex anion exchanger-immobilized-baker's yeast [Dae-yeast] were synthesized and potentially applied as environmental friendly biosorbents to evaluate the up-take process of anionic and cationic mercury(II) species as well as other metal ions. Optimization of mass ratio of Dowex anion exchanger versus yeast (1:1-1:10) in presence of various interacting buffer solutions (pH 4.0-9.0) was performed and evaluated. Surface modification of [Dae-yeast] was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy. The maximum metal biosorption capacity values of [Dae-yeast] towards mercury(II) were found in the range of 0.800-0.960, 0.840-0.950 and 0.730-0.900 mmol g(-1) in presence of buffer solutions pH 2.0, 4.0 and 7.0, respectively. Three possible and different mechanisms are proposed to account for the biosorption of mercury and mercuric species under these three buffering conditions based on ion exchange, ion pair and chelation interaction processes. Factors affecting biosorption of mercury from aqueous medium including the pH effect of aqueous solutions (1.0-7.0), shaking time (1-30 min) and interfering ions were se arched. The potential applications of modified biosorbents for selective biosorption and extraction of mercury from different real matrices including dental filling waste materials, industrial waste water samples and mercury lamp waste materials were also explored. The results denote to excellent percentage extraction values, from nitric acid as the dissolution solvent with a pH 2.0, as determined in the range of 90.77-97.91+/-3.00-5.00%, 90.00-93.40+/-4.00-5.00% and 92.31-100.00+/-3.00-4.00% for the three tested samples, respectively.

  15. Initial Assessment of Electron and X-Ray Production and Charge Exchange in the NDCX-II Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COHEN, R.H.

    2010-02-18

    The purpose of this note is to provide initial assessments of some atomic physics effects for the accelerator section of NDCX-II. There are several effects we address: the production of electrons associated with loss of beam ions to the walls, the production of electrons associated with ionization of background gas, the possibly resultant production of X-rays when these electrons hit bounding surfaces, and charge exchange of beam ions on background gas. The results presented here are based on a number of caveats that will be stated below, which we will attempt to remove in the near future.

  16. Studies of the optical properties of solids. I. Two-photon electroabsorption. II. Electron-hole exchange coupling at L-II, L-III edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolber, Michael Allen [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In Chapter I, it is shown that direct-gap covalent semiconductors, such as GaAs, should exhibit electric-field induced Franz-Keldysh-like structures in their two-photon absorption spectra. These structures are evaluated employing exciton theory; the resulting lineshapes are shown to be proportional to the lineshapes for one-photon ''forbidden'' transitions, a property which greatly facilitates computations of the two-photon absorption. In chapter two, exchange mixes the LII and LIII soft x-ray absorption edges of metallic Na, Mg, and Al, affecting the detailed absorption lineshape and the LIILIII intensity ratio. The Onodera theory of this mixing is generalized and the requirements of particle conservation and causality lead to significant modifications of the theoretical absorption lineshape. It is shown that under certain conditions an exchange-free lineshape can be extracted from experimental data for comparison with non-asymptotic theories of x-ray edges.

  17. A dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor ameliorates hypertensive cardiac remodeling via angiotensin-II/sodium-proton pump exchanger-1 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Haruya; Bando, Yasuko K; Nishimura, Kazuyuki; Aoyama, Morihiko; Monji, Akio; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2016-09-01

    To address the impact of antidiabetic drugs on cardiovascular safety is a matter of clinical concern. Preclinical studies revealed that various protective effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i) on cardiovascular disease; however, its impact of on hypertension remains controversial. Teneligliptin (TEN; 10mg/kg/day/p.o.) ameliorates hypertension and cardiac remodeling by normalizing a rise of angiotensin-II (AngII) that specifically observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). TEN had no effects on vasculature and concentrations of the DPP4-related vasoactive peptides (bradykinin, neuropeptide Y, and atrial natriuretic peptide). The primary action of TEN on BP lowering was due to restoring the AngII-induced manifestation of congestive heart failure observed in SHR. Sodium-proton pump exchanger type 1 (NHE-1) is a regulator of intracellular acidity (pHi) and implicated pathophysiological role in cardiac remodeling occurred in diseased myocardium. Cardiac NHE-1 expression level was increased in SHR and this was restored in TEN-treated SHR. AngII directly augmented cardiac NHE-1 expression and its activity that contributed to hypertrophic response. TEN attenuated the AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy with decline in pHi via suppression of NHE-1. Loss of NHE-1 activity by specific inhibitor or RNA silencing promoted intracellular acidification and consistently attenuated the AngII-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. The present study revealed the protective actions of TEN on hypertension and comorbid cardiac remodeling via AngII/NHE-1 axis and the novel pathophysiological roles of intracellular acidification via NHE-1 in cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Conformational lability in the class II MHC 310 helix and adjacent extended strand dictate HLA-DM susceptibility and peptide exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Corrie A; Negroni, Maria P; Kellersberger, Katherine A; Zavala-Ruiz, Zarixia; Evans, James E; Stern, Lawrence J

    2011-11-29

    HLA-DM is required for efficient peptide exchange on class II MHC molecules, but its mechanism of action is controversial. We trapped an intermediate state of class II MHC HLA-DR1 by substitution of αF54, resulting in a protein with increased HLA-DM binding affinity, weakened MHC-peptide hydrogen bonding as measured by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and increased susceptibility to DM-mediated peptide exchange. Structural analysis revealed a set of concerted conformational alterations at the N-terminal end of the peptide-binding site. These results suggest that interaction with HLA-DM is driven by a conformational change of the MHC II protein in the region of the α-subunit 3(10) helix and adjacent extended strand region, and provide a model for the mechanism of DM-mediated peptide exchange.

  19. Conformational lability in the class II MHC 310 helix and adjacent extended strand dictate HLA-DM susceptibility and peptide exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Corrie A.; Negroni, Maria P.; Kellersberger, Katherine A.; Zavala-Ruiz, Zarixia; Evans, James E.; Stern, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    HLA-DM is required for efficient peptide exchange on class II MHC molecules, but its mechanism of action is controversial. We trapped an intermediate state of class II MHC HLA-DR1 by substitution of αF54, resulting in a protein with increased HLA-DM binding affinity, weakened MHC-peptide hydrogen bonding as measured by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and increased susceptibility to DM-mediated peptide exchange. Structural analysis revealed a set of concerted conformational alterations at the N-terminal end of the peptide-binding site. These results suggest that interaction with HLA-DM is driven by a conformational change of the MHC II protein in the region of the α-subunit 310 helix and adjacent extended strand region, and provide a model for the mechanism of DM-mediated peptide exchange. PMID:22084083

  20. Modeling data of copper(II) sorption onto the composite sorbent based on cation exchanger and tin(IV) hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikanina, Elena V.; Kalyaeva, Mariya I.; Markov, Vyacheslav F.

    2017-09-01

    The methodology of stepwise synthesis of the composite sorbent based on cation exchanger and tin(IV) hydroxide was demonstrated. The results of copper(II) sorption onto the composite sorbent are presented. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were used in mathematical modeling of the sorption data. The Langmuir model most accurately describes the sorption process. The constants of the Langmuir model and the specific surface area of the composite sorbent were defined. Granules of the composite sorbent were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA). The distribution coefficients of copper(II) in the composite sorbent and the sorption degree from CuSO4 aqueous solutions of various concentrations were computed.

  1. Hydrogen production and deuterium-proton exchange reactions catalyzed by Desulfovibrio nickel(II)-substituted rubredoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Martin, Pascal; Lespinat, Paul A.; Fauque, Guy; Berlier, Yves; LeGall, Jean; Moura, Isabel; Teixeira, Miguel; Xavier, Antonio V.; Moura, Jose J. G.

    1988-01-01

    The nickel tetrahedral sulfur-coordinated core formed upon metal replacement of the native iron in Desulfovibrio sp. rubredoxins is shown to mimic the reactivity pattern of nickel-containing hydrogenases with respect to hydrogen production, deuterium-proton exchange, and inhibition by carbon monoxide. PMID:16594005

  2. Factors affecting direct and indirect benefit exchange in the social media–based learning experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Mkhize

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social media platforms are thriving on the co-creation of content, usually socially orientated content about the social interests of participants. There is also a growing trend of social media application in the human resources and marketing for business purposes. This study investigates factors that have an impact on the sharing of knowledge on social media platforms, particularly students at an Open Distance Learning (ODL institution.Objective: This study evaluates the difference between direct and indirect benefit exchange expected by students when sharing knowledge.Method: Random and theoretical sampling were used to select the sample in this study from the population. A literature-informed questionnaire was used as an instrument to collect data from a selected sample of 315 students from the School of Computing at the University of South Africa.Results: A test of association was conducted to evaluate correlations, which revealed that only reputation and social language correlate with direct and indirect benefit exchange. Results indicate that there is a significant mean difference between direct and indirect benefit exchange and that issues concerning social identity and trust should be taken into account when developing social media instructional design.Conclusion: In this study, a survey was used to test the hypothesis. The authors concluded that instructional designer can design teaching and learning experience in the social media platform by catering for both direct and indirect benefit knowledge exchange. The results of the study further confirmed that some students share knowledge with the expectation of direct exchange benefit and, meanwhile, expect indirect exchange benefit.

  3. The exchange factor Cdc24 is required for cell fusion during yeast mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barale, Sophie; McCusker, Derek; Arkowitz, Robert A

    2004-08-01

    During Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating, chemotropic growth and cell fusion are critical for zygote formation. Cdc24p, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Cdc42 G protein, is necessary for oriented growth along a pheromone gradient during mating. To understand the functions of this critical Cdc42p activator, we identified additional cdc24 mating mutants. Two mating-specific mutants, the cdc24-m5 and cdc24-m6 mutants, each were isolated with a mutated residue in the conserved catalytic domain. The cdc24-m6 mutant responds normally to pheromone and orients its growth towards a mating partner yet accumulates prezygotes during mating. cdc24-m6 prezygotes have two apposed intact cell walls and do not correctly localize proteins required for cell fusion, despite normal exocytosis. Our results indicate that the exchange factor Cdc24p is necessary for maintaining or restricting specific proteins required for cell fusion to the cell contact region during mating.

  4. L-Lysine-derived ionic liquids as chiral ligands of Zn(II) complexes used in ligand-exchange CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haizhi; Qi, Li; Shen, Ying; Qiao, Juan; Mao, Lanqun

    2013-03-01

    Amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) with L-lysine (L-Lys) as anion were synthesized and applied as new chiral ligands in Zn(II) complexes for chiral ligand-exchange CE. After effective optimization, baseline enantioseparation of seven pairs of dansylated amino acids was achieved with a buffer of 100.0 mM boric acid, 5.0 mM ammonium acetate, 3.0 mM ZnSO4 , and 6.0 mM [C6 mim][L-Lys] at pH 8.2. To validate the unique behavior of AAILs, a comparative study between the performance of Zn(II)-L-Lys and Zn(II)-[C6 mim][L-Lys] systems was conducted. In Zn(II)-[C6 mim][L-Lys] system, it has been found that the improved chiral resolution could be obtained and the migration times of the three test samples were markedly prolonged. Then the separation mechanism was further discussed. The role of [C6 mim][L-Lys] indicated clearly that the synthesized AAILs could be used as chiral ligands and would have potential utilization in separation science in future. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Contact Activation of Blood Plasma and Factor XII by Ion-exchange Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Chyi-Huey Josh; Dimachkie, Ziad O.; Golas, Avantika; Cheng, Alice; Parhi, Purnendu; Vogler, Erwin A.

    2011-01-01

    Sepharose ion-exchange particles bearing strong Lewis acid/base functional groups (sulfopropyl, carboxymethyl, quarternary ammonium, dimethyl aminoethyl, and iminodiacetic acid) exhibiting high plasma protein adsorbent capacities are shown to be more efficient activators of blood factor XII in neat-buffer solution than either hydrophilic clean-glass particles or hydrophobic octyl sepharose particles ( FXII→surfaceactivatorFXIIa; a.k.a autoactivation, where FXII is the zymogen and FXIIa is a p...

  6. The influence of macroeconomic factors to the dynamics of stock exchange in the republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakizada Uteulievna Niyazbekova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the influence of macroeconomic factors on Kazakhstan Stock Exchange Market by using data from 2005 to 2014. Engle-Granger cointegration test has shown that stock index is cointegrated with the exchange rate, interest rate, CPI and oil price. Vector error correction model has confirmed that macroeconomic variables and the stock index has a long-term equilibrium relationship. Moreover, empirical results have shown that stock index can be used as a leading indicator of the economic situation in Kazakhstan. Therefore, the authors decided to consider the impact of major macroeconomic indicators to the dynamics of the stock market of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Engle-Granger cointegration test results show that the following variables such as exchange rate, 10-years long-term bond rate, the consumer price index and the Brent oil price are cointegrated with stock index, which means that there is a long-term relationship between this stock market index and these variables. With the help of econometric models, the authors have found the factors such as the exchange rate, the 10-year long-term bonds rate, the consumer price index and the Brent oil price (these factors have the long-term relationship with stock market index. Changes in the dynamics of the stock market index in Kazakhstan are caused by changes in the dynamics of Central bank's reserves and export. The analysis has shown that the economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (the index reflects the situation in the real sector of the economy remains dependent on world oil prices, the volume of exports and the rate of the national currency

  7. The importance of social exchange to nurses and nurse assistants: impact on retention factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybou, Jeroen; De Pourcq, Kaat; Paeshuyse, Michel; Gemmel, Paul

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the norm of reciprocity by examining relationships between perceived organisational support (POS), the quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) and psychological contract breach (PCB) and important nurse retention factors identified in the literature. A major cause of turnover among nurses is related to unsatisfying workplaces. Previous research, mainly outside the nursing setting, found that social exchange affects employees' work-related attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 217 nurses and nursing assistants to test and refine a model linking POS, LMX, PCB with job satisfaction, trust and turnover intentions. Hierarchical multiple linear regression revealed that POS, PCB and LMX explained significant variance in all three retention factors: job satisfaction (adjusted R² = 0.502), trust (adjusted R² = 0.462) and turnover intentions (adjusted R² = 0.196). POS and PCB predicted most strongly job satisfaction (P < 0.001) and trust (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). LMX predicted most strongly intention to leave (P < 0.01). In our study, POS, the quality of LMX and PCB were strongly related to job satisfaction, trust and turnover intentions. Nursing managers and leaders should recognize the importance of social exchange within their organisation to build trust, satisfy and retain scarce nurses and nursing assistants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Study on Modification of NaX Zeolites: The Cobalt (II-Exchange Kinetics and Surface Property Changes under Thermal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoai-Lam Tran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cobalt (II ion-exchange process followed the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models as well as the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The cobalt-exchanged contents increased when the initial Co(NO32 solution concentration increased up to 0.14 mol L−1 at the optimal pH of 6.05. The N2 adsorption isotherms are mixed types I/II isotherms and H3 type hysteresis. Both the micropore and mesopore adsorptions occurred during the adsorption process. The modification, which is both the cobalt (II exchange and thermal treatment, significantly improved the surface properties of NaX zeolites. Accordingly, the optimal temperature range is 500 to 600°C for a thermal treatment. This is consistent with the results of XRD analysis.

  9. Determination of labile Fe(II) species complexed with seawater extractable organic matter under seawater conditions based on the kinetics of ligand-exchange reactions with ferrozine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Hisanori; Fukushima, Masami; Yamamoto, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    A fertilizer, comprised of a mixture of steel slag and compost, was used to restore seaweed beds in barren coastal areas. Complex Fe(II) species, supplied by steel slag, play a significant role in supplying Fe(II) to coastal areas and stimulating seaweed growth. Seawater extractable organic matter (SWEOM) from compost is generally assumed to serve as a chelator of Fe(II) in the fertilizer. It is considered that the bioavailability of Fe(II)-SWEOM complexes is higher in the dissociable (labile) species. In the present study, a method for determining labile species of Fe(II)-SWEOM complexes in seawater (pH 8.0, I = 0.7) was developed. The method is based on a ligand-exchange reaction between SWEOM and ferrozine (FZ). Because Fe(II) is readily oxidized to Fe(III) under normal seawater conditions, ascorbic acid was added as an antioxidant. The coloring for the Fe-FZ complex in the presence of SWEOM was retarded. This retarding can be attributed to a ligand-exchange reaction between FZ and labile Fe(II)-SWEOM complexes. Conditional binding constants for the labile Fe(II)-SWEOM complexes and binding capacities of labile sites in SWEOM to Fe(II) were evaluated for a variety of total Fe(II) concentrations.

  10. The Factor Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II: An Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Stijn; Desmet, Mattias; Groenvynck, Hans; Rosseel, Yves; Fontaine, Johnny

    2008-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a frequently used scale for measuring depressive severity. BDI-II data (404 clinical; 695 nonclinical adults) were analyzed by means of confirmatory factor analysis to test whether the factor structure model with a somatic-affective and cognitive component of depression, formulated by Beck and…

  11. Human insulin-like growth factor II leader 2 mediates internal initiation of translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne K; Christiansen, Jan; Hansen, Thomas v O

    2002-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a fetal growth factor, which belongs to the family of insulin-like peptides. During fetal life, the IGF-II gene generates three mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (UTRs), but identical coding regions and 3' UTRs. We have shown previously that IG...

  12. Surface modification of layered silicates. II. Factors affecting thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vikas

    2012-12-01

    Different aluminosilicates, such as montmorillonite, vermiculite and mica, were surface-treated with a variety of organic modifiers to quantify factors affecting the thermal stability of the modified fillers. Montmorillonites with different cation exchange capacities were also used. Thermal characterisation was carried out via high resolution thermogravimetric analysis and the results were correlated with X-ray diffraction measurements. Modified substrates, such as montmorillonite, vermiculite and mica, differed in their thermal behaviour even when modified with the same surface modifiers. Phosphonium-based modifiers were the most thermally stable, compared to pyridinium and ammonium ions. Mixed brushes from the modifiers also influenced the thermal behaviour of the modified substrates. When further modified using physical adsorption or chemical reactions on the surface, the modified minerals also displayed alterations in the thermal behaviour of the fillers. The results can be used as a guide for the selection of surface modifiers in the nanocomposite synthesis process where compounding of the filler with the polymer at high temperature and shear is required.

  13. A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: Artificial heat exchanges for multiphase shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard; Le Metayer, Olivier

    2007-08-01

    The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as

  14. Improved recovery of trace amounts of gold (III), palladium (II) and platinum (IV) from large amounts of associated base metals using anion-exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, I; Takeda, Y; Ishida, K

    2000-02-01

    The adsorption and desorption behaviors of gold (III), palladium (II) and platinum (IV) were surveyed in column chromatographic systems consisting of one of the conventional anion-exchange resins of large ion-exchange capacity and dilute thiourea solutions. The noble metals were strongly adsorbed on the anion-exchange resins from dilute hydrochloric acid, while most base metals did not show any marked adsorbability. These facts made it possible to separate the noble metals from a large quantity of base metals such as Ag (I), Al (III), Co (II), Cu (II), Fe (III), Mn (II), Ni (II), Pb (II), and Zn (II). Although it used to be very difficult to desorb the noble metals from the resins used, the difficulty was easily overcome by use of dilute thiourea solutions as an eluant. In the present study, as little as 1.00 microg of the respective noble metals was quantitatively separated and recovered from as much as ca. 10 mg of a number of metals on a small column by elution with a small amount of dilute thiourea solution. The present systems should be applicable to the separation, concentration and recovery of traces of the noble metals from a number of base metals coexisting in a more extended range of amounts and ratios.

  15. Empirical Method To Accurately Determine Peptide-Averaged Protection Factors from Hydrogen Exchange MS Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Benjamin T

    2017-01-17

    Amide hydrogen exchange experiments measured by mass spectrometry have become commonplace to study protein structural dynamics; however, the underdetermined nature of these measurements render extraction of exchange rates unreliable at the level of individual peptides. This prevents orthogonal verification of results and severely limits interpretation of the data. This work describes an easy-to-implement empirical method to determine the change in an observed rate constant or the average change in multiple rate constants as compared to some reference condition. This allows direct empirical computation of the average protection factor (PF) for peptides in isolation requiring no knowledge of actual rate constants themselves. Benchmarking the method by comparison of average peptide PFs with site-resolved NMR-derived PFs demonstrates high reliability and accuracy. This empirical method provides the first universally reliable strategy for recovering subglobal structural physics from individual peptides and, in doing so, standardizes the hydrogen exchange experiments measured by bottom-up mass spectrometry (HX MS), simplifies interpretation, and facilitates clear communication of the results.

  16. Structural Dynamics Control Allosteric Activation of Cytohesin Family Arf GTPase Exchange Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaby, Andrew W.; Das, Sanchaita; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Irving, Thomas C.; Bilsel, Osman; Lambright, David G.

    2018-01-01

    Membrane dynamic processes including vesicle biogenesis depend on Arf guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) containing a catalytic Sec7 domain and a membrane-targeting module such as a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The catalytic output of cytohesin family Arf GEFs is controlled by autoinhibitory interactions that impede accessibility of the exchange site in the Sec7 domain. These restraints can be relieved through activator Arf-GTP binding to an allosteric site comprising the PH domain and proximal autoinhibitory elements (Sec7-PH linker and C-terminal helix). Small-angle X-ray scattering and negative-stain electron microscopy were used to investigate the structural organization and conformational dynamics of cytohesin-3 (Grp1) in autoinhibited and active states. The results support a model in which hinge dynamics in the autoinhibited state expose the activator site for Arf-GTP binding, while subsequent C-terminal helix unlatching and repositioning unleash conformational entropy in the Sec7-PH linker to drive exposure of the exchange site.

  17. Molecular magnetism of a linear Fe(III)-Mn(II)-Fe(III) complex. Influence of long-range exchange interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengen, M.; Bill, E.; Butzlaff, C.; Trautwein, A. X.; Winter, M.; Chaudhuri, P.

    1994-12-01

    The magnetic properties of [L-Fe(III)-dmg3Mn(II)-Fe(III)-L] (ClO4)2 have been characterized by magnetic susceptibility, EPR, and Mössbauer studies. L represents 1,4,7-trimethyl-, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane and dmg represents dimethylglyoxime. X-ray diffraction measurements yield that the arrangement of the three metal centers is strictly linear with atomic distances d Fe-Mn=0.35 nm and d Fe-Fe=0.7 nm. Magnetic susceptibility measurements (3 295 K) were analyzed in the framework of the spin-Hamiltonian formalism considering Heisenberg exchange and Zeeman interaction: Ĥ= J Fe-Mn( S Fe1+ S Fe2) S Mn + J Fe-Fe( S Fe1 S Fe2) +gΜB S total B. The spins S Fe1= S Fe2 = S Mn=5/2 of the complex are antiferromagnetically coupled, yielding a total spin of S total=5/2 with exchange coupling constants F Fe-Mn=13.4 cm-1 and J Fe-Fe= 4.5 cm-1. Magnetically split Mössbauer spectra were recorded at 1.5 K under various applied fields (20 m T, 170 mT, 4T). The spin-Hamiltonian analysis of these spectra yields isotropic magnetic hyperfine coupling with A total/( g N Μ N)=-18.5 T. The corresponding local component A Fe is related to A total via spin-projection: A total=(6/7)AFe. The resulting A Fe/( g NΜN)=-21.6 T is in agreement with standard values of ferric high-spin complexes. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters as obtained from Mössbauer studies and exchange coupling constants as derived from susceptibility measurements are corroborated by temperature-dependent EPR studies.

  18. Gas-particle interactions above a Dutch heathland: II. Concentrations and surface exchange fluxes of atmospheric particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nemitz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Size-dependent particle number fluxes measured by eddy-covariance (EC and continuous fluxes of ammonium (NH4+ measured with the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM are reported for a Dutch heathland. Daytime deposition velocities (Vd by EC with peak values of 5 to 10 mm s-1 increased with particle diameter (dp over the range 0.1–0.5 µm, and are faster than predicted by current models. With a mean Vd of 2.0 mm s-1 (daytime: 2.7; night-time 0.8 mm s-1 NH4+ fluxes by AGM are overall in agreement with former measurements and NH4+-N dry deposition amounts to 20% of the dry input of NH3-N over the measurement period. These surface exchange fluxes are analyzed together with simultaneous gas-phase flux measurements for indications of gas-particle interactions. On warm afternoons the apparent fluxes of acids and aerosol above the heathland showed several coinciding anomalies, all of which are consistent with NH4+ evaporation during deposition: (i canopy resistances for HNO3 and HCl of up to 100 s m-1, (ii simultaneous particle emission of small particles (DpDp>0.18 µm, (iii NH4+ deposition faster than derived from size-distributions and size-segregated EC particle fluxes. These observations coincide with the observations of (i surface concentration products of NH3 and HNO3 well below the thermodynamic equilibrium value and (ii Damköhler numbers that indicate chemical conversion to be sufficiently fast to modify exchange fluxes. The measurements imply a removal rate of volatile NH4+ of 3−30×10-6 s-1 averaged over the 1 km boundary-layer, while NH3 deposition is underestimated by typically 20 ng m-2 s-1 (28% and flux reversal may occur.

  19. Iron(II)-Catalyzed Iron Atom Exchange and Mineralogical Changes in Iron-rich Organic Freshwater Flocs: An Iron Isotope Tracer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ThomasArrigo, Laurel K; Mikutta, Christian; Byrne, James; Kappler, Andreas; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2017-06-20

    In freshwater wetlands, organic flocs are often found enriched in trace metal(loid)s associated with poorly crystalline Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides. Under reducing conditions, flocs may become exposed to aqueous Fe(II), triggering Fe(II)-catalyzed mineral transformations and trace metal(loid) release. In this study, pure ferrihydrite, a synthetic ferrihydrite-polygalacturonic acid coprecipitate (16.7 wt % C), and As- (1280 and 1230 mg/kg) and organic matter (OM)-rich (18.1 and 21.8 wt % C) freshwater flocs dominated by ferrihydrite and nanocrystalline lepidocrocite were reacted with an isotopically enriched 57 Fe(II) solution (0.1 or 1.0 mM Fe(II)) at pH 5.5 and 7. Using a combination of wet chemistry, Fe isotope analysis, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, we followed the Fe atom exchange kinetics and secondary mineral formation over 1 week. When reacted with Fe(II) at pH 7, pure ferrihydrite exhibited rapid Fe atom exchange at both Fe(II) concentrations, reaching 76 and 89% atom exchange in experiments with 0.1 and 1 mM Fe(II), respectively. XAS data revealed that it transformed into goethite (21%) at the lower Fe(II) concentration and into lepidocrocite (73%) and goethite (27%) at the higher Fe(II) concentration. Despite smaller Fe mineral particles in the coprecipitate and flocs as compared to pure ferrihydrite (inferred from Mössbauer-derived blocking temperatures), these samples showed reduced Fe atom exchange (9-30% at pH 7) and inhibited secondary mineral formation. No release of As was recorded for Fe(II)-reacted flocs. Our findings indicate that carbohydrate-rich OM in flocs stabilizes poorly crystalline Fe minerals against Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation by surface-site blockage and/or organic Fe(II) complexation. This hinders the extent of Fe atom exchange at mineral surfaces and secondary mineral formation, which may consequently impair Fe(II)-activated trace metal(loid) release. Thus, under short

  20. Health information exchange implementation: lessons learned and critical success factors from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Sue S; Schooley, Benjamin L; Bhavsar, Grishma P

    2014-08-15

    statewide HIE were found. The most significant perceived success was accomplishing the implementation, although many interviewees also underscored the value of a project champion with decision-making power. In terms of lessons learned, social reasons were found to be very significant motivators for early implementation, frequently outweighing economic motivations. It was clear that understanding the guides early in the project would have mitigated some of the challenges that emerged, and early communication with the electronic health record vendor so that they have a solid understanding of the undertaking was critical. An HIE implementations evaluation framework was found to be useful for assessing challenges, motivations, value propositions for participating, and success factors to consider for future implementations. This case study illuminates five critical success factors for implementation of a health system onto a statewide HIE. This study also reveals that organizations have varied motivations and value proposition perceptions for engaging in the exchange of health information, few of which, at the early stages, are economically driven.

  1. Health Information Exchange Implementation: Lessons Learned and Critical Success Factors From a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    implementation of a health system to the statewide HIE were found. The most significant perceived success was accomplishing the implementation, although many interviewees also underscored the value of a project champion with decision-making power. In terms of lessons learned, social reasons were found to be very significant motivators for early implementation, frequently outweighing economic motivations. It was clear that understanding the guides early in the project would have mitigated some of the challenges that emerged, and early communication with the electronic health record vendor so that they have a solid understanding of the undertaking was critical. An HIE implementations evaluation framework was found to be useful for assessing challenges, motivations, value propositions for participating, and success factors to consider for future implementations. Conclusions This case study illuminates five critical success factors for implementation of a health system onto a statewide HIE. This study also reveals that organizations have varied motivations and value proposition perceptions for engaging in the exchange of health information, few of which, at the early stages, are economically driven. PMID:25599991

  2. Estimation of Hydrogen-Exchange Protection Factors from MD Simulation Based on Amide Hydrogen Bonding Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Hee; Venable, John D.; Steckler, Caitlin; Cellitti, Susan E.; Lesley, Scott A.; Spraggon, Glen; Brock, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) studies have provided critical insight into our understanding of protein folding, structure and dynamics. More recently, Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HX-MS) has become a widely applicable tool for HX studies. The interpretation of the wealth of data generated by HX-MS experiments as well as other HX methods would greatly benefit from the availability of exchange predictions derived from structures or models for comparison with experiment. Most reported computational HX modeling studies have employed solvent-accessible-surface-area based metrics in attempts to interpret HX data on the basis of structures or models. In this study, a computational HX-MS prediction method based on classification of the amide hydrogen bonding modes mimicking the local unfolding model is demonstrated. Analysis of the NH bonding configurations from Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation snapshots is used to determine partitioning over bonded and non-bonded NH states and is directly mapped into a protection factor (PF) using a logistics growth function. Predicted PFs are then used for calculating deuteration values of peptides and compared with experimental data. Hydrogen exchange MS data for Fatty acid synthase thioesterase (FAS-TE) collected for a range of pHs and temperatures was used for detailed evaluation of the approach. High correlation between prediction and experiment for observable fragment peptides is observed in the FAS-TE and additional benchmarking systems that included various apo/holo proteins for which literature data were available. In addition, it is shown that HX modeling can improve experimental resolution through decomposition of in-exchange curves into rate classes, which correlate with prediction from MD. Successful rate class decompositions provide further evidence that the presented approach captures the underlying physical processes correctly at the single residue level. This assessment is further strengthened in a comparison of

  3. Insights into the biological functions of Dock family guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Mélanie; Côté, Jean-François

    2014-03-15

    Rho GTPases play key regulatory roles in many aspects of embryonic development, regulating processes such as differentiation, proliferation, morphogenesis, and migration. Two families of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) found in metazoans, Dbl and Dock, are responsible for the spatiotemporal activation of Rac and Cdc42 proteins and their downstream signaling pathways. This review focuses on the emerging roles of the mammalian DOCK family in development and disease. We also discuss, when possible, how recent discoveries concerning the biological functions of these GEFs might be exploited for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  4. A Mn-54 Radiotracer Study of Mn Isotope Solid-Liquid Exchange during Reductive Transformation of Vernadite (δ-MnO₂) by Aqueous Mn(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzinga, Evert J.; Kustka, Adam B. [Rutgers

    2015-04-09

    We employed Mn-54 radiotracers to characterize the extent and dynamics of Mn atom exchange between aqueous Mn(II) and vernadite (δ-Mn(IV)O2) at pH 7.5 under anoxic conditions. Exchange of Mn atoms between the solid and liquid phase is rapid, reaching dynamic equilibrium in 2–4 days. We propose that during the initial stages of reaction, Mn atom exchange occurs through consecutive comproportionation-disproportionation reactions where interfacial electron transfer from adsorbed Mn(II) to lattice Mn(IV) generates labile Mn(III) cations that rapidly disproportionate to reform aqueous Mn(II) and solid-phase Mn(IV). Following nucleation of Mn(III)OOH phases, additional exchange likely occurs through electron transfer from aqueous Mn(II) to solid-phase Mn(III). Our results provide evidence for the fast and extensive production of transient Mn(III) species at the vernadite surface upon contact of this substrate with dissolved Mn(II). We further show that HEPES buffer is a reductant of lattice Mn(IV) in the vernadite structure in our experiments. The methods and results presented here introduce application of Mn-54 tracers as a facile tool to further investigate the formation kinetics of labile Mn(III) surface species and their impacts on Mn-oxide structure and reactivity over a range of environmentally relevant geochemical conditions.

  5. Multiple factors confer specific Cdc42 and Rac protein activation by dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) nucleotide exchange factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Kiran; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Ziguo; Barford, David

    2011-07-15

    DOCK (dedicator of cytokinesis) guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activate the Rho-family GTPases Rac and Cdc42 to control cell migration, morphogenesis, and phagocytosis. The DOCK A and B subfamilies activate Rac, whereas the DOCK D subfamily activates Cdc42. Nucleotide exchange is catalyzed by a conserved DHR2 domain (DOCK(DHR2)). Although the molecular basis for DOCK(DHR2)-mediated GTPase activation has been elucidated through structures of a DOCK9(DHR2)-Cdc42 complex, the factors determining recognition of specific GTPases are unknown. To understand the molecular basis for DOCK-GTPase specificity, we have determined the crystal structure of DOCK2(DHR2) in complex with Rac1. DOCK2(DHR2) and DOCK9(DHR2) exhibit similar tertiary structures and homodimer interfaces and share a conserved GTPase-activating mechanism. Multiple structural differences between DOCK2(DHR2) and DOCK9(DHR2) account for their selectivity toward Rac1 and Cdc42. Key determinants of selectivity of Cdc42 and Rac for their cognate DOCK(DHR2) are a Phe or Trp residue within β3 (residue 56) and the ability of DOCK proteins to exploit differences in the GEF-induced conformational changes of switch 1 dependent on a divergent residue at position 27. DOCK proteins, therefore, differ from DH-PH GEFs that select their cognate GTPases through recognition of structural differences within the β2/β3 strands.

  6. Ionic strength-dependent changes in tentacular ion exchangers with variable ligand density. II. Functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhambure, Rahul; Angelo, James M; Gillespie, Christopher M; Phillips, Michael; Graalfs, Heiner; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2017-07-14

    The effect of ligand density was studied on protein adsorption and transport behavior in tentacular cation-exchange sorbents at different ionic strengths. Results were obtained for lysozyme, lactoferrin and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) in order to examine the effects of protein size and charge. The combination of ligand density and ionic strength results in extensive variability of the static and dynamic binding capacities, transport rate and binding affinity of the proteins. Uptake and elution experiments were performed to quantify the transport behavior of selected proteins, specifically to estimate intraparticle protein diffusivities. The observed trend of decreasing uptake diffusivities with an increase in ligand density was correlated to structural properties of the ligand-density variants, particularly the accessible porosity. Increasing the ionic strength of the equilibration buffer led to enhanced mass transfer during uptake, independent of the transport model used, and specifically for larger proteins like lactoferrin and mAb, the most significant effects were evident in the sorbent of the highest ligand density. For lysozyme, higher ligand density leads to higher static and dynamic binding capacities whereas for lactoferrin and the mAb, the binding capacity is a complex function of accessible porosity due to ionic strength-dependent changes. Ligand density has a less pronounced effect on the elution rate, presumably due to ionic strength-dependent changes in the pore architecture of the sorbents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Pump Discontinuation and Associated Factors in the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jenise C; Boyle, Claire; DiMeglio, Linda A; Mastrandrea, Lucy D; Abel, Kimber-Lee; Cengiz, Eda; Cemeroglu, Pinar A; Aleppo, Grazia; Largay, Joseph F; Foster, Nicole C; Beck, Roy W; Adi, Saleh

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine factors associated with insulin pump discontinuation among children and adults followed longitudinally for 1 year in the multicenter T1D Exchange clinic registry, and to provide participant-reported reasons for stopping pump therapy. We longitudinally followed 8935 participants of all ages using an insulin pump at the time of registry enrollment. Logistic regressions were used to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with pump discontinuation. Pump discontinuation was self-reported by participants on a first annual follow-up survey. The overall frequency of pump discontinuation was 3%. Discontinuation was higher in adolescents (4%) and young adults (4%) than in younger children (3%) or older adults (1%). In multivariate analysis of children between 6 and pump use were more likely to have higher HbA1c levels at baseline (adjusted P pump included problems with wearability (57%), disliking the pump or feeling anxious (44%), and problems with glycemic control (30%). In T1D Exchange registry participants, insulin pump discontinuation is uncommon, but more prevalent among adolescents and young adults, and youth with poor glycemic control. Given the known benefits of pump therapy, these populations should be targeted for support and education on troubleshooting pump use. Common reasons for discontinuation should also be considered in future device design and technological improvement.

  8. A study of the coordination shell of aluminum(III) and magnesium(II) in model protein environments: thermodynamics of the complex formation and metal exchange reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezabal, Elixabete; Mercero, Jose M; Lopez, Xabier; Ugalde, Jesus M

    2006-03-01

    Al(III) toxicity in living organisms is based on competition with other metal cations. Mg(II) is one of the most affected cations, since the size similarity dominates over the charge identity. The slow ligand exchange rates for Al(III) render the ion useless as a metal ion at the active sites of enzymes and provide a mechanism by which Al(III) inhibits Mg(II) dependent biochemical processes. Al(III) cation interactions with relevant bioligands have been studied in a protein-model environment in gas and aqueous phases using density functional theory methods. The protein model consists of the metal cation bound to two chosen bioligands (functional groups of the amino acid side chains, one of them being always an acetate) and water molecules interacting with the cation to complete its first coordination shell. Analogous Mg(II) complexes are calculated and compared with the Al(III) ones. Formation energies of the complexes are calculated in both phases and magnesium/aluminum exchange energies evaluated. The effect of different dielectric media is also analyzed. The presence of an acetate ligand in the binding site is found to promote both, complex formation and metal exchange reactions. In addition, buried binding sites (with low dielectric constant) of the protein favor metal exchange, whereas fully solvated environments of high dielectric constant require the presence of two anionic ligands for metal exchange to occur.

  9. Comparison of Factor Structure Models for the Beck Depression Inventory--II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L. Charles

    2006-01-01

    Factor analyses of the Beck Depression Inventory--II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996) have frequently produced 2 different 2-factor oblique structures. The author used confirmatory factor analyses to compare these structures with a general-factor model with 2 orthogonal group factors. The general-factor model fit as well as or…

  10. Effect of vapors of water and organic solvents on the luminescence of cation-exchange membranes immobilized with cyclometalated Pt(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakhalina, M. S.; Tikhomirova, I. Yu.; Puzyk, M. V.

    2010-05-01

    The luminescence quenching of cation-exchange membranes immobilized with cyclometalated Pt(II) complexes by vapors of water and some organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, acetonitrile, and acetone) is studied. The mechanism of the luminescence quenching of complexes is discussed.

  11. On the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II: G is the key

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.; Meijer, R.R.; Zevalkink, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) is intended to measure severity of depression, and because items represent a broad range of depressive symptoms, some multidimensionality exists. In recent factor-analytic studies, there has been a debate about whether the BDI-II

  12. On the Factor Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II: G Is the Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Danny; Meijer, Rob R.; Zevalkink, Jolien

    2013-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) is intended to measure severity of depression, and because items represent a broad range of depressive symptoms, some multidimensionality exists. In recent factor-analytic studies, there has been a debate about whether the BDI-II can be considered as one scale or whether…

  13. On the Factor Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II : G Is the Key

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Danny; Meijer, Rob R.; Zevalkink, Jolien

    The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) is intended to measure severity of depression, and because items represent a broad range of depressive symptoms, some multidimensionality exists. In recent factor-analytic studies, there has been a debate about whether the BDI-II

  14. Molecular magnetism of a linear Fe(III)-Mn(II)-Fe(III) complex. Influence of long-range exchange interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengen, M. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Bill, E. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Butzlaff, C. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Trautwein, A.X. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Winter, M. [Anorganische Chemie 1, Ruhr-Univ., Bochum (Germany); Chaudhuri, P. [Anorganische Chemie 1, Ruhr-Univ., Bochum (Germany)

    1994-11-01

    The magnetic properties of [L-Fe(III)-dmg{sub 3}Mn(II)-Fe(III)-L] (ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} have been characterized by magnetic susceptibility, EPR, and Moessbauer studies. L represents 1,4,7-trimethyl-,1,4,7-triazacyclononane and dmg represents dimethylglyoxime. X-ray diffraction measurements yield that the arrangement of the three metal centers is strictly linear with atomic distances d{sub Fe-Mn} = 0.35 nm and d{sub Fe-Fe} = 0.7 nm. Magnetic susceptibility measurements (3-295 K) were analyzed in the framework of the spin-Hamiltonian formalism considering Heisenberg exchange and Zeeman interaction: H = J{sub Fe-Mn} (S{sub Fe1} + S{sub Fe2})S{sub Mn} + J{sub Fe-Fe}S{sub Fe1}S{sub Fe2} + g{mu}{sub B}S{sub total}B. The spins S{sub Fe1} = S{sub Fe2} = S{sub Mn} = 5/2 of the complex are antiferromagnetically coupled, yielding a total spin of S{sub total} = 5/2 with exchange coupling constants F{sub Fe-Mn} = 13.4 cm{sup -1} and J{sub Fe-Fe} = 4.5 cm{sup -1}. Magnetically split Moessbauer spectra were recorded at 1.5 K under various applied fields (20 mT, 170 mT, 4 T). The spin-Hamiltonian analysis of these spectra yields isotropic magnetic hyperfine coupling with A{sub total}/(g{sub N}{mu}{sub N}) = -18.5 T. The corresponding local component A{sub Fe} is related to A{sub total} via spin-projection: A{sub total} = (6/7)A{sub Fe}. The resulting A{sub Fe}/(g{sub N}{mu}{sub N}) = -21.6 T is in agreement with standard values of ferric high-spin complexes. Spin-Hamiltonian parameters as obtained from Moessbauer studies and exchange coupling constants as derived from susceptibility measurements are corroborated by temperature-dependent EPR studies. (orig.)

  15. The minimal autoinhibited unit of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor intersectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Farid Ahmad

    Full Text Available Intersectin-1L is a member of the Dbl homology (DH domain guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF which control Rho-family GTPase signaling. Intersectin-1L is a GEF that is specific for Cdc42. It plays an important role in endocytosis, and is regulated by several partners including the actin regulator N-WASP. Intact intersectin-1L shows low Cdc42 exchange activity, although the isolated catalytic DH domain shows high activity. This finding suggests that the molecule is autoinhibited. To investigate the mechanism of autoinhibition we have constructed a series of domain deletions. We find that the five SH3 domains of intersectin are important for autoinhibition, with the fifth domain (SH3(E being sufficient for the bulk of the autoinhibitory effect. This SH3 domain appears to primarily interact with the DH domain. We have determined the crystal structure of the SH3(E-DH domain construct, which shows a domain swapped arrangement in which the SH3 from one monomer interacts with the DH domain of the other monomer. Analytical ultracentrifugation and gel filtration, however, show that under biochemical concentrations, the construct is fully monomeric. Thus we propose that the actual autoinhibited structure contains the related intramolecular SH3(E-DH interaction. We propose a model in which this intramolecular interaction may block or distort the GTPase binding region of the DH domain.

  16. Examination of the Beck Depression Inventory-II Factor Structure Among Bariatric Surgery Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sharon; Stoeckel, Nina; Napolitano, Melissa A; Collins, Charlotte; Wood, G Craig; Seiler, Jamie; Grunwald, Heidi E; Foster, Gary D; Still, Christopher D

    2015-07-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is frequently used to evaluate bariatric patients in clinical and research settings; yet, there are limited data regarding the factor structure of the BDI-II with a bariatric surgery population. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal axis factoring with oblimin rotation was employed with data from 1228 consecutive presurgical bariatric candidates. Independent t tests were used to examine potential differences between sexes. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted with the next 383 consecutive presurgical patients to evaluate the proposed model based on EFA results. EFA revealed three factors: negative perceptions, diminished vigor, and cognitive dysregulation, each with adequate internal consistency. Six BDI-II items did not load significantly on any of the three factors. CFA results largely supported the proposed model. Results suggest that dimensions of depression for presurgical bariatric candidates vary from other populations and raise important caveats regarding the utility of the BDI-II in bariatric research.

  17. Computer Systems Acquisition Metrics Handbook. Volume II. Quality Factor Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    SIMPLICITY Pou Code: Re IMC.3 LI CYERA: SOMMS): IILEMENTTION Reim. 5 ReD4.6 SY] U NAME: __ Qslsmmm4 ReIM. 7 I. . EMIC S4 Uc N: 1. Design Structure Muasure 2...SYSM4 NW_ ___ I. M ETIC SUMMARY 1 ’CION: 1. Access Audit C ecklist -II. CRITSM W M : Sum of Above Scores Criteia Vale No. of Metrics III. EVA UWAf... etiCs above? (l-lO)_ C if you are mable to evaluate) PIWnAME BY: APW BY:I II II:_ _ I ( Ma- 30 ____________________________por COd: 14MC..3 MEAIL

  18. Studies on Some Factors Affecting the Quantitative Estimation of the Exchange Capacity of Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter M. Broadfoot; Edward H. Tyner

    1939-01-01

    Methods which are satisfactory for determining the base-exchange capacity of mineral soils can not be applied indiscriminately for determining the exchange capacity of fresh or decomposed plant residues.

  19. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the Cdc42p exchange factor Cdc24p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nern, A; Arkowitz, R A

    2000-03-20

    Cdc24p, the GDP/GTP exchange factor for the regulator of actin cytoskeleton Cdc42p, localizes to sites of polarized growth. Here we show that Cdc24p shuttles in and out of the yeast nucleus during vegetative growth. Far1p is necessary and sufficient for nuclear accumulation of Cdc24p, suggesting that its nuclear import occurs via an association with Far1p. Nuclear export is triggered either by entry into the cell cycle or by mating pheromone. As Far1p is degraded upon entry into the cell cycle, cell cycle-dependent export of Cdc24p occurs in the absence of Far1p, whereas during mating similar export kinetics indicate that a Cdc24p-Far1p complex is exported. Our results suggest that the nucleus serves as a store of preformed Cdc24p-Far1p complex which is required for chemotropism.

  20. An investigation on important factors influencing on forecasted earnings adjustment: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Babakhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing earning adjustment on firms selected on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2011. There are four independent variables associated with the proposed study of this paper including Proportion of shares owned by institutional investors, Return on assets, Profit change and Market value to book value. In addition, Investment restructuring is considered as control variable. The results of the implementation of regression analysis indicate that there was a reverse relationship between earning forecasted adjustment and two independent variables including size of firm as well as the ratio of market value to book value. However, Net profit has a direct and positive relationship with earning forecast adjustment.

  1. Zizimin and Dock guanine nucleotide exchange factors in cell function and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakes, Nicholl K; Veltman, Douwe M; Williams, Robin S B

    2013-01-01

    Zizimin proteins belong to the Dock (Dedicator of Cytokinesis) superfamily of Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) proteins. This family of proteins plays a role in the regulation of Rho family small GTPases. Together the Rho family of small GTPases and the Dock/Zizimin proteins play a vital role in a number of cell processes including cell migration, apoptosis, cell division and cell adhesion. Our recent studies of Zizimin proteins, using a simple biomedical model, the eukaryotic social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, have helped to elucidate the cellular role of these proteins. In this article, we discuss the domain structure of Zizimin proteins from an evolutionary viewpoint. We also compare what is currently known about the mammalian Zizimin proteins to that of related Dock proteins. Understanding the cellular functions of these proteins will provide a better insight into their role in cell signaling, and may help in treating disease pathology associated with mutations in Dock/Zizimin proteins.

  2. Impurity temperature correction factors for the transmission grating spectrometer in the TJ-II stellarator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, J; McCarthy, K J; Carmona, J M; Fontdecaba, J M

    2010-10-01

    Impurity ion temperature and velocity profiles are obtained across plasmas in the TJ-II stellarator by performing charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy with a diagnostic neutral beam injector. For this, a tridirectional (toroidal plus two poloidal opposing views) multichannel spectroscopic diagnostic, incorporating 12-way fiber arrays, a compact f/1.8 spectrograph, and a back-illuminated CCD, permits Doppler line shifts and widths (of the C VI line at 529.05 nm) to be determined with 1-2 cm spatial resolution. For good photon counting statistics under Li-coated wall conditions, 600 μm diameter fibers collect and transmit light to curved 100 μm wide input slits. When calibrated with a neon pencil lamp this entrance slit width results in a non-Gaussian instrumental function that, if not handled correctly, can result in systematically underestimated impurity temperatures. Here we develop and present correction factors for this effect for a range of conditions.

  3. The Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor ARNO mediates the activation of ARF and phospholipase D by insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fluharty Eric

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phospholipase D (PLD is involved in many signaling pathways. In most systems, the activity of PLD is primarily regulated by the members of the ADP-Ribosylation Factor (ARF family of GTPases, but the mechanism of activation of PLD and ARF by extracellular signals has not been fully established. Here we tested the hypothesis that ARF-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs of the cytohesin/ARNO family mediate the activation of ARF and PLD by insulin. Results Wild type ARNO transiently transfected in HIRcB cells was translocated to the plasma membrane in an insulin-dependent manner and promoted the translocation of ARF to the membranes. ARNO mutants: ΔCC-ARNO and CC-ARNO were partially translocated to the membranes while ΔPH-ARNO and PH-ARNO could not be translocated to the membranes. Sec7 domain mutants of ARNO did not facilitate the ARF translocation. Overexpression of wild type ARNO significantly increased insulin-stimulated PLD activity, and mutations in the Sec7 and PH domains, or deletion of the PH or CC domains inhibited the effects of insulin. Conclusions Small ARF-GEFs of the cytohesin/ARNO family mediate the activation of ARF and PLD by the insulin receptor.

  4. Air exchanges and indoor carbon dioxide concentration in Australian pig buildings: Effect of housing and management factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banhazi, T. M.; Stott, P.; Rutley, D.

    2011-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in improving air quality within livestock buildings. However, the influence of housing and management factors on air exchange rates and indoor gas concentrations is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of housing and management...... factors on the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and air exchange rates in 160 representative Australian pig buildings. CO(2) concentrations were measured, air changes per hour (ACH) were estimated using a CO(2) balance method, and structural and management parameters were recorded. The mean CO(2......) concentration measured was 858 ppm and a mean air exchange rate of 22.8 ACH was estimated. The analysis showed that CO(2) concentrations were affected by the type of building, season, control of the wall and ridge vents, ceiling height, size of the wall vents and height of the ridge vents. Weaner buildings had...

  5. Type II1 factors satisfying the spatial isomorphism conjecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Jan; Christensen, Erik; Sinclair, Allan M.

    2012-01-01

    Det vises at hvis et par af von Neumann algebraer er tilstrækkeligt tæt på hinanden i Hausdorff-metrikken, og den ene er en II1 faktor, som er et krydset produkt af en abelsk von Neumann algebra med en gruuppvirkning af en gruppe men triviel begrænset kohomologi, så er de to algebraer unitært ækv...

  6. Exchange enhancement of the electron g-factor in a two-dimensional semimetal in HgTe quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovkun, L. S., E-mail: bovkun@ipmras.ru; Krishtopenko, S. S.; Zholudev, M. S.; Ikonnikov, A. V.; Spirin, K. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Teppe, F.; Knap, W. [Universite Montpellier II, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C), UMR CNRS 5221, GIS-TERALAB (France); Gavrilenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The exchange enhancement of the electron g-factor in perpendicular magnetic fields to 12 T in HgTe/CdHgTe quantum wells 20 nm wide with a semimetal band structure is studied. The electron effective mass and g-factor at the Fermi level are determined by analyzing the temperature dependence of the amplitude of Shubnikov–de Haas oscillation in weak fields and near odd Landau-level filling factors ν ≤ 9. The experimental values are compared with theoretical calculations performed in the one-electron approximation using the eight-band kp Hamiltonian. The found dependence of g-factor enhancement on the electron concentration is explained by changes in the contributions of hole- and electron-like states to exchange corrections to the Landau-level energies in the conduction band.

  7. Insulin-like growth factor II: complexity of biosynthesis and receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, S; Christiansen, Jan; Nielsen, F C

    1991-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) belongs to the insulin family of peptides and acts as a growth factor in many fetal tissues and tumors. The gene expression of IGF-II is initiated at three different promoters which gives rise to multiple transcripts. In a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line...... the 4.8-kb mRNA is translated to IGF-II. The cell line secretes two forms of immunoreactive and bioactive IGF-II to the medium of molecular size 10 kd and 7.5 kd which may be involved in autocrine control of cell growth. IGF-II binds to two receptors on the surface of many cell types: the IGF-I receptor...... and the mannose-6-phosphate (Man-6-P)/IGF-II receptor. There is consensus that the cellular effects of IGF-II are mediated by the IGF-I receptor via activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase. The Man-6-P/IGF-II receptor is involved in endocytosis of lysosomal enzymes and IGF-II. In selected cell types, however...

  8. Effect of hepatocyte growth factor and angiotensin II on rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ai-Lan [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Ou, Cai-Wen [The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); He, Zhao-Chu [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Qi-Cai [Experimental Medical Research Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Dong, Qi [Department of Physiology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Min-Sheng [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-10-15

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The combined effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Ang II on cardiomyocytes is unknown. The present study was designed to determine the effect of HGF on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and to explore the combined effect of HGF and Ang II on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Primary cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal rat hearts and cultured in vitro. Cells were treated with Ang II (1 µM) alone, HGF (10 ng/mL) alone, and Ang II (1 µM) plus HGF (10 ng/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. The amount of [{sup 3}H]-leucine incorporation was then measured to evaluate protein synthesis. The mRNA levels of β-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic factor were determined by real-time PCR to evaluate the presence of fetal phenotypes of gene expression. The cell size of cardiomyocytes was also studied. Ang II (1 µM) increased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Similar to Ang II, treatment with 1 µM HGF promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Moreover, the combination of 1 µM Ang II and 10 ng/mL HGF clearly induced a combined pro-hypertrophy effect on cardiomyocytes. The present study demonstrates for the first time a novel, combined effect of HGF and Ang II in promoting cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

  9. Ric-8A, a Gα protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor potentiates taste receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Fenech

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Taste receptors for sweet, bitter and umami tastants are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. While much effort has been devoted to understanding G-protein-receptor interactions and identifying the components of the signalling cascade downstream of these receptors, at the level of the G-protein the modulation of receptor signal transduction remains relatively unexplored. In this regard a taste-specific regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS, RGS21, has recently been identified. To study whether guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs are involved in the transduction of the signal downstream of the taste GPCRs we investigated the expression of Ric-8A and Ric-8B in mouse taste cells and their interaction with G-protein subunits found in taste buds. Mammalian Ric-8 proteins were initially identified as potent GEFs for a range of Gα subunits and Ric-8B has recently been shown to amplify olfactory signal transduction. We find that both Ric-8A and Ric-8B are expressed in a large portion of taste bud cells and that most of these cells contain IP3R-3 a marker for sweet, umami and bitter taste receptor cells. Ric-8A interacts with Gα-gustducin and Gαi2 through which it amplifies the signal transduction of hTas2R16, a receptor for bitter compounds. Overall, these findings are consistent with a role for Ric-8 in mammalian taste signal transduction.

  10. The human insulin-like growth factor II gene contains two development-specific promoters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagter-Holthuizen, P. de; Jansen, M.; Schaik, F.M.A.; Kammen, R. van der; Oosterwijk, C.; Brande, J.L. van den; Sussenbach, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factors (IGF) play an important role in fetal and postnatal development. Recently, the nucleotide sequences of the cDNAs encoding IGF-I and IGF-II and part of the human IGF genes were reported. In this communication we describe two distinct IGF-II cDNAs isolated from a human

  11. Endonucleolysis in the turnover of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F C; Christiansen, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The overlapping transcription units constituting the rat insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) locus generate multiple mRNAs by using different promoters. Three promoters have been identified, giving rise to 4.6-, 3.8-, and 3.6-kilobase mRNAs. The latter, originating from promoter P3, is the most...

  12. Human body area factors for radiation exchange analysis: standing and walking postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sookuk; Tuller, Stanton E

    2011-09-01

    Effective radiation area factors (f (eff)) and projected area factors (f (p)) of unclothed Caucasians' standing and walking postures used in estimating human radiation exchange with the surrounding environment were determined from a sample of adults in Canada. Several three-dimensional (3D) computer body models were created for standing and walking postures. Only small differences in f (eff) and f (p) values for standing posture were found between gender (male or female) and body type (normal- or over-weight). Differences between this study and previous studies were much larger: ≤0.173 in f (p) and ≤0.101 in f (eff). Directionless f (p) values for walking posture also had only minor differences between genders and positions in a stride. However, the differences of mean directional f (p) values of the positions dependent on azimuth angles were large enough, ≤0.072, to create important differences in modeled radiation receipt. Differences in f (eff) values were small: 0.02 between the normal-weight male and female models and up to 0.033 between positions in a stride. Variations of directional f (p) values depending on solar altitudes for walking posture were narrower than those for standing posture. When both standing and walking postures are considered, the mean f (eff) value, 0.836, of standing (0.826) and walking (0.846) could be used. However, f (p) values should be selected carefully because differences between directional and directionless f (p) values were large enough that they could influence the estimated level of human thermal sensation.

  13. An investigation of the factor structure of the beck depression inventory-II in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Samantha; Trottier, Kathryn; Carter, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of depression frequently co-occur with eating disorders and have been associated with negative outcomes. Self-report measures such as the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) are commonly used to assess for the presence of depressive symptoms in eating disorders, but the instrument's factor structure in this population has not been examined. The purposes of this study were to explore the factor structure of the BDI-II in a sample of individuals (N = 437) with anorexia nervosa undergoing inpatient treatment and to examine changes in depressive symptoms on each of the identified factors following a course of treatment for anorexia nervosa in order to provide evidence supporting the construct validity of the measure. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that a three-factor model reflected the best fit for the data. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to validate this model against competing models and the three-factor model exhibited strong model fit characteristics. BDI-II scores were significantly reduced on all three factors following inpatient treatment, which supported the construct validity of the scale. The BDI-II appears to be reliable in this population, and the factor structure identified through this analysis may offer predictive utility for identifying individuals who may have more difficulty achieving weight restoration in the context of inpatient treatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT AND FRICTION FACTOR CHARACTERISTICS OF A GRAVITY ASSISTED BAFFLED SHELL AND HEAT-PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raveendiran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer coefficients and friction factors of a baffled shell and heat pipe heat exchanger with various inclination angles were determined experimentally; using methanol as working fluid and water as heat transport fluid were reported. Heat pipe heat exchanger reported in this investigation have inclination angles varied between 15o and 60o for different mass flow rates and temperature at the shell side of the heat exchanger. All the required parameters like outlet temperature of both hot and cold side of heat exchanger and mass flow rate of fluids were measured using an appropriate instrument. Different tests were performed from which condenser side heat transfer coefficient and friction factor were calculated. In all operating conditions it has been found that the heat transfer coefficient increases by increasing the mass flow rate and angle of inclination. The reduction in friction factor occurs when the Reynolds number is increased. The overall optimum experimental effectiveness of GABSHPHE has found to be 42% in all operating conditioning at ψ = 45o.

  15. Magnetic properties of layered complexes [M(hfac){sub 2}]{sub 3}(R){sub 2}, M=Mn(II) and Cu(II), with trisnitroxide radicals having various metal-radical exchange interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Motoko; Hosokoshi, Yuko; Inoue, Katsuya [Applied Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Nishigonaka, Myodaiji, Okazaki (Japan); Markosyan, Ashot S. [Applied Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Nishigonaka, Myodaiji, Okazaki (Japan); Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: marko@plms.phys.msu.su; Iwamura, Hizu [Department of General Science, University of Air. Wakaba, Mihama, Chiba (Japan)

    2001-08-20

    A series of new layered 2D-network complexes [M(hfac){sub 2}]{sub 3}(R{sub {delta}}){sub 2} of M=Mn(II) and Cu(II) with trisnitroxide radicals R{sub {delta}} has been prepared and the magnetic properties were studied. Each triradical R{sub {delta}} has a quartet ground state and contributes not only to the formation of extended structures but essentially to the overall magnetism. Several exchange interactions, between M and nitroxide and intraradical nitroxide-nitroxide interactions, are responsible for the development of the characteristic magnetic properties in these heterospin systems. Depending on the nature of the interlayer interactions, they show either ferro/ferrimagnetic or antiferromagnetic long range order. The hierarchy of the different exchange interactions is established and the Mn-nitroxide and Cu-nitroxide exchange integrals are evaluated from the analysis of the temperature dependence of the paramagnetic susceptibility. With increasing intraradical exchange interaction, the complexes exhibit more pronounced 2D behaviour. (author)

  16. Ammonia binding to the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II identifies the solvent-exchangeable oxygen bridge (μ-oxo) of the manganese tetramer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Navarro, Montserrat; Ames, William M; Nilsson, Håkan; Lohmiller, Thomas; Pantazis, Dimitrios A; Rapatskiy, Leonid; Nowaczyk, Marc M; Neese, Frank; Boussac, Alain; Messinger, Johannes; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Cox, Nicholas

    2013-09-24

    The assignment of the two substrate water sites of the tetra-manganese penta-oxygen calcium (Mn4O5Ca) cluster of photosystem II is essential for the elucidation of the mechanism of biological O-O bond formation and the subsequent design of bio-inspired water-splitting catalysts. We recently demonstrated using pulsed EPR spectroscopy that one of the five oxygen bridges (μ-oxo) exchanges unusually rapidly with bulk water and is thus a likely candidate for one of the substrates. Ammonia, a water analog, was previously shown to bind to the Mn4O5Ca cluster, potentially displacing a water/substrate ligand [Britt RD, et al. (1989) J Am Chem Soc 111(10):3522-3532]. Here we show by a combination of EPR and time-resolved membrane inlet mass spectrometry that the binding of ammonia perturbs the exchangeable μ-oxo bridge without drastically altering the binding/exchange kinetics of the two substrates. In combination with broken-symmetry density functional theory, our results show that (i) the exchangable μ-oxo bridge is O5 {using the labeling of the current crystal structure [Umena Y, et al. (2011) Nature 473(7345):55-60]}; (ii) ammonia displaces a water ligand to the outer manganese (MnA4-W1); and (iii) as W1 is trans to O5, ammonia binding elongates the MnA4-O5 bond, leading to the perturbation of the μ-oxo bridge resonance and to a small change in the water exchange rates. These experimental results support O-O bond formation between O5 and possibly an oxyl radical as proposed by Siegbahn and exclude W1 as the second substrate water.

  17. Ammonia binding to the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II identifies the solvent-exchangeable oxygen bridge (μ-oxo) of the manganese tetramer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Navarro, Montserrat; Ames, William M.; Nilsson, Håkan; Lohmiller, Thomas; Pantazis, Dimitrios A.; Rapatskiy, Leonid; Nowaczyk, Marc M.; Neese, Frank; Boussac, Alain; Messinger, Johannes; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Cox, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The assignment of the two substrate water sites of the tetra-manganese penta-oxygen calcium (Mn4O5Ca) cluster of photosystem II is essential for the elucidation of the mechanism of biological O-O bond formation and the subsequent design of bio-inspired water-splitting catalysts. We recently demonstrated using pulsed EPR spectroscopy that one of the five oxygen bridges (μ-oxo) exchanges unusually rapidly with bulk water and is thus a likely candidate for one of the substrates. Ammonia, a water analog, was previously shown to bind to the Mn4O5Ca cluster, potentially displacing a water/substrate ligand [Britt RD, et al. (1989) J Am Chem Soc 111(10):3522–3532]. Here we show by a combination of EPR and time-resolved membrane inlet mass spectrometry that the binding of ammonia perturbs the exchangeable μ-oxo bridge without drastically altering the binding/exchange kinetics of the two substrates. In combination with broken-symmetry density functional theory, our results show that (i) the exchangable μ-oxo bridge is O5 {using the labeling of the current crystal structure [Umena Y, et al. (2011) Nature 473(7345):55–60]}; (ii) ammonia displaces a water ligand to the outer manganese (MnA4-W1); and (iii) as W1 is trans to O5, ammonia binding elongates the MnA4-O5 bond, leading to the perturbation of the μ-oxo bridge resonance and to a small change in the water exchange rates. These experimental results support O-O bond formation between O5 and possibly an oxyl radical as proposed by Siegbahn and exclude W1 as the second substrate water. PMID:24023065

  18. Development of human factors design review guidelines(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Suh, Sang Moon; Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: 25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model and 26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation, which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and reviewing the reference documents of NUREG-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides in KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we will update the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design published after 1994. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Insulin-like growth factor II: complexity of biosynthesis and receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, S; Christiansen, Jan; Nielsen, F C

    1991-01-01

    , Man-6-P induces cellular responses. We have studied rat brain neuronal precursor cells where Man-6-P acted as a mitogen suggesting that phosphomannosylated proteins may act as growth factors via the Man-6-P/IGF-II receptor. In conclusion, the gene expression and mechanism of action of IGF-II is very......Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) belongs to the insulin family of peptides and acts as a growth factor in many fetal tissues and tumors. The gene expression of IGF-II is initiated at three different promoters which gives rise to multiple transcripts. In a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line...... the 4.8-kb mRNA is translated to IGF-II. The cell line secretes two forms of immunoreactive and bioactive IGF-II to the medium of molecular size 10 kd and 7.5 kd which may be involved in autocrine control of cell growth. IGF-II binds to two receptors on the surface of many cell types: the IGF-I receptor...

  20. Use of the APACHE II score to assess impact of therapeutic plasma exchange for critically ill patients with hypertriglyceride-induced pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhoda, Shazia; Zimrin, Ann B; Baer, Maria R; Law, Jennie Y

    2017-04-01

    Hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) pancreatitis carries significant morbidity and mortality and often requires intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) rapidly lowers serum triglyceride (TG) levels. However, evidence supporting TPE for HTG pancreatitis is lacking. Ten patients admitted to the ICU for HTG pancreatitis underwent TPE at our institution from 2005-2015. We retrospectively calculated the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Examination II (APACHE II) score at the time of initial TPE and again after the final TPE session to assess the impact of triglyceride apheresis on morbidity and mortality associated with HTG pancreatitis. All 10 patients had rapid reduction in TG level after TPE, but only 5 had improvement in their APACHE II score. The median APACHE II score decreased from 19% to 17% after TPE, correlating with an 8% and 9% decrease in median predicted non-operative and post-operative mortality, respectively. The APACHE II score did not differ statistically before and after TPE implementation in our patient group (p=0.39). TPE is a clinically useful tool to rapidly lower TG levels, but its impact on mortality of HTG pancreatitis as assessed by the APACHE II score remains uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RIC8 regulates conidial germination through Gα proteins in Neurospora crassa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla J Eaton

    Full Text Available Heterotrimeric G protein signaling is essential for normal hyphal growth in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We have previously demonstrated that the non-receptor guanine nucleotide exchange factor RIC8 acts upstream of the Gα proteins GNA-1 and GNA-3 to regulate hyphal extension. Here we demonstrate that regulation of hyphal extension results at least in part, from an important role in control of asexual spore (conidia germination. Loss of GNA-3 leads to a drastic reduction in conidial germination, which is exacerbated in the absence of GNA-1. Mutation of RIC8 leads to a reduction in germination similar to that in the Δgna-1, Δgna-3 double mutant, suggesting that RIC8 regulates conidial germination through both GNA-1 and GNA-3. Support for a more significant role for GNA-3 is indicated by the observation that expression of a GTPase-deficient, constitutively active gna-3 allele in the Δric8 mutant leads to a significant increase in conidial germination. Localization of the three Gα proteins during conidial germination was probed through analysis of cells expressing fluorescently tagged proteins. Functional TagRFP fusions of each of the three Gα subunits were constructed through insertion of TagRFP in a conserved loop region of the Gα subunits. The results demonstrated that GNA-1 localizes to the plasma membrane and vacuoles, and also to septa throughout conidial germination. GNA-2 and GNA-3 localize to both the plasma membrane and vacuoles during early germination, but are then found in intracellular vacuoles later during hyphal outgrowth.

  2. The GDP-GTP exchange factor collybistin: an essential determinant of neuronal gephyrin clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kirsten; Duguid, Ian C; Alldred, Melissa J; Beatty, Sarah E; Ward, Hamish; Keep, Nicholas H; Lingenfelter, Sue E; Pearce, Brian R; Lundgren, Johan; Owen, Michael J; Smart, Trevor G; Lüscher, Bernhard; Rees, Mark I; Harvey, Robert J

    2004-06-23

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) and specific subtypes of GABA(A) receptors are clustered at synapses by the multidomain protein gephyrin, which in turn is translocated to the cell membrane by the GDP-GTP exchange factor collybistin. We report the characterization of several new variants of collybistin, which are created by alternative splicing of exons encoding an N-terminal src homology 3 (SH3) domain and three alternate C termini (CB1, CB2, and CB3). The presence of the SH3 domain negatively regulates the ability of collybistin to translocate gephyrin to submembrane microaggregates in transfected mammalian cells. Because the majority of native collybistin isoforms appear to harbor the SH3 domain, this suggests that collybistin activity may be regulated by protein-protein interactions at the SH3 domain. We localized the binding sites for collybistin and the GlyR beta subunit to the C-terminal MoeA homology domain of gephyrin and show that multimerization of this domain is required for collybistin-gephyrin and GlyR-gephyrin interactions. We also demonstrate that gephyrin clustering in recombinant systems and cultured neurons requires both collybistin-gephyrin interactions and an intact collybistin pleckstrin homology domain. The vital importance of collybistin for inhibitory synaptogenesis is underlined by the discovery of a mutation (G55A) in exon 2 of the human collybistin gene (ARHGEF9) in a patient with clinical symptoms of both hyperekplexia and epilepsy. The clinical manifestation of this collybistin missense mutation may result, at least in part, from mislocalization of gephyrin and a major GABA(A) receptor subtype.

  3. The C-terminal Helix of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Elongation Factor Ts Tunes EF-Tu Dynamics to Modulate Nucleotide Exchange*

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laurentiis, Evelina Ines; Mercier, Evan; Wieden, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the conservation of critical kinetic parameters and the mechanistic strategies of elongation factor (EF) Ts-catalyzed nucleotide exchange in EF-Tu in bacteria and particularly in clinically relevant pathogens. EF-Tu from the clinically relevant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa shares over 84% sequence identity with the corresponding elongation factor from Escherichia coli. Interestingly, the functionally closely linked EF-Ts only shares 55% sequence identity. To identify any differences in the nucleotide binding properties, as well as in the EF-Ts-mediated nucleotide exchange reaction, we performed a comparative rapid kinetics and mutagenesis analysis of the nucleotide exchange mechanism for both the E. coli and P. aeruginosa systems, identifying helix 13 of EF-Ts as a previously unnoticed regulatory element in the nucleotide exchange mechanism with species-specific elements. Our findings support the base side-first entry of the nucleotide into the binding pocket of the EF-Tu·EF-Ts binary complex, followed by displacement of helix 13 and rapid binding of the phosphate side of the nucleotide, ultimately leading to the release of EF-Ts. PMID:27624934

  4. International preferences for pork appearance: II. Factors influencing consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngapo, T.M.; Martin, J.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2007-01-01

    The preference for pork varying in its fat cover, lean colour, marbling and drip differs among countries, but the influence of socio-demographic factors is unknown. In this study of 11,717 consumers from 22 countries, more than 80% of consumers liked pork, thought that pork quality was at least

  5. The positive transcription factor of the 5S RNA gene proteolyses during direct exchange between 5S DNA sites

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    We have examined the association, dissociation, and exchange of the 5S specific transcription factor (TFIIIA) with somatic- and oocyte-type 5S DNA. The factor associates faster with somatic than with oocyte 5S DNA, and the rate of complex formation is accelerated by vector DNA. Once formed, the TFIIIA-5S DNA complex is stable for greater than 4 h in the absence of free 5S DNA, and its dissociation is identical for somatic and for oocyte 5S DNA. In the presence of free 5S DNA, the factor trans...

  6. Stimulated rabbit alveolar macrophages secrete a growth factor for type II pneumocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, M E; Finkelstein, J N

    1989-08-01

    The type II pneumocyte plays a principle role in the maintenance and repair of the pulmonary alveolar epithelium by increasing its rate of proliferation under conditions of epithelial damage. This investigation examined the role of the alveolar macrophage in the control of type II cell division through its ability to produce specific growth factors when activated in vitro. Type II cells were isolated from adult male rabbits and cultured in the presence of media and matrix that support cell proliferation. Proliferation was assessed by cell counting and pulsing with [3H]thymidine, followed by measurements of labeling index and TCA-insoluble radioactivity. Alveolar macrophages were cultured in serum-free media in the presence of a particulate stimulus. Conditioned media was diluted and added to type II cell cultures. Conditioned media from stimulated macrophage cultures was found to double basal type II cell proliferation, whereas media from unstimulated macrophage cultures had no effect. Macrophage production of type II cell growth-promoting activity was dependent on the concentration of the stimulus and the length of the incubation. Investigation into the identity of the growth-regulating protein established that it is heat labile, insensitive to reduction and acidic conditions, and sensitive to trypsin digestion. Its molecular weight appears to be greater than or equal to 25 kD. Addition of several characterized growth factors to type II cell cultures demonstrated that other known growth-promoting products of macrophages do not act as type II cell growth factors. The evidence presented suggests that in vitro activated alveolar macrophages produce a type II cell growth factor that may play a critical role in mediating repair of the alveolar epithelium.

  7. The Beck Depression Inventory-II: Testing for Measurement Equivalence and Factor Mean Differences across Hong Kong and American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Barbara M.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Kennard, Betsy D.; Lee, Peter W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Working within the framework of a confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) model, this study adds another dimension to construct validation of both the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) and a Chinese version of the BDI-II (C-BDI-II; Chinese Behavioral Sciences Society, 2000). Specifically, we tested for measurement…

  8. Meta-Analysis of the Factor Structures of the Beck Depression Inventory-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung; Chen, Jyun-Hong

    2015-08-01

    Two meta-analyses examined the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Study 1, which meta-analyzed 51 studies comprising 62 samples (N = 20,475) providing pattern matrices, determined that the two-factor solution comprising Cognitive and Somatic-Affective factors was supported for the full sample. The two-factor solution was also supported for subgroups of studies. As the factor structure varied somewhat between subgroups of studies, the strength of relationships between scale items and their underlying depressive symptoms varied. Hence, comparisons of mean BDI-II scores across subgroups can be misleading. Study 2 meta-analyzed 13 studies consisting of 16 samples (N = 5,128) providing covariance matrices among the 21 BDI-II items. The two-factor solution was again supported in Study 2. Nevertheless, the existence of a general depression factor was supported by the good fit of the one-factor model. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Effect of market factors on the short-time pricing of stock-exchange metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, S. V.; Shevelev, I. M.; Chernyi, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The open trade on the world market is estimated using information of one-day exchange prices of nonferrous and precious metals, oil, reduced crude, and gasoline and the main world stock indices in the time period from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2015. It is found that the short-term changes in the prices of nonferrous metals are determined by the prices on the metal market. The changes in the prices of energy carriers and the stock trade on the stock market weakly influence the pricing of nonferrous and precious metals. The prices of metals depend on the situation during trade on commodity exchanges, and the stock market indirectly influences the exchange prices of metals through changes in the share prices of the companies that produce copper, aluminum, and zinc.

  10. The ion exchange and its connection the industry II.- Calculation methods for installations; El cambio de ion y su relacion con la industria II.- Metodos de calculo de instalaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriarte Hueda, A.; Lopez Perez, B.; Gutierrez Jodra, L.

    1960-07-01

    An exposure is made of calculation methods for ion exchange installations based on kinetic considerations and similarity with other unitary operations. Factors to be experimentally obtained as well as difficulties which may occur in its determination are also given. Calculation procedures most commonly used in industry are enclosed and explained with numerical resolution of a problem of water demineralization. (Author) 22 refs.

  11. Indicators of exchange of bile pigments under the action of ecopathogenic factors on the organism and correction with liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Melnychuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High levels of anthropogenic impact on the environment requires a detailed study of the features of the influence of heavy metals and ionizing radiation on living organisms, and provides for the development and use of effective means of protecting the body from its negative influence. The purpose of the work was to study the characteristics of the exchange of bile pigments of rats under the action of eсopathogenic factors (ionizing radiation and cadmium on the organism and the corrective properties of liposomes on the basis of milk phospholipids. An analysis of the chromatographic studies of bilirubin and derivatives (nonconjugated bilirubin, bilirubin sulfate, billirubin glucuronide, urobilin and stercobilin in the whole blood, liver, jejunum contents and feces under the action on the animal organism of eсopathogenic factors (ionizing radiation and cadmium indicate material violation of the exchange bile pigments that may be due to the destabilization of the structural and functional hot hepatocytes. Correction of the liposomal form of biologically active additive (BAA FLP-MD is reco­mmended; the latter is a mixture of phospholipids isolated from milk, with a mixture of unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, linolenic and antioxidants (α-tocopherol and retinol acetate. The additive components exhibit the reparative effect of the action in respect of the damaged membrane structures with simultaneous improving of cholepoietic and billiation liver function, and therefore contribute to the normalization of exchange og bile pigments in terms of action on the body ecopathogenic factors.

  12. 75 FR 62137 - Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest Factors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) hereby notifies the public that it will hold a public meeting to consider a proposal to exchange Federal coal deposits for Alluvial Valley Floor (AVF) fee coal pursuant to the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) of 1976, as amended, and the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977. This exchange (serial number MTM-99236) has been proposed by Jay Nance, Brett A. Boedecker, as personal representative for Susanne N. Boedecker, Joseph P. Hayes, Patricia Hayes Rodolph, and the Brown Cattle Company Shareholders Coal Trust, collectively referred to as Nance-Brown.

  13. Factores de riesgo de preeclampsia: enfoque inmunoendocrino. Parte II Risk factors for preeclampsia: immunoendocrine approach. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeddú Cruz Hernández

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta segunda parte de la revisión trata sobre los nuevos factores de riesgo de la preeclampsia, también conocidos como emergentes, entre los cuales se incluyen fenómenos biológicos de tipo endocrino, inmunológico y relacionados con la disfunción endotelial, como el aumento del estrés oxidativo, la disminución de las vitaminas antioxidantes y otros. Se augura que estos factores de riesgo de reciente descripción tendrán que ser tenidos muy en cuenta en un futuro no lejano, si se quiere predecir eficazmente la aparición de la preeclampsia para poder actuar así de forma precoz durante el desarrollo de la enfermedad, y evitar al máximo sus consecuencias obstétricas adversas, y en algunos casos, hasta para prevenir el surgimiento de esta enfermedad.This second part of the review deals with the new risk factors for preeclampsia, which are also known as emergent, among which the biological phenomena of endocrine and immunological type and related to endothelial dysfunction, such as the increase of oxidative stress, the reduction of antioxidant vitamins and others, are included. It is said that these recently described risk factors will have to be taken into account in a near future to efficiently predict the appearance of preeclampsia to act early during the development of the disease and to prevent as much as possible its adverse obstetric consequences and, in some cases, to avoid the appearance of this disease.

  14. Tumour suppression associated with expression of human insulin-like growth factor II.

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, P. N.; Lee, A.; Hill, D. J.; Cheetham, J. E.; James, D.; Stewart, C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent circumstantial evidence has implicated Insulin-like growth factor II in the genesis of several tumour types, notably developmental tumours (Scott et al., 1985; Schofield & Tate, 1987; Wilkins et al., 1989). This type of tumour, thought to originate during the defective differentiation of organ precursors (Miereau et al., 1987), often expresses greatly elevated levels of mRNA for IGF-II, a known mitogen for these cells and abundantly expressed in their presumed normal counterparts (Scot...

  15. Evidence of exchange interaction of localized carriers and transition metals in diluted II-VI nanostructures : ODMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baranov, P. G.; Romanov, N. G.; Tolmachev, D. O.; Gurin, A. S.; Namozov, B. R.; Kusrayev, Yu G.; Karczewski, G.; Orlinskii, S.; De Mello Donega, C.; Schmidt, J.

    2016-01-01

    Optically detected magnetic resonance study of (CdMn)Te/(CdMg)Te quantum wells allowed to reveal the formation of exchange-coupled complexes consisting of Mn ions and localized holes in quantum wells with excess hole concentration and the directional electron tunneling towards wider wells in

  16. Do chestnut, northern red, and white oak germinant seedlings respond similary to light treatments? II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Rebbeck; Amy Scherzer; Kurt. Gottschalk

    2012-01-01

    Understanding differences in physiological and growth strategies in low-light environments among upland oak species may help managers address the challenges of oaks' poor regeneration. Gas exchange and chlorophyll content were measured for northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), and white oak (...

  17. Type I and II Endometrial Cancers: Have They Different Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Yang, Hannah P.; Pike, Malcolm C.; McCann, Susan E.; Yu, Herbert; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wolk, Alicja; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Weiss, Noel S.; Webb, Penelope M.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; van de Vijver, Koen; Thompson, Pamela J.; Strom, Brian L.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Soslow, Robert A.; Shu, Xiao-ou; Schairer, Catherine; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Rohan, Thomas E.; Robien, Kim; Risch, Harvey A.; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Rastogi, Radhai; Prescott, Jennifer; Polidoro, Silvia; Park, Yikyung; Olson, Sara H.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Miller, Anthony B.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Lurie, Galina; Lu, Lingeng; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liang, Xiaolin; Lacey, James V.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Håkansson, Niclas; Goodman, Marc T.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Doherty, Jennifer; De Vivo, Immaculata; Courneya, Kerry S.; Cook, Linda S.; Chen, Chu; Cerhan, James R.; Cai, Hui; Brinton, Louise A.; Bernstein, Leslie; Anderson, Kristin E.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Schouten, Leo J.; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Endometrial cancers have long been divided into estrogen-dependent type I and the less common clinically aggressive estrogen-independent type II. Little is known about risk factors for type II tumors because most studies lack sufficient cases to study these much less common tumors separately. We examined whether so-called classical endometrial cancer risk factors also influence the risk of type II tumors. Patients and Methods Individual-level data from 10 cohort and 14 case-control studies from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium were pooled. A total of 14,069 endometrial cancer cases and 35,312 controls were included. We classified endometrioid (n = 7,246), adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (n = 4,830), and adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation (n = 777) as type I tumors and serous (n = 508) and mixed cell (n = 346) as type II tumors. Results Parity, oral contraceptive use, cigarette smoking, age at menarche, and diabetes were associated with type I and type II tumors to similar extents. Body mass index, however, had a greater effect on type I tumors than on type II tumors: odds ratio (OR) per 2 kg/m2 increase was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.19 to 1.21) for type I and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.14) for type II tumors (Pheterogeneity endometrial cancer types share many common etiologic factors. The etiology of type II tumors may, therefore, not be completely estrogen independent, as previously believed. PMID:23733771

  18. Slowed conduction and thin myelination of peripheral nerves associated with mutant rho Guanine-nucleotide exchange factor 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Kristien; De Jonghe, Peter; Van de Putte, Tom; Nelis, Eva; Zwijsen, An; Verpoorten, Nathalie; De Vriendt, Els; Jacobs, An; Van Gerwen, Veerle; Francis, Annick; Ceuterick, Chantal; Huylebroeck, Danny; Timmerman, Vincent

    2003-10-01

    Slowed nerve-conduction velocities (NCVs) are a biological endophenotype in the majority of the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN). Here, we identified a family with autosomal dominant segregation of slowed NCVs without the clinical phenotype of HMSN. Peripheral-nerve biopsy showed predominantly thinly myelinated axons. We identified a locus at 8p23 and a Thr109Ile mutation in ARHGEF10, encoding a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho family of GTPase proteins (RhoGTPases). Rho GEFs are implicated in neural morphogenesis and connectivity and regulate the activity of small RhoGTPases by catalyzing the exchange of bound GDP by GTP. Expression analysis of ARHGEF10, by use of its mouse orthologue Gef10, showed that it is highly expressed in the peripheral nervous system. Our data support a role for ARHGEF10 in developmental myelination of peripheral nerves.

  19. [Correlation between epigenetic alterations in the insulin growth factor-II gene and hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhi-zhen; Yao, Deng-fu; Wu, Wei; Qiu, Li-wei; Yao, Ning-hua; Yan, Xiao-di; Yu, Dan-dan; Chen, Jie

    2012-08-01

    To investigate whether epigenetic alterations in the insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) gene that cause differential transcription or expression are correlated with onset and severity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patient-matched specimens of HCC, paracancerous, and non-cancerous tissues were collected from 40 primary liver cancer patients. Epigenetic alterations in the promoter (P3) sequence of the IGF-II gene were analyzed by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and IGF-II transcription was measured by RT-PCR. IGF-II protein expression and clinicopathological features were assessed by immunohistochemistry and microscopic observation. The rate of IGF-II P3 methylation was significantly lower in HCC tissues (0%) than in paracancerous tissues (vs. 47.5%; x2 = 24.918, P less than 0.001) and non-cancerous tissues (vs. 100%; x2 = 80.000, P less than 0.001). IGF-II mRNA expression was significantly higher in HCC tissues (100%) than in paracancerous tissues (vs. 52.5%; x2 = 24.918, P less than 0.001) and non-cancerous tissues (vs. 0%; x2 = 80.000, P less than 0.001). IGF-II protein expression was significantly higher in HCC tissues (82.5%) than in paracancerous tissues (vs. 45.0%; x2 = 12.170, P less than 0.001) and non-cancerous tissues (vs. 0%; x2 = 56.170, P less than 0.001). IGF-II overexpression in HCC was significantly associated with degree of differentiation, extent of infiltrated serosa, size of tumor, and HBV-positive infection status. Epigenetic alterations in the IGF-II gene regulate its transcription and expression and are closely associated with HCC development and progression.

  20. Factors affecting the exchange of genetic material between Nordic and US Holstein populatons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, L H; Sørensen, A C; Lassen, J

    2009-01-01

    be explained by differences in economic values, trait definitions, national genetic evaluation procedures, and genotype x environment interactions. The objective of this study was to test whether uniform definitions of the female fertility traits would increase the exchange of genes across populations......, and to quantify the effect on genetic gain. A second objective was to test whether a more similar relative weighting of the index traits across populations would increase the exchange of genes across populations, and to quantify the effect on genetic gain. This was done in a stochastic simulation study...... of the Nordic and US Holstein populations. Uniform definitions of the female fertility traits did not increase total genetic gain in the Nordic Holstein population. The standardization did not seem to affect selection across populations either. However, the results were sensitive to the assumptions made...

  1. Retinopathy risk factors in type II diabetic patients using factor analysis and discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazhibi, Mahdi; Sarrafzade, Sheida; Amini, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. Incidence and prevalence of diabetes are increasing in developing countries as well as in Iran. Retinopathy is the most common chronic disorder in diabetic patients. In this study, we used the information of diabetic patients' reports that refer to endocrine and metabolism research center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences to determine diabetic retinopathy risk factors. We used factor analysis to extract retinopathy's factors. Factor analysis is using to analyze multivariate data, in which a large number of dependent variables summarize into the fewer independent factors. Factor analysis is applied, in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients, separately. To investigate the efficacy of factor analysis, we used discriminant analysis. We investigated 3535 diabetic patients whose prevalence of retinopathy was 53.4%. Six factors were extracted in each group (i.e. diabetic and nondiabetic groups). These six factors were explained 69.5% and 69.6% of total variance in diabetic and nondiabetic groups, respectively. Using original variables such as sex, weight, blood sugar control method, and some laboratory variables, the correct classification rate of discriminant analysis was identified as 67.4%. However, it decreased to 49.5% by using extracted factors. Retinopathy is one of the important disorders in diabetic patients that involves a large number of variables and can affect its incidence. By the method of factor analysis, we summarize diabetic retinopathy risk factors. Factor analysis is applied separately, in two diabetic and nondiabetic group. In this way, 10 variables were summarized into the six factors. Discriminant analysis was used to investigate the efficacy of factor analysis. Although factor analysis is a powerful way to reduce the number of variables, in this study did not worked very well.

  2. Neuroprotective Effect of Insulin-like Growth Factor-II on 1- Methyl-4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the receptor-mediated neuroprotective effect of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGFII) on 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP) induced oxidative damage in adult cortical neuronal cultures. Methods: Adult rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Cortical neurons were prepared from rats. The cells were ...

  3. Neuroprotective Effect of Insulin-like Growth Factor-II on 1- Methyl-4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial functional markers were analyzed in the. MPP-treated neuronal ... Keywords: Insulin-like growth factor-II, Neuronal cells, 1-Methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium, Mitochondrial markers, Oxidative stress ..... processes, such as memory [17], and neuro- protection against ...

  4. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  5. Study on the Influential Factors of Heat Transfer of Ground Heat Exchanger with Orthogonal Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shunyu; Yang, Rui; Liu, Lamei; Zhou, Chuanhui; Shi, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Orthogonal test method could decrease experimental times and obtain better test effect. The Taguchi method, as well as mean value response and analysis of variance, were applied in this paper to study the influence of water flow velocity in pipe, diameter and water temperature of pipe inlet on heat transfer of ground heat exchanger. The optimum design parameters and the estimated values of heat flux per meter of well depth for single U-tubes are obtained. The analysis revealed that diameter is the most influential parameter for heat flux per meter of well depth in single U-tubes while water flow velocity within 0.3m/s to 0.5m/s. And water flow velocity and diameter are important influential parameters for heat flux per meter of well depth in single U-tubes while water flow velocity within 0.5m/s to 0.8m/s. Tubes with big diameters are superior to tubes with small diameters in the design of ground source heat exchanger with single U-tubes.

  6. Swelling behavior of ion exchange resins incorporated in tri-calcium silicate cement matrix: II. Mechanical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neji, M., E-mail: mejdi.neji@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Bétons et des Argiles, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Polytech Lille, LML UMR, 8107 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Bary, B.; Le Bescop, P. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Bétons et des Argiles, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Burlion, N. [Polytech Lille, LML UMR, 8107 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents the second part of a study aiming at modelling the mechanical behavior of composites made up of ion exchange resins (IER) solidified in a tri-calcium silicate cement paste (C{sub 3}S). Such composites may be subjected to internal pressures due to ion exchange processes between ionic species which are in IER and interstitial solution of the cement paste. The reactive transport model developed in the companion paper is coupled in this study to a multi-scale approach describing the mechanical behavior of the material. It is based on an analogy with thermomechanics for taking in account the IER internal pressures, and on Eshelby-based homogenization techniques to estimate both mechanical and coupling parameters. A laboratory test has been set up to measure the macroscopic strain caused by the swelling phenomenon. The model has been finally implemented in a finite elements software. The simulation of the laboratory tests has been performed and the results have been analyzed and compared to experimental data. - Highlights: • Experimental analysis about mechanical behavior of a composite material. • Chemo-Mechanical-Transport modeling on a composite material made up with IER embedded into cement paste matrix. • Multi-scale modeling.

  7. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part II: cadmium(II/ sulphate/Lewatit TP260

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of cadmium (II, from aqueous sulphate solutions, on Lewatit TP260 resin has been investigated in batch equilibrium experiments. The influence of pH and temperature on metal adsorption capacity have also been examined. The kinetic performance of the resin has been assesed and the results have been correlated by the pore diffusion model. The resin has been used in mini-columns to study its performance under dynamics conditions. The desorption of metal ion is achieved using sulphuric acid (0.25M and 0.5M.

    Se estudia la adsorción de cadmio(II, de disoluciones en medio sulfato, sobre la resina Lewatit TP260. La adsorción del metal se ha investigado en función del pH, la temperatura y el tiempo de contacto con la resina. Los estudios cinéticos permiten correlacionar el proceso de intercambio iónico con el modelo de difusión en poro. Se ha empleado el sistema en mini columnas para evaluar el comportamiento de la resina bajo condiciones dinámicas. La desorción del metal se lleva a cabo con disoluciones de ácido sulfúrico (0,25M y 0,5M.

  8. Health information exchange technology on the front lines of healthcare: workflow factors and patterns of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin B; Lorenzi, Nancy M

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of how a health information exchange (HIE) fits into clinical workflow at multiple clinical sites. Materials and Methods The ethnographic qualitative study was conducted over a 9-month period in six emergency departments (ED) and eight ambulatory clinics in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. Data were collected using direct observation, informal interviews during observation, and formal semi-structured interviews. The authors observed for over 180 h, during which providers used the exchange 130 times. Results HIE-related workflow was modeled for each ED site and ambulatory clinic group and substantial site-to-site workflow differences were identified. Common patterns in HIE-related workflow were also identified across all sites, leading to the development of two role-based workflow models: nurse based and physician based. The workflow elements framework was applied to the two role-based patterns. An in-depth description was developed of how providers integrated HIE into existing clinical workflow, including prompts for HIE use. Discussion Workflow differed substantially among sites, but two general role-based HIE usage models were identified. Although providers used HIE to improve continuity of patient care, patient–provider trust played a significant role. Types of information retrieved related to roles, with nurses seeking to retrieve recent hospitalization data and more open-ended usage by nurse practitioners and physicians. User and role-specific customization to accommodate differences in workflow and information needs may increase the adoption and use of HIE. Conclusion Understanding end users' perspectives towards HIE technology is crucial to the long-term success of HIE. By applying qualitative methods, an in-depth understanding of HIE usage was developed. PMID:22003156

  9. Health information exchange technology on the front lines of healthcare: workflow factors and patterns of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unertl, Kim M; Johnson, Kevin B; Lorenzi, Nancy M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of how a health information exchange (HIE) fits into clinical workflow at multiple clinical sites. The ethnographic qualitative study was conducted over a 9-month period in six emergency departments (ED) and eight ambulatory clinics in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. Data were collected using direct observation, informal interviews during observation, and formal semi-structured interviews. The authors observed for over 180 h, during which providers used the exchange 130 times. HIE-related workflow was modeled for each ED site and ambulatory clinic group and substantial site-to-site workflow differences were identified. Common patterns in HIE-related workflow were also identified across all sites, leading to the development of two role-based workflow models: nurse based and physician based. The workflow elements framework was applied to the two role-based patterns. An in-depth description was developed of how providers integrated HIE into existing clinical workflow, including prompts for HIE use. Workflow differed substantially among sites, but two general role-based HIE usage models were identified. Although providers used HIE to improve continuity of patient care, patient-provider trust played a significant role. Types of information retrieved related to roles, with nurses seeking to retrieve recent hospitalization data and more open-ended usage by nurse practitioners and physicians. User and role-specific customization to accommodate differences in workflow and information needs may increase the adoption and use of HIE. Understanding end users' perspectives towards HIE technology is crucial to the long-term success of HIE. By applying qualitative methods, an in-depth understanding of HIE usage was developed.

  10. Technology, Incentives, or Both? Factors Related to Level of Hospital Health Information Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sunny C; Everson, Jordan; Adler-Milstein, Julia

    2018-02-28

    To assess whether the level of health information exchange (HIE) in U.S. hospitals is related to technology capabilities, incentives to exchange, or both. A total of 1,812 hospitals attesting to stage 2 of Medicare's Meaningful Use Incentive Program through April 2016. Hospital-level, multivariate OLS regression with state fixed effects was used to analyze the relationship between technology capability and incentives measures, and percent of care transitions with summary of care records (SCRs) sent electronically to subsequent providers. Stage 2 hospitals reported sending SCRs electronically for an average of 41 percent (median = 33 percent) of transitions. HIE level is related to four capability measures, one incentive measure, and one measure that is related to both capability and incentive. Percent of transitions with SCRs sent electronically was 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.1-5.1) for hospitals with a third-party HIE vendor, 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.5-5.4) for hospitals with an EHR vendor as their HIE vendor, and 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.4-5.4) for hospitals that automatically alert primary care providers. The direction and statistical significance of the relationships between specific EHR vendor and electronic SCR transmission level varied by vendor. Nonprofits and government hospitals performed 5 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 1.5-9.1) and 8 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 3.4-12.3) than for-profits. Hospitals in systems performed 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.8-6.1). The overall level of HIE is low, with hospitals sending an SCR electronically for less than half of patient transitions. Specific hospital characteristics related to both technology capabilities and incentives were associated with higher levels of HIE. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  11. The origins of enhanced activity in factor VIIa analogs and the interplay between key allosteric sites revealed by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper D; Andersen, Mette D; Olsen, Ole H

    2008-01-01

    Factor VIIa (FVIIa) circulates in the blood in a zymogen-like state. Only upon association with membrane-bound tissue factor (TF) at the site of vascular injury does FVIIa become active and able to initiate blood coagulation. Here we used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry to invest......Factor VIIa (FVIIa) circulates in the blood in a zymogen-like state. Only upon association with membrane-bound tissue factor (TF) at the site of vascular injury does FVIIa become active and able to initiate blood coagulation. Here we used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry...

  12. Mediated effects of physical risk factors, leader-member exchange and empowerment in predicting perceived injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Jeffery; Matthews, Russell A; Foley, Caroline

    2012-04-01

    In the context of conservation of resources theory, we examine the indirect (mediated) effects of physical risk factors, leader-member exchange (LMX) and empowerment on perceived injury risk in a heterogeneous sample (N = 226) of individuals employed in occupations related to production, construction and installation/maintenance. Positioning work role stressors and upward safety communications as two important mediating variables, as predicted, LMX and empowerment demonstrated significant indirect effects on perceived injury risk. Results from our model also provide preliminary evidence that an asymmetrical dualistic process exists in terms of the effect physical risk factors have on perceived injury risk via depletion of both psychological (i.e. role stressors) and physical resources (i.e. physical symptoms). Theoretical and practical implications based on the results of our model are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Preparation and characterization of electrically conducting polypyrrole Sn(IV phosphate cation-exchanger and its application as Mn(II ion selective membrane electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Khan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole Sn(IV phosphate, an organic–inorganic composite cation-exchanger was synthesized via sol-gel mixing of an organic polymer, polypyrrole, into the matrices of the inorganic precipitate of Sn(IV phosphate. The physico-chemical properties of the material were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS, CHN elemental analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ICP-MS, UV–VIS spectrophotometry, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy, TGA–DTA (Thermogravimetric Analysis–Differential Thermal Analysis, and XRD (X-ray diffraction. Ion-exchange behavior was observed to characterize the material. On the basis of distribution studies, the material was found to be highly selective for toxic heavy metal ion Mn2+. Due to its selective nature, the material was used as an electroactive component for the construction of an ion-selective membrane electrode. The proposed electrode shows fairly good discrimination of mercury ion over several other inorganic ions. The analytical utility of this electrode was established by employing it as an indicator electrode in electrometric titrations for Mn(II in water.

  14. Exchange coupling transformations in Cu (II heterospin complexes of “breathing crystals” under structural phase transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly A. Morozov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Family of “breathing crystals” is the polymer-chain complexes of Cu(hfac2 with nitroxides. The polymer chains consist of one-, two- or three-spin clusters. The “breathing crystals” experience simultaneous magnetic and Jahn-Teller type structural phase transitions with change of total cluster spin and drastic change of bond lengths (ca. 10-12%. For the first time the intra-cluster magnetic couplings in ”breathing crystals” have been calculated both by band structure methods GGA + U and hybrid DFT (B3LYP and PBE0 for the isolated exchange clusters. The temperature dependence of the magnetic coupling constant was calculated for two polymer-chain compounds of the “breathing crystal” family - C21H19CuF12N4O6 with the chains containing two-spin clusters and C22H21CuF12N4O6 with the chains of alternating three-spin clusters and one-spin sites. It was found that adding a Hubbard-like parameter not only to the copper 3d electrons but also to the oxygen 2p electrons (GGA + Ud + Up approach results in an improved description of exchange coupling in the “breathing crystal” compounds. At the same time treatment of the isolated clusters by a large basis hybrid DFT with high computational cost provides a similar quality fit of the experimental magneto-chemical data as that for the GGA + Ud + Up band structure calculation scheme. Our calculations also showed that in spite of the abrupt transformation of the magnetic coupling constant under the phase transition, the band gap in the “breathing crystals” remains about the same value with temperature decrease.

  15. [Gene expression of transforming growth factor beta receptor II in the epidermis of pathological scar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Rui; An, Gang; Liu, Shun-Li; Wei, Feng-Cai

    2012-08-01

    To study the gene expression of transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TbetaR II) in pathological scar. Twenty samples of pathological scar were collected from 20 burn or trauma patients hospitalized in the General Hospital of Ji'nan Military Command from 2007 to 2009. Twenty specimens of epidermal layer were obtained from the middle portion and the edge of pathological scars. Twenty normal skin specimens which were located more than 10 cm away from the lesion sites of 20 patients were collected as self-controls. Serum from 1-2 mL whole blood were obtained from each of the 20 patients for second self-control. Eight normal skin specimens from 8 patients without pathological scar, discarded from un-related operations, were also collected as negative-control. Positive expressions of TbetaR II in three different skin specimens were determined with biotin-streptavidin-peroxidase staining. Gene expressions of TbetaR II in all specimens were compared with PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and gene sequencing. Data were processed with Fisher's exact test. Positive expression of TbetaR II in pathological scar epidermis was lower than that in normal skin specimen of patients with pathological scar or normal skin specimen of patients without pathological scar, and TbetaR II was mainly located in the basal layer of epidermis. Positive expressions of TbetaR II were seldom found in acanthocytes, granular cells, and cuticle or even non-existing. No abnormality of TbetaR II was found in normal skin epidermis or serum samples of pathological scar patients or normal skin epidermis of patients without pathological scar. TbetaR II expressing in 8 specimens of epidermis of pathological scar showed abnormal electrophoresis pattern at poly A fragments hand and loss of one A base in DNA fragment (P = 0.044). There may he abnormal gene expression of TbetaR II in pathological scar epidermis. Replantation of epidermis of scar may increase the risk of scar recurrence

  16. Imprinting and Promoter Usage of Insulin-Like Growth Factor II in Twin Discordant Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Min Luo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Case reports from infant twins suggest that abnormal genomic imprinting may be one of the important causes of twin discordance, but it is unknown whether abnormal genomic imprinting occurs in the placenta. Therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between the imprinting of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II in placenta and twin discordance. We analyzed the imprinting and promoter usage of IGF-II in placenta of normal twins (T0 group, weight discordance (T1 group, and phenotype discordance (T2 group. We found the incidence of loss of imprinting (LOI for IGF-II was higher in the T2 group than that in the T0 and T1 groups, while there was no difference between T0 and T1 groups. The transcripts of promoter 3 were lower in the T2 group than in the T0 and T1 groups, and lower in the twin placenta with LOI than in those with normal imprinting. Our findings indicate that the promoter 3 specific LOI of the IGF-II gene may be closely related with phenotype discordance, not weight discordance.

  17. Factors affecting fatigue in patients with type II diabetes mellitus in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yeong-Mi; Hahm, Jong Ryeal; Hahm, Jong-Ryeal; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Choi, Won-Hee

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize and identify the factors affecting fatigue in patients with type II diabetes mellitus in Korea. A total of 180 patients with type II diabetes mellitus were recruited from the outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital. For data collection, a questionnaire survey of diabetes history, hypoglycemia symptoms, and fatigue was conducted between January and February 2011. Data were analyzed using t test, analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation, and hierarchical multiple regression. The mean fatigue and hypoglycemia symptom scores of patients with type II diabetes mellitus were 2.88 ± 0.61 and 6.18 ± 12.60, respectively. Hypoglycemia symptoms (p = .004), disease duration (p II diabetes mellitus after adjustment for influences of demographic and clinical characteristic variables. Hypoglycemia symptoms were confirmed to be a predictor of fatigue. Consequently, it is essential to consider age, and disease duration as well as hypoglycemia symptoms to intervene fatigue effectively among patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Comparison of Diabetes Type II Patients Life Style Effective Factors With That of Healthy People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mostafaei

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Diabetes is a significant and expensive health problem which had influenced all the ages in almost all the countries. Increasing prevalence of this disease has been caused by continued changes in lifestyle such as unsuitable nutrition, lack of physical activities and fatness which is often related to modern city life, mechanization and industrialization. It is an expensive disease, both for patients and the health and hygienic care systems. This research tried to examine the relationship between lifestyle risk factors and type II diabetes. Methods: This research was a case-control type by random sampling and studying140 diabetes type II patients as case group and 140 healthy people accompanying some other patients as the control group at Tonekabon Shahid Rajaei hospital. People were of both sexes, between 30 and 64 years of age and Tonekabon residents. The questionnaire used included demographic, nutritional, physical activities, stress tolerance and smoking status information. The SPSS 11.5 and excel software were used for statistic calculation and for analysis of data, T and Chi-Square tests were applied. Results: By analyzing the data collected, there was a meaningful statistical relationship between physical activities, stress residence, nutrition, smoking and the diabetes type II disease (P-value0.05. Conclusion: Results imply that some risk factors important in diabetes type II include unsuitable nutrition such as having too much of sweets and sugar,lack of fruits, vegetables, fish, proteins and also lack of physical activities, stress tolerance and control.

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING TOBIN'S Q COAL MINING COMPANY REGISTERED IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Batara Manurung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of capital structure (debt to asset ratio and debt to equity ratio, economic value added, and coal reserves towards Tobin’s Q, as a proxy of firms’ value, of coal companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX. This study also aims to examine the contribution of Tobin’s Q towards sectoral stock index price of coal production companies. From a total population of 23 companies, this study took a sample of 16 coal production companies using purposive sampling method. The data used is collected from the companies audited financial statements and annual reports in IDX’s website from 2009 to 2014. The results of multiple linear regression analysis show that there is significant impact of economic value added, coal reserves and profitability dummy towards Tobin’s Q. Furthermore, the results of linear regression analysis show that there is significant impact of Tobin’s Q towards sectoral stock index price of coal production companies. Based on the results of this study, the financial decision makers in coal production companies are advised to use economic value added, availability of coal reserves and profitability in improving firm value reflected in its share price.Keywords: capital structure, coal reserves, economic value added, Tobin’s Q

  20. Human factors issues in aircraft maintenance and inspection : "information exchange and communications".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration sponsored a 2-day meeting in December 1989 as part of a continuing program to address issues of human factors and personnel performance in aviation maintenance and inspection. This meeting focused on issues of "inf...

  1. Preoperative Serum Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Prognostic Factor for Colorectal Cancer, including Stage II Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the prognostic significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 in colorectal cancer (CRC. Patients and Methods. Preoperative serum IL-6 was measured in 233 CRC patients and 13 healthy controls. Relationships between IL-6 and various clinicopathological factors were evaluated, and the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS rates according to IL-6 status were calculated for all patients and according to disease stage. Results. The mean IL-6 level was 6.6 pg/mL in CRC patients and 2.6 pg/mL in healthy controls. Using a cutoff of 6.3 pg/mL, obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 57 patients had a high IL-6 level. The mean value was higher for stage II disease than for stage III disease. IL-6 status correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, obstruction, and pT4 disease. The OS differed according to the IL-6 status for all patients, whereas the DFS differed for all patients and for those with stage II disease. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that pT4 disease was an independent risk factor for recurrence in all CRC patients; IL-6, CRP, and pT4 were significant risk factors in stage II patients. Conclusions. The preoperative IL-6 level influences the risk of CRC recurrence.

  2. The mechanism of HLA-DM induced peptide exchange in the MHC class II antigen presentation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Monika-Sarah E D; Wucherpfennig, Kai W

    2012-02-01

    HLA-DM serves a critical function in the loading and editing of peptides on MHC class II (MHCII) molecules. Recent data showed that the interaction cycle between MHCII molecules and HLA-DM is dependent on the occupancy state of the peptide binding groove. Empty MHCII molecules form stable complexes with HLA-DM, which are disrupted by binding of high-affinity peptide. Interestingly, MHCII molecules with fully engaged peptides cannot interact with HLA-DM, and prior dissociation of the peptide N-terminus from the groove is required for HLA-DM binding. There are significant similarities to the peptide loading process for MHC class I molecules, even though it is executed by a distinct set of proteins in a different cellular compartment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Insulin-like growth factor-II receptors in cultured rat hepatocytes: regulation by cell density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, C.D.; Baxter, R.C.

    1987-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) receptors in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes were characterized and their regulation by cell density examined. In hepatocytes cultured at 5 X 10(5) cells per 3.8 cm2 plate (/sup 125/I)IGF-II bound to specific, high affinity receptors (Ka = 4.4 +/- 0.5 X 10(9) l/mol). Less than 1% cross-reactivity by IGF-I and no cross-reactivity by insulin were observed. IGF-II binding increased when cells were permeabilized with 0.01% digitonin, suggesting the presence of an intracellular receptor pool. Determined by Scatchard analysis and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after affinity labeling, the higher binding was due solely to an increase in binding sites present on 220 kDa type II IGF receptors. In hepatocytes cultured at low densities, the number of cell surface receptors increased markedly, from 10-20,000 receptors per cell at a culture density of 6 X 10(5) cells/well to 70-80,000 receptors per cell at 0.38 X 10(5) cells/well. The increase was not due simply to the exposure of receptors from the intracellular pool, as a density-related increase in receptors was also seen in cells permeabilized with digitonin. There was no evidence that IGF binding proteins, either secreted by hepatocytes or present in fetal calf serum, had any effect on the measurement of receptor concentration or affinity. We conclude that rat hepatocytes in primary culture contain specific IGF-II receptors and that both cell surface and intracellular receptors are regulated by cell density.

  4. Proton Form Factor Puzzle and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) Two-Photon Exchange Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimal, Dipak [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The electromagnetic form factors are the most fundamental observables that encode information about the internal structure of the nucleon. This dissertation explored dependence of R on kinematic variables such as squared four-momentum transfer (Q2) and the virtual photon polarization parameter (ε).

  5. DJ-1 Modulates Nuclear Erythroid 2-Related Factor-2-Mediated Protection in Human Primary Alveolar Type II Cells in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmed, Karim; Messier, Elise M; Zhou, Wenbo; Tuder, Rubin M; Freed, Curt R; Chu, Hong Wei; Kelsen, Steven G; Bowler, Russell P; Mason, Robert J; Kosmider, Beata

    2016-09-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a main source of oxidative stress and a key risk factor for emphysema, which consists of alveolar wall destruction. Alveolar type (AT) II cells are in the gas exchange regions of the lung. We isolated primary ATII cells from deidentified organ donors whose lungs were not suitable for transplantation. We analyzed the cell injury obtained from nonsmokers, moderate smokers, and heavy smokers. DJ-1 protects cells from oxidative stress and induces nuclear erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression, which activates the antioxidant defense system. In ATII cells isolated from moderate smokers, we found DJ-1 expression by RT-PCR, and Nrf2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 translocation by Western blotting and immunocytofluorescence. In ATII cells isolated from heavy smokers, we detected Nrf2 and HO-1 cytoplasmic localization. Moreover, we found high oxidative stress, as detected by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) (immunoblotting), inflammation by IL-8 and IL-6 levels by ELISA, and apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay in ATII cells obtained from heavy smokers. Furthermore, we detected early DJ-1 and late Nrf2 expression after ATII cell treatment with CS extract. We also overexpressed DJ-1 by adenovirus construct and found that this restored Nrf2 and HO-1 expression and induced nuclear translocation in heavy smokers. Moreover, DJ-1 overexpression also decreased ATII cell apoptosis caused by CS extract in vitro. Our results indicate that DJ-1 activates the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense system. Furthermore, DJ-1 overexpression can restore the impaired Nrf2 pathway, leading to ATII cell protection in heavy smokers. This suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for targeting DJ-1 in CS-related lung diseases.

  6. Risk Factors Accompanied with Nephropathy in Patients with Type II Diabetes; Test of the Biopsychosocial Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rahimian Boogar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The study of biopsychosocial factors influencing nephropathy as a most serious complication of type II diabetes is important. This study aimed to investigate risk factors accompanied with nephropathy in patients with type II diabetes based on the biopsychosocial model. Materials & Methods: In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 295 patients with type II diabetes were selected by convenience sampling in Tehran Shariati hospital outpatient clinics. The data were collected by demographical information questionnaire along with disease characteristics and depression anxiety stress scales (dass, quality of life scale (who- qol- bref, diabetes self-management scale (dsms, and diabetes knowledge scale (dks, then analyzed by chi-square, independent t-test and logistic regression with pasw software. Results: Hypertension (OR=3.841 & P0.05.Conclusion: It is important to pay attention to hypertension, glycated hemoglobin, body mass index, diabetes self-management, depression, quality of life, and diabetes knowledge for therapeutic intervention programming and diabetes complications control protocols for diabetic patients.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(2:44-53

  7. Risk factors for periodontal diseases among Yemeni type II diabetic patients. A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Shamala

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic periodontal diseases are one of diabetes mellitus complications. The present study aims to compare the periodontal status of type II diabetic patients to a control group and assess the role of risk factors in both groups. Materials and methods: A case-control study was conducted of 270 individuals (132 type II diabetics and 138 non-diabetics. Full mouth periodontal examination including plaque index, gingival bleeding, gingival recession, clinical attachment loss (CAL, tooth mobility, furcation involvement and the number of missing teeth. The case group was subdivided according to glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c status (poorly controlled HbA1c >8 and well controlled HbA1c≤8 Likewise, the duration of diabetes mellitus as short or long duration (DM≤10 or >10. The diabetic group was also subdivided according to smoking and Khat chewing habits. Result: The severity of periodontal disease among type II diabetic patients were significantly higher compared to the control group regarding the plaque index 2.6 (1.6-4.3, bleeding on probing 3.5 (2.3-13.0, gingival recession 2.0 (1.2-3.4, furcation involvement 4.0 (2.3-6.7, clinical attachment loss 5.7 (3.1-10.5, tooth mobility 2.0 (1.2-3.4, and number of missing teeth 4.4 (2.3-8.5. In addition, poorly controlled type II DM and long duration had higher CAL and number of missing teeth than well-controlled DM and short duration. No significant differences were found between smokers/nonsmokers and Khat chewers/non-chewers among the diabetic group. Conclusion: Type II diabetic patients have severe periodontal destruction and tooth loss compared to non-diabetic people and there were no differences within the diabetic group in regards to smoking and Khat chewing habits.

  8. Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, Michal V., E-mail: marek.mv@czechglobe.cz [Global Change Research Centres, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Belidla 4a CZ-60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Forest Ecology Forestry Faculty, Mendel University Brno, Zemedelska 3, CZ-614 00 (Czech Republic); Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara; Havrankova, Katerina; Pavelka, Marian; Kaplan, Veroslav [Global Change Research Centres, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Belidla 4a CZ-60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Markova, Irena [Institute of Forest Ecology Forestry Faculty, Mendel University Brno, Zemedelska 3, CZ-614 00 (Czech Republic)

    2011-05-15

    By comparing five ecosystem types in the Czech Republic over several years, we recorded the highest carbon sequestration potential in an evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). Because of a massive ecosystem respiration, the final carbon gain of the grassland was negative. Climate was shown to be an important factor of carbon uptake by ecosystems: by varying the growing season length (a 22-d longer season in 2005 than in 2007 increased carbon sink by 13%) or by the effect of short- term synoptic situations (e.g. summer hot and dry days reduced net carbon storage by 58% relative to hot and wet days). Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy which is demonstrated by the comparison of seasonal course of carbon uptake between coniferous (Norway spruce) and deciduous (European beech) stands. - Highlights: > Highest carbon sequestration potential in evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). > The final carbon gain of the grassland was negative (massive ecosystem respiration). > Climate is important factor of net primary productivity. > Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy of ecosystem. - Identification of the apparent differences in the carbon storage by different ecosystem types.

  9. Effective prediction of preeclampsia by measuring serum angiotensin II, urinary angiotensinogen and urinary transforming growth factor ?1

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lihong; Zhou, Yunjiao; Wu, Qing; Fan, Weifeng; Ye, Jun; Chen, Yaping; Wu, Yun; Niu, Jianying; Gu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyze serum angiotensin II (Ang II), urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) and urinary transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF?1) levels in relation to the clinical manifestation of preeclampsia, and to explore the effects of circulating and renal renin angiotensin system (RAS) in preeclampsia patients. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to evaluate serum Ang II, urinary AGT and urinary TGF?1 in preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and normotensive ...

  10. Angiotensin II upregulates the expression of placental growth factor in human vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yingqiang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is now recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. Angiotensin II (Ang II is a critical factor in inflammatory responses, which promotes the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Placental growth factor (PlGF is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family cytokines and is associated with inflammatory progress of atherosclerosis. However, the potential link between PlGF and Ang II has not been investigated. In the current study, whether Ang II could regulate PlGF expression, and the effect of PlGF on cell proliferation, was investigated in human vascular endothelial cells (VECs and smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. Results In growth-arrested human VECs and VSMCs, Ang II induced PlGF mRNA expression after 4 hour treatment, and peaked at 24 hours. 10-6 mol/L Ang II increased PlGF protein production after 8 hour treatment, and peaked at 24 hours. Stimulation with Ang II also induced mRNA expression of VEGF receptor-1 and -2(VEGFR-1 and -2 in these cells. The Ang II type I receptor (AT1R antagonist blocked Ang II-induced PlGF gene expression and protein production. Several intracellular signals elicited by Ang II were involved in PlGF synthesis, including activation of protein kinase C, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and PI3-kinase. A neutralizing antibody against PlGF partially inhibited the Ang II-induced proliferation of VECs and VSMCs. However, this antibody showed little effect on the basal proliferation in these cells, whereas blocking antibody of VEGF could suppress both basal and Ang II-induced proliferation in VECs and VSMCs. Conclusion Our results showed for the first time that Ang II could induce the gene expression and protein production of PlGF in VECs and VSMCs, which might play an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis.

  11. Insulin-like growth factor II receptors in human brain and their absence in astrogliotic plaques in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilczak, N; De Bleser, P; Luiten, P; Geerts, A; Teelken, A; De Keyser, J

    2000-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II receptors were studied in human adult brain by using autoradiography with [(125)I]IGF-II. Receptors were found to be widely distributed throughout all neuronal regions. The highest densities were found in plexus choroideus, granular layer of the cerebellar cortex,

  12. The effect of Mn(II) on the autoinducing growth inhibition factor in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui-Yu; Wong, Tit-Yee; Kuo, Jimmy; Liu, Jong-Kang

    2014-10-03

    Decreases in cell division at the stationary phase in bacterial cultures are often due to the depletion of nutrients and/or accumulation of toxic waste products. Yet, during the stationary phase, the highly radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans undergoes new rounds of cell division when Mn(II) is added to the medium in a phenomenon known as manganese-induced cell division (MnCD). When cells were cultured in medium without Mn(II)-enrichment, a heat-resistant, proteinase K-resistant factor (or factors) with a molecular mass less than 10 kD accumulated in the spent medium. Inclusion of the concentrated spent medium in fresh medium could inhibit the growth of D. radiodurans significantly, and the degree of inhibition was dose dependent. However, the relative stimulatory effect of MnCD was also dose dependent-the higher the inhibition, the stronger was the MnCD response. Previous studies have shown that nutrients were not limiting and deinococcal cells would continue metabolizing its nutrients at stationary phase. Cells became more sensitive to radiation when nutrients in the medium eventually became depleted. We speculated that D. radiodurans might produce this factor in the medium to control its population density. The reduction in cell population would conserve the nutrients that in turn might enhance the survival of the species.

  13. Factors Related to Initiating Interpersonal Contacts on Internet Dating Sites: A View From the Social Exchange Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivka Shtatfeld

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence dating-site users to initiate contact with potential romantic partners. The study was carried out by observing online behaviors and analyzing the profiles and authentic messages of these users (N = 106 over seven months. Contacts made by and with the research participants were analyzed in terms of the relationships between initiators‘ and receivers‘ demographic variables (marital status, age, level of education, income, writing skills, and stated physical appearance. In addition, the relationship between contacting partners and site accessibility was examined. The findings revealed that dating-site users initiated contact primarily with those having a similar marital status or slightly better characteristics (income, education, writing skills. In regard to writing skills, it was found that skilled writers attracted more contacts than did less skilled writers. However, the factor that was found to be most significantly related to initiating contact was the length of time that elapsed from last connection to the site, which implies the perceived accessibility of potential romantic partners. The findings were explained in terms of the Social Exchange Theory: people are attracted to those who grant them rewards.

  14. Particle-vibration coupling and exchange-current effects on the magnetic electron-scattering form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krewald, S.; Lallena, A.M.; Dehesa, J.S.

    1986-02-03

    Inelastic electron-scattering form factors of magnetic states in closed-shell nuclei are calculated taking into account the combined effect of the mesonic degrees of freedom and the two-particle-two-hole components of the nuclear wave functions which come from the particle-core vibration coupling. The one-body nucleon- and two-body meson-exchange current contribution to the form factor are evaluated with the same realistic mean field. Application to various high-spin magnetic states of oxygen and lead is made. The comparison with experiment shows an excellent agreement for the states 14/sup -/(6.74 MeV) and 12/sup -/sub(t)(7.06 MeV) in lead, while such is not the case for the second 12/sup -//sub 2/(6.43 MeV) state in lead and the 4/sup -/(18.98 MeV) state in oxygen essentially due to mixing configuration effects and the non-consideration of 3p3h excitations, respectively. (orig.).

  15. Medication Adherence and its Related Factors in Patients with Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Gholamaliei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Low levels of medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes is one of the greatest challenges in the treatment and control of diabetes. This study was designed to determine medication adherence and its related factors in patients with type II diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 300patients with type 2diabetes records in the health centers of Tuyserkan city were randomly selected in 2015. Data collection instrument was a self-made questionnaire, which consisted of factors related to the medication adherence. Questionnaires were completed after confirmation of validity and reliability, by interviews. To analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistics (T-test, AnOVA, Simple and multiple linear regression were applied, using SPSS software, version 19. Results: Overall, %26.3 of patients were male and %73.7 were female. Also, %65 of patients were illiterate, %24 had some degree of symptoms, and %59.4 had poor medication adherence. There was a significant relationship between age, education, patient care and treatment expenditure, health care team and health system, therapy-related factors and condition-related factors, beliefs about illness, efficacy, and concerns about drugs and medication adherence (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study showed that medication adherence in patients with diabetes was not suitable and individual, economical and social factors were influential.Therefore, the role of these factors must be considered when designing intervention programs.

  16. Psychophysiological Effects of Aging - Developing a Functional Age Index for Pilots. II Taxonomy of Psychological Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    variables. The dimeneion Patterns of chan7e in variability. Changes in factorial structure; emergence of factors; develop- wentul transformations . 8...84 MieWJede apsed orI0 FoWap., ash.. 12’ Ii’ lase. sm. Is" 14 viand seas v7 3 IS Selected woog acurse U1Ds eia li of satia. SiP 215’ Fmxbd2 I 54 Dely...in the perceptual-motor area. Here, information Is sensed, recognized, and transformed into actions. Under certain conditions, particularly under

  17. Chaos and order in stateless societies: Intercommunity exchange as a factor impacting the population dynamical patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvinsky, Alexander B., E-mail: medvinsky@iteb.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Rusakov, Alexey V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > We model community dynamics in stateless societies. > Intercommunity barter is shown to be a factor impacting the societies dynamics. > Increase in the human population growth rate can lead to appearance of chaos. > Secular and millennial cycles are found to arise as a result of the barter. - Abstract: The once abstract notions of dynamical chaos now appear naturally in various systems [Kaplan D, Glass L. Understanding nonlinear dynamics. New York: Springer; 1995]. As a result, future trajectories of the systems may be difficult to predict. In this paper, we demonstrate the appearance of chaotic dynamics in model human communities, which consist of producers of agricultural product and producers of agricultural equipment. In the case of a solitary community, the horizon of predictability of the human population dynamics is shown to be dependent on both intrinsic instability of the dynamics and the chaotic attractor sizes. Since a separate community is usually a part of a larger commonality, we study the dynamics of social systems consisting of two interacting communities. We show that intercommunity barter can lead to stabilization of the dynamics in one of the communities, which implies persistence of stable equilibrium under changes of the maximum value of the human population growth rate. However, in the neighboring community, the equilibrium turns into a stable limit cycle as the maximum value of the human population growth rate increases. Following an increase in the maximum value of the human population growth rate leads to period-doubling bifurcations resulting in chaotic dynamics. The horizon of predictability of the chaotic oscillations is found to be limited by 5 years. We demonstrate that the intercommunity interaction can lead to the appearance of long-period harmonics in the chaotic time series. The period of the harmonics is of order 100 and 1000 years. Hence the long-period changes in the population size may be considered as an

  18. Influence of ionic liquids as electrolyte additives on chiral separation of dansylated amino acids by using Zn(II) complex mediated chiral ligand exchange CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haizhi; Qi, Li; Mu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Xiaoping; Li, Dan; Mao, Lanqun

    2013-03-01

    In this work, investigation of the comparative influence of diverse ionic liquids (ILs) as electrolyte additives on the chiral separation of dansylated amino acids by using Zn(II)-L-arginine complex mediated chiral ligand exchange CE (CLE-CE) was conducted. It has been found that not only the varied substituted group number, but also the alkyl chain length of the substituted group on imidazole ring in the structure of ILs show different influence on chiral separation of the analytes in the CLE-CE system, which could be understood by their direct influence on EOF. Meanwhile, the variation of anion in the structure of ILs displayed remarkably changed performance and the ILs with Cl(-) showed the most obvious promoting effect on the chiral separation performance. Among the investigated seven ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was validated to be the proper electrolyte additive in the CLE-CE system. Moreover, it has been observed that 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride also has obvious promotive effect on the labeling performance. The results have demonstrated that the ILs with different structures have important relation to their performance in CLE-CE and to their labeling efficiency in dansylation of the analytes. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Plasma homocysteine, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and factor II G20210A polymorphisms, factor VIII, and VWF in central retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, S.; Owens, D.; Gin, T; Bunce, K.; Sherafat, H; Perry, D; Hykin, P

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To determine whether plasma homocysteine, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and factor II G20210A polymorphisms, factor VIII, and vWF are risk factors for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).
METHOD—Prospective comparison of 63 consecutive patients with central retinal vein occlusion and 63 age matched controls. Plasma homocysteine and vWF were estimated by ELISA, the MTFHR and factor II G20210A polymorphisms determined by polymerase chain reaction with restriction enz...

  20. Rates of nickel(II) capture from complexes with NTA, EDDA, and related tetradentate chelating agents by the hexadentate chelating agents EDTA and CDTA: Evidence of a "semijunctive" ligand exchange pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Nathan E.; Stone, Alan T.

    2017-09-01

    Many siderophores and metallophores produced by soil organisms, as well as anthropogenic chelating agent soil amendments, rely upon amine and carboxylate Lewis base groups for metal ion binding. UV-visible spectra of metal ion-chelating agent complexes are often similar and, as a consequence, whole-sample absorbance measurements are an unreliable means of monitoring the progress of exchange reactions. In the present work, we employ capillary electrophoresis to physically separate Ni(II)-tetradentate chelating agent complexes (NiL) from Ni(II)-hexadentate chelating agent complexes (NiY) prior to UV detection, such that progress of the reaction NiL + Y → NiY + L can be conveniently monitored. Rates of ligand exchange for Ni(II) are lower than for other +II transition metal ions. Ni(II) speciation in environmental media is often under kinetic rather than equilibrium control. Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), with three carboxylate groups all tethered to a central amine Lewis base group, ethylenediamine-N,N‧-diacetic acid (EDDA), with carboxylate-amine-amine-carboxylate groups arranged linearly, plus four structurally related compounds, are used as tetradentate chelating agents. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and the structurally more rigid analog trans-cyclohexaneethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (CDTA) are used as hexadentate chelating agents. Effects of pH and reactant concentration are explored. Ni(II) capture by EDTA was consistently more than an order of magnitude faster than capture by CDTA, and too fast to quantify using our capillary electrophoresis-based technique. Using NiNTA as a reactant, Ni(II) capture by CDTA is independent of CDTA concentration and greatly enhanced by a proton-catalyzed pathway at low pH. Using NiEDDA as reactant, Ni(II) capture by CDTA is first order with respect to CDTA concentration, and the contribution from the proton-catalyzed pathway diminished by CDTA protonation. While the convention is to assign either a disjunctive

  1. Study on the Imprinting Status of Insulin-Like Growth Factor II (IGF-II Gene in Villus during 6–10 Gestational Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the difference of imprinting status of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II gene in villus between normal embryo development group and abnormal embryo development group and to investigate the relationship between karyotype and the imprinting status of IGF-II gene. Methods. A total of 85 pregnant women with singleton pregnancy were divided into two groups: one with abnormal embryo development (n=38 and the other with normal embryo development (n=47. Apa I polymorphism of IGF-II gene in chorionic villus was assayed with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. The relationship between chromosomal abnormal karyotype and IGF-II gene imprinting status was analyzed by primary cell culture and G-banding chromosomal karyotype analysis. Results. IGF-II imprinting loss rate was higher in the abnormal embryo development group than the normal embryo development group (44.7% versus 31.6%, but without significant difference (P>.05. The percentage of abnormal chromosomes of chorionic villus in the abnormal embryo development group was 42.5%, in which IGF-II imprinting loss rate reached 64.7%. No abnormal karyotypes were found in the normal embryo development group. However, there was significant difference in IGF-II imprinting loss rate between two groups (P>.05. Conclusion. During weeks 6–10 of gestation, abnormal embryonic development is correlated with chromosomal abnormalities. The imprinting status of IGF-II gene played important roles in embryonic development, and imprinting loss might be related to chromosomal abnormalities.

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-α produced in the kidney contributes to angiotensin II-dependent hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiandong; Patel, Mehul B; Griffiths, Robert; Mao, Alice; Song, Young-soo; Karlovich, Norah S; Sparks, Matthew A; Jin, Huixia; Wu, Min; Lin, Eugene E; Crowley, Steven D

    2014-12-01

    Immune system activation contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and the resulting progression of chronic kidney disease. In this regard, we recently identified a role for proinflammatory Th1 T-lymphocyte responses in hypertensive kidney injury. Because Th1 cells generate interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), we hypothesized that interferon-γ and TNF-α propagate renal damage during hypertension induced by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, after confirming that mice genetically deficient of Th1 immunity were protected from kidney glomerular injury despite a preserved hypertensive response, we subjected mice lacking interferon-γ or TNF-α to our model of hypertensive chronic kidney disease. Interferon deficiency had no impact on blood pressure elevation or urinary albumin excretion during chronic angiotensin II infusion. By contrast, TNF-deficient (knockout) mice had blunted hypertensive responses and reduced end-organ damage in our model. As angiotensin II-infused TNF knockout mice had exaggerated endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in the kidney and enhanced nitric oxide bioavailability, we examined the actions of TNF-α generated from renal parenchymal cells in hypertension by transplanting wild-type or TNF knockout kidneys into wild-type recipients before the induction of hypertension. Transplant recipients lacking TNF solely in the kidney had blunted hypertensive responses to angiotensin II and augmented renal endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, confirming a role for kidney-derived TNF-α to promote angiotensin II-induced blood pressure elevation by limiting renal nitric oxide generation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Transforming growth factor beta receptor endoglin is expressed in cardiac fibroblasts and modulates profibrogenic actions of angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kui; Mehta, Jawahar L; Li, Dayuan; Joseph, Lija; Joseph, Jacob

    2004-12-10

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a powerful mediator of adverse cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. However, the mechanisms of Ang II-induced myocardial fibrosis remain to be clarified. We postulated that Ang II alters transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) receptor expression, specifically that of endoglin, and thereby modulates cardiac fibroblast (CF) collagen metabolism. Experiments were conducted using CF from adult Sprague Dawley rats to determine the expression of TGF-beta1 receptors including endoglin, and the role of Ang II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors, and MAPK p42/44 in this process. The functional role of endoglin in modulating Ang II effects on matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and type I collagen expression was also analyzed. Endoglin gene and protein expression were consistently identified in quiescent CFs. Ang II increased the expression of endoglin mRNA and protein in a concentration and time-dependent manner, with no effect on TGF-beta receptors I and II expression. This effect was AT1 receptor mediated, because AT1 receptor antagonists valsartan, candesartan, and losartan inhibited Ang II-induced endoglin expression, whereas the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319 had no effect. MAPKp42/44 inhibition attenuated Ang II-induced endoglin expression. Ang II-induced decrease in MMP-1 protein expression and increase in type I collagen protein expression were both blocked by a specific endoglin antibody. Hence, our results indicate that endoglin is upregulated in CFs by Ang II via the AT1 receptor and modulates profibrotic effects of Ang II. These findings provide novel insights into Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling.

  4. A family of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding proteins represses translation in late development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Christiansen, J; Lykke-Andersen, J

    1999-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a major fetal growth factor. The IGF-II gene generates multiple mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) that are translated in a differential manner during development. We have identified a human family of three IGF-II mRNA-binding proteins...... and are homologous to the Xenopus Vera and chicken zipcode-binding proteins. IMP localizes to subcytoplasmic domains in a growth-dependent and cell-specific manner and causes a dose-dependent translational repression of IGF-II leader 3 -luciferase mRNA. Mouse IMPs are produced in a burst at embryonic day 12...

  5. Structural and functional insight into TAF1-TAF7, a subcomplex of transcription factor II D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Suparna; Lou, Xiaohua; Hwang, Peter; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Wang, Xiaoping; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Fletterick, Robert J.; Jacobson, Raymond H.; Webb, Paul [MDACC; (HMRI); (Cornell); (UCSF); (Houston)

    2014-07-01

    Transcription factor II D (TFIID) is a multiprotein complex that nucleates formation of the basal transcription machinery. TATA binding protein-associated factors 1 and 7 (TAF1 and TAF7), two subunits of TFIID, are integral to the regulation of eukaryotic transcription initiation and play key roles in preinitiation complex (PIC) assembly. Current models suggest that TAF7 acts as a dissociable inhibitor of TAF1 histone acetyltransferase activity and that this event ensures appropriate assembly of the RNA polymerase II-mediated PIC before transcriptional initiation. Here, we report the 3D structure of a complex of yeast TAF1 with TAF7 at 2.9 Å resolution. The structure displays novel architecture and is characterized by a large predominantly hydrophobic heterodimer interface and extensive cofolding of TAF subunits. There are no obvious similarities between TAF1 and known histone acetyltransferases. Instead, the surface of the TAF1–TAF7 complex contains two prominent conserved surface pockets, one of which binds selectively to an inhibitory trimethylated histone H3 mark on Lys27 in a manner that is also regulated by phosphorylation at the neighboring H3 serine. Our findings could point toward novel roles for the TAF1–TAF7 complex in regulation of PIC assembly via reading epigenetic histone marks.

  6. A General Econometric Model of the Determinants of Library Subscription Prices of Scholarly Journals: The Role of Exchange Rate Risk and Other Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chressanthis, George A.; Chressanthis, June D.

    1994-01-01

    Provides regression-based empirical evidence of the effects of variations in exchange rate risk on 1985 library prices of the top-ranked 99 journals in economics. The relationship between individual journal prices and library prices is shown, and other factors associated with increases and decreases in library journal prices are given. (Contains…

  7. 77 FR 62541 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... employee of a firm that is the listed company's internal or external auditor; (B) the director has an... numerical tests with respect to the factors specified in proposed Section 303A.02(a)(ii) or to adopt a... members, Rule 10C-1(b)(1)(ii) \\8\\ requires the exchanges to consider relevant factors including, but not...

  8. Characterization of Stress-Exposed Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Using ELISA and Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Katsuyoshi; Akashi, Satoko

    2014-10-01

    Information on the higher-order structure is important in the development of biopharmaceutical drugs. Recently, hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has been widely used as a tool to evaluate protein conformation, and unique automated systems for HDX-MS are now commercially available. To investigate the potential of this technique for the prediction of the activity of biopharmaceuticals, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), which had been subjected to three different stress types, was analyzed using HDX-MS and through comparison with receptor-binding activity. It was found that HDX-MS, in combination with ion mobility separation, was able to identify conformational changes in G-CSF induced by stress, and a good correlation with the receptor-binding activity was demonstrated, which cannot be completely determined by conventional peptide mapping alone. The direct evaluation of biological activity using bioassay is absolutely imperative in biopharmaceutical development, but HDX-MS can provide the alternative information in a short time on the extent and location of the structural damage caused by stresses. Furthermore, the present study suggests the possibility of this system being a versatile evaluation method for the preservation stability of biopharmaceuticals.

  9. RINL, guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rab5-subfamily, is involved in the EphA8-degradation pathway with odin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kajiho

    Full Text Available The Rab family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases plays a vital role in membrane trafficking. Its active GTP-bound state is driven by guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs. Ras and Rab interactor (or Ras interaction/interference-like (RINL, which contains a conserved VPS9 domain critical for GEF action, was recently identified as a new Rab5 subfamily GEF in vitro. However, its detailed function and interacting molecules have not yet been fully elucidated. Here we found that RINL has GEF activity for the Rab5 subfamily proteins by measuring their GTP-bound forms in cultured cells. We also found that RINL interacts with odin, a member of the ankyrin-repeat and sterile-alpha motif (SAM domain-containing (Anks protein family. In addition, the Eph tyrosine kinase receptor EphA8 formed a ternary complex with both RINL and odin. Interestingly, RINL expression in cultured cells reduced EphA8 levels in a manner dependent on both its GEF activity and interaction with odin. In addition, knockdown of RINL increased EphA8 level in HeLa cells. Our findings suggest that RINL, as a GEF for Rab5 subfamily, is implicated in the EphA8-degradation pathway via its interaction with odin.

  10. Cdc24, the GDP-GTP exchange factor for Cdc42, is required for invasive hyphal growth of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassilana, Martine; Blyth, James; Arkowitz, Robert A

    2003-02-01

    Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, is particularly problematic for immunocompromised individuals. The reversible transition of this fungal pathogen to a filamentous form that invades host tissue is important for its virulence. Although different signaling pathways such as a mitogen-activated protein kinase and a protein kinase A cascade are critical for this morphological transition, the function of polarity establishment proteins in this process has not been determined. We examined the role of four different polarity establishment proteins in C. albicans invasive growth and virulence by using strains in which one copy of each gene was deleted and the other copy expressed behind the regulatable promoter MET3. Strikingly, mutants with ectopic expression of either the Rho G-protein Cdc42 or its exchange factor Cdc24 are unable to form invasive hyphal filaments and germ tubes in response to serum or elevated temperature and yet grow normally as a budding yeast. Furthermore, these mutants are avirulent in a mouse model for systemic infection. This function of the Cdc42 GTPase module is not simply a general feature of polarity establishment proteins. Mutants with ectopic expression of the SH3 domain containing protein Bem1 or the Ras-like G-protein Bud1 can grow in an invasive fashion and are virulent in mice, albeit with reduced efficiency. These results indicate that a specific regulation of Cdc24/Cdc42 activity is required for invasive hyphal growth and suggest that these proteins are required for pathogenicity of C. albicans.

  11. Driving factors of interactions between the exchange rate market and the commodity market: A wavelet-based complex network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shaobo; An, Haizhong; Chen, Zhihua; Liu, Xueyong

    2017-08-01

    In traditional econometrics, a time series must be in a stationary sequence. However, it usually shows time-varying fluctuations, and it remains a challenge to execute a multiscale analysis of the data and discover the topological characteristics of conduction in different scales. Wavelet analysis and complex networks in physical statistics have special advantages in solving these problems. We select the exchange rate variable from the Chinese market and the commodity price index variable from the world market as the time series of our study. We explore the driving factors behind the behavior of the two markets and their topological characteristics in three steps. First, we use the Kalman filter to find the optimal estimation of the relationship between the two markets. Second, wavelet analysis is used to extract the scales of the relationship that are driven by different frequency wavelets. Meanwhile, we search for the actual economic variables corresponding to different frequency wavelets. Finally, a complex network is used to search for the transfer characteristics of the combination of states driven by different frequency wavelets. The results show that statistical physics have a unique advantage over traditional econometrics. The Chinese market has time-varying impacts on the world market: it has greater influence when the world economy is stable and less influence in times of turmoil. The process of forming the state combination is random. Transitions between state combinations have a clustering feature. Based on these characteristics, we can effectively reduce the information burden on investors and correctly respond to the government's policy mix.

  12. Simplified in vitro refolding and purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor using protein folding cation exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Sandeep; Dedaniya, Akshay; Thunuguntla, Rahul; Mallu, Maheswara Reddy; Parupudi, Pavani; Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy

    2015-01-30

    Protein folding-strong cation exchange chromatography (PF-SCX) has been employed for efficient refolding with simultaneous purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). To acquire a soluble form of renatured and purified rhG-CSF, various chromatographic conditions, including the mobile phase composition and pH was evaluated. Additionally, the effects of additives such as urea, amino acids, polyols, sugars, oxidizing agents and their amalgamations were also investigated. Under the optimal conditions, rhG-CSF was efficaciously solubilized, refolded and simultaneously purified by SCX in a single step. The experimental results using ribose (2.0M) and arginine (0.6M) combination were found to be satisfactory with mass yield, purity and specific activity of 71%, ≥99% and 2.6×10(8)IU/mg respectively. Through this investigation, we concluded that the SCX refolding method was more efficient than conventional methods which has immense potential for the large-scale production of purified rhG-CSF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact factors on the long-term sustainability of Borehole Heat Exchanger coupled Ground Source Heat Pump System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haibing; Hein, Philipp; Görke, Uwe-Jens; Bucher, Anke; Kolditz, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, Ground Source Heat Pump System (GSHPS) has been recognized as an efficient technology to utilize shallow geothermal energy. Along with its wide application, some GSHPS are experiencing a gradual decrease in Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) outflow temperatures and thus have to be turned off after couple of years' operation. A comprehensive numerical investigation was then performed to model the flow and heat transport processes in and around the BHE, together with the dynamic change of heat pump efficiency. The model parameters were based on the soil temperature and surface weather condition in the Leipzig area. Different scenarios were modelled for a service life of 30 years, to reveal the evolution of BHE outflow and surrounding soil temperatures. It is found that lateral groundwater flow and using BHE for cooling will be beneficial to the energy recovery, along with the efficiency improvement of the heat pump. In comparison to other factors, the soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity are considered to have minor impact on the long-term sustainability of the system. Furthermore, the application of thermally enhanced grout material will improve the sustainability and efficiency. In contrast, it is very likely that undersized systems and improper grouting are the causes of strong system degradation.

  14. Interaction of amphiphiles with integral membrane proteins. II. A simple, minimal model for the nonspecific interaction of amphiphiles with the anion exchanger of the erythrocyte membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, H J

    1988-10-20

    In a previous paper we have reported on the structural perturbation of the erythrocyte membrane anion exchanger by a regular series of model amphiphiles, as shown by differential scanning calorimetry (Gruber, H.J. and Low, P.S., Biochim. Biophys. Acta, preceding article). Now the data are interpreted by a model in which the effects of amphiphile structure upon buffer-membrane partitioning are well separated from the dependence of the intrinsic potencies of membrane-bound amphiphiles upon amphiphile structure. The buffer-membrane partitioning situation was demonstrated to regularly change between extremes within a series of homologous amphiphiles, i.e. from a negligible to a predominant fraction of total amphiphile in the sample residing in the membrane. Based upon this demonstration a large number of reports on the chain length dependence of apparent potency could be reinterpreted in terms of chain length profiles of intrinsic potency, allowing for a comparison of the responses of various membrane proteins to homologous series of amphiphiles. The response patterns for chain length variation could be divided into three distinct classes: the intrinsic potency (i) can be independent of chain length over a very wide range of length, (ii) it can be rather independent up to a critical length where a sudden cut-off in potency occurs, or (iii) it can drop monotonically over a wide range of chain length. The intrinsic potency values of saturated fatty acids in destabilizing the anion exchanger were interpreted by very simple assumptions: only direct interactions between amphiphiles and target proteins and a simple amphiphile partition equilibrium between a pool of equivalent low affinity sites on the protein and the bulk lipid matrix. The observed monotonic decay of the intrinsic potency of saturated fatty acids with increasing chain length from C8 to C20 was translated into a constant increment of free energy by which each additional CH2 favors the transfer away from sites

  15. Role of receptors for epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factors I and II in the differentiation of rat mammary glands from lactogenesis I to lactogenesis II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, L E; Bussmann, I M; Charreau, E H

    1996-07-01

    In addition to ovarian steroids and lactogenic hormones from the placenta and pituitary, growth factors control the growth and differentiation of mammary glands. Lactogenesis II at the end of pregnancy is under the control of progesterone. Ovariectomy results in a significant decrease in the number of receptors for epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and an increase in IGF-II binding sites in mammary gland acini of rats, without affecting the affinity for their respective ligand. Although concentrations of EGF, IGF-I and IGF-II receptors are regulated by oestradiol and progesterone, replacement treatment with ovarian steroids after ovariectomy showed that receptor concentrations do not mediate the restraint on lactogenesis. Progesterone treatment, which inhibits the onset of lactogenesis II, did not restore EGF receptor concentrations to control values, and the presence of oestradiol was required to reverse the effect of ovariectomy. Oestradiol, which potentiates the effect of ovariectomy on milk synthesis, increases IGF-I receptor concentrations. IGF-II receptor concentrations, after the different steroid treatments, were consistent with the steroid effect on milk synthesis. The changes observed in the concentrations of these growth factor receptors at the onset of mammary gland secretion are not considered to affect the progesterone block to lactogenesis II, but rather are a consequence of the shift of the hormonal and, hence, physiological status of the gland.

  16. Identification and weighting factors influencing the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in plastic injection industry using VIKOR and Shannon Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Hashemzadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single minute exchange of dies (SMED is one of the most important tools to achieve lean production system. The main idea of this system is to provide methods and to use creative and innovative solutions for continuous improvement. Due to the importance of this issue and its effect on reducing waste during the production process, this study presents a method to identify and to weight factors in the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in 14 plastic injection factories. In this study, fourteen factories in injection industry were chosen and the factors influencing the implementation of single minute exchange of dies were identified. Following data collection, decision matrix was formed and the weight of each factor was determined by using Shannon Entropy. Then, in order to determine the readiness of factories, VIKOR method was used to rank companies. The results indicate priorities of the following factors in establishing SMED that include: Senior management support, technical capabilities, technical knowledge of staff and consultants, knowledge of mold design, manufacturing infrastructure, team work, combination of the project team work, benchmarking, training, clear understanding of project objectives, rewards and motivation, proper management expectation, project management, teamwork and organizational culture. Practical implications: Due to the factors, Top manager can make the best decision for implementing of SMED technique. This study develops factors influencing on SMED implementation based on Shannon and VIKOR methods for ranking parameters and plants.

  17. Mapping temperature-induced conformational changes in the Escherichia coli heat shock transcription factor sigma 32 by amide hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Wolfgang; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Roepstorff, Peter

    2003-01-01

    gene transcription. To investigate possible heat-induced conformational changes in sigma 32 we performed amide hydrogen (H/D) exchange experiments under optimal growth and heat shock conditions combined with mass spectrometry. We found a rapid exchange of around 220 of the 294 amide hydrogens at 37...... degrees C, indicating that sigma 32 adopts a highly flexible structure. At 42 degrees C we observed a slow correlated exchange of 30 additional amide hydrogens and localized it to a helix-loop-helix motif within domain sigma 2 that is responsible for the recognition of the -10 region in heat shock...

  18. 'Big'-insulin-like growth factor-II signaling is an autocrine survival pathway in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikhof, B.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Suurmeijer, A.J.H.; Doorn, J. van; Meersma, G.J.; Groenen, P.J.T.A.; Schuuring, E.M.; Meijer, C.; Jong, S. de

    2012-01-01

    New treatment targets need to be identified in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) to extend the treatment options for patients experiencing failure with small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II acts as an autocrine factor in several tumor

  19. 'Big'-Insulin-Like Growth Factor-II Signaling Is an Autocrine Survival Pathway in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikhof, Bart; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.; van Doorn, Jaap; Meersma, Gert Jan; Groenen, Patricia J. T. A.; Schuuring, Ed M. D.; Meijer, Coby; de Jong, Steven

    New treatment targets need to be identified in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) to extend the treatment options for patients experiencing failure with small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II acts as an autocrine factor in several tumor

  20. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in patients with advanced cancer: A theory-driven approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Kristen G; Lehrfeld, Jonathan; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William

    2017-08-24

    The diagnosis and treatment of depression are complicated by the presence of a serious medical illness, such as cancer. The role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of depression remains unknown; however, the symptom cluster of sickness behavior is more clearly related to inflammation. Symptom clusters may provide the specificity needed to improve treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study is to use confirmatory factor analysis to examine the construct of sickness behavior in patients with advanced cancer using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Patients (N = 167) were recruited from chemotherapy clinics and the Department of Psychiatry at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Symptoms were a priori delineated using the factor labels sickness behavior and negative affectivity (two-factor model), and affective, cognitive, and sickness behavior (three-factor model). These data were also fit for a more traditional model using affective, cognitive, and somatic factors. The mean total BDI-II score was 14.74 (SD = 8.52; range = 1-46). Fit statistics for all models were good, but the novel three-factor model with sickness behavior provided the best fit: χ2(186) = 273.624; p factor models provide support for the unique construct of sickness behavior in patients with advanced cancer. High factor correlations with the BDI-II and other measures of distress were observed, which raises questions about theoretically distinct, but related, constructs.

  1. The Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II: Development, Factor Structure, and Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Gallagher, Matthew W; Silvia, Paul J; Winterstein, Beate P; Breen, William E; Terhar, Daniel; Steger, Michael F

    2009-12-01

    Given curiosity's fundamental role in motivation, learning, and well-being, we sought to refine the measurement of trait curiosity with an improved version of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI; Kashdan, Rose, & Fincham, 2004). A preliminary pool of 36 items was administered to 311 undergraduate students, who also completed measures of emotion, emotion regulation, personality, and well-being. Factor analyses indicated a two factor model-motivation to seek out knowledge and new experiences (Stretching; 5 items) and a willingness to embrace the novel, uncertain, and unpredictable nature of everyday life (Embracing; 5 items). In two additional samples (ns = 150 and 119), we cross-validated this factor structure and provided initial evidence for construct validity. This includes positive correlations with personal growth, openness to experience, autonomy, purpose in life, self-acceptance, psychological flexibility, positive affect, and positive social relations, among others. Applying item response theory (IRT) to these samples (n = 578), we showed that the items have good discrimination and a desirable breadth of difficulty. The item information functions and test information function were centered near zero, indicating that the scale assesses the mid-range of the latent curiosity trait most reliably. The findings thus far provide good evidence for the psychometric properties of the 10-item CEI-II.

  2. The pulsations of boundary conditions – factor of the rapid wear on heat exchange surfaces in heterogeneous dispersed flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodunkov, V. P.

    2017-11-01

    The results of experimental studies of industrial furnace with a fluidized bed reactor. The data on the values of the coefficient of heat transfer, the quality of fluidization and mixing efficiency. In theory shows that there are significant variables of temperature gradients on the walls of the heat exchange elements are qualitative arguments about the causes of increased wear of heat exchange surfaces in a fluidized bed.

  3. Regulation of Ras exchange factors and cellular localization of Ras activation by lipid messengers in T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse E. Jun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ras-MAPK signaling pathway is highly conserved throughout evolution and is activated downstream of a wide range of receptor stimuli. Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs catalyze GTP loading of Ras and play a pivotal role in regulating receptor-ligand induced Ras activity. In T cells, three families of functionally important RasGEFs are expressed: RasGRF, RasGRP, and SOS-family GEFs.Early on it was recognized that Ras activation is critical for T cell development and that the RasGEFs play an important role herein. More recent work has revealed that nuances in Ras activation appear to significantly impact T cell development and selection. These nuances include distinct biochemical patterns of analog versus digital Ras activation, differences in cellular localization of Ras activation, and intricate interplays between the RasGEFs during distinct T cell developmental stages as revealed by various new mouse models. In many instances, the exact nature of these nuances in Ras activation or how these may result from fine-tuning of the RasGEFs is not understood.One large group of biomolecules critically involved in the control of Ras-GEFs´functions are lipid second messengers. Multiple, yet distinct lipid products are generated following T cell receptor (TCR stimulation and bind to different domains in the RasGRP and SOS RasGEFs to facilitate the activation of the membrane-anchored Ras GTPases. In this review we highlight how different lipid-based elements are generated by various enzymes downstream of the TCR and other receptors and how these dynamic and interrelated lipid products may fine-tune Ras activation by RasGEFs in developing T cells.

  4. The putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor RicA mediates upstream signaling for growth and development in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nak-Jung; Park, Hee-Soo; Jung, Seunho; Kim, Sun Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2012-11-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (G proteins) govern growth, development, and secondary metabolism in various fungi. Here, we characterized ricA, which encodes a putative GDP/GTP exchange factor for G proteins in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans and the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. In both species, ricA mRNA accumulates during vegetative growth and early developmental phases, but it is not present in spores. The deletion of ricA results in severely impaired colony growth and the total (for A. nidulans) or near (for A. fumigatus) absence of asexual sporulation (conidiation). The overexpression (OE) of the A. fumigatus ricA gene (AfricA) restores growth and conidiation in the ΔAnricA mutant to some extent, indicating partial conservation of RicA function in Aspergillus. A series of double mutant analyses revealed that the removal of RgsA (an RGS protein of the GanB Gα subunit), but not sfgA, flbA, rgsB, or rgsC, restored vegetative growth and conidiation in ΔAnricA. Furthermore, we found that RicA can physically interact with GanB in yeast and in vitro. Moreover, the presence of two copies or OE of pkaA suppresses the profound defects caused by ΔAnricA, indicating that RicA-mediated growth and developmental signaling is primarily through GanB and PkaA in A. nidulans. Despite the lack of conidiation, brlA and vosA mRNAs accumulated to normal levels in the ΔricA mutant. In addition, mutants overexpressing fluG or brlA (OEfluG or OEbrlA) failed to restore development in the ΔAnricA mutant. These findings suggest that the commencement of asexual development requires unknown RicA-mediated signaling input in A. nidulans.

  5. Combined effects of extracellular matrix and growth factors on NBT-II rat bladder carcinoma cell dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G C; Boyer, B; Valles, A M; Thiery, J P

    1991-10-01

    Using the rat bladder carcinoma cell line NBT-II we showed that collagens but not laminin and fibronectin were able to induce cell scattering. Acidic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha also promoted NBT-II cell dispersion on glass or tissue culture plastic. We have now further analysed the scatter response to these two growth factors in the presence of extracellular matrix molecules. In the presence of growth factors, no peripheral single-cell dispersion occurred on fibronectin and laminin, although time-lapse video analyses revealed intense cell mingling and motility inside the monolayer forming around NBT-II aggregates. Patterns of strings or files of cells protruding from the monolayer were often observed. The presence of a scattering activity in the complex acellular extracellular matrix deposited by NBT-II cells themselves strongly suggested that substratum conditioning was responsible for this effect. On the other hand, the two growth factors accelerated collagen-mediated NBT-II individual cell dispersion and locomotion in a reversible way. As a marker of cell dissociation, we studied desmosome distribution in aggregate cultures: desmosomes were present in aggregates formed in suspension even in the presence of growth factors, whereas internalization occurred after cell-to-substratum contact. On laminin or fibronectin and in the presence of growth factors, peripheral cells inside the halo of NBT-II aggregates did not exhibit desmosome linkages. These observations suggest that scatter effects per se are dependent on the composition of the extracellular matrix. In particular, on a substratum nonpermissive for direct cell translocation, individual cell dispersion can be replaced by en bloc patterns of migration following substratum conditioning by the cells.

  6. Role of epidermal growth factor receptor and endoplasmic reticulum stress in vascular remodeling induced by angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Takehiko; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Yamato; Elliott, Katherine J; Tilley, Douglas G; Davisson, Robin L; Park, Joon-Young; Eguchi, Satoru

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms by which angiotensin II (AngII) elevates blood pressure and enhances end-organ damage seem to be distinct. However, the signal transduction cascade by which AngII specifically mediates vascular remodeling such as medial hypertrophy and perivascular fibrosis remains incomplete. We have previously shown that AngII-induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation is mediated by disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 17 (ADAM17), and that this signaling is required for vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy but not for contractile signaling in response to AngII. Recent studies have implicated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in hypertension. Interestingly, EGFR is capable of inducing ER stress. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that activation of EGFR and ER stress are critical components required for vascular remodeling but not hypertension induced by AngII. Mice were infused with AngII for 2 weeks with or without treatment of EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib, or ER chaperone, 4-phenylbutyrate. AngII infusion induced vascular medial hypertrophy in the heart, kidney and aorta, and perivascular fibrosis in heart and kidney, cardiac hypertrophy, and hypertension. Treatment with erlotinib as well as 4-phenylbutyrate attenuated vascular remodeling and cardiac hypertrophy but not hypertension. In addition, AngII infusion enhanced ADAM17 expression, EGFR activation, and ER/oxidative stress in the vasculature, which were diminished in both erlotinib-treated and 4-phenylbutyrate-treated mice. ADAM17 induction and EGFR activation by AngII in vascular cells were also prevented by inhibition of EGFR or ER stress. In conclusion, AngII induces vascular remodeling by EGFR activation and ER stress via a signaling mechanism involving ADAM17 induction independent of hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Theoretical characterization of the potential energy surface for H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields HO + O. II - The potential for H atom exchange in HO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Rohlfing, Celeste Mcmichael

    1989-01-01

    The results of CASSCF multireference contracted CI calculations with large ANO basis sets are presented for the exchange region of the HO2 potential-energy surface. The saddle point for H atom exchange is about 13 kcal/mol below the energy of H + O2; therefore, this region of the surface should be accessible during H + O2 recombination and methathesis reactions.

  8. Comparative Study of Personality Traits in Patients with Bipolar I and II Disorder from the Five-Factor Model Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungsu; Lim, Jong-Han; Kim, Seong Yoon; Joo, Yeon Ho

    2012-12-01

    The distinguishing features of Bipolar I Disorder (BD I) from Bipolar II Disorder (BD II) may reflect a separation in enduring trait dimension between the two subtypes. We therefore assessed the similarities and differences in personality traits in patients with BD I and BD II from the perspective of the Five-Factor Model (FFM). The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was administered to 85 BD I (47 females, 38 males) and 43 BD II (23 females, 20 males) patients. All included patients were in remission from their most recent episode and in a euthymic state for at least 8 weeks prior to study entry. BDII patients scored higher than BD I patients on the Neuroticism dimension and its four corresponding facets (Anxiety, Depression, Self-consciousness, and Vulnerability). In contrast, BD II patients scored lower than BD I patients on the Extraversion dimension and its facet, Positive emotion. Competence and Achievement-striving facets within the Conscientiousness dimension were significantly lower for BD II than for BD I patients. There were no significant between-group differences in the Openness and Agreeableness dimensions. Disparities in personality traits were observed between BD I and BD II patients from the FFM perspective. BD II patients had higher Neuroticism and lower Extraversion than BD I patients, which are differentiating natures between the two subtypes based on the FFM.

  9. Activation of Rac1 by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Dck1 is required for invasive filamentous growth in the pathogen Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Hannah; Bogliolo, Stéphanie; Arkowitz, Robert A; Bassilana, Martine

    2008-09-01

    Rho G proteins and their regulators are critical for cytoskeleton organization and cell morphology in all eukaryotes. In the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans, the Rho G proteins Cdc42 and Rac1 are required for the switch from budding to filamentous growth in response to different stimuli. We show that Dck1, a protein with homology to the Ced-5, Dock180, myoblast city family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors, is necessary for filamentous growth in solid media, similar to Rac1. Our results indicate that Dck1 and Rac1 do not function in the same pathway as the transcription factor Czf1, which is also required for embedded filamentous growth. The conserved catalytic region of Dck1 is required for such filamentous growth, and in vitro this region directly binds a Rac1 mutant, which mimics the nucleotide-free state. In vivo overexpression of a constitutively active Rac1 mutant, but not wild-type Rac1, in a dck1 deletion mutant restores filamentous growth. These results indicate that the Dock180 guanine nucleotide exchange factor homologue, Dck1 activates Rac1 during invasive filamentous growth. We conclude that specific exchange factors, together with the G proteins they activate, are required for morphological changes in response to different stimuli.

  10. Barter exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    Although barter is often perceived as something that proceeded money, barter is still used. The focus of the paper is on barter exchanges. Barter exchanges are used both in developing countries as well as in developed countries (including the U.S.). They are used by both organizations...... and individuals. They usually allow to exchange good but some include also services. Some exchanges allow only for bi-directional barter, i.e. when only two parties are involved in the exchange. But probably most of the barter exchanges use barter money; this makes it easier to exchange goods and services...

  11. Stimulation of myenteric plexus neurite outgrowth by insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, M W; Romanchuk, G; Simeone, D M; Flowe, K

    1992-01-01

    A defined culture medium containing insulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) or insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) supported morphological development of myenteric plexus neurons derived from neonatal guinea pigs. Insulin increased neurite outgrowth 3-fold at concentrations as low as 0.2 nM. Similar significant and dose-dependent increases in neurite outgrowth were noted with IGF-I and IGF-II. Stimulation of neurite outgrowth was abolished by exposure to cytosine arabinofuranoside, an agent toxic to non-neuronal cells, implying that trophic effects of insulin or insulin-like growth factors require the presence of non-neuronal elements in culture.

  12. Plasma homocysteine, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and factor II G20210A polymorphisms, factor VIII, and VWF in central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, S; Owens, D; Gin, T; Bunce, K; Sherafat, H; Perry, D; Hykin, P G

    2001-11-01

    To determine whether plasma homocysteine, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and factor II G20210A polymorphisms, factor VIII, and vWF are risk factors for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Prospective comparison of 63 consecutive patients with central retinal vein occlusion and 63 age matched controls. Plasma homocysteine and vWF were estimated by ELISA, the MTFHR and factor II G20210A polymorphisms determined by polymerase chain reaction with restriction enzyme product digestion and factor VIII by one stage automated clotting assay. Plasma homocysteine (patients: median 12.4 micromol/l, controls: median 11.6 micromol OR = 1.05, p=0.20), factor VIII (patients: median = 115 U/dl, controls: median = 113 U/dl), and vWF (patients: median = 115 U/dl, controls: median = 108 U/dl) were not statistically higher in patients than in controls. Five CRVO patients and seven controls were homozygous for the MTHFR C677T mutation. One control was heterozygous for the factor II G20210A mutation. This study has not identified new risk factors for CRVO.

  13. Neuroprotective Effect of Insulin-like Growth Factor-II on 1- Methyl-4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    II) on 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP)-induced oxidative damage in adult cortical neuronal cultures. ... development. However, in adults, there is a decrease in its synthesis, although IGF-II remains the most abundant insulin-like peptide in the adult brain, primarily expressed in ..... doses of IGF-II in aging rats, J. Transl.

  14. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Bariatric Surgery Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J.; Hood, Megan M.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Azarbad, Leila; Ivan, Iulia; Corsica, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Screening for depression is an integral part of psychological evaluations conducted prior to bariatric surgery. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is the most commonly used measure of depression in these treatment evaluations. The reliability and validity of the BDI-II has not yet been evaluated within bariatric surgery-seeking samples,…

  15. Endoplasmic reticulum and oxidant stress mediate nuclear factor-κB activation in the subfornical organ during angiotensin II hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Colin N; Li, Anfei; Dong, Frederick N; Horwath, Julie A; Clark, Catharine G; Davisson, Robin L

    2015-05-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the brain circumventricular subfornical organ (SFO) mediate the central hypertensive actions of Angiotensin II (ANG II). However, the downstream signaling events remain unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that angiotensin type 1a receptors (AT1aR), ER stress, and ROS induce activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) during ANG II-dependent hypertension. To spatiotemporally track NF-κB activity in the SFO throughout the development of ANG II-dependent hypertension, we used SFO-targeted adenoviral delivery and longitudinal bioluminescence imaging in mice. During low-dose infusion of ANG II, bioluminescence imaging revealed a prehypertensive surge in NF-κB activity in the SFO at a time point prior to a significant rise in arterial blood pressure. SFO-targeted ablation of AT1aR, inhibition of ER stress, or adenoviral scavenging of ROS in the SFO prevented the ANG II-induced increase in SFO NF-κB. These findings highlight the utility of bioluminescence imaging to longitudinally track transcription factor activation during the development of ANG II-dependent hypertension and reveal an AT1aR-, ER stress-, and ROS-dependent prehypertensive surge in NF-κB activity in the SFO. Furthermore, the increase in NF-κB activity before a rise in arterial blood pressure suggests a causal role for SFO NF-κB in the development of ANG II-dependent hypertension. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. [Metaanalysis for the evaluation of risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) Part II. Occupational risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, G; Wollny, J; Hartmann, B; Schiele, R; Hofmann, G O

    2012-10-01

    The expert committee of the German Ministry for Labour and Social Affairs suggested carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) as an "occupational disease". This systematic literature review and metaanalysis was aimed at identifying associated and risk factors for CTS. Part II addresses the occupational factors of CTS. A systematic literature review was performed by examining papers in PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE and Web of Science databases that were published on or before February 15th, 2011. A total of 87 studies (27 longitudinal and 60 cross-sectional) were included in this metaanalysis. The PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and metaanalyses) guidelines for performing a metaanalysis were strictly followed. All of the effect sizes were calculated using a random-effects model. The prevalence of CTS in working populations [10.9 % (95 % CI 7.9-14 : 9)] was significantly higher than in the general population [8.2 % (95 % CI 2.3-25.1), p heterogeneity of the different study designs made it impossible to detect concrete prevalence or incidence rates for specific job groups. However, "blue-collar work" was a significant risk factor for CTS [OR = 3.1 (95 % CI 1.9-5.3), p concrete hand burdens. In numerous studies, some factors were associated with CTS: repetition [OR = 2.7 (95 % CI 1.8-39), p < 0.001), chronic wrist flexion [OR = 1.7 (95 % CI 1.0-2.6), p = 0.033], powerful grip [OR = 4.4 (95 % CI 1.4-13.6), p = 0.009], and chronic vibration load [OR = 2.6 (95 % CI 1.7-4.0)]. Primarily, combined hand loadings were estimated. For this evaluation, the hand activity level threshold limit values (HAL TLVs®) of the ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Hygienists) were useful. Manual work in the 4th quartile of this score was significantly associated with the prevalence of CTS [OR = 2.9 (95 % CI 1.5-5.7), p = 0.001]. These score values were identified as a significant risk factor for occupational

  17. Factors affecting marginal integrity of class II bulk-fill composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Bahari, Mahmoud; Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Ghiasvand, Negar; Savadi Oskoee, Ayda

    2017-01-01

    Background. Bulk-fill composite resins are a new type of resin-based composite resins, claimed to have the capacity to be placed in thick layers, up to 4 mm. This study was carried out to evaluate factors affecting gap formation in Cl II cavities restored using the bulk-fill technique. Methods. A total of 60 third molars were used in this study. Two Cl II cavities were prepared in each tooth, one on the mesial aspect 1 mm coronal to the CEJ and one on the distal aspect 1 mm apical to the CEJ. The teeth were divided into 4 groups: A: The cavities were restored using the bulk-fill technique with Filtek P90 composite resin and its adhesive system and light-cured with quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light-curing unit. B: The cavities were restored similar to that in group A but light-cured with an LED light-curing unit. C: The cavities were restored using the bulk-fill technique with X-tra Fil composite resin and Clearfil SE Bond adhesive system and light-cured with a QTH curing unit. D: The cavities were restored similar to that in group C but light-cured with an LED light-curing unit. The gaps were examined under a stereomicroscope at ×60. Data were analyzed with General Linear Model test. In cases of statistical significance (Pcomposite resin type and margin location (Pcomposite resin type were not significant; however, the cumulative effect of composite rein type*gingival margin was significant (P=0.04) Conclusion. X-tra Fil composite exhibited smaller gaps compared with Filtek P90 composite with both light-curing units. Both composite resins exhibited smaller gaps at enamel margins.

  18. Clinical outcomes and predictive factors related to good outcomes in plasma exchange in severe attack of NMOSD and long extensive transverse myelitis: Case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungsumart, Saharat; Apiwattanakul, Metha

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the predictive factors associated with good outcomes of plasma exchange in severe attacks through neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and long extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). In addition, to review the literature of predictive factors associated with the good outcomes of plasma exchange in central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating diseases (CNS IDDs). Retrospective study in 27 episodes of severe acute attacks myelitis and optic neuritis in 24 patients, including 20 patients with NMOSD seropositive, 1 patient with NMOSD seronegative and 3 patients with LETM. Plasma exchange was performed, reflecting poor responses to high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) therapy. The outcomes of the present study were the functional outcome improvements at 6 months after plasma exchange. The predictive factors of good outcomes after plasma exchange were determined in this cohort, and additional factors reported in the literature were reviewed. Plasma exchange was performed in 16 spinal cord attacks and 11 attacks of optic neuritis. Twenty patients were female (83%). The median age of the patients at the time of plasma exchange was 41 years old. The median disease duration was 0.6 years. The AQP4-IgG status was positive in 20 patients (83%). Plasma exchange following IVMP therapy led to a significant improvement in 81% of the cases after 6 months of follow up. A baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ≤6 before the attack was associated with significant improvement at 6 months (p=0.02, OR 58.33, 95%CI 1.92-1770). In addition, we reviewed the evidence for factors associated with good outcomes of plasma exchange in CNS IDDs, classified according to pre-plasma exchange, post-plasma exchange, and radiological features. Plasma exchange following IVMP therapy is effective as a treatment for patients experiencing a severe attack of NMOSD or LETM. The factors associated with good outcomes after plasma exchange in CNS IDDs are

  19. Anion exchange coupled with the reduction and dimerisation of a copper(ii) nitrate complex of tripyridyl dithioether via a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformationElectronic supplementary information (ESI) available: PXRD patterns, ESI-MS spectrum, SEM images, AFM images, UV spectra, crystal structures and TGA data. CCDC 1511571-1511577. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c6sc05341f

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Hyeong-Hwan; Park, In-Hyeok; Kim, Seulgi; Lee, Eunji; Ju, Huiyeong; Jung, Jong Hwa; Ikeda, Mari; Habata, Yoichi; Lee, Shim Sung

    2017-01-01

    ... ). To avoid the formation of undesired mixed products, a copper( ii ) nitrate complex-mediated approach involving anion exchange and cation reduction was employed to generate a monomeric complex, [Cu II ( L )NO 3 ]NO 3 ·toluene ( 2...

  20. Regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α expression by interleukin-1β (IL-1 β, insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-I and II (IGF-II in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Rossi Sartori-Cintra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha regulates genes related to cellular survival under hypoxia. This factor is present in osteroarthritic chondrocytes, and cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta, participate in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis, thereby increasing the activities of proteolytic enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases, and accelerating cartilage destruction. We hypothesize that Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α can regulate cytokines (catabolic action and/or growth factors (anabolic action in osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the modulation of HIF-1α in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-I and II (IGF-II and to determine the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol-3kinase (PI-3K pathway in this process. METHODS: Human osteroarthritic chondrocytes were stimulated with IL-1β, IGF-I and IGF-II and LY294002, a specific inhibitor of PI-3K. Nuclear protein levels and gene expression were analyzed by western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses, respectively. RESULTS: HIF-1α expression was upregulated by IL-1β at the protein level but not at the gene level. IGF-I treatment resulted in increases in both the protein and mRNA levels of HIF-1α , whereas IGF-II had no effect on its expression. However, all of these stimuli exploited the PI-3K pathway. CONCLUSION: IL-1β upregulated the levels of HIF-1α protein post-transcriptionally, whereas IGF-I increased HIF-1α at the transcript level. In contrast, IGF-II did not affect the protein or gene expression levels of HIF-1α . Furthermore, all of the tested stimuli exploited the PI-3K pathway to some degree. Based on these findings, we are able to suggest that Hypoxia inducible Factor-1 exhibits protective activity in chondrocytes during osteoarthritis.

  1. Ammonia binding to the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II identifies the solvent-exchangeable oxygen bridge (µ-oxo) of the manganese tetramer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montserrat Pérez Navarro; William M. Ames; Hakan Nilsson; Thomas Lohmiller; Dimitrios A. Pantazis; Leonid Rapatskiy; Marc M. Nowaczyk; Frank Neese; Alain Boussac; Johannes Messinger; Wolfgang Lubitz; Nicholas Cox

    2013-01-01

    .... We recently demonstrated using pulsed EPR spectroscopy that one of the five oxygen bridges (µ-oxo) exchanges unusually rapidly with bulk water and is thus a likely candidate for one of the substrates...

  2. Canopy gas exchange and water use efficiency of 'Empire' apple in response to particle film, irrigation, and microclimatic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the interaction between a reflective particle film and water use efficiency (WUE) response of irrigated and non-irrigated apple trees over a wide range of environmental conditions. The objectives were to measure the specific gas exchange and WUE response of 'Empire' apple treate...

  3. The X-Factor: On the Relevance of Implicit Leadership and Followership Theories for Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Gils (Suzanne); N. van Quaquebeke (Niels); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhile Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) research shows that leaders engage in different kinds of relationships with different followers, it remains somewhat of an enigma why one and the same relationship is often rated differently by a leader and the respective follower. We seek to fill that

  4. Insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factor II Differentially Regulate Endocytic Sorting and Stability of Insulin Receptor Isoform A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Marco; Palummo, Angela; Kletvikova, Emilia; Jiracek, Jiri; Brzozowski, Andrzej M.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Belfiore, Antonino; Morrione, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The insulin receptor isoform A (IR-A) binds both insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II, although the affinity for IGF-II is 3–10-fold lower than insulin depending on a cell and tissue context. Notably, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking the IGF-IR and expressing solely the IR-A (R−/IR-A), IGF-II is a more potent mitogen than insulin. As receptor endocytosis and degradation provide spatial and temporal regulation of signaling events, we hypothesized that insulin and IGF-II could affect IR-A biological responses by differentially regulating IR-A trafficking. Using R−/IR-A cells, we discovered that insulin evoked significant IR-A internalization, a process modestly affected by IGF-II. However, the differential internalization was not due to IR-A ubiquitination. Notably, prolonged stimulation of R−/IR-A cells with insulin, but not with IGF-II, targeted the receptor to a degradative pathway. Similarly, the docking protein insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) was down-regulated after prolonged insulin but not IGF-II exposure. Similar results were also obtained in experiments using [NMeTyrB26]-insulin, an insulin analog with IR-A binding affinity similar to IGF-II. Finally, we discovered that IR-A was internalized through clathrin-dependent and -independent pathways, which differentially regulated the activation of downstream effectors. Collectively, our results suggest that a lower affinity of IGF-II for the IR-A promotes lower IR-A phosphorylation and activation of early downstream effectors vis à vis insulin but may protect IR-A and IRS-1 from down-regulation thereby evoking sustained and robust mitogenic stimuli. PMID:22318726

  5. Increased Cerebrospinal Fluid Level of Insulin-like Growth Factor-II in Male Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åberg, Daniel; Johansson, Per; Isgaard, Jörgen; Wallin, Anders; Johansson, Jan-Ove; Andreasson, Ulf; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Åberg, N David; Svensson, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is important for brain development. Although IGF-II is abundant also in adult life, little is known of the role of IGF-II in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This was a cross-sectional study of 60 consecutive patients under primary evaluation of cognitive impairment and 20 healthy controls. The patients had AD dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosed with AD dementia upon follow-up (n = 32), stable MCI (SMCI, n = 13), or other dementias (n = 15). IGF-II, IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and IGFBP-2 were analyzed in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Levels of IGF-II, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-2 were similar in all groups in the total study population. Gender-specific analyses showed that in men (n = 40), CSF IGF-II level was higher in AD compared to SMCI and controls (p <  0.01 and p <  0.05, respectively). Furthermore, CSF IGFBP-2 level was increased in AD men versus SMCI men (p <  0.01) and tended to be increased versus control men (p = 0.09). There were no between-group differences in women (n = 40). In the total study population (n = 80) as well as in men (n = 40), CSF levels of IGF-II and IGFBP-2 correlated positively with CSF levels of the AD biomarkers total-tau and phosphorylated tau protein. In men, but not women, in the early stages of AD, CSF IGF-II level was elevated, and CSF IGFBP-2 level tended to be increased, compared to healthy controls.

  6. Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter Transcription Factor II Regulates Renin Gene Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Sandra; Roeser, Marc; Lachmann, Peter; Ishii, Sumiyashi; Suh, Jae Mi; Harlander, Sabine; Desch, Michael; Brunssen, Coy; Morawietz, Henning; Tsai, Sophia Y.; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian; Todorov, Vladimir T.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible involvement of the orphan nuclear receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) in the regulation of renin gene expression. COUP-TFII colocalized with renin in the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney, which are the main source of renin in vivo. Protein-DNA binding studies demonstrated that COUP-TFII binds to an imperfect direct repeat COUP-TFII recognition sequence (termed hereafter proxDR) in the proximal renin promoter. Because cAMP signaling plays a central role in the control of the renin gene expression, we suggested that COUP-TFII may modulate this cAMP effect. Accordingly, knockdown of COUP-TFII in the clonal renin-producing cell lines As4.1 and Calu-6 diminished the stimulation of the renin mRNA expression by cAMP agonists. In addition, the mutation of the proxDR element in renin promoter reporter gene constructs abrogated the inducibility by cAMP. The proxDR sequence was found to be necessary for the function of a proximal renin promoter cAMP-response element (CRE). Knockdown of COUP-TFII or cAMP-binding protein (CREB), which is the archetypal transcription factor binding to CRE, decreased the basal renin gene expression. However, the deficiency of COUP-TFII did not further diminish the renin expression when CREB was knocked down. In agreement with the cell culture studies, mutant mice deficient in COUP-TFII have lower renin expression than their control strain. Altogether our data show that COUP-TFII is involved in the control of renin gene expression. PMID:22645148

  7. Factors influencing the severity of Escherichia coli and avian adenovirus group II infections in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, W B; Domermuth, C H

    1988-01-01

    Chickens from lines selectively bred for either a high (HH) or low (LL) antibody response to sheep erythrocytes were challenged intravenously with avian adenovirus group II (AA). Spleen size was determined 6 days later. In some experiments the responses of chickens to AA and Escherichia coli infections were compared. The level of corticosterone in the feed (15 mg/kg) which resulted in the lowest incidence of pericarditis in response to E. coli resulted in the greatest incidence of large spleens in response to AA infection. Incidence of enlarged spleens in response to AA infection was increased in fasted chickens and reduced in socialized LL-line chickens. Among ignored chickens harshly treated for 2 weeks before challenge, LL-line chickens had a higher incidence of enlarged spleens than HH-line chickens. Socialized HH-line chickens subjected to social stress 1 day before challenge had more severely affected spleens than socialized LL-line chickens. The HL cross was more severely affected by AA than the LH cross but was less severely affected by E. coli. Antibody responsiveness to sheep erythrocytes did not affect the severity of AA infection. Factors that increased the severity of AA infection seemed to result in a decreased severity of E. coli infection.

  8. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  9. PENERAPAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN AKTIF MELALUI STRATEGI ROTATING TRIO EXCHANGE UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN ANALISIS DAN AKTIVITAS BELAJAR SISWA SMA KELAS X SEMESTER II POKOK BAHASAN KALOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Arifin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pada masa sekarang masih banyak guru yang menerapkan metode ceramah dalam pembelajaran. Guru mengajar murid dengantarget kurikulum dan nilai Ujian Nasional. Kondisi tersebut mengakibatkan aktivitas belajar siswa rendah dan kemampuan berpikirsiswa tidak berkembang. Model pembelajaran aktif melalui strategi rotating trio exchange memberi kesempatan kepada siswaberpartisipasi aktif dalam pembelajaran melalui diskusi dengan seksama. Melalui kegiatan tersebut metode pembelajaran inidapat membuat siswa aktif sejak awal pembelajaran. Penelitian eksperimen ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahuipeningkatan kemampuan analisis dan aktivitas belajar siswa setelah diterapkan model pembelajaran aktif dengan strategi rotatingtrio exchange. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah observasi dan tes. Berdasarkan uji t dan uji gain dapatdisimpulkan bahwa pembelajaran aktif melalui strategi rotating trio exchange dapat meningkatkan kemampuan analisis danaktivitas belajar siswa pada pokok bahasan kalor. Nowadays, there are many teachers still applying lecture learning method. In the classroom, teacher activities to instruction thestudent with curiculum target and National Test values standart only. The lecture learning method makes student's learningactivities and anlytical thinking skill not increased. Active learning with Rotating Trio Exchange Strategy gives an opportunity forstudents to participate in the learning procces by intensif discussion. This experiment research have the goals that are to knowimproving student's learning activities and anlytical thinking skill by applied of active learning with rotating trio exchange strategy.Taking over of data in this research do by observation and test metode. Base of t test and gain test got conclusion that activelearning with rotating trio exchange strategy can be improve student's learning activities and anlytical thinking skill on the calor submaterial.Keywords: active learning; rotating trio

  10. [Factor models of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Validation with coronary patients and a critique of Ward's model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pino Pérez, Antonio; Ibáñez Fernández, Ignacio; Bosa Ojeda, Francisco; Dorta González, Ruth; Gaos Miezoso, María Teresa

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to validate in a sample of 205 coronary patients a factor model for the BDI-II, especially a model that would allow for modeling of depressive symptoms after explicitly removing bias related to somatic symptoms of depression that would overlap those of heart disease. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses for ordinal data were conducted. A one-factor model, six correlated two-factor models and, derivatives thereof, seven models with a single General Depression factor and two uncorrelated factors, were analyzed. Exploratory analysis extracted two factors, Somatic-affective and Cognitive. Confirmatory factor analyses showed the worst fit for the one-factor model. Two-factor models were surpassed in goodness of fit by the models of general-factor and group factors. Among these, the General, Somatic-affective and Cognitive (G-Sa-C) model of Beck with students is noteworthy. The reduced General, Somatic and Cognitive (G-S-C) model of Ward showed the worst goodness of fit. Our model surpasses the cutoff criteria of all fit indexes. We conclude that the inclusion of a general-factor and group factors in all the models surpasses the results of G-S-C model and, therefore, questions it. The G-Sa-C model is strengthened.

  11. Ibuprofen does not affect levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor types I and II in Gabonese children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsiegui, Pierre-Blaise; Missinou, Michel A; Issifou, Saadou; Necek, Magdalena; Mavoungou, Elie

    2007-12-01

    We assessed the ability of ibuprofen to modulate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type I (sTNFR-I), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type II (sTNFR-II) responses during the treatment of fever in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study of 50 pediatric patients in Lambaréné, Gabon. Treatment of the malaria involved the patients receiving intravenous quinine (12 mg/kg of quinine dihydrochloride every 12 h for 72 h) followed by a single dose of oral sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (25 mg and 1.25 mg/kg). Fever was treated by mechanical treatment plus either ibuprofen (7 mg/kg every 8 h) or placebo during the hospitalization period. We determined serum concentrations of TNF-alpha, sTNFR-I, and sTNFR-II in peripheral blood throughout the treatment period in the two groups: ibuprofen and placebo groups. TNF-alpha levels were found to be positively correlated with body temperature. In contrast, TNF receptors levels did not differ between the two groups and the antipyretic effect of ibuprofen was not correlated with specific changes in sTNFR-I and sTNFR-II production. Our data suggest that TNF-alpha is involved in malarial fever, but soluble TNF receptors play no major role in fever modulation.

  12. Novel Risk Factors for Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Heart Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dehghan (Abbas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDespite the huge advances made in the understanding of type II diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD), these diseases still constitute a major health problem. Since the 1950s, epidemiologists focused on chronic disorders, including type II diabetes and CHD. Major aims of their

  13. The X-Factor: On the Relevance of Implicit Leadership and Followership Theories for Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Gils, Suzanne; Quaquebeke, Niels; Knippenberg, Daan

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhile Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) research shows that leaders engage in different kinds of relationships with different followers, it remains somewhat of an enigma why one and the same relationship is often rated differently by a leader and the respective follower. We seek to fill that conceptual void by explaining when and why such LMX disagreement is likely to occur. To do so, we reconsider antecedents of LMX quality perceptions and outline how each party’s LMX quality percepti...

  14. Factors influencing the separation of oligonucleotides using reversed-phase/ion-exchange mixed-mode high performance liquid chromatography columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biba, Mirlinda; Jiang, Eileen; Mao, Bing; Zewge, Daniel; Foley, Joe P; Welch, Christopher J

    2013-08-23

    New mixed-mode columns consisting of reversed-phase and ion-exchange separation modes were evaluated for the analysis of short RNA oligonucleotides (∼20mers). Conventional analysis for these samples typically involves using two complementary methods: strong anion-exchange liquid chromatography (SAX-LC) for separation based on charge, and ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography (IP-RPLC) for separation based on hydrophobicity. Recently introduced mixed-mode high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns combine both reversed-phase and ion-exchange modes, potentially offering a simpler analysis by combining the benefits of both separation modes into a single method. Analysis of a variety of RNA oligonucleotide samples using three different mixed-mode stationary phases showed some distinct benefits for oligonucleotide separation and analysis. When using these mixed-mode columns with typical IP-RPLC mobile phase conditions, such as ammonium acetate or triethylammonium acetate as the primary ion-pair reagent, the separation was mainly based on the IP-RPLC mode. However, when changing the mobile phase conditions to those more typical for SAX-LC, such as salt gradients with NaCl or NaBr, very different separation patterns were observed due to mixed-mode interactions. In addition, the Scherzo SW-C18 and SM-C18 columns with sodium chloride or sodium bromide salt gradients also showed significant improvements in peak shape. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in end-stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcot, Joseph; Norton, Sam; Wellsted, David; Almond, Mike; Davenport, Andrew; Farrington, Ken

    2011-09-01

    We sought to examine several competing factor structures of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI) in a sample of patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), in which setting the factor structure is poorly defined, though depression symptoms are common. In addition, demographic and clinical correlates of the identified factors were examined. The BDI was administered to clinical sample of 460 ESRD patients attending 4 UK renal centres. Competing models of the factor structure of the BDI were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. The best fitting model consisted of general depression factor that accounted for 81% of the common variance between all items along with orthogonal cognitive and somatic factors (G-S-C model, CFI=.983, TLI=.979, RMSEA=.037), which explained 8% and 9% of the common variance, respectively. Age, diabetes, and ethnicity were significantly related to the cognitive factor, whereas albumin, dialysis adequacy, and ethnicity were related to the somatic factor. No demographic or clinical variable was associated with the general factor. The general-factor model provides the best fitting and conceptually most acceptable interpretation of the BDI. Furthermore, the cognitive and somatic factors appear to be related to specific demographic and clinical factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidencia de primer ictus y prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular en el Área Sanitaria II

    OpenAIRE

    Arbesú, Esther; Suárez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults. In Asturias is the leading cause of death in women and fourth in men. The Health District II is more aging than the set of Asturias -28.3% vs 22.4% people> 65 years in 2011 -. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of first stroke in the Health Area II and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors prior to stroke XIII Jornadas PASQAL El ictus es la primera causa de invalidez en adultos. En Asturias es la primera causa d...

  17. An exchange-Coulomb model potential energy surface for the Ne-CO interaction. II. Molecular beam scattering and bulk gas phenomena in Ne-CO mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dham, Ashok K; McBane, George C; McCourt, Frederick R W; Meath, William J

    2010-01-14

    Four potential energy surfaces are of current interest for the Ne-CO interaction. Two are high-level fully ab initio surfaces obtained a decade ago using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory and supermolecule coupled-cluster methods. The other two are very recent exchange-Coulomb (XC) model potential energy surfaces constructed by using ab initio Heitler-London interaction energies and literature long range dispersion and induction energies, followed by the determination of a small number of adjustable parameters to reproduce a selected subset of pure rotational transition frequencies for the (20)Ne-(12)C(16)O van der Waals cluster. Testing of the four potential energy surfaces against a wide range of available experimental microwave, millimeter-wave, and mid-infrared Ne-CO transition frequencies indicated that the XC potential energy surfaces gave results that were generally far superior to the earlier fully ab initio surfaces. In this paper, two XC model surfaces and the two fully ab initio surfaces are tested for their abilities to reproduce experiment for a wide range of nonspectroscopic Ne-CO gas mixture properties. The properties considered here are relative integral cross sections and the angle dependence of rotational state-to-state differential cross sections, rotational relaxation rate constants for CO(v=2) in Ne-CO mixtures at T=296 K, pressure broadening of two pure rotational lines and of the rovibrational lines in the CO fundamental and first overtone transitions at 300 K, and the temperature and, where appropriate, mole fraction dependencies of the interaction second virial coefficient, the binary diffusion coefficient, the interaction viscosity, the mixture shear viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients, and the thermal diffusion factor. The XC model potential energy surfaces give results that lie within or very nearly within the experimental uncertainties for all properties considered, while the coupled-cluster ab initio surface gives

  18. Notch maintains Drosophila type II neuroblasts by suppressing expression of the Fez transcription factor Earmuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaosu; Xie, Yonggang; Zhu, Sijun

    2016-07-15

    Notch signaling is crucial for maintaining neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and heterogeneity; however, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In Drosophila, loss of Notch prematurely terminates the self-renewal of larval type II neuroblasts (NBs, the Drosophila NSCs) and transforms type II NBs into type I NBs. Here, we demonstrate that Notch maintains type II NBs by suppressing the activation of earmuff (erm) by Pointed P1 (PntP1). We show that loss of Notch or components of its canonical pathway leads to PntP1-dependent ectopic Erm expression in type II NBs. Knockdown of Erm significantly rescues the loss-of-Notch phenotypes, and misexpression of Erm phenocopies the loss of Notch. Ectopically expressed Erm promotes the transformation of type II NBs into type I NBs by inhibiting PntP1 function and expression in type II NBs. Our work not only elucidates a key mechanism of Notch-mediated maintenance of type II NB self-renewal and identity, but also reveals a novel function of Erm. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Biomechanical risk factors for tripping during obstacle--Crossing with the trailing limb in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ming-Wei; Lu, Tung-Wu

    2016-03-01

    People with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) are at a high risk of falling especially during more challenging locomotor tasks such as obstacle-crossing. The current study aimed to identify the risk factors for tripping in these patients during trailing-limb obstacle-crossing. Fourteen patients with type II DM with or without mild peripheral neuropathy (PN) and 14 healthy controls walked and crossed obstacles of three different heights while their motion data were measured using a motion capture system and two forceplates. The DM group was found to cross obstacles with significantly reduced trailing toe clearance (pII DM without or at an early stage of PN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography of Nucleobases, Nucleosides and Nucleotides : II. Mobile Phase Composition for the Separation of Charged Solutes by Ion-Exchange Chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1981-01-01

    The polarity, pH, ion concentration and polarity of the buffer ions of the mobile phase were modified systematically in order to find optimal conditions for the separation of nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides by ion-exchange chromatography. The effects of these mobile phase parameters on the

  1. Hydraulic Validation of the LHC Cold Mass Heat Exchanger Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Provenaz, P

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge of the helium mass flow vs. the fraction of the tube wetted by the liquid helium II in the heat exchanger is a crucial input parameter for the heat exchange since the heat flux is direct ly proportional to the wetted surface. In the range of liquid and gas velocities inside the heat exchanger, the liquid flow behaves like in an open channel. Looking at the flow equations for such a s ituation, the velocity depends on the fluid properties only by the friction factor which is a function of the Reynolds number. Thus it was decided to build an experiment with water in order to check t he open channel equations in the heat exchanger geometry. This paper shows the results for water and gives the extrapolation for helium.

  2. Neighborhood History as a Factor Shaping Syringe Distribution Networks Among Drug Users at a U.S. Syringe Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braine, Naomi; Acker, Caroline; Goldblatt, Cullen; Yi, Huso; Friedman, Samuel; Desjarlais, Don C

    2008-07-01

    Throughout the US, high-visibility drug markets are concentrated in neighborhoods with few economic opportunities, while drug buyers/users are widely dispersed. A study of Pittsburgh Syringe Exchange participants provides data on travel between and network linkages across neighborhoods with different levels of drug activity. There are distinct racial patterns to syringe distribution activity within networks and across neighborhoods. Pittsburgh's history suggests these patterns emerge from historical patterns of social and economic development. Study data demonstrate the ability of IDUs to form long term social ties across racial and geographic boundaries and use them to reduce the risk of HIV transmission.

  3. The guanine exchange factor Gartenzwerg and the small GTPase Arl1 function in the same pathway with Arfaptin during synapse growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Chang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The generation of neuronal morphology requires transport vesicles originating from the Golgi apparatus (GA to deliver specialized components to the axon and dendrites. Drosophila Arfaptin is a membrane-binding protein localized to the GA that is required for the growth of the presynaptic nerve terminal. Here we provide biochemical, cellular and genetic evidence that the small GTPase Arl1 and the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF Gartenzwerg are required for Arfaptin function at the Golgi during synapse growth. Our data define a new signaling pathway composed of Arfaptin, Arl1, and Garz, required for the generation of normal synapse morphology.

  4. Tritium Labeled Gentamicin C: II.- Bioradiactive Degradation Products of Gentamicin by Catalytic H2O-3H Exchange Reaction; Getamicina C Tritiada: II.- Productos de Degradacion Radiactivos y Bioactivos en el Intercambio Catalitico con H2O-3H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C.; Diaz, A.; Paz, D.; Jimeno, M. L.

    1992-07-01

    The main bio radioactive degradation products from catalytic hydrogen exchange of gentamicin C, (C1 + C2 + Cla) in basic form, are generated by N-demethylation in 3{sup -}N and 6-N positions. Their structures were confirmed by 1HNMR and 13CNMR. These derivatives were fractionated by chromatography on silica gel. Antibacterial activities were similar to those of the parent antibiotics. Tritium exchange, under vacuum or nitrogen, is highly increased (4:1) when gentamicin are in basic form. In contrast with gentamicin sulfate, hydrolytic sub products as gramine, genta mines, garosamine and purpurosamines are practically absent. To properly optimize the exchange process, the composition of the gentamicin C complex must be taken into account. The exchange decreases in the order C2 > C1> Cla. Because of 6'-N-demethyl gentamicin C1 is C2, the radiochemical yield of C2 appears enhanced in the H2O-3H exchange of a mixture of them. Radioactivity distribution among the components and subunits of these three gentamicin were studied by strong and mild hydrolysis, and by methanolysis. (Author) 18 refs.

  5. Determination of Labile Fe(II) Species Complexed with Seawater Extractable Organic Matter Under Seawater Conditions Based on the Kinetics of Ligand-exchange Reactions with Ferrozine

    OpenAIRE

    Iwai, Hisanori; Fukushima, Masami; Yamamoto, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    A fertilizer, comprised of a mixture of steel slag and compost, was used to restore seaweed beds in barren coastal areas. Complex Fe(I) species, supplied by steel slag, play a significant role in supplying Fe(II) to coastal areas and stimulating seaweed growth. Seawater extractable organic matter (SWEOM) from compost is generally assumed to serve as a chelator of Fe(II) in the fertilizer. It is considered that the bioavailability of Fe(II)-SWEOM complexes is higher in the dissociable (labile)...

  6. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not associated with improved survival for all high-risk factors in stage II colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeff, S R; van Erning, F N; Lemmens, V E P P; de Wilt, J H W; Pruijt, J F M

    2016-07-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy can be considered in high-risk stage II colon cancer comprising pT4, poor/undifferentiated grade, vascular invasion, emergency surgery and/or chemotherapy administration and its effect on survival was evaluated for each known risk factor. All patients with high-risk stage II colon cancer who underwent resection and were diagnosed in the Netherlands between 2008 and 2012 were included. After stratification by risk factor(s) (vascular invasion could not be included), Cox regression was used to discriminate the independent association of adjuvant chemotherapy with the probability of death. Relative survival was used to estimate disease-specific survival. A total of 4,940 of 10,935 patients with stage II colon cancer were identified as high risk, of whom 790 (16%) patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with a pT4 received adjuvant chemotherapy more often (37%). Probability of death in pT4 patients receiving chemotherapy was lower compared to non-recipients (3-year overall survival 91% vs. 73%, HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.28-0.66). The relative excess risk (RER) of dying was also lower for pT4 patients receiving chemotherapy compared to non-recipients (3-year relative survival 94% vs. 85%, RER 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.74). For patients with only poor/undifferentiated grade, emergency surgery or chemotherapy and survival was observed. In high-risk stage II colon cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with higher survival in pT4 only. To prevent unnecessary chemotherapy-induced toxicity, further refinement of patient subgroups within stage II colon cancer who could benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy seems indicated. © 2016 UICC.

  7. Relationships Between RNA Polymerase II Activity and Spt Elongation Factors to Spt- Phenotype and Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Cui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between adjacent transcription units can result in transcription-dependent alterations in chromatin structure or recruitment of factors that determine transcription outcomes, including the generation of intragenic or other cryptic transcripts derived from cryptic promoters. Mutations in a number of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confer both cryptic intragenic transcription and the Suppressor of Ty (Spt- phenotype for the lys2-128∂ allele of the LYS2 gene. Mutants that suppress lys2-128∂ allow transcription from a normally inactive Ty1 ∂ promoter, conferring a LYS+ phenotype. The arrangement of transcription units at lys2-128∂ is reminiscent of genes containing cryptic promoters within their open reading frames. We set out to examine the relationship between RNA Polymerase II (Pol II activity, functions of Spt elongation factors, and cryptic transcription because of the previous observation that increased-activity Pol II alleles confer an Spt- phenotype. We identify both cooperating and antagonistic genetic interactions between Pol II alleles and alleles of elongation factors SPT4, SPT5, and SPT6. We find that cryptic transcription at FLO8 and STE11 is distinct from that at lys2-128∂, though all show sensitivity to reduction in Pol II activity, especially the expression of lys2-128∂ found in Spt- mutants. We determine that the lys2-128∂ Spt- phenotypes for spt6-1004 and increased activity rpo21/rpb1 alleles each require transcription from the LYS2 promoter. Furthermore, we identify the Ty1 transcription start site (TSS within the ∂ element as the position of Spt- transcription in tested Spt- mutants.

  8. Relationships Between RNA Polymerase II Activity and Spt Elongation Factors to Spt- Phenotype and Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ping; Jin, Huiyan; Vutukuru, Manjula Ramya; Kaplan, Craig D

    2016-08-09

    The interplay between adjacent transcription units can result in transcription-dependent alterations in chromatin structure or recruitment of factors that determine transcription outcomes, including the generation of intragenic or other cryptic transcripts derived from cryptic promoters. Mutations in a number of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confer both cryptic intragenic transcription and the Suppressor of Ty (Spt(-)) phenotype for the lys2-128∂ allele of the LYS2 gene. Mutants that suppress lys2-128∂ allow transcription from a normally inactive Ty1 ∂ promoter, conferring a LYS(+) phenotype. The arrangement of transcription units at lys2-128∂ is reminiscent of genes containing cryptic promoters within their open reading frames. We set out to examine the relationship between RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) activity, functions of Spt elongation factors, and cryptic transcription because of the previous observation that increased-activity Pol II alleles confer an Spt(-) phenotype. We identify both cooperating and antagonistic genetic interactions between Pol II alleles and alleles of elongation factors SPT4, SPT5, and SPT6 We find that cryptic transcription at FLO8 and STE11 is distinct from that at lys2-128∂, though all show sensitivity to reduction in Pol II activity, especially the expression of lys2-128∂ found in Spt(-) mutants. We determine that the lys2-128∂ Spt(-) phenotypes for spt6-1004 and increased activity rpo21/rpb1 alleles each require transcription from the LYS2 promoter. Furthermore, we identify the Ty1 transcription start site (TSS) within the ∂ element as the position of Spt(-) transcription in tested Spt(-) mutants. Copyright © 2016 Cui et al.

  9. The insulin-like growth factors I and II stimulate proliferation of different types of Schwann cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondell, M; Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Kanje, M

    1997-01-01

    A combination of immunocytochemistry for glial specific antigens and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and teasing was used to identify proliferating cells in cultured rat sciatic nerve segments. The nerve segments were exposed to insulin, or the insulin-like growth factors IGF-I and IGF-II. Teasing in co......, truncated IGF-I promoted proliferation of Schwann cells of myelinated nerve fibres while insulin increased proliferation of both cell types....

  10. SDHAF1, encoding a LYR complex-II specific assembly factor, is mutated in SDH-defective infantile leukoencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, Daniele; Goffrini, Paola; Uziel, Graziella; Horvath, Rita; Klopstock, Thomas; Lochmüller, Hanns; D'Adamo, Pio; Gasparini, Paolo; Strom, Tim M; Prokisch, Holger; Invernizzi, Federica; Ferrero, Ileana; Zeviani, Massimo

    2009-06-01

    We report mutations in SDHAF1, encoding a new LYR-motif protein, in infantile leukoencephalopathy with defective succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, complex II). Disruption of the yeast homolog or expression of variants corresponding to human mutants caused SDH deficiency and failure of OXPHOS-dependent growth, whereas SDH activity and amount were restored in mutant fibroblasts proportionally with re-expression of the wild-type gene. SDHAF1 is the first bona fide SDH assembly factor reported in any organism.

  11. Ni (II) adsorption onto Chrysanthemum indicum: Influencing factors, isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilvanathan, Sowmya; Shanthakumar, S

    2016-10-02

    The study explores the adsorption potential of Chrysanthemum indicum biomass for nickel ion removal from aqueous solution. C. indicum flowers in raw (CIF-I) and biochar (CIF-II) forms were used as adsorbents in this study. Batch experiments were conducted to ascertain the optimum conditions of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature for varying initial Ni(II) ion concentrations. Surface area, surface morphology, and functionality of the adsorbents were characterized by Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Adsorption kinetics were modeled using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion, Bangham's, and Boyd's plot. The equilibrium data were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Experimental data provided the best fit to pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model for the adsorption of Ni(II) ion on both CIF-I and CIF-II with maximum adsorption capacities of 23.97 and 44.02 mg g(-1), respectively. Thermodynamic analysis of the data proved the process to be spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Desorption studies were conducted to evaluate the possibility of reusing the adsorbents. Findings of the present study provide substantial evidence for the use of C. indicum flower as an eco-friendly and potential adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution.

  12. Urotensin-II: a novel systemic hypertensive factor in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, David J; Doe, Christopher P A; Johns, Douglas G; Maniscalco, Kristeen; Stankus, Gerald P; Wibberley, Alexandra; Willette, Robert N; Douglas, Stephen A

    2004-03-01

    Urotensin-II, a potent mammalian vasoconstrictor, may play a role in the etiology of essential hypertension. However, a species suitable for assessing such a role, one where a "classical" systemic hypertensive response (increase in mean blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance) is observed following bolus i.v. urotensin-II administration, has yet to be identified. The present study demonstrates that the cat may represent such a species since urotensin-II potently (pEC(50)s 9.68+/-0.24-8.73+/-0.08) and efficaciously (E(max) 73+/-15%-205+/-21% KCl) constricts all feline isolated arteries studied (aortae, renal, femoral, carotid, and mesenteric conduit/resistance). Accordingly, exogenous urotensin-II (1 nmol/kg, i.v.) effectively doubles both mean blood pressure (from 99+/-14 to 183+/-15 mmHg) and systemic vascular resistance (from 0.36+/-0.12 to 0.86+/-0.20 mmHg/ml/min) in the anaesthetized cat (without altering heart rate or stroke volume). Thus, in view of these profound contractile effects, the cat could be suitable for determining the effects of urotensin-II receptor antagonism on cardiovascular homeostasis in both normal and diseased states.

  13. Cu(II), Fe(III) and Mn(II) combinations as environmental stress factors have distinguishing effects on Enterococcus hirae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanyan, Zaruhi; Trchounian, Armen

    2015-02-01

    Pollution by various heavy metals as environmental stress factors might affect bacteria. It was established that iron (Fe(III)), manganese (Mn(II)) and copper (Cu(II)) ion combinations caused effects on Enterococcus hirae that differed from the sum of the effects when the metals were added separately. It was shown that the Cu2+-Fe3+ combination decreased the growth and ATPase activity of membrane vesicles of wild-type E. hirae ATCC9790 and atpD mutant (with defective FoF1-ATPase) MS116. Addition of Mn2+-Fe3+ combinations within the same concentration range had no effects on growth compared to control (without heavy metals). ATPase activity was increased in the presence of Mn2+-Fe3+, while together with 0.2 mmol/L N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), ATPase activity was decreased compared to control (when only 0.2 mmol/L DCCD was present). These results indicate that heavy metals ion combinations probably affect the FOF1-ATPase, leading to conformational changes. Moreover the action may be direct or be mediated by environment redox potential. The effects observed when Fe3+ was added separately disappeared in both cases, which might be a result of competing processes between Fe3+ and other heavy metals. These findings are novel and improve the understanding of heavy metals ions effects on bacteria, and could be applied for regulation of stress response patterns in the environment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Factors Affecting the Return Stock Company in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX LQ45 in Years 2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangki A. Sorongan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the effect of partially and jointly independent variable of Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Return on Equity (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Net Profit Margin (NPM against the dependent variable on the stock return. Objects of this research were companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI LQ45 continuously for four years in the period 2012-2015. Companies that qualify for this research were 28 companies. Based on this research, the conclusions indicate that all four independent variables; Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Return on Equity (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Net Profit Margin (NPM, either jointly or partially give the significant effect on return stock.

  15. 3D-CFD simulation and neural network model for the j and f factors of the wavy fin-and-flat tube heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khoshvaght Aliabadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A three dimensional (3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation and a neural network model are presented to estimate the behaviors of the Colburn factor (j and the Fanning friction factor (f for wavy fin - and - flat tube (WFFT heat exchangers. Effects of the five geometrical factors of fin pitch, fin height, fin length, fin thickness, and wavy amplitude are investigated over a wide range of Reynolds number (600factors as a function of Reynolds number. The computational results have an adequate accuracy when compared to experimental data. The accuracy of the calculations of the j and f factors are evaluated by the values of the absolute average relative deviation (AARD, being respectively 3.8% and 8.2% for the CFD simulation and 1.3% and 1% for the neural network model. Finally, new correlations are proposed to estimate the values of the j and f factors with 3.22% and 3.68% AARD respectively.

  16. Resistivity Correction Factor for the Four-Probe Method: Experiment II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masato; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Nishii, Toshifumi; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Enjoji, Hideo

    1989-05-01

    Experimental verification of the theoretically derived resistivity correction factor F is presented. Factor F can be applied to a system consisting of a disk sample and a four-probe array. Measurements are made on isotropic graphite disks and crystalline ITO films. Factor F can correct the apparent variations of the data and lead to reasonable resistivities and sheet resistances. Here factor F is compared to other correction factors; i.e. FASTM and FJIS.

  17. Arabidopsis class I and class II TCP transcription factors regulate jasmonic acid metabolism and leaf development antagonistically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin; van der Wal, Froukje; Dhondt, Stijn; Waites, Richard; de Folter, Stefan; Bimbo, Andrea; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Muino, Jose M; Cutri, Lucas; Dornelas, Marcelo C; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2012-08-01

    TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors control developmental processes in plants. The 24 TCP transcription factors encoded in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome are divided into two classes, class I and class II TCPs, which are proposed to act antagonistically. We performed a detailed phenotypic analysis of the class I tcp20 mutant, showing an increase in leaf pavement cell sizes in 10-d-old seedlings. Subsequently, a glucocorticoid receptor induction assay was performed, aiming to identify potential target genes of the TCP20 protein during leaf development. The LIPOXYGENASE2 (LOX2) and class I TCP9 genes were identified as TCP20 targets, and binding of TCP20 to their regulatory sequences could be confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. LOX2 encodes for a jasmonate biosynthesis gene, which is also targeted by class II TCP proteins that are under the control of the microRNA JAGGED AND WAVY (JAW), although in an antagonistic manner. Mutation of TCP9, the second identified TCP20 target, resulted in increased pavement cell sizes during early leaf developmental stages. Analysis of senescence in the single tcp9 and tcp20 mutants and the tcp9tcp20 double mutants showed an earlier onset of this process in comparison with wild-type control plants in the double mutant only. Both the cell size and senescence phenotypes are opposite to the known class II TCP mutant phenotype in JAW plants. Altogether, these results point to an antagonistic function of class I and class II TCP proteins in the control of leaf development via the jasmonate signaling pathway.

  18. High plasma insulin-like growth factor-II and low lipid content in transgenic mice: measurements of lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, T H; Williamson, D H; Ward, A; Bates, P; Fisher, R; Richardson, L; Hill, D J; Robinson, I C; Graham, C F

    1994-12-01

    Transgenic mice were made by introducing extra copies of the mouse insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) gene driven by the bovine keratin 10 promoter (BKVI). The adult plasma IGF-II levels were elevated at least three times in one line. In this line, there was a lower lipid content of both brown and white adipose depots at 2-4 months of age, and 40% less fat in the carcass at 7-9 months. The low lipid phenotype was not detected in the carcass at 2 weeks after birth. The lean characteristic was attributed to circulating IGF-II because the transgene was not expressed in fat. At 2-4 months of age, the transgenes oxidized more oral lipid, and less of this lipid was incorporated into the whole body and the epididymal fat. In contrast, the interscapular brown adipose tissue maintained lipid incorporation and lipoprotein lipase activity despite its reduced size. The altered activity of the brown adipose tissue may account for the gradual onset and persistence of the lean feature of the transgenic mice. There were no substantial changes in lipogenesis which could account for the low fat content. The plasma levels of IGF-I, insulin, glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids, triacylglycerols and glucose were not greatly changed and the pituitary GH content was within the normal range.

  19. DJ-1 Modulates Nuclear Erythroid 2–Related Factor-2–Mediated Protection in Human Primary Alveolar Type II Cells in Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmed, Karim; Messier, Elise M.; Zhou, Wenbo; Tuder, Rubin M.; Freed, Curt R.; Chu, Hong Wei; Kelsen, Steven G.; Bowler, Russell P.; Mason, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a main source of oxidative stress and a key risk factor for emphysema, which consists of alveolar wall destruction. Alveolar type (AT) II cells are in the gas exchange regions of the lung. We isolated primary ATII cells from deidentified organ donors whose lungs were not suitable for transplantation. We analyzed the cell injury obtained from nonsmokers, moderate smokers, and heavy smokers. DJ-1 protects cells from oxidative stress and induces nuclear erythroid 2–related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression, which activates the antioxidant defense system. In ATII cells isolated from moderate smokers, we found DJ-1 expression by RT-PCR, and Nrf2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 translocation by Western blotting and immunocytofluorescence. In ATII cells isolated from heavy smokers, we detected Nrf2 and HO-1 cytoplasmic localization. Moreover, we found high oxidative stress, as detected by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) (immunoblotting), inflammation by IL-8 and IL-6 levels by ELISA, and apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay in ATII cells obtained from heavy smokers. Furthermore, we detected early DJ-1 and late Nrf2 expression after ATII cell treatment with CS extract. We also overexpressed DJ-1 by adenovirus construct and found that this restored Nrf2 and HO-1 expression and induced nuclear translocation in heavy smokers. Moreover, DJ-1 overexpression also decreased ATII cell apoptosis caused by CS extract in vitro. Our results indicate that DJ-1 activates the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense system. Furthermore, DJ-1 overexpression can restore the impaired Nrf2 pathway, leading to ATII cell protection in heavy smokers. This suggests a potential therapeutic strategy for targeting DJ-1 in CS-related lung diseases. PMID:27093578

  20. MYH11 mutations result in a distinct vascular pathology driven by insulin-like growth factor 1 and angiotensin II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Tran-Fadulu, Van; Papke, Christina L.; Scherer, Steve; Liu, Yaozhong; Presley, Caroline; Guo, Dongchuan; Estrera, Anthony L.; Safi, Hazim J.; Brasier, Allan R.; Vick, G. Wesley; Marian, A.J.; Raman, C.S.; Buja, L. Maximilian; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2010-01-01

    Non-syndromic thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAADs) are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner in ~20% of cases. Familial TAAD is genetically heterogeneous and four loci have been mapped for this disease to date, including a locus at 16p for TAAD associated with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The defective gene at the 16p locus has recently been identified as the smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific myosin heavy chain gene (MYH11). On sequencing MYH11 in 93 families with TAAD alone and three families with TAAD/PDA, we identified novel mutations in two families with TAAD/PDA, but none in families with TAAD alone. Histopathological analysis of aortic sections from two individuals with MYH11 mutations revealed SMC disarray and focal hyperplasia of SMCs in the aortic media. SMC hyperplasia leading to significant lumen narrowing in some of the vessels of the adventitia was also observed. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was upregulated in mutant aortas as well as explanted SMCs, but no increase in transforming growth factor-β expression or downstream targets was observed. Enhanced expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme and markers of Angiotensin II (Ang II) vascular inflammation (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α and β) were also found. These data suggest that MYH11 mutations are likely to be specific to the phenotype of TAAD/PDA and result in a distinct aortic and occlusive vascular pathology potentially driven by IGF-1 and Ang II. PMID:17666408

  1. Phylogeny of Cas9 determines functional exchangeability of dual-RNA and Cas9 among orthologous type II CRISPR-Cas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonfara, Ines; Le Rhun, Anaïs; Chylinski, Krzysztof; Makarova, Kira S.; Lécrivain, Anne-Laure; Bzdrenga, Janek; Koonin, Eugene V.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas-derived RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease is the key element of an emerging promising technology for genome engineering in a broad range of cells and organisms. The DNA-targeting mechanism of the type II CRISPR-Cas system involves maturation of tracrRNA:crRNA duplex (dual-RNA), which directs Cas9 to cleave invading DNA in a sequence-specific manner, dependent on the presence of a Protospacer Adjacent Motif (PAM) on the target. We show that evolution of dual-RNA and Cas9 in bacteria produced remarkable sequence diversity. We selected eight representatives of phylogenetically defined type II CRISPR-Cas groups to analyze possible coevolution of Cas9 and dual-RNA. We demonstrate that these two components are interchangeable only between closely related type II systems when the PAM sequence is adjusted to the investigated Cas9 protein. Comparison of the taxonomy of bacterial species that harbor type II CRISPR-Cas systems with the Cas9 phylogeny corroborates horizontal transfer of the CRISPR-Cas loci. The reported collection of dual-RNA:Cas9 with associated PAMs expands the possibilities for multiplex genome editing and could provide means to improve the specificity of the RNA-programmable Cas9 tool. PMID:24270795

  2. [Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis--selected cytokines, growth factors and proteins. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkowska, Agnieszka; Paczek, Leszek

    2011-01-01

    Fibrosis is characterized by balance disorders between syntesis and degradation ECM (Extracellular Matrix) by myofibroblasts. Activated by inflammation factor HSC cells transform in myofibroblasts. This changes are caused and assisted by number of mediators: cytokines, growth factors, kinases. All this stimulus we call fibrosis factors. This paper compose second part of object-article: Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis - causes.

  3. Exchange of Sex for Drugs or Money in Adolescents and Young Adults: An Examination of Sociodemographic Factors, HIV-Related Risk, and Community Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Cherrie B; Greenberg, Lauren; Chutuape, Kate; Walker, Bendu; Monte, Dina; Kirk, Jennifer; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this research was to examine associations among sociodemographic factors, HIV risk, and community context (e.g., economic insecurity, job training, housing instability, crime victimization, and perceived community norms) in adolescents and young adults who ever exchanged sex for drugs or money. Anonymous survey data were collected using ACASIs at community venues where adolescents and young adults congregate in resource-challenged, STI prevalent, urban, US neighborhoods. Conventional descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact tests, and generalized estimating equations approaches were used to examine associations. Participants (1818, 95.5 % of those screened eligible) were, on average, aged 21.0 years; 42.2 % were males, and 4.6 % were transgender. Almost one-third (32.1 %) identified as gay or lesbian, 18.1 % identified as bisexual; 66.2 % were Black and 21.0 % were Hispanic; 1.3 % was 'living on the street'. A sizeable proportion reported HIV-related risk: 16.3 % exchanged sex, 12.6 % had sex with someone they knew to be HIV-infected, 7.8 % had sex with someone who injected drugs, and 1.3 % injected drugs. Multivariate comparisons identified a number of variables (e.g., being male or transgender, homelessness, sex with a partner who has HIV, STI history, unemployment, job training access, housing instability, crime victimization, perceived community norms) that were significantly associated with exchange of sex (p development of effective evidence-based prevention strategies.

  4. Growing season length as a key factor of cumulative net ecosystem exchange over the pine forest ecosystems in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielewska, A.; Urbaniak, M.; Olejnik, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2015), s. 129-135 ISSN 0236-8722 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : forest * carbon dioxide * eddy covariance * growing season length Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.067, year: 2015

  5. Mercury bioaccumulation and bioaccumulation factors for Everglades mosquitofish as related to sulfate: a re-analysis of Julian II (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollman, Curtis D; Axelrad, Donald M

    2014-11-01

    The Everglades, an ecosystem of international significance, has elevated biota mercury levels representing risk to human and wildlife consumers of fish. Given the critical role of sulfate in the methylation of mercury, and because there is a significant agricultural contribution, one potential means of reducing these mercury levels is reducing Everglades sulfate inputs. Julian II (Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 90:329-332, 2013) conducted regression modeling of the relationship between surface water sulfate concentrations and Gambusia spp. mercury bioconcentration factors across the major hydrologic subunits of the Everglades, and used those results to draw conclusions about the role of sulfate in the cycling of mercury in the Everglades. We however demonstrate a number of fundamental problems with the analysis, interpretation and conclusions. As a result, we strongly caution against using the results of Julian II (Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 90:329-332, 2013) to formulate management decisions regarding mitigation of the Everglades mercury problem.

  6. Comprehensive investigation of the corrosion state of the heat exchanger tubes of steam generators. Part II. Chemical composition and structure of tube surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homonnay, Z. [Department of Nuclear Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Eoetvoes University, H-1518 Budapest, P.O. Box 32 (Hungary)]. E-mail: homonnay@ludens.elte.hu; Kuzmann, E. [Research Group for Nuclear Methods in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Varga, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, H-8201 Veszprem, PO Box: 158 (Hungary)]. E-mail: vargakl@almos.vein.hu; Nemeth, Z. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, H-8201 Veszprem, PO Box: 158 (Hungary); Szabo, A. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, H-8201 Veszprem, PO Box: 158 (Hungary); Rado, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, H-8201 Veszprem, PO Box: 158 (Hungary); Mako, K.E. [Department of Silicate and Materials Engineering, University of Veszprem, Veszprem (Hungary); Koever, L. [Section of Electron Spectroscopy, Institute of Nuclear Research, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Cserny, I. [Section of Electron Spectroscopy, Institute of Nuclear Research, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Varga, D. [Section of Electron Spectroscopy, Institute of Nuclear Research, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Toth, J. [Section of Electron Spectroscopy, Institute of Nuclear Research, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Schunk, J. [Paks NPP, Paks (Hungary); Tilky, P. [Paks NPP, Paks (Hungary); Patek, G. [Paks NPP, Paks (Hungary)

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of a project dealing with the comprehensive study of the corrosion state of the steam generators of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary, surface properties (chemical and phase compositions) of the heat exchanger tubes supplied by the power plant were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) methods. The work presented in this series provides evidence that chemical decontamination of the steam generators by the AP-CITROX technology does exert a detrimental effect on the chemical composition and structure of the protective oxide film grown-on the inner surfaces of heat exchanger piping. As an undesired consequence of the decontamination technology, a 'hybrid' structure of the amorphous and crystalline phases is formed in the outermost surface region (within a range of 11 {mu}m). The constituents of this 'hybrid' structure exhibit great mobility into the primary coolant under normal operation of the VVER type reactor.

  7. Biosynthesis of 10 kDa and 7.5 kDa insulin-like growth factor II in a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F C; Haselbacher, G; Christiansen, Jan

    1993-01-01

    In the present study we have analysed the expression of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) in the human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line IN157.IN157 cells express high levels of three IGF-II mRNAs of 6.0 kb, 4.8 kb and 4.2 kb. In contrast, normal skeletal muscle expresses a negligible amount of IGF...... produce IGF binding protein-2. The bioactivity of recombinant IGF-IIE21 was compared with human IGF-I and IGF-II. IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-IIE21 bound with high affinity to human IGF-I receptors (Kd approximately 1 nM), whereas the human IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate (IGF-II/Man 6-P) receptor bound IGF...

  8. Individual and work related factors associated with symptoms of musculoskeletal complaints. II. Different risk factors among sewing machine operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgaard, R H; Jansen, T

    1992-03-01

    Individual and work related risk factors in the development of occupational musculoskeletal complaints were studied in a group of 210 female production workers, mainly sewing machine operators. Another group of 35 female employees performing secretarial or laboratory duties were also included. The production workers had significantly higher symptom scores with respect to self reported musculoskeletal complaints than the group with more varied work tasks for the head, neck, shoulders, and arms, but not for the low back, hips, and the lower extremities. No significant differences were found in symptom level between geographically separate groups of production workers with similar work tasks. The main individual risk factor identified in this study was the experience of previous, similar symptoms in the same body region, but this factor only accounted for 2-3% of total variance in symptom score for the neck and shoulders. Other individual factors of importance for symptoms in the neck and shoulders were "signs of psychological problems" and "tendency of muscle tension," but these only account for about 1% of total variance in symptom score. Symptoms in the head and low back showed complex relations with individual parameters.

  9. The same ELA class II risk factors confer equine insect bite hypersensitivity in two distinct populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lisa S; Swinburne, June E; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Broström, Hans; Eriksson, Susanne; Fikse, W Freddy; Frey, Rebecka; Sundquist, Marie; Tseng, Chia T; Mikko, Sofia; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a chronic allergic dermatitis common in horses. Affected horses mainly react against antigens present in the saliva from the biting midges, Culicoides ssp, and occasionally black flies, Simulium ssp. Because of this insect dependency, the disease is clearly seasonal and prevalence varies between geographical locations. For two distinct horse breeds, we genotyped four microsatellite markers positioned within the MHC class II region and sequenced the highly polymorphic exons two from DRA and DRB3, respectively. Initially, 94 IBH-affected and 93 unaffected Swedish born Icelandic horses were tested for genetic association. These horses had previously been genotyped on the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip, which made it possible to ensure that our study did not suffer from the effects of stratification. The second population consisted of 106 unaffected and 80 IBH-affected Exmoor ponies. We show that variants in the MHC class II region are associated with disease susceptibility (p (raw) = 2.34 × 10(-5)), with the same allele (COR112:274) associated in two separate populations. In addition, we combined microsatellite and sequencing data in order to investigate the pattern of homozygosity and show that homozygosity across the entire MHC class II region is associated with a higher risk of developing IBH (p = 0.0013). To our knowledge this is the first time in any atopic dermatitis suffering species, including man, where the same risk allele has been identified in two distinct populations.

  10. World Health Organization Grade II Meningioma: A 10-Year Retrospective Study for Recurrence and Prognostic Factor Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeaux, Charles; Dunn, Laurence

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed the characteristics of patients with World Health Organization (WHO) Grade II meningioma to identify factors that may influence recurrence. Between January 2000 and August 2015, 178 cases of WHO Grade II meningioma were operated at our institution. This population underwent a total of 224 surgical resections, and 36 patients received radiotherapy. Median follow-up was 3.6 years, and interquartile range was 1.5-6.2. A total of 28 patients (16.1%) were re operated for a relapse of their Grade II meningioma. The median time between the first and the second surgery was 4.2 years [interquartile range 1.4-5.3]. Surgical recurrence-free survival at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years were: 96.9% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 94.2-99.6; 91.7%, 95% CI 87.3-96.3; 85%, 95% CI 78.6-92; and 70.8%, 95% CI 60.1-83.5), respectively. At the end of the study, 93 patients (57.8%) had no residual tumor on the last scan. Age at diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.17, 95% CI 0.05-0.56, P < 0.001), extent of resection (HR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.64, P = 0.01), and Ki-67 index (HR 0.18, 95% CI 0.06-0.56, P < 0.001) were independent factors associated with the surgical recurrence-free survival. Younger patients with a lower proliferation rate and gross total resection are less likely to undergo a reintervention for WHO Grade II meningioma recurrence. Observation rather than systematic adjuvant radiotherapy may be preferred. If possible, a redo surgery may be considered in case of relapse or tumor residual progression, because radiotherapy may not decrease the surgical recurrence-free survival after complete or incomplete resection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. One-step refolding and purification of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α (rhTNF-α) using ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ren, Wenxuan; Gao, Dong; Wang, Lili; Yang, Ying; Bai, Quan

    2015-02-01

    Protein refolding is a key step for the production of recombinant proteins, especially at large scales, and usually their yields are very low. Chromatographic-based protein refolding techniques have proven to be superior to conventional dilution refolding methods. High refolding yield can be achieved using these methods compared with dilution refolding of proteins. In this work, recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α (rhTNF-α) from inclusion bodies expressed in Escherichia coli was renatured with simultaneous purification by ion exchange chromatography with a DEAE Sepharose FF column. Several chromatographic parameters influencing the refolding yield of the denatured/reduced rhTNF-α, such as the urea concentration, pH value and concentration ratio of glutathione/oxidized glutathione in the mobile phase, were investigated in detail. Under optimal conditions, rhTNF-α can be renatured and purified simultaneously within 30 min by one step. Specific bioactivity of 2.18 × 10(8) IU/mg, purity of 95.2% and mass recovery of 76.8% of refolded rhTNF-α were achieved. Compared with the usual dilution method, the ion exchange chromatography method developed here is simple and more effective for rhTNF-α refolding in terms of specific bioactivity and mass recovery. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The auto-inhibitory state of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF5/TIM can be relieved by targeting its SH3 domain with rationally designed peptide aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Tan, De-Li; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lv, Feng-Lin; Wu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    The short isoform of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF5 is known as TIM, which plays diverse roles in, for example, tumorigenesis, neuronal development and Src-induced podosome formation through the activation of its substrates, the Rho family of GTPases. The activation is auto-inhibited by a putative helix N-terminal to the DH domain of TIM, which is stabilized by the intramolecular interaction of C-terminal SH3 domain with a poly-proline sequence between the putative helix and the DH domain. In this study, we systematically investigated the structural basis, energetic landscape and biological implication underlying TIM auto-inhibition by using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy analysis. The computational study revealed that the binding of SH3 domain to poly-proline sequence is the prerequisite for the stabilization of TIM auto-inhibition. Thus, it is suggested that targeting SH3 domain with competitors of the poly-proline sequence would be a promising strategy to relieve the auto-inhibitory state of TIM. In this consideration, we rationally designed a number of peptide aptamers for competitively inhibiting the SH3 domain based on modeled TIM structure and computationally generated data. Peptide binding test and guanine nucleotide exchange analysis solidified that these designed peptides can both bind to the SH3 domain potently and activate TIM-catalyzed RhoA exchange reaction effectively. Interestingly, a positive correlation between the peptide affinity and induced exchange activity was observed. In addition, separate mutation of three conserved residues Pro49, Pro52 and Lys54 - they are required for peptide recognition by SH3 domain -- in a designed peptide to Ala would completely abolish the capability of this peptide activating TIM. All these come together to suggest an intrinsic relationship between peptide binding to SH3 domain and the activation of TIM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de

  13. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  14. Decreased plasma levels of factor II + VII + X correlate with increased levels of soluble cytokine receptors in patients with malaria and meningococcal infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Hansen, M B; Rønn, A M

    1997-01-01

    thrombocytes were lowest in the Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients. There was no correlation between factors II + VII + X and thrombocytes, but plasma levels of coagulation factors II + VII + X were found to correlate inversely with levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and soluble tumour...... necrosis factor-I (sTNF-RI) in patients with malaria and meningococcal infections. Elevated sIL-2R and sTNF-RI levels and decreased coagulation factors reverted to normal within 3-5 days after initiation of therapy in P. falciparum patients followed consecutively. Estimation of coagulation factors may...

  15. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the association with cardiac morbidity and mortality after coronary revascularization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tully, Phillip J.; Winefield, Helen R.; Baker, Robert A.; Turnbull, Deborah A.; de Jonge, Peter

    This study examined the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) with Confirmatory Factor Analysis and followed up cardiac morbidity and mortality for a median of 4.9 years among 226 coronary artery bypass graft patients. Cardiac morbidity and mortality events (n = 65, 28.8%) were associated with

  16. Characterization of O-glycosylated precursors of insulin-like growth factor II by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jespersen, S.; Koedam, J.A.; Hoogerbrugge, C.M.; Tjaden, U.R.; Greef, J. van der; Brande, J.L. van den

    1996-01-01

    High molecular weight precursors of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) were isolated from Cohn fraction IV of human plasma by ultrafiltration, affinity chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Molecular weight determination by matrix-assisted laser

  17. Risk factors for Type II diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in a mexican-american population: Proyecto VER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sheila K; Munoz, Beatriz; Klein, Ronald; Broman, Aimee T; Sanchez, Rosario; Rodriguez, Jorge; Snyder, Robert

    2002-09-01

    Risk factors for type II diabetes and diabetic retinopathy were determined in a population-based study of Mexican-Americans. Proyecto VER (Vision, Evaluation, and Research) is a cross-sectional study in a random sample of the self-described Hispanic populations in Tucson and Nogales, Arizona, age 40 and older. Of 6,659 eligible subjects, 4,774 (72%) participated in the home questionnaire and clinic visit. Diabetes was defined as self-report of a physician diagnosis or hemoglobin A(1c) value of > or = 7.0%. Only type II diabetes was included. Diabetic retinopathy was assessed on stereo fundus photographs of all persons with diabetes. Questions were asked about demographic, personal, socioeconomic, and diabetes related variables. 1023 (21.4%) of the sample had type II diabetes, and 68% were in the low-income group (annual income less than $20,000). Diabetes was associated with Native-American ancestry, higher acculturation, low income, less education, and increasing body mass index after age and gender adjustment. Persons with previously undiscovered diabetes were more likely to have no regular source of care, no insurance, and currently smoke compared with persons with known diabetes. Only low income was related to proliferative retinopathy, once adjusted for other factors (odds ratio [OR] = 3.93, 95%, confidence limitations [CL] = 1.31-11.80). Several socioeconomic and other factors were associated with diabetes, but few were related to diabetic retinopathy. Persons in the low-income group appeared to be at greater risk of diabetes and the ocular complications of diabetes compared with those with more income. Further longitudinal studies in this population are needed to confirm the associations.

  18. USE OF STRONG ACID RESIN PUROLITE C100E FOR REMOVING PERMANENT HARDNESS OF WATER – FACTORS AFFECTING CATIONIC EXCHANGE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN BANDRABUR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper experimentally investigates the performance and capacity of Purolite C100E commercial resin recommended for water softening applications in the food industry. The practical ion exchange capacity and the softening process efficiency are studied in batch mode as a function of the sorption specific process factors. Optimum operation conditions were determined as initial pH 7.1, resin dose 8 g dry resin•L-1, temperature 25 oC, contact time of 360 min, and in those conditions the retention capacity for the Ca2+ ions is 17.18 mg•g-1 that corresponds to a removal efficiency equal to 85.7%.

  19. A 50-year-old Woman with Heart Failure with Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension as Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiyanti, Febrina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Incidence of and mortality from heart failure is increasing in incidence, prevalence and overall mortality. Hypertension and insulin resistance are important risk factors for the development of heart failure (HF). Case. A 50-year-old woman complains of increasing exertional dyspnoea for the last 1 week and now has dyspnoea at rest. She has a history of hypertension for the last 25 years and type II diabetes mellitus for the last 8 years. On examination her BP is 200/110 mmHg, hear...

  20. [Study of the Sociodemographic Factors and Risky Behaviours Associated with the Acquisition of Sexual Transmitted Infections by Foreign Exchange Students in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravata, Andreia; Castro, Rita; Borges-Costa, João

    2016-06-01

    Sexual transmitted infections are a main cause of morbidity, being a public health problem due to its reproductive complications, mostly observed in teenagers and young adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sociodemographic factors and risky behaviours associated with sexual transmitted infections acquisition and to assess personal awareness of risky behaviour and the knowledge about Chlamydia trachomatis infection between foreign exchange students in Portugal. The main instrument for data collection was a questionnaire, applied to foreign students in university exchange in Portugal, during the years 2012/2013, 2013/2014 e 2014/2015 Results: Three hundred and thirty eight (338) questionnaires were evaluated, being 58.3% female students, aged between 17 and 30 years old. Mean age for the beginning of the sexual activity was 17.5 years old and the mean number of lifetime sexual partners was 6.9. Concerning the answers given: 11.8% mentioned a sexual relationship with the same gender, 9.5% mentioned that they have never done oral sex and 29% assumed they had practiced anal sex; 82.1% mentioned alcohol/drugs consumption; 21% did not know that Sexual transmitted infections can be transmitted through oral sex and 42.3% did not recognize Chlamydia trachomatis as an Sexual transmitted infections agent. Although sexual transmitted infections can affect individuals of all ages, races and sexual orientation, various demographic, social and behavioral factors have revealed influence in their prevalence rates. Despite knowing about sexual transmitted infections, these students maintain sexual risky behaviours, mainly early age for starting sexual activity, multiple sexual partners and the absence of protection during sexual activities.

  1. Anion-exchange and anthracene-encapsulation within copper(II) and manganese(II)-triazole metal-organic confined space in a single crystal-to-single crystal transformation fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Yan; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Li-Jun; Yuan, Bin; Xu, Yao-Yao; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Cong-Ying; Wang, Dan; Yuan, Yue; Wang, Ying; Ding, Bin; Zhao, Xiao-Jun; Yue, Min Min

    2014-06-16

    A new multidentate ligand 1-(9-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)anthracen-10-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole (tatrz) was designed and synthesized. Using tatrz as a building block, three novel coordination frameworks, namely, {[Cu(tatrz)2(NO3)2]·(CH3OH)·4H2O}n (1), {[Cu(tatrz)2(H2O)2](BF4)2}n (2), and [Mn(tatrz)2(SCN)2(CH3OH)]·2H2O (3) can be isolated. Anion-exchange experiment indicates that NO3(-) anions in the two-dimensional (2D) copper framework of 1 can be completely exchanged by ClO4(-) in an irreversible single crystal-to-single crystal (SC-SC) transformation fashion, as evidenced by the anion-exchange products of {[Cu(tatrz)2(H2O)2](ClO4)2·4CH3OH} (1a). Further, if 1a was employed as a precursor in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), an isomorphic solvate of {[Cu(tatrz)2(DMF)2](ClO4)2·2H2O}n (1b) can be generated during the reversible dynamic transformation process. When 1 was immersed in CH3OH, a distinct 2D layer {[Cu(tatrz)2(NO3)2]·4.4CH3OH·0.6H2O}n (1c) was isolated. Interestingly, the solvent-exchange conversion is also invertible between 1 and 1c, which exhibits spongelike dynamic behavior with retention of crystalline integrity. If the 2-fold interpenetrating three-dimensional (3D) framework 2 is selected, it can be transformed into another 2-fold interpenetrating 3D framework {[Cu(tatrz)2(H2O)2](ClO4)2·5.56H2O}n (2a) in a reversible SC-SC transformation fashion. However, when the light yellow crystals of mononuclear complex 3 were exposed to trichloromethane containing aromatic organic anthracene (atan), through our careful observation, the crystals of 3 were dissolved and reassembled into dark brown crystals of 2D crystalline coordination framework {[Mn(tatrz)2(SCN)2]·(atan)}n (3a). X-ray diffraction revealed that in 3a, atan acting as an organic template was encapsulated in the confined space of the 2D grid. Luminescent measurements illustrate that 3a is the first report of multidimensional polymers based on triazole derivatives as luminescent probes of Mg(2+).

  2. Parathyroid hormone inhibition of Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger 3 transcription: Intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factor expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Elida Adalgisa; Bezerra, Camila Nogueira Alves, E-mail: camilab@icb.usp.br; Queiroz-Leite, Gabriella Duarte; Polidoro, Juliano Zequini; Rebouças, Nancy Amaral

    2015-06-12

    The main transport mechanism of reabsorption of sodium bicarbonate and fluid in the renal proximal tubules involves Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger 3 (NHE3), which is acutely and chronically downregulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Although PTH is known to exert an inhibitory effect on NHE3 expression and transcription, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that, in opossum kidney proximal tubule (OKP) cells, PTH-induced inhibition of Nhe3 gene promoter occurs even in the core promoter that controls expression of the reporter gene. We found that inhibition of the protein kinase A (PKA) and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways transformed PTH from an inhibitor of promoter activity into an activator of that same activity, as did point mutations in the EGR1, Sp1, and Sp3 binding consensus elements in the promoter. In nuclear extracts of PTH-treated OKP cells, we also observed increased expression of EGR1 mRNA and of some Sp3 isoforms. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed a supershift of the −61 to −42-bp probe with an anti-EGR1 antibody in PTH-treated cells, suggesting that EGR1 binding is relevant for the inhibitory activity of PTH. We conclude that PTH-induced inhibition of NHE3 transcription is related to higher EGR1 expression; to EGR1 binding to the proximal and core promoters; and to PKA and JAK/STAT pathway activation. This mechanism might be responsible, at least in part, for lower NHE3 expression and sodium reabsorption in renal proximal tubules in the presence of high PTH levels. - Highlights: • PTH regulation of Nhe3 promoter depends on EGR1 binding. • EGR1, PKA and JAK/STAT are involved in PTH inhibition of the Nhe3 promoter. • PTH alters expression of EGR1 and Sp3. • PTH inhibits the Nhe3 promoter by regulating PKA and JAK/STAT signaling.

  3. Factors affecting spatial and temporal variability in material exchange between the Southern Everglades wetlands and Florida Bay (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutula, Martha A.; Perez, Brian C.; Reyes, Enrique; Childers, Daniel L.; Davis, Steve; Day, John W.; Rudnick, David; Sklar, Fred

    2003-08-01

    Physical and biological processes controlling spatial and temporal variations in material concentration and exchange between the Southern Everglades wetlands and Florida Bay were studied for 2.5 years in three of the five major creek systems draining the watershed. Daily total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) fluxes were measured for 2 years in Taylor River, and ten 10-day intensive studies were conducted in this creek to estimate the seasonal flux of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), total organic carbon (TOC), and suspended matter. Four 10-day studies were conducted simultaneously in Taylor, McCormick, and Trout Creeks to study the spatial variation in concentration and flux. The annual fluxes of TOC, TN, and TP from the Southern Everglades were estimated from regression equations. The Southern Everglades watershed, a 460-km 2 area that includes Taylor Slough and the area south of the C-111 canal, exported 7.1 g C m -2, 0.46 g N m -2, and 0.007 g P m -2, annually. Everglades P flux is three to four orders of magnitude lower than published flux estimates from wetlands influenced by terrigenous sedimentary inputs. These low P flux values reflect both the inherently low P content of Everglades surface water and the efficiency of Everglades carbonate sediments and biota in conserving and recycling this limiting nutrient. The seasonal variation of freshwater input to the watershed was responsible for major temporal variations in N, P, and C export to Florida Bay; approximately 99% of the export occurred during the rainy season. Wind-driven forcing was most important during the later stages of the dry season when low freshwater head coincided with southerly winds, resulting in a net import of water and materials into the wetlands. We also observed an east to west decrease in TN:TP ratio from 212:1 to 127:1. Major spatial gradients in N:P ratios and nutrient concentration and flux among the creek were consistent with the westward decrease in

  4. Diabetes type II: a risk factor for depression-Parkinson-Alzheimer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Peter; Bartl, Jasmin; Laux, Gerd; Grünblatt, Edna

    2011-02-01

    There is ample evidence that impairments in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are of etiopathobiochemical importance in a subgroup of patients with "depression", causing hypercortisolaemia as major metabolic effect. Chronic hypercortisolaemia causes insulin resistance. Therefore, it is not surprising that epidemiological studies demonstrate an association of "depression" with diabetes type II and vice versa. Chronic stress and hypercortisolaemia are conditions, which have been suggested to be causal for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as brain insulin resistance is associated with β-Amyloid-accumulation and hyperphosphorylation of tau-protein. Depression is one of the significant symptomatology preceding AD. It is however, not known whether "depression" associated with hypercortisolaemia is the subgroup at risk for AD. In contrast to a subgroup of "depression" and to AD, in Parkinson's disease (PD) there is only weak evidence for an association with diabetes type II and insulin resistance. As "depression" is preceding PD in up to half of such patients, it remains to be elucidated whether this is a subgroup of depressed patients, which is not associated with disturbances of the HPA axis and hypercortisolaemia. Improved clinical and biochemical/molecular knowledge about "depression" associated with AD and PD in comparison to "pure" depression might lead to improved therapeutic strategies and even drug development focusing subtypes of "depression".

  5. Nitrous oxide exchanges with the atmosphere of a constructed wetland treating wastewater. Parameters and implications for emission factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, A.E.; Svenssom, B.H. [Linkoeing Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Water and Environmental Studies; Kasimir Klemedtsson, Aa. [Trollhaettan/Uddevalla Univ. College, Trollhaettan (Sweden). Dept. of Informatics and Mathematics; Klemedtsson, L. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Botanical Inst.

    2003-07-01

    Static chamber measurements of N{sub 2}O fluxes were taken during the 1998 and 1999 growth seasons in a Swedish constructed wetland receiving wastewater. The dominating plant species in different parts of the wetland were Lemna minor L., Typha latifolia L., Spirogyra sp. and Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) and Phalaris arundinacea (L.), respectively. There were large temporal and spatial variations in N{sub 2}O fluxes, which ranged from consumption at -350 to emissions at 1791 {mu}g N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2}/h. The largest positive flux occurred in October 1999 and the lowest in the middle of July 1999. The average N{sub 2}O flux for the two years was 130 {mu}g N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2}/h (SD = 220). No significant differences in N{sub 2}O fluxes were found between the years, even though the two growing seasons differed considerably with respect to both air temperature and precipitation. 15% of the fluxes were negative, showing a consumption of N{sub 2}O. Consumption occurred on a few occasions at most measurement sites and ranged from 1 - 350 {mu}g N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2}/h. 13 - 43% of the variation in N{sub 2}O fluxes was explained by multiple linear regression analysis including principal components. Emission factors were calculated according to IPCC methods from the N{sub 2}O fluxes in the constructed wetland. The calculated emission factors were always lower (0.02 - 0.27%) compared to the default factor provided by the IPCC (0.75%). Thus, direct application of the IPCC default factor may lead to overestimation of N{sub 2}O fluxes from constructed wastewater-treating wetlands.

  6. The Swedish back school in chronic low back pain. Part II. Factors predicting the outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurri, H

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the factors predicting the outcome of the Swedish back school and spontaneous recovery in chronic low back pain. The predicting variables describing the treatment group (n = 95) and the control group (n = 93) at the initiation of study included sociodemographic factors, variables related to work, severity of low back pain, and a number of clinical measurements and evaluations. The Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire was used for judging recovery factors. It was found that the best predictor for the outcome of the treatment and for spontaneous recovery was work satisfaction.

  7. Factors influencing soft tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhatcha Maetevorakul

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown soft tissue profile changes after orthodontic treatment in Class II Division 1 patients. However, a few studies have described factors influencing the soft tissue changes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the soft tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment in Class II Division 1 patients. Methods The subjects comprised 104 Thai patients age 8–16 years who presented Class II Division 1 malocclusions and were treated with different orthodontic modalities comprising cervical headgear, Class II traction and extraction of the four first premolars. The profile changes were evaluated from the lateral cephalograms before and after treatment by means of the X-Y coordinate system. Significant soft tissue profile changes were evaluated by paired t test at a 0.05 significance level. The correlations among significant soft tissue changes and independent variables comprising treatment modality, age, sex, pretreatment skeletal, dental and soft tissue morphology were evaluated by stepwise multiple regression analysis at a 0.05 significance level. Results The multiple regression analysis indicated that different treatment modalities, age, sex, pretreatment skeletal, dental and soft tissue morphology were related to the profile changes. The predictive power of these variables on the soft tissue profile changes ranged from 9.9 to 40.3 %. Conclusions Prediction of the soft tissue profile changes following treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion from initial patient morphology, age, sex and types of treatment was complicated and required several variables to explain their variations. Upper lip change in horizontal direction could be found only at the stomion superius and was less predictable than those of the lower lip. Variations in upper lip retraction at the stomion superius were explained by types of treatment (R 2 = 0.099, whereas protrusion of the lower

  8. Factors influencing soft tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetevorakul, Suhatcha; Viteporn, Smorntree

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown soft tissue profile changes after orthodontic treatment in Class II Division 1 patients. However, a few studies have described factors influencing the soft tissue changes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the soft tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment in Class II Division 1 patients. The subjects comprised 104 Thai patients age 8-16 years who presented Class II Division 1 malocclusions and were treated with different orthodontic modalities comprising cervical headgear, Class II traction and extraction of the four first premolars. The profile changes were evaluated from the lateral cephalograms before and after treatment by means of the X-Y coordinate system. Significant soft tissue profile changes were evaluated by paired t test at a 0.05 significance level. The correlations among significant soft tissue changes and independent variables comprising treatment modality, age, sex, pretreatment skeletal, dental and soft tissue morphology were evaluated by stepwise multiple regression analysis at a 0.05 significance level. The multiple regression analysis indicated that different treatment modalities, age, sex, pretreatment skeletal, dental and soft tissue morphology were related to the profile changes. The predictive power of these variables on the soft tissue profile changes ranged from 9.9 to 40.3%. Prediction of the soft tissue profile changes following treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion from initial patient morphology, age, sex and types of treatment was complicated and required several variables to explain their variations. Upper lip change in horizontal direction could be found only at the stomion superius and was less predictable than those of the lower lip. Variations in upper lip retraction at the stomion superius were explained by types of treatment (R(2) = 0.099), whereas protrusion of the lower lip at the labrale inferius was correlated with initial inclination of

  9. Phylogeny of Cas9 determines functional exchangeability of dual-RNA and Cas9 among orthologous type II CRISPR-Cas systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fonfara, Ines; Le Rhun, Anaïs; Chylinski, Krzysztof; Makarova, Kira S.; Lécrivain, Anne-Laure; Bzdrenga, Janek; Koonin, Eugene V.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas-derived RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease is the key element of an emerging promising technology for genome engineering in a broad range of cells and organisms. The DNA-targeting mechanism of the type II CRISPR-Cas system involves maturation of tracrRNA: crRNA duplex (dual-RNA), which directs Cas9 to cleave invading DNA in a sequence-specific manner, dependent on the presence of a Protospacer Adjacent Motif (PAM) on the target. We show that evolution of dual-RNA and Cas9 in bacteria...

  10. DESIGN PROBLEMS IN VISUAL DISPLAYS. PART II. FACTORS IN THE LEGIBILITY OF TELEVISED DISPLAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    evaluated. Selected studies of such factors as vertical resolution, video bandwidth, and direction of scanning are reviewed in detail. Conclusions are drawn, and recommendations are made for display design and applications.

  11. Syndromes, Disorders and Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Neural Tube Defects (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs maybe associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive review of syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, such as Currarino syndrome, sacral defect with anterior meningocele, Jarcho-Levin syndrome (spondylo-costal dysostosis, lateral meningocele syndrome, neurofibromatosis type I, Marfan syndrome, and hyperthermia. The recurrence risk and the preventive effect of maternal folic acid intake in NTDs associated with syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors may be different from those of non-syndromic multifactorial NTDs. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the syndromes, disorders, and maternal risk factors associated with NTDs, and prompt a thorough etiologic investigation and genetic counseling.

  12. Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) in New York State : volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report develops a Load and Resistance Factor Rating (NYS-LRFR) methodology : for New York bridges. The methodology is applicable for the rating of existing : bridges, the posting of under-strength bridges, and checking Permit trucks. The : propo...

  13. HYDRATION STRUCTURE AND WATER EXCHANGE DYNAMICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    was carried out for Fe(II) in water using the 2-body potential and its 3-body correction function to study hydration structure of the Fe(II) ion. Furthermore, the present study investigates the water exchange processes around the Fe(II) ion in the aqueous solution. Emphasis is given on the illumination of the structural changes at ...

  14. Valence bond/broken symmetry analysis of the exchange coupling constant in copper(II) dimers. Ferromagnetic contribution exalted through combined ligand topology and (singlet) covalent-ionic mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofrio, Nicolas; Mouesca, Jean-Marie

    2010-05-27

    In this paper we aim at presenting a full-VB (valence-bond) analysis of the DFT broken symmetry (BS) exchange coupling constant J(BS). We extend Kahn and Briat's "two sites-two electrons" VB original formalism (Kahn, O.; Briat, B. J. Chem. Soc. Farady Trans. II, 1976, 72, 268) by taking into account the covalent-ionic singlet state mixing, here translated into intersite magnetic orbital delocalization. In this way, two explicit contributions to the magnetic orbital overlap appear, one from the purely covalent state, and the other one from the covalent-ionic mixing. This scheme allows us to relax the strict orthogonality constraint of Kahn and Briat's chemically heuristic model resulting into ferromagnetism. Moreover, we show how DFT-BS calculations applied to various copper(II) dimers yield effective parameters that can be injected into the full-VB model, allowing for a breaking down of J(BS) into various contributions, one of which being either ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic depending on the bridging ligand topology. Two classes of systems emerge from this analysis and the exceptional ferromagnetic coupling property of the "end-on" azido-bridged copper dimer is especially emphasized.

  15. Pathologic Factors Associated with Prognosis after Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Stage II/III Microsatellite-Unstable Colorectal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ho Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are controversies regarding the benefit of fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with microsatellite instability–high (MSI-H colorectal cancer (CRC, the pathologic features affecting postchemotherapeutic prognosis in these patients have not been fully identified yet. Methods: A total of 26 histopathologic and immunohistochemical factors were comprehensively evaluated in 125 stage II or III MSI-H CRC patients who underwent curative resection followed by fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy. We statistically analyzed the associations of these factors with disease-free survival (DFS. Results: Using a Kaplan- Meier analysis with log-rank test, we determined that ulceroinfiltrative gross type (p=.003, pT4 (p<.001, pN2 (p=.002, perineural invasion (p=.001, absence of peritumoral lymphoid reaction (p=.041, signet ring cell component (p=.006, and cribriform comedo component (p=.004 were significantly associated with worse DFS in patients receiving oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy (n=45. By contrast, pT4 (p<.001 and tumor budding-positivity (p=.032 were significant predictors of poor survival in patients receiving non-oxaliplatin–based adjuvant chemotherapy (n=80. In Cox proportional hazards regression model-based univariate and multivariate analyses, pT category (pT1-3 vs pT4 was the only significant prognostic factor in patients receiving non-oxaliplatin–based adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas pT category, signet ring cell histology and cribriform comedo histology remained independent prognostic factors in patients receiving oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusions: pT4 status is the most significant pathologic determinant of poor outcome after fluoropyrimidine-based adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II/III MSI-H CRC.

  16. Screening of factors influencing Cu(II) extraction by soybean oil-based organic solvents using fractional factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Siu Hua; Teng, Tjoon Tow; Ismail, Norli

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to identify the significant factors that give large effects on the efficiency of Cu(II) extraction from aqueous solutions by soybean oil-based organic solvents using fractional factorial design. Six factors (mixing time (t), di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid concentration ([D2EHPA]), organic to aqueous phase ratio (O:A), sodium sulfate concentration ([Na(2)SO(4)]), equilibrium pH (pH(eq)) and tributylphosphate concentration ([TBP])) affecting the percentage extraction (%E) of Cu(II) were investigated. A 2(6-1) fractional factorial design was applied and the results were analyzed statistically. The results show that only [D2EHPA], pH(eq) and their second-order interaction ([D2EHPA] × pH(eq)) influenced the %E significantly. Regression models for %E were developed and the adequacy of the reduced model was examined. The results of this study indicate that fractional factorial design is a useful tool for screening a large number of variables and reducing the number of experiments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Local potential evolutions during proton exchange membrane fuel cell operation with dead-ended anode - Part II: Aging mitigation strategies based on water management and nitrogen crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbou, S.; Dillet, J.; Maranzana, G.; Didierjean, S.; Lottin, O.

    2017-02-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells operate with dead-ended anode in order to reduce system cost and complexity when compared with hydrogen re-circulation systems. In the first part of this work, we showed that localized fuel starvation events may occur, because of water and nitrogen accumulation in the anode side, which could be particularly damaging to the cell performance. To prevent these degradations, the anode compartment must be purged which may lead to an overall system efficiency decrease because of significant hydrogen waste. In the second part, we present several purge strategies in order to minimize both hydrogen waste and membrane-electrode assembly degradations during dead-ended anode operation. A linear segmented cell with reference electrodes was used to monitor simultaneously the current density distribution along the gas channel and the time evolution of local anode and cathode potentials. To asses MEA damages, Platinum ElectroChemical Surface Area (ECSA) and cell performance were periodically measured. The results showed that dead-end mode operation with an anode plate maintained at a temperature 5 °C hotter than the cathode plate limits water accumulation in the anode side, reducing significantly purge frequency (and thus hydrogen losses) as well as MEA damages. As nitrogen contribution to hydrogen starvation is predominant in this thermal configuration, we also tested a microleakage solution to discharge continuously most the nitrogen accumulating in the anode side while ensuring low hydrogen losses and minimum ECSA losses provided the right microleakage flow rate is chosen.

  18. Appropriateness and limitations of factor analysis methods utilized in psychology and kinesiology: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trninić Viktorija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural modelling techniques and application of models that extract latent variables are recent predominant techniques in the applied multivariate statistical procedures in social sciences. We believe that correlation studies can provide adequate findings if they are supported by logical analysis or causal modelling procedures. It is important to emphasize that factor analysis methods alone do not reveal the cause of covariability and that the final result of factor analytical investigation depends, in part, on the decisions and interpretations of the researcher. The question of the minimum sample size in factor analysis, ambiguousness of results obtained by FA and mathematical problems in the use of FA is particularly scrupulously discussed in this paper. Furthermore, the effect of the factor analysis of data obtained from experiments on the scientific paradigm was analyzed, with emphasis on the current problems with its application in social sciences research. Neither method, including factor analysis, is sufficient to answer all problem issues in the field of psychology and kinesiology. Therefore, it is necessary to combine complementary methods within the research which will allow a more comprehensive analysis of the researched phenomena and a greater validity of empirical results. Finally, reducing theories in psychology to a psychometric method and theories in kinesiology to a kinesiometric method is an anomaly of numerous quantitative studies within these scientific disciplines, making identification, instead of explanation of multi-causal nature of psychological and kinesiological phenomena, a primary focus of the research.

  19. About Calculation of Unified Module Recuperator (Module M-I and M-II for Heating and Thermal Furnaces at Blanking and Machine Assembling Shops of Engineering, Automotive and Tractor Plants in Republic of Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an influence of outside ribbing of heat-exchange surface of unified modules M-I and M-II on heat transfer factor of the proposed recuperator and its hydro-dynamic resistance.

  20. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  1. A general factor model for the Beck Depression Inventory-II: validation in a sample of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Brett D; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Beck, Christine A; Pilote, Louise

    2008-08-01

    Many studies have linked symptoms of depression after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to negative health outcomes, including mortality. It has been suggested, however, that this link may be due to biased measurement of depressive symptoms in post-AMI patients related to confounding with somatic symptoms related to AMI. The objective of this study was to validate a factor model for the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) that would allow for modeling of depressive symptoms after explicitly removing bias related to somatic symptom overlap. A total of 477 hospitalized post-AMI patients from 10 cardiac care units were administered the BDI-II. Confirmatory factor analysis models for ordinal data were conducted with MPLUS to test the fit of a model with a single General Depression factor (all 21 BDI-II items) and uncorrelated Somatic (5 items) and Cognitive (8 items) factors (G-S-C model) compared to standard correlated two-factor models. The G-S-C model fit as well or better than previously published correlated two-factor models. Seventy-three percent of variance in BDI-II scores is accounted for by the General Depression factor, whereas 11% and 13% respectively are accounted for by uncorrelated Somatic and Cognitive factors. The G-S-C model is a novel approach to understanding the measurement structure of the BDI-II, presents advantageous statistical and interpretive properties compared to standard correlated factor models, and provides a viable mechanism to test links between symptoms of depression, as measured by the General Depression factor, and health outcomes among patients with AMI after explicitly removing variance from somatic symptoms unrelated to the General Depression factor.

  2. OPE for all helicity amplitudes II. Form factors and data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Benjamin [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris 75005 (France); ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, IFT-UNESP,São Paulo, 01440-070 SP (Brazil); Caetano, João [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy & Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute,University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Mathematics Department, King’s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Centro de Física do Porto, Departamento de Física e Astronomia,Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto,Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, IFT-UNESP,São Paulo, 01440-070 SP (Brazil); Córdova, Lucía [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy & Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute,University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, IFT-UNESP,São Paulo, 01440-070 SP (Brazil); Sever, Amit [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University,Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Vieira, Pedro [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, IFT-UNESP,São Paulo, 01440-070 SP (Brazil)

    2015-12-15

    We present the general flux tube integrand for MHV and non-MHV amplitudes, in planar N=4 SYM theory, up to a group theoretical rational factor. We find that the MHV and non-MHV cases only differ by simple form factors which we derive. This information allows us to run the operator product expansion program for all sorts of non-MHV amplitudes and to test the recently proposed map with the so called charged pentagons transitions. Perfect agreement is found, on a large sample of non-MHV amplitudes, with the perturbative data available in the literature.

  3. Job satisfaction of nurse teachers: a literature review. Part II: Effects and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Li; Barriball, K Louise; While, Alison E

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the effects and related factors of nurse teachers' job satisfaction. Much of the research to date has focused on the factors of job satisfaction with recent studies providing some evidence about its predictors. However, little research has focused on the effects of job satisfaction on individual nurse teachers or from an organizational or student perspective despite the growing global shortage of nurse teachers. The challenge and potential direction of research are discussed and it is argued that there is a need to establish a comprehensive model of job satisfaction and measure the impact of nurse teachers' job satisfaction from the perspective of key stakeholders.

  4. A three-factor Doehlert matrix design in optimising the determination of octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide by cation-exchange chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Orlando, Donatella; Nardiello, Donatella; Rubino, Alessandra; Bianco, Giuliana; Abate, Salvatore; Ciriello, Rosanna; Guerrieri, Antonio

    2007-07-30

    A simple and effective chromatographic method with suppressed conductivity detection was developed and validated to determine dissolved samples of octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C18H37N+ Me3Br-, ODTAB) for purity testing. A response surface methodology generated with a Doehlert matrix design was applied to optimize the chromatographic and detection conditions in ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) with conductivity detection in the chemical suppression mode. A three-factor Doehlert design was performed to fit a second-order model and jointly optimize the peak intensity and shorten analysis time through a global desirability function. Regenerant flow rate, volume fraction of acetonitrile in the acidic eluent and its flow rate were studied at seven, five and three levels, respectively. The optimized separation and detection conditions were accomplished by using a cation-exchange column eluted at 0.5 mL min(-1) with an isocratic mobile phase composed of CH3CN and 25 mN H2SO4, 82/18 (v/v). Chemical suppression of ionic conductivity was performed by 100 mN tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAOH) as a regenerant at a flow-rate of 4.0 mL min(-1). Remarkably good agreement was found between predicted and experimental values of signal intensity and chromatographic retention. With the developed method, a linear calibration curve of ODTA+ as bromide salt from 5 to 1000 ppm was obtained using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as internal standard. The estimated limit of detection was 0.3 ppm (S/N=3). The effectiveness of electrochemically suppressed conductivity detection of ODTA+ was also demonstrated, thus making easier the whole detection operation and instrumental needs as well.

  5. Physics Metacognition Inventory Part Ii: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Bailey, MarLynn; Farley, John

    2015-01-01

    The Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. In one of our earlier studies, an exploratory factor analysis provided evidence of preliminary construct validity, revealing six components of students' metacognition when solving physics problems including knowledge of cognition,…

  6. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer - II. Menstrual and reproductive factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negri, E; Dal Maso, L; Ron, E; La Vecchia, C; Mark, SD; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Kolonel, L; Yoshimoto, Y; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Galanti, MR; Hardell, L; Glattre, E; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Braga, C; Franceschi, S

    Objective: It has been suggested that female hormones, and hence menstrual and reproductive factors, play a role in thyroid cancer etiology. Epidemiological data, however, are limited and inconsistent, partly because of the small number of cases included in each study. To clarify the etiology of

  7. Trends in lumber processing in the Western United States. Part II: Overrun and lumber recovery factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Keith A. Blatner; Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    This article describes trends in three measures of lumber recovery for sawmills in the western United States: lumber overrun (LO), lumber recovery factor (LRF), and cubic lumber recovery (CLR). All states and regions showed increased LO during the last three decades. Oregon and Montana had the highest LO at 107 and 100 percent, respectively. Alaska had the lowest LO at...

  8. Introducción II. ANOVA de un factor de medidas repetidas (Parte 3/6)

    OpenAIRE

    Serra Añó, Pilar; Ponce Darós, María José; López Bueno, Laura; González Moreno, Luis Millán; García Massó, Xavier; ANOVA de un factor de medidas repetidas

    2014-01-01

    Tercer vídeo de la serie de seis que describen el análisis de varianza para estudios con un único factor en el que comprueban las diferencias de medias de diferentes condiciones o momentos de tiempo, utilizando el programa SPSS, en el área de las ciencias de la salud.

  9. Sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus frequency in human lymphocytes of 1,650 subjects in an Italian population: I. Contribution of methodological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barale, R; Marrazzini, A; Bacci, E; Di Sibio, A; Tessa, A; Cocchi, L; Scarcelli, V; Lubrano, V; Vassalle, C; Landi, S

    1998-01-01

    The influence of several methodological factors on mean values of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN) in peripheral lymphocytes of 1,650 subjects was analyzed. Donors belonged to a general healthy population living in Pisa and in two nearby small cities: Cascina and Navacchio (Ca-Na). Blood samples were collected over a period of 29 months and processed in three different laboratories of the some institute. Slides were analyzed by several scorers. Our data showed that lymphocyte proliferation indexes (PIs) and baseline mean values of SCEs were affected mainly by sampling period. This factor accounted for a percentage ranging from roughly 10% (Pisa) to 20% (Ca-Na) of total SCE variance and from roughly 10% (Pisa) to 13% (Ca-Na) of total PIs variance. A marginal effect was attributable to the different laboratories involved (maximum 3% for SCEs and 7% for PIs). The sampling period variable included many sources of variability such as culture media batches, fetal calf serum, PHA, BrdUrd, and seasonality. MN counts revealed a more marked dependence on processing laboratories. This factor accounted for a percentage of roughly 10% (Pisa and Ca-Na) of total variance, while the sampling period was marginally effective (about 1-4% of total variability). Because laboratories were equipped and supplied with the same materials and consumables and technicians were rotated constantly, the only variable ascertained was represented by the three different models of CO2 incubators used for lymphocyte culturing. When "month" and "incubator" variables were considered jointly, experimental variability accounted for 15-20% of total variance, both for PIs and mean values SCEs and MN. The variability due to slide scoring was reduced by assigning each slide to five different scorers and matching low with high scorers in each group. Present data show that when the study is performed under these controlled conditions, about 20% of total interdonor variability can be

  10. MtbHLH1, a bHLH transcription factor involved in Medicago truncatula nodule vascular patterning and nodule to plant metabolic exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godiard, Laurence; Lepage, Agnès; Moreau, Sandra; Laporte, Damien; Verdenaud, Marion; Timmers, Ton; Gamas, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at defining the role of a basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factor gene from Medicago truncatula, MtbHLH1, whose expression is upregulated during the development of root nodules produced upon infection by rhizobia bacteria. We used MtbHLH1 promoter::GUS fusions and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses to finely characterize the MtbHLH1 expression pattern. We altered MtbHLH1 function by expressing a dominantly repressed construct (CRES-T approach) and looked for possible MtbHLH1 target genes by transcriptomics. We found that MtbHLH1 is expressed in nodule primordia cells derived from pericycle divisions, in nodule vascular bundles (VBs) and in uninfected cells of the nitrogen (N) fixation zone. MtbHLH1 is also expressed in root tips, lateral root primordia cells and root VBs, and induced upon auxin treatment. Altering MtbHLH1 function led to an unusual phenotype, with a modified patterning of nodule VB development and a reduced growth of aerial parts of the plant, even though the nodules were able to fix atmospheric N. Several putative MtbHLH1 regulated genes were identified, including an asparagine synthase and a LOB (lateral organ boundary) transcription factor. Our results suggest that the MtbHLH1 gene is involved in the control of nodule vasculature patterning and nutrient exchanges between nodules and roots. PMID:21679315

  11. Unique classes of mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae G-protein translation elongation factor 1A suppress the requirement for guanine nucleotide exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Sedide B; Vishnu, Melanie R; Olarewaju, Olubunmi; Starita, Lea M; Masison, Daniel C; Kinzy, Terri Goss

    2006-10-01

    G-proteins play critical roles in many cellular processes and are regulated by accessory proteins that modulate the nucleotide-bound state. Such proteins, including eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A), are frequently reactivated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, only the catalytic subunit of the GEF complex, eEF1Balpha, is essential for viability. The requirement for the TEF5 gene encoding eEF1Balpha can be suppressed by the presence of excess substrate, eEF1A. These cells, however, have defects in growth and translation. Two independent unbiased screens performed to dissect the cause of these phenotypes yielded dominant suppressors that bypass the requirement for extra eEF1A. Surprisingly, all mutations are in the G-protein eEF1A and cluster in its GTP-binding domain. Five mutants were used to construct novel strains expressing only the eEF1A mutant at normal levels. These strains show no growth defects and little to no decreases in total translation, which raises questions as to the evolutionary expression of GEF complexity and other potential functions of this complex. The location of the mutations on the eEF1A-eEF1Balpha structure suggests that their mechanism of suppression may depend on effects on the conserved G-protein elements: the P-loop and NKXD nucleotide-binding element.

  12. Selective adsorption of Pb (II) over the zinc-based MOFs in aqueous solution-kinetics, isotherms, and the ion exchange mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Xinhua; Zhang, Jinmiao; Xiong, Zhenhu

    2017-06-01

    Two series of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with similar formula units but different central metal ions (M) or organic linkers (L), M-BDC (BDC = terephthalate, M = Zn, Zr, Cr, or Fe), or Zn-L (L = imidazolate-2-methyl, BDC, BDC-NH 2 ), were prepared and employed as the receptors for adsorption lead ions. It was found that the Zn-BDC exhibited a much higher adsorption capacity than the other M-BDC series with various metal ions which have very closely low capacities at same conditions. Furthermore, the Zn-L (L = imidazolate-2-methyl, BDC, BDC-NH 2 ) still have highly efficient adsorption capacity of lead ions, although the adsorption capacity varies with different ligand, as well as the adsorption rate and the equilibrium pH of the solution. This significant high adsorption over Zn-L, different from other M-BDC series with various metal ions (Zr, Cr, or Fe), can be explained by ion exchange between the central metal ions of Zn-L and lead ion in solution. Based on the analysis of FT-IR, X-ray diffraction pattern, the nitrogen adsorption isotherms, the zeta potentials, and the results, a plausible adsorption mechanism is proposed. When equivalent Zn-L were added to equal volume of aqueous solution with different concentration of lead ion, the content of zinc ion in the solution increases with the increase of the initial concentration of lead ions. The new findings could provide a potential way to fabricate new metal organic frameworks with high and selective capacities of the heavy metal ions.

  13. New surface-associated heat-labile colonization factor antigen (CFA/II) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli of serogroups O6 and O8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D G; Evans, D J

    1978-08-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) belonging to serogroups O6 and O8 do not possess the H-10407-type colonization factor antigen (CFA/I). However, these frequently isolated ETEC were found to possess a second and distinct heat-labile surface-associated colonization factor antigen, termed CFA/II. Whereas CFA/I mediates mannose-resistant hemagglutination of human group A erythrocytes, CFA/II does not. CFA/II mediates mannose-resistant hemagglutination of bovine erythrocytes, and mannose-resistant hemagglutination is rapid only at reduced temperature (4 degrees C). Because CFA/II, like CFA/I, is spontaneously lost by many ETEC isolates in the laboratory, it was possible to produce specific anti-CFA/II serum by preparing antiserum against living cells of a prototype strain (PB-176) and adsorbing this serum with living and heat-treated cells of its CFA/II-negative derivative strain PB-176-P. This serum, which neutralized the colonization factor activity of CFA/II-positive strains in infant rabbits, was employed to confirm the presence of CFA/II on ETEC which exhibited mannose-resistant hemagglutination of bovine but not human erythrocytes. CFA/II, like CFA/I, mediates adherence of the bacteria to the mucosal surface of the small intestine, as demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence. CFA/II appears to be an important virulence factor for humans since CFA/II-positive ETEC are frequently isolated from diarrhea cases, particularly travelers' diarrhea, in Mexico; these ETEC were not uncommon in a collection of isolates from Bangladesh. The O6:H16 strain of ETEC responsible for an outbreak of diarrhea in the United States was also shown to be CFA/II positive. CFA/I and CFA/II were never found on the same serotypes of ETEC, but 98% of the heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxin-producing ETEC belonging to the frequently isolated serogroups O6, O8, O15, O25, O63, and O78 were positive for either CFA/I or CFA/II.

  14. Polypharmacy as a Risk Factor for Clinically Relevant Sarcopenia: Results From the Berlin Aging Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Maximilian; Spira, Dominik; Demuth, Ilja; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Norman, Kristina

    2017-12-12

    Sarcopenia affects more than 10% of older adults. Next to age-associated physiologic changes, diseases like diabetes or inflammatory, neurological, malignant and endocrine disorders may contribute to the development of sarcopenia. Likewise, polypharmacy, i.e., multiple drug use, is common among older adults. Although the two conditions frequently co-occur, the association of polypharmacy with sarcopenia has not yet been examined. We investigated the association of polypharmacy and sarcopenia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older adults (60-84 years). Thousand five hundred and two participants from the Berlin Aging Study II were included. Polypharmacy was defined as concurrent use of 5 or more drugs (prescription and nonprescription). Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and appendicular lean mass (ALM) was calculated as sum of the four limbs' lean mass. Sarcopenia was defined as low ALM-to-body mass index (BMI)-ratio using validated sex-specific cutoffs. Mean age was 68.7 ± 3.7 years, 50.7% were female. The median (interquartile range) number of drugs was 2 (1-4); 21.1% of subjects reported regular use of ≥5 drugs. Subjects with polypharmacy were more often sarcopenic according to the applied ALM/BMI-cutoffs (16.3% vs 6.9%, p sarcopenia (odds ratio = 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-3.75). Polypharmacy is associated with clinically relevant sarcopenia, as assessed by a low ALM/BMI.

  15. 76 FR 7884 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Securities Exchange, LLC (``Exchange'' or ``ISE'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...) (``SIFMA Letter''). II. Background The ISE's rules governing registration, examination, and continuing education requirements for associated persons of ISE members \\5\\ currently apply to ] associated persons who...

  16. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  17. Low-rank approximations with sparse factors II: Penalized methods with discrete Newton-like iterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhenyue [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (People' s Republic of China); Zha, Hongyuan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Simon, Horst [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-07-31

    In this paper, we developed numerical algorithms for computing sparse low-rank approximations of matrices, and we also provided a detailed error analysis of the proposed algorithms together with some numerical experiments. The low-rank approximations are constructed in a certain factored form with the degree of sparsity of the factors controlled by some user-specified parameters. In this paper, we cast the sparse low-rank approximation problem in the framework of penalized optimization problems. We discuss various approximation schemes for the penalized optimization problem which are more amenable to numerical computations. We also include some analysis to show the relations between the original optimization problem and the reduced one. We then develop a globally convergent discrete Newton-like iterative method for solving the approximate penalized optimization problems. We also compare the reconstruction errors of the sparse low-rank approximations computed by our new methods with those obtained using the methods in the earlier paper and several other existing methods for computing sparse low-rank approximations. Numerical examples show that the penalized methods are more robust and produce approximations with factors which have fewer columns and are sparser.

  18. Climate and site management as driving factors for the atmospheric greenhouse gas exchange of a restored wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herbst

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG budget of a restored wetland in western Denmark was established for the years 2009–2011 from eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 fluxes. The water table in the wetland, which was restored in 2002, was unregulated, and the vegetation height was limited through occasional grazing by cattle and grass cutting. The annual net CO2 uptake varied between 195 and 983 g m−2 and the annual net CH4 release varied between 11 and 17 g m−2. In all three years the wetland was a carbon sink and removed between 42 and 259 g C m−2 from the atmosphere. However, in terms of the full annual GHG budget (assuming that 1 g CH4 is equivalent to 25 g CO2 with respect to the greenhouse effect over a time horizon of 100 years the wetland was a sink in 2009, a source in 2010 and neutral in 2011. Complementary observations of meteorological factors and management activities were used to explain the large inter-annual variations in the full atmospheric GHG budget of the wetland. The largest impact on the annual GHG fluxes, eventually defining their sign, came from site management through changes in grazing duration and animal stocking density. These changes accounted for half of the observed variability in the CO2 fluxes and about two thirds of the variability in CH4 fluxes. An unusually long period of snow cover in 2010 had the second largest effect on the annual CO2 flux, whose interannual variability was larger than that of the CH4 flux. Since integrated CO2 and CH4 flux data from restored wetlands are still very rare, it is concluded that more long-term flux measurements are needed to quantify the effects of ecosystem disturbance, in terms of management activities and exceptional weather patterns, on the atmospheric GHG budget more

  19. Sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus frequency in human lymphocytes of 1,650 subjects in an Italian population: II. Contribution of sex, age, and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barale, R; Chelotti, L; Davini, T; Del Ry, S; Andreassi, M G; Ballardin, M; Bulleri, M; He, J; Baldacci, S; Di Pede, F; Gemignani, F; Landi, S

    1998-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) analysis was carried out on 1,650 healthy individuals living in Pisa and in two nearby small cities, Cascina and Navacchio (Ca-Na). The effect of smoking on SCEs was linearly correlated with the number of cigarettes per day, and an increase of 7.3% SCEs was detectable for as few cigarettes as 1-10/day. Ex-smokers showed intermediate mean values of SCEs (8.09 +/- 1.88) in comparison with never smokers (7.54 +/- 1.61) and current smokers (8.45 +/- 1.94). Mean values of SCEs of ex-smokers decreased linearly with time of smoking cessation, reaching the mean values of never smokers within 8 years. The extent of SCE decrease was inversely proportional to the number of cigarettes previously smoked. No interaction between smoking habits and coffee or alcohol drinking on SCEs was observed. A borderline (P = 0.053) increase in mean SCE values in coffee drinkers (more than 3 cups/day) was found. The age effect on SCEs was remarkable in Ca-Na, but not in Pisa donors. Job type was not associated with significant modification of mean values of SCEs. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association between the proportion of high frequency cells (HCF) outliers and coffee consumption. Age and sex appeared to be by far the most important variables associated with modifications in MN frequency, which increased by 0.04 per thousand and 0.02 per thousand per year in males and females, respectively. Children and young donors (age < or = 40 years) showed lower MN frequency regardless of sex, whereas sex appeared to determine a significantly higher increase of MN only in females older than 40 years. In contrast, in males the MN rate by age tended to level off after the age of 30-50. MN frequencies of Pisa blue- and white-collar workers were statistically significantly higher than in students (+0.71 and +0.55 per thousand, respectively). Smoking did not determine any increase of MN frequency. A total

  20. Development of separation technology for the removal of radium-223 from targeted thorium conjugate formulations. Part II: purification of targeted thorium conjugates on cation exchange columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenvik, Janne Olsen; Dyrstad, Knut; Kristensen, Solveig; Ryan, Olav B

    2017-09-01

    Tumor targeting pharmaceuticals will play a crucial role in future pharma pipelines. The targeted thorium conjugate (TTC) therapeutic platform could provide real benefit to patients, whereby targeting moieties like monoclonal antibodies are radiolabelled with the alpha-emitting radionuclide thorium-227 ((227)Th, t1/2 = 18.7 days). A potential problem could be the accumulation of the long-lived daughter nuclide radium-223 ((223)Ra, t1/2 = 11.4 days) in the drug product during manufacturing and distribution. Therefore, the level of (223)Ra must be standardized before administration to the patient. The focus in this study has been the removal of (223)Ra, as the other progenies will have a very limited stay in the formulation. In this study, the purification of TTCs labeled with decayed (227)Th has been explored. Columns packed with a strong cation exchange resin have been used to sequester (223)Ra. The separation of TTC from (223)Ra has been evaluated as influenced by both formulation and process parameters with a design of experiments (DOE) study; including citrate or acetate buffer, pH, buffer concentration, presence or absence of pABA + EDTA, resin amount and sodium chloride concentration. The aim was to achieve a separation with high sorption of (223)Ra and accompanying low TTC sorption. The results were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Four regression models of TTC and (223)Ra sorption from citrate and acetate buffered formulations were developed. The predictive accuracy of sorption in the four statistical models was given by standard deviations and confidence intervals. The TTC sorption in citrate and acetate buffered formulations was affected by the identical variables and the variation in TTC sorption was comparable for the two models. However, the DOE variables had a significantly stronger impact on the (223)Ra sorption in citrate buffered formulations than the (223)Ra sorption in acetate buffer. An optimal separation with a TTC sorption

  1. Exploring the Latent Structure of the Luria Model for the KABC-II at School Age: Further Insights from Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Luria interpretive model for the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) with normative sample participants aged 7-18 (N = 2,025) using confirmatory factor analysis with maximum-likelihood estimation. For the eight subtest Luria configuration, an alternative…

  2. Factors influencing dentists' choice of amalgam and tooth-colored restorative materials for Class II preparations in younger patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidnes-Kopperud, Simen; Tveit, Anne Bjørg; Gaarden, Torunn; Sandvik, Leiv; Espelid, Ivar

    2009-01-01

    To identify factors associated with dentists' decisions on choice of restorative material in children and adolescents. In the period 2001-2004, 27 dentists in the Public Dental Health Service in Norway placed 4030 Class II restorations in 1912 patients. The reason for placement, previous caries experience (DMFT), oral hygiene, and characteristics of the cavity were recorded. The most frequently used material was resin composite (81.5%), followed by compomer (12.7%), amalgam (4.6%), and glass ionomer cement (1.2%). Tooth-colored restorations were more frequently placed than amalgam in younger patients (p=0.017). Female patients received fewer amalgam restorations than male patients (p=0.006). Amalgam was more often used in patients with high DMFT (pAmalgam was more frequently placed in molars than in premolars (pamalgam in more challenging restorations with respect to caries activity, lesion depth, and tooth type. The findings indicate that in a period when the use of amalgam was phasing out, resin composite was the predominant material of choice for Class II restorations in children and adolescents.

  3. Muscle growth in teleost fish is regulated by factors utilizing the activin II B receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Michael P; Jaffe, Ian M; Bradley, Terence M

    2013-10-01

    The activin type IIB receptor (Acvr2b) is the cell surface receptor for multiple transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily ligands, several of which regulate muscle growth in mammals. To investigate the role of the Acvr2b signaling pathway in the growth and development of skeletal muscle in teleost fish, transgenic rainbow trout (RBT; Oncorhynchus mykiss) expressing a truncated form of the acvr2b-2a (acvr2b(▵)) in muscle tissue were produced. High levels of acvr2b(▵) expression were detected in the majority of P1 transgenic fish. Transgenic P1 trout developed enhanced, localized musculature in both the epaxial and hypaxial regions (dubbed 'six pack'). The F1 transgenic offspring did not exhibit localized muscle growth, but rather developed a uniform body morphology with greater girth, condition factor and increased muscle fiber hypertrophy. There was a high degree of variation in the mass of both P1 and F1 transgenic fish, with several fish of each generation exhibiting enhanced growth compared with other transgenic and control siblings. The 'six pack' phenotype observed in P1 transgenic RBT overexpressing acvr2b(▵) and the presence of F1 individuals with altered muscle morphology provides compelling evidence for the importance of TGF-β signaling molecules in regulating muscle growth in teleost fish.

  4. Dwarfism and impaired gut development in insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas V O; Hammer, Niels A; Nielsen, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    and twisted colon crypts. Analysis of target mRNAs and global expression profiling at E12.5 indicated that Igf2 translation was downregulated, whereas the postnatal intestine showed reduced expression of transcripts encoding extracellular matrix components, such as galectin- 1, lumican, tenascin......Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1 (IMP1) belongs to a family of RNA-binding proteins implicated in mRNA localization, turnover, and translational control. Mouse IMP1 is expressed during early development, and an increase in expression occurs around embryonic day 12.5 (E12....... Moreover, Imp1(-/-) mice exhibited high perinatal mortality, and only 50% were alive 3 days after birth. In contrast to most other organs, intestinal epithelial cells continue to express IMP1 postnatally, and Imp1(-/-) mice exhibited impaired development of the intestine, with small and misshapen villi...

  5. The mechanism of nucleosome traversal by RNA polymerase II: roles for template uncoiling and transcript elongation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luse, Donal S; Studitsky, Vasily M

    2011-01-01

    RNA polymerase II traverses nucleosomes rapidly and efficiently in the cell but it has not been possible to duplicate this process in the test tube. A single nucleosome has generally been found to provide a strong barrier to transcript elongation in vitro. Recent studies have shown that effective transcript elongation can occur on nucleosomal templates in vitro, but this depends on both facilitated uncoiling of DNA from the octamer surface and the presence of transcription factors that maintain polymerase in the transcriptionally competent state. These findings indicate that the efficiency and rate of transcription through chromatin could be regulated through controlled DNA uncoiling. These studies also demonstrate that nucleosome traversal need not result in nucleosome displacement.

  6. The Bipartite Rac1 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Engulfment and Cell Motility 1/Dedicator of Cytokinesis 180 (Elmo1/Dock180) Protects Endothelial Cells from Apoptosis in Blood Vessel Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeker, Kathrin; Bartsch, Susanne; Patry, Christian; Stoll, Sandra J.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Wieland, Thomas; Kroll, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Engulfment and cell motility 1/dedicator of cytokinesis 180 (Elmol/Dock180) is a bipartite guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the monomeric GTPase Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Racl). Elmol/Dock180 regulates Racl activity in a specific spatiotemporal manner in endothelial cells

  7. Milk fouling in heat exchangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, T.J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The mechanisms of fouling of heat exchangers by milk were studied. Two major fouling mechanisms were indentified during the heat treatment of milk: (i) the formation and the subsequent deposition of activated serum protein molecules as a result of the heat denaturation; (ii) the

  8. Electrical storm in the early phase of HeartMate® II device implantation: Incidence, risk factors and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Jerome; Picard, François; Garcia, Rodrigue; Zemmoura, Adlane; Derval, Nicolas; Denis, Arnaud; Romen, Antoine; Nubret, Karine; Jais, Pierre; Haissaguerre, Michel; Dos Santos, Pierre; Barandon, Laurent; Sacher, Frederic

    2017-12-04

    Ventricular arrhythmia is common after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, especially in the early postoperative phase (<30 days). To identify the incidence of and risk factors for electrical storm (ES) occurring within 30 days of HeartMate® II implantation. We reviewed data from all consecutive patients undergoing HeartMate® II device implantation at our institution from January 2008 to December 2014. Patient demographic data, pharmacotherapies and outcomes were collected. The primary endpoint was occurrence of early ES (within 30 days of surgery), defined as three or more separate episodes of sustained ventricular arrhythmia within a 24-hour interval, requiring appropriate therapy. Forty-three patients (mean age 56.7±11.2 years; 39 men) were included. At HeartMate® II implantation, mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 20±5%, 32 (74.4%) patients had ischaemic cardiomyopathy and 31 (72.1%) were implanted with an indication of bridge to cardiac transplantation. During follow-up, 12 (27.9%) patients experienced early ES after HeartMate® II implantation (median delay 9.1±7.8 days). Early ES was more frequent in larger patients (body surface area 1.99 vs 1.81 m2; P<0.01), tended to be associated with previous sustained ventricular tachycardia (50.0% vs 22.6%; P=0.08), previous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation (66.7% vs 38.7%; P=0.09), discontinuation of long-term beta-blocker therapy (75.0% vs 45.2%; P=0.08), weaning of adrenergic drugs after the third day (66.7% vs 35.5%; P=0.06) and the use of extracorporeal life support (50% vs 22.6%; P=0.079), but was not associated with the cardiomyopathy aetiology or the indication for assistance. Catheter ventricular tachycardia ablation was performed in six (14.0%) patients. Early ES was associated with a significantly higher all-cause mortality rate at the 30th day (33.3% vs 6.5%; P=0.02). ES is a common and pejorative feature in the early postoperative period. Copyright

  9. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  10. Exchange rate pass-through in the global economy – the role of emerging market economies

    OpenAIRE

    Bussière, Matthieu; Peltonen, Tuomas A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates export and import price equations for 41 countries –including 28 emerging market economies. Further, it relates the estimated elasticities to structural factors and tests for statistical breaks in the relation between trade prices and exchange rates. Results indicate that (i) the elasticity of trade prices in emerging markets is sizeable, but not significantly higher than in advanced economies; (ii) such elasticity is primarily influenced by macroeconomic factors such as ...

  11. Syracuse Univesity Test Report On Uptake Factor Resulting From A Dropped Storage Container - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, Jianshun S.

    2012-01-01

    rate was once every 2 seconds during the first 2 hours. A test procedure was developed and verified. A total of thirty two drop tests were performed, eight in Phase I and twenty four in Phase II, covering variations in dropping height (8 ft or 4 ft from the floor), room air movement (0.25-0.30 m/s or 0.10-0.15 m/s near the ceiling), landing scenario (on a flat plate or a block), and lid condition (¼” lid hole or no lid). There were ten tests with flat plate and ¼” lid hole, ten tests with flat plate no lid and twelve tests with block no lid.

  12. Multifaceted Roles of the Ras Guanine-Nucleotide Exchange Factor ChRgf in Development, Pathogenesis, and Stress Responses of Colletotrichum higginsianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qiongnan; Chen, Meijuan; Huang, Junbin; Wei, Yangdou; Hsiang, Tom; Zheng, Lu

    2017-04-01

    The infection process of Colletotrichum higginsianum, which causes a disease of crucifers, involves several key steps: conidial germination, appressorial formation, appressorial penetration, and invasive growth in host tissues. In this study, the ChRgf gene encoding a Ras guanine-nucleotide exchange factor protein was identified by screening T-DNA insertion mutants generated from Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation that were unable to cause disease on the host Arabidopsis thaliana. Targeted gene deletion of ChRgf resulted in a null mutant (ΔChrgf-42) with defects in vegetative growth, hyphal morphology, and conidiation, and poor surface attachment and low germination on hydrophobic surfaces; however, there were no apparent differences in appressorial turgor pressure between the wild type and the mutant. The conidia of the mutant were unable to geminate on attached Arabidopsis leaves and did not cause any disease symptoms. Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels in the ΔChrgf mutant were lower than that of the wild type. Our results suggest that ChRgf is a key regulator in response to salt and osmotic stresses in C. higginsianum, and indicate that it is involved in fungal pathogenicity. This gene seems to act as an important modulator upstream of several distinct signaling pathways that are involved in regulating vegetative growth, conidiation, infection-related structure development, and stress responses of C. higginsianum.

  13. The Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Plekhg5 modulates cell polarity, adhesion, migration, and podosome organization in macrophages and osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatake, Mayumi; Nishishita, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki

    2017-10-15

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone-resorbing cells that are formed by fusion of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Osteoclasts and macrophages generate podosomes that are actin-based dynamic organelles implicated in cell adhesion, spreading, migration, and degradation. However, the detailed mechanisms of podosome organization remain unknown. Here, we identified the Rho-specific guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF) Plekhg5 as an up-regulated gene during differentiation of osteoclasts from macrophages. Knockdown of Plekhg5 with small interfering RNA in both macrophages and osteoclasts induced larger cell formation with impaired cell polarity and resulted in an elongated and flattened shape. In macrophages, Plekhg5 depletion enhanced random migration, but impaired directional migration, adhesion, and matrix degradation. Plekhg5 in osteoclasts affected random migration, podosome organization, and bone resorption. Plekhg5 depletion affected signaling and localization of several Rho downstream effectors. In fact, end-binding protein 1 (EB1), cofilin and vinculin were abnormally localized in Plekhg5-depleted cells, and mDia1 and LIM kinase (LIMK)1 were upregulated in Plekhg5-depleted cells compared with control cells. However, overexpression of Plekhg5 in macrophages induced an increase in its mRNA level, but failed to increase the protein level, indicating that overexpressed Plekhg5 was degraded in macrophages but not HEK293T cells. Thus, Plekhg5 affects cell polarity, migration, adhesion, degradation, and podosome organization in macrophages and osteoclasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A bacterial cytotoxin identifies the RhoA exchange factor Net1 as a key effector in the response to DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Guerra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure of adherent cells to DNA damaging agents, such as the bacterial cytolethal distending toxin (CDT or ionizing radiations (IR, activates the small GTPase RhoA, which promotes the formation of actin stress fibers and delays cell death. The signalling intermediates that regulate RhoA activation and promote cell survival are unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that the nuclear RhoA-specific Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF Net1 becomes dephosphorylated at a critical inhibitory site in cells exposed to CDT or IR. Expression of a dominant negative Net1 or Net1 knock down by iRNA prevented RhoA activation, inhibited the formation of stress fibers, and enhanced cell death, indicating that Net1 activation is required for this RhoA-mediated responses to genotoxic stress. The Net1 and RhoA-dependent signals involved activation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 and its downstream target MAPK-activated protein kinase 2. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data highlight the importance of Net1 in controlling RhoA and p38 MAPK mediated cell survival in cells exposed to DNA damaging agents and illustrate a molecular pathway whereby chronic exposure to a bacterial toxin may promote genomic instability.

  15. Na+/H+ exchange regulatory factor 1 is required for ROMK1 K+ channel expression in the surface membrane of cultured M-1 cortical collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Mayanagi, Taira; Sobue, Kenji; Kubokawa, Manabu

    2017-07-22

    The ROMK1 K+ channel, a member of the ROMK channel family, is the major candidate for the K+ secretion pathway in the renal cortical collecting duct (CCD). ROMK1 possesses a PDZ domain-binding motif at its C-terminus that is considered a modulator of ROMK1 expression via interaction with Na+/H+ exchange regulatory factor (NHERF) 1 and NHERF2 scaffold protein. Although NHERF1 is a potential binding partner of the ROMK1 K+ channel, the interaction between NHERF1 and K+ channel activity remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we knocked down NHERF1 in cultured M-1 cells derived from mouse CCD and investigated the surface expression and K+ channel current in these cells after exogenous transfection with EGFP-ROMK1. NHERF1 knockdown resulted in reduced surface expression of ROMK1 as indicated by a cell biotinylation assay. Using the patch-clamp technique, we further found that the number of active channels per patched membrane and the Ba2+-sensitive whole-cell K+ current were decreased in the knockdown cells, suggesting that reduced K+ current was accompanied by decreased surface expression of ROMK1 in the NHERF1 knockdown cells. Our results provide evidence that NHERF1 mediates K+ current activity through acceleration of the surface expression of ROMK1 K+ channels in M-1 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An unexpected role for the yeast nucleotide exchange factor Sil1 as a reductant acting on the molecular chaperone BiP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Kevin D; Pareja, Kristeen A; Wang, Jie; Sevier, Carolyn S

    2017-03-03

    Unfavorable redox conditions in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can decrease the capacity for protein secretion, altering vital cell functions. While systems to manage reductive stress are well-established, how cells cope with an overly oxidizing ER remains largely undefined. In previous work (Wang et al., 2014), we demonstrated that the chaperone BiP is a sensor of overly oxidizing ER conditions. We showed that modification of a conserved BiP cysteine during stress beneficially alters BiP chaperone activity to cope with suboptimal folding conditions. How this cysteine is reduced to reestablish 'normal' BiP activity post-oxidative stress has remained unknown. Here we demonstrate that BiP's nucleotide exchange factor - Sil1 - can reverse BiP cysteine oxidation. This previously unexpected reductant capacity for yeast Sil1 has potential implications for the human ataxia Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome, where it is interesting to speculate that a disruption in ER redox-signaling (due to genetic defects in SIL1 ) may influence disease pathology.

  17. Role of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor in Akt2-mediated plasma membrane translocation of GLUT4 in insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Naoto; Nihata, Yuma; Hosooka, Tetsuya; Noguchi, Tetsuya; Aiba, Atsu; Satoh, Takaya

    2014-11-01

    The small GTPase Rac1 plays a key role in insulin-promoted glucose uptake mediated by the GLUT4 glucose transporter in skeletal muscle. Our recent studies have demonstrated that the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt2 is critically involved in insulin-dependent Rac1 activation. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor FLJ00068 in Akt2-mediated Rac1 activation and GLUT4 translocation in mouse skeletal muscle and cultured myocytes. Constitutively activated FLJ00068 induced GLUT4 translocation in a Rac1-dependent and Akt2-independent manner in L6 myocytes. On the other hand, knockdown of FLJ00068 significantly reduced constitutively activated Akt2-triggered GLUT4 translocation. Furthermore, Rac1 activation and GLUT4 translocation induced by constitutively activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase were inhibited by knockdown of FLJ00068. In mouse gastrocnemius muscle, constitutively activated FLJ00068 actually induced GLUT4 translocation to the sarcolemma. GLUT4 translocation by constitutively activated FLJ00068 was totally abolished in rac1 knockout mouse gastrocnemius muscle. Additionally, we were successful in detecting the activation of Rac1 following the expression of constitutively activated FLJ00068 in gastrocnemius muscle by immunofluorescence microscopy using an activation-specific probe. Collectively, these results strongly support the notion that FLJ00068 regulates Rac1 downstream of Akt2, leading to the stimulation of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate the release of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and soluble IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor from MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confort, C; Rochefort, H; Vignon, F

    1995-09-01

    The growth of hormone-responsive MCF7 human breast cancer cells is controlled by steroid hormones and growth factors. By metabolic labeling of cells grown in steroid- and growth factor-stripped serum conditions, we show that insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) increase by approximately 5-fold the release of several proteins including cathepsin D, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, and soluble forms of the multifunctional IGF-II/mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) receptor. Two soluble forms of IGF-II/M6P receptors were detected, one major (approximately 260 kilodaltons) and one minor (approximately 85 kilodaltons) that probably represents a proteolytic fragment of the larger soluble molecule. IGFs increased receptor release in a dose-dependent fashion with 50-60% of newly synthesized receptor released at 5-10 nM IGFs. The release of IGF-II/M6P receptors correlated with the levels of secreted cathepsin D in different human breast cancer cells or in rats stable transfectants that are constitutively expressing variable levels of human cathepsin D. IGFs had a stronger effect on IGF-II/M6P receptor release, whereas estradiol treatment preferentially enhanced the release of protease and antiprotease. We thus demonstrate that in human breast cancer cells, IGFs not only act as strong mitogens but also regulate release of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, IGF-II/M6P-soluble receptor, and cathepsin D; three proteins that potentially regulate cell proliferation and/or invasion.

  19. Fluorescence Enhancement from Self-Assembled Aggregates II: Factors Influencing Florescence Color from Azobenzene Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mina

    2013-09-01

    We have chosen two types of azobenzene derivatives to elucidate the correlation between molecular structure and fluorescence color of light-driven azobenzene-based aggregates. The fluorescence color from azobenzene molecules (1 and 2), adopting a planar structure, was obviously red-shifted from that of the corresponding twisted ortho-alkylated azobenzene 3. The steric hindrance resulting from bulky alkyl groups at the ortho position of the azo linkage was considered to lessen the intermolecular π - π stacking between aromatic rings, leading to the relatively smaller spectral shift in fluorescence from the absorption band of the initial azobenzene solution. The substitution of electron-withdrawing groups into the azobenzene core gave rise to a blue-shift in fluorescence wavelength. That is, the extended π-conjugated system consisting of a planar azobenzene core as well as the electronic properties of the substituents are key factors influencing the fluorescence color from the light-driven azobenzene aggregates. Moreover, we could prepare fluorescent polymer films by mixing fluorescent azobenzene aggregates with polymers. The fluorescence colors from the polymer films were comparable to those from the azobenzene aggregates.

  20. Epitope mapping of inhibitory antibodies targeting the C2 domain of coagulation factor VIII by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevy, Alexander M.; Healey, John F.; Deng, Wei; Spiegel, P. Clint; Meeks, Shannon L.; Li, Renhao

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The development of anti-factor VIII (fVIII) antibodies (inhibitors) is a significant complication in the management of patients with hemophilia A, leading to significant increases in morbidity and treatment cost. Using a panel of anti-fVIII monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to different epitopes on fVIII, we recently have shown that epitope specificity, inhibitor kinetics, and time to maximum inhibition are more important than inhibitor titer in predicting response to fVIII and the combination of fVIII and recombinant factor VIIa. In particular, a subset of high-titer inhibitors responded to high dose fVIII, which would not be predicted based on their inhibitor titer alone. Thus the ability to quickly map the epitope spectrum of patient plasma using a clinically feasible assay may fundamentally change how clinicians approach the treatment of high-titer inhibitor patients. Objectives To map the epitopes of anti-fVIII MAbs, of which 3 are classical inhibitors and one non-classical, using hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). Methods Binding epitopes of 4 MAbs targeting fVIII C2 domain were mapped using HDX-MS. Results The epitopes determined by HDX-MS are consistent with those obtained earlier through structural characterization and antibody competition assays. In addition classical and non-classical inhibitor epitopes could be distinguished using a limited subset of C2-derived peptic fragments. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the HDX-MS method for epitope mapping and suggest a potential role of rapid mapping of fVIII inhibitor epitopes in facilitating individualized treatment of inhibitor patients. PMID:24152306

  1. Trocas gasosas em videira sob regime de estresse hídrico. II. fotorrespiração e comportamento varietal Gas exchanges in grapevines under water stress regime. II. photorespiration and varietal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo de Albuquerque Regina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a fotorrespiração em folhas de videira (Vitis vinifera L. submetidas a um regime de estresse hídrico, com o objetivo de caracterizar o comportamento de diferentes cultivares. Foram utilizadas plantas de dois anos, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto Fercal, plantadas em vasos plásticos e cultivadas em ambiente controlado. A fotorrespiração foi calculada a partir de medidas das trocas gasosas foliares. Os valores absolutos da fotorrespiração variaram pouco entre cultivares e nível de irrigação; já a eficiência da carboxilação e o ponto de compensação ao CO2 foram bastante afetados pelo estresse hídrico, o que revela diferentes níveis de sensibilidade varietal. Foi verificada a ocorrência de inibição não-estomática da fotossíntese, afetando diferencialmente as cultivares analisadas. Destacou-se, ainda, a maior adaptação da Chardonnay às condições de estresse hídrico, em oposição à grande sensibilidade da Sémillon e da Ugni blanc.The photorespiration in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. leaves subjected to a water stress regime was analysed with the purpose of characterizing the behavior of different cultivars. Two-year old plants were used, grafted on Fercal, planted in plastic pots and cultivated in controlled environment. The photorespiration was calculated from leaf gas exchange measurements taken by means of a portable infrared CO2 analyser (LCA3-ADC, working in an open circuit. The absolute photorespiration values varied little among cultivars and level of irrigation, whereas the carboxylation efficiency and the CO2 compensation point were highly affected by the water stress, thereby evidencing different varietal sensitivity levels. The occurrence of a nonstomatal inhibition of the photosynthesis was verified affecting in a specific way the cultivars analysed. The Chardonnay adapted itself better to the water stress conditions as opposed to the high sensitivity on the part of Sémillon and Ugni blanc.

  2. Transforming growth factor beta receptor II polymorphisms are associated with Kawasaki disease

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    Yu Mi Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFBR2 is a tumor suppressor gene that plays a role in the differentiation of striated cells and remodeling of coronary arteries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of this gene are associated with Marfan syndrome and sudden death in patients with coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular remodeling and T cell activation of TGFBR2 gene suggest that the TGFBR2 gene SNPs are related to the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD and coronary artery lesion (CAL. Methods : The subjects were 105 patients with KD and 500 healthy adults as controls. Mean age of KD group was 32 months age and 26.6% of those had CAL. We selected TGFBR2 gene SNPs from serum and performed direct sequencing. Results : The sequences of the eleven SNPs in the TGFBR2 gene were compared between the KD group and controls. Three SNPs (rs1495592, rs6550004, rs795430 were associated with development of KD (P=0.019, P=0.026, P=0.016, respectively. One SNP (rs1495592 was associated with CAL in KD group (P=0.022. Conclusion : Eleven SNPs in TGFBR2 gene were identified at that time the genome wide association. But, with the change of the data base, only six SNPs remained associated with the TGFBR2 gene. One of the six SNPs (rs6550004 was associated with development of KD. One SNP associated with CAL (rs1495592 was disassociated from the TGFBR2 gene. The other five SNPs were not functionally identified, but these SNPs are notable because the data base is changing. Further studies involving larger group of patients with KD are needed.

  3. The signaling pathway of Campylobacter jejuni-induced Cdc42 activation: Role of fibronectin, integrin beta1, tyrosine kinases and guanine exchange factor Vav2

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Krause-Gruszczynska, Malgorzata

    2011-12-28

    Abstract Background Host cell invasion by the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is considered as one of the primary reasons of gut tissue damage, however, mechanisms and key factors involved in this process are widely unclear. It was reported that small Rho GTPases, including Cdc42, are activated and play a role during invasion, but the involved signaling cascades remained unknown. Here we utilised knockout cell lines derived from fibronectin-\\/-, integrin-beta1-\\/-, focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-\\/- and Src\\/Yes\\/Fyn-\\/- deficient mice, and wild-type control cells, to investigate C. jejuni-induced mechanisms leading to Cdc42 activation and bacterial uptake. Results Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, GTPase pulldowns, G-Lisa and gentamicin protection assays we found that each studied host factor is necessary for induction of Cdc42-GTP and efficient invasion. Interestingly, filopodia formation and associated membrane dynamics linked to invasion were only seen during infection of wild-type but not in knockout cells. Infection of cells stably expressing integrin-beta1 variants with well-known defects in fibronectin fibril formation or FAK signaling also exhibited severe deficiencies in Cdc42 activation and bacterial invasion. We further demonstrated that infection of wild-type cells induces increasing amounts of phosphorylated FAK and growth factor receptors (EGFR and PDGFR) during the course of infection, correlating with accumulating Cdc42-GTP levels and C. jejuni invasion over time. In studies using pharmacological inhibitors, silencing RNA (siRNA) and dominant-negative expression constructs, EGFR, PDGFR and PI3-kinase appeared to represent other crucial components upstream of Cdc42 and invasion. siRNA and the use of Vav1\\/2-\\/- knockout cells further showed that the guanine exchange factor Vav2 is required for Cdc42 activation and maximal bacterial invasion. Overexpression of certain mutant constructs indicated that Vav2 is a linker

  4. Factor V Leiden, factor V Cambridge, factor II GA20210, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatnia, Mohammad; Salehi, Mansour; Movahedian, Ahmad; Shariat, Seyed Ziaeddin Samsam; Salari, Mehri; Tajmirriahi, Marzieh; Asadimobarakeh, Elham; Salehi, Rasoul; Amini, Gilda; Ebrahimi, Homa; Kheradmand, Ehsan

    2015-06-01

    Factor V G1691A (FV Leiden), FII GA20210, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutations are the most common genetic risk factors for thromboembolism in the Western countries. However, there is rare data in Iran about cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of common genetic thrombophilic factors in CVST patients. Forty consequently CVST patients from two University Hospital in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences aged more than 15 years from January 2009 to January 2011 were recruited. In parallel, 51 healthy subjects with the same age and race from similar population selected as controls. FV Leiden, FII GA20210, MTHFR C677T, and FV Cambridge gene mutations by polymerase chain reaction technique were evaluated in case and control groups. FV Leiden, FII GA20210, and FV Cambridge gene mutations had very low prevalence in both case (5%, 2%, 0%) and control (2.5%, 0%, 0%) and were not found any significant difference between groups. MTHFR C677T mutations was in 22 (55%) of patients in case group and 18 (35.5%) of control group (P = 0.09). This study showed that the prevalence of FV Leiden, FII GA20210, and FV Cambridge were low. Laboratory investigations of these mutations as a routine test for all patients with CVST may not be cost benefit.

  5. Type 1 Diabetes in the Spanish Population: additional factors to Class II HLA-DR3 and -DR4

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    Ibarra José M

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Major Histocompatibility Complex is the main genetic contributor to susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D; genome-wide scans have consistently mapped increased predisposition to this region. The highest disease risk has been associated with HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR4. In particular, the DR3-positive ancestral haplotype 18.2 was reported as highly diabetogenic. We aimed to corroborate whether this haplotype increases the susceptibility conferred by the DQ2-DR3 alleles in a Mediterranean population. We also searched for additional susceptibility factors to the classic DQ2-DR3 and DQ8-DR4. Results Genetic MHC markers were analysed in a case-control study with 302 T1D patients and 529 ethnically matched controls. DR3-TNFa1b5 carrier rate was significantly higher in DR3-positive heterozygous T1D patients than in DR3-positive heterozygous controls (p = 0.0019; odds ratio OR [95% confidence interval CI] = 2.26 [1.3–3.93]. This data was confirmed analysing the allelic frequency, which includes the information corresponding to the DR3-homozygous individuals (p = 0.001; OR = 2.09 and by using the Arlequin software to check the DR3-positive haplotypes (p = 0.004;OR = 1.93. The present results provide strong evidence of a second susceptibility region in the ancestral haplotype 18.2 in the Spanish population. Moreover, we searched for T1D susceptibility factors in addition to the MHC classical ones, within the DR2-DQ6/DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 negative population. Several genetic markers in both MHC class II (DQA1*0101-DQB1*0501 [p = 0.007;OR = 2.81], DQA1*0201-DQB1*0202 [p = 0.03; OR = 2.35] and III (TNFa2b1 [p = 0.01 OR = 2.74], BAT-2*2 [p = 0.004; OR = 3.19] were found. These different alleles associated with T1D were not independent and we observed linkage disequilibrium among them leading us to describe two new risk haplotypes (DQA1*0101-DQB1*0501-TNFa2b1 and DQA1*0201-DQB1*0202- BAT-2*2. Finally, we studied a T1D susceptibility

  6. Angiotensin II-induced Akt activation through the epidermal growth factor receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by phospholipid metabolites derived by activation of phospholipase D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Malik, Kafait U

    2005-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), phospholipase D (PLD), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Akt in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between Akt activation by Ang II and other signaling molecules in rat VSMC. Ang II-induced Akt phosphorylation was significantly reduced by the PLD inhibitor 1-butanol, but not by its inactive analog 2-butanol, and by brefeldin A, an inhibitor of the PLD cofactor ADP-ribosylation factor, and in cells infected with retrovirus containing PLD(2) siRNA or transfected with PLD(2) antisense but not control LacZ or sense oligonucleotide. Diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor II diminished Ang II-induced and diC8-phosphatidic acid (PA)-increased Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that PLD-dependent Akt activation is mediated by PA. Ang II-induced EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by 1-butanol and PLD(2) siRNA and also by cPLA(2) siRNA. In addition, the inhibitor of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) reduced both Ang II- and AA-induced EGFR transactivation. Furthermore, ETYA, cPLA(2) antisense, and cPLA(2) siRNA attenuated Ang II-elicited PLD activation. p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 [4-(4-flurophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole] reduced PLD activity and EGFR and Akt phosphorylation elicited by Ang II. Pyrrolidine-1, a cPLA(2) inhibitor, and cPLA(2) siRNA decreased p38 MAPK activity. These data indicate that Ang II-stimulated Akt activity is mediated by cPLA(2)-dependent, p38 MAPK regulated PLD(2) activation and EGFR transactivation. We propose the following scheme of the sequence of events leading to activation of Akt in VSMC by Ang II: Ang II-->cPLA(2)-->AA-->p38 MAPK-->PLD(2)-->PA-->EGFR-->Akt.

  7. New approach for a reliable in vitro sun protection factor method - Part II: Practical aspects and implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksa, S; Lutz, D; Guy, C; Delamour, E

    2016-10-01

    Our previous paper (Part I: Principle and mathematical aspects) presented a new reliable in vitro sun protection factor (SPF) method and demonstrated it to be reproducible and correlated with the in vivo method. Nevertheless, the relevance of an international method should to be adaptable to all products on the market and demonstrated with a blind test. Thus, the aim of this second article was to focus on the practical aspects and implementation (Part II) of a large population of different commercially available sunscreen formulations to obtain similar in vivo SPF results for the purpose of labelling. The method uses the spectroradiometric measurement of residual ultraviolet (UV) through the sample that was applied on a substrate with a robotic appliance. The method has been demonstrated to be highly reliable, and it is based on a multisubstrate solution with a single UV pre-irradiation dose. Furthermore, different categories of the product were studied to identify a reliable and universal in vitro SPF method. Based on different sunscreens products classified into 5 different groups (emulsion, oil, alcohol, stick and powder), it was demonstrated that our method has good reproducibility and accuracy compared with the clinical SPF method. Indeed, the mean coefficient of variation (CV%) was approximately 7%, and the coefficient of correlation reached approximately 0.8-1.0 for different types of tested products. Our second paper concludes that the new in vitro SPF method (based on 113 sunscreen products from the Parts I and II) is clearly adaptable for the SPF labelling purpose on any product type because it is non-invasive, less expensive, more practical and more reliable if performed under strict conditions. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Growth suppression by transforming growth factor beta 1 of human small-cell lung cancer cell lines is associated with expression of the type II receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    N?rgaard, P.; Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M.; Skovgaard Poulsen, H.

    1994-01-01

    Nine human small-cell lung cancer cell lines were treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). Seven of the cell lines expressed receptors for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta-r) in different combinations between the three human subtypes I, II and III, and two were receptor negative. Growth suppression was induced by TGF-beta 1 exclusively in the five cell lines expressing the type II receptor. For the first time growth suppression by TGF-beta 1 of a cell line express...

  9. AP2/ERF Transcription Factor, Ii049, Positively Regulates Lignan Biosynthesis in Isatis indigotica through Activating Salicylic Acid Signaling and Lignan/Lignin Pathway Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruifang; Xiao, Ying; Lv, Zongyou; Tan, Hexin; Chen, Ruibing; Li, Qing; Chen, Junfeng; Wang, Yun; Yin, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Wansheng

    2017-01-01

    Lignans, such as lariciresinol and its derivatives, have been identified as effective antiviral ingredients in Isatis indigotica. Evidence suggests that the APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) family might be related to the biosynthesis of lignans in I. indigotica. However, the special role played by the AP2/ERF family in the metabolism and its underlying putative mechanism still need to be elucidated. One novel AP2/ERF gene, named Ii049, was isolated and characterized from I. indigotica in this study. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that Ii049 was expressed highest in the root and responded to methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid treatments to various degrees. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that Ii049 protein was localized in the nucleus. Knocking-down the expression of Ii049 caused a remarkable reduction of lignan/lignin contents and transcript levels of genes involved in the lignan/lignin biosynthetic pathway. Ii049 bound to the coupled element 1, RAV1AAT and CRTAREHVCBF2 motifs of genes IiPAL and IiCCR, the key structural genes in the lignan/lignin pathway. Furthermore, Ii049 was also essential for SA biosynthesis, and SA induced lignan accumulation in I. indigotica. Notably, the transgenic I. indigotica hairy roots overexpressing Ii049 showed high expression levels of lignan/lignin biosynthetic genes and SA content, resulting in significant accumulation of lignan/lignin. The best-engineered line (OVX049-10) produced 425.60 μg·g(-1) lariciresinol, an 8.3-fold increase compared with the wild type production. This study revealed the function of Ii049 in regulating lignan/lignin biosynthesis, which had the potential to increase the content of valuable lignan/lignin in economically significant medicinal plants.

  10. AP2/ERF Transcription Factor, Ii049, Positively Regulates Lignan Biosynthesis in Isatis indigotica through Activating Salicylic Acid Signaling and Lignan/Lignin Pathway Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifang Ma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lignans, such as lariciresinol and its derivatives, have been identified as effective antiviral ingredients in Isatis indigotica. Evidence suggests that the APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF family might be related to the biosynthesis of lignans in I. indigotica. However, the special role played by the AP2/ERF family in the metabolism and its underlying putative mechanism still need to be elucidated. One novel AP2/ERF gene, named Ii049, was isolated and characterized from I. indigotica in this study. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that Ii049 was expressed highest in the root and responded to methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid treatments to various degrees. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that Ii049 protein was localized in the nucleus. Knocking-down the expression of Ii049 caused a remarkable reduction of lignan/lignin contents and transcript levels of genes involved in the lignan/lignin biosynthetic pathway. Ii049 bound to the coupled element 1, RAV1AAT and CRTAREHVCBF2 motifs of genes IiPAL and IiCCR, the key structural genes in the lignan/lignin pathway. Furthermore, Ii049 was also essential for SA biosynthesis, and SA induced lignan accumulation in I. indigotica. Notably, the transgenic I. indigotica hairy roots overexpressing Ii049 showed high expression levels of lignan/lignin biosynthetic genes and SA content, resulting in significant accumulation of lignan/lignin. The best-engineered line (OVX049-10 produced 425.60 μg·g−1 lariciresinol, an 8.3-fold increase compared with the wild type production. This study revealed the function of Ii049 in regulating lignan/lignin biosynthesis, which had the potential to increase the content of valuable lignan/lignin in economically significant medicinal plants.

  11. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

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    Samuel W. Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  12. Copper(II) and lead(II) complexation by humic acid and humic-like ligands

    OpenAIRE

    IVANA KOSTIĆ; TATJANA ANĐELKOVIĆ; RUŽICA NIKOLIĆ; ALEKSANDAR BOJIĆ; MILOVAN PURENOVIĆ; SRĐAN BLAGOJEVIĆ; DARKO ANĐELKOVIĆ

    2011-01-01

    The stability of metal–humate complexes is an important factor determining and predicting speciation, mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in the environment. A comparative investigation of the complexation of Cu(II) and Pb(II) with humic acid and humic-like ligands, such as benzoic and salicylic acid, was performed. The analysis was realized at pH 4.0, a temperature of 25 °C and at an ionic strength of 0.01 mol dm-3 (NaCl) using the Schubert ion-exchange method and its modified form....

  13. The nuclear guanine nucleotide exchange factors Ect2 and Net1 regulate RhoB-mediated cell death after DNA damage.

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    Melissa C Srougi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Commonly used antitumor treatments, including radiation and chemotherapy, function by damaging the DNA of rapidly proliferating cells. However, resistance to these agents is a predominant clinical problem. A member of the Rho family of small GTPases, RhoB has been shown to be integral in mediating cell death after ionizing radiation (IR or other DNA damaging agents in Ras-transformed cell lines. In addition, RhoB protein expression increases after genotoxic stress, and loss of RhoB expression causes radio- and chemotherapeutic resistance. However, the signaling pathways that govern RhoB-induced cell death after DNA damage remain enigmatic. Here, we show that RhoB activity increases in human breast and cervical cancer cell lines after treatment with DNA damaging agents. Furthermore, RhoB activity is necessary for DNA damage-induced cell death, as the stable loss of RhoB protein expression using shRNA partially protects cells and prevents the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs and the induction of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim after IR. The increase in RhoB activity after genotoxic stress is associated with increased activity of the nuclear guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, Ect2 and Net1, but not the cytoplasmic GEFs p115 RhoGEF or Vav2. Importantly, loss of Ect2 and Net1 via siRNA-mediated protein knock-down inhibited IR-induced increases in RhoB activity, reduced apoptotic signaling events, and protected cells from IR-induced cell death. Collectively, these data suggest a mechanism involving the nuclear GEFs Ect2 and Net1 for activating RhoB after genotoxic stress, thereby facilitating cell death after treatment with DNA damaging agents.

  14. Cool-1/βPIX functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor in the cycling of Cdc42 to regulate insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, Erica M; Yoder, Stephanie M; Oh, Eunjin; Kalwat, Michael A; Wang, Zhanxiang; Quilliam, Lawrence A; Thurmond, Debbie C

    2011-12-01

    Second-phase insulin release requires the sustained mobilization of insulin granules from internal storage pools to the cell surface for fusion with the plasma membrane. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. GTP-loading of the small GTPase Cdc42 is the first glucose-specific activation step in the process, although how glucose triggers Cdc42 activation is entirely unknown. In a directed candidate screen for guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which directly activate small GTPases, Cool-1/βPix was identified in pancreatic islet beta cells. In support of its role as the beta cell Cdc42 GEF, βPix coimmunoprecipitated with Cdc42 in human islets and MIN6 beta cells in a glucose-dependent manner, peaking just prior to Cdc42 activation. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated βPix reduction by 50% corresponded to full ablation of glucose-induced Cdc42 activation and significant attenuation of basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Of the two Cdc42 guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) proteins identified in beta cells, βPix competed selectively with caveolin-1 (Cav-1) but not RhoGDI in coimmunoprecipitation and GST-Cdc42-GDP interaction assays. However, a phospho-deficient Cav-1-Y14F mutant failed to compete with βPix; Cav-1(Tyr14) is an established phosphorylation site for Src kinase. Taken together, these data support a new model, wherein glucose stimulates Cav-1 and induces its dissociation from Cdc42, possibly via Src kinase activation to phosphorylate Cav-1(Tyr14), to promote Cdc42-βPix binding and Cdc42 activation, and to trigger downstream signaling and ultimately sustain insulin release.

  15. Control of cerebellar long-term potentiation by P-Rex-family guanine-nucleotide exchange factors and phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

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    Claire Jackson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP at the parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapse in the cerebellum is a recently described and poorly characterized form of synaptic plasticity. The induction mechanism for LTP at this synapse is considered reciprocal to "classical" LTP at hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons: kinases promote increased trafficking of AMPA receptors into the postsynaptic density in the hippocampus, whereas phosphatases decrease internalization of AMPA receptors in the cerebellum. In the hippocampus, LTP occurs in overlapping phases, with the transition from early to late phases requiring the consolidation of initial induction processes by structural re-arrangements at the synapse. Many signalling pathways have been implicated in this process, including PI3 kinases and Rho GTPases.We hypothesized that analogous phases are present in cerebellar LTP, and took as the starting point for investigation our recent discovery that P-Rex--a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor which is activated by PtdIns(3,4,5P(3--is highly expressed in mouse cerebellar Purkinje neurons and plays a role in motor coordination. We found that LTP evoked at parallel fibre synapses by 1 Hz stimulation or by NO donors was not sustained beyond 30 min when P-Rex was eliminated or Rac inhibited, suggesting that cerebellar LTP exhibits a late phase analogous to hippocampal LTP. In contrast, inhibition of PI3 kinase activity eliminated LTP at the induction stage.Our data suggest that a PI3K/P-Rex/Rac pathway is required for late phase LTP in the mouse cerebellum, and that other PI3K targets, which remain to be discovered, control LTP induction.

  16. Rac1 Activation Caused by Membrane Translocation of a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor in Akt2-Mediated Insulin Signaling in Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Takenaka

    Full Text Available Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT4, which is translocated to the plasma membrane following insulin stimulation. Several lines of evidence suggested that the protein kinase Akt2 plays a key role in this insulin action. The small GTPase Rac1 has also been implicated as a regulator of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, acting downstream of Akt2. However, the mechanisms whereby Akt2 regulates Rac1 activity remain obscure. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor FLJ00068 has been identified as a direct regulator of Rac1 in Akt2-mediated signaling, but its characterization was performed mostly in cultured myoblasts. Here, we provide in vivo evidence that FLJ00068 indeed acts downstream of Akt2 as a Rac1 regulator by using mouse skeletal muscle. Small interfering RNA knockdown of FLJ00068 markedly diminished GLUT4 translocation to the sarcolemma following insulin administration or ectopic expression of a constitutively activated mutant of either phosphoinositide 3-kinase or Akt2. Additionally, insulin and these constitutively activated mutants caused the activation of Rac1 as shown by immunofluorescent microscopy using a polypeptide probe specific to activated Rac1 in isolated gastrocnemius muscle fibers and frozen sections of gastrocnemius muscle. This Rac1 activation was also abrogated by FLJ00068 knockdown. Furthermore, we observed translocation of FLJ00068 to the cell periphery following insulin stimulation in cultured myoblasts. Localization of FLJ00068 in the plasma membrane in insulin-stimulated, but not unstimulated, myoblasts and mouse gastrocnemius muscle was further affirmed by subcellular fractionation and subsequent immunoblotting. Collectively, these results strongly support a critical role of FLJ00068 in Akt2-mediated Rac1 activation in mouse skeletal muscle insulin signaling.

  17. Release of GTP Exchange Factor Mediated Down-Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signal Transduction through ABA-Induced Rapid Degradation of RopGEFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waadt, Rainer; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is critical to plant development and stress responses. Abiotic stress triggers an ABA signal transduction cascade, which is comprised of the core components PYL/RCAR ABA receptors, PP2C-type protein phosphatases, and protein kinases. Small GTPases of the ROP/RAC family act as negative regulators of ABA signal transduction. However, the mechanisms by which ABA controls the behavior of ROP/RACs have remained unclear. Here, we show that an Arabidopsis guanine nucleotide exchange factor protein RopGEF1 is rapidly sequestered to intracellular particles in response to ABA. GFP-RopGEF1 is sequestered via the endosome-prevacuolar compartment pathway and is degraded. RopGEF1 directly interacts with several clade A PP2C protein phosphatases, including ABI1. Interestingly, RopGEF1 undergoes constitutive degradation in pp2c quadruple abi1/abi2/hab1/pp2ca mutant plants, revealing that active PP2C protein phosphatases protect and stabilize RopGEF1 from ABA-mediated degradation. Interestingly, ABA-mediated degradation of RopGEF1 also plays an important role in ABA-mediated inhibition of lateral root growth. The presented findings point to a PP2C-RopGEF-ROP/RAC control loop model that is proposed to aid in shutting off ABA signal transduction, to counteract leaky ABA signal transduction caused by “monomeric” PYL/RCAR ABA receptors in the absence of stress, and facilitate signaling in response to ABA. PMID:27192441

  18. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Impact of Event Scale using a sample of World War II and Korean War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlin, M; Hunt, N; Robbins, I

    2000-12-01

    This study assessed the factor structure of the Impact of Event Scale (IES), a measure of intrusion and avoidance, using a sample of World War II and Korean War veterans who had experienced combat 40-50 years earlier. A series of 3 confirmatory factor analytic models were specified and estimated using LISREL 8.3. Model 1 specified a 1-factor model. Model 2 specified a correlated 2-factor model. Model 3 specified a 2-factor model with additional cross-factor loadings for Items 2 and 12. Model 3 was found to fit the data. In addition, this model was found to be a better explanation of the data than the other models. Also in addition, the correlations between the Intrusion and Avoidance factors and the 4 subscales of the 28-item General Health Questionnaire were examined to determine the distinctiveness of the two IES factors.

  19. Francisella tularensis elicits IL-10 via a PGE₂-inducible factor, to drive macrophage MARCH1 expression and class II down-regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Hunt

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a bacterial pathogen that uses host-derived PGE₂ to subvert the host's adaptive immune responses in multiple ways. Francisella-induced PGE₂ acts directly on CD4 T cells to blunt production of IFN-γ. Francisella-induced PGE₂ can also elicit production of a >10 kDa soluble host factor termed FTMØSN (F. tularensismacrophage supernatant, which acts on IFN-γ pre-activated MØ to down-regulate MHC class II expression via a ubiquitin-dependent mechanism, blocking antigen presentation to CD4 T cells. Here, we report that FTMØSN-induced down-regulation of MØ class II is the result of the induction of MARCH1, and that MØ expressing MARCH1 "resistant" class II molecules are resistant to FTMØSN-induced class II down-regulation. Since PGE₂ can induce IL-10 production and IL-10 is the only reported cytokine able to induce MARCH1 expression in monocytes and dendritic cells, these findings suggested that IL-10 is the active factor in FTMØSN. However, use of IL-10 knockout MØ established that IL-10 is not the active factor in FTMØSN, but rather that Francisella-elicited PGE₂ drives production of a >10 kDa host factor distinct from IL-10. This factor then drives MØ IL-10 production to induce MARCH1 expression and the resultant class II down-regulation. Since many human pathogens such as Salmonella typhi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Legionella pneumophila also induce production of host PGE₂, these results suggest that a yet-to-be-identified PGE₂-inducible host factor capable of inducing IL-10 is central to the immune evasion mechanisms of multiple important human pathogens.

  20. Identification and characterization of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptors in bovine adrenal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.M.; Kiess, W.; Beikler, T.; Simmler, P.; Reichel, M.; Adelmann, B.; Kessler, U.; Engelhardt, D. (Univ. of Munich (Germany))

    1994-03-01

    The authors have identified and characterized insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-II/mannose-6-phosphate (IGF-II/M6P) receptors in bovine adrenal cells. Iodine-125-labelled IGF-I ([[sup 125]I]IGF-I) binding was characteristic of the IGF-I receptor, and binding kinetics as well as receptor densities were similar in cortical and medullary membranes. Scatchard analysis of [[sup 125]I]IGF-I binding to cultured adrenocortical cells showed a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a K[sub d] of 1.4 nmol/l and an average of 150 000 binding sites/cell. Affinity cross-linking experiments displayed a band at an apparent molecular weight of 135 kD, corresponding to the size of the [alpha]-subunit of the IGF-I receptor. In analogy, the binding of [[sup 125]I]IGF-II to bovine adrenal membranes was characteristic of the IGF-II/M6P receptor and no differences between cortical and medullary membrane fractions were found. Scatchard analysis revealed a single class of high-affinity binding sites in adrenocortical cells with a K[sub d] of 1.1 nmol/l and an average of 280 000 binding sites/cell. The identity of the IGF-II/M6P receptor was confirmed by western blotting of adrenocortical membranes with an anti-IGF-II/M6P receptor antibody and by affinity cross-linking of adrenocortical cells with labeled IGF-II. In conclusion, the authors have identified and characterized IGF-I and IGF-II/M6P receptors in bovine adrenocortical as well as medullary cells. In both regions of the bovine adrenal gland the IGF-II/M6P receptor is much more abundant than the IGF-I receptor. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Appetitive aggression as a resilience factor against trauma disorders: appetitive aggression and PTSD in German World War II veterans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Weierstall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to traumatic stressors such as combat results in chronic symptoms of PTSD. However, previous findings suggest that former soldiers who report combat-related aggression to be appetitive are more resilient to develop PTSD. Appetitive Aggression should therefore prevent widespread mental suffering in perpetrators of severe atrocities even after decades. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To test the long-term relationship between trauma-related illness and attraction to aggression, we surveyed a sample of 51 German male World-War II veterans (age: M = 86.7, SD = 2.8. War-related appetitive aggression was assessed with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS. Current- and lifetime PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PSS-I. In a linear regression analysis accounting for 31% of the variance we found that veterans that score higher on the AAS show lower PSS-I symptom severity scores across their whole post-war lifetime (β = - .31, p = .014. The effect size and power were sufficient (f(2 = 0.51, (1-β = .99. The same was true for current PTSD (β = - .27, p = .030. CONCLUSIONS: Appetitive Aggression appears to be a resilience factor for negative long-term effects of combat experiences in perpetrators of violence. This result has practical relevance for preventing trauma-related mental suffering in Peace Corps and for designing adequate homecoming reception for veterans.

  2. Epidermal growth factor signalling controls myosin II planar polarity to orchestrate convergent extension movements during Drosophila tubulogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Saxena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most epithelial tubes arise as small buds and elongate by regulated morphogenetic processes including oriented cell division, cell rearrangements, and changes in cell shape. Through live analysis of Drosophila renal tubule morphogenesis we show that tissue elongation results from polarised cell intercalations around the tubule circumference, producing convergent-extension tissue movements. Using genetic techniques, we demonstrate that the vector of cell movement is regulated by localised epidermal growth factor (EGF signalling from the distally placed tip cell lineage, which sets up a distal-to-proximal gradient of pathway activation to planar polarise cells, without the involvement for PCP gene activity. Time-lapse imaging at subcellular resolution shows that the acquisition of planar polarity leads to asymmetric pulsatile Myosin II accumulation in the basal, proximal cortex of tubule cells, resulting in repeated, transient shortening of their circumferential length. This repeated bias in the polarity of cell contraction allows cells to move relative to each other, leading to a reduction in cell number around the lumen and an increase in tubule length. Physiological analysis demonstrates that animals whose tubules fail to elongate exhibit abnormal excretory function, defective osmoregulation, and lethality.

  3. Collagen Hydrogel Scaffold and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Accelerate Periodontal Healing of Class II Furcation Defects in Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Takehito; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Kato, Akihito; Ogawa, Kosuke; Yoshida, Takashi; Nishida, Erika; Murakami, Syusuke; Kosen, Yuta; Sugaya, Tsutomu; Kawanami, Masamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Collagen hydrogel scaffold exhibits bio-safe properties and facilitates periodontal wound healing. However, regenerated tissue volume is insufficient. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) up-regulates cell behaviors and subsequent wound healing. We evaluated whether periodontal wound healing is promoted by application of collagen hydrogel scaffold in combination with FGF2 in furcation defects in beagle dogs. Collagen hydrogel was fabricated from bovine type I collagen with an ascorbate-copper ion cross-linking system. Collagen hydrogel was mingled with FGF2 and injected into sponge-form collagen. Subsequently, FGF2 (50 µg)/collagen hydrogel scaffold and collagen hydrogel scaffold alone were implanted into class II furcation defects in dogs. In addition, no implantation was performed as a control. Histometric parameters were assessed at 10 days and 4 weeks after surgery. FGF2 application to scaffold promoted considerable cell and tissue ingrowth containing numerous cells and blood vessel-like structure at day 10. At 4 weeks, reconstruction of alveolar bone was stimulated by implantation of scaffold loaded with FGF2. Furthermore, periodontal attachment, consisting of cementum-like tissue, periodontal ligament-like tissue and Sharpey's fibers, was also repaired, indicating that FGF2-loaded scaffold guided self-assembly and then re-established the function of periodontal organs. Aberrant healing, such as ankylosis and root resorption, was not observed. FGF2-loaded collagen hydrogel scaffold possessed excellent biocompatibility and strongly promoted periodontal tissue engineering, including periodontal attachment re-organization.

  4. In Silico Analysis for Transcription Factors With Zn(II2C6 Binuclear Cluster DNA-Binding Domains in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Maicas

    2005-01-01

    presence of the CysX2CysX6CysX5-16CysX2CysX6-8Cys motif and a putative nuclear localization signal. Using this approach, 70 putative Zn(II2C6 transcription factors have been found in the genome of C. albicans.

  5. The transcription factor EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS II activates the MYB ODORANT1 promoter at a MYB binding site specific for fragrant petunias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Moerkercke, A.; Haring, M.A.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Fragrance production in petunia flowers is highly regulated. Two transcription factors, ODORANT1 (ODO1) and EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS II (EOBII) have recently been identified as regulators of the volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid pathway in petals. Unlike the non-fragrant Petunia hybrida cultivar R27,

  6. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  7. Angiotensin II induces hypertrophy of human airway smooth muscle cells: expression of transcription factors and transforming growth factor-beta1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. McKay (Sue); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan); H.S. Sharma (Hari)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIncreased smooth muscle mass due to hyperplasia and hypertrophy of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells is a common feature in asthma. Angiotensin II (Ang II), a potent vasoconstrictor and mitogen for a wide variety of cells, has recently been implicated in

  8. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Jonscher, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A problem exists in reducing the total heating power required to extract oxygen from lunar regolith. All such processes require heating a great deal of soil, and the heat energy is wasted if it cannot be recycled from processed material back into new material. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-hand - ed auger, and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite direction by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement, a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith, and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two. The unique feature of this system is that it allows for counterflow heat exchange to occur between solids, instead of liquids or gases, as is commonly done. In addition, in variants of this concept, the hydrogen reduction can be made to occur within the counterflow heat exchanger itself, enabling a simplified lunar ISRU (in situ resource utilization) system with excellent energy economy and continuous nonbatch mode operation.

  9. Influence of the ionic strength and solid/solution ratio on Ca(II)-for-Na+ exchange on montmorillonite. Part 2: Understanding the effect of the m/V ratio. Implications for pore water composition and element transport in natural media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertre, E; Ferrage, E; Bihannic, I; Michot, L J; Prêt, D

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present paper is to clarify previous results showing that selectivity coefficients determined for the exchange of Na(+) for Ca(2+) in montmorillonite were dependent on the solid/solution ratio. The organization of montmorillonite suspensions upon Na(+)/Ca(II) exchange was analyzed by combining optical microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray diffraction. All samples displayed flocculated characteristics, eliminating the possibility of contrasting accessibility of sorption sites with the solid/solution ratio. Modeling of experimental X-ray diffraction patterns was used to quantify the relative proportions of interlayer Ca(2+) and Na(+) cations along the exchange isotherm. The results further confirmed the influence of the solid/solution ratio on the degree of interlayer Ca(II)-for-Na(+) exchange, and specific selectivity coefficients for interlayer sites were determined. The effect of the solid/solution ratio was finally interpreted by the resulting local changes in the solution chemistry. We demonstrated that by accounting for the Donnan effect, the different data can be interpreted using a single selectivity coefficient. The obtained Kc constant was successfully applied to interpret existing hydrogeochemical data on a natural aquitard. This most likely represents a more constrained and valid approach for the modeling of reactive element transport in natural media than does the poorly defined Kd parameter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Higher Response of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Angiotensin-II to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Junwei Qu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research investigated the response of vascular active factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and angiotensin-II (AT-II to ovarian stimulation during 24 hours in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 52 patients with PCOS and 8 control cases were stimulated with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG on the 4th to 7th day of the patients’ natural or induced menstrual cycles. We measured VEGF and AT-II by radioimmunoassay before the injection (0 hour and 3, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours after the stimulation. Results: After ovarian stimulation, there was substantially higher level of VEGF in typical PCOS patients than the other three groups at the 3 hour time point (p<0.05, while there were no significant differences in VEGF at all the other time points among the four groups. As for AT-II, before and at all time points after the ovarian stimulation, it seemed that the AT-II levels in patients’ sera with different phenotypes of PCOS by the Rotterdam criteria were all higher than in the control group although the differences were not statistically significant. The level of AT-II in typical PCOS patients was also significantly higher than the other three groups at the 3 hour time point (p<0.05, while no significant differences at all the other time points among the four groups were observed. Conclusion: The response to the stimulation varied among patients with different phenotypes of PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria. Serum VEGF and AT-II were possible contributors to an increased risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS in patients with typical PCOS during the early follicular phase (3 hours after ovarian stimulation (Registration Number: NCT02265861.

  11. Effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor on the intraocular growth factors and their receptors in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Ik Soo Byon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI on intraocular growth factors and their receptors in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control, diabetes mellitus (DM, candesartan-treated DM, and enalapril-treated DM (each group, n=10. After the induction of DM by streptozotocin, candesartan [ARB, 5 mg/(kg·d] and enalapril [ACEI, 10 mg/(kg·d] were administered to rats orally for 4wk. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and angiotensin II (Ang II concentrations in the vitreous were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and VEGF receptor 2 and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R levels were assessed at week 4 by Western blotting. RESULTS: Vitreous Ang II levels were significantly higher in the DM group and candesartan-treated DM group than in the control (P=0.04 and 0.005, respectively. Vitreous AT1R increased significantly in DM compared to the other three groups (P<0.007. Candesartan-treated DM rats showed higher vitreal AT1R concentration than the enalapril-treated DM group and control (P<0.001 and P=0.005, respectively. No difference in vitreous Ang II and AT1R concentration was found between the enalapril-treated DM group and control. VEGF and its receptor were below the minimum detection limit in all 4 groups. CONCLUSION: Increased Ang II and AT1R in the hyperglycemic state indicate activated the intraocular renin-angiotensin system, which is inhibited more effectively by systemic ACEI than systemic ARB.

  12. Investigating the effects of liquidity and exchange rate on Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younos Vakil Alroaia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of two macroeconomic factors; namely exchange rate and liquidity on stock index. The proposed study was applied in Iran and on major index of Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2001-2011. They reported that the currency exchange maintained negative impact on stock exchange for the period of investigation. This is due to the fact that when currency devalued, working capital decreases and firms did not enough money to purchase raw materials, pay wages, etc. In addition, liquidity marinated a direct and positive relationship with exchange index. However, the impact of liquidity seems to be bigger than currency exchange.

  13. Krüppel-like factor KLF10 regulates transforming growth factor receptor II expression and TGF-β signaling in CD8+ T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Konstantinos A; Krempski, James; Reiter, Jesse; Svingen, Phyllis; Xiong, Yuning; Sarmento, Olga F; Huseby, April; Johnson, Aaron J; Lomberk, Gwen A; Urrutia, Raul A; Faubion, William A

    2015-03-01

    KLF10 has recently elicited significant attention as a transcriptional regulator of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling in CD4(+) T cells. In the current study, we demonstrate a novel role for KLF10 in the regulation of TGF-β receptor II (TGF-βRII) expression with functional relevance in antiviral immune response. Specifically, we show that KLF10-deficient mice have an increased number of effector/memory CD8(+) T cells, display higher levels of the T helper type 1 cell-associated transcription factor T-bet, and produce more IFN-γ following in vitro stimulation. In addition, KLF10(-/-) CD8(+) T cells show enhanced proliferation in vitro and homeostatic proliferation in vivo. Freshly isolated CD8(+) T cells from the spleen of adult mice express lower levels of surface TGF-βRII (TβRII). Congruently, in vitro activation of KLF10-deficient CD8(+) T cells upregulate TGF-βRII to a lesser extent compared with wild-type (WT) CD8(+) T cells, which results in attenuated Smad2 phosphorylation following TGF-β1 stimulation compared with WT CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that KLF10 directly binds to the TGF-βRII promoter in T cells, leading to enhanced gene expression. In vivo viral infection with Daniel's strain Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) also led to lower expression of TGF-βRII among viral-specific KLF10(-/-) CD8(+) T cells and a higher percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD8(+) T cells in the spleen. Collectively, our data reveal a critical role for KLF10 in the transcriptional activation of TGF-βRII in CD8(+) T cells. Thus, KLF10 regulation of TGF-βRII in this cell subset may likely play a critical role in viral and tumor immune responses for which the integrity of the TGF-β1/TGF-βRII signaling pathway is crucial. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Activation of Transcription Factor Nrf2 Signalling by the Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor SKI-II Is Mediated by the Formation of Keap1 Dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Nicolas; Kizawa, Yasuo; Ueda, Keitaro; Xiong, Yeping; Kimura, Genki; Moses, Audric; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Anti-oxidant capacity is crucial defence against environmental or endogenous oxidative stress. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that plays a key defensive role against oxidative and cytotoxic stress and cellular senescence. However, Nrf2 signalling is impaired in several aging-related diseases, such as chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD), cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, novel therapeutics that enhance Nrf2 signalling are an attractive approach to treat these diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings Nrf2 was stabilized by SKI-II (2-(p-hydroxyanilino)-4-(p-chlorophenyl) thiazole), which is a known sphingosine kinase inhibitor, in human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS2B, and in primary human bronchial epithelial cells, leading to enhancement of anti-oxidant proteins, such as HO-1, NQO1 and GCLM. The activation of Nrf2 was achieved by the generation of inactive dimerized form of Keap1, a negative regulator of Nrf2 expression, which was independent of sphingosine kinase inhibition. Using mice that were exposed to cigarette smoke, SKI-II induced Nrf2 expression together with HO-1 in their lungs. In addition, SKI-II reduced cigarette smoke mediated oxidative stress, macrophages and neutrophil infiltration and markers of inflammation in mice. Conclusions/Significance SKI-II appears to be a novel activator of Nrf2 signalling via the inactivation of Keap1. PMID:24505412

  15. Australian Universities' Strategic Goals of Student Exchange and Participation Rates in Outbound Exchange Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda; Barker, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    International student exchange programmes are acknowledged as one aspect of a broader suite of internationalisation strategies aimed at enhancing students' intercultural understanding and competence. The decision to participate in an exchange programme is dependent on both individual and contextual factors such as student exchange policies and…

  16. The amino acid exchange R28E in ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) abrogates interleukin-6 receptor-dependent but retains CNTF receptor-dependent signaling via glycoprotein 130 (gp130)/leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Eva-Maria; Aurich, Matthias; Aparicio-Siegmund, Samadhi; Floss, Doreen M; Garbers, Christoph; Breusing, Kati; Rabe, Björn; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Grötzinger, Joachim; Rose-John, Stefan; Scheller, Jürgen

    2014-06-27

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neurotrophic factor with therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, therapeutic application of CNTF reduced body weight in mice and humans. CNTF binds to high or low affinity receptor complexes consisting of CNTFR·gp130·LIFR or IL-6R·gp130·LIFR, respectively. Clinical studies of the CNTF derivative Axokine revealed intolerance at higher concentrations, which may rely on the low-affinity binding of CNTF to the IL-6R. Here, we aimed to generate a CNTFR-selective CNTF variant (CV). CV-1 contained the single amino acid exchange R28E. Arg(28) is in close proximity to the CNTFR binding site. Using molecular modeling, we hypothesized that Arg(28) might contribute to IL-6R/CNTFR plasticity of CNTF. CV-2 to CV-5 were generated by transferring parts of the CNTFR-binding site from cardiotrophin-like cytokine to CNTF. Cardiotrophin-like cytokine selectively signals via the CNTFR·gp130·LIFR complex, albeit with a much lower affinity compared with CNTF. As shown by immunoprecipitation, all CNTF variants retained the ability to bind to CNTFR. CV-1, CV-2, and CV-5, however, lost the ability to bind to IL-6R. Although all variants induced cytokine-dependent cellular proliferation and STAT3 phosphorylation via CNTFR·gp130·LIFR, only CV-3 induced STAT3 phosphorylation via IL-6R·gp130·LIFR. Quantification of CNTF-dependent proliferation of CNTFR·gp130·LIFR expressing cells indicated that only CV-1 was as biologically active as CNTF. Thus, the CNTFR-selective CV-1 will allow discriminating between CNTFR- and IL-6R-mediated effects in vivo. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. The Amino Acid Exchange R28E in Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) Abrogates Interleukin-6 Receptor-dependent but Retains CNTF Receptor-dependent Signaling via Glycoprotein 130 (gp130)/Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor (LIFR)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Eva-Maria; Aurich, Matthias; Aparicio-Siegmund, Samadhi; Floss, Doreen M.; Garbers, Christoph; Breusing, Kati; Rabe, Björn; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Grötzinger, Joachim; Rose-John, Stefan; Scheller, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neurotrophic factor with therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, therapeutic application of CNTF reduced body weight in mice and humans. CNTF binds to high or low affinity receptor complexes consisting of CNTFR·gp130·LIFR or IL-6R·gp130·LIFR, respectively. Clinical studies of the CNTF derivative Axokine revealed intolerance at higher concentrations, which may rely on the low-affinity binding of CNTF to the IL-6R. Here, we aimed to generate a CNTFR-selective CNTF variant (CV). CV-1 contained the single amino acid exchange R28E. Arg28 is in close proximity to the CNTFR binding site. Using molecular modeling, we hypothesized that Arg28 might contribute to IL-6R/CNTFR plasticity of CNTF. CV-2 to CV-5 were generated by transferring parts of the CNTFR-binding site from cardiotrophin-like cytokine to CNTF. Cardiotrophin-like cytokine selectively signals via the CNTFR·gp130·LIFR complex, albeit with a much lower affinity compared with CNTF. As shown by immunoprecipitation, all CNTF variants retained the ability to bind to CNTFR. CV-1, CV-2, and CV-5, however, lost the ability to bind to IL-6R. Although all variants induced cytokine-dependent cellular proliferation and STAT3 phosphorylation via CNTFR·gp130·LIFR, only CV-3 induced STAT3 phosphorylation via IL-6R·gp130·LIFR. Quantification of CNTF-dependent proliferation of CNTFR·gp130·LIFR expressing cells indicated that only CV-1 was as biologically active as CNTF. Thus, the CNTFR-selective CV-1 will allow discriminating between CNTFR- and IL-6R-mediated effects in vivo. PMID:24802752

  18. Effect of topical propranolol gel on plasma renin, angiotensin II and vascular endothelial growth factor in superficial infantile hemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu-juan; Zhang, Zai-zhong; Chen, Shao-quan; Chen, Shu-ming; Li, Cheng-jin; Chen, Jian-wei; Yuan, Bo; Xia, Yin; Wang, Lie

    2015-10-01

    The effect of topical propranolol gel on the levels of plasma renin, angiotensin II (ATII) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in superficial infantile hemangiomas (IHs) was investigated. Thirty-three consecutive children with superficial IHs were observed pre-treatment, 1 and 3 months after application of topical propranolol gel for the levels of plasma renin, ATII and VEGF in Department of General Surgery of Dongfang Hospital from February 2013 to February 2014. The plasma results of IHs were compared with those of 30 healthy infants of the same age from out-patient department. The clinical efficiency of topical propranolol gel at 1st, and 3rd month after application was 45%, and 82% respectively. The levels of plasma renin, ATII and VEGF in patients pre-treatment were higher than those in healthy infants (565.86 ± 49.66 vs. 18.19 ± 3.56, 3.20 ± 0.39 vs 0.30 ± 0.03, and 362.16 ± 27.29 vs. 85.63 ± 8.14, P renin at 1st and 3rd month after treatment were decreased obviously as compared with those pre-treatment (271.51 ± 18.59 vs. 362.16 ± 27.29, and 405.18 ± 42.52 vs. 565.86 ± 49.66 P 0.05). It was indicated that the increased renin, ATII and VEGF might play a role in the onset or development of IHs. Propranolol gel may suppress the proliferation of IHs by reducing VEGF.

  19. Insulin-like growth factors I and II in starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus): molecular cloning and differential expression during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongjiang; Zang, Kun; Liu, Xuezhou; Shi, Bao; Li, Cunyu; Shi, Xueying

    2015-02-01

    In order to elucidate the possible roles of insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) in the embryonic development of Platichthys stellatus, their cDNAs were isolated and their spatial expression pattern in adult organs and temporal expression pattern throughout embryonic development were examined by quantitative real-time PCR assay. The IGF-I cDNA sequence was 1,268 bp in length and contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 558 bp, which encoded 185 amino acid residues. With respect to IGF-II, the full-length cDNA was 899 bp in length and contained a 648-bp ORF, which encoded 215 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequences of IGF-I and IGF-II exhibited high identities with their fish counterparts. The highest IGF-I mRNA level was found in the liver for both sexes, whereas the IGF-II gene was most abundantly expressed in female liver and male liver, gill, and brain. The sex-specific and spatial expression patterns of IGF-I and IGF-II mRNAs are thought to be related to the sexually dimorphic growth and development of starry flounder. Both IGF-I and IGF-II mRNAs were detected in unfertilized eggs, which indicated that IGF-I and IGF-II were parentally transmitted. Nineteen embryonic development stages were tested. IGF-I mRNA level remained high from unfertilized eggs to low blastula followed by a significant decrease at early gastrula and then maintained a lower level. In contrast, IGF-II mRNA level was low from unfertilized eggs to high blastula and peaked at low blastula followed by a gradual decrease. Moreover, higher levels of IGF-I mRNA than that of IGF-II were found from unfertilized eggs to high blastula, vice versa from low blastula to newly hatched larva, and the different expression pattern verified the differential roles of IGF-I and IGF-II in starry flounder embryonic development. These results could help in understanding the endocrine mechanism involved in the early development and growth of starry flounder.

  20. Sites involved in intra- and interdomain allostery associated with the activation of factor VIIa pinpointed by hydrogen-deuterium exchange and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Hongjian; Olsen, Ole H; Persson, Egon

    2014-01-01

    enhancement remain elusive. Here we have applied hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry coupled to electron transfer dissociation to pinpoint individual residues in the heavy chain of FVIIa whose conformation and/or local interaction pattern changes when the enzyme transitions to the active form...

  1. Copper(II and lead(II complexation by humic acid and humic-like ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA KOSTIĆ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The stability of metal–humate complexes is an important factor determining and predicting speciation, mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals in the environment. A comparative investigation of the complexation of Cu(II and Pb(II with humic acid and humic-like ligands, such as benzoic and salicylic acid, was performed. The analysis was realized at pH 4.0, a temperature of 25 °C and at an ionic strength of 0.01 mol dm-3 (NaCl using the Schubert ion-exchange method and its modified form. The stability constants were calculated from the experimental data by the Schubert method for complexes with benzoic and humic acid. A modified Schubert method was used for the determination of the stability constants of the complexes with salicylic acid. It was found that Cu(II and Pb(II form mononuclear complexes with benzoic and humic acid while with salicylic acid both metals form polynuclear complexes. The results indicate that Pb(II has a higher binding ability than Cu(II to all the investigated ligands. The Cu(II–salicylate and Pb(II–salicylate complexes showed noticeable higher stability constants compared with their complexes with humic acid, while the stabilities of the complexes with benzoic acid differed less. Salicylic and benzoic acids as humic-like ligands can be used for setting the range of stability constants of humic complexes with Cu(II and Pb(II.

  2. The Drosophila transcription factor Adf-1 (nalyot) regulates dendrite growth by controlling FasII and Staufen expression downstream of CaMKII and neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Christina; Suppiah, Somu; Gurudatta, Baraka V; Yang, Jingping; Banerjee, Christopher; Sandstrom, David J; Corces, Victor G; Sanyal, Subhabrata

    2013-07-17

    Memory deficits in Drosophila nalyot mutants suggest that the Myb family transcription factor Adf-1 is an important regulator of developmental plasticity in the brain. However, the cellular functions for this transcription factor in neurons or molecular mechanisms by which it regulates plasticity remain unknown. Here, we use in vivo 3D reconstruction of identifiable larval motor neuron dendrites to show that Adf-1 is required cell autonomously for dendritic development and activity-dependent plasticity of motor neurons downstream of CaMKII. Adf-1 inhibition reduces dendrite growth and neuronal excitability, and results in motor deficits and altered transcriptional profiles. Surprisingly, analysis by comparative chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-Seq) of Adf-1, RNA Polymerase II (Pol II), and histone modifications in Kc cells shows that Adf-1 binding correlates positively with high Pol II-pausing indices and negatively with active chromatin marks such as H3K4me3 and H3K27ac. Consistently, the expression of Adf-1 targets Staufen and Fasciclin II (FasII), identified through larval brain ChIP-Seq for Adf-1, is negatively regulated by Adf-1, and manipulations of these genes predictably modify dendrite growth. Our results imply mechanistic interactions between transcriptional and local translational machinery in neurons as well as conserved neuronal growth mechanisms mediated by cell adhesion molecules, and suggest that CaMKII, Adf-1, FasII, and Staufen influence crucial aspects of dendrite development and plasticity with potential implications for memory formation. Further, our experiments reveal molecular details underlying transcriptional regulation by Adf-1, and indicate active interaction between Adf-1 and epigenetic regulators of gene expression during activity-dependent neuronal plasticity.

  3. Processing of the insulin-like growth factor-II-mannose 6-phosphate receptor in isolated liver subcellular fractions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tahiri K; Cam L; Desbuquois B; Chauvet G

    2001-01-01

    .... The receptor in plasma membrane fractions differed from that in Golgi-endosomal fractions by: (i) a lower molecular size upon reducing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (245 vs. 255 kDa); (ii...

  4. Role of aberrant iron homeostasis in the upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta1 in the kidney of angiotensin II-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kan; Ishizaka, Nobukazu; Aizawa, Toru; Sata, Masataka; Iso-O, Naoyuki; Noiri, Eisei; Ohno, Minoru; Nagai, Ryozo

    2004-08-01

    We have previously shown that abnormal iron metabolism might be one underlying mechanism of the renal damage observed in the angiotensin II-infused rat. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is known to play a crucial role in the development of renal damage induced by activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an iron chelator and a free radical scavenger on the angiotensin II-induced upregulation of TGF-beta1 in the kidney. Rats were given angiotensin II (0.7 mg/kg/day) via osmotic minipumps for 7 days. The expressions of the mRNAs of TGF-beta1 and collagen types I and IV were significantly increased in response to angiotensin II treatment. Histologic analysis showed that TGF-beta1 expression was upregulated mainly in tubular epithelial cells, and occasionally in glomerular and perivascular cells, some of which were identified as monocytes and/or macrophages. Although tubular cells that overexpressed TGF-beta1 did not contain iron particles, angiotensin II-induced TGF-beta1 upregulation was suppressed by the iron chelator and the free radical scavenger. The free radical scavenger also suppressed angiotensin II-induced upregulation of heme oxygenase-1, an oxidative-stress sensitive gene. By contrast, administration of iron dextran to rats induced upregulation of TGF-beta1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that the renal iron overload and presumed subsequent increase in oxidative stress play a role in angiotensin II-induced upregulation of the mRNAs of TGF-beta1 and collagen types I and IV in the kidney.

  5. Expression analysis of the insulin-like growth factors I and II during embryonic and early larval development of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Haishen; Qi, Qian; Hu, Jian; Si, Yufeng; He, Feng; Li, Jifang

    2015-04-01

    The insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) are important proteins involved in fish growth and development. Here, we report the isolation of IGF-II and expression analysis of IGFs in turbot Scophthalmus maximus, aiming to clarify their function in embryonic and larval development of fish. The deduced IGF-II gene is 808 bp in full length, which encodes a protein of 219 amino acids and is 93% similar with that of Paralichthys olicaceus in amino acid sequence. The tissue abundance and the expression pattern of IGFs in a turbot at early development stages were investigated via reverse transcription-polymer chain reaction. Result showed that the IGF-I and IGF-II genes were widely expressed in tissues of S. maximus. IGF-I was detected in all tissues except intestines with the highest level in liver, while IGF-II transcript presented in all tissues except muscle. At the stages of embryonic and larval development, the mRNA levels of IGFs sharply increased from the stage of unfertilized egg to post larva, followed by a decrease with larval development. However, there was an increase in IGF-I at the embryonic stage and IGF-II at the gastrula stage, respectively. These results suggested that IGFs play important roles in cell growth and division of the turbot. Our study provides reference data for further investigation of growth regulation in turbot, which can guarantee better understanding of the physiological role that IGFs play in fish.

  6. Hypoglycemia in a dog with a leiomyoma of the gastric wall producing an insulin-like growth factor II-like peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boari, A; Barreca, A; Bestetti, G E; Minuto, F; Venturoli, M

    1995-06-01

    A 12-year-old mixed-breed male dog was referred to the Clinica Medica Veterinaria of Bologna University for recurrent episodes of seizures due to hypoglycemia with abnormally low plasma insulin levels (18 pmol/l). Resection of a large leiomyoma (780 g) of the gastric wall resulted in a permanent resolution of the hypoglycemic episodes. Insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and -II) were measured by RIA in serum before and after surgery and in tumor tissue. Results were compared to the serum concentration of 54 normal and to the tissue concentration observed in eight non-hypoglycemic dog gastric wall extracts. Before surgery, circulating immunoreactive IGF-I was 0.92 nmol/l, which is significantly lower than the control values (16.92 +/- 8.44 nmol/l, range 3.53-35.03), while IGF-II was 152 nmol/l, which is significantly higher than the control values (42.21 +/- 3.75, range 31.99-50.74). After surgery, IGF-I increased to 6.80 nmol/l while IGF-II decreased to 45.52 nmol/l. Tumor tissue IGF-II concentration was higher than normal (5.66 nmol/kg tissue as compared to a range in normal gastric wall tissue of 1.14-3.72 nmol/kg), while IGF-I was 0.08 nmol/kg tissue, which is close to the lowest normal value (range in controls, 0.08-1.18 nmol/kg). Partial characterization of IGF-II immunoreactivity extracted from tissue evidenced a molecular weight similar to that of mature IGF-II, thus excluding that peptide released by the tumor is a precursor molecule.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  8. UAP56 is an important mediator of Angiotensin II/platelet derived growth factor induced vascular smooth muscle cell DNA synthesis and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahni, Abha [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Wang, Nadan [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Alexis, Jeffrey, E-mail: jeffrey_alexis@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Knockdown of UAP56 inhibits Angiotensin II/PDGF induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. ► UAP56 is a positive regulator of E2F transcriptional activation. ► UAP56 is present in the vessel wall of low flow carotid arteries. -- Abstract: Angiotensin (Ang) II and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are important mediators of pathologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Identifying downstream mediators of Ang II and PDGF signaling may provide insights for therapies to improve vascular proliferative diseases. We have previously demonstrated that breakpoint cluster region (Bcr) is an important mediator of Ang II/PDGF signaling in VSMC. We have recently reported that the DExD/H box protein UAP56 is an interacting partner of Bcr in regulating VSMC DNA synthesis. We hypothesized that UAP56 itself is an important regulator of VSMC proliferation. In this report we demonstrate that knockdown of UAP56 inhibits Ang II/PDGF induced VSMC DNA synthesis and proliferation, and inhibits E2F transcriptional activity. In addition, we demonstrate that UAP56 is present in the vessel wall of low-flow carotid arteries. These findings suggest that UAP56 is a regulator of VSMC proliferation and identify UAP56 as a target for preventing vascular proliferative disease.

  9. Electrically Switched Cesium Ion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JPH Sukamto; ML Lilga; RK Orth

    1998-10-23

    This report discusses the results of work to develop Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) for separations of ions from waste streams relevant to DOE site clean-up. ESIX combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for radionuclide separation that lowers costs and minimizes secondary waste generation typically associated with conventional ion exchange. In the ESIX process, an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto. a high surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. As a result, the production of secondary waste is minimized, since the large volumes of solution associated with elution, wash, and regeneration cycles typical of standard ion exchange are not needed for the ESIX process. The document is presented in two parts: Part I, the Summary Report, discusses the objectives of the project, describes the ESIX concept and the approach taken, and summarizes the major results; Part II, the Technology Description, provides a technical description of the experimental procedures and in-depth discussions on modeling, case studies, and cost comparisons between ESIX and currently used technologies.

  10. Effect of iron deficiency on the expression of insulin-like growth factor-II and its receptor in neuronal and glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales González, E; Contreras, I; Estrada, J A

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that iron deficiency modifies the normal function of the central nervous system and alters cognitive abilities. When cellular damage occurs in the central nervous system, neuroprotective mechanisms, such as the production of neurotrophic factors, are essential in order for nervous tissue to function correctly. Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF- II) is a neurotrophic factor that was recently shown to be involved in the normal functioning of cognitive processes in animal models. However, the impact of iron deficiency on the expression and function of this molecule has not yet been clarified. Mixed primary cell cultures from the central nervous system were collected to simulate iron deficiency using deferoxamine. The expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR, and IGF-IIR was determined with the western blot test. We observed increased expression of IGF-II, along with a corresponding decrease in the expression of IGF-IIR, in iron-deficient mixed primary cell cultures. We did not observe alterations in the expression of these proteins in isolated microglia or neuronal cultures under the same conditions. We did not detect differences in the expression of IGF-I and IGF-IR in iron-deficient cultures. In vitro iron deficiency increases the expression of IGF-II in mixed glial cell cultures, which may have a beneficial effect on brain tissue homeostasis in a situation in which iron availability is decreased. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. 77 FR 60484 - PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... COMMISSION PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, et al.; Notice of Application September 26, 2012. AGENCY... companies. Applicants: PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust, PowerShares Exchange-Traded Fund Trust II, PowerShares Actively Managed Exchange- Traded Fund Trust (each, a ``Trust'') and Invesco PowerShares...

  12. 76 FR 50503 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend ISE Rule 2128 To Extend the Pilot Program August 9... Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission....ise.com , at the principal office of the Exchange, and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II...

  13. 76 FR 20733 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend ISE Rule 2128 To Extend the Pilot Program April 7... Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission....ise.com , at the principal office of the Exchange, and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II...

  14. 77 FR 5081 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend ISE Rule 2128 to Extend the Pilot Program January... Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or the ``ISE'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission....ise.com , at the principal office of the Exchange, and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II...

  15. MEDIUL ACADEMIC CA FACTOR DE ASIGURARE A CONTINUITĂŢII ŞI INTERCONEXIUNII DINTRE CICLURILE ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNTULUI SUPERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia ŞEVCIUC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available În articol este abordată problema privind mediul academic ca factor de asigurare a continuităţii şi interconexiunii dintre ciclurile învăţământului superior. În acest sens sunt analizate diferite concepte cu referire la mediul academic, sunt deduse principiile de concepere a unui mediu academic eficient, dar şi modalităţi de realizare a continuităţii şi inter­conexiunii dintre ciclurile învăţământului superior. Sunt propuse sugestii de asigurare a continuităţii şi interconexiunii dintre ciclurile învăţământului superior.ACADEMIC ENVIRONMENT AS A FACTOR IN ENSURING CONTINUITY AND INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN CYCLES OF HIGHER EDUCATIONThe article addressed academics as a factor of continuity and interconnection between cycles of higher education. In this sense analyzed different concepts with reference to academia, they are deducted design principles of an academic environment effectively, but also ways of continuity and interconnection between cycles of higher education, are proposed suggestions to ensure continuity and interconnection between cycles of higher education.

  16. INTEGRAREA COMPETENŢELOR – FACTOR DE ASIGURARE A CALITĂŢII PREGĂTIRII PROFESIONALE A ABSOLVENŢILOR UNIVERSITARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora VASCAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asigurarea calităţii învăţământului rămâne a fi o problemă majoră în şcoala superioară din Republica Moldova. Are loc o căutare permanentă de noi metode, tehnologii, mecanisme care ar contribui la rezolvarea acestei probleme. Una dintre metode este realizarea procesului de instruire prin relaţii interdisciplinare. În articol este examinată problema in­tegrării competenţelor matematice şi a celor informatice ca factor de asigurare a calităţii pregătirii specialiştilor de înaltă calificare.INTEGRATION OF COMPETENCES – QUALITY ASSURANCE FACTOR IN THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF UNIVERSITY GRADUATESAssuring the quality of education remains a major problem in high education in the Republic of Moldova. There is a continuous search for new methods, technologies, mechanisms that would contribute to solving this problem. One of such methods is the realisation of the training process through interdisciplinary connections. In this article, the problem of integrating mathematical and computer science competences as a factor of quality assurance of the training of highly qualified specialists is examined.

  17. Host Factors Influencing the Retrohoming Pathway of Group II Intron RmInt1, Which Has an Intron-Encoded Protein Naturally Devoid of Endonuclease Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nisa-Martínez

    Full Text Available Bacterial group II introns are self-splicing catalytic RNAs and mobile retroelements that have an open reading frame encoding an intron-encoded protein (IEP with reverse transcriptase (RT and RNA splicing or maturase activity. Some IEPs carry a DNA endonuclease (En domain, which is required to cleave the bottom strand downstream from the intron-insertion site for target DNA-primed reverse transcription (TPRT of the inserted intron RNA. Host factors complete the insertion of the intron. By contrast, the major retrohoming pathway of introns with IEPs naturally lacking endonuclease activity, like the Sinorhizobium meliloti intron RmInt1, is thought to involve insertion of the intron RNA into the template for lagging strand DNA synthesis ahead of the replication fork, with possible use of the nascent strand to prime reverse transcription of the intron RNA. The host factors influencing the retrohoming pathway of such introns have not yet been described. Here, we identify key candidates likely to be involved in early and late steps of RmInt1 retrohoming. Some of these host factors are common to En+ group II intron retrohoming, but some have different functions. Our results also suggest that the retrohoming process of RmInt1 may be less dependent on the intracellular free Mg2+ concentration than those of other group II introns.

  18. Annexin II binds progastrin and gastrin-like peptides, and mediates growth factor effects of autocrine and exogenous gastrins on colon cancer and intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Wu, H; Clark, C; Owlia, A

    2007-01-18

    We and others have reported the presence of novel progastrin (PG)/gastrin receptors on normal and cancerous intestinal cells. We had earlier reported the presence of 33-36 kDa gastrin-binding proteins on cellular membranes of colon cancer cells. The goal of the current study was to identify the protein(s) in the 33-36 kDa band, and analyse its functional significance. A carbodiimide crosslinker was used for crosslinking radio-labeled gastrins to membrane proteins from gastrin/PG responsive cell lines. Native membrane proteins, crosslinked to the ligand, were solubulized and enriched by >1000-fold, and analysed by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry. The peptide masses were researched against the NCBInr database using the ProFound search engine. Annexin II (ANX II) was identified, and confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry. As HCT-116 cells express autocrine PG, the in situ association of PG with ANX II was demonstrated in pulldown assays. Direct binding of PG with ANX II was confirmed in an in vitro binding assay. In order to confirm a functional importance of these observations, sense and anti-sense (AS) ANX II RNA-expressing clones of intestinal epithelial (IEC-18) and human colon cancer (HCT-116) cell lines were generated. AS clones demonstrated a significant loss in the growth response to exogenous (IEC-18) and autocrine (HCT-116) PG. We have thus discovered that membrane-associated ANX II binds PG/gastrins, and partially mediates growth factor effects of the peptides.

  19. The determinants of exchange rate in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel BENAZIC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dilemma for every country with an independent monetary policy is which kind of exchange rate arrangement should be applied. Through the exchange rate policy, countries can influence their economies, i.e. price stability and export competiveness. Croatia is a new EU member state, it has its own monetary policy and currency but it is on the way to euro introduction. Regarding the experiences from the beginning of the 1990s when Croatia was faced with serious monetary instabilities and hyperinflation, the goal of Croatian National Bank (CNB is to ensure price stability and one way to do so is through exchange rate policy. Croatia, as a small and open economy, has applied a managed floating exchange rate regime. The exchange rate is determined primarily by the foreign exchange supply and demand on the foreign exchange market, with occasional market interventions by the CNB. Therefore, in order to maintain exchange rate stability, policymakers must be able to recognize how changes in these factors affect changes in the exchange rate. This research aims to find a relationship among the main sources of foreign currency inflow and outflow and the level of exchange rate in Croatia. The analysis is carried out by using the bounds testing (ARDL approach for co-integration. The results indicate the existence of a stable co-integration relationship between the observed variables, whereby an increase in the majority of variables leads to an exchange rate appreciation.

  20. Immunocytochemical study of estrogen receptor activation factor (E-RAF and the proteins that interact with nuclear estrogen receptor II (nER II in epithelial endometrial cells, in the presence and in the absence of estradiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OM Echeverría

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The localization and abundance of the estrogen receptor activation factor (E-RAF and a small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP complex containing three proteins, p32, p55 and p60, which interact with the nuclear estrogen receptor II (nER II, have been studied in rat endometrial epithelial cells by means of immunofluorescence and high resolution quantitative immunocytochemistry. In the cytoplasm E-RAF is associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. In the nucleus it is mainly localized at the interchromatin space, and surrounding the clumps of compact or semi-condensed chromatin. Quantitative analyses show that the abundance of E-RAF in the nucleus increases after ovariectomy and decreases 3 minutes after estradiol administration. These results are in agreement with the currently available biochemical data. Double immunolocalizations demonstrate that p32, p55, p60 co-localize with other splicing-related protein. High resolution immunolocalization shows that p32, p55, p60 are associated with perichromatin fibrils (co-transcriptional splicing and with clusters of interchromatin granules (storage of splicing-related molecules. The nuclear abundance of the snRNP complex decreases with ovariectomy, increases within 3 minutes after estradiol administration and remains higher than that in ovariectomized animals for 27 minutes. These results strongly support the previous data on the role of nER-II in the regulation of mRNA transcription and its export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

  1. Thromboplastin-thrombomodulin-mediated time: a new global test sensitive to protein S deficiency and increased levels of factors II, V, VII and X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Montserrat; Llobet, Dolors; Ortín, Rosa; Felices, Rosa; Vallvé, Cristina; Mateo, José; Souto, Joan; Fontcuberta, Jordi

    2002-04-01

    A new test for screening the procoagulant capacity of plasma is described and evaluated. This test is based on the coagulation of plasma initiated by thromboplastin (Tp) in the presence of thrombomodulin (TM). In a previous paper we reported that this test had a significant phenotypic and genetic correlation with thrombosis susceptibility. The present report describes the characteristics of the test and its sensitivity to the concentration of some hemostasis factors. Plasma from normal subjects, from individuals with various disorders of hemostasis and plasma with different concentrations of factors II, V, VII, VIII, X, fibrinogen, protein C and protein S were studied. The thromboplastin-thrombomodulin-mediated time (Tp-TMT) is measured after mixing 100 mL of plasma diluted 1/10 at 37 C with 100 mL of a solution composed of 2 parts of thromboplastin, 1 part of thrombomodulin at 30 U/mL and 1 part of Owren's buffer. The results are expressed as the ratio of the patient's clotting time to that of the control. Values were compared with Student's t test and the Mann-Whitney test. Differences were considered statistically significant when p<0.05. In the control group women showed significantly lower values than men. Raised levels of factors II, V, VII and X reduced the coagulation time obtained with Tp-TM. Elevated concentrations of fibrinogen and factor VIII did not influence the test. The Tp-TMT was sensitive to protein S deficiencies, but not to protein C deficiencies. These results indicate that the effect of protein S on the test is through its anti-prothrombinase activity. Tp-TMT, which is correlated with thrombosis susceptibility, is sensitive to raised levels of factors II, V, VII and X, as well as to low levels of protein S, and may be an indicator of thrombosis risk.

  2. Arabidopsis Class I and Class II TCP Transcription Factors Regulate Jasmonic Acid Metabolism and Leaf Development Antagonistically1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin; van der Wal, Froukje; Dhondt, Stijn; Waites, Richard; de Folter, Stefan; Bimbo, Andrea; van Dijk, Aalt DJ; Muino, Jose M.; Cutri, Lucas; Dornelas, Marcelo C.; Angenent, Gerco C.; Immink, Richard G.H.

    2012-01-01

    TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors control developmental processes in plants. The 24 TCP transcription factors encoded in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome are divided into two classes, class I and class II TCPs, which are proposed to act antagonistically. We performed a detailed phenotypic analysis of the class I tcp20 mutant, showing an increase in leaf pavement cell sizes in 10-d-old seedlings. Subsequently, a glucocorticoid receptor induction assay was performed, aiming to identify potential target genes of the TCP20 protein during leaf development. The LIPOXYGENASE2 (LOX2) and class I TCP9 genes were identified as TCP20 targets, and binding of TCP20 to their regulatory sequences could be confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses. LOX2 encodes for a jasmonate biosynthesis gene, which is also targeted by class II TCP proteins that are under the control of the microRNA JAGGED AND WAVY (JAW), although in an antagonistic manner. Mutation of TCP9, the second identified TCP20 target, resulted in increased pavement cell sizes during early leaf developmental stages. Analysis of senescence in the single tcp9 and tcp20 mutants and the tcp9tcp20 double mutants showed an earlier onset of this process in comparison with wild-type control plants in the double mutant only. Both the cell size and senescence phenotypes are opposite to the known class II TCP mutant phenotype in JAW plants. Altogether, these results point to an antagonistic function of class I and class II TCP proteins in the control of leaf development via the jasmonate signaling pathway. PMID:22718775

  3. Factors influencing the ability of Pseudomonas putida strains epI and II to degrade the organophosphate ethoprophos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpouzas, D G; Walker, A

    2000-07-01

    Two strains of Pseudomonas putida (epI and epII), isolated previously from ethoprophos-treated soil, were able to degrade ethoprophos (10 mg 1(-1)) in a mineral salts medium plus nitrogen (MSMN) in less than 50 h with a concurrent population growth. Addition of glucose or succinate to MSMN did not influence the degrading ability of Ps. putida epI, but increased the lag phase before rapid degradation commenced with Ps. putida epII. The degrading ability of the two isolates was lost when the pesticide provided the sole source of phosphorus. Degradation of ethoprophos was most rapid when bacterial cultures were incubated at 25 and 37 degrees C. Pseudomonas putida epI was capable of completely degrading ethoprophos at a slow rate at 5 degrees C, compared with Ps. putida epII which could not completely degrade ethoprophos at the same time. Pseudomonas putida epI was capable of degrading ethoprophos when only 60 cells ml(-1) were used as initial inoculum. In contrast, Ps. putida epII was able to totally degrade ethoprophos when inoculum densities of 600 cells ml(-1) or higher were used. In general, longer lag phases accompanied the lower inoculum levels. Both isolates rapidly degraded ethoprophos in MSMN at pHs ranging from 5.5 to 7.6, but not at pH 5 or below.

  4. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not associated with improved survival for all high-risk factors in stage II colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, S.R.; Erning, F.N. van; Lemmens, V.E.; Wilt, J.H.W. de; Pruijt, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy can be considered in high-risk stage II colon cancer comprising pT4, poor/undifferentiated grade, vascular invasion, emergency surgery and/or <10 evaluated lymph nodes (LNs). Adjuvant chemotherapy administration and its effect on survival was evaluated for each known risk

  5. The Beck Depression Inventory II and the Beck Anxiety Inventory in People with Intellectual Disabilities: Factor Analyses and Group Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, William R.; Skene, Danielle D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: There have been several developments in research on emotional disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID). Although a large amount of work has been completed in mainstream clinical fields on the "Beck Anxiety Inventory" (BAI) and the "Beck Depression Inventory"-2nd Edition (BDI-II), to date there has been…

  6. Perioperative mortality and morbidity prediction using POSSUM, P-POSSUM and APACHE II in Chinese gastric cancer patients: surgical method is a key independent factor affecting prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yantian; Wu, Chunhsien; Gu, Xiaodong; Li, Zhengyang; Xiang, Jianbin; Chen, Zongyou

    2014-02-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. Predicting morbidity and mortality is important in deciding timing of surgery and type of surgery offered. APACHE II, POSSUM, and P-POSSUM are the most reliable scoring methods in use today. This is the first paper to evaluate the utility of all three scoring systems in China. We collected data on 851 patients (583 male and 268 female) who underwent surgery between 1991 and 2011. Physiological and pathological data was entered in spreadsheet format and analyzed using STATA version 11.0 to generate ROC curves for each scoring system. In predicting mortality, P-POSSUM and POSSUM were most effective and APACHE II was ineffective. POSSUM predicted a higher morbidity risk than was actually encountered. Age and type of operation were found to be independent risk factors for mortality. The utility of the APACHE II score in gastric cancer patients is limited. APACHE II is suitable for considering group versus individual effect. The POSSUM score is useful in general surgery, but needs improvement. We found the P-POSSUM score to be superior for morbidity and mortality prediction. P-POSSUM is useful for both the general population and for a specific cohort. The type of surgery is a key decision point for surgeons, and independently affects prognosis. Based upon these findings and clinical scoring systems, clinicians can develop individualized treatment algorithms.

  7. Binding of AP-1 Golgi adaptors to membranes requires phosphorylated cytoplasmic domains of the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Borgne, R; Schmidt, A; Mauxion, F; Griffiths, G; Hoflack, B

    1993-10-25

    In mammalian cells, clathrin-coated vesicles mediate transport of the lysosomal enzyme receptors from the trans-Golgi network to the endocytic pathway. A critical step of this process is the recruitment of Golgi-specific adaptors onto Golgi membranes for efficient clathrin polymerization. An in vitro assay was used here to quantitate this event in streptolysin-O-permeabilized NRK cells. At 37 degrees C, these interactions are cytosol- and energy-dependent, sensitive to GTP gamma S (guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate)) and brefeldin A. We report that Golgi-specific adaptor binding is enhanced in mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) receptor-overexpressing cells and reduced in mannose 6-phosphate receptor-deficient cells. Furthermore, adaptor binding is partially inhibited after addition of soluble cytoplasmic domains of the mannose 6-phosphate/IGF II receptor. Almost complete inhibition is only observed when this domain is phosphorylated on serines 2421 and 2492, a major modification acquired during exit of the receptor from the Golgi. These results show that the mannose 6-phosphate/IGF II receptor is part of the components that recruit the Golgi-specific adaptors and that its phosphorylation is an important feature for high affinity interactions with sorting components.

  8. Platelet factor 4-positive thrombi adhering to the ventricles of a ventricular assist device in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiras-Fernandez, A; Kanzler, I; Michel, S; Sadoni, S; Kilger, E; Beiras, A; Kur, F

    2013-06-01

    Thromboembolism is a major complication in patients with ventricular assist devices (VADs). Drug anticoagulation and the use of biocompatible surfaces, such as coating with heparin, aim to reduce thromboembolism in these patients. Administration of heparin can lead to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) type II, mainly through heparin/platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies. We assessed the presence of PF4 antibodies in VAD thrombi of patients with heparin-coated VADs and HIT II. Thrombi (n = 6) were obtained from the replaced Excor ventricles of patients with HIT II after biventricular VAD implantation (Excor Adult; Berlin Heart, Germany). Excor ventricles were changed after clinical examination and suspicion of thrombi in the polyurethane valves. Expression of PF4- antibodies was assessed with the use of a polyclonal rabbit antibody (anti-PF4 antibody; Abcam, USA). Expression was assessed by 2 independent observers. Biopsies of all thrombi showed an extreme positive immunoreaction for PF4. No differences between the different thrombi and localization (left/right Excor ventricle) were observed. The thrombi were organized, without lamination of fibrin and cellular layers. Platelet surface expression of PF4 in the thrombi reflects HIT antigen presentation. The physical relationship between the PF4-positive thrombi and the heparin-coated surface suggests that onset of HIT II could be influenced by the immobilized heparin coating. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The histone acetyltransferase domains of CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300/CBP-associated factor are not necessary for cooperativity with the class II transactivator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harton, J A; Zika, E; Ting, J P

    2001-10-19

    The class II transactivator (CIITA) is a transcriptional co-activator regulating the constitutive and interferon-gamma-inducible expression of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and related genes. Promoter remodeling occurs following CIITA induction, suggesting the involvement of chromatin remodeling factors. Transcription of numerous genes requires the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activities of CREB-binding protein (CBP), p300, and/or p300/CBP-associated factor (pCAF). These co-activators cooperate with CIITA and are hypothesized to promote class II major histocompatibility complex transcription through their HAT activity. To directly test this, we used HAT-defective CBP and pCAF. We demonstrate that cooperation between CIITA and CBP is independent of CBP HAT activity. Further, although pCAF enhances CIITA-mediated transcription, pCAF HAT domain dependence appears contingent upon the concentration of available CIITA. When HAT-defective CBP and pCAF are both present, cooperativity with CIITA is maintained. Consistent with a recent report, we show that nuclear localization of CIITA is enhanced by lysine 144, an in vitro target of pCAF-mediated HAT. Yet we find that neither mutation of lysine 144 nor deletion of residues 132-209 affects transcriptional cooperation with CBP or pCAF. Thus, acetylation of this residue may not be the primary mechanism for pCAF/CBP cooperation with CIITA. In conclusion, the HAT activities of the co-activators are not necessary for cooperation with CIITA.

  10. Growth suppression by transforming growth factor beta 1 of human small-cell lung cancer cell lines is associated with expression of the type II receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M; Skovgaard Poulsen, H

    1994-05-01

    Nine human small-cell lung cancer cell lines were treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). Seven of the cell lines expressed receptors for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta-r) in different combinations between the three human subtypes I, II and III, and two were receptor negative. Growth suppression was induced by TGF-beta 1 exclusively in the five cell lines expressing the type II receptor. For the first time growth suppression by TGF-beta 1 of a cell line expressing the type II receptor without coexpression of the type I receptor is reported. No effect on growth was observed in two cell lines expressing only type III receptor and in TGF-beta-r negative cell lines. In two cell lines expressing all three receptor types, growth suppression was accompanied by morphological changes. To evaluate the possible involvement of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in mediating the growth-suppressive effect of TGF-beta 1, the expression of functional pRb, as characterised by nuclear localisation, was examined by immunocytochemistry. Nuclear association of pRb was only seen in two of the five TGF-beta 1-responsive cell lines. These results indicate that in SCLC pRb is not required for mediation of TGF-beta 1-induced growth suppression.

  11. Polymorphisms in the F8 gene and MHC-II variants as risk factors for the development of inhibitory anti-factor VIII antibodies during the treatment of hemophilia a: a computational assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Shankar Pandey

    Full Text Available The development of neutralizing anti-drug-antibodies to the Factor VIII protein-therapeutic is currently the most significant impediment to the effective management of hemophilia A. Common non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (ns-SNPs in the F8 gene occur as six haplotypes in the human population (denoted H1 to H6 of which H3 and H4 have been associated with an increased risk of developing anti-drug antibodies. There is evidence that CD4+ T-cell response is essential for the development of anti-drug antibodies and such a response requires the presentation of the peptides by the MHC-class-II (MHC-II molecules of the patient. We measured the binding and half-life of peptide-MHC-II complexes using synthetic peptides from regions of the Factor VIII protein where ns-SNPs occur and showed that these wild type peptides form stable complexes with six common MHC-II alleles, representing 46.5% of the North American population. Next, we compared the affinities computed by NetMHCIIpan, a neural network-based algorithm for MHC-II peptide binding prediction, to the experimentally measured values and concluded that these are in good agreement (area under the ROC-curve of 0.778 to 0.972 for the six MHC-II variants. Using a computational binding predictor, we were able to expand our analysis to (a include all wild type peptides spanning each polymorphic position; and (b consider more MHC-II variants, thus allowing for a better estimation of the risk for clinical manifestation of anti-drug antibodies in the entire population (or a specific sub-population. Analysis of these computational data confirmed that peptides which have the wild type sequence at positions where the polymorphisms associated with haplotypes H3, H4 and H5 occur bind MHC-II proteins significantly more than a negative control. Taken together, the experimental and computational results suggest that wild type peptides from polymorphic regions of FVIII constitute potential T-cell epitopes

  12. Polymorphisms in the F8 gene and MHC-II variants as risk factors for the development of inhibitory anti-factor VIII antibodies during the treatment of hemophilia a: a computational assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gouri Shankar; Yanover, Chen; Howard, Tom E; Sauna, Zuben E

    2013-01-01

    The development of neutralizing anti-drug-antibodies to the Factor VIII protein-therapeutic is currently the most significant impediment to the effective management of hemophilia A. Common non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (ns-SNPs) in the F8 gene occur as six haplotypes in the human population (denoted H1 to H6) of which H3 and H4 have been associated with an increased risk of developing anti-drug antibodies. There is evidence that CD4+ T-cell response is essential for the development of anti-drug antibodies and such a response requires the presentation of the peptides by the MHC-class-II (MHC-II) molecules of the patient. We measured the binding and half-life of peptide-MHC-II complexes using synthetic peptides from regions of the Factor VIII protein where ns-SNPs occur and showed that these wild type peptides form stable complexes with six common MHC-II alleles, representing 46.5% of the North American population. Next, we compared the affinities computed by NetMHCIIpan, a neural network-based algorithm for MHC-II peptide binding prediction, to the experimentally measured values and concluded that these are in good agreement (area under the ROC-curve of 0.778 to 0.972 for the six MHC-II variants). Using a computational binding predictor, we were able to expand our analysis to (a) include all wild type peptides spanning each polymorphic position; and (b) consider more MHC-II variants, thus allowing for a better estimation of the risk for clinical manifestation of anti-drug antibodies in the entire population (or a specific sub-population). Analysis of these computational data confirmed that peptides which have the wild type sequence at positions where the polymorphisms associated with haplotypes H3, H4 and H5 occur bind MHC-II proteins significantly more than a negative control. Taken together, the experimental and computational results suggest that wild type peptides from polymorphic regions of FVIII constitute potential T-cell epitopes and thus

  13. Analyzing Influential Factors Against Timeliness of Financial Reporting (Empirical Study of Automation and Components and Telecommunication Companies Listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Suryanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the effect of the relationship between firm size, profitability, solvency, public ownership, and the audit opinion on the timeliness of financial reporting. The dependent variable in the form of timekeeping company deliver the financial statements to the Stock Exchange. Meanwhile for the independent variables such as firm size measured by total asets of the company, profitability is measured by profit margin ratio, solvency measured by debt-to-equity ratio, public ownership is measured by the percentage of the number of shares owned by the community, and the audit opinion is measured with an unqualified opinion and otherwise unqualified. This study uses secondary data with population automotive companies and telecommunications components and annual financial statements issued on the Stock Exchange in the period 2010-2012. From the analysis conducted in this study it can be concluded that the size of the company significantly influence the timeliness of financial reporting. While profitability, solvency, public ownership, and the audit opinion does not affect the timeliness of financial reporting.

  14. Involvement of FOXO transcription factors, TRAIL-FasL/Fas, and sirtuin proteins family in canine coronavirus type II-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Marfè

    Full Text Available n our previous study, we have shown that canine coronavirus type II (CCoV-II activates both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathway in a canine fibrosarcoma cell line (A-72 cells. Herein we investigated the role of Sirtuin and Forkhead box O (FOXO families in this experimental model using Nortern Blot and Western Blot analysis. Our results demonstrated that mitochondrial SIRT3 and SIRT4 protein expression increased from 12 and 24 h post infection (p.i. onwards, respectively, whereas the nuclear SIRT1 expression increased during the first 12 h p.i. followed by a decrease after 36 h p.i., reaching the same level of control at 48 h p.i. Sirtuins interact with/and regulate the activity of FOXO family proteins, and we herein observed that FOXO3A and FOXO1 expression increased significantly and stably from 12 h p.i. onwards. In addition, CCoV-II induces a remarkable increase in the expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, while we observed a slight up-regulation of FasL/Fas at 36 p.i. with a decrease of both proteins at the end of infection. Furthermore, we found that virus infection increased both bax translocation into mitochondria and decreased bcl-2 expression in cytosol in a time-dependent manner.These data suggest that FOXO transcription factors mediate pro-apoptotic effects of CCoV-II, in part due to activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway, while some Sirtuin family members (such as SIRT3 and SIRT4 may be involved in intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Moreover, these results propose that TRAIL is an important mediator of cell death induced by CCoV-II during in vitro infection.

  15. Phase I/II trial evaluating the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody bevacizumab in combination with the HER-1/epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib for patients with recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Roy S; Johnson, David H; Mininberg, Eric; Carbone, David P; Henderson, Ted; Kim, Edward S; Blumenschein, George; Lee, Jack J; Liu, Diane D; Truong, Mylene T; Hong, Waun K; Tran, Hai; Tsao, Anne; Xie, Dong; Ramies, David A; Mass, Robert; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Eberhard, David A; Kelley, Sean K; Sandler, Alan

    2005-04-10

    Bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA) is a recombinant, humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody. Erlotinib HCl (Tarceva, OSI-774; OSI Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY) is a potent, reversible, highly selective and orally available HER-1/epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Preclinical data in various xenograft models produced greater growth inhibition than with either agent alone. Additionally, both agents have demonstrated benefit in patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A phase I/II study in two centers examined erlotinib and bevacizumab (A+T) in patients with nonsquamous stage IIIB/IV NSCLC with > or = one prior chemotherapy. In phase I, erlotinib 150 mg/day orally plus bevacizumab 15 mg/kg intravenously every 21 days was established as the phase II dose, although no dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Phase II assessed the efficacy and tolerability of A+T at this dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated. ResultsForty patients were enrolled and treated in this study (34 patients at phase II dose); the median age was 59 years (range, 36 to 72 years), 21 were female, 30 had adenocarcinoma histology, nine were never-smokers, and 22 had > or = two prior regimens (three patients had > or = four prior regimens). The most common adverse events were mild to moderate rash, diarrhea, and proteinuria. Preliminary data showed no pharmacokinetic interaction between A + T. Eight patients (20.0%; 95% CI, 7.6% to 32.4%) had partial responses and 26 (65.0%; 95% CI, 50.2% to 79.8%) had stable disease as their best response. The median overall survival for the 34 patients treated at the phase II dose was 12.6 months, with progression-free survival of 6.2 months. Encouraging antitumor activity and safety of A + T support further development of this combination for patients with advanced NSCLC and other solid tumors.

  16. Factors involved in the electronic mobility within the chelate ring of the linkage isomers of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with vicinal oxime-imine ligands; An IR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Mohamed M.; Stephanos, Joseph J.

    The electron mobility in the five- and six-membered chelate rings of the LM complexes [H 2L = N, N'-ethylenebis(isonitrosoacetylacetoneimine); M = divalent Ni, Co or Cu ions] is discussed in relation to the stability of the chelate isomers. The vibrational energies of the NO, CN and CO binding are related to the second or third ionization potential of the metal ions. This relationship is used for the calculation of ν (NO), ν (CN) and ν (CO) of a metal complex from the data of a prepared metal complex. The role of non-coordinated carbonyl group is discussed in relation to the imine nephelauxetic power which accounts for: (a) the conversion of the chelate isomer; and (b) the surprising stability of both modes of coordination by the oximato group in bis(4-iminopentane-2,3-dione 3-oximato) nickel(II).

  17. Sorting Nexin 27 Protein Regulates Trafficking of a p21-activated Kinase (PAK) Interacting Exchange Factor (β-Pix)-G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase Interacting Protein (GIT) Complex via a PDZ Domain Interaction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Julie L.; Tang, Jingrong; McDermott, Mark I.; Kuo, Jean-Cheng; Zimmerman, Seth P.; Wincovitch, Stephen M.; Waterman, Clare M.; Milgram, Sharon L.; Playford, Martin P.

    2011-01-01

    Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) is a 62-kDa protein localized to early endosomes and known to regulate the intracellular trafficking of ion channels and receptors. In addition to a PX domain, SNX27 is the only sorting family member that contains a PDZ domain. To identify novel SNX27-PDZ binding partners, we performed a proteomic screen in mouse principal kidney cortical collecting duct cells using a GST-SNX27 fusion construct as bait. We found that β-Pix (p21-activated kinase-interactive exchange factor), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rho family of small GTPases known to regulate cell motility directly interacted with SNX27. The association of β-Pix and SNX27 is specific for β-Pix isoforms terminating in the type-1 PDZ binding motif (ETNL). In the same screen we also identified Git1/2 as a potential SNX27 interacting protein. The interaction between SNX27 and Git1/2 is indirect and mediated by β-Pix. Furthermore, we show recruitment of the β-Pix·Git complex to endosomal sites in a SNX27-dependent manner. Finally, migration assays revealed that depletion of SNX27 from HeLa and mouse principal kidney cortical collecting duct cells significantly decreases cell motility. We propose a model by which SNX27 regulates trafficking of β-Pix to focal adhesions and thereby influences cell motility. PMID:21926430

  18. Exchange potentials of phosphorus between sediments and water coupled to alkaline phosphatase activity and environmental factors in an oligo-mesotrophic reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhamdi, Badre Alaoui; Azzouzi, Assia; Elloumi, Jannet; Ayadi, Habib; Mhamdi, Mohammed Alaoui; Aleya, Lotfi

    2007-05-01

    We investigated the exchange potentials of phosphates at the water-sediment interface together with in situ benthic-chamber fractionated alkaline phosphatase activity and bacteria estimates during September and October 1998 at two stations: station 1, which received immediately the urban inputs from the Taounate city, and station 2, located in the centre of the Sahela reservoir (Morocco). The results showed that low oxygenation enhanced both the bacterial abundance and the alkaline phosphatase activity. Size-fractionated (0.65-100 microm) bacteria attached to dead organic matter together with algae and zooplankton contributed strongly (78%) to the total alkaline phosphatase synthesis in the two sampled stations, suggesting that attachment to organic particles stimulated phosphatase activities. The appearance of anoxic conditions and the decrease of pH supported the dissolution of particulate phosphorus and the release of soluble reactive phosphorus. This latter, together with persisting discharges of organic matter, sewage, and olive mill waste will exacerbate the eutrophication of the reservoir.

  19. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 and mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor-II receptor expression during intrahepatic bile duct hyperplasia and biliary fibrosis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, L A; Jirtle, R L; Farouk, M; Thompson, H J; Chung, K S; Meyers, W C

    1994-02-01

    These studies investigate the role of transforming growth factor-beta 1, a potent inhibitor of epithelial cell proliferation and stimulator of extracellular matrix biosynthesis, during intrahepatic bile duct hyperplasia and biliary fibrosis. These pathogenic responses were induced in rats by common bile duct ligation. Bile duct cell replication, measured by the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index, was significantly increased 24 hr after common bile duct ligation. This response diminished to baseline by 1 wk. Liver collagen content, determined by quantification of hydroxyproline, was increased significantly after 1 wk of common bile duct ligation, and by 4 wk was increased by a factor of 4. Immunohistochemistry revealed low levels of TGF-beta 1 in normal intrahepatic bile duct epithelium. In contrast, the bile duct epithelium in bile duct-ligated rats stained strongly positive for transforming growth factor-beta 1 at 1 and 4 wk after ligation. These results suggest that transforming growth factor-beta 1 may play a role in both the termination of the bile duct epithelial cell proliferative response and the induction of fibrogenesis after common bile duct ligation. In addition, the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor was up-regulated in hyperplastic bile duct epithelium 1 and 4 wk after ligation. Because the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor-II receptor has been shown to facilitate the proteolytic activation of transforming growth factor-beta 1, these results suggest that the bile duct epithelium may also be involved in the activation of transforming growth factor-beta 1.

  20. The size of retrieved lymph nodes correlates with the number of retrieved lymph nodes and is an independent prognostic factor in patients with stage II colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazutake; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Akira; Saito, Gota; Masuda, Shinobu; Haruki, Yasuo

    2015-12-01

    In stage II colon cancer, patients with many retrieved lymph nodes (LNs) have been reported to have better oncological outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that the greater number of retrieved LNs is related to a larger LN size. The subjects comprised 320 patients with stage II colon cancer who underwent curative resection. All operations were elective and were performed by the same surgeons. The maximum long axis and short axis diameters of LNs were measured on hematoxylin-eosin-stained specimens. A total of 4,744 LNs were evaluated. The number of retrieved LNs was 14.8 ± 10.1 (mean ± SD). The long axis diameter was 4.8 ± 2.6 mm, with a median value of 4.3 mm, a maximum value of 20.4 mm, and a minimum value of 0.6 mm. The corresponding short axis diameters were 3.4 ± 1.7, 3.0, 15.1, and 0.5 mm, respectively. The highest correlation coefficient for the association with the number of LNs was obtained for the maximum value of the long axis diameter (0.59). Multivariate analysis revealed that age, tumor location, pathological T stage, and the maximum long axis diameter were independent prognostic factors. The number of LNs was not a significant factor. Patients with less than 12 LNs and a maximum long axis diameter of less than 10 mm had significantly poorer outcomes (p patients with stage II colon cancer, the maximum long axis diameter of LNs correlated with the number of LNs and was an independent prognostic factor.

  1. The structure of personality disorders: comparing the DSM-IV-TR Axis II classification with the five-factor model framework using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaansen, Leen; Rossi, Gina; Schotte, Christiaan; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-06-01

    Earlier factor analytical studies on the empirical validity of the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychological Association, 2000) Axis II classification have offered little support for the current three-cluster structure. In his large-scale meta-analysis of previously published personality disorder correlation matrices, O'Connor (2005) found four factors, corresponding to the neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness domains of the five-factor model of personality. In the present study, this dimensional four-factor model and the categorical DSM three-cluster structure were fitted to the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders questionnaire (ADP-IV; Schotte & De Doncker, 1994) scale scores using structural equation modelling. The results strongly favored the dimensional model, which also resembled other well-founded four-factor proposals (Livesley, Jang, & Vernon, 1998; Widiger & Simonsen, 2005). Moreover, a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed that this model was highly invariant and thus generalizable across two large clinical (n = 1,029) and general population (n = 659) samples.

  2. VT Telephone Exchange Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The UtilityTelecom_EXCHANGE represents Vermont Telephone Exchange boundaries as defined by the VT Public Service Board. The original data was...

  3. Cloning and expression analysis of myostatin, fibroblast growth factor 6, insulin-like growth factor I and II in liver and muscle of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. during long-term fasting and refeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saroglia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The exceptionally fast growth that fish experience after periods of fasting has been called “compensatory growth”. This phenomenon has been studied in intensive aquaculture as a means of enhancing growth rates, but the mechanisms by which food intake activates an increase in somatic growth, and especially in muscle growth, are complex and not yet fully understood. In the present paper, we describe the molecular cloning and sequencing of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax myostatin (MSTN and fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6, which have been shown to be major genetic determinants of skeletal muscle growth, together with insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI and IGF-II, which are potent mitogens known to play important roles in growth and development. We then report the pattern of expression of the four aforementioned genes, in liver and myotomal muscle in response to prolonged fasting and refeeding. Nutritional status significantly influenced the expression of IGF-I, IGF-II and MSTN, whereas the muscular FGF6 expression levels were not affected by the feeding status of the animals. Taken together these data indicate that IGF-I, IGF-II and MSTN are involved in the sea bass muscle compensatory growth induced by refeeding, whereas FGF6 probably has not a role in this phenomenon.

  4. Interaction between Lung Mechanics and Gas Exchange by Low Volume High Frequency Pulmonary Ventilation in Patients with Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-21

    Mechanics and Gas Exchange by Low Volume High Frequency Pulmonary Ventilation in Patients with Respiratory Failure 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Jeffrey M. Drazen...15 06 Mechanical Ventilation 06 11 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) The factors influencing both dynamic...LL II,,,~ 1111.2 HIIIH 111.- MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHARi 1 I., m P.’N I. AD-A193 073 g’ Fi AD _ _ _ Interaction between Lung Mechanics and Gas

  5. Bud detachment in hydra requires activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor and a Rho–ROCK–myosin II signaling pathway to ensure formation of a basal constriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Oliver; Apel, David; Steinmetz, Patrick; Lange, Ellen; Hopfenmüller, Simon; Ohler, Kerstin; Sudhop, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hydra propagates asexually by exporting tissue into a bud, which detaches 4 days later as a fully differentiated young polyp. Prerequisite for detachment is activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling. The mechanism which enables constriction and tissue separation within the monolayered ecto‐ and endodermal epithelia is unknown. Results: Histological sections and staining of F‐actin by phalloidin revealed conspicuous cell shape changes at the bud detachment site indicating a localized generation of mechanical forces and the potential enhancement of secretory functions in ectodermal cells. By gene expression analysis and pharmacological inhibition, we identified a candidate signaling pathway through Rho, ROCK, and myosin II, which controls bud base constriction and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Specific regional myosin phosphorylation suggests a crucial role of ectodermal cells at the detachment site. Inhibition of FGFR, Rho, ROCK, or myosin II kinase activity is permissive for budding, but represses myosin phosphorylation, rearrangement of F‐actin and constriction. The young polyp remains permanently connected to the parent by a broad tissue bridge. Conclusions: Our data suggest an essential role of FGFR and a Rho‐ROCK‐myosin II pathway in the control of cell shape changes required for bud detachment. Developmental Dynamics 246:502–516, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Developmental Dynamics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Anatomists PMID:28411398

  6. Evaluation of clinical and histologic factors associated with survival time in dogs with stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma treated by splenectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy: 30 cases (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Antony S; Rassnick, Kenneth M; Frimberger, Angela E

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine histologic and clinical factors associated with survival time in dogs with stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma treated by splenectomy and a chemotherapy protocol in which an anthracycline was alternated with lomustine. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 30 dogs with stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma. PROCEDURES Medical records of 3 facilities were reviewed to identify dogs treated for stage II splenic hemangiosarcoma between June 2011 and October 2014. Information collected included signalment, disease staging data, whether anemia was present, date of splenectomy, chemotherapy protocol, adverse effects, and date of death or last follow-up. Histologic slides were reviewed and scored by pathologists. Associations between variables of interest and survival data were evaluated statistically. RESULTS Median survival time for all dogs was 158 days (range, 55 to 560 days), and the 1-year survival rate was 16%. On multivariate analysis, only the histologically determined mitotic score was significantly associated with survival time. The median survival time of 292 days for dogs with a mitotic score of 0 (hemangiosarcoma.

  7. Development of safety and regulatory requirements for Korean next generation reactor - Development of human factors design review guidelines (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cheon, Se Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop human factors engineering program review guidelines and alarm system review guidelines in order to resolve the two major technical issues: '25. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model' and '26. Review Criteria for Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Controls and Instrumentation', which are related to the development of human factors safety regulation guides being performed by KINS. For the development of human factors program review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG-0711 and added our comments by considering Korean regulatory situation and the characteristics of the KNGR design, and reviewing the reference documents of NURGE-0711. We also computerized the Korean version of NUREG-0711, additional comments, and selected portion of the reference documents for the developer of safety regulation guides at KINS to see the contents comparatively at a glance and use them easily. For the development of alarm system design review guidelines, we made a Korean version of NUREG/CR-6105, which was published by NRC in 1994 as a guideline document for the human factors review of alarm systems. Then we updated the guidelines by reviewing the literature related to alarm design that published after 1994. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  8. Ideal Heat Exchange System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    The requirements with which a heat exchange system should comply in order that at certain values of the total contact surface and heat load the entropy production in it should be minimal have been determined. It has been shown that this system can serve as a standard for real systems of irreversible heat exchange. We have found the conditions for physical realizability of a heat exchange system in which heat exchange occurs by a law linear with respect to the temperature difference between contacting flows. Analogous conditions are given without deriving for the case of heat exchange by the Fourier law.

  9. Resolution exchange simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Edward; Ytreberg, F Marty; Zuckerman, Daniel M

    2006-01-20

    We extend replica-exchange simulation in two ways and apply our approaches to biomolecules. The first generalization permits exchange simulation between models of differing resolution--i.e., between detailed and coarse-grained models. Such "resolution exchange" can be applied to molecular systems or spin systems. The second extension is to "pseudoexchange" simulations, which require little CPU usage for most levels of the exchange ladder and also substantially reduce the need for overlap between levels. Pseudoexchanges can be used in either replica or resolution exchange simulations. We perform efficient, converged simulations of a 50-atom peptide to illustrate the new approaches.

  10. Clinical Comparison of Autogenous Bone Graft with and without Plasma Rich in Growth Factors in the Treatment of Grade II Furcation Involvement of Mandibular Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Lafzi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF is a concentrated suspension of growth factors, which is used to promote periodontal tissue regeneration. The aim of this randomized, controlled, clinical trial was to evaluate of the treatment of grade II mandibular molar furcation involvement using autogenous bone graft with and without PRGF. Materials and methods. In this double-blind clinical trial, thirty mandibular molars with grade II furcation involvement in 30 patients were selected. The test group received bone graft combined with PRGF, while the control group was treated with bone graft only. Clinical parameters included clinical probing depth (CPD, vertical clinical attachment level (V-CAL, horizontal clinical attachment level (H-CAL, location of gingival margin (LGM, surgically exposed horizontal probing depth of bony defect (E-HPD, vertical depth of bone crest (V-DBC, vertical depth of the base of bony defect (V-DBD, and length of the intrabony defect (LID. After six months, a re-entry surgery was performed. Data were analyzed by SPSS 14, using Kolmogorov, Mann-Whitney U, and paired t-test. Results. After 6 months, both treatment methods led to significant improvement in V-CAL and H-CAL and significant decreases in CPD, E-HPD, V-DBD and LID; there was no significant difference in LGM and V-DBC in any of the treated groups compared to the baseline values. Also, none of the parameters showed significant differences between the study groups. Conclusion. Although autogenous bone grafts, with or without PRGF, were successful in treating grade II furcation involvement, no differences between the study groups were observed.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF INDIVIDUAL FACTORS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF JUICE PURIFICATION IN THE PROCESS OF II SATURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golybin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The effect of reducing substances in the final stage of lime - carbon dioxide purification of raw juice is studied in the article. The presence of significant amounts of reducing substances in the juice of the I saturation increases chroma and calcium salts in the purified product. It is actual to apply additional techniques and methods of cleaning of production sugar-containing solutions at the final stage of lime -carbon dioxide cleaning - II saturation, that will increase the completeness of precipitation of organic and mineral non-sugars, improve the quality of the purified juice, increase the yield of white sugar and improve its quality. The effect filtroperlit as seed material for forming the structure of particles of calcium carbonate precipitate with a larger surface adsorption is studied. The effect of phosphate input for further improvement of the efficiency of adsorption in the juice purification process was also studied. The effect of flow of activated filtroperlit on II saturation filtration speed was studied. It was found out that the more non-sugars are present in the juice, the smaller electrokinetic potential has the surface sediment. Rational consumption of reagents depending on the quality of the feedstock is calculated. In the process of cleaning the juice of various technological quality, it is necessary to control the reagents flow. It was found out that for cleaning juice of satisfactory technological quality the flow of filtroperlit is 0.015 - 0.033% by weight of juice and 15% РО4 3- . When cleaning the juice obtained from sugar beet of poor quality, it is necessary to increase the filtroperlit flow up to 0.050% and phosphate up to 20 %. It is necessary to control permanently the main liming process, the maximum decomposition of reducing substances to obtain thermally stable juice.

  12. A systematic review of the factors associated with interest in predictive genetic testing for obesity, type II diabetes and heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J; Ryan, L; Truby, H

    2014-10-01

    In the future, it may be possible for individuals to take a genetic test to determine their genetic predisposition towards developing lifestyle-related chronic diseases. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify the factors associated with an interest in having predictive genetic testing for obesity, type II diabetes and heart disease amongst unaffected adults. Ovid Medline, PsycINFO and EMBASE online databases were searched using predefined search terms. Publications meeting the inclusion criteria (English language, free-living adult population not selected as a result of their disease diagnosis, reporting interest as an outcome, not related to a single gene inherited disease) were assessed for quality and content. Narrative synthesis of the results was undertaken. From the 2329 publications retrieved, eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Overall, the evidence base was small but of positive quality. Interest was associated with personal attitudes towards disease risk and the provision of information about genetic testing, shaped by perceived risk of disease and expected outcomes of testing. The role of demographic factors was investigated with largely inconclusive findings. Interest in predictive genetic testing for obesity, type II diabetes or heart disease was greatest amongst those who perceived the risk of disease to be high and/or the outcomes of testing to be beneficial. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Ammonium removal from aqueous solution by ion-exchange using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammonium removal from aqueous solution by a natural ion-exchange resin was investigated by considering the factors affecting the ammonium-exchange capacity including the zeolites' particle size, the loading flow rates and the impact of a number of regenerations upon the ion-exchange capacity. The resin column was ...

  14. A Range-Based Multivariate Model for Exchange Rate Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Tims (Ben); R.J. Mahieu (Ronald)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we present a parsimonious multivariate model for exchange rate volatilities based on logarithmic high-low ranges of daily exchange rates. The multivariate stochastic volatility model divides the log range of each exchange rate into two independent latent factors, which are

  15. [The diagnostic value of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II in non-infant patients with acquired deficiency of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Tianqin; Ren, Chuanlu; Shen, Hongshi; Chen, Haifei; Yu, Ziqiang; Wang, Zhaoyue

    2014-02-01

    To explore the diagnostic value of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist -II(PIVKA-II) in non-infant with acquired deficiency of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors(ADVKCF). PIVKA-II levels were measured by ELISA in 50 patients with ADVKCF on day 0, 3, 7 after vitamin K treatment. Prothrombin time(PT), APTT, FII: C, FVII: C, FIX: C, and FX: C were analyzed simultaneously. Twenty healthy subjects were enrolled as controls. The average level of PIVKA-II in ADVKCF group was (3.83 ± 1.40)µg/L, while (1.30 ± 0.54) µg/L in the control group (P 0.05], but decreasing significantly on day 7 compared to the control group(P 0.05). Coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X activity which decreased significantly before treatment returned to normal range after one week use of vitamin K, leading to complete correction of prolonged APTT and PT (>100 seconds). The PIVKA-II level in ADVKCF patients is significantly higher than that of healthy subjects within one week treatment of vitamin K, which is not influenced by plasma transfusion. This study suggests that PIVKA-II is a more sensitive parameter than APTT, PT and the activity of coagulation factor, which could be a valuable factor in the early diagnosis of ADVKCF.

  16. Health information exchange among US hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; DesRoches, Catherine M; Jha, Ashish K

    2011-11-01

    To determine the proportion of US hospitals engaged in health information exchange (HIE) with unaffiliated providers and to identify key hospital-level and market-level factors associated with participating in exchange. Using the 2009 American Hospital Association Information Technology survey, supplemented by Dartmouth Atlas, Area Resource File, and other national data, we examined which hospitals participated in regional efforts to electronically exchange clinical data. We used logistic regression models to determine hospital-level characteristics and market-level characteristics associated with hospitals' likelihood of participating in HIE. We found that 10.7% of US hospitals engaged in HIE with unaffiliated providers. In communities where exchange occurred, for-profit hospitals and those with a small market share were far less likely to engage in HIE than nonprofit hospitals or those with a larger market share. Hospitals in more concentrated markets were more likely to exchange and hospitals in markets with higher Medicare spending were less likely to exchange. At the start of implementation of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, only a small minority of US hospitals electronically exchange clinical data with unaffiliated providers. Health information exchange is a key part of reforming the healthcare system, and factors related to competitiveness may be holding some providers back.

  17. Are BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Aurélie; Aubinet, Marc; Schoon, Niels; Amelynck, Crist; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Heinesch, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Maize is the most important C4 crop worldwide. It is also the second most important crop worldwide (C3 and C4 mixed), and is a dominant crop in some world regions. Therefore, it can potentially influence local climate and air quality through its exchanges of gases with the atmosphere. Among others, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are known to influence the atmospheric composition and thereby modify greenhouse gases lifetime and pollutant formation in the atmosphere. However, so far, only two studies have dealt with BVOC exchanges from maize. Moreover, these studies were conducted on a limited range of meteorological and phenological conditions, so that the knowledge of BVOC exchanges by this crop remains poor. Here, we present the first BVOC measurement campaign performed at ecosystem-scale on a maize field during a whole growing season. It was carried out in the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (LTO), an ICOS site. BVOC fluxes were measured by the disjunct by mass-scanning eddy covariance technique with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer for BVOC mixing ratios measurements. Outstanding results are (i) BVOC exchanges from soil were as important as BVOC exchanges from maize itself; (ii) BVOC exchanges observed on our site were much lower than exchanges observed by other maize studies, even under normalized temperature and light conditions, (iii) they were also lower than those observed on other crops grown in Europe. Lastly (iv), BVOC exchanges observed on our site under standard environmental conditions, i.e., standard emission factors SEF, were much lower than those currently considered by BVOC exchange up-scaling models. From those observations, we deduced that (i) soil BVOC exchanges should be better understood and should be incorporated in terrestrial BVOC exchanges models, and that (ii) SEF for the C4 crop plant functional type cannot be evaluated at global scale but should be determined for each important agronomic and pedo-climatic region

  18. Calculable Corrections to Brane Black Hole Decay II Greybody Factors for Spin 1\\/2 and 1

    CERN Document Server

    Kanti, Panagiota; Kanti, Panagiota; March-Russell, John

    2003-01-01

    The production of black holes in extra-dimensional brane-world theories can lead to detectable signals via the Hawking evaporation of the black hole to brane-localized Standard Model modes. We calculate, as a function of partial wave number and number of toroidally compactified extra dimensions, the leading correction to the energy spectrum of such Hawking radiation (the greybody factors) for decay into spin 1/2 fermions and spin 1 gauge fields localised on the Standard Model brane. The greybody factors for both types of fields are enhanced as the number of extra dimensions increases.

  19. Coordinated regulation by two VPS9 domain-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factors in small GTPase Rab5 signaling pathways in fission yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Yuta [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Kagiwada, Satoshi [Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Nara Women' s University, Kitauoyanishi-machi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Shimazu, Sayuri [Center for Supports to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Takegawa, Kaoru [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Noguchi, Tetsuko [Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Nara Women' s University, Kitauoyanishi-machi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Miyamoto, Masaaki, E-mail: miya@kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Center for Supports to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-20

    The small GTPase Rab5 is reported to regulate various cellular functions, such as vesicular transport and endocytosis. VPS9 domain-containing proteins are thought to activate Rab5(s) by their guanine-nucleotide exchange activities. Numerous VPS9 proteins have been identified and are structurally conserved from yeast to mammalian cells. However, the functional relationships among VPS9 proteins in cells remain unclear. Only one Rab5 and two VPS9 proteins were identified in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome. Here, we examined the cellular function of two VPS9 proteins and the relationship between these proteins in cellular functions. Vps901-GFP and Vps902-GFP exhibited dotted signals in vegetative and differentiated cells. vps901 deletion mutant (Δvps901) cells exhibited a phenotype deficient in the mating process and responses to high concentrations of ions, such as calcium and metals, and Δvps901Δvps902 double mutant cells exhibited round cell shapes similar to ypt5-909 (Rab5 mutant allele) cells. Deletion of both vps901 and vps902 genes completely abolished the mating process and responses to various stresses. A lack of vacuole formation and aberrant inner cell membrane structures were also observed in Δvps901Δvps902 cells by electron microscopy. These data strongly suggest that Vps901 and Vps902 are cooperatively involved in the regulation of cellular functions, such as cell morphology, sexual development, response to ion stresses, and vacuole formation, via Rab5 signaling pathways in fission yeast cells. - Highlights: • Roles of Rab5 activator VPS9 proteins in cellular functions. • Cooperation between VPS9 proteins in Rab5 signaling pathway. • Roles of each VPS9 protein in Rab5 signaling pathway are discussed.

  20. Factors Associated With Medical School Entrants' Interest in Military Financial Assistance in Exchange for a Service Obligation: The Michigan State University College of Human Medicine Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienko, Dean G; Oberst, Kathleen

    2017-07-01

    The U.S. military offers comprehensive scholarships to medical students to help offset costs in exchange for either reserve or active duty service commitments. Our goal was to describe to what degree newly admitted students to Michigan State University's College of Human Medicine were aware of and interested in these opportunities. We surveyed 176 newly admitted students at the beginning and immediately following a presentation on military medicine opportunities. We collected anonymous paper surveys from program attendees and entered the data into Stata v13.1. The project was submitted for institutional review board review and deemed to not involve human subjects. Tests of association were performed using Chi-square test of independence and Fisher's exact test where needed. Our cohort was 49% female, 51% male, and over 90% were less than 30 years of age. Only 14% reported having family involved in the military. Our results indicated that over 90% of students were aware of these programs but less than 3% took advantage of the offerings. Despite 65% reporting somewhat or significant concerns over debt, financial concerns were not statistically associated with scholarship interest level. Instead, having a family member in the military was the most significant positive predictor of interest (47% compared with 17%, p service aside from financial support. Career vignettes and summaries may offer better insight into the service experience for those lacking familiarity thereby potentially increasing interest and applications. Focus groups with current scholarship awardees may inform recruitment strategies. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. [Effect of space flight factors simulated in ground-based experiments on the behavior, discriminant learning, and exchange of monoamines in different brain structures of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtemberg, A S; Lebedeva-Georgievskaia, K V; Matveeva, M I; Kudrin, V S; Narkevich, V B; Klodt, P M; Bazian, A S

    2014-01-01

    Experimental treatment (long-term fractionated γ-irradiation, antiorthostatic hypodynamia, and the combination of these factors) simulating the effect of space flight in ground-based experiments rapidly restored the motor and orienting-investigative activity of animals (rats) in "open-field" tests. The study of the dynamics of discriminant learning of rats of experimental groups did not show significant differences from the control animals. It was found that the minor effect of these factors on the cognitive performance of animals correlated with slight changes in the concentration ofmonoamines in the brain structures responsible for the cognitive, emotional, and motivational functions.

  2. STUDIES IN CINE-PSYCHOMETRY II--CONTINUED FACTORING OF AUDIO AND VISUAL COGNITION AND MEMORY. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEIBERT, WARREN F.; REID, J. CHRISTOPHER

    THREE STUDIES INVESTIGATE AUDITORY AND VISUAL MEMORY ABILITIES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ROLES AS INSTRUCTIONAL AND PERSONNEL PREDICTORS. STUDY I PRESENTS TO 185 COLLEGE FRESHMEN 42 ABILITY TESTS FROM WHICH SEVEN MAJOR ROTATED FACTORS EMERGE--SERIAL MEMORY SPAN, SERIAL INTEGRATION, ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY, ABSTRACTS FROM SOCIAL INTERACTION SITUATIONS, VERBAL…

  3. Charged pion form factor between Q^2=0.60 and 2.45 GeV^2. II. Determination of, and results for, the pion form factor

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, G M; Horn, T; Beise, E J; Gaskell, D; Mack, D J; Tadevosyan, V; Volmer, J; Abbott, D; Aniol, K; Anklin, H; Armstrong, C; Arrington, J; Assamagan, K; Avery, S; Baker, O K; Barrett, B; Bochna, C; Boeglin, W; Brash, E J; Breuer, H; Chang, C C; Chant, N; Christy, M E; Dunne, J; Eden, T; Ent, R; Gibson, E; Gilman, R; Gustafsson, K; Hinton, W; Holt, R J; Jackson, H; Jin, S; Jones, M K; Keppel, C E; Kim, P H; Kim, W; King, P M; Klein, A; Koltenuk, D; Kovaltchouk, V; Kiang, M; Liu, J; Lolos, G J; Lung, A; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Matsumura, A; McKee, D; Meekins, D; Mitchell, J; Miyoshi, T; Mkrtchyan, H; Müller, B; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Okayasu, Y; Pentchev, L; Perdrisat, C; Pitz, D; Potterveld, D; Punjabi, V; Qin, L M; Reimer, P; Reinhold, J; Roche, J; Roos, P G; Sarty, A; Shin, I K; Smith, G R; Stepanyan, S; Tang, L G; Tvaskis, V; Van der Meer, R L J; Vansyoc, K; Van Westrum, D; Vidakovic, S; Vulcan, W; Warren, G; Wood, S A; Xu, C; Yan, C; Zhao, W -X; Zheng, X; Zihlmann, B

    2008-01-01

    The charged pion form factor, Fpi(Q^2), is an important quantity which can be used to advance our knowledge of hadronic structure. However, the extraction of Fpi from data requires a model of the 1H(e,e'pi+)n reaction, and thus is inherently model dependent. Therefore, a detailed description of the extraction of the charged pion form factor from electroproduction data obtained recently at Jefferson Lab is presented, with particular focus given to the dominant uncertainties in this procedure. Results for Fpi are presented for Q^2=0.60-2.45 GeV^2. Above Q^2=1.5 GeV^2, the Fpi values are systematically below the monopole parameterization that describes the low Q^2 data used to determine the pion charge radius. The pion form factor can be calculated in a wide variety of theoretical approaches, and the experimental results are compared to a number of calculations. This comparison is helpful in understanding the role of soft versus hard contributions to hadronic structure in the intermediate Q^2 regime.

  4. Charged pion form factor between $Q^2$=0.60 and 2.45 GeV$^2$. II. Determination of, and results for, the pion form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Garth; Blok, Henk; Horn, Tanja; Beise, Elizabeth; Gaskell, David; Mack, David; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Volmer, Jochen; Abbott, David; Aniol, Konrad; Anklin, Heinz; Armstrong, Christopher; Arrington, John; Assamagan, Ketevi; Avery, Steven; Baker, O.; Barrett, Robert; Bochna, Christopher; Boeglin, Werner; Brash, Edward; Breuer, Herbert; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chant, Nicholas; Christy, Michael; Dunne, James; Eden, Thomas; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Benjamin; Gibson, Edward; Gilman, Ronald; Gustafsson, Kenneth; Hinton, Wendy; Holt, Roy; Jackson, Harold; uk Jin, Seong; Jones, Mark; Keppel, Cynthia; Kim, pyunghun; Kim, Wooyoung; King, Paul; Klein, Andreas; Koltenuk, Douglas; Kovaltchouk, Vitali; Liang, Meihua; Liu, Jinghua; Lolos, George; Lung, Allison; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Matsumura, Akihiko; McKee, David; Meekins, David; Mitchell, Joseph; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Mueller, Robert; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Okayasu, Yuichi; Pentchev, Lubomir; Perdrisat, Charles; Pitz, David; Potterveld, David; Punjabi, Vina; Qin, Liming; Reimer, Paul; Reinhold, Joerg; Roche, Julie; Roos, Philip; Sarty, Adam; Shin, Ilkyoung; Smith, Gregory; Stepanyan, Stepan; Tang, Liguang; Tvaskis, Vladas; van der Meer, Rob; Vansyoc, Kelley; Van Westrum, Derek; Vidakovic, Sandra; Vulcan, William; Warren, Glen; Wood, Stephen; Xu, Chen; Yan, Chen; Zhao, Wenxia; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zihlmann, Benedikt

    2008-10-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevC.78.045203
    The charged pion form factor, Fpi(Q2), is an important quantity that can be used to advance our knowledge of hadronic structure. However, the extraction of Fpi from data requires a model of the 1H(e,e'pi+)n reaction and thus is inherently model dependent. Therefore, a detailed description of the extraction of the charged pion form factor from electroproduction data obtained recently at Jefferson Lab is presented, with particular focus given to the dominant uncertainties in this procedure. Results for Fpi are presented for Q2=0.60-2.45 GeV2. Above Q2=1.5 GeV2, the Fpi values are systematically below the monopole parametrization that describes the low Q2 data used to determine the pion charge radius. The pion form factor can be calculated in a wide variety of theoretical approaches, and the experimental results are compared to a number of calculations. This comparison is helpful in understanding the role of soft versus hard c

  5. VOLATILITY OF EXCHANGE RATE IN THE CONTEXT OF FOREIGN TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg STRATULAT

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Moderate fluctuation of the exchange rate, basically in its floating regime is considered normality. Meanwhile,excessive volatility of the exchange rate is an issue for many countries. Its elimination is directed to foreign trade, which, through essential exports, followed by significant currency inflows, contribute to the stability of exchange rates. Unfortunately, Moldova’s foreign trade has become a key factor in maintaining the stability of foreign exchange.

  6. The Composition of the Arabidopsis RNA Polymerase II Transcript Elongation Complex Reveals the Interplay between Elongation and mRNA Processing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosz, Wojciech; Pfab, Alexander; Ehrnsberger, Hans F; Holzinger, Philipp; Köllen, Karin; Mortensen, Simon A; Bruckmann, Astrid; Schubert, Thomas; Längst, Gernot; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Schubert, Veit; Grasser, Marion; Grasser, Klaus D

    2017-04-01

    Transcript elongation factors (TEFs) are a heterogeneous group of proteins that control the efficiency of transcript elongation of subsets of genes by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in the chromatin context. Using reciprocal tagging in combination with affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that in Arabidopsis thaliana , the TEFs SPT4/SPT5, SPT6, FACT, PAF1-C, and TFIIS copurified with each other and with elongating RNAPII, while P-TEFb was not among the interactors. Additionally, NAP1 histone chaperones, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors, and some histone-modifying enzymes including Elongator were repeatedly found associated with TEFs. Analysis of double mutant plants defective in different combinations of TEFs revealed genetic interactions between genes encoding subunits of PAF1-C, FACT, and TFIIS, resulting in synergistic/epistatic effects on plant growth/development. Analysis of subnuclear localization, gene expression, and chromatin association did not provide evidence for an involvement of the TEFs in transcription by RNAPI (or RNAPIII). Proteomics analyses also revealed multiple interactions between the transcript elongation complex and factors involved in mRNA splicing and polyadenylation, including an association of PAF1-C with the polyadenylation factor CstF. Therefore, the RNAPII transcript elongation complex represents a platform for interactions among different TEFs, as well as for coordinating ongoing transcription with mRNA processing. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. Crystal and molecular structure and magnetic exchange properties of bis(di-micro-ethoxo-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsemiquinonato)dicopper(II)) complex. A synergy between DFT and experimental magnetochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencini, Alessandro; Dei, Andrea; Sangregorio, Claudio; Totti, Federico; Vaz, Maria G F

    2003-12-01

    The compound bis(di-micro-ethoxo-bis(3,5-di-tert-butylsemiquinonato)dicopper(II)) has been synthesized and its structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c, with a = 37.736(8) A, b = 9.173(2) A, c = 23.270(5) A, beta = 122.24(3) degrees. The structure can be described as a Lewis adduct between two dinuclear [Cu(DBSQ)(C(2)H(5)O)](2) units (DBSQ = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-semiquinonato). The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility was efficiently analyzed by a combined DFT/experimental approach, showing that a rather strong ferromagnetic interaction exists between the DBSQ(-) and the copper(II) ions modulated by an antiferromagnetic interaction between the two copper(II) ions of the dinuclear units. Weak antiferromagnetism between the two units in the unit cell was measured.

  8. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  9. Do DSM-5 Section II personality disorders and Section III personality trait domains reflect the same genetic and environmental risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichborn-Kjennerud, T; Krueger, R F; Ystrom, E; Torvik, F A; Rosenström, T H; Aggen, S H; South, S C; Neale, M C; Knudsen, G P; Kendler, K S; Czajkowski, N O

    2017-09-01

    DSM-5 includes two conceptualizations of personality disorders (PDs). The classification in Section II is identical to the one found in DSM-IV, and includes 10 categorical PDs. The Alternative Model (Section III) includes criteria for dimensional measures of maladaptive personality traits organized into five domains. The degree to which the two conceptualizations reflect the same etiological factors is not known. We use data from a large population-based sample of adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel on interview-based DSM-IV PDs and a short self-report inventory that indexes the five domains of the DSM-5 Alternative Model plus a domain explicitly targeting compulsivity. Schizotypal, Paranoid, Antisocial, Borderline, Avoidant, and Obsessive-compulsive PDs were assessed at the same time as the maladaptive personality traits and 10 years previously. Schizoid, Histrionic, Narcissistic, and Dependent PDs were only assessed at the first interview. Biometric models were used to estimate overlap in genetic and environmental risk factors. When measured concurrently, there was 100% genetic overlap between the maladaptive trait domains and Paranoid, Schizotypal, Antisocial, Borderline, and Avoidant PDs. For OCPD, 43% of the genetic variance was shared with the domains. Genetic correlations between the individual domains and PDs ranged from +0.21 to +0.91. The pathological personality trait domains, which are part of the Alternative Model for classification of PDs in DSM-5 Section III, appears to tap, at an aggregate level, the same genetic risk factors as the DSM-5 Section II classification for most of the PDs.

  10. Collagen Hydrogel Scaffold and Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Accelerate Periodontal Healing of Class II Furcation Defects in Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Momose, Takehito; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Kato, Akihito; Ogawa, Kosuke; Yoshida, Takashi; Nishida, Erika; Murakami, Syusuke; Kosen, Yuta; Sugaya, Tsutomu; Kawanami, Masamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Collagen hydrogel scaffold exhibits bio-safe properties and facilitates periodontal wound healing. However, regenerated tissue volume is insufficient. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) up-regulates cell behaviors and subsequent wound healing. We evaluated whether periodontal wound healing is promoted by application of collagen hydrogel scaffold in combination with FGF2 in furcation defects in beagle dogs. Methods: Collagen hydrogel was fabricated from bovine type ...

  11. Evaluation of Prognostic Factors Following Flow-Cytometric DNA Analysis after Cytokeratin Labelling: II. Cervical and Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Wimberger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In gynecologic oncology valid prognostic factors are necessary to define biologically similar subgroups for analysis of therapeutic efficacy. This study is the first published prospective study concerning prognostic significance of DNA ploidy and S‐phase fraction in cervical and endometrial cancer following enrichment of tumor cells by cytokeratin labelling. Epithelial cells were labeled by FITC‐conjugated cytokeratin antibody (CK 5, 6, 8, and CK 17 prior to flow cytometric cell cycle analysis in 91 specimens of cervical cancer and 73 samples of endometrial cancer. In cervical cancer neither DNA‐ploidy nor S‐phase fraction were relevant prognostic parameters. But CV of the G0G1‐peak showed prognostic relevance in cervical cancer cells, even in multivariate analysis. This interesting observation, however, seems to have no therapeutic consequence due to the small discrimination capacity of CV. In endometrial carcinoma, gross DNA‐aneuploidy (DNA‐index > 1.3 and a high percentage of proliferating cells (>75th percentile were univariate and multivariate highly significant prognostic factors for recurrence‐free survival. Especially DNA‐aneuploidy (DI>1.3 is one of the most important independent molecular biological prognostic factors. While diagnostic curettage we could identify risk patients even preoperatively by determination of the prognostic factors like histologic tumor type, grading, cervical involvement and DNA‐ploidy. Thereby these patients could be treated primarily in an oncologic center. In conclusion, our investigations showed that the determination of DNA‐ploidy should be done in endometrial carcinoma. In cervical cancer no clinical significance for determination of DNA‐parameters was found.

  12. Motivational Factors in Combat: A Comparison of German and American Soldiers in World War II Using Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    fought the war for religious reasons, unless one considers National Socialism a religion. For the purposes of this study, National Socialism as a...literature. Faith was important to the troops, whether it was faith in God or National Socialism . Although religious beliefs can be a major motivational...factor in warfare, National Socialism was stressed far more heavily than any religious viewpoint (Bartov, 1986:93). Shils and Janowitz do not

  13. STUDIES ON A PARATYPHOID INFECTION IN GUINEA PIGS : II. FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE TRANSITION FROM EPIDEMIC TO ENDEMIC PHASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T; Nelson, J B

    1927-01-31

    Factors bearing on the maintenance of paratyphoid in an endemic state are discussed. There was no evidence of any increase nor any dearly demonstrable proof of a decline in virulence of the causative organism. This persisted within the breeding stock and it is suggested that the sows constituted the chief focus for dissemination of the organism to their young and from these to the population at large. Evidence is presented that the carriage of B. paratyphi in the feces was of relatively short duration. Fecal carriage of B. paratyphi was commonly associated with a localization of the organism in the spleen. Since it is obvious that some factor or factors must have changed in the transition from epidemic to endemic phase in the presence of younger generations, the hypothesis is tentatively presented that the transition from epidemic to endemic phase is due to a combination of the weeding out of individuals of low natural resistance with a gradual adjustment of the invading organism to the population on a lowered level of virulence.

  14. Part-II: Exchange current density and ionic diffusivity studies on the ordered and disordered spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Belharouak, Ilias

    2017-04-01

    Additive-free pellets of Li1-xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 have been prepared for the purpose of performing ionic diffusivity and exchange current density studies. Here we report on the characterization of interfacial charge transfer kinetics and ionic diffusivity of ordered (P4332) and disordered (Fd 3 bar m) Li1-xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a function of lithium content at ambient temperature. The exchange current density at the electrode/electrolyte interface is found to be continuously increased with increasing the degree of delithiation for ordered phase (∼0.21-6.5 mA/cm2) at (x = 0.01-0.60), in contrast the disordered phase exhibits gradually decrease of exchange current density in the initial delithiation at the 4 V plateau regime (x = 0.01-0.04) and again monotonously increases (0.65-6.8 mA/cm2) with further delithiation at (x = 0.04-0.60). The ionic diffusivity of ordered and disordered phase is found to be ∼5 × 10-10cm2s-1 and ∼10-9cm2s-1, respectively, and does not vary much with the degree of delithiation. From the obtained results it appears that the chemical diffusivity during electrochemical use is limited by lithium transport, but is fast enough over the entire state-of-charge range to allow charge/discharge of micron-scale particles at practical C-rates.

  15. Heat transfer II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1988-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Heat Transfer II reviews correlations for forced convection, free convection, heat exchangers, radiation heat transfer, and boiling and condensation.

  16. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  17. [Hepatitis B virus X protein promotes insulin-like growth factor II gene expression by inducing hypomethylation of the P3 promoter in hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shaohui; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Wu, Shenglan; Li, Junfeng; Jiang, Xiangwu; Zhou, Hongke; Luo, Yuhong; Cao, Mingrong

    2014-04-01

    To explore the involvement of hepatitis B X protein (HBx) in promoter 3 (P3)-driven mRNA overexpression of the insulin-like growth factor II gene (IGF-II) and investigate the underlying epigenetic mechanism. Levels of P3 and HBx mRNA and status of P3 methylation were analyzed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples, with and without hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and bisulfite sequencing. In addition, the levels of P3 mRNA and P3 methylation were examined in HepG2 cells stably overexpressing HBx (HepG2-HBx). Finally, P3 promoter-luciferase constructs were cotransfected into HepG2 cells along with an HBx-expressing plasmid, and the effects of HBx on transcriptional activity and methylation of P3 were analyzed. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted by chi square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, Marn-Whitney U test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient test. The HBV-positive HCC specimens had significantly higher levels of P3 mRNA than the HBV-negative HCC specimens (-9.59 ± 3.22 vs. -12.97 ± 3.08 delta CT; P=0.006) but significantly lower levels of P3 methylation (mean values for the 17 CpG sites (36.9% ± 15.5% vs. 52.1% ± 19.1%; P=0.025). The P3 transcript abundance was positively correlated with the level of HBx expression and negatively correlated with the level of P3 methylation. The epigenetic results from experiments with the HepG2-HBx cells were similar. Transfection of HBx significantly decreased P3 methylation level and increased its activity. HBx expression may promote IGF-II expression by inducing hypomethylation of its P3 promoter in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The Laser Processed Heat Exchanger project will investigate the use of laser processed surfaces to reduce mass and volume in liquid/liquid heat exchangers as well as the replacement of the harmful and problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHX). For this project, two scale unit test articles will be designed, manufactured, and tested. These two units are a high efficiency liquid/liquid HX and a high reliability CHX.

  19. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  20. Practical criterion for the determination of translation factors. II. Application to He/sup 2 +/+H(1s) collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Gomez-Llorente, J.M.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1985-10-01

    An illustration is reported on the use of the Euclidean norm as a criterion of the quality of translation factors in the molecular model of atomic collisions. The relation between our norm and the deviation vector of Chang and Rapp (J. Chem. Phys. 59, 572 (1973)), and the computational simplicity of the calculation and minimization of the former quantity, are very appealing features of our approach. To show how the norm method can be applied, the He/sup 2 +/+H(1s)..-->..He/sup +/(2s,2p )+H/sup +/ reaction is treated.

  1. A multicentre study of 513 Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. II. Disease mortality and clinical factors of prognostic value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Petersen, J; Ullman, S

    1998-01-01

    In this Danish multicentre study, predictive clinical factors of mortality and survival were calculated for 513 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 122 of whom died within a mean observation period of 8.2 years equalling a mortality rate of 2.9% per year. Survival rates were 97%, 91...... influence on survival related to mortality caused by infections. Diffuse central nervous system disease and myocarditis were related to increased SLE-related mortality, whereas photosensitivity predicted a decreased mortality. Non-fatal infections and thrombotic events predicted a decreased overall survival...

  2. The role of meson exchanges in light-by-light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebiedowicz, Piotr; Szczurek, Antoni

    2017-09-01

    We discuss the role of meson exchange mechanisms in γγ → γγ scattering. Several pseudoscalar (π0, η, η‧ (958), ηc (1 S), ηc (2 S)), scalar (f0 (500), f0 (980), a0 (980), f0 (1370), χc0 (1 P)) and tensor (f2 (1270), a2 (1320), f2‧ (1525), f2 (1565), a2 (1700)) mesons are taken into account. We consider not only s-channel but also for the first time t- and u-channel meson exchange amplitudes corrected for off-shell effects including vertex form factors. We find that, depending on not well known vertex form factors, the meson exchange amplitudes interfere among themselves and could interfere with fermion-box amplitudes and modify the resulting cross sections. The meson contributions are shown as a function of collision energy as well as angular distributions are presented. Interesting interference effects separately for light pseudoscalar, scalar and tensor meson groups are discussed. The meson exchange contributions may be potentially important in the context of a measurement performed recently in ultraperipheral collisions of heavy ions by the ATLAS collaboration. The light-by-light interactions could be studied in future in electron-positron collisions by the Belle II at SuperKEKB accelerator.

  3. A Practical and Time-Efficient High-Intensity Interval Training Program Modifies Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Adults with Risk Factors for Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan E. Phillips

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRegular physical activity (PA can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, but adherence to time-orientated (150 min week−1 or more PA guidelines is very poor. A practical and time-efficient PA regime that was equally efficacious at controlling risk factors for cardio-metabolic disease is one solution to this problem. Herein, we evaluate a new time-efficient and genuinely practical high-intensity interval training (HIT protocol in men and women with pre-existing risk factors for type 2 diabetes.Materials and methodsOne hundred eighty-nine sedentary women (n = 101 and men (n = 88 with impaired glucose tolerance and/or a body mass index >27 kg m−2 [mean (range age: 36 (18–53 years] participated in this multi-center study. Each completed a fully supervised 6-week HIT protocol at work-loads equivalent to ~100 or ~125% V˙O2 max. Change in V˙O2 max was used to monitor protocol efficacy, while Actiheart™ monitors were used to determine PA during four, weeklong, periods. Mean arterial (blood pressure (MAP and fasting insulin resistance [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR] represent key health biomarker outcomes.ResultsThe higher intensity bouts (~125% V˙O2 max used during a 5-by-1 min HIT protocol resulted in a robust increase in V˙O2 max (136 participants, +10.0%, p < 0.001; large size effect. 5-by-1 HIT reduced MAP (~3%; p < 0.001 and HOMA-IR (~16%; p < 0.01. Physiological responses were similar in men and women while a sizeable proportion of the training-induced changes in V˙O2 max, MAP, and HOMA-IR was retained 3 weeks after cessation of training. The supervised HIT sessions accounted for the entire quantifiable increase in PA, and this equated to 400 metabolic equivalent (MET min week−1. Meta-analysis indicated that 5-by-1 HIT matched the efficacy and variability of a time-consuming 30-week PA program on V˙O2 max, MAP, and HOMA-IR.ConclusionWith a total time-commitment of

  4. Mechanical stretch stimulates protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation in epidermal cells via angiotensin II type 1 receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenberger, Stefan; Loitsch, Stefan; Guschel, Maike; Müller, Jutta; Knies, Yvonne; Kaufmann, Roland; Bernd, August

    2005-01-28

    Mechanical stress is known to modulate fundamental events such as cell life and death. Mechanical stretch in particular has been identified as a positive regulator of proliferation in skin keratinocytes and other cell systems. In the present study it was investigated whether antiapoptotic signaling is also stimulated by mechanical stretch. It was demonstrated that mechanical stretch rapidly induced the phosphorylation of the proto-oncogene protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt at both phosphorylation sites (serine 473/threonine 308) in different epithelial cells (HaCaT, A-431, and human embryonic kidney-293). Blocking of phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase by selective inhibitors (LY-294002 and wortmannin) abrogated the stretch-induced PKB/Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore mechanical stretch stimulated phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the formation of EGFR membrane clusters. Functional blocking of EGFR phosphorylation by either selective inhibitors (AG1478 and PD168393) or dominant-negative expression suppressed stretch-induced PKB/Akt phosphorylation. Finally, the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) was shown to induce positive transactivation of EGFR in response to cell stretch. These findings define a novel signaling pathway of mechanical stretch, namely the activation of PKB/Akt by transactivation of EGFR via angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Evidence is provided that stretch-induced activation of PKB/Akt protects cells against induced apoptosis.

  5. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, F. D.

    1991-07-01

    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchanger. The DSI completed a heat exchanger stress analysis of the ten-module heat exchanger bank; and performed a shell-side flow inhomogeneity analysis of the three-module heat exchanger bank. The company produced 50 tubestrips using an in-house CNC milling machine and began pressing them onto tube arrays. The DSI revised some of the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips into the array to improve some of the prototype tooling.

  6. 78 FR 71015 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Mercantile Exchange Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act''),\\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is... Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed rule change described in Items I, II and III...

  7. 75 FR 39070 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Proposed Rule Change To Amend ISE Rule 2102 To Add Additional Securities to the Pilot Rule June 30, 2010... ``Exchange'' or ``ISE'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed rule....ise.com , at the principal office of the Exchange, and at the Commission's Public Reference Room. II...

  8. 77 FR 4852 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``ISE'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... ``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to amend ISE Rule 715, ``Types of... (``Notice''). II. Description A complex order resting on ISE's complex order book may be executed either by...

  9. 76 FR 40758 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Order Approving a Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange'' or ``ISE''), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to allow complex orders in options classes traded on the ISE..., 2011); 76 FR 31385 (``Notice''). II. Description The ISE proposes to amend ISE Rule 723, ``Price...

  10. 78 FR 24265 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...\\ notice is hereby given that on April 12, 2013, the International Securities Exchange, LLC (the ``Exchange... described in Items I, II, and III below, which items have been prepared by the self-regulatory organization...

  11. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II mRNA-Binding Protein 3 Expression Correlates with Poor Prognosis in Acral Lentiginous Melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shuan Sheen

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP-3 is an RNA-binding protein expressed in multiple cancers, including melanomas. However, the expression of IMP-3 has not been investigated in acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM. This study sought to elucidate its prognostic value in ALMs. IMP-3 expression was studied in 93 patients diagnosed with ALM via immunohistochemistry. Univariate and multivariate analyses for survival were performed, according to clinical and histologic parameters, using the Cox proportional hazard model. Survival curves were graphed using the Kaplan-Meier method. IMP-3 was over-expressed in 70 out of 93 tumors (75.3%. IMP-3 expression correlated with thick and high-stage tumor and predicted poorer overall, melanoma-specific, recurrence-free and distant metastasis-free survivals (P = 0.002, 0.006, 0.008 and 0.012, respectively. Further analysis showed that patients with tumor thickness ≤ 4.0 mm and positive IMP-3 expression had a significantly worse melanoma-specific survival than those without IMP-3 expression (P = 0.048. IMP-3 (hazard ratio 3.67, 95% confidence intervals 1.35-9.97, P = 0.011 was confirmed to be an independent prognostic factor for melanoma-specific survival in multivariate survival analysis. Positive IMP-3 expression was an important prognostic factor for ALMs.

  12. 78 FR 62842 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Voting; (ii) amend Rule 13.3, Forwarding of Issuer Materials; and (iii) adopt new Rule 12.14, Front... proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Internet Web site at www.directedge.com , at the... purposes of the 17d-2 Agreement, the Exchange proposes to: (i) Amend Rule 3.22, Proxy Voting; (ii) amend...

  13. Effect of sorption conditions on the state of copper(II) ions in the phase of AN-31 ion exchange resin, according to data from ESR and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroganova, E. A.; Anufrienko, V. F.; Larina, T. V.; Vasenin, N. T.; Lebedev, Yu. A.; Parmon, V. N.

    2017-08-01

    It is found that the sorption recovery of copper ions from water solutions in the phase of AN-31 low basicity anion exchanger has a mixed character. It is established via diffuse reflectance spectroscopy that ions are stabilized through complexation with the participation of the functional groups of the sorbent with the formation of structures [Cu(NR3)2(OH)2(H2O)2], [Cu(NR3)3(OH)(H2O)2], and as a result of the physical adsorption of oxide dimers and planar-squared copper clusters. It is shown that increasing the ionic strength of a solution by introducing sodium chloride into the system greatly improves the capacity of the sorbent and leads to the uniform distribution of copper ions in the resin matrix. The similarity between the ESR spectrum parameters of copper-containing samples of the ion exchanger, obtained in a wider range of pH, is determined via ESR and testifies to the homogeneity of the stabilization positions of Cu2+ ions. The crystalline field of tetragonal-elongated octahedron is typical of all Cu2+ ions. All of the complexes have Cu(NO3)2 coordination nodes with the covalent bonding of Cu2+ ions and the amine groups of the sorbent.

  14. Association of Mannose-Binding Lectin rs1800450 and Tumor Necrotic Factor-α rs1800620 Polymorphism with Helicobacter pylori in Type II Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Elnaz; Eslami, Behnaz; Aghahosseini, Parisa; Ahron, Fatemeh; Amininejad, Armagan; Mahmoodi, Sepideh; Satarpour, Hadis; Radmanesh, Nilofar; Rassi, Hossein

    2017-10-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the prevalent type of diabetes, including 90% of the cases world-wide. Helicobacter pylori plays a pathogenic role in the development of T2DM. The host genetic factors have a significant impact on the clinical outcome and anatomical distribution of H. pylori infection and polymorphisms in several genes such as tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-α and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and are considered to increase the risk for the development of T2DM. In this study, we investigate the prevalence rate of H. pylori infection and its relationship to MBL rs1800450 and TNF-α rs1800620 polymorphism in T2DM. In this case-control study, 174 patients with type II diabetes and 185 healthy controls were studied. Also, demographics, physical, and biochemical parameters were performed in all patients. The DNA extracted from blood specimens was amplified by H. pylori cagA-specific primers. The MBL rs1800450 and TNF-α rs1800620 genotyping were detected by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). The results show that H. pylori cagA positivity was detected in 42.82% of the diabetic patients and in 22.16% of the control group, and H. pylori infection was closely correlated with MBL rs1800450 AA genotype and TNF-α rs1800620 GG genotype when compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, these two genotypes were strongly associated with H. pylori cagA(+) samples when compared with cagA(-) samples. In addition, the presence of H. pylori cagA(+) infection was significantly associated with the elevated serum levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In general, it can be concluded that molecular analysis of MBL rs1800450 AA genotype and TNF-α rs1800620 AA genotype is important in the early detection and treatment of T2DM with H. pylori cagA(+) infection.

  15. Amelioration of insulin requirement in patients undergoing duodenal bypass for reasons other than obesity implicates foregut factors in the pathophysiology of type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervos, Emmanuel E; Agle, Steven C; Warren, Alex J; Lang, Christina G; Fitzgerald, Timothy L; Dar, Moahad; Rotondo, Michael F; Pories, Walter J

    2010-05-01

    Foregut diversion and weight loss have been proposed as potential mechanisms for resolution of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) observed in patients undergoing gastric bypass for obesity. To support or refute the role of the foregut, we analyzed glycemic control in T2DM patients before and after foregut bypass for reasons other than morbid obesity. Using ICD9/CPT codes, we identified patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy (RY) or Billroth II (BII) reconstruction over 10 years. Fasting blood glucose, insulin or oral diabetic agent requirement, and body mass index (BMI) before and after surgery were tabulated and compared using the Student's t-test. Linear regression was applied to determine specific factors predictive of resolution or improvement in glycemic control including age, duration of diabetes, antidiabetic regimen, type of operation, and surgical indication. Between 1996 and 2006, we identified 24 patients with T2DM out of a cohort of 209 who underwent either RY (12 of 24) or BII reconstruction (12 of 24) for cancer or peptic ulcer disease and survived more than 30 days after operation. Of this group, 75% were overweight (18 of 24 with BMI obese (6 of 24 with BMI 30 to 35 kg/m(2)). Seventeen patients (71%) had either complete resolution (7 of 24 or 29%) or significant reduction (10 of 24 or 42%) in medication requirements; 7 patients (29%) did not have any improvement. Logistic regression failed to identify specific factors predicting improved glycemic control. Complete resolution of T2DM in patients undergoing duodenal diverting surgery occurs in about one-third of nonobese patients. Improved glycemic control occurs in more than two-thirds and cannot be explained by surgically related weight loss alone. Surgical cure of T2DM may be possible in carefully selected nonobese patients. Copyright 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A multicentre study of 513 Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. II. Disease mortality and clinical factors of prognostic value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S; Petersen, J; Ullman, S

    1998-01-01

    In this Danish multicentre study, predictive clinical factors of mortality and survival were calculated for 513 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 122 of whom died within a mean observation period of 8.2 years equalling a mortality rate of 2.9% per year. Survival rates were 97%, 91......%, 76% and 64% after 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, respectively. The direct causes of death included SLE (n = 35), infections (n = 25), malignancy (n = 9), cardiovascular disease (n = 32) and other causes (n = 21). Uni- and multivariate analyses of survival and mortality were performed for all deaths...... and for SLE-related deaths. Azotaemia (one-fifth of the patients) was a strong predictor of increased overall and SLE-related mortality, but nephropathy per se (one-half of the patients) and large proteinuria (one-sixth of the patients) were unrelated to survival. Haemolytic anaemia had a significant negative...

  17. Factors associated with degree of atopy in Latino children in a nationwide pediatric sample: The GALA II Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Nguyen, Elizabeth A; Roth, Lindsey A; Oh, Sam S; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Sandoval, Karla; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda; López-López, Marisol; Avila, Pedro C.; Farber, Harold J.; Tcheurekdjian, Haig; Rodriguez-Cintron, Wi