Sample records for exchange factor coordinating

  1. Coordinated regulation by two VPS9 domain-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factors in small GTPase Rab5 signaling pathways in fission yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Yuta [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Kagiwada, Satoshi [Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Nara Women' s University, Kitauoyanishi-machi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Shimazu, Sayuri [Center for Supports to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Takegawa, Kaoru [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Noguchi, Tetsuko [Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Nara Women' s University, Kitauoyanishi-machi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Miyamoto, Masaaki, E-mail: [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Center for Supports to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)


    The small GTPase Rab5 is reported to regulate various cellular functions, such as vesicular transport and endocytosis. VPS9 domain-containing proteins are thought to activate Rab5(s) by their guanine-nucleotide exchange activities. Numerous VPS9 proteins have been identified and are structurally conserved from yeast to mammalian cells. However, the functional relationships among VPS9 proteins in cells remain unclear. Only one Rab5 and two VPS9 proteins were identified in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome. Here, we examined the cellular function of two VPS9 proteins and the relationship between these proteins in cellular functions. Vps901-GFP and Vps902-GFP exhibited dotted signals in vegetative and differentiated cells. vps901 deletion mutant (Δvps901) cells exhibited a phenotype deficient in the mating process and responses to high concentrations of ions, such as calcium and metals, and Δvps901Δvps902 double mutant cells exhibited round cell shapes similar to ypt5-909 (Rab5 mutant allele) cells. Deletion of both vps901 and vps902 genes completely abolished the mating process and responses to various stresses. A lack of vacuole formation and aberrant inner cell membrane structures were also observed in Δvps901Δvps902 cells by electron microscopy. These data strongly suggest that Vps901 and Vps902 are cooperatively involved in the regulation of cellular functions, such as cell morphology, sexual development, response to ion stresses, and vacuole formation, via Rab5 signaling pathways in fission yeast cells. - Highlights: • Roles of Rab5 activator VPS9 proteins in cellular functions. • Cooperation between VPS9 proteins in Rab5 signaling pathway. • Roles of each VPS9 protein in Rab5 signaling pathway are discussed.

  2. Key factors in patient-centered care coordination in ambulatory care: nurse care coordinators' perspectives. (United States)

    Vanderboom, Catherine E; Thackeray, Nona L; Rhudy, Lori M


    Care coordination within Health Care Homes (HCHs) is an evolving registered nurse role. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing nurse care coordination. The aims are to 1) describe the characteristics of patients perceived by nurse care coordinators (NCCs) to benefit from care coordination and to 2) describe interventions judged by NCCs to be most effective in caring for patients with complex chronic care needs. This study was an analysis of existing data using a qualitative descriptive design. Experienced NCCs from various practice settings participated in a focus group. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Findings indicate the importance of the cumulative impact of complex health problems, limited social support, culture and language on patients needing care coordination. Effective interventions are focused on providing holistic, relationship-based care. The identification of contextual factors juxtaposed to complex chronic health conditions holds promise as a powerful indicator of individuals needing targeted, individualized interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of coordination factors affecting building projects performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Salah Alaloul


    Full Text Available Construction projects performance requires improvement to fulfil the complexity of the stakeholders’ needs and expectations. Coordination process is proposed as an efficient solution for weak performance of construction projects. Therefore, coordination factors are vital in ensuring a successful implementation of all project phases. This study aimed to identify and prioritise coordination factors that influence the performance of building projects in Malaysian context. A vast body of literature on coordination process was reviewed and resulted in 53 coordination factor. Three rounds of Delphi technique were conducted. The most effective coordination factors were ranked based on the Relative Importance Index (RII such as Scheduling (RII = 0.97, Quality assurance plan (RII = 0.93, and all parties’ participation in plans (RII = 0.89. These coordination factors have fulfilled the research gap and provided better management and higher performance for project parties. The results offer insightful perspectives to define the most effective coordination factors, for addressing the dependency between project tasks and the parties to enhance project performance.

  4. Influence of the Ion Coordination Number on Cation Exchange Reactions with Copper Telluride Nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Renyong; Bertoni, Giovanni; Lak, Aidin; Gaspari, Roberto; Rapallo, Arnaldo; Cavalli, Andrea; De Trizio, Luca; Manna, Liberato


    Cu2-xTe nanocubes were used as starting seeds to access metal telluride nanocrystals by cation exchanges at room temperature. The coordination number of the entering cations was found to play an important role in dictating the reaction pathways. The exchanges with tetrahedrally coordinated cations (i.e. with coordination number 4), such as Cd2+ or Hg2+, yielded monocrystalline CdTe or HgTe nanocrystals with Cu2-xTe/CdTe or Cu2-xTe/HgTe Janus-like heterostructures as intermediates. The formation of Janus-like architectures was attributed to the high diffusion rate of the relatively small tetrahedrally coordinated cations, which could rapidly diffuse in the Cu2-xTe NCs and nucleate the CdTe (or HgTe) phase in a preferred region of the host structure. Also, with both Cd2+ and Hg2+ ions the exchange led to wurtzite CdTe and HgTe phases rather than the more stable zinc-blende ones, indicating that the anion framework of the starting Cu2- xTe particles could be more easily deformed to match the anion framework of t...

  5. Allosteric activation of coagulation factor VIIa visualized by hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper Dyrberg; Jørgensen, Thomas; Olsen, Ole H


    Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is a serine protease that, after binding to tissue factor (TF), plays a pivotal role in the initiation of blood coagulation. We used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry to visualize the details of FVIIa activation by comparing the exchange kinetics...

  6. Two-photon exchange effect on deuteron electromagnetic form factors


    Dong, Yu Bing; Chen, D. Y.


    Corrections of two-photon exchange to proton and neutron electromagnetic form factors are employed to study the effect of two-photon exchange on the deuteron electromagnetic form factors. Numerical results of the effect are given. It is suggested to test the effect in the measurement of $P_z$ in a small angle limit.

  7. Nitrogen-Coordinated Single Cobalt Atom Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells. (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Xia; Cullen, David A; Pan, Yung-Tin; Hwang, Sooyeon; Wang, Maoyu; Feng, Zhenxing; Wang, Jingyun; Engelhard, Mark H; Zhang, Hanguang; He, Yanghua; Shao, Yuyan; Su, Dong; More, Karren L; Spendelow, Jacob S; Wu, Gang


    Due to the Fenton reaction, the presence of Fe and peroxide in electrodes generates free radicals causing serious degradation of the organic ionomer and the membrane. Pt-free and Fe-free cathode catalysts therefore are urgently needed for durable and inexpensive proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Herein, a high-performance nitrogen-coordinated single Co atom catalyst is derived from Co-doped metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) through a one-step thermal activation. Aberration-corrected electron microscopy combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy virtually verifies the CoN4 coordination at an atomic level in the catalysts. Through investigating effects of Co doping contents and thermal activation temperature, an atomically Co site dispersed catalyst with optimal chemical and structural properties has achieved respectable activity and stability for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in challenging acidic media (e.g., half-wave potential of 0.80 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). The performance is comparable to Fe-based catalysts and 60 mV lower than Pt/C -60 μg Pt cm-2 ). Fuel cell tests confirm that catalyst activity and stability can translate to high-performance cathodes in PEMFCs. The remarkably enhanced ORR performance is attributed to the presence of well-dispersed CoN4 active sites embedded in 3D porous MOF-derived carbon particles, omitting any inactive Co aggregates. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Weak coordination among petiole, leaf, vein, and gas-exchange traits across 41 Australian angiosperm species and its possible implications (United States)

    Background and Aims Close coordination between leaf gas exchange and maximal hydraulic supply has been reported across diverse plant life-forms. However, recent reports suggest that this relationship may become weak or break down completely within the angiosperms. Methods To examine this possi...

  9. A method of factor analysis for shape coordinates. (United States)

    Bookstein, Fred L


    Currently the most common reporting style for a geometric morphometric (GMM) analysis of anthropological data begins with the principal components of the shape coordinates to which the original landmark data have been converted. But this focus often frustrates the organismal biologist, mainly because principal component analysis (PCA) is not aimed at scientific interpretability of the loading patterns actually uncovered. The difficulty of making biological sense of a PCA is heightened by aspects of the shape coordinate setting that further diverge from our intuitive expectations of how morphometric measurements ought to combine. More than 50 years ago one of our sister disciplines, psychometrics, managed to build an algorithmic route from principal component analysis to scientific understanding via the toolkit generally known as factor analysis. This article introduces a modification of one standard factor-analysis approach, Henry Kaiser's varimax rotation of 1958, that accommodates two of the major differences between the GMM context and the psychometric context for these approaches: the coexistence of "general" and "special" factors of form as adumbrated by Sewall Wright, and the typical loglinearity of partial warp variance as a function of bending energy. I briefly explain the history of principal components in biometrics and the contrast with factor analysis, introduce the modified varimax algorithm I am recommending, and work three examples that are reanalyses of previously published cranial data sets. A closing discussion emphasizes the desirability of superseding PCA by algorithms aimed at anthropological understanding rather than classification or ordination. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. NETL's Energy Data Exchange (EDX) - a coordination, collaboration, and data resource discovery platform for energy science (United States)

    Rose, K.; Rowan, C.; Rager, D.; Dehlin, M.; Baker, D. V.; McIntyre, D.


    Multi-organizational research teams working jointly on projects often encounter problems with discovery, access to relevant existing resources, and data sharing due to large file sizes, inappropriate file formats, or other inefficient options that make collaboration difficult. The Energy Data eXchange (EDX) from Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is an evolving online research environment designed to overcome these challenges in support of DOE's fossil energy goals while offering improved access to data driven products of fossil energy R&D such as datasets, tools, and web applications. In 2011, development of NETL's Energy Data eXchange (EDX) was initiated and offers i) a means for better preserving of NETL's research and development products for future access and re-use, ii) efficient, discoverable access to authoritative, relevant, external resources, and iii) an improved approach and tools to support secure, private collaboration and coordination between multi-organizational teams to meet DOE mission and goals. EDX presently supports fossil energy and SubTER Crosscut research activities, with an ever-growing user base. EDX is built on a heavily customized instance of the open source platform, Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network (CKAN). EDX connects users to externally relevant data and tools through connecting to external data repositories built on different platforms and other CKAN platforms (e.g. EDX does not download and repost data or tools that already have an online presence. This leads to redundancy and even error. If a relevant resource already has an online instance, is hosted by another online entity, EDX will point users to that external host either using web services, inventorying URLs and other methods. EDX offers users the ability to leverage private-secure capabilities custom built into the system. The team is presently working on version 3 of EDX which will incorporate big data analytical

  11. Water exchange through the Kerama Gap estimated with a 25-year Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (United States)

    Zhou, Wenzheng; Yu, Fei; Nan, Feng


    V ariations in water exchange through the Kerama Gap (between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima Island) from 1979 to 2003 were estimated with the 0.08° Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The model results show that the mean transport through the Kerama Gap (KGT) from the Pacific Ocean to the East China Sea (ECS) was 2.1 Sv, which agrees well with the observed mean KGT (2.0 Sv) for 2009-2010. Over the time period examined, the monthly KGT varied from -10.9 Sv to 15.8 Sv and had a standard deviation of ± 5.0 Sv. The water mainly enters the ECS via the subsurface layer (300-500 m) along the northeastern slope of the Kerama Gap and mainly flows out of the ECS into the southwest of the Kerama Gap. The seasonal and interannual variations of the KGT and the Kuroshio upstream transport were negatively correlated. The Kuroshio upstream transport was largest in summer and smallest in autumn while the KGT was smallest in summer (1.02 Sv) and largest in spring (2.94 Sv) and autumn (2.44 Sv). The seasonal and interannual variations in the Kuroshio downstream (across the PN-line) transport differed significantly from the Kuroshio upstream transport but corresponded well with the KGT and the sum of the transport through the Kerama Gap and the Kuroshio upstream, which indicates that information about variation in the KGT is important for determining variation in the Kuroshio transport along the PN-line.

  12. Water exchange through the Kerama Gap estimated with a 25-year Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (United States)

    Zhou, Wenzheng; Yu, Fei; Nan, Feng


    Variations in water exchange through the Kerama Gap (between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima Island) from 1979 to 2003 were estimated with the 0.08° Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The model results show that the mean transport through the Kerama Gap (KGT) from the Pacific Ocean to the East China Sea (ECS) was 2.1 Sv, which agrees well with the observed mean KGT (2.0 Sv) for 2009-2010. Over the time period examined, the monthly KGT varied from -10.9 Sv to 15.8 Sv and had a standard deviation of ± 5.0 Sv. The water mainly enters the ECS via the subsurface layer (300-500 m) along the northeastern slope of the Kerama Gap and mainly flows out of the ECS into the southwest of the Kerama Gap. The seasonal and interannual variations of the KGT and the Kuroshio upstream transport were negatively correlated. The Kuroshio upstream transport was largest in summer and smallest in autumn while the KGT was smallest in summer (1.02 Sv) and largest in spring (2.94 Sv) and autumn (2.44 Sv). The seasonal and interannual variations in the Kuroshio downstream (across the PN-line) transport differed significantly from the Kuroshio upstream transport but corresponded well with the KGT and the sum of the transport through the Kerama Gap and the Kuroshio upstream, which indicates that information about variation in the KGT is important for determining variation in the Kuroshio transport along the PN-line.

  13. Dynamic equilibria in solvent-mediated anion, cation and ligand exchange in transition-metal coordination polymers: solid-state transfer or recrystallisation? (United States)

    Cui, Xianjin; Khlobystov, Andrei N; Chen, Xinyong; Marsh, Dan H; Blake, Alexander J; Lewis, William; Champness, Neil R; Roberts, Clive J; Schröder, Martin


    The solution properties of a series of transition-metal-ligand coordination polymers [ML(X)(n)](infinity) [M=Ag(I), Zn(II), Hg(II) and Cd(II); L=4,4'-bipyridine (4,4'-bipy), pyrazine (pyz), 3,4'-bipyridine (3,4'-bipy), 4-(10-(pyridin-4-yl)anthracen-9-yl)pyridine (anbp); X=NO(3) (-), CH(3)COO(-), CF(3)SO(3) (-), Cl(-), BF(4) (-); n=1 or 2] in the presence of competing anions, metal cations and ligands have been investigated systematically. Providing that the solubility of the starting complex is sufficiently high, all the components of the coordination polymer, namely the anion, the cation and the ligand, can be exchanged on contact with a solution phase of a competing component. The solubility of coordination polymers is a key factor in the analysis of their reactivity and this solubility depends strongly on the physical properties of the solvent and on its ability to bind metal cations constituting the backbone of the coordination polymer. The degree of reversibility of these solvent-induced anion-exchange transformations is determined by the ratio of the solubility product constants for the starting and resultant complexes, which in turn depend upon the choice of solvent and the temperature. The extent of anion exchange is controlled effectively by the ratio of the concentrations of incoming ions to outgoing ions in the liquid phase and the solvation of various constituent components comprising the coordination polymer. These observations can be rationalised in terms of a dynamic equilibrium of ion exchange reactions coupled with Ostwald ripening of crystalline products. The single-crystal X-ray structures of [Ag(pyz)ClO(4)](infinity) (1), {[Ag(4,4'-bipy)(CF(3)SO(3))]CH(3)CN}(infinity) (2), {[Ag(4,4'-bipy)(CH(3)CN)]ClO(4) 0.5 CH(3)CN}(infinity) (3), metal-free anbp (4), [Ag(anbp)NO(3)(H(2)O)](infinity) (5), {[Cd(4,4'-bipy)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](NO(3))(2)4 H(2)O}(infinity) (6) and {[Zn(4,4'-bipy)SO(4)(H(2)O)(3)] 2 H(2)O}(infinity) (7) are reported.

  14. Reactions of. cap alpha. -hydroxy acid chemical exchange in titanium (3) and vanadyl (2) coordination compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glebov, A.N.; Sal' nikov, Yu.I.; Zakharov, A.V.; Saprykova, Z.A.; Gogolashvili, Eh.L. (Kazanskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))


    For the first time a study was made on the effect of chemical exchange of oxygen-containing ligands (lactic, mandelic, sulfosalicylic acids) on the relaxation period of solvent water protons. Constants of exchange rates of protonated ligand forms were evaluated. The mechanism of the observed processes are proposed.

  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor coordinates islet innervation via vascular scaffolding (United States)

    Reinert, Rachel B.; Cai, Qing; Hong, Ji-Young; Plank, Jennifer L.; Aamodt, Kristie; Prasad, Nripesh; Aramandla, Radhika; Dai, Chunhua; Levy, Shawn E.; Pozzi, Ambra; Labosky, Patricia A.; Wright, Christopher V. E.; Brissova, Marcela; Powers, Alvin C.


    Neurovascular alignment is a common anatomical feature of organs, but the mechanisms leading to this arrangement are incompletely understood. Here, we show that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling profoundly affects both vascularization and innervation of the pancreatic islet. In mature islets, nerves are closely associated with capillaries, but the islet vascularization process during embryonic organogenesis significantly precedes islet innervation. Although a simple neuronal meshwork interconnects the developing islet clusters as they begin to form at E14.5, the substantial ingrowth of nerve fibers into islets occurs postnatally, when islet vascularization is already complete. Using genetic mouse models, we demonstrate that VEGF regulates islet innervation indirectly through its effects on intra-islet endothelial cells. Our data indicate that formation of a VEGF-directed, intra-islet vascular plexus is required for development of islet innervation, and that VEGF-induced islet hypervascularization leads to increased nerve fiber ingrowth. Transcriptome analysis of hypervascularized islets revealed an increased expression of extracellular matrix components and axon guidance molecules, with these transcripts being enriched in the islet-derived endothelial cell population. We propose a mechanism for coordinated neurovascular development within pancreatic islets, in which endocrine cell-derived VEGF directs the patterning of intra-islet capillaries during embryogenesis, forming a scaffold for the postnatal ingrowth of essential autonomic nerve fibers. PMID:24574008

  16. Variable primary coordination environments of Cd(ɪɪ) binding to three helix bundles provide a pathway for rapid metal exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tebo, Alison G.; Hemmingsen, Lars Bo Stegeager; Pecoraro, Vincent L.


    exchange between CdS3O and CdS4 coordination spheres. Correlation of (111m)Cd PAC spectroscopy and (113)Cd NMR spectroscopy suggests that Cd(ii) coordinated to CadC is in fast exchange between CdS3O and CdS4 forms, which may provide a mechanism for rapid sensing of heavy metal contaminants...

  17. Coordinated regulation of cardiac Na(+)/Ca (2+) exchanger and Na (+)-K (+)-ATPase by phospholemman (FXYD1). (United States)

    Cheung, Joseph Y; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Song, Jianliang; Gao, Erhe; Chan, Tung O; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Koch, Walter J; Feldman, Arthur M; Wang, JuFang


    Phospholemman (PLM) is the founding member of the FXYD family of regulators of ion transport. PLM is a 72-amino acid protein consisting of the signature PFXYD motif in the extracellular N terminus, a single transmembrane (TM) domain, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic tail containing three phosphorylation sites. In the heart, PLM co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and L-type Ca(2+) channel. The TM domain of PLM interacts with TM9 of the α-subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, while its cytoplasmic tail interacts with two small regions (spanning residues 248-252 and 300-304) of the proximal intracellular loop of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Under stress, catecholamine stimulation phosphorylates PLM at serine(68), resulting in relief of inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase by decreasing K(m) for Na(+) and increasing V(max), and simultaneous inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Enhanced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity lowers intracellular Na(+), thereby minimizing Ca(2+) overload and risks of arrhythmias. Inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger reduces Ca(2+) efflux, thereby preserving contractility. Thus, the coordinated actions of PLM during stress serve to minimize arrhythmogenesis and maintain inotropy. In acute cardiac ischemia and chronic heart failure, either expression or phosphorylation of PLM or both are altered. PLM regulates important ion transporters in the heart and offers a tempting target for development of drugs to treat heart failure.

  18. Designing Feature and Data Parallel Stochastic Coordinate Descent Method forMatrix and Tensor Factorization (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0046 Designing Feature and Data Parallel Stochastic Coordinate Descent Method for Matrix and Tensor Factorization U Kang Korea...Designing Feature and Data Parallel Stochastic Coordinate Descent Method for Matrix and Tensor Factorization 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386...AOARD Grant FA2386-14-1-4036 “Designing Feature and Data Parallel Stochastic Coordinate Descent Method for Matrix and Tensor Factorization” 29

  19. Steric effect involved in Ln3+/Ce3+ exchange in a coordination polymer based on di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid. (United States)

    Tasaki-Handa, Yuiko; Abe, Yukie; Ooi, Kenta; Tanaka, Mikiya; Wakisaka, Akihiro


    Coordination polymers can be attractive ion exchange materials because of their crystallinity and semi-flexibility, which are rather opposing properties, and play integral and synergistic roles in introducing unique ion-exchange behavior. In this paper, Ln(3+)/Ce(3+) exchange (Ln(3+) = Nd(3+), Gd(3+), Dy(3+), or Lu(3+)) in a coordination polymer, [Ce(dehp)3], based on di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (Hdehp) is studied by distribution coefficient measurements, ion-exchange isotherms, Kielland plot analysis, and morphology observation. The ion-exchange selectivity is in the order Nd(3+) dissolution-recrystallization. The small steric strain in the Nd(3+)/Ce(3+) system leads to the formation of a Nd(3+)-and-Ce(3+) solid-solution, whereas the morphological change is possibly restrained by the strong strain caused by loaded Ln(3+) with an ionic size significantly smaller than the original Ce(3+).

  20. Knowledge as a Contingency Factor: Achieving Coordination in Interorganizational Systems (United States)


    leadership for its role in managing structural adaptation, especially the type of adaptation that looms in the face of a crisis like a disaster event...and coordination mechanisms, for a review, see Daft 1998), are well understood, the emergence of the idea that knowledge can be viewed as a...organization that gets 8 its goals from the parent firms, see Daft 1998). It can be argued that because those joint ventures emanated from

  1. A GTP-exchange factor required for cell orientation. (United States)

    Nern, A; Arkowitz, R A


    The Rho-family of GTPases and their regulators are essential for cytoskeletal reorganization and transcriptional activation in response to extracellular signals. Little is known about what links these molecules to membrane receptors. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, haploid cells respond to mating pheromone through a G-protein-coupled receptor and the betagamma subunit of the G protein, resulting in arrest of the cell cycle, transcriptional activation, and polarized growth towards a mating partner. The Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 and its exchange factor Cdc24 have been implicated in the mating process, but their specific role is unknown. Here we report the identification of cdc24 alleles that do not affect vegetative growth but drastically reduce the ability of yeast cells to mate. When exposed to mating pheromone, these mutants arrest growth, activate transcription, and undergo characteristic morphological and actin-cytoskeleton polarization. However, the mutants are unable to orient towards a pheromone gradient, and instead position their mating projection adjacent to their previous bud site. The mutants are specifically defective in the binding of Cdc24 to the G-protein betagamma subunit. Our results demonstrate that the association of an exchange factor and the betagamma subunit of a hetero-trimeric G protein links receptor-mediated activation to oriented cell growth.

  2. Factors contributing to attitude exchange amongst preservice elementary teachers (United States)

    Palmer, David H.


    Previous research has shown that elementary education majors often dislike science and lack confidence in their ability to teach it. This is an important problem because students who hold these attitudes are likely to avoid teaching science, or teach it poorly, when they become teachers. It is therefore necessary to identify preservice elementary teachers who hold negative attitudes towards science, and attempt to convert these attitudes to positive before they become teachers. This study was designed to identify students whose attitudes had changed from negative to positive (i.e., attitude exchange had occurred) after participating in a one-semester elementary science education course, and to identify the course factors that were responsible. Four participants were individually interviewed. The transcripts indicated that attitude exchange had occurred for each of the four students. Each student described several features of the course that had a positive influence. These were of three main types: personal attributes of the tutor, specific teaching strategies, and external validation. It was proposed that many of the individual factors were effective because they represented either performance accomplishments or vicarious experience as defined by Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 1977, 191-215).

  3. Variability in the saline water exchange between the Baltic and the Gulf of Gdansk by the sigma-coordinate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jankowski


    Full Text Available A three-dimensional baroclinic sigma-coordinate model was applied to study the circulation and thermohaline variabilityin the coastal zone in the south-eastern Baltic Sea. The model is based on the Princeton Ocean Model code of Blumberg & Mellor(1987, known as POM, and has the horizontal resolution of ~5 km and 24 sigma-levels in the vertical. The hydrodynamic conditions and variability of water and salt exchange between the Gulf of Gdansk and the Baltic Proper, and the renewal of water masses in the Gulf of Gdansk due to atmospheric forcing are analyzed. The numerical simulations were performed with real atmospheric forcings as well as with homogeneous (spatially uniform wind fields over the whole Baltic Sea. The numerical simulations showed that the atmospheric forcing (winds can play a significant role in shaping the renewal of bottom saline waters in the Gulf of Gdansk. Two regions of inflow/outflow of saline waters responsible for the salinity regime were located. The overall water exchange between the Gulf and the Baltic Proper as well as the exchange of saline bottom waters appear to be strongly dependent on wind conditions. The net flux of water of salinity >9 PSU is of the order of 48000-100000 m3 s-1. SE, E, S and NE winds were foundto exert the greatest influence on salinity conditions in the Gulf of Gdansk. Estimates of saline (salinity >9 PSU water residencetime based on the model simulation yielded values from 46 days for SE winds to 153 days for NW winds.

  4. Vav family exchange factors: an integrated regulatory and functional view. (United States)

    Bustelo, Xosé R


    The Vav family is a group of tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated signal transduction molecules hierarchically located downstream of protein tyrosine kinases. The main function of these proteins is to work as guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for members of the Rho GTPase family. In addition, they can exhibit a variety of catalysis-independent roles in specific signaling contexts. Vav proteins play essential signaling roles for both the development and/or effector functions of a large variety of cell lineages, including those belonging to the immune, nervous, and cardiovascular systems. They also contribute to pathological states such as cancer, immune-related dysfunctions, and atherosclerosis. Here, I will provide an integrated view about the evolution, regulation, and effector properties of these signaling molecules. In addition, I will discuss the pros and cons for their potential consideration as therapeutic targets.

  5. Dock-family exchange factors in cell migration and disease. (United States)

    Gadea, Gilles; Blangy, Anne


    Dock family proteins are evolutionary conserved exchange factors for the Rho GTPases Rac and Cdc42. There are 11 Dock proteins in mammals, named Dock1 (or Dock180) to Dock11 that play different cellular functions. In particular, Dock proteins regulate actin cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and migration. Not surprisingly, members of the Dock family have been involved in various pathologies, including cancer and defects in the central nervous and immune systems. This review proposes an update of the recent findings regarding the function of Dock proteins, focusing on their role in the control of cell migration and invasion and the consequences in human diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors of successful movement coordination in students with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japundža-Milisavljević Mirjana


    Full Text Available There are many studies on the assessment of factors which determine the quality of making movements, including coordination and precision. Basic and complex motor activities directly depend on neuropsychological abilities. Researchers in this field point to significant factors which indicate successful coordination of movements, however, only few tried to single out the most important one. The main aim of this research was to determine whether there was a relation between spatial orientation, attention, and verbal memory in movement coordination, and which of the mentioned functions had the greatest influence on coordination and precision of movements in students with mild intellectual disability. Seventy three participants, aged between 7 and 12, were assessed by Ball-Foot-Wall Test for the assessment of coordination and precision of movements, Cancellation Task for attention vigilance assessment, Beter-Cragin Test for spatial orientation, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test for the assessment of verbal memory and forced recognition. The obtained results showed that the most significant factors of movement coordination were forced recognition β=0.269; p=0.046, attention vigilance β=0.256; p=0.051 and spatial orientation (β=0.246; p=0.057. Practical implications point out the necessity of designing educational coordination training with the aim to increase students' potential to make movements.

  7. Health information exchange implementation: lessons learned and critical success factors from a case study. (United States)

    Feldman, Sue S; Schooley, Benjamin L; Bhavsar, Grishma P


    Much attention has been given to the proposition that the exchange of health information as an act, and health information exchange (HIE), as an entity, are critical components of a framework for health care change, yet little has been studied to understand the value proposition of implementing HIE with a statewide HIE. Such an organization facilitates the exchange of health information across disparate systems, thus following patients as they move across different care settings and encounters, whether or not they share an organizational affiliation. A sociotechnical systems approach and an interorganizational systems framework were used to examine implementation of a health system electronic medical record (EMR) system onto a statewide HIE, under a cooperative agreement with the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, and its collaborating organizations. The objective of the study was to focus on the implementation of a health system onto a statewide HIE; provide insight into the technical, organizational, and governance aspects of a large private health system and the Virginia statewide HIE (organizations with the shared goal of exchanging health information); and to understand the organizational motivations and value propositions apparent during HIE implementation. We used a formative evaluation methodology to investigate the first implementation of a health system onto the statewide HIE. Qualitative methods (direct observation, 36 hours), informal information gathering, semistructured interviews (N=12), and document analysis were used to gather data between August 12, 2012 and June 24, 2013. Derived from sociotechnical concepts, a Blended Value Collaboration Enactment Framework guided the data gathering and analysis to understand organizational stakeholders' perspectives across technical, organizational, and governance dimensions. Several challenges, successes, and lessons learned during the implementation of a health system to the

  8. Health Information Exchange Implementation: Lessons Learned and Critical Success Factors From a Case Study (United States)


    Background Much attention has been given to the proposition that the exchange of health information as an act, and health information exchange (HIE), as an entity, are critical components of a framework for health care change, yet little has been studied to understand the value proposition of implementing HIE with a statewide HIE. Such an organization facilitates the exchange of health information across disparate systems, thus following patients as they move across different care settings and encounters, whether or not they share an organizational affiliation. A sociotechnical systems approach and an interorganizational systems framework were used to examine implementation of a health system electronic medical record (EMR) system onto a statewide HIE, under a cooperative agreement with the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, and its collaborating organizations. Objective The objective of the study was to focus on the implementation of a health system onto a statewide HIE; provide insight into the technical, organizational, and governance aspects of a large private health system and the Virginia statewide HIE (organizations with the shared goal of exchanging health information); and to understand the organizational motivations and value propositions apparent during HIE implementation. Methods We used a formative evaluation methodology to investigate the first implementation of a health system onto the statewide HIE. Qualitative methods (direct observation, 36 hours), informal information gathering, semistructured interviews (N=12), and document analysis were used to gather data between August 12, 2012 and June 24, 2013. Derived from sociotechnical concepts, a Blended Value Collaboration Enactment Framework guided the data gathering and analysis to understand organizational stakeholders’ perspectives across technical, organizational, and governance dimensions. Results Several challenges, successes, and lessons learned during the

  9. Chlamydial entry involves TARP binding of guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Josh Lane


    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis attachment to cells induces the secretion of the elementary body-associated protein TARP (Translocated Actin Recruiting Protein. TARP crosses the plasma membrane where it is immediately phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by unknown host kinases. The Rac GTPase is also activated, resulting in WAVE2 and Arp2/3-dependent recruitment of actin to the sites of chlamydia attachment. We show that TARP participates directly in chlamydial invasion activating the Rac-dependent signaling cascade to recruit actin. TARP functions by binding two distinct Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, Sos1 and Vav2, in a phosphotyrosine-dependent manner. The tyrosine phosphorylation profile of the sequence YEPISTENIYESI within TARP, as well as the transient activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K, appears to determine which GEF is utilized to activate Rac. The first and second tyrosine residues, when phosphorylated, are utilized by the Sos1/Abi1/Eps8 and Vav2, respectively, with the latter requiring the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate. Depletion of these critical signaling molecules by siRNA resulted in inhibition of chlamydial invasion to varying degrees, owing to a possible functional redundancy of the two pathways. Collectively, these data implicate TARP in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton remodeling machinery, demonstrating a mechanism by which C.trachomatis invades non-phagocytic cells.

  10. Mutations in elongation factor 1beta, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, enhance translational fidelity. (United States)

    Carr-Schmid, A; Valente, L; Loik, V I; Williams, T; Starita, L M; Kinzy, T G


    Translation elongation factor 1beta (EF-1beta) is a member of the family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors, proteins whose activities are important for the regulation of G proteins critical to many cellular processes. EF-1beta is a highly conserved protein that catalyzes the exchange of bound GDP for GTP on EF-1alpha, a required step to ensure continued protein synthesis. In this work, we demonstrate that the highly conserved C-terminal region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EF-1beta is sufficient for normal cell growth. This region of yeast and metazoan EF-1beta and the metazoan EF-1beta-like protein EF-1delta is highly conserved. Human EF-1beta, but not human EF-1delta, is functional in place of yeast EF-1beta, even though both EF-1beta and EF-1delta have previously been shown to have guanine nucleotide exchange activity in vitro. Based on the sequence and functional homology, mutagenesis of two C-terminal residues identical in all EF-1beta protein sequences was performed, resulting in mutants with growth defects and sensitivity to translation inhibitors. These mutants also enhance translational fidelity at nonsense codons, which correlates with a reduction in total protein synthesis. These results indicate the critical function of EF-1beta in regulating EF-1alpha activity, cell growth, translation rates, and translational fidelity.

  11. Mutations in Elongation Factor 1β, a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, Enhance Translational Fidelity (United States)

    Carr-Schmid, Anne; Valente, Louis; Loik, Valerie I.; Williams, Tanishia; Starita, Lea M.; Kinzy, Terri Goss


    Translation elongation factor 1β (EF-1β) is a member of the family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors, proteins whose activities are important for the regulation of G proteins critical to many cellular processes. EF-1β is a highly conserved protein that catalyzes the exchange of bound GDP for GTP on EF-1α, a required step to ensure continued protein synthesis. In this work, we demonstrate that the highly conserved C-terminal region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EF-1β is sufficient for normal cell growth. This region of yeast and metazoan EF-1β and the metazoan EF-1β-like protein EF-1δ is highly conserved. Human EF-1β, but not human EF-1δ, is functional in place of yeast EF-1β, even though both EF-1β and EF-1δ have previously been shown to have guanine nucleotide exchange activity in vitro. Based on the sequence and functional homology, mutagenesis of two C-terminal residues identical in all EF-1β protein sequences was performed, resulting in mutants with growth defects and sensitivity to translation inhibitors. These mutants also enhance translational fidelity at nonsense codons, which correlates with a reduction in total protein synthesis. These results indicate the critical function of EF-1β in regulating EF-1α activity, cell growth, translation rates, and translational fidelity. PMID:10409717

  12. Density-conserving shape factors for particle simulations in cylindrical and spherical coordinates (United States)

    Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.


    It is established that a particle-to-grid weighting which is based on both conventional particle-in-cell (PIC) and cloud-in-cell (CIC) shape factors will yield nonuniform grid densities, even in the case of uniform particle distributions, in both cylindrical and spherical coordinates. In view of this, alternative density-conserving weighting schemes are discussed which encompass modified PIC and CIC weighting. These alternative shape factors are mathematically no more complicated than the conventional nondensity-conserving expressions.

  13. The Role of Communications, Socio-Psychological, and Personality Factors in the Maintenance of Crew Coordination (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton


    There is increasing evidence that many air transport incidents and accidents are the result of the improper or inadequate utilization of the resources accessible to flight dock crew members. These resources obviously include the hardware and technical information necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of the flight, but they also Include the human resources which must be coordinated effectively. The focus of this paper is upon the human resources, and how communication styles, socio-psychological factors, and personality characteristics can affect crew coordination.

  14. Common factors and the exchange rate: results from the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rafael de Oliveira Felício


    Full Text Available This paper studies the usefulness of factor models in explaining the dynamics of the exchange rate Real / Dollar from January 1999 to August 2011. The paper verifies that the inclusion of factors embedded on the common movements of exchange rates of a set of countries significantly improves the in-sample and out-of-sample predictive power of the models comprising only macroeconomic fundamentals commonly used in the literature to forecast the exchange rate. The paper also links the information contained in the factors to global shocks like the demand for dollars - a "dollar effect", volatility and liquidity of global financial markets.

  15. Analysis of factors affecting gas exchange in intravascular blood gas exchanger. (United States)

    Niranjan, S C; Clark, J W; San, K Y; Zwischenberger, J B; Bidani, A


    A mathematical model of an intravascular hollow-fiber gas-exchange device, called IVOX, has been developed using a Krogh cylinder-like approach with a repeating unit structure comprised of a single fiber with gas flowing through its lumen surrounded by a coaxial cylinder of blood flowing in the opposite direction. Species mass balances on O2 and CO2 result in a nonlinear coupled set of convective-diffusion parabolic partial differential equations that are solved numerically using an alternating-direction implicit finite-difference method. Computed results indicated the presence of a large resistance to gas transport on the external (blood) side of the hollow-fiber exchanger. Increasing gas flow through the device favored CO2 removal from but not O2 addition to blood. Increasing blood flow over the device favored both CO2 removal as well as O2 addition. The rate of CO2 removal increased linearly with the transmural PCO2 gradient imposed across the device. The effect of fiber crimping on blood phase mass transfer resistance was evaluated indirectly by varying species blood diffusivity. Computed results indicated that CO2 excretion by IVOX can be significantly enhanced with improved bulk mixing of vena caval blood around the IVOX fibers.

  16. A study of the coordination shell of aluminum(III) and magnesium(II) in model protein environments: thermodynamics of the complex formation and metal exchange reactions. (United States)

    Rezabal, Elixabete; Mercero, Jose M; Lopez, Xabier; Ugalde, Jesus M


    Al(III) toxicity in living organisms is based on competition with other metal cations. Mg(II) is one of the most affected cations, since the size similarity dominates over the charge identity. The slow ligand exchange rates for Al(III) render the ion useless as a metal ion at the active sites of enzymes and provide a mechanism by which Al(III) inhibits Mg(II) dependent biochemical processes. Al(III) cation interactions with relevant bioligands have been studied in a protein-model environment in gas and aqueous phases using density functional theory methods. The protein model consists of the metal cation bound to two chosen bioligands (functional groups of the amino acid side chains, one of them being always an acetate) and water molecules interacting with the cation to complete its first coordination shell. Analogous Mg(II) complexes are calculated and compared with the Al(III) ones. Formation energies of the complexes are calculated in both phases and magnesium/aluminum exchange energies evaluated. The effect of different dielectric media is also analyzed. The presence of an acetate ligand in the binding site is found to promote both, complex formation and metal exchange reactions. In addition, buried binding sites (with low dielectric constant) of the protein favor metal exchange, whereas fully solvated environments of high dielectric constant require the presence of two anionic ligands for metal exchange to occur.

  17. Influence of market factors on the pricing of exchange traded metals in the medium term (United States)

    Bogdanov, S. V.; Shevelev, I. M.; Chernyi, S. A.


    On the basis of comparison of the influence of the stock exchange factors on the pricing of nonferrous metals for medium term with similar results for short term, it has been established that the main attention should be paid to the changes in the pricing environment on the metal market as a function of the prices of exchange traded metals. The situation on the market of energy carriers (hydrocarbons) and the European, American, and Asian stock exchanges can be based on parity and even significantly influence the variation of the metal prices. In the medium term, constructive development of metal trade should be reasonably promoted by changing the elasticity of supply with regard to prices for exchange traded metals and by applying the stock exchange factors that positively influence the pricing on commodity and stock markets.

  18. Risk factors for transient dysfunction of gas exchange after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Delgado Alves Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Objective: A retrospective cohort study was preformed aiming to verify the presence of transient dysfunction of gas exchange in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery and determine if this disorder is linked to cardiorespiratory events. Methods: We included 942 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery and cardiac procedures who were referred to the Intensive Care Unit between June 2007 and November 2011. Results: Fifteen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (2%, 199 (27.75% had mild transient dysfunction of gas exchange, 402 (56.1% had moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange, and 39 (5.4% had severe transient dysfunction of gas exchange. Hypertension and cardiogenic shock were associated with the emergence of moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange postoperatively (P=0.02 and P=0.019, respectively and were risk factors for this dysfunction (P=0.0023 and P=0.0017, respectively. Diabetes mellitus was also a risk factor for transient dysfunction of gas exchange (P=0.03. Pneumonia was present in 8.9% of cases and correlated with the presence of moderate transient dysfunction of gas exchange (P=0.001. Severe transient dysfunction of gas exchange was associated with patients who had renal replacement therapy (P=0.0005, hemotherapy (P=0.0001, enteral nutrition (P=0.0012, or cardiac arrhythmia (P=0.0451. Conclusion: Preoperative hypertension and cardiogenic shock were associated with the occurrence of postoperative transient dysfunction of gas exchange. The preoperative risk factors included hypertension, cardiogenic shock, and diabetes. Postoperatively, pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, renal replacement therapy, hemotherapy, and cardiac arrhythmia were associated with the appearance of some degree of transient dysfunction of gas exchange, which was a risk factor for reintubation, pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and renal replacement therapy in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery and

  19. Exchange rate prediction with multilayer perceptron neural network using gold price as external factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fathian


    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of predicting the exchange rate time series in the foreign exchange rate market is going to be solved using a time-delayed multilayer perceptron neural network with gold price as external factor. The input for the learning phase of the artificial neural network are the exchange rate data of the last five days plus the gold price in two different currencies of the exchange rate as the external factor for helping the artificial neural network improving its forecast accuracy. The five-day delay has been chosen because of the weekly cyclic behavior of the exchange rate time series with the consideration of two holidays in a week. The result of forecasts are then compared with using the multilayer peceptron neural network without gold price external factor by two most important evaluation techniques in the literature of exchange rate prediction. For the experimental analysis phase, the data of three important exchange rates of EUR/USD, GBP/USD, and USD/JPY are used.

  20. Advanced view factor analysis method for radiation exchange. (United States)

    Park, Sookuk; Tuller, Stanton E


    A raster-based method for determining complex view factor patterns is presented (HURES model). The model uses Johnson and Watson's view factor analysis method for fisheye lens photographs. The entire sphere is divided into 13 different view factors: open sky; sunny and shaded building walls, vegetation (trees) and ground surfaces above and below 1.2 m from the ground surface. The HURES model gave reasonable view factor results in tests at two urban study sites on summer days: downtown Nanaimo, B.C., Canada and Changwon, Republic of Korea. HURES gave better estimates of open sky view factors determined from fisheye lens photographs than did ENVI-met 3.1 and RayMan Pro. However, all three models underestimated sky view factor. For view factor analysis in outdoor urban areas, the 10° interval of rotation angle at 100 m distance of annuli will be suitable settings for three-dimensional computer simulations. The HURES model can be used for the rapid determination of complex view factor patterns which facilitates the analysis of their effects. Examples of how differing view factor patterns can affect human thermal sensation indices are given. The greater proportion of sunny view factors increased the computed predicted mean vote (PMV) by 1.3 on the sunny side of the street compared with the shady side during mid-morning in downtown Nanaimo. In another example, effects of differing amounts of open sky, sunny ground, sunny buildings and vegetation combined to produce only slight differences in PMV and two other human thermal sensation indices, PET and UTCI.

  1. Factors Influencing the Thermal Efficiency of Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Di Sipio


    Full Text Available The performance of very shallow geothermal systems (VSGs, interesting the first 2 m of depth from ground level, is strongly correlated to the kind of sediment locally available. These systems are attractive due to their low installation costs, less legal constraints, easy maintenance and possibility for technical improvements. The Improving Thermal Efficiency of horizontal ground heat exchangers Project (ITER aims to understand how to enhance the heat transfer of the sediments surrounding the pipes and to depict the VSGs behavior in extreme thermal situations. In this regard, five helices were installed horizontally surrounded by five different backfilling materials under the same climatic conditions and tested under different operation modes. The field test monitoring concerned: (a monthly measurement of thermal conductivity and moisture content on surface; (b continuous recording of air and ground temperature (inside and outside each helix; (c continuous climatological and ground volumetric water content (VWC data acquisition. The interactions between soils, VSGs, environment and climate are presented here, focusing on the differences and similarities between the behavior of the helix and surrounding material, especially when the heat pump is running in heating mode for a very long time, forcing the ground temperature to drop below 0 °C.

  2. Stochastic Discount Factor Approach to International Risk-Sharing: Evidence from Fixed Exchange Rate Episodes


    Hadzi-Vaskov, M.; C.J.M. Kool


    This paper presents evidence of the stochastic discount factor approach to international risk-sharing applied to fixed exchange rate regimes. We calculate risk-sharing indices for two episodes of fixed or very rigid exchange rates: the Eurozone before and after the introduction of the Euro, and several emerging economies in the period 1993-2005. This approach suggests almost perfect bilateral risk-sharing among all countries from the Eurozone. Moreover, it implies that emerging markets with f...

  3. Impact of selected family socio-economic factors on coordinational predispositions of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Domaradzki


    Full Text Available Introduction: Biological growth of children is genetically determined but there are a lot of factors modifying trends of growth. Among them the most important seems to be parents’ education and number of children in family – socio-economical factors. Factors don’t affect organism individually. Interactions between them can increase or decrease. So the aim of the work was to estimate the influence of socio-economic factors like parents’ education and number of children in family on coordinational traits of children aged 10–11. Material and methods: 199 children aged 10-11 underwent medical examination in 2008 in Polkowice and data collected were used in this study.. Information on parents’ education and number of children was used to divide children into four groups: lower education and 3 or more children in family, lower education and less than 3 children in family, higher education and more than 3 children in family and higher education and less than 3 children in family. Three coordinational traits were measured: short time memory, precision of hand and speed movement of the hand. MANOVA test was used to estimate differences between groups and to check interactions between factors. Results: From among 4 groups of boys, these from the worst socio-economic status of family received the worst results in all three tests. Differences between them and the rest of the groups were statistically significant. Differences between the rest of the groups were not statistically significant. In the girls groups children from families with higher parents’ education received statistically significant better results in test of memory. There were not differences between all 4 groups in precision of the hand test. Girls from family with higher parents’ education and 3 or more children in family received the best results in speed of the hand test. Conclusions: Boys are the gender more eco-sensitive. The family with more than 2 children in family

  4. [Home visiting nursing care for a terminal stage cancer patient with bed sore--coordination through exchanging of advice request memo as a useful tool]. (United States)

    Sugihara, Sachiko; Yamada, Mai; Tayoshi, Mayumi; Kitamikado, Hatsue; Nakajima, Kazuyo; Konno, Hitomi; Akaeda, Kazuko; Yagishita, Toshiyuki; Oka, Yoichi


    Visiting nursing care service was provided to a 40s female patient, who had a terminal cancer with bed sore around the sacred bones. We started the nursing service when the patient was still cared at hospital. The nursing service we provided was coordinated by the certified nurse specialized in skin and excrement care and home visiting nurse. A smooth home care transition was resulted because of the coordination provided by the two nurses. We started coaching the family while the patient was still at the hospital with a home care instruction manual until the patient was discharged. All in all, the patient and her family were at ease with two nurses' coordinated efforts. Since the patient was cared at home, her bed sore problem got worse due to an absence of caregiver. In order to solve the bed sore problem, the visiting nurse took pictures of peeled adhesive patch and the bed sore around the sacred bones to show and consult with the certified nurse. With the advice from the certified nurse, the home visiting nurse was able to care the bed sore problem manageable in size. From this experience, we learned that a proper communication channel, in this case an advice request memo exchange, between the certified nurse and visiting nurse was a useful tool for both sides in order to properly assess the patient's medical care needs.

  5. Importance of Urban Factor and Selected Socio-Economic Variables in the Differentiation of Coordination Motor Abilities Level (CMA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaworski, Janusz; Madejski, Eligiusz


    Introduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the urban factor and socio-economic status on selected coordination motor abilities of non-practicing physical education female students...

  6. The Emerging Role of Guanine Exchange Factors in ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian eDroppelmann


    Full Text Available Small GTPases participate in a broad range of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and migration. The exchange of GDP for GTP resulting in the activation of these GTPases is catalyzed by a group of enzymes called guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, of which two classes: Dbl-related exchange factors and the more recently described Dock family exchange factors. Increasingly, deregulation of normal GEF activity or function has been associated with a broad range of disease states, including neurodegeneration and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this review, we examine this evidence with special emphasis on the novel role of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RGNEF/p190RhoGEF in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. RGNEF is the first neurodegeneration-linked GEF that regulates not only RhoA GTPase activation but also functions as an RNA binding protein that directly acts with low molecular weight neurofilament (NEFL mRNA 3’UTR to regulate its stability. This dual role for RGNEF, coupled with the increasing understanding of the key role for GEFs in modulating the GTPase function in cell survival suggests a prominent role for GEFs in mediating a critical balance between cytotoxicity and neuroprotection which, when disturbed, contributes to neuronal loss.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermin Schadich


    Full Text Available  The pivotal virulence factors of foodborne zoonotic pathogen Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium associated with pathogenesis of systemic disease of humans and mice are the effectors of type three secretion systems. They are encoded by genes located on two different gene clusters named Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2 and Salmonella plasmid virulence locus whose expressions are coordinated by regulatory networks in spatial and temporal manners. Secretion of the SPI-1 effectors required for bacterial internalization into specific compartments called Salmonella- containing vacuole (SCV of infected intestinal epithelial cells, is induced by environmental conditions via Hil transcription factors network. Secretion of SPI-2 and plasmid effectors required for bacterial survival inside of the SCVs of these cells and subsequently infected phagocytic cells, systemic spread, immunosuppression and cytotoxicity, is coordinated by broader regulatory network with the two response regulators, SsrB and SlyA, as the terminal regulators that integrate multiple environmental signals. Key words: Salmonella Typhimurium, effectors, virulence, systemic disease

  8. Structural outline of the detailed mechanism for elongation factor Ts-mediated guanine nucleotide exchange on elongation factor Tu. (United States)

    Thirup, Søren S; Van, Lan Bich; Nielsen, Tine K; Knudsen, Charlotte R


    Translation elongation factor EF-Tu belongs to the superfamily of guanine-nucleotide binding proteins, which play key cellular roles as regulatory switches. All G-proteins require activation via exchange of GDP for GTP to carry out their respective tasks. Often, guanine-nucleotide exchange factors are essential to this process. During translation, EF-Tu:GTP transports aminoacylated tRNA to the ribosome. GTP is hydrolyzed during this process, and subsequent reactivation of EF-Tu is catalyzed by EF-Ts. The reaction path of guanine-nucleotide exchange is structurally poorly defined for EF-Tu and EF-Ts. We have determined the crystal structures of the following reaction intermediates: two structures of EF-Tu:GDP:EF-Ts (2.2 and 1.8Å resolution), EF-Tu:PO4:EF-Ts (1.9Å resolution), EF-Tu:GDPNP:EF-Ts (2.2Å resolution) and EF-Tu:GDPNP:pulvomycin:Mg(2+):EF-Ts (3.5Å resolution). These structures provide snapshots throughout the entire exchange reaction and suggest a mechanism for the release of EF-Tu in its GTP conformation. An inferred sequence of events during the exchange reaction is presented. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multinational telecommunications operators : impact of market factors and foreign currency exchange rate variations in their stock returns


    Oliveira, Maria da Conceição T. F. Monteiro H.


    Mestrado em Finanças Firms are exposed to foreign exchange risk when the results of their projects depend on future exchange rates and those exchange rates can not be fully anticipated. Through the last 50 years, exchange risk management has received increasing attention in both corporate practice and literature. Firms are also exposed to other market factors, domestic and internationally, with a major impact on their stock returns. During the past decade the telecommunications sector has ...

  10. On factors influencing air-water gas exchange in emergent wetlands (United States)

    Ho, David T.; Engel, Victor C.; Ferron, Sara; Hickman, Benjamin; Choi, Jay; Harvey, Judson W.


    Knowledge of gas exchange in wetlands is important in order to determine fluxes of climatically and biogeochemically important trace gases and to conduct mass balances for metabolism studies. Very few studies have been conducted to quantify gas transfer velocities in wetlands, and many wind speed/gas exchange parameterizations used in oceanographic or limnological settings are inappropriate under conditions found in wetlands. Here six measurements of gas transfer velocities are made with SF6 tracer release experiments in three different years in the Everglades, a subtropical peatland with surface water flowing through emergent vegetation. The experiments were conducted under different flow conditions and with different amounts of emergent vegetation to determine the influence of wind, rain, water flow, waterside thermal convection, and vegetation on air-water gas exchange in wetlands. Measured gas transfer velocities under the different conditions ranged from 1.1 cm h−1 during baseline conditions to 3.2 cm h−1 when rain and water flow rates were high. Commonly used wind speed/gas exchange relationships would overestimate the gas transfer velocity by a factor of 1.2 to 6.8. Gas exchange due to thermal convection was relatively constant and accounted for 14 to 51% of the total measured gas exchange. Differences in rain and water flow among the different years were responsible for the variability in gas exchange, with flow accounting for 37 to 77% of the gas exchange, and rain responsible for up to 40%.

  11. Dictionary Learning Based on Nonnegative Matrix Factorization Using Parallel Coordinate Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunyi Tang


    Full Text Available Sparse representation of signals via an overcomplete dictionary has recently received much attention as it has produced promising results in various applications. Since the nonnegativities of the signals and the dictionary are required in some applications, for example, multispectral data analysis, the conventional dictionary learning methods imposed simply with nonnegativity may become inapplicable. In this paper, we propose a novel method for learning a nonnegative, overcomplete dictionary for such a case. This is accomplished by posing the sparse representation of nonnegative signals as a problem of nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF with a sparsity constraint. By employing the coordinate descent strategy for optimization and extending it to multivariable case for processing in parallel, we develop a so-called parallel coordinate descent dictionary learning (PCDDL algorithm, which is structured by iteratively solving the two optimal problems, the learning process of the dictionary and the estimating process of the coefficients for constructing the signals. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs better than the conventional nonnegative K-SVD (NN-KSVD algorithm and several other algorithms for comparison. What is more, its computational consumption is remarkably lower than that of the compared algorithms.

  12. The Accelerating And Constraining Factors Of The Coordinated And Balanced Development Of Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stepanovich Bochko


    Full Text Available In the article, the hypothesis that the modern industrial-technological process causes complication of socio-economic space and conducts to amplification its integrity, which, in turn, causes the need for the coordinated and balanced development, is proved. The process of complication of economic space is revealed as a result of number growth of communications caused by creation of the enterprises and organizations, by the change of structure of manufacture and increase of an educational level of the population. The characteristics of a new quality of economic space are given. The factors of the coordinated and balanced development of territories are allocated. The contents «a commercial combination» is shown. The necessity of transition to the system innovation thinking in conditions of becoming complicated economic space is proved. The idea of use «rebalancing of the economy « as a new vision of equation in conditions of crisis situations is offered. The conclusion is made that the result of theoretical and practical searches should become formation vital stability of development of territories, which is provided with intelligence — technological and moral — ethical level of the population, living on it

  13. Spatial Bayesian latent factor regression modeling of coordinate-based meta-analysis data. (United States)

    Montagna, Silvia; Wager, Tor; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Johnson, Timothy D; Nichols, Thomas E


    Now over 20 years old, functional MRI (fMRI) has a large and growing literature that is best synthesised with meta-analytic tools. As most authors do not share image data, only the peak activation coordinates (foci) reported in the article are available for Coordinate-Based Meta-Analysis (CBMA). Neuroimaging meta-analysis is used to (i) identify areas of consistent activation; and (ii) build a predictive model of task type or cognitive process for new studies (reverse inference). To simultaneously address these aims, we propose a Bayesian point process hierarchical model for CBMA. We model the foci from each study as a doubly stochastic Poisson process, where the study-specific log intensity function is characterized as a linear combination of a high-dimensional basis set. A sparse representation of the intensities is guaranteed through latent factor modeling of the basis coefficients. Within our framework, it is also possible to account for the effect of study-level covariates (meta-regression), significantly expanding the capabilities of the current neuroimaging meta-analysis methods available. We apply our methodology to synthetic data and neuroimaging meta-analysis datasets. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  14. Coming to Canada to Study: Factors that Influence Student's Decisions to Participate in International Exchange (United States)

    Massey, Jennifer; Burrow, Jeff


    Increasing numbers of students are participating in study abroad programs. Outcomes associated with these programs have been studied extensively, but relatively little is known about what motivates and influences students to participate. This study investigated factors that motivate and influence students to study on exchange and explored how…

  15. Membrane association of the Arabidopsis ARF exchange factor GNOM involves interaction of conserved domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anders, Nadine; Nielsen, Michael M.; Keicher, Jutta


    The GNOM protein plays a fundamental role in Arabidopsis thaliana development by regulating endosome-to-plasma membrane trafficking required for polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN1. GNOM is a family member of large ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs), which regulate...

  16. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and Psychosocial Factors at Work Among Healthcare Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson Hanse, Jan; Harlin, Ulrika; Jarebrant, Caroline


    Aim: The study aims to examine the associations between leader–member exchange (LMX) and psychosocial factors at work. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was undertaken at four units in two not-for-profit hospitals in southwestern Sweden. The study sample included 240 employees...

  17. Factors influencing intentions to use social recommender systems: a social exchange perspective. (United States)

    Chang, Tsung-Sheng; Hsiao, Wei-Hung


    This study employs the perspective of social exchange theory and seeks to understand users' intentions to use social recommender systems (SRS) through three psychological factors: trust, shared values, and reputation. We use structural equation modeling to analyze 221 valid questionnaires. The results show that trust has a direct positive influence on the intention to use SRS, followed by shared values, whereas reputation has an indirect influence on SRS use. We further discuss specific recommendations concerning these factors for developing SRS.

  18. Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Causes and Contributing Factors Leading to Exchange Transfusion at Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad

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    Farhad Heydarian


    Full Text Available Hyperbilirubinemia is common in neonates; it can have a serious rising course. Due to its critical morbidity called "kernicterus", severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia causes which lead to exchange transfusion, should be clarified. This descriptive cross sectional study performed with reviewing of files of 118 neonates weighting 2kg and more who had exchange transfusion in pediatrics ward at Ghaem training hospital in Mashhad from April 2004 to March 2007. Among 118 patients, 75 (63.6% were male, and 43 patients (36.4% were female. The most common cause of exchange transfusion was ABO incompatibility (38.1%. In order of frequency, unknown etiology (25.4%, Rh incompatibility (16.1% with no immune hydrops, Sepsis(8.5%, urinary tract infection (5.1% and others (3.4% (Including Crigler-Najjar and cephalohematoma were next ones. Vaginal delivery and exclusive breast feeding were detected as associated factors. Mean serum bilirubin levels was 28.7 mg/dl (SD. 9.2 ABO incompatibility. ABO incompatibility was the main cause of exchange transfusion. Male gender, vaginal delivery and exclusive breast feeding were seen more among patients who need to be exchanged. So in case of ABO incompatibility especially when delivery route is vaginal, newborns should be visited soon again after early discharge from hospital.

  19. Severe Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Causes and Contributing Factors Leading to Exchange Transfusion at Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Heydarian


    Full Text Available "nHyperbilirubinemia is common in neonates; it can have a serious rising course. Due to its critical morbidity called "kernicterus", severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia causes which lead to exchange transfusion, should be clarified. This descriptive cross sectional study performed with reviewing of files of 118 neonates weighting 2kg and more who had exchange transfusion in pediatrics ward at Ghaem training hospital in Mashhad from April 2004 to March 2007. Among 118 patients, 75 (63.6% were male, and 43 patients (36.4% were female. The most common cause of exchange transfusion was ABO incompatibility (38.1%. In order of frequency, unknown etiology (25.4%, Rh incompatibility (16.1% with no immune hydrops, Sepsis(8.5%, urinary tract infection (5.1% and others (3.4% (Including Crigler-Najjar and cephalohematoma were next ones. Vaginal delivery and exclusive breast feeding were detected as associated factors. Mean serum bilirubin levels was 28.7 mg/dl (SD. 9.2 ABO incompatibility. ABO incompatibility was the main cause of exchange transfusion. Male gender, vaginal delivery and exclusive breast feeding were seen more among patients who need to be exchanged. So in case of ABO incompatibility especially when delivery route is vaginal, newborns should be visited soon again after early discharge from hospital.

  20. Lack of coordination of nonverbal behaviour between patients and interviewers as a potential risk factor to depression recurrence : vulnerability accumulation in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhuys, AL; Sam, MM


    Background: Coordination of nonverbal behaviour during interactions is a prerequisite for satisfactory relationships. Lack of coordination may form a risk factor for depression. The 'vulnerability-accumulation hypothesis' assumes that vulnerability to recurrence of depression will increase with

  1. Coordination Chemistry inside Polymeric Nanoreactors: Metal Migration and Cross-Exchange in Amphiphilic Core-Shell Polymer Latexes

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    Si Chen


    Full Text Available A well-defined amphiphilic core-shell polymer functionalized with bis(p-methoxy-phenylphosphinophenylphosphine (BMOPPP in the nanogel (NG core has been obtained by a convergent RAFT polymerization in emulsion. This BMOPPP@NG and the previously-reported TPP@NG (TPP = triphenylphosphine and core cross-linked micelles (L@CCM; L = TPP, BMOPPP having a slightly different architecture were loaded with [Rh(acac(CO2] or [RhCl(COD]2 to yield [Rh(acac(CO(L@Pol] or [RhCl(COD(L@Pol] (Pol = CCM, NG. The interparticle metal migration from [Rh(acac(CO(TPP@NG] to TPP@NG is fast at natural pH and much slower at high pH, the rate not depending significantly on the polymer architecture (CCM vs. NG. The cross-exchange using [Rh(acac(CO(BMOPPP@Pol] and [RhCl(COD(TPP@Pol] (Pol = CCM or NG as reagents at natural pH is also rapid (ca. 1 h, although slower than the equivalent homogeneous reaction on the molecular species (<5 min. On the other hand, the subsequent rearrangement of [Rh(acac(CO(TPP@Pol] and [RhCl(COD(TPP@Pol] within the TPP@Pol core and of [Rh(acac(CO(BMOPPP@Pol] and [RhCl(COD(BMOPPP@Pol] within the BMOPPP@Pol core, leading respectively to [RhCl(CO(TPP@Pol2] and [RhCl(CO(BMOPPP@Pol2], is much more rapid (<30 min than on the corresponding homogeneous process with the molecular species (>24 h.

  2. Adrenomedullin A Novel Peptide Requires Coordination Of Genetic Physiologic And Environmental Factors

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    K. R. Padma


    Full Text Available A healthy pregnancy requires strict coordination of genetic physiologic and environmental factors. The relatively common incidence of infertility and pregnancy complications has resulted in increased interest in understanding the mechanisms that underlie normal versus abnormal pregnancy. The peptide hormone adrenomedullin has recently been the focus of some exciting breakthroughs in the pregnancy field. Adrenomedullin ADM is a 52-amino acid peptide with structural homology to calcitonin gene-related peptide CGRP initially isolated from human pheochromocytoma. ADM is synthesized by many mammalian tissues including the adrenal medulla endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells myocardium and central nervous system. ADM binds to plasma membrane receptors composed of calcitonin receptor-like receptor CRLR a member of serpentine receptor superfamily and receptor activity modifying protein RAMP type 2 or 3. ADM has also some affinity for CGRP receptor composed of CRLR and RAMP1. Supported by mechanistic studies in genetic animal models there continues to be a growing body of evidence demonstrating the importance of adrenomedullin protein levels in a variety of human pregnancy complications. With measurement of foetal resorption sites we can examine the importance of adrenomedullin a peptide hormone in pregnancy which alters due to genetic physiologic and environmental factors. A growing body of evidence illustrates AM as a pivotal component in normal physiology and disease with marked beneficial effects in the host defense mechanism.

  3. Factors affecting direct and indirect benefit exchange in the social media–based learning experience

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    Peter L. Mkhize


    Full Text Available Background: Social media platforms are thriving on the co-creation of content, usually socially orientated content about the social interests of participants. There is also a growing trend of social media application in the human resources and marketing for business purposes. This study investigates factors that have an impact on the sharing of knowledge on social media platforms, particularly students at an Open Distance Learning (ODL institution.Objective: This study evaluates the difference between direct and indirect benefit exchange expected by students when sharing knowledge.Method: Random and theoretical sampling were used to select the sample in this study from the population. A literature-informed questionnaire was used as an instrument to collect data from a selected sample of 315 students from the School of Computing at the University of South Africa.Results: A test of association was conducted to evaluate correlations, which revealed that only reputation and social language correlate with direct and indirect benefit exchange. Results indicate that there is a significant mean difference between direct and indirect benefit exchange and that issues concerning social identity and trust should be taken into account when developing social media instructional design.Conclusion: In this study, a survey was used to test the hypothesis. The authors concluded that instructional designer can design teaching and learning experience in the social media platform by catering for both direct and indirect benefit knowledge exchange. The results of the study further confirmed that some students share knowledge with the expectation of direct exchange benefit and, meanwhile, expect indirect exchange benefit.

  4. The exchange factor Cdc24 is required for cell fusion during yeast mating. (United States)

    Barale, Sophie; McCusker, Derek; Arkowitz, Robert A


    During Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating, chemotropic growth and cell fusion are critical for zygote formation. Cdc24p, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Cdc42 G protein, is necessary for oriented growth along a pheromone gradient during mating. To understand the functions of this critical Cdc42p activator, we identified additional cdc24 mating mutants. Two mating-specific mutants, the cdc24-m5 and cdc24-m6 mutants, each were isolated with a mutated residue in the conserved catalytic domain. The cdc24-m6 mutant responds normally to pheromone and orients its growth towards a mating partner yet accumulates prezygotes during mating. cdc24-m6 prezygotes have two apposed intact cell walls and do not correctly localize proteins required for cell fusion, despite normal exocytosis. Our results indicate that the exchange factor Cdc24p is necessary for maintaining or restricting specific proteins required for cell fusion to the cell contact region during mating.

  5. Contact Activation of Blood Plasma and Factor XII by Ion-exchange Resins


    Yeh, Chyi-Huey Josh; Dimachkie, Ziad O.; Golas, Avantika; Cheng, Alice; Parhi, Purnendu; Vogler, Erwin A.


    Sepharose ion-exchange particles bearing strong Lewis acid/base functional groups (sulfopropyl, carboxymethyl, quarternary ammonium, dimethyl aminoethyl, and iminodiacetic acid) exhibiting high plasma protein adsorbent capacities are shown to be more efficient activators of blood factor XII in neat-buffer solution than either hydrophilic clean-glass particles or hydrophobic octyl sepharose particles ( FXII→surfaceactivatorFXIIa; a.k.a autoactivation, where FXII is the zymogen and FXIIa is a p...

  6. The Transcription Factor E4F1 Coordinates CHK1-Dependent Checkpoint and Mitochondrial Functions

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    Geneviève Rodier


    Full Text Available Recent data support the notion that a group of key transcriptional regulators involved in tumorigenesis, including MYC, p53, E2F1, and BMI1, share an intriguing capacity to simultaneously regulate metabolism and cell cycle. Here, we show that another factor, the multifunctional protein E4F1, directly controls genes involved in mitochondria functions and cell-cycle checkpoints, including Chek1, a major component of the DNA damage response. Coordination of these cellular functions by E4F1 appears essential for the survival of p53-deficient transformed cells. Acute inactivation of E4F1 in these cells results in CHK1-dependent checkpoint deficiency and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions that lead to increased ROS production, energy stress, and inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. This deadly cocktail leads to the accumulation of uncompensated oxidative damage to proteins and extensive DNA damage, ending in cell death. This supports the rationale of therapeutic strategies simultaneously targeting mitochondria and CHK1 for selective killing of p53-deficient cancer cells.

  7. Transcription factors SOHLH1 and SOHLH2 coordinate oocyte differentiation without affecting meiosis I. (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Hyun; Ren, Yu; Suzuki, Hitomi; Golnoski, Kayla J; Ahn, Hyo Won; Mico, Vasil; Rajkovic, Aleksandar


    Following migration of primordial germ cells to the genital ridge, oogonia undergo several rounds of mitotic division and enter meiosis at approximately E13.5. Most oocytes arrest in the dictyate (diplotene) stage of meiosis circa E18.5. The genes necessary to drive oocyte differentiation in parallel with meiosis are unknown. Here, we have investigated whether expression of spermatogenesis and oogenesis bHLH transcription factor 1 (Sohlh1) and Sohlh2 coordinates oocyte differentiation within the embryonic ovary. We found that SOHLH2 protein was expressed in the mouse germline as early as E12.5 and preceded SOHLH1 protein expression, which occurred circa E15.5. SOHLH1 protein appearance at E15.5 correlated with SOHLH2 translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and was dependent on SOHLH1 expression. NOBOX oogenesis homeobox (NOBOX) and LIM homeobox protein 8 (LHX8), two important regulators of postnatal oogenesis, were coexpressed with SOHLH1. Single deficiency of Sohlh1 or Sohlh2 disrupted the expression of LHX8 and NOBOX in the embryonic gonad without affecting meiosis. Sohlh1-KO infertility was rescued by conditional expression of the Sohlh1 transgene after the onset of meiosis. However, Sohlh1 or Sohlh2 transgene expression could not rescue Sohlh2-KO infertility due to a lack of Sohlh1 or Sohlh2 expression in rescued mice. Our results indicate that Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 are essential regulators of oocyte differentiation but do not affect meiosis I.

  8. The influence of macroeconomic factors to the dynamics of stock exchange in the republic of Kazakhstan

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    Shakizada Uteulievna Niyazbekova


    Full Text Available This article describes the influence of macroeconomic factors on Kazakhstan Stock Exchange Market by using data from 2005 to 2014. Engle-Granger cointegration test has shown that stock index is cointegrated with the exchange rate, interest rate, CPI and oil price. Vector error correction model has confirmed that macroeconomic variables and the stock index has a long-term equilibrium relationship. Moreover, empirical results have shown that stock index can be used as a leading indicator of the economic situation in Kazakhstan. Therefore, the authors decided to consider the impact of major macroeconomic indicators to the dynamics of the stock market of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The Engle-Granger cointegration test results show that the following variables such as exchange rate, 10-years long-term bond rate, the consumer price index and the Brent oil price are cointegrated with stock index, which means that there is a long-term relationship between this stock market index and these variables. With the help of econometric models, the authors have found the factors such as the exchange rate, the 10-year long-term bonds rate, the consumer price index and the Brent oil price (these factors have the long-term relationship with stock market index. Changes in the dynamics of the stock market index in Kazakhstan are caused by changes in the dynamics of Central bank's reserves and export. The analysis has shown that the economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan (the index reflects the situation in the real sector of the economy remains dependent on world oil prices, the volume of exports and the rate of the national currency

  9. Impact of aerobic training on immune-endocrine parameters, neurotrophic factors, quality of life and coordinative function in multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Gold, Stefan M; Witte, Jan; Bartsch, Katharina; Lang, Undine E; Hellweg, Rainer; Reer, Rüdiger; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Heesen, Christoph


    In recent years it has become clear that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients benefit from physical exercise as performed in aerobic training but little is known about the effect on functional domains and physiological factors mediating these effects. We studied immunological, endocrine and neurotrophic factors as well as coordinative function and quality of life during an 8-week aerobic bicycle training in a waitlist control design. In the immune-endocrine study (1) 28 patients were included, the coordinative extension study (2) included 39 patients. Training was performed at 60% VO(2)max after determining individual exertion levels through step-by-step ergometry. Metabolic (lactate), endocrine (cortisol, adrendocortico-releasing hormone, epinephrine, norepinephrine), immune (IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor), and neurotrophic (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF)) parameters were compared from a prestudy and a poststudy endurance test at 60% VO(2)max for 30 min. In study (1), lowered lactate levels despite higher workload levels indicated a training effect. Disease-specific quality of life (as measured by the Hamburg Quality of Life Questionnaire for Multiple Sclerosis, HAQUAMS) significantly increased in the training group. No significant training effects were seen for endocrine and immune parameters or neurotrophins. In study (2), two out of three coordinative parameters of the lower extremities were significantly improved. In summary, low-level aerobic training in MS improves not only quality of life but also coordinative function and physical fitness.

  10. The importance of social exchange to nurses and nurse assistants: impact on retention factors. (United States)

    Trybou, Jeroen; De Pourcq, Kaat; Paeshuyse, Michel; Gemmel, Paul


    The purpose of this study was to test the norm of reciprocity by examining relationships between perceived organisational support (POS), the quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) and psychological contract breach (PCB) and important nurse retention factors identified in the literature. A major cause of turnover among nurses is related to unsatisfying workplaces. Previous research, mainly outside the nursing setting, found that social exchange affects employees' work-related attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 217 nurses and nursing assistants to test and refine a model linking POS, LMX, PCB with job satisfaction, trust and turnover intentions. Hierarchical multiple linear regression revealed that POS, PCB and LMX explained significant variance in all three retention factors: job satisfaction (adjusted R² = 0.502), trust (adjusted R² = 0.462) and turnover intentions (adjusted R² = 0.196). POS and PCB predicted most strongly job satisfaction (P < 0.001) and trust (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). LMX predicted most strongly intention to leave (P < 0.01). In our study, POS, the quality of LMX and PCB were strongly related to job satisfaction, trust and turnover intentions. Nursing managers and leaders should recognize the importance of social exchange within their organisation to build trust, satisfy and retain scarce nurses and nursing assistants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A reactant-coordinate-based wave packet method for full-dimensional state-to-state quantum dynamics of tetra-atomic reactions: Application to both the abstraction and exchange channels in the H + H2O reaction. (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua


    An efficient and accurate wave packet method is proposed for the calculation of the state-to-state S-matrix elements in bimolecular reactions involving four atoms. This approach propagates an initial state specific wave packet in reactant Jacobi coordinates. The projection in product channels is carried out on projection planes, which have one less degree of freedom, by transforming both the time-dependent wave packet and final product states into a set of intermediate coordinates. This reactant-coordinate-based method is more efficient than product-coordinate-based methods because it typically requires a smaller number of basis functions or grid points and allows the determination of S-matrix elements for multiple product channels from a single propagation. This method is demonstrated in calculating the (Jtot = 0) state-to-state S-matrix elements for both the abstraction and exchange channels of the H + H2O reaction.

  12. [Environmental factors associated with developmental coordination disorder in preschool children in urban area of Suzhou city]. (United States)

    Hua, Jing; Meng, Wei; Wu, Zhuochun; Zhang, Lijun; Gu, Guixiong; Zhu, Liping


    A population-based study on developmental coordination disorder (DCD) was conducted in Suzhou to explore the impacts of family and kindergarten environment on pre school children with DCD so as to provide a basis for etiological research and early intervention. Stratified clustered sampling was used to select 160 classes from randomly selected 15 public nursery schools distributed throughout the five main districts in Suzhou city. A total of 4 001 children were included in the study. The family environment scale on motor development for urban preschool children (FESMDPU) which was established by our study group and early childhood environment rating scale-revised (ECERS-R) which has been applied well in China were used to assess the family and kindergarten's environment. The multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors of DCD when kindergarten environment were considered as "context variables" and the family environment as "individual variables". According to DSM-IV criteria, a total of 330 children were diagnosed as DCD. The prevalence of DCD was 8.3%. However, there were differences between the two groups in age, gender and Kaup index (all P family material environment" "family rearing environment" in DCD group were 48.00, 51.00, 49.00, 39.00, and 30.00, respectively, which were higher than those of control group (45.00, 50.00, 47.00, 41.00, 31.00) with statistical significance (U = 455 446.000, 550 787.000, 508 109.000, 543 159.000, and 490 119.000, P family environment were compared after the clustering. The results showed that the distribution of the rates in different levels between the DCD and control group were different with statistical significance (χ(2) = 51.091, 9.295, 35.464, 15.174, 13.500, P family per-capita income of every month (all P > 0.05). The results of the multilevel logistic regression model showed that when children's gender, age and Kaup index were controlled, "class space and faculty" "class activity" "class

  13. Empirical Method To Accurately Determine Peptide-Averaged Protection Factors from Hydrogen Exchange MS Data. (United States)

    Walters, Benjamin T


    Amide hydrogen exchange experiments measured by mass spectrometry have become commonplace to study protein structural dynamics; however, the underdetermined nature of these measurements render extraction of exchange rates unreliable at the level of individual peptides. This prevents orthogonal verification of results and severely limits interpretation of the data. This work describes an easy-to-implement empirical method to determine the change in an observed rate constant or the average change in multiple rate constants as compared to some reference condition. This allows direct empirical computation of the average protection factor (PF) for peptides in isolation requiring no knowledge of actual rate constants themselves. Benchmarking the method by comparison of average peptide PFs with site-resolved NMR-derived PFs demonstrates high reliability and accuracy. This empirical method provides the first universally reliable strategy for recovering subglobal structural physics from individual peptides and, in doing so, standardizes the hydrogen exchange experiments measured by bottom-up mass spectrometry (HX MS), simplifies interpretation, and facilitates clear communication of the results.

  14. Structural Dynamics Control Allosteric Activation of Cytohesin Family Arf GTPase Exchange Factors

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    Malaby, Andrew W.; Das, Sanchaita; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Irving, Thomas C.; Bilsel, Osman; Lambright, David G.


    Membrane dynamic processes including vesicle biogenesis depend on Arf guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) containing a catalytic Sec7 domain and a membrane-targeting module such as a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The catalytic output of cytohesin family Arf GEFs is controlled by autoinhibitory interactions that impede accessibility of the exchange site in the Sec7 domain. These restraints can be relieved through activator Arf-GTP binding to an allosteric site comprising the PH domain and proximal autoinhibitory elements (Sec7-PH linker and C-terminal helix). Small-angle X-ray scattering and negative-stain electron microscopy were used to investigate the structural organization and conformational dynamics of cytohesin-3 (Grp1) in autoinhibited and active states. The results support a model in which hinge dynamics in the autoinhibited state expose the activator site for Arf-GTP binding, while subsequent C-terminal helix unlatching and repositioning unleash conformational entropy in the Sec7-PH linker to drive exposure of the exchange site.

  15. Estimation of Hydrogen-Exchange Protection Factors from MD Simulation Based on Amide Hydrogen Bonding Analysis (United States)

    Park, In-Hee; Venable, John D.; Steckler, Caitlin; Cellitti, Susan E.; Lesley, Scott A.; Spraggon, Glen; Brock, Ansgar


    Hydrogen exchange (HX) studies have provided critical insight into our understanding of protein folding, structure and dynamics. More recently, Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HX-MS) has become a widely applicable tool for HX studies. The interpretation of the wealth of data generated by HX-MS experiments as well as other HX methods would greatly benefit from the availability of exchange predictions derived from structures or models for comparison with experiment. Most reported computational HX modeling studies have employed solvent-accessible-surface-area based metrics in attempts to interpret HX data on the basis of structures or models. In this study, a computational HX-MS prediction method based on classification of the amide hydrogen bonding modes mimicking the local unfolding model is demonstrated. Analysis of the NH bonding configurations from Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation snapshots is used to determine partitioning over bonded and non-bonded NH states and is directly mapped into a protection factor (PF) using a logistics growth function. Predicted PFs are then used for calculating deuteration values of peptides and compared with experimental data. Hydrogen exchange MS data for Fatty acid synthase thioesterase (FAS-TE) collected for a range of pHs and temperatures was used for detailed evaluation of the approach. High correlation between prediction and experiment for observable fragment peptides is observed in the FAS-TE and additional benchmarking systems that included various apo/holo proteins for which literature data were available. In addition, it is shown that HX modeling can improve experimental resolution through decomposition of in-exchange curves into rate classes, which correlate with prediction from MD. Successful rate class decompositions provide further evidence that the presented approach captures the underlying physical processes correctly at the single residue level. This assessment is further strengthened in a comparison of

  16. Insights into the biological functions of Dock family guanine nucleotide exchange factors. (United States)

    Laurin, Mélanie; Côté, Jean-François


    Rho GTPases play key regulatory roles in many aspects of embryonic development, regulating processes such as differentiation, proliferation, morphogenesis, and migration. Two families of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) found in metazoans, Dbl and Dock, are responsible for the spatiotemporal activation of Rac and Cdc42 proteins and their downstream signaling pathways. This review focuses on the emerging roles of the mammalian DOCK family in development and disease. We also discuss, when possible, how recent discoveries concerning the biological functions of these GEFs might be exploited for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  17. Multiple factors confer specific Cdc42 and Rac protein activation by dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) nucleotide exchange factors. (United States)

    Kulkarni, Kiran; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Ziguo; Barford, David


    DOCK (dedicator of cytokinesis) guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activate the Rho-family GTPases Rac and Cdc42 to control cell migration, morphogenesis, and phagocytosis. The DOCK A and B subfamilies activate Rac, whereas the DOCK D subfamily activates Cdc42. Nucleotide exchange is catalyzed by a conserved DHR2 domain (DOCK(DHR2)). Although the molecular basis for DOCK(DHR2)-mediated GTPase activation has been elucidated through structures of a DOCK9(DHR2)-Cdc42 complex, the factors determining recognition of specific GTPases are unknown. To understand the molecular basis for DOCK-GTPase specificity, we have determined the crystal structure of DOCK2(DHR2) in complex with Rac1. DOCK2(DHR2) and DOCK9(DHR2) exhibit similar tertiary structures and homodimer interfaces and share a conserved GTPase-activating mechanism. Multiple structural differences between DOCK2(DHR2) and DOCK9(DHR2) account for their selectivity toward Rac1 and Cdc42. Key determinants of selectivity of Cdc42 and Rac for their cognate DOCK(DHR2) are a Phe or Trp residue within β3 (residue 56) and the ability of DOCK proteins to exploit differences in the GEF-induced conformational changes of switch 1 dependent on a divergent residue at position 27. DOCK proteins, therefore, differ from DH-PH GEFs that select their cognate GTPases through recognition of structural differences within the β2/β3 strands.

  18. Survey on the phase transitions and their effect on the ion-exchange and on the proton-conduction properties of a flexible and robust Zr phosphonate coordination polymer. (United States)

    Costantino, Ferdinando; Donnadio, Anna; Casciola, Mario


    The flexible zirconium tetraphosphonate coordination polymer with formula Zr(O(3)PCH(2))(2)N-C(6)H(10)-N(O(3)CH(2)P)(2)X(2-x)H(2+x)·nH(2)O (X = H, Li, Na, K, 0 metals hydroxides. 1 is a very robust coordination polymer because it can be regenerated in H- form using strong acid solutions and ri-exchanged several times without hydrolysis and loss of crystallinity. The flexibility of 1 has been also studied by means of TDXD (temperature dependent X-ray diffraction) evidencing remarkable phase transformations that lead to a different disposition of the water molecules. These transformations also influence the accessibility of the cations on the P-OH groups placed inside the channels and thus the ion-exchange properties. The dependence of the proton conductivity properties on these phase transitions has been also investigated and discussed.

  19. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (United States)

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita


    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  20. Evaluation of Pump Discontinuation and Associated Factors in the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry. (United States)

    Wong, Jenise C; Boyle, Claire; DiMeglio, Linda A; Mastrandrea, Lucy D; Abel, Kimber-Lee; Cengiz, Eda; Cemeroglu, Pinar A; Aleppo, Grazia; Largay, Joseph F; Foster, Nicole C; Beck, Roy W; Adi, Saleh


    The objectives of this study were to examine factors associated with insulin pump discontinuation among children and adults followed longitudinally for 1 year in the multicenter T1D Exchange clinic registry, and to provide participant-reported reasons for stopping pump therapy. We longitudinally followed 8935 participants of all ages using an insulin pump at the time of registry enrollment. Logistic regressions were used to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with pump discontinuation. Pump discontinuation was self-reported by participants on a first annual follow-up survey. The overall frequency of pump discontinuation was 3%. Discontinuation was higher in adolescents (4%) and young adults (4%) than in younger children (3%) or older adults (1%). In multivariate analysis of children between 6 and pump use were more likely to have higher HbA1c levels at baseline (adjusted P pump included problems with wearability (57%), disliking the pump or feeling anxious (44%), and problems with glycemic control (30%). In T1D Exchange registry participants, insulin pump discontinuation is uncommon, but more prevalent among adolescents and young adults, and youth with poor glycemic control. Given the known benefits of pump therapy, these populations should be targeted for support and education on troubleshooting pump use. Common reasons for discontinuation should also be considered in future device design and technological improvement.

  1. Porphyromonas gingivalis Uses Specific Domain Rearrangements and Allelic Exchange to Generate Diversity in Surface Virulence Factors (United States)

    Dashper, Stuart G.; Mitchell, Helen L.; Seers, Christine A.; Gladman, Simon L.; Seemann, Torsten; Bulach, Dieter M.; Chandry, P. Scott; Cross, Keith J.; Cleal, Steven M.; Reynolds, Eric C.


    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen of chronic periodontitis. The virulence of P. gingivalis is reported to be strain related and there are currently a number of strain typing schemes based on variation in capsular polysaccharide, the major and minor fimbriae and adhesin domains of Lys-gingipain (Kgp), amongst other surface proteins. P. gingivalis can exchange chromosomal DNA between strains by natural competence and conjugation. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variability of P. gingivalis strains sourced from international locations over a 25-year period and to determine if variability in surface virulence factors has a phylogenetic basis. Whole genome sequencing was performed on 13 strains and comparison made to 10 previously sequenced strains. A single nucleotide polymorphism-based phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a shallow tri-lobed phylogeny. There was a high level of reticulation in the phylogenetic network, demonstrating extensive horizontal gene transfer between the strains. Two highly conserved variants of the catalytic domain of the major virulence factor the Kgp proteinase (KgpcatI and KgpcatII) were found. There were three variants of the fourth Kgp C-terminal cleaved adhesin domain. Specific variants of the cell surface proteins FimA, FimCDE, MfaI, RagAB, Tpr, and PrtT were also identified. The occurrence of all these variants in the P. gingivalis strains formed a mosaic that was not related to the SNP-based phylogeny. In conclusion P. gingivalis uses domain rearrangements and genetic exchange to generate diversity in specific surface virulence factors. PMID:28184216

  2. The minimal autoinhibited unit of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor intersectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Farid Ahmad

    Full Text Available Intersectin-1L is a member of the Dbl homology (DH domain guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF which control Rho-family GTPase signaling. Intersectin-1L is a GEF that is specific for Cdc42. It plays an important role in endocytosis, and is regulated by several partners including the actin regulator N-WASP. Intact intersectin-1L shows low Cdc42 exchange activity, although the isolated catalytic DH domain shows high activity. This finding suggests that the molecule is autoinhibited. To investigate the mechanism of autoinhibition we have constructed a series of domain deletions. We find that the five SH3 domains of intersectin are important for autoinhibition, with the fifth domain (SH3(E being sufficient for the bulk of the autoinhibitory effect. This SH3 domain appears to primarily interact with the DH domain. We have determined the crystal structure of the SH3(E-DH domain construct, which shows a domain swapped arrangement in which the SH3 from one monomer interacts with the DH domain of the other monomer. Analytical ultracentrifugation and gel filtration, however, show that under biochemical concentrations, the construct is fully monomeric. Thus we propose that the actual autoinhibited structure contains the related intramolecular SH3(E-DH interaction. We propose a model in which this intramolecular interaction may block or distort the GTPase binding region of the DH domain.

  3. Studies on Some Factors Affecting the Quantitative Estimation of the Exchange Capacity of Organic Matter (United States)

    Walter M. Broadfoot; Edward H. Tyner


    Methods which are satisfactory for determining the base-exchange capacity of mineral soils can not be applied indiscriminately for determining the exchange capacity of fresh or decomposed plant residues.

  4. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the Cdc42p exchange factor Cdc24p. (United States)

    Nern, A; Arkowitz, R A


    Cdc24p, the GDP/GTP exchange factor for the regulator of actin cytoskeleton Cdc42p, localizes to sites of polarized growth. Here we show that Cdc24p shuttles in and out of the yeast nucleus during vegetative growth. Far1p is necessary and sufficient for nuclear accumulation of Cdc24p, suggesting that its nuclear import occurs via an association with Far1p. Nuclear export is triggered either by entry into the cell cycle or by mating pheromone. As Far1p is degraded upon entry into the cell cycle, cell cycle-dependent export of Cdc24p occurs in the absence of Far1p, whereas during mating similar export kinetics indicate that a Cdc24p-Far1p complex is exported. Our results suggest that the nucleus serves as a store of preformed Cdc24p-Far1p complex which is required for chemotropism.

  5. An investigation on important factors influencing on forecasted earnings adjustment: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Babakhani


    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to detect important factors influencing earning adjustment on firms selected on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2011. There are four independent variables associated with the proposed study of this paper including Proportion of shares owned by institutional investors, Return on assets, Profit change and Market value to book value. In addition, Investment restructuring is considered as control variable. The results of the implementation of regression analysis indicate that there was a reverse relationship between earning forecasted adjustment and two independent variables including size of firm as well as the ratio of market value to book value. However, Net profit has a direct and positive relationship with earning forecast adjustment.

  6. Zizimin and Dock guanine nucleotide exchange factors in cell function and disease. (United States)

    Pakes, Nicholl K; Veltman, Douwe M; Williams, Robin S B


    Zizimin proteins belong to the Dock (Dedicator of Cytokinesis) superfamily of Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) proteins. This family of proteins plays a role in the regulation of Rho family small GTPases. Together the Rho family of small GTPases and the Dock/Zizimin proteins play a vital role in a number of cell processes including cell migration, apoptosis, cell division and cell adhesion. Our recent studies of Zizimin proteins, using a simple biomedical model, the eukaryotic social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, have helped to elucidate the cellular role of these proteins. In this article, we discuss the domain structure of Zizimin proteins from an evolutionary viewpoint. We also compare what is currently known about the mammalian Zizimin proteins to that of related Dock proteins. Understanding the cellular functions of these proteins will provide a better insight into their role in cell signaling, and may help in treating disease pathology associated with mutations in Dock/Zizimin proteins.

  7. Interplay of Biomechanical, Energetic, Coordinative, and Muscular Factors in a 200 m Front Crawl Swim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Figueiredo


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the relative contribution of selected biomechanical, energetic, coordinative, and muscular factors for the 200 m front crawl and each of its four laps. Ten swimmers performed a 200 m front crawl swim, as well as 50, 100, and 150 m at the 200 m pace. Biomechanical, energetic, coordinative, and muscular factors were assessed during the 200 m swim. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the weight of the factors to the performance. For each lap, the contributions to the 200 m performance were 17.6, 21.1, 18.4, and 7.6% for stroke length, 16.1, 18.7, 32.1, and 3.2% for stroke rate, 11.2, 13.2, 6.8, and 5.7% for intracycle velocity variation in x, 9.7, 7.5, 1.3, and 5.4% for intracycle velocity variation in y, 17.8, 10.5, 2.0, and 6.4% for propelling efficiency, 4.5, 5.8, 10.9, and 23.7% for total energy expenditure, 10.1, 5.1, 8.3, and 23.7% for interarm coordination, 9.0, 6.2, 8.5, and 5.5% for muscular activity amplitude, and 3.9, 11.9, 11.8, and 18.7% for muscular frequency. The relative contribution of the factors was closely related to the task constraints, especially fatigue, as the major changes occurred from the first to the last lap.

  8. Impact of selected family socio-economic factors on coordinational predispositions of children


    Jarosław Domaradzki


    Introduction: Biological growth of children is genetically determined but there are a lot of factors modifying trends of growth. Among them the most important seems to be parents’ education and number of children in family – socio-economical factors. Factors don’t affect organism individually. Interactions between them can increase or decrease. So the aim of the work was to estimate the influence of socio-economic factors like parents’ education and number of children in ...

  9. The Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor ARNO mediates the activation of ARF and phospholipase D by insulin

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    Fluharty Eric


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phospholipase D (PLD is involved in many signaling pathways. In most systems, the activity of PLD is primarily regulated by the members of the ADP-Ribosylation Factor (ARF family of GTPases, but the mechanism of activation of PLD and ARF by extracellular signals has not been fully established. Here we tested the hypothesis that ARF-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs of the cytohesin/ARNO family mediate the activation of ARF and PLD by insulin. Results Wild type ARNO transiently transfected in HIRcB cells was translocated to the plasma membrane in an insulin-dependent manner and promoted the translocation of ARF to the membranes. ARNO mutants: ΔCC-ARNO and CC-ARNO were partially translocated to the membranes while ΔPH-ARNO and PH-ARNO could not be translocated to the membranes. Sec7 domain mutants of ARNO did not facilitate the ARF translocation. Overexpression of wild type ARNO significantly increased insulin-stimulated PLD activity, and mutations in the Sec7 and PH domains, or deletion of the PH or CC domains inhibited the effects of insulin. Conclusions Small ARF-GEFs of the cytohesin/ARNO family mediate the activation of ARF and PLD by the insulin receptor.

  10. Air exchanges and indoor carbon dioxide concentration in Australian pig buildings: Effect of housing and management factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banhazi, T. M.; Stott, P.; Rutley, D.


    There has been a growing interest in improving air quality within livestock buildings. However, the influence of housing and management factors on air exchange rates and indoor gas concentrations is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of housing and management...... factors on the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and air exchange rates in 160 representative Australian pig buildings. CO(2) concentrations were measured, air changes per hour (ACH) were estimated using a CO(2) balance method, and structural and management parameters were recorded. The mean CO(2......) concentration measured was 858 ppm and a mean air exchange rate of 22.8 ACH was estimated. The analysis showed that CO(2) concentrations were affected by the type of building, season, control of the wall and ridge vents, ceiling height, size of the wall vents and height of the ridge vents. Weaner buildings had...

  11. Factors Concerning Veterans With Dementia, Their Caregivers, and Coordination of Care: A Systematic Literature Review. (United States)

    Mileski, Michael; Scott Kruse, Clemens; Brooks, Matthew; Haynes, Christine; Collingwood, Ying; Rodriguez, Rachel


    Military veterans diagnosed with dementia compose a large portion of our population. Often ignored are their caregivers and their plight as well as the availability, quality, and accessibility of health care for this demographic. The purpose of this systematic literature review is three fold: to identify opportunities available to increase public awareness on the subject; to identify areas of improvement in the level of care and quality of life for our nation's veterans; and to identify if adequate resources are available to veterans with dementia and their caregivers. The authors conducted systematic searches of three databases: PubMed via The National Center for Biotechnology Information, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) Complete via Ebson B. Stephens Company (EBSCO Host), and Google. Data were collected regarding providing care to veterans who are suffering from dementia or Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers between 2008 and June 2016. Search results were filtered by date range, full text, English language, Boolean operators, and academic journals (n = 14). The review confirmed there are many facilitators and barriers in the coordination of care offered to veterans with dementia. Facilitators of quality care include veteran's expectations, family support, program development, and the availability of services. These positive aspects are aided by several community-based support services, new technology, and preventative care. Barriers are caregiver expectations, coordination of care, providers, and informal and formal costs. These negative facets are due to lack of educational resources, an increased veteran population diagnosed with dementia, limited knowledge of resources, and limited medical service in rural areas. Overall, there are a number of community programs that want to, and can, help veterans with dementia. There are also a number of ways to help veterans with dementia cope with their issues, which include

  12. A sequence-specific core promoter-binding transcription factor recruits TRF2 to coordinately transcribe ribosomal protein genes. (United States)

    Baumann, Douglas G; Gilmour, David S


    Ribosomal protein (RP) genes must be coordinately expressed for proper assembly of the ribosome yet the mechanisms that control expression of RP genes in metazoans are poorly understood. Recently, TATA-binding protein-related factor 2 (TRF2) rather than the TATA-binding protein (TBP) was found to function in transcription of RP genes in Drosophila. Unlike TBP, TRF2 lacks sequence-specific DNA binding activity, so the mechanism by which TRF2 is recruited to promoters is unclear. We show that the transcription factor M1BP, which associates with the core promoter region, activates transcription of RP genes. Moreover, M1BP directly interacts with TRF2 to recruit it to the RP gene promoter. High resolution ChIP-exo was used to analyze in vivo the association of M1BP, TRF2 and TFIID subunit, TAF1. Despite recent work suggesting that TFIID does not associate with RP genes in Drosophila, we find that TAF1 is present at RP gene promoters and that its interaction might also be directed by M1BP. Although M1BP associates with thousands of genes, its colocalization with TRF2 is largely restricted to RP genes, suggesting that this combination is key to coordinately regulating transcription of the majority of RP genes in Drosophila. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Group VII Ethylene Response Factors Coordinate Oxygen and Nitric Oxide Signal Transduction and Stress Responses in Plants1 (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel J.; Conde, Jorge Vicente; Berckhan, Sophie; Prasad, Geeta; Mendiondo, Guillermina M.; Holdsworth, Michael J.


    The group VII ethylene response factors (ERFVIIs) are plant-specific transcription factors that have emerged as important regulators of abiotic and biotic stress responses, in particular, low-oxygen stress. A defining feature of ERFVIIs is their conserved N-terminal domain, which renders them oxygen- and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent substrates of the N-end rule pathway of targeted proteolysis. In the presence of these gases, ERFVIIs are destabilized, whereas an absence of either permits their accumulation; ERFVIIs therefore coordinate plant homeostatic responses to oxygen availability and control a wide range of NO-mediated processes. ERFVIIs have a variety of context-specific protein and gene interaction partners, and also modulate gibberellin and abscisic acid signaling to regulate diverse developmental processes and stress responses. This update discusses recent advances in our understanding of ERFVII regulation and function, highlighting their role as central regulators of gaseous signal transduction at the interface of ethylene, oxygen, and NO signaling. PMID:25944828

  14. Exchange enhancement of the electron g-factor in a two-dimensional semimetal in HgTe quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovkun, L. S., E-mail:; Krishtopenko, S. S.; Zholudev, M. S.; Ikonnikov, A. V.; Spirin, K. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Teppe, F.; Knap, W. [Universite Montpellier II, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb (L2C), UMR CNRS 5221, GIS-TERALAB (France); Gavrilenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)


    The exchange enhancement of the electron g-factor in perpendicular magnetic fields to 12 T in HgTe/CdHgTe quantum wells 20 nm wide with a semimetal band structure is studied. The electron effective mass and g-factor at the Fermi level are determined by analyzing the temperature dependence of the amplitude of Shubnikov–de Haas oscillation in weak fields and near odd Landau-level filling factors ν ≤ 9. The experimental values are compared with theoretical calculations performed in the one-electron approximation using the eight-band kp Hamiltonian. The found dependence of g-factor enhancement on the electron concentration is explained by changes in the contributions of hole- and electron-like states to exchange corrections to the Landau-level energies in the conduction band.

  15. Ric-8A, a Gα protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor potentiates taste receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Fenech


    Full Text Available Taste receptors for sweet, bitter and umami tastants are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. While much effort has been devoted to understanding G-protein-receptor interactions and identifying the components of the signalling cascade downstream of these receptors, at the level of the G-protein the modulation of receptor signal transduction remains relatively unexplored. In this regard a taste-specific regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS, RGS21, has recently been identified. To study whether guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs are involved in the transduction of the signal downstream of the taste GPCRs we investigated the expression of Ric-8A and Ric-8B in mouse taste cells and their interaction with G-protein subunits found in taste buds. Mammalian Ric-8 proteins were initially identified as potent GEFs for a range of Gα subunits and Ric-8B has recently been shown to amplify olfactory signal transduction. We find that both Ric-8A and Ric-8B are expressed in a large portion of taste bud cells and that most of these cells contain IP3R-3 a marker for sweet, umami and bitter taste receptor cells. Ric-8A interacts with Gα-gustducin and Gαi2 through which it amplifies the signal transduction of hTas2R16, a receptor for bitter compounds. Overall, these findings are consistent with a role for Ric-8 in mammalian taste signal transduction.

  16. Stature and jumping height are required in female volleyball, but motor coordination is a key factor for future elite success. (United States)

    Pion, Johan A; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter N; Segers, Veerle I; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu


    It was hypothesized that differences in anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination would be found between Belgian elite and sub-elite level female volleyball players using a retrospective analysis of test results gathered over a 5-year period. The test sample in this study consisted of 21 young female volleyball players (15.3 ± 1.5 years) who were selected to train at the Flemish Top Sports Academy for Volleyball in 2008. All players (elite, n = 13; sub-elite, n = 8) were included in the same talent development program, and the elite-level athletes were of a high to very high performance levels according to European competition level in 2013. Five multivariate analyses of variance were used. There was no significant effect of playing level on measures of anthropometry (F = 0.455, p = 0.718, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.07), flexibility (F = 1.861, p = 0.188, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.19), strength (F = 1.218, p = 0.355, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.32); and speed and agility (F = 1.176, p = 0.350, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.18). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant multivariate effects between playing levels for motor coordination (F = 3.470, p = 0.036, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.59). A Mann-Whitney U test and a sequential discriminant analysis confirmed these results. Previous research revealed that stature and jump height are prerequisites for talent identification in female volleyball. In addition, the results show that motor coordination is an important factor in determining inclusion into the elite level in female volleyball.

  17. Human body area factors for radiation exchange analysis: standing and walking postures. (United States)

    Park, Sookuk; Tuller, Stanton E


    Effective radiation area factors (f (eff)) and projected area factors (f (p)) of unclothed Caucasians' standing and walking postures used in estimating human radiation exchange with the surrounding environment were determined from a sample of adults in Canada. Several three-dimensional (3D) computer body models were created for standing and walking postures. Only small differences in f (eff) and f (p) values for standing posture were found between gender (male or female) and body type (normal- or over-weight). Differences between this study and previous studies were much larger: ≤0.173 in f (p) and ≤0.101 in f (eff). Directionless f (p) values for walking posture also had only minor differences between genders and positions in a stride. However, the differences of mean directional f (p) values of the positions dependent on azimuth angles were large enough, ≤0.072, to create important differences in modeled radiation receipt. Differences in f (eff) values were small: 0.02 between the normal-weight male and female models and up to 0.033 between positions in a stride. Variations of directional f (p) values depending on solar altitudes for walking posture were narrower than those for standing posture. When both standing and walking postures are considered, the mean f (eff) value, 0.836, of standing (0.826) and walking (0.846) could be used. However, f (p) values should be selected carefully because differences between directional and directionless f (p) values were large enough that they could influence the estimated level of human thermal sensation.

  18. Non-muscle myosin II regulates neuronal actin dynamics by interacting with guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-muscle myosin II (NM II regulates a wide range of cellular functions, including neuronal differentiation, which requires precise spatio-temporal activation of Rho GTPases. The molecular mechanism underlying the NM II-mediated activation of Rho GTPases is poorly understood. The present study explored the possibility that NM II regulates neuronal differentiation, particularly morphological changes in growth cones and the distal axon, through guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs of the Dbl family. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NM II colocalized with GEFs, such as βPIX, kalirin and intersectin, in growth cones. Inactivation of NM II by blebbistatin (BBS led to the increased formation of short and thick filopodial actin structures at the periphery of growth cones. In line with these observations, FRET analysis revealed enhanced Cdc42 activity in BBS-treated growth cones. BBS treatment also induced aberrant targeting of various GEFs to the distal axon where GEFs were seldom observed under physiological conditions. As a result, numerous protrusions and branches were generated on the shaft of the distal axon. The disruption of the NM II-GEF interactions by overexpression of the DH domains of βPIX or Tiam1, or by βPIX depletion with specific siRNAs inhibited growth cone formation and induced slender axons concomitant with multiple branches in cultured hippocampal neurons. Finally, stimulation with nerve growth factor induced transient dissociation of the NM II-GEF complex, which was closely correlated with the kinetics of Cdc42 and Rac1 activation. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that NM II maintains proper morphology of neuronal growth cones and the distal axon by regulating actin dynamics through the GEF-Rho GTPase signaling pathway.

  19. Coordinated Regulation Among Progesterone, Prostaglandins, and EGF-Like Factors in Human Ovulatory Follicles. (United States)

    Choi, Yohan; Wilson, Kalin; Hannon, Patrick R; Rosewell, Katherine L; Brännström, Mats; Akin, James W; Curry, Thomas E; Jo, Misung


    In animal models, the luteinizing hormone surge increases progesterone (P4) and progesterone receptor (PGR), prostaglandins (PTGs), and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors that play essential roles in ovulation. However, little is known about the expression, regulation, and function of these key ovulatory mediators in humans. To determine when and how these key ovulatory mediators are induced after the luteinizing hormone surge in human ovaries. Timed periovulatory follicles were obtained from cycling women. Granulosa/lutein cells were collected from in vitro fertilization patients. The in vivo and in vitro expression of PGR, PTG synthases and transporters, and EGF-like factors were examined at the level of messenger RNA and protein. PGR binding to specific genes was assessed. P4 and PTGs in conditioned media were measured. PGR, PTGS2, and AREG expressions dramatically increased in ovulatory follicles at 12 to 18 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In human granulosa/lutein cell cultures, hCG increased P4 and PTG production and the expression of PGR, specific PTG synthases and transporters, and EGF-like factors, mimicking in vivo expression patterns. Inhibitors for P4/PGR and EGF-signaling pathways reduced hCG-induced increases in PTG production and the expression of EGF-like factors. PGR bound to the PTGS2, PTGES, and SLCO2A1 genes. This report demonstrated the time-dependent induction of PGR, AREG, and PTGS2 in human periovulatory follicles. In vitro studies indicated that collaborative actions of P4/PGR and EGF signaling are required for hCG-induced increases in PTG production and potentiation of EGF signaling in human periovulatory granulosa cells.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raveendiran


    Full Text Available The heat transfer coefficients and friction factors of a baffled shell and heat pipe heat exchanger with various inclination angles were determined experimentally; using methanol as working fluid and water as heat transport fluid were reported. Heat pipe heat exchanger reported in this investigation have inclination angles varied between 15o and 60o for different mass flow rates and temperature at the shell side of the heat exchanger. All the required parameters like outlet temperature of both hot and cold side of heat exchanger and mass flow rate of fluids were measured using an appropriate instrument. Different tests were performed from which condenser side heat transfer coefficient and friction factor were calculated. In all operating conditions it has been found that the heat transfer coefficient increases by increasing the mass flow rate and angle of inclination. The reduction in friction factor occurs when the Reynolds number is increased. The overall optimum experimental effectiveness of GABSHPHE has found to be 42% in all operating conditioning at ψ = 45o.

  1. The chromatin-remodeling factor CHD4 coordinates signaling and repair after DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dorthe Helena; Poinsignon, Catherine; Gudjonsson, Thorkell


    -dependent chromatin-remodeling protein CHD4 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4) as a factor that becomes transiently immobilized on chromatin after IR. Knockdown of CHD4 triggers enhanced Cdc25A degradation and p21(Cip1) accumulation, which lead to more pronounced cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition...... and extended cell cycle delay. At DNA double-strand breaks, depletion of CHD4 disrupts the chromatin response at the level of the RNF168 ubiquitin ligase, which in turn impairs local ubiquitylation and BRCA1 assembly. These cell cycle and chromatin defects are accompanied by elevated spontaneous and IR......-induced DNA breakage, reduced efficiency of DNA repair, and decreased clonogenic survival. Thus, CHD4 emerges as a novel genome caretaker and a factor that facilitates both checkpoint signaling and repair events after DNA damage....

  2. Computational screening of structural and compositional factors for electrically conductive coordination polymers


    Tiana, Davide; Hendon, Christopher H.; Walsh, Aron; Thomas P. Vaid


    The combination of organic and inorganic chemical building blocks to form metal?organic frameworks (MOFs) offers opportunities for producing functional materials suitable for energy generation, storage and conversion. However, such applications rely on robust electron transport and the design of conductive hybrid materials is still in its infancy. Here we apply density functional theory to assess the important structural and compositional factors for forming conducting MOFs. We focus on 1D me...

  3. Multifunctional role of the transcription factor Blimp-1 in coordinating plasma cell differentiation. (United States)

    Minnich, Martina; Tagoh, Hiromi; Bönelt, Peter; Axelsson, Elin; Fischer, Maria; Cebolla, Beatriz; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Nutt, Stephen L; Jaritz, Markus; Busslinger, Meinrad


    The transcription factor Blimp-1 is necessary for the generation of plasma cells. Here we studied its functions in plasmablast differentiation by identifying regulated Blimp-1 target genes. Blimp-1 promoted the migration and adhesion of plasmablasts. It directly repressed genes encoding several transcription factors and Aicda (which encodes the cytidine deaminase AID) and thus silenced B cell-specific gene expression, antigen presentation and class-switch recombination in plasmablasts. It directly activated genes, which led to increased expression of the plasma cell regulator IRF4 and proteins involved in immunoglobulin secretion. Blimp-1 induced the transcription of immunoglobulin genes by controlling the 3' enhancers of the loci encoding the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) and κ-light chain (Igk) and, furthermore, regulated the post-transcriptional expression switch from the membrane-bound form of the immunoglobulin heavy chain to its secreted form by activating Ell2 (which encodes the transcription-elongation factor ELL2). Notably, Blimp-1 recruited chromatin-remodeling and histone-modifying complexes to regulate its target genes. Hence, many essential functions of plasma cells are under the control of Blimp-1.

  4. Primary cilia and coordination of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Morthorst, Stine Kjær; Mogensen, Johanne Bay


    Since the beginning of the millennium, research in primary cilia has revolutionized our way of understanding how cells integrate and organize diverse signaling pathways during vertebrate development and in tissue homeostasis. Primary cilia are unique sensory organelles that detect changes...... in their extracellular environment and integrate and transmit signaling information to the cell to regulate various cellular, developmental, and physiological processes. Many different signaling pathways have now been shown to rely on primary cilia to function properly, and mutations that lead to ciliary dysfunction...... are at the root of a pleiotropic group of diseases and syndromic disorders called ciliopathies. In this review, we present an overview of primary cilia-mediated regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling. Further, we discuss how defects in the coordination...

  5. Insulation Coordination of Arcing Horns on HVDC Electrode Lines: Protection Performance Evaluation, Influence Factors and Improvement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiandong Li


    Full Text Available Arcing horns are widely used in high voltage overhead lines to protect insulator strings from being destroyed by the free burning arcs caused by lightening faults. In this paper, we focus on the insulation coordination of arcing horns on the electrode lines of a 5000 MW, ±800 kV high voltage direct current (HVDC system. The protection performance of arcing horns are determined by the characteristics of not only the external system but also the fault arc. Therefore, the behaviors and characteristics of long free burning arcs are investigated by the experiments at first. In order to evaluate the protection performance of arcing horns, the static stability criterion U-I characteristic method is introduced. The influence factors on the protection performance of arcing horns are analyzed theoretically. Finally, the improvement methods for the protection performance of arcing horns are proposed, and the diversified configuration strategy of arcing horns is recommended for cost saving.

  6. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor works coordinately with partner molecules to initiate tyrosine hydroxylase expression in striatal neurons. (United States)

    Du, X; Stull, N D; Iacovitti, L


    Previous studies demonstrated that the cooperative interaction of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and a partner molecule could induce the novel expression of the catecholamine (CA) biosynthetic enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in striatal neurons [Du and Iacovitti, J. Neurosci., in press; Du et al., J. Neurosci., 14 (1994) 7688-7694; Iacovitti et al., submitted]. The present study demonstrates that in addition to aFGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also capable of moderate levels of TH induction (30% TH+ striatal neurons) when administered at high concentrations (100 ng/ml). As with aFGF, BDNF's activity depended on its coupling to an appropriate partner molecule; the most potent of which were 10 microM dopamine (DA) and 50 microM mazindol. BDNF + DA-induced TH expression was first evident after at 12 h; peaked by 18 h and declined by 4 days in culture. Cyclohexamide eliminated nearly all and alpha-amanitin reduced by half the TH induction elicited by DA and BDNF; indicating that both de novo transcription and translation were required for increased expression. In contrast with aFGF and BDNF, other putative dopamine differentiation factors, such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), were able to elicit barely detectable (10%) levels of TH induction, regardless of the partner molecule used. These studies suggest that aFGF and/or BDNF may work coordinately with partner molecules to initiate TH expression; while a number of factors including, CNTF and GDNF, may be involved in its subsequent modulation.

  7. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RIC8 regulates conidial germination through Gα proteins in Neurospora crassa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla J Eaton

    Full Text Available Heterotrimeric G protein signaling is essential for normal hyphal growth in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We have previously demonstrated that the non-receptor guanine nucleotide exchange factor RIC8 acts upstream of the Gα proteins GNA-1 and GNA-3 to regulate hyphal extension. Here we demonstrate that regulation of hyphal extension results at least in part, from an important role in control of asexual spore (conidia germination. Loss of GNA-3 leads to a drastic reduction in conidial germination, which is exacerbated in the absence of GNA-1. Mutation of RIC8 leads to a reduction in germination similar to that in the Δgna-1, Δgna-3 double mutant, suggesting that RIC8 regulates conidial germination through both GNA-1 and GNA-3. Support for a more significant role for GNA-3 is indicated by the observation that expression of a GTPase-deficient, constitutively active gna-3 allele in the Δric8 mutant leads to a significant increase in conidial germination. Localization of the three Gα proteins during conidial germination was probed through analysis of cells expressing fluorescently tagged proteins. Functional TagRFP fusions of each of the three Gα subunits were constructed through insertion of TagRFP in a conserved loop region of the Gα subunits. The results demonstrated that GNA-1 localizes to the plasma membrane and vacuoles, and also to septa throughout conidial germination. GNA-2 and GNA-3 localize to both the plasma membrane and vacuoles during early germination, but are then found in intracellular vacuoles later during hyphal outgrowth.

  8. The GDP-GTP exchange factor collybistin: an essential determinant of neuronal gephyrin clustering. (United States)

    Harvey, Kirsten; Duguid, Ian C; Alldred, Melissa J; Beatty, Sarah E; Ward, Hamish; Keep, Nicholas H; Lingenfelter, Sue E; Pearce, Brian R; Lundgren, Johan; Owen, Michael J; Smart, Trevor G; Lüscher, Bernhard; Rees, Mark I; Harvey, Robert J


    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) and specific subtypes of GABA(A) receptors are clustered at synapses by the multidomain protein gephyrin, which in turn is translocated to the cell membrane by the GDP-GTP exchange factor collybistin. We report the characterization of several new variants of collybistin, which are created by alternative splicing of exons encoding an N-terminal src homology 3 (SH3) domain and three alternate C termini (CB1, CB2, and CB3). The presence of the SH3 domain negatively regulates the ability of collybistin to translocate gephyrin to submembrane microaggregates in transfected mammalian cells. Because the majority of native collybistin isoforms appear to harbor the SH3 domain, this suggests that collybistin activity may be regulated by protein-protein interactions at the SH3 domain. We localized the binding sites for collybistin and the GlyR beta subunit to the C-terminal MoeA homology domain of gephyrin and show that multimerization of this domain is required for collybistin-gephyrin and GlyR-gephyrin interactions. We also demonstrate that gephyrin clustering in recombinant systems and cultured neurons requires both collybistin-gephyrin interactions and an intact collybistin pleckstrin homology domain. The vital importance of collybistin for inhibitory synaptogenesis is underlined by the discovery of a mutation (G55A) in exon 2 of the human collybistin gene (ARHGEF9) in a patient with clinical symptoms of both hyperekplexia and epilepsy. The clinical manifestation of this collybistin missense mutation may result, at least in part, from mislocalization of gephyrin and a major GABA(A) receptor subtype.

  9. The C-terminal Helix of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Elongation Factor Ts Tunes EF-Tu Dynamics to Modulate Nucleotide Exchange* (United States)

    De Laurentiis, Evelina Ines; Mercier, Evan; Wieden, Hans-Joachim


    Little is known about the conservation of critical kinetic parameters and the mechanistic strategies of elongation factor (EF) Ts-catalyzed nucleotide exchange in EF-Tu in bacteria and particularly in clinically relevant pathogens. EF-Tu from the clinically relevant pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa shares over 84% sequence identity with the corresponding elongation factor from Escherichia coli. Interestingly, the functionally closely linked EF-Ts only shares 55% sequence identity. To identify any differences in the nucleotide binding properties, as well as in the EF-Ts-mediated nucleotide exchange reaction, we performed a comparative rapid kinetics and mutagenesis analysis of the nucleotide exchange mechanism for both the E. coli and P. aeruginosa systems, identifying helix 13 of EF-Ts as a previously unnoticed regulatory element in the nucleotide exchange mechanism with species-specific elements. Our findings support the base side-first entry of the nucleotide into the binding pocket of the EF-Tu·EF-Ts binary complex, followed by displacement of helix 13 and rapid binding of the phosphate side of the nucleotide, ultimately leading to the release of EF-Ts. PMID:27624934

  10. Coordinated transcriptional regulation of isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthetic pathway enzymes in plastids by phytochrome-interacting factor 5. (United States)

    Mannen, Kazuto; Matsumoto, Takuro; Takahashi, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Yuta; Tsukagoshi, Masanori; Sano, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Sakurai, Nozomu; Shibata, Daisuke; Koyama, Tanetoshi; Nakayama, Toru


    All isoprenoids are derived from a common C5 unit, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP). In plants, IPP is synthesized via two distinct pathways; the cytosolic mevalonate pathway and the plastidial non-mevalonate (MEP) pathway. In this study, we used a co-expression analysis to identify transcription factors that coordinately regulate the expression of multiple genes encoding enzymes in the IPP biosynthetic pathway. Some candidates showed especially strong correlations with multiple genes encoding MEP-pathway enzymes. We report here that phytochrome-interacting factor 5 (PIF5), a basic-helix-loop-helix type transcription factor, functions as a positive regulator of the MEP pathway. Its overexpression in T87 suspension cultured cells resulted in increased accumulation of chlorophylls and carotenoids. Detailed analyses of carotenoids by HPLC indicated that some carotenoid biosynthetic pathways were concomitantly up-regulated, possibly as a result of enhanced IPP metabolic flow. Our results also revealed other PIF family proteins that play different roles from that of PIF5 in IPP metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The positive transcription factor of the 5S RNA gene proteolyses during direct exchange between 5S DNA sites



    We have examined the association, dissociation, and exchange of the 5S specific transcription factor (TFIIIA) with somatic- and oocyte-type 5S DNA. The factor associates faster with somatic than with oocyte 5S DNA, and the rate of complex formation is accelerated by vector DNA. Once formed, the TFIIIA-5S DNA complex is stable for greater than 4 h in the absence of free 5S DNA, and its dissociation is identical for somatic and for oocyte 5S DNA. In the presence of free 5S DNA, the factor trans...

  12. GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors coordinate the tolerance to Cucumber mosaic virus in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xue-Ying; Li, Peng-Xu; Zou, Li-Juan; Tan, Wen-rong; Zheng, Ting; Zhang, Da-Wei, E-mail:; Lin, Hong-Hui, E-mail:


    Arabidopsis thaliana GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLKs) transcription factors play important roles in regulation of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes, as well as participate in chloroplast development. However, the involvement of GLKs in plants resistance to virus remains largely unknown. Here, the relationship between GLKs and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) stress response was investigated. Our results showed that the Arabidopsis glk1glk2 double-mutant was more susceptible to CMV infection and suffered more serious damages (such as higher oxidative damages, more compromised in PSII photochemistry and more reactive oxygen species accumulation) when compared with the wild-type plants. Interestingly, there was little difference between single mutant (glk1 or glk2) and wild-type plants in response to CMV infection, suggesting GLK1 and GLK2 might function redundant in virus resistance in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the induction of antioxidant system and defense-associated genes expression in the double mutant were inhibited when compared with single mutant or wild-type plants after CMV infection. Further evidences showed that salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) might be involved in GLKs-mediated virus resistance, as SA or JA level and synthesis-related genes transcription were impaired in glk1glk2 mutant. Taken together, our results indicated that GLKs played a positively role in virus resistance in Arabidopsis. - Highlights: • GLKs play a positive role in CMV resistance in Arabidopsis. • Defective of GLKs suffered more ROS accumulation. • Arabidopsis lacking GLKs have damaged photosynthesis. • Arabidopsis lacking GLKs show low SA and JA accumulation.

  13. Effect of market factors on the short-time pricing of stock-exchange metals (United States)

    Bogdanov, S. V.; Shevelev, I. M.; Chernyi, S. A.


    The open trade on the world market is estimated using information of one-day exchange prices of nonferrous and precious metals, oil, reduced crude, and gasoline and the main world stock indices in the time period from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2015. It is found that the short-term changes in the prices of nonferrous metals are determined by the prices on the metal market. The changes in the prices of energy carriers and the stock trade on the stock market weakly influence the pricing of nonferrous and precious metals. The prices of metals depend on the situation during trade on commodity exchanges, and the stock market indirectly influences the exchange prices of metals through changes in the share prices of the companies that produce copper, aluminum, and zinc.

  14. Predictive factors of brain death in severe stroke patients identified by organ procurement and transplant coordination in Lorrain, France. (United States)

    Humbertjean, Lisa; Mione, Gioia; Fay, Renaud; Durin, Laurent; Planel, Sophie; Lacour, Jean-Christophe; Enea, Ana-Maria; Richard, Sébastien


    There are no established predictive factors to identify patients at the acute phase of severe stroke with a high probability of presenting brain death (BD). We retrospectively collected clinical and paraclinical data of consecutive patients at the acute phase of severe stroke with a potential progression to BD through the hospital organ procurement and transplant coordination system in five centres in Lorrain (France) between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. Final endpoint was adjudicated BD. Of 400 included patients, 91 (23%) presented adjudicated BD. Initial Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤6 (P = 0.008), herniation (P = 0.009), hydrocephalus (P = 0.019), initial systolic blood pressure >150 mmHg (P = 0.002), past history of alcohol abuse (P = 0.019) and stroke volume >65 ml (P = 0.040) were significantly associated with BD progression. Two prognostic scores for stroke with unquantifiable or quantifiable volume were built according to the number of risk factors presented. Following internal validation, the respective bias-corrected predictive performance (c-index) of the two scores was 72% (95% confidence interval: 67-78%) and 77% (95% confidence interval: 72-82%). These scores could form the basis of a simple tool of six criteria to help physicians make the difficult decision of intensive care unit management to preserve organs in potential donors. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  15. Group VII Ethylene Response Factors Coordinate Oxygen and Nitric Oxide Signal Transduction and Stress Responses in Plants. (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel J; Conde, Jorge Vicente; Berckhan, Sophie; Prasad, Geeta; Mendiondo, Guillermina M; Holdsworth, Michael J


    The group VII ethylene response factors (ERFVIIs) are plant-specific transcription factors that have emerged as important regulators of abiotic and biotic stress responses, in particular, low-oxygen stress. A defining feature of ERFVIIs is their conserved N-terminal domain, which renders them oxygen- and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent substrates of the N-end rule pathway of targeted proteolysis. In the presence of these gases, ERFVIIs are destabilized, whereas an absence of either permits their accumulation; ERFVIIs therefore coordinate plant homeostatic responses to oxygen availability and control a wide range of NO-mediated processes. ERFVIIs have a variety of context-specific protein and gene interaction partners, and also modulate gibberellin and abscisic acid signaling to regulate diverse developmental processes and stress responses. This update discusses recent advances in our understanding of ERFVII regulation and function, highlighting their role as central regulators of gaseous signal transduction at the interface of ethylene, oxygen, and NO signaling. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Indicators of exchange of bile pigments under the action of ecopathogenic factors on the organism and correction with liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Melnychuk


    Full Text Available High levels of anthropogenic impact on the environment requires a detailed study of the features of the influence of heavy metals and ionizing radiation on living organisms, and provides for the development and use of effective means of protecting the body from its negative influence. The purpose of the work was to study the characteristics of the exchange of bile pigments of rats under the action of eсopathogenic factors (ionizing radiation and cadmium on the organism and the corrective properties of liposomes on the basis of milk phospholipids. An analysis of the chromatographic studies of bilirubin and derivatives (nonconjugated bilirubin, bilirubin sulfate, billirubin glucuronide, urobilin and stercobilin in the whole blood, liver, jejunum contents and feces under the action on the animal organism of eсopathogenic factors (ionizing radiation and cadmium indicate material violation of the exchange bile pigments that may be due to the destabilization of the structural and functional hot hepatocytes. Correction of the liposomal form of biologically active additive (BAA FLP-MD is reco­mmended; the latter is a mixture of phospholipids isolated from milk, with a mixture of unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, linolenic and antioxidants (α-tocopherol and retinol acetate. The additive components exhibit the reparative effect of the action in respect of the damaged membrane structures with simultaneous improving of cholepoietic and billiation liver function, and therefore contribute to the normalization of exchange og bile pigments in terms of action on the body ecopathogenic factors.

  17. 75 FR 62137 - Notice of Public Meeting; Proposed Alluvial Valley Floor Coal Exchange Public Interest Factors... (United States)


    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) hereby notifies the public that it will hold a public meeting to consider a proposal to exchange Federal coal deposits for Alluvial Valley Floor (AVF) fee coal pursuant to the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) of 1976, as amended, and the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977. This exchange (serial number MTM-99236) has been proposed by Jay Nance, Brett A. Boedecker, as personal representative for Susanne N. Boedecker, Joseph P. Hayes, Patricia Hayes Rodolph, and the Brown Cattle Company Shareholders Coal Trust, collectively referred to as Nance-Brown.

  18. Recovery of motor coordination after exercise is correlated to enhancement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in lactational vanadium-exposed rats. (United States)

    Wang, Dean-Chuan; Lin, Yu-Yi; Lin, Hwai-Ting


    Lactational exposure to vanadium can reduce the locomotor activity in adult animals. In this study, we investigated whether lactational vanadium exposure impairs the motor coordination and whether exercise ameliorates this dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley dams were treated with or without vanadium during lactation. The weaned male offspring were trained to treadmill running for 5 weeks and then examined their motor coordination on a rotarod. The neuroprotective effect of exercise was evaluated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in plasma and cerebellum. The results demonstrated that vanadium-exposed rats exhibited impaired motor coordination and reduced plasma and cerebellar BDNF levels. Treadmill running during childhood-adolescence prevented the impaired motor coordination in the lactational vanadium-exposed rats. The beneficial effect of treadmill running on motor coordination in the vanadium-exposed rats was correlated to the normalization of plasma and cerebellar BDNF levels, as well as the increased TrkB phosphorylation in the cerebellum. The result suggests that exercise may prevent the impairment of motor coordination in the lactational vanadium-exposed rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Slowed conduction and thin myelination of peripheral nerves associated with mutant rho Guanine-nucleotide exchange factor 10. (United States)

    Verhoeven, Kristien; De Jonghe, Peter; Van de Putte, Tom; Nelis, Eva; Zwijsen, An; Verpoorten, Nathalie; De Vriendt, Els; Jacobs, An; Van Gerwen, Veerle; Francis, Annick; Ceuterick, Chantal; Huylebroeck, Danny; Timmerman, Vincent


    Slowed nerve-conduction velocities (NCVs) are a biological endophenotype in the majority of the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN). Here, we identified a family with autosomal dominant segregation of slowed NCVs without the clinical phenotype of HMSN. Peripheral-nerve biopsy showed predominantly thinly myelinated axons. We identified a locus at 8p23 and a Thr109Ile mutation in ARHGEF10, encoding a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho family of GTPase proteins (RhoGTPases). Rho GEFs are implicated in neural morphogenesis and connectivity and regulate the activity of small RhoGTPases by catalyzing the exchange of bound GDP by GTP. Expression analysis of ARHGEF10, by use of its mouse orthologue Gef10, showed that it is highly expressed in the peripheral nervous system. Our data support a role for ARHGEF10 in developmental myelination of peripheral nerves.

  20. Factors affecting the exchange of genetic material between Nordic and US Holstein populatons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, L H; Sørensen, A C; Lassen, J


    be explained by differences in economic values, trait definitions, national genetic evaluation procedures, and genotype x environment interactions. The objective of this study was to test whether uniform definitions of the female fertility traits would increase the exchange of genes across populations......, and to quantify the effect on genetic gain. A second objective was to test whether a more similar relative weighting of the index traits across populations would increase the exchange of genes across populations, and to quantify the effect on genetic gain. This was done in a stochastic simulation study...... of the Nordic and US Holstein populations. Uniform definitions of the female fertility traits did not increase total genetic gain in the Nordic Holstein population. The standardization did not seem to affect selection across populations either. However, the results were sensitive to the assumptions made...

  1. Study on the Influential Factors of Heat Transfer of Ground Heat Exchanger with Orthogonal Test (United States)

    Su, Shunyu; Yang, Rui; Liu, Lamei; Zhou, Chuanhui; Shi, Lei


    Orthogonal test method could decrease experimental times and obtain better test effect. The Taguchi method, as well as mean value response and analysis of variance, were applied in this paper to study the influence of water flow velocity in pipe, diameter and water temperature of pipe inlet on heat transfer of ground heat exchanger. The optimum design parameters and the estimated values of heat flux per meter of well depth for single U-tubes are obtained. The analysis revealed that diameter is the most influential parameter for heat flux per meter of well depth in single U-tubes while water flow velocity within 0.3m/s to 0.5m/s. And water flow velocity and diameter are important influential parameters for heat flux per meter of well depth in single U-tubes while water flow velocity within 0.5m/s to 0.8m/s. Tubes with big diameters are superior to tubes with small diameters in the design of ground source heat exchanger with single U-tubes.

  2. Coordinated role of voltage-gated sodium channels and the Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger in sustaining microglial activation during inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Muhammad M. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sonsalla, Patricia K. [Department of Neurology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Richardson, Jason R., E-mail: [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)


    Persistent neuroinflammation and microglial activation play an integral role in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders. We investigated the role of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) and Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchangers (NHE) in the activation of immortalized microglial cells (BV-2) after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. LPS (10 and 100 ng/ml) caused a dose- and time-dependent accumulation of intracellular sodium [(Na{sup +}){sub i}] in BV-2 cells. Pre-treatment of cells with the VGSC antagonist tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 μM) abolished short-term Na{sup +} influx, but was unable to prevent the accumulation of (Na{sup +}){sub i} observed at 6 and 24 h after LPS exposure. The NHE inhibitor cariporide (1 μM) significantly reduced accumulation of (Na{sup +}){sub i} 6 and 24 h after LPS exposure. Furthermore, LPS increased the mRNA expression and protein level of NHE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was significantly reduced after co-treatment with TTX and/or cariporide. LPS increased production of TNF-α, ROS, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and expression of gp91{sup phox}, an active subunit of NADPH oxidase, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was significantly reduced by TTX or TTX + cariporide. Collectively, these data demonstrate a closely-linked temporal relationship between VGSC and NHE-1 in regulating function in activated microglia, which may provide avenues for therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing neuroinflammation. - Highlights: • LPS causes immediate increase in sodium through VGSC and subsequently through the NHE-1. • Inhibition of VGSC reduces increases in NHE-1 and gp91{sup phox}. • Inhibition of VGSC and NHE-1 reduces NADPH oxidase-mediated Tnf-α, ROS, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. • NHE-1 and Na{sub v}1.6 may be viable targets for therapeutic interventions to reduce neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disease.

  3. Health information exchange technology on the front lines of healthcare: workflow factors and patterns of use (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin B; Lorenzi, Nancy M


    Objective The goal of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of how a health information exchange (HIE) fits into clinical workflow at multiple clinical sites. Materials and Methods The ethnographic qualitative study was conducted over a 9-month period in six emergency departments (ED) and eight ambulatory clinics in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. Data were collected using direct observation, informal interviews during observation, and formal semi-structured interviews. The authors observed for over 180 h, during which providers used the exchange 130 times. Results HIE-related workflow was modeled for each ED site and ambulatory clinic group and substantial site-to-site workflow differences were identified. Common patterns in HIE-related workflow were also identified across all sites, leading to the development of two role-based workflow models: nurse based and physician based. The workflow elements framework was applied to the two role-based patterns. An in-depth description was developed of how providers integrated HIE into existing clinical workflow, including prompts for HIE use. Discussion Workflow differed substantially among sites, but two general role-based HIE usage models were identified. Although providers used HIE to improve continuity of patient care, patient–provider trust played a significant role. Types of information retrieved related to roles, with nurses seeking to retrieve recent hospitalization data and more open-ended usage by nurse practitioners and physicians. User and role-specific customization to accommodate differences in workflow and information needs may increase the adoption and use of HIE. Conclusion Understanding end users' perspectives towards HIE technology is crucial to the long-term success of HIE. By applying qualitative methods, an in-depth understanding of HIE usage was developed. PMID:22003156

  4. Health information exchange technology on the front lines of healthcare: workflow factors and patterns of use. (United States)

    Unertl, Kim M; Johnson, Kevin B; Lorenzi, Nancy M


    The goal of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of how a health information exchange (HIE) fits into clinical workflow at multiple clinical sites. The ethnographic qualitative study was conducted over a 9-month period in six emergency departments (ED) and eight ambulatory clinics in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. Data were collected using direct observation, informal interviews during observation, and formal semi-structured interviews. The authors observed for over 180 h, during which providers used the exchange 130 times. HIE-related workflow was modeled for each ED site and ambulatory clinic group and substantial site-to-site workflow differences were identified. Common patterns in HIE-related workflow were also identified across all sites, leading to the development of two role-based workflow models: nurse based and physician based. The workflow elements framework was applied to the two role-based patterns. An in-depth description was developed of how providers integrated HIE into existing clinical workflow, including prompts for HIE use. Workflow differed substantially among sites, but two general role-based HIE usage models were identified. Although providers used HIE to improve continuity of patient care, patient-provider trust played a significant role. Types of information retrieved related to roles, with nurses seeking to retrieve recent hospitalization data and more open-ended usage by nurse practitioners and physicians. User and role-specific customization to accommodate differences in workflow and information needs may increase the adoption and use of HIE. Understanding end users' perspectives towards HIE technology is crucial to the long-term success of HIE. By applying qualitative methods, an in-depth understanding of HIE usage was developed.

  5. Technology, Incentives, or Both? Factors Related to Level of Hospital Health Information Exchange. (United States)

    Lin, Sunny C; Everson, Jordan; Adler-Milstein, Julia


    To assess whether the level of health information exchange (HIE) in U.S. hospitals is related to technology capabilities, incentives to exchange, or both. A total of 1,812 hospitals attesting to stage 2 of Medicare's Meaningful Use Incentive Program through April 2016. Hospital-level, multivariate OLS regression with state fixed effects was used to analyze the relationship between technology capability and incentives measures, and percent of care transitions with summary of care records (SCRs) sent electronically to subsequent providers. Stage 2 hospitals reported sending SCRs electronically for an average of 41 percent (median = 33 percent) of transitions. HIE level is related to four capability measures, one incentive measure, and one measure that is related to both capability and incentive. Percent of transitions with SCRs sent electronically was 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.1-5.1) for hospitals with a third-party HIE vendor, 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.5-5.4) for hospitals with an EHR vendor as their HIE vendor, and 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.4-5.4) for hospitals that automatically alert primary care providers. The direction and statistical significance of the relationships between specific EHR vendor and electronic SCR transmission level varied by vendor. Nonprofits and government hospitals performed 5 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 1.5-9.1) and 8 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 3.4-12.3) than for-profits. Hospitals in systems performed 3 percentage points higher (95 percent CI: 0.8-6.1). The overall level of HIE is low, with hospitals sending an SCR electronically for less than half of patient transitions. Specific hospital characteristics related to both technology capabilities and incentives were associated with higher levels of HIE. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. The origins of enhanced activity in factor VIIa analogs and the interplay between key allosteric sites revealed by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper D; Andersen, Mette D; Olsen, Ole H


    Factor VIIa (FVIIa) circulates in the blood in a zymogen-like state. Only upon association with membrane-bound tissue factor (TF) at the site of vascular injury does FVIIa become active and able to initiate blood coagulation. Here we used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry to invest......Factor VIIa (FVIIa) circulates in the blood in a zymogen-like state. Only upon association with membrane-bound tissue factor (TF) at the site of vascular injury does FVIIa become active and able to initiate blood coagulation. Here we used hydrogen exchange monitored by mass spectrometry...

  7. Mediated effects of physical risk factors, leader-member exchange and empowerment in predicting perceived injury risk. (United States)

    Muldoon, Jeffery; Matthews, Russell A; Foley, Caroline


    In the context of conservation of resources theory, we examine the indirect (mediated) effects of physical risk factors, leader-member exchange (LMX) and empowerment on perceived injury risk in a heterogeneous sample (N = 226) of individuals employed in occupations related to production, construction and installation/maintenance. Positioning work role stressors and upward safety communications as two important mediating variables, as predicted, LMX and empowerment demonstrated significant indirect effects on perceived injury risk. Results from our model also provide preliminary evidence that an asymmetrical dualistic process exists in terms of the effect physical risk factors have on perceived injury risk via depletion of both psychological (i.e. role stressors) and physical resources (i.e. physical symptoms). Theoretical and practical implications based on the results of our model are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Batara Manurung


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of capital structure (debt to asset ratio and debt to equity ratio, economic value added, and coal reserves towards Tobin’s Q, as a proxy of firms’ value, of coal companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX. This study also aims to examine the contribution of Tobin’s Q towards sectoral stock index price of coal production companies. From a total population of 23 companies, this study took a sample of 16 coal production companies using purposive sampling method. The data used is collected from the companies audited financial statements and annual reports in IDX’s website from 2009 to 2014. The results of multiple linear regression analysis show that there is significant impact of economic value added, coal reserves and profitability dummy towards Tobin’s Q. Furthermore, the results of linear regression analysis show that there is significant impact of Tobin’s Q towards sectoral stock index price of coal production companies. Based on the results of this study, the financial decision makers in coal production companies are advised to use economic value added, availability of coal reserves and profitability in improving firm value reflected in its share price.Keywords: capital structure, coal reserves, economic value added, Tobin’s Q

  9. Human factors issues in aircraft maintenance and inspection : "information exchange and communications". (United States)


    The Federal Aviation Administration sponsored a 2-day meeting in December 1989 as part of a continuing program to address issues of human factors and personnel performance in aviation maintenance and inspection. This meeting focused on issues of "inf...

  10. Control of cerebellar long-term potentiation by P-Rex-family guanine-nucleotide exchange factors and phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Jackson


    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP at the parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapse in the cerebellum is a recently described and poorly characterized form of synaptic plasticity. The induction mechanism for LTP at this synapse is considered reciprocal to "classical" LTP at hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons: kinases promote increased trafficking of AMPA receptors into the postsynaptic density in the hippocampus, whereas phosphatases decrease internalization of AMPA receptors in the cerebellum. In the hippocampus, LTP occurs in overlapping phases, with the transition from early to late phases requiring the consolidation of initial induction processes by structural re-arrangements at the synapse. Many signalling pathways have been implicated in this process, including PI3 kinases and Rho GTPases.We hypothesized that analogous phases are present in cerebellar LTP, and took as the starting point for investigation our recent discovery that P-Rex--a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor which is activated by PtdIns(3,4,5P(3--is highly expressed in mouse cerebellar Purkinje neurons and plays a role in motor coordination. We found that LTP evoked at parallel fibre synapses by 1 Hz stimulation or by NO donors was not sustained beyond 30 min when P-Rex was eliminated or Rac inhibited, suggesting that cerebellar LTP exhibits a late phase analogous to hippocampal LTP. In contrast, inhibition of PI3 kinase activity eliminated LTP at the induction stage.Our data suggest that a PI3K/P-Rex/Rac pathway is required for late phase LTP in the mouse cerebellum, and that other PI3K targets, which remain to be discovered, control LTP induction.

  11. Proton Form Factor Puzzle and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) Two-Photon Exchange Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimal, Dipak [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)


    The electromagnetic form factors are the most fundamental observables that encode information about the internal structure of the nucleon. This dissertation explored dependence of R on kinematic variables such as squared four-momentum transfer (Q2) and the virtual photon polarization parameter (ε).

  12. The role of health information technology in advancing care management and coordination in accountable care organizations. (United States)

    Wu, Frances M; Shortell, Stephen M; Rundall, Thomas G; Bloom, Joan R

    To be successful, accountable care organizations (ACOs) must effectively manage patient care. Health information technology (HIT) can support care delivery by providing various degrees of coordination. Few studies have examined the role of HIT functionalities or the role of different levels of coordination enabled by HIT on care management processes. We examine HIT functionalities in ACOs, categorized by the level of coordination they enable in terms of information and work flow, to determine which specific HIT functionalities and levels of coordination are most strongly associated with care management processes. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis was done using 2012 data from the National Survey of Accountable Care Organizations. HIT functionalities are categorized into coordination levels: information capture, the lowest level, which coordinates through standardization; information provision, which supports unidirectional activities; and information exchange, which reflects the highest level of coordination allowing for bidirectional exchange. The Care Management Process index (CMP index) includes 13 questions about the extent to which care is planned, monitored, and supported by providers and patients. Multiple regressions adjusting for organizational and ACO contractual factors are used to assess relationships between HIT functionalities and the CMP index. HIT functionality coordinating the most complex interdependences (information exchange) was associated with a 0.41 standard deviation change in the CMP index (β = .41, p information capture (β = -.01, p = .97) and information provision (β = .15, p = .48) functionalities were not significant. The current study has shed some light on the relationship between HIT and care management processes by specifying the coordination roles that HIT may play and, in particular, the importance of information exchange functionalities. Although these represent early findings, further research can help policy makers and

  13. Carbon exchange between ecosystems and atmosphere in the Czech Republic is affected by climate factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, Michal V., E-mail: [Global Change Research Centres, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Belidla 4a CZ-60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Forest Ecology Forestry Faculty, Mendel University Brno, Zemedelska 3, CZ-614 00 (Czech Republic); Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara; Havrankova, Katerina; Pavelka, Marian; Kaplan, Veroslav [Global Change Research Centres, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Belidla 4a CZ-60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Markova, Irena [Institute of Forest Ecology Forestry Faculty, Mendel University Brno, Zemedelska 3, CZ-614 00 (Czech Republic)


    By comparing five ecosystem types in the Czech Republic over several years, we recorded the highest carbon sequestration potential in an evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). Because of a massive ecosystem respiration, the final carbon gain of the grassland was negative. Climate was shown to be an important factor of carbon uptake by ecosystems: by varying the growing season length (a 22-d longer season in 2005 than in 2007 increased carbon sink by 13%) or by the effect of short- term synoptic situations (e.g. summer hot and dry days reduced net carbon storage by 58% relative to hot and wet days). Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy which is demonstrated by the comparison of seasonal course of carbon uptake between coniferous (Norway spruce) and deciduous (European beech) stands. - Highlights: > Highest carbon sequestration potential in evergreen Norway spruce forest (100%) and an agroecosystem (65%), followed by European beech forest (25%) and a wetland ecosystem (20%). > The final carbon gain of the grassland was negative (massive ecosystem respiration). > Climate is important factor of net primary productivity. > Carbon uptake is strongly affected by the ontogeny and a production strategy of ecosystem. - Identification of the apparent differences in the carbon storage by different ecosystem types.

  14. Factors Related to Initiating Interpersonal Contacts on Internet Dating Sites: A View From the Social Exchange Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivka Shtatfeld


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence dating-site users to initiate contact with potential romantic partners. The study was carried out by observing online behaviors and analyzing the profiles and authentic messages of these users (N = 106 over seven months. Contacts made by and with the research participants were analyzed in terms of the relationships between initiators‘ and receivers‘ demographic variables (marital status, age, level of education, income, writing skills, and stated physical appearance. In addition, the relationship between contacting partners and site accessibility was examined. The findings revealed that dating-site users initiated contact primarily with those having a similar marital status or slightly better characteristics (income, education, writing skills. In regard to writing skills, it was found that skilled writers attracted more contacts than did less skilled writers. However, the factor that was found to be most significantly related to initiating contact was the length of time that elapsed from last connection to the site, which implies the perceived accessibility of potential romantic partners. The findings were explained in terms of the Social Exchange Theory: people are attracted to those who grant them rewards.

  15. Particle-vibration coupling and exchange-current effects on the magnetic electron-scattering form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krewald, S.; Lallena, A.M.; Dehesa, J.S.


    Inelastic electron-scattering form factors of magnetic states in closed-shell nuclei are calculated taking into account the combined effect of the mesonic degrees of freedom and the two-particle-two-hole components of the nuclear wave functions which come from the particle-core vibration coupling. The one-body nucleon- and two-body meson-exchange current contribution to the form factor are evaluated with the same realistic mean field. Application to various high-spin magnetic states of oxygen and lead is made. The comparison with experiment shows an excellent agreement for the states 14/sup -/(6.74 MeV) and 12/sup -/sub(t)(7.06 MeV) in lead, while such is not the case for the second 12/sup -//sub 2/(6.43 MeV) state in lead and the 4/sup -/(18.98 MeV) state in oxygen essentially due to mixing configuration effects and the non-consideration of 3p3h excitations, respectively. (orig.).

  16. Chaos and order in stateless societies: Intercommunity exchange as a factor impacting the population dynamical patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvinsky, Alexander B., E-mail: [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Rusakov, Alexey V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: > We model community dynamics in stateless societies. > Intercommunity barter is shown to be a factor impacting the societies dynamics. > Increase in the human population growth rate can lead to appearance of chaos. > Secular and millennial cycles are found to arise as a result of the barter. - Abstract: The once abstract notions of dynamical chaos now appear naturally in various systems [Kaplan D, Glass L. Understanding nonlinear dynamics. New York: Springer; 1995]. As a result, future trajectories of the systems may be difficult to predict. In this paper, we demonstrate the appearance of chaotic dynamics in model human communities, which consist of producers of agricultural product and producers of agricultural equipment. In the case of a solitary community, the horizon of predictability of the human population dynamics is shown to be dependent on both intrinsic instability of the dynamics and the chaotic attractor sizes. Since a separate community is usually a part of a larger commonality, we study the dynamics of social systems consisting of two interacting communities. We show that intercommunity barter can lead to stabilization of the dynamics in one of the communities, which implies persistence of stable equilibrium under changes of the maximum value of the human population growth rate. However, in the neighboring community, the equilibrium turns into a stable limit cycle as the maximum value of the human population growth rate increases. Following an increase in the maximum value of the human population growth rate leads to period-doubling bifurcations resulting in chaotic dynamics. The horizon of predictability of the chaotic oscillations is found to be limited by 5 years. We demonstrate that the intercommunity interaction can lead to the appearance of long-period harmonics in the chaotic time series. The period of the harmonics is of order 100 and 1000 years. Hence the long-period changes in the population size may be considered as an

  17. Coordinated Increased Expression of Cyclooxygenase2 and Nuclear Factor B Is a Steady Feature of Urinary Bladder Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Kontos


    Full Text Available Objectives. The inescapable relationship between chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis has long been established. Our objective was to investigate COX-2 and NF-B immunohistochemical expression in a large series of normal epithelium and bladder carcinomas. Methods. Immunohistochemical methodology was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from urinary bladder carcinomas of 140 patients (94 males and 46 females with bladder carcinomas. Results. COX-2 expression is increased in the cytoplasm of bladder cells, during loss of cell differentiation (s=0.61, -value<.001 and in muscle invasive carcinomas (-value<.001. A strong positive association between tumor grade and nuclear expression of NFB has been established. A positive correlation between COX-2 and nuclear NFB immunoreactivity was observed. Conclusions. The possible coordinated upregulation of NFB and COX-2, during bladder carcinogenesis, indicates that agents inhibitors of these two molecules may represent a possible new treatment strategy, by virtue of their role in bladder carcinogenesis.

  18. A General Econometric Model of the Determinants of Library Subscription Prices of Scholarly Journals: The Role of Exchange Rate Risk and Other Factors. (United States)

    Chressanthis, George A.; Chressanthis, June D.


    Provides regression-based empirical evidence of the effects of variations in exchange rate risk on 1985 library prices of the top-ranked 99 journals in economics. The relationship between individual journal prices and library prices is shown, and other factors associated with increases and decreases in library journal prices are given. (Contains…

  19. Homeodomain transcription factor Phox2a, via cyclic AMP-mediated activation, induces p27Kip1 transcription, coordinating neural progenitor cell cycle exit and differentiation. (United States)

    Paris, Maryline; Wang, Wen-Horng; Shin, Min-Hwa; Franklin, David S; Andrisani, Ourania M


    Mechanisms coordinating neural progenitor cell cycle exit and differentiation are incompletely understood. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) is transcriptionally induced, switching specific neural progenitors from proliferation to differentiation. However, neuronal differentiation-specific transcription factors mediating p27(Kip1) transcription have not been identified. We demonstrate the homeodomain transcription factor Phox2a, required for central nervous system (CNS)- and neural crest (NC)-derived noradrenergic neuron differentiation, coordinates cell cycle exit and differentiation by inducing p27(Kip1) transcription. Phox2a transcription and activation in the CNS-derived CAD cell line and primary NC cells is mediated by combined cyclic AMP (cAMP) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) signaling. In the CAD cellular model, cAMP and BMP2 signaling initially induces proliferation of the undifferentiated precursors, followed by p27(Kip1) transcription, G(1) arrest, and neuronal differentiation. Small interfering RNA silencing of either Phox2a or p27(Kip1) suppresses p27(Kip1) transcription and neuronal differentiation, suggesting a causal link between p27(Kip1) expression and differentiation. Conversely, ectopic Phox2a expression via the Tet-off expression system promotes accelerated CAD cell neuronal differentiation and p27(Kip1) transcription only in the presence of cAMP signaling. Importantly, endogenous or ectopically expressed Phox2a activated by cAMP signaling binds homeodomain cis-acting elements of the p27(Kip1) promoter in vivo and mediates p27(Kip1)-luciferase expression in CAD and NC cells. We conclude that developmental cues of cAMP signaling causally link Phox2a activation with p27(Kip1) transcription, thereby coordinating neural progenitor cell cycle exit and differentiation.

  20. Characterization of Stress-Exposed Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Using ELISA and Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Tsuchida, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Katsuyoshi; Akashi, Satoko


    Information on the higher-order structure is important in the development of biopharmaceutical drugs. Recently, hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has been widely used as a tool to evaluate protein conformation, and unique automated systems for HDX-MS are now commercially available. To investigate the potential of this technique for the prediction of the activity of biopharmaceuticals, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), which had been subjected to three different stress types, was analyzed using HDX-MS and through comparison with receptor-binding activity. It was found that HDX-MS, in combination with ion mobility separation, was able to identify conformational changes in G-CSF induced by stress, and a good correlation with the receptor-binding activity was demonstrated, which cannot be completely determined by conventional peptide mapping alone. The direct evaluation of biological activity using bioassay is absolutely imperative in biopharmaceutical development, but HDX-MS can provide the alternative information in a short time on the extent and location of the structural damage caused by stresses. Furthermore, the present study suggests the possibility of this system being a versatile evaluation method for the preservation stability of biopharmaceuticals.

  1. RINL, guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rab5-subfamily, is involved in the EphA8-degradation pathway with odin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kajiho

    Full Text Available The Rab family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases plays a vital role in membrane trafficking. Its active GTP-bound state is driven by guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs. Ras and Rab interactor (or Ras interaction/interference-like (RINL, which contains a conserved VPS9 domain critical for GEF action, was recently identified as a new Rab5 subfamily GEF in vitro. However, its detailed function and interacting molecules have not yet been fully elucidated. Here we found that RINL has GEF activity for the Rab5 subfamily proteins by measuring their GTP-bound forms in cultured cells. We also found that RINL interacts with odin, a member of the ankyrin-repeat and sterile-alpha motif (SAM domain-containing (Anks protein family. In addition, the Eph tyrosine kinase receptor EphA8 formed a ternary complex with both RINL and odin. Interestingly, RINL expression in cultured cells reduced EphA8 levels in a manner dependent on both its GEF activity and interaction with odin. In addition, knockdown of RINL increased EphA8 level in HeLa cells. Our findings suggest that RINL, as a GEF for Rab5 subfamily, is implicated in the EphA8-degradation pathway via its interaction with odin.

  2. Cdc24, the GDP-GTP exchange factor for Cdc42, is required for invasive hyphal growth of Candida albicans. (United States)

    Bassilana, Martine; Blyth, James; Arkowitz, Robert A


    Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, is particularly problematic for immunocompromised individuals. The reversible transition of this fungal pathogen to a filamentous form that invades host tissue is important for its virulence. Although different signaling pathways such as a mitogen-activated protein kinase and a protein kinase A cascade are critical for this morphological transition, the function of polarity establishment proteins in this process has not been determined. We examined the role of four different polarity establishment proteins in C. albicans invasive growth and virulence by using strains in which one copy of each gene was deleted and the other copy expressed behind the regulatable promoter MET3. Strikingly, mutants with ectopic expression of either the Rho G-protein Cdc42 or its exchange factor Cdc24 are unable to form invasive hyphal filaments and germ tubes in response to serum or elevated temperature and yet grow normally as a budding yeast. Furthermore, these mutants are avirulent in a mouse model for systemic infection. This function of the Cdc42 GTPase module is not simply a general feature of polarity establishment proteins. Mutants with ectopic expression of the SH3 domain containing protein Bem1 or the Ras-like G-protein Bud1 can grow in an invasive fashion and are virulent in mice, albeit with reduced efficiency. These results indicate that a specific regulation of Cdc24/Cdc42 activity is required for invasive hyphal growth and suggest that these proteins are required for pathogenicity of C. albicans.

  3. Driving factors of interactions between the exchange rate market and the commodity market: A wavelet-based complex network perspective (United States)

    Wen, Shaobo; An, Haizhong; Chen, Zhihua; Liu, Xueyong


    In traditional econometrics, a time series must be in a stationary sequence. However, it usually shows time-varying fluctuations, and it remains a challenge to execute a multiscale analysis of the data and discover the topological characteristics of conduction in different scales. Wavelet analysis and complex networks in physical statistics have special advantages in solving these problems. We select the exchange rate variable from the Chinese market and the commodity price index variable from the world market as the time series of our study. We explore the driving factors behind the behavior of the two markets and their topological characteristics in three steps. First, we use the Kalman filter to find the optimal estimation of the relationship between the two markets. Second, wavelet analysis is used to extract the scales of the relationship that are driven by different frequency wavelets. Meanwhile, we search for the actual economic variables corresponding to different frequency wavelets. Finally, a complex network is used to search for the transfer characteristics of the combination of states driven by different frequency wavelets. The results show that statistical physics have a unique advantage over traditional econometrics. The Chinese market has time-varying impacts on the world market: it has greater influence when the world economy is stable and less influence in times of turmoil. The process of forming the state combination is random. Transitions between state combinations have a clustering feature. Based on these characteristics, we can effectively reduce the information burden on investors and correctly respond to the government's policy mix.

  4. Simplified in vitro refolding and purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor using protein folding cation exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Vemula, Sandeep; Dedaniya, Akshay; Thunuguntla, Rahul; Mallu, Maheswara Reddy; Parupudi, Pavani; Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy


    Protein folding-strong cation exchange chromatography (PF-SCX) has been employed for efficient refolding with simultaneous purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). To acquire a soluble form of renatured and purified rhG-CSF, various chromatographic conditions, including the mobile phase composition and pH was evaluated. Additionally, the effects of additives such as urea, amino acids, polyols, sugars, oxidizing agents and their amalgamations were also investigated. Under the optimal conditions, rhG-CSF was efficaciously solubilized, refolded and simultaneously purified by SCX in a single step. The experimental results using ribose (2.0M) and arginine (0.6M) combination were found to be satisfactory with mass yield, purity and specific activity of 71%, ≥99% and 2.6×10(8)IU/mg respectively. Through this investigation, we concluded that the SCX refolding method was more efficient than conventional methods which has immense potential for the large-scale production of purified rhG-CSF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact factors on the long-term sustainability of Borehole Heat Exchanger coupled Ground Source Heat Pump System (United States)

    Shao, Haibing; Hein, Philipp; Görke, Uwe-Jens; Bucher, Anke; Kolditz, Olaf


    In recent years, Ground Source Heat Pump System (GSHPS) has been recognized as an efficient technology to utilize shallow geothermal energy. Along with its wide application, some GSHPS are experiencing a gradual decrease in Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) outflow temperatures and thus have to be turned off after couple of years' operation. A comprehensive numerical investigation was then performed to model the flow and heat transport processes in and around the BHE, together with the dynamic change of heat pump efficiency. The model parameters were based on the soil temperature and surface weather condition in the Leipzig area. Different scenarios were modelled for a service life of 30 years, to reveal the evolution of BHE outflow and surrounding soil temperatures. It is found that lateral groundwater flow and using BHE for cooling will be beneficial to the energy recovery, along with the efficiency improvement of the heat pump. In comparison to other factors, the soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity are considered to have minor impact on the long-term sustainability of the system. Furthermore, the application of thermally enhanced grout material will improve the sustainability and efficiency. In contrast, it is very likely that undersized systems and improper grouting are the causes of strong system degradation.

  6. Identification and weighting factors influencing the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in plastic injection industry using VIKOR and Shannon Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Hashemzadeh


    Full Text Available Single minute exchange of dies (SMED is one of the most important tools to achieve lean production system. The main idea of this system is to provide methods and to use creative and innovative solutions for continuous improvement. Due to the importance of this issue and its effect on reducing waste during the production process, this study presents a method to identify and to weight factors in the establishment of a single minute exchange of dies in 14 plastic injection factories. In this study, fourteen factories in injection industry were chosen and the factors influencing the implementation of single minute exchange of dies were identified. Following data collection, decision matrix was formed and the weight of each factor was determined by using Shannon Entropy. Then, in order to determine the readiness of factories, VIKOR method was used to rank companies. The results indicate priorities of the following factors in establishing SMED that include: Senior management support, technical capabilities, technical knowledge of staff and consultants, knowledge of mold design, manufacturing infrastructure, team work, combination of the project team work, benchmarking, training, clear understanding of project objectives, rewards and motivation, proper management expectation, project management, teamwork and organizational culture. Practical implications: Due to the factors, Top manager can make the best decision for implementing of SMED technique. This study develops factors influencing on SMED implementation based on Shannon and VIKOR methods for ranking parameters and plants.

  7. Mobile Applications for Patient-centered Care Coordination: A Review of Human Factors Methods Applied to their Design, Development, and Evaluation. (United States)

    Baysari, M T; Westbrook, J I


    To examine if human factors methods were applied in the design, development, and evaluation of mobile applications developed to facilitate aspects of patient-centered care coordination. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (2013-2014) for studies describing the design or the evaluation of a mobile health application that aimed to support patients' active involvement in the coordination of their care. 34 papers met the inclusion criteria. Applications ranged from tools that supported self-management of specific conditions (e.g. asthma) to tools that provided coaching or education. Twelve of the 15 papers describing the design or development of an app reported the use of a human factors approach. The most frequently used methods were interviews and surveys, which often included an exploration of participants' current use of information technology. Sixteen papers described the evaluation of a patient application in practice. All of them adopted a human factors approach, typically an examination of the use of app features and/or surveys or interviews which enquired about patients' views of the effects of using the app on their behaviors (e.g. medication adherence), knowledge, and relationships with healthcare providers. No study in our review assessed the impact of mobile applications on health outcomes. The potential of mobile health applications to assist patients to more actively engage in the management of their care has resulted in a large number of applications being developed. Our review showed that human factors approaches are nearly always adopted to some extent in the design, development, and evaluation of mobile applications.

  8. [Coordination and donation]. (United States)

    Elizalde, J; Lorente, M


    The progressive incorporation of organ transplants as a therapeutic resource resulted in organisational adaptation and overall transplant management, leading to the emergence of the figure of the transplant coordinator in the mid-1980s. In Spain, the National Organisation of Transplants (Organización Nacional de Transplantes - ONT) was created, establishing a system - called the "Spanish model" - based on a network of coordinators at three levels: national, the autonomous community and the hospital. This organisational structure is a point of reference at the world level. The prevalence of the Intensive Medicine specialisation amongst hospital transplant coordinators is remarkable. The majority of organs proceed from brain-dead patients with beating hearts and this requires the infrastructure offered by intensive care units. The functions of the coordinator can be summarised in guaranteeing a synchrony of all the elements and teams that come together in an organisational chain that has come to be called the "process of donation". Schematically, the crucial points that the hospital coordinator develops are the following: - Detection of the potential donor. - Maintenance of the donor. - Diagnosis of brain death. - Family consent. - Preparation of the hospital logistics. - Helping the relatives. - Direct involvement in the Program of Guarantee of Quality. - Person of reference in any activity related to the transplant. It would be desirable to achieve the creation of transplant coordination teams, with univocal messages, professionalism and a permanent input of the so-called "human factor", which is so necessary and also so close to the transplant world.

  9. Mapping temperature-induced conformational changes in the Escherichia coli heat shock transcription factor sigma 32 by amide hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Wolfgang; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Roepstorff, Peter


    gene transcription. To investigate possible heat-induced conformational changes in sigma 32 we performed amide hydrogen (H/D) exchange experiments under optimal growth and heat shock conditions combined with mass spectrometry. We found a rapid exchange of around 220 of the 294 amide hydrogens at 37...... degrees C, indicating that sigma 32 adopts a highly flexible structure. At 42 degrees C we observed a slow correlated exchange of 30 additional amide hydrogens and localized it to a helix-loop-helix motif within domain sigma 2 that is responsible for the recognition of the -10 region in heat shock...

  10. The profile of performance skills and emotional factors in the context of participation among young children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. (United States)

    Liberman, Lihi; Ratzon, Navah; Bart, Orit


    Participation is a person's involvement in daily activities in a variety of environments, roles and life situations. Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) experience difficulties in gaining academic achievements or in their engagement in activity of daily living. Motor difficulties have a negative effect on the ability to participate, as well as on various affective components. Senses of coherence, effort and hope have not yet been assessed, within the context of participation, in children with DCD. The purpose of the present study is to look into the relations between participation and senses of coherence, effort and hope among children with DCD, in comparison to typically developed children. Fifty subjects aged 5-6 years participated in the study, 25 of whom are children diagnosed with DCD, the other 25 being typical children. The DCD diagnosis was established according to the DSM-IV criteria and the M-ABC test. All children completed the coherence questionnaire for children as well as the children's questionnaire on effort and hope. Parents completed the Children Participation Questionnaire (CPQ), and the Performance Skills Questionnaire (PSQ). Children with DCD had lower performance skills, lower sense of coherence, hope, and effort than their peers. They less enjoy their participation and their parents are less satisfied in comparison to control group. Significant correlations were found between sense of coherence and hope to participation. Process skills were found to be the main predictor for explaining child's participation. While treating children with DCD we have to consider also socio-psychological aspects that may be weakened. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball

    Overview From a technical perspective, CMS has been in “beam operation” state since 6th November. The detector is fully closed with all components operational and the magnetic field is normally at the nominal 3.8T. The UXC cavern is normally closed with the radiation veto set. Access to UXC is now only possible during downtimes of LHC. Such accesses must be carefully planned, documented and carried out in agreement with CMS Technical Coordination, Experimental Area Management, LHC programme coordination and the CCC. Material flow in and out of UXC is now strictly controlled. Access to USC remains possible at any time, although, for safety reasons, it is necessary to register with the shift crew in the control room before going down.It is obligatory for all material leaving UXC to pass through the underground buffer zone for RP scanning, database entry and appropriate labeling for traceability. Technical coordination (notably Stephane Bally and Christoph Schaefer), the shift crew and run ...

  12. The pulsations of boundary conditions – factor of the rapid wear on heat exchange surfaces in heterogeneous dispersed flows (United States)

    Khodunkov, V. P.


    The results of experimental studies of industrial furnace with a fluidized bed reactor. The data on the values of the coefficient of heat transfer, the quality of fluidization and mixing efficiency. In theory shows that there are significant variables of temperature gradients on the walls of the heat exchange elements are qualitative arguments about the causes of increased wear of heat exchange surfaces in a fluidized bed.

  13. Regulation of Ras exchange factors and cellular localization of Ras activation by lipid messengers in T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse E. Jun


    Full Text Available The Ras-MAPK signaling pathway is highly conserved throughout evolution and is activated downstream of a wide range of receptor stimuli. Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs catalyze GTP loading of Ras and play a pivotal role in regulating receptor-ligand induced Ras activity. In T cells, three families of functionally important RasGEFs are expressed: RasGRF, RasGRP, and SOS-family GEFs.Early on it was recognized that Ras activation is critical for T cell development and that the RasGEFs play an important role herein. More recent work has revealed that nuances in Ras activation appear to significantly impact T cell development and selection. These nuances include distinct biochemical patterns of analog versus digital Ras activation, differences in cellular localization of Ras activation, and intricate interplays between the RasGEFs during distinct T cell developmental stages as revealed by various new mouse models. In many instances, the exact nature of these nuances in Ras activation or how these may result from fine-tuning of the RasGEFs is not understood.One large group of biomolecules critically involved in the control of Ras-GEFs´functions are lipid second messengers. Multiple, yet distinct lipid products are generated following T cell receptor (TCR stimulation and bind to different domains in the RasGRP and SOS RasGEFs to facilitate the activation of the membrane-anchored Ras GTPases. In this review we highlight how different lipid-based elements are generated by various enzymes downstream of the TCR and other receptors and how these dynamic and interrelated lipid products may fine-tune Ras activation by RasGEFs in developing T cells.

  14. The putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor RicA mediates upstream signaling for growth and development in Aspergillus. (United States)

    Kwon, Nak-Jung; Park, Hee-Soo; Jung, Seunho; Kim, Sun Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk


    Heterotrimeric G proteins (G proteins) govern growth, development, and secondary metabolism in various fungi. Here, we characterized ricA, which encodes a putative GDP/GTP exchange factor for G proteins in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans and the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. In both species, ricA mRNA accumulates during vegetative growth and early developmental phases, but it is not present in spores. The deletion of ricA results in severely impaired colony growth and the total (for A. nidulans) or near (for A. fumigatus) absence of asexual sporulation (conidiation). The overexpression (OE) of the A. fumigatus ricA gene (AfricA) restores growth and conidiation in the ΔAnricA mutant to some extent, indicating partial conservation of RicA function in Aspergillus. A series of double mutant analyses revealed that the removal of RgsA (an RGS protein of the GanB Gα subunit), but not sfgA, flbA, rgsB, or rgsC, restored vegetative growth and conidiation in ΔAnricA. Furthermore, we found that RicA can physically interact with GanB in yeast and in vitro. Moreover, the presence of two copies or OE of pkaA suppresses the profound defects caused by ΔAnricA, indicating that RicA-mediated growth and developmental signaling is primarily through GanB and PkaA in A. nidulans. Despite the lack of conidiation, brlA and vosA mRNAs accumulated to normal levels in the ΔricA mutant. In addition, mutants overexpressing fluG or brlA (OEfluG or OEbrlA) failed to restore development in the ΔAnricA mutant. These findings suggest that the commencement of asexual development requires unknown RicA-mediated signaling input in A. nidulans.

  15. Activation of Rac1 by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Dck1 is required for invasive filamentous growth in the pathogen Candida albicans. (United States)

    Hope, Hannah; Bogliolo, Stéphanie; Arkowitz, Robert A; Bassilana, Martine


    Rho G proteins and their regulators are critical for cytoskeleton organization and cell morphology in all eukaryotes. In the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans, the Rho G proteins Cdc42 and Rac1 are required for the switch from budding to filamentous growth in response to different stimuli. We show that Dck1, a protein with homology to the Ced-5, Dock180, myoblast city family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors, is necessary for filamentous growth in solid media, similar to Rac1. Our results indicate that Dck1 and Rac1 do not function in the same pathway as the transcription factor Czf1, which is also required for embedded filamentous growth. The conserved catalytic region of Dck1 is required for such filamentous growth, and in vitro this region directly binds a Rac1 mutant, which mimics the nucleotide-free state. In vivo overexpression of a constitutively active Rac1 mutant, but not wild-type Rac1, in a dck1 deletion mutant restores filamentous growth. These results indicate that the Dock180 guanine nucleotide exchange factor homologue, Dck1 activates Rac1 during invasive filamentous growth. We conclude that specific exchange factors, together with the G proteins they activate, are required for morphological changes in response to different stimuli.

  16. Barter exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    Although barter is often perceived as something that proceeded money, barter is still used. The focus of the paper is on barter exchanges. Barter exchanges are used both in developing countries as well as in developed countries (including the U.S.). They are used by both organizations...... and individuals. They usually allow to exchange good but some include also services. Some exchanges allow only for bi-directional barter, i.e. when only two parties are involved in the exchange. But probably most of the barter exchanges use barter money; this makes it easier to exchange goods and services...


    CERN Multimedia

    A. Ball


    Operational Experience At the end of the first full-year running period of LHC, CMS is established as a reliable, robust and mature experiment. In particular common systems and infrastructure faults accounted for <0.6 % CMS downtime during LHC pp physics. Technical operation throughout the entire year was rather smooth, the main faults requiring UXC access being sub-detector power systems and rack-cooling turbines. All such problems were corrected during scheduled technical stops, in the shadow of tunnel access needed by the LHC, or in negotiated accesses or access extensions. Nevertheless, the number of necessary accesses to the UXC averaged more than one per week and the technical stops were inevitably packed with work packages, typically 30 being executed within a few days, placing a high load on the coordination and area management teams. It is an appropriate moment for CMS Technical Coordination to thank all those in many CERN departments and in the Collaboration, who were involved in CMS techni...

  18. What Factors Coordinate the Optimal Position of a Single Monitoring Well Down Gradient of a Hazardous Site? (United States)

    Bode, F.; Nowak, W.


    position away from the alleged source location, while uncertainty in flow direction pulls the optimal position back to the source. Combining these two factors decreases the maximum achievable detection probability in a significant rate. Large source volume again allows for closer monitoring position, and increases detection probability. Overall, the factors analyzed include uncertainty in contaminant release location, value and uncertainty of spill volume, value and uncertainty of ambient flow velocity and angle, detection limit, first-order decay rates, and dispersivities. In summary, our study helps answering questions about the optimal position of a monitoring well, as well as about the effects of various controlling factors and sources of uncertainties on this position. It also provides fundamental input for decision support to evaluate and upgrade existing monitoring networks, acknowledging the inherent uncertainty through the evolvement of detection probabilities.

  19. Clinical outcomes and predictive factors related to good outcomes in plasma exchange in severe attack of NMOSD and long extensive transverse myelitis: Case series and review of the literature. (United States)

    Aungsumart, Saharat; Apiwattanakul, Metha


    To investigate the predictive factors associated with good outcomes of plasma exchange in severe attacks through neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and long extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). In addition, to review the literature of predictive factors associated with the good outcomes of plasma exchange in central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating diseases (CNS IDDs). Retrospective study in 27 episodes of severe acute attacks myelitis and optic neuritis in 24 patients, including 20 patients with NMOSD seropositive, 1 patient with NMOSD seronegative and 3 patients with LETM. Plasma exchange was performed, reflecting poor responses to high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) therapy. The outcomes of the present study were the functional outcome improvements at 6 months after plasma exchange. The predictive factors of good outcomes after plasma exchange were determined in this cohort, and additional factors reported in the literature were reviewed. Plasma exchange was performed in 16 spinal cord attacks and 11 attacks of optic neuritis. Twenty patients were female (83%). The median age of the patients at the time of plasma exchange was 41 years old. The median disease duration was 0.6 years. The AQP4-IgG status was positive in 20 patients (83%). Plasma exchange following IVMP therapy led to a significant improvement in 81% of the cases after 6 months of follow up. A baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ≤6 before the attack was associated with significant improvement at 6 months (p=0.02, OR 58.33, 95%CI 1.92-1770). In addition, we reviewed the evidence for factors associated with good outcomes of plasma exchange in CNS IDDs, classified according to pre-plasma exchange, post-plasma exchange, and radiological features. Plasma exchange following IVMP therapy is effective as a treatment for patients experiencing a severe attack of NMOSD or LETM. The factors associated with good outcomes after plasma exchange in CNS IDDs are

  20. PoxA, yjeK, and elongation factor P coordinately modulate virulence and drug resistance in Salmonella enterica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarre, William Wiley; Zou, S Betty; Roy, Hervé


    We report an interaction between poxA, encoding a paralog of lysyl tRNA-synthetase, and the closely linked yjeK gene, encoding a putative 2,3-beta-lysine aminomutase, that is critical for virulence and stress resistance in Salmonella enterica. Salmonella poxA and yjeK mutants share extensive...... phenotypic pleiotropy, including attenuated virulence in mice, an increased ability to respire under nutrient-limiting conditions, hypersusceptibility to a variety of diverse growth inhibitors, and altered expression of multiple proteins, including several encoded on the SPI-1 pathogenicity island. PoxA...... mediates posttranslational modification of bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P), analogous to the modification of the eukaryotic EF-P homolog, eIF5A, with hypusine. The modification of EF-P is a mechanism of regulation whereby PoxA acts as an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that attaches an amino acid...

  1. A semantic model for service composition with coordination time delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kokash (Natallia); B. Changizi (Behnaz); F. Arbab (Farhad)


    htmlabstractThe correct behavior of a service composition depends on the appropriate coordination of its services. According to the idea of channel-based coordination, services exchange messages though channels without any knowledge about each other. The Reo coordination language aims at building

  2. Canopy gas exchange and water use efficiency of 'Empire' apple in response to particle film, irrigation, and microclimatic factors (United States)

    This study examined the interaction between a reflective particle film and water use efficiency (WUE) response of irrigated and non-irrigated apple trees over a wide range of environmental conditions. The objectives were to measure the specific gas exchange and WUE response of 'Empire' apple treate...

  3. The X-Factor: On the Relevance of Implicit Leadership and Followership Theories for Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Gils (Suzanne); N. van Quaquebeke (Niels); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan)


    textabstractWhile Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) research shows that leaders engage in different kinds of relationships with different followers, it remains somewhat of an enigma why one and the same relationship is often rated differently by a leader and the respective follower. We seek to fill that

  4. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.


    CERN Multimedia

    C. Delaere


    Since the LHC ceased operations in February, a lot has been going on at Point 5, and Run Coordination continues to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities. In the last months, the Pixel detector was extracted and is now stored in the pixel lab in SX5; the beam pipe has been removed and ME1/1 removal has started. We regained access to the vactank and some work on the RBX of HB has started. Since mid-June, electricity and cooling are back in S1 and S2, allowing us to turn equipment back on, at least during the day. 24/7 shifts are not foreseen in the next weeks, and safety tours are mandatory to keep equipment on overnight, but re-commissioning activities are slowly being resumed. Given the (slight) delays accumulated in LS1, it was decided to merge the two global runs initially foreseen into a single exercise during the week of 4 November 2013. The aim of the global run is to check that we can run (parts of) CMS after several months switched off, with the new VME PCs installed, th...


    CERN Multimedia

    Christophe Delaere


    The focus of Run Coordination during LS1 is to monitor closely the advance of maintenance and upgrade activities, to smooth interactions between subsystems and to ensure that all are ready in time to resume operations in 2015 with a fully calibrated and understood detector. After electricity and cooling were restored to all equipment, at about the time of the last CMS week, recommissioning activities were resumed for all subsystems. On 7 October, DCS shifts began 24/7 to allow subsystems to remain on to facilitate operations. That culminated with the Global Run in November (GriN), which   took place as scheduled during the week of 4 November. The GriN has been the first centrally managed operation since the beginning of LS1, and involved all subdetectors but the Pixel Tracker presently in a lab upstairs. All nights were therefore dedicated to long stable runs with as many subdetectors as possible. Among the many achievements in that week, three items may be highlighted. First, the Strip...

  7. Genetic and transcriptomic analysis of transcription factor genes in the model halophilic Archaeon: coordinate action of TbpD and TfbA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DasSarma Shiladitya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Archaea are prokaryotic organisms with simplified versions of eukaryotic transcription systems. Genes coding for the general transcription factors TBP and TFB are present in multiple copies in several Archaea, including Halobacterium sp. NRC-1. Multiple TBP and TFBs have been proposed to participate in transcription of genes via recognition and recruitment of RNA polymerase to different classes of promoters. Results We attempted to knock out all six TBP and seven TFB genes in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 using the ura3-based gene deletion system. Knockouts were obtained for six out of thirteen genes, tbpCDF and tfbACG, indicating that they are not essential for cell viability under standard conditions. Screening of a population of 1,000 candidate mutants showed that genes which did not yield mutants contained less that 0.1% knockouts, strongly suggesting that they are essential. The transcriptomes of two mutants, ΔtbpD and ΔtfbA, were compared to the parental strain and showed coordinate down regulation of many genes. Over 500 out of 2,677 total genes were regulated in the ΔtbpD and ΔtfbA mutants with 363 regulated in both, indicating that over 10% of genes in both strains require the action of both TbpD and TfbA for normal transcription. Culturing studies on the ΔtbpD and ΔtfbA mutant strains showed them to grow more slowly than the wild-type at an elevated temperature, 49°C, and they showed reduced viability at 56°C, suggesting TbpD and TfbA are involved in the heat shock response. Alignment of TBP and TFB protein sequences suggested the expansion of the TBP gene family, especially in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, and TFB gene family in representatives of five different genera of haloarchaea in which genome sequences are available. Conclusion Six of thirteen TBP and TFB genes of Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 are non-essential under standard growth conditions. TbpD and TfbA coordinate the expression of over 10% of the genes in the

  8. The X-Factor: On the Relevance of Implicit Leadership and Followership Theories for Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Agreement


    Gils, Suzanne; Quaquebeke, Niels; Knippenberg, Daan


    textabstractWhile Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) research shows that leaders engage in different kinds of relationships with different followers, it remains somewhat of an enigma why one and the same relationship is often rated differently by a leader and the respective follower. We seek to fill that conceptual void by explaining when and why such LMX disagreement is likely to occur. To do so, we reconsider antecedents of LMX quality perceptions and outline how each party’s LMX quality percepti...

  9. Factors influencing the separation of oligonucleotides using reversed-phase/ion-exchange mixed-mode high performance liquid chromatography columns. (United States)

    Biba, Mirlinda; Jiang, Eileen; Mao, Bing; Zewge, Daniel; Foley, Joe P; Welch, Christopher J


    New mixed-mode columns consisting of reversed-phase and ion-exchange separation modes were evaluated for the analysis of short RNA oligonucleotides (∼20mers). Conventional analysis for these samples typically involves using two complementary methods: strong anion-exchange liquid chromatography (SAX-LC) for separation based on charge, and ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography (IP-RPLC) for separation based on hydrophobicity. Recently introduced mixed-mode high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns combine both reversed-phase and ion-exchange modes, potentially offering a simpler analysis by combining the benefits of both separation modes into a single method. Analysis of a variety of RNA oligonucleotide samples using three different mixed-mode stationary phases showed some distinct benefits for oligonucleotide separation and analysis. When using these mixed-mode columns with typical IP-RPLC mobile phase conditions, such as ammonium acetate or triethylammonium acetate as the primary ion-pair reagent, the separation was mainly based on the IP-RPLC mode. However, when changing the mobile phase conditions to those more typical for SAX-LC, such as salt gradients with NaCl or NaBr, very different separation patterns were observed due to mixed-mode interactions. In addition, the Scherzo SW-C18 and SM-C18 columns with sodium chloride or sodium bromide salt gradients also showed significant improvements in peak shape. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Porphyrin coordination polymer nanospheres and nanorods (United States)

    Wang, Zhongchun; Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.


    A porphyrin coordination polymer nanostructure comprising a network of pyridyl porphyrin molecules and coordinating metal ions coordinatively bound through the pyridyl groups. In some embodiments, the porphyrins are metalloporphyrins. A variety of nanostructures are formed by the network polymer, including nanospheres, polygonal nanostructures, nanorods, and nanofibers, depending on a variety of factors including coordination metal ion, porphyrin type, metal of the metalloporphyrin, and degree of agitation during nanostructure formation. Reduction of coordinating metal ions may be used to form metal nanoparticles on the coordination polymer nanostructure.

  11. Porphyrin coordination polymer nanospheres and nanorods (United States)

    Wang, Zhongchun; Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.


    A porphyrin coordination polymer nanostructure comprising a network of pyridyl porphyrin molecules and coordinating metal ions coordinatively bound through the pyridyl groups. In some embodiments, the porphyrins are metalloporphyrins. A variety of nanostructures are formed by the network polymer, including nanospheres, polygonal nanostructures, nanorods, and nanofibers, depending on a variety of factors including coordination metal ion, porphyrin type, metal of the metalloporphyrin, and degree of agitation during nanostructure formation. Reduction of coordinating metal ions may be used to form metal nanoparticles on the coordination polymer nanostructure.

  12. Handling Conflicts in Autonomous Coordination of Distributed Collaborative Activities


    Franke, Jörn; Charoy, François; Ulmer, Cédric


    International audience; Coordination between different organizations in dynamic situations, such as a disaster response, is challenging. Organizations are autonomous and coordinate the situation from their point of view. There is no central authority to coordinate all operations. To coordinate their actions, organi- zations need to exchange information on what they are doing. However, they cannot share everything with everybody due to privacy, regulatory or strategic reasons. Currently, only ...

  13. Complex Interplay between FleQ, Cyclic Diguanylate and Multiple σ Factors Coordinately Regulates Flagellar Motility and Biofilm Development in Pseudomonas putida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Jiménez-Fernández

    Full Text Available Most bacteria alternate between a free living planktonic lifestyle and the formation of structured surface-associated communities named biofilms. The transition between these two lifestyles requires a precise and timely regulation of the factors involved in each of the stages that has been likened to a developmental process. Here we characterize the involvement of the transcriptional regulator FleQ and the second messenger cyclic diguanylate in the coordinate regulation of multiple functions related to motility and surface colonization in Pseudomonas putida. Disruption of fleQ caused strong defects in flagellar motility, biofilm formation and surface attachment, and the ability of this mutation to suppress multiple biofilm-related phenotypes associated to cyclic diguanylate overproduction suggests that FleQ mediates cyclic diguanylate signaling critical to biofilm growth. We have constructed a library containing 94 promoters potentially involved in motility and biofilm development fused to gfp and lacZ, screened this library for FleQ and cyclic diguanylate regulation, and assessed the involvement of alternative σ factors σN and FliA in the transcription of FleQ-regulated promoters. Our results suggest a dual mode of action for FleQ. Low cyclic diguanylate levels favor FleQ interaction with σN-dependent promoters to activate the flagellar cascade, encompassing the flagellar cluster and additional genes involved in cyclic diguanylate metabolism, signal transduction and gene regulation. On the other hand, characterization of the FleQ-regulated σN- and FliA-independent PlapA and PbcsD promoters revealed two disparate regulatory mechanisms leading to a similar outcome: the synthesis of biofilm matrix components in response to increased cyclic diguanylate levels.

  14. Neighborhood History as a Factor Shaping Syringe Distribution Networks Among Drug Users at a U.S. Syringe Exchange. (United States)

    Braine, Naomi; Acker, Caroline; Goldblatt, Cullen; Yi, Huso; Friedman, Samuel; Desjarlais, Don C


    Throughout the US, high-visibility drug markets are concentrated in neighborhoods with few economic opportunities, while drug buyers/users are widely dispersed. A study of Pittsburgh Syringe Exchange participants provides data on travel between and network linkages across neighborhoods with different levels of drug activity. There are distinct racial patterns to syringe distribution activity within networks and across neighborhoods. Pittsburgh's history suggests these patterns emerge from historical patterns of social and economic development. Study data demonstrate the ability of IDUs to form long term social ties across racial and geographic boundaries and use them to reduce the risk of HIV transmission.

  15. The guanine exchange factor Gartenzwerg and the small GTPase Arl1 function in the same pathway with Arfaptin during synapse growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Chang


    Full Text Available The generation of neuronal morphology requires transport vesicles originating from the Golgi apparatus (GA to deliver specialized components to the axon and dendrites. Drosophila Arfaptin is a membrane-binding protein localized to the GA that is required for the growth of the presynaptic nerve terminal. Here we provide biochemical, cellular and genetic evidence that the small GTPase Arl1 and the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF Gartenzwerg are required for Arfaptin function at the Golgi during synapse growth. Our data define a new signaling pathway composed of Arfaptin, Arl1, and Garz, required for the generation of normal synapse morphology.

  16. Coordinating Work with Groupware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Jens Kaaber; Simonsen, Jesper


    One important goal of employing groupware is to make possible complex collaboration between geographically distributed groups. This requires a dual transformation of both technology and work practice. The challenge is to re­duce the complexity of the coordination work by successfully inte......­grating the protocol stipulating the collaboration and the ar­te­fact, in form of the groupware application, mediating the col­laboration. This paper analyses a generic groupware application that was deployed in a large financial organisation in order to support working groups distributed throughout four countries....... Using the CSCW frame­work of coordination mechanisms, we have elicited six general factors influencing the integration of the groupware application in two situations....

  17. Factors Affecting the Return Stock Company in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX LQ45 in Years 2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangki A. Sorongan


    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the effect of partially and jointly independent variable of Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Return on Equity (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Net Profit Margin (NPM against the dependent variable on the stock return. Objects of this research were companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI LQ45 continuously for four years in the period 2012-2015. Companies that qualify for this research were 28 companies. Based on this research, the conclusions indicate that all four independent variables; Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Return on Equity (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Net Profit Margin (NPM, either jointly or partially give the significant effect on return stock.

  18. 3D-CFD simulation and neural network model for the j and f factors of the wavy fin-and-flat tube heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khoshvaght Aliabadi


    Full Text Available A three dimensional (3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation and a neural network model are presented to estimate the behaviors of the Colburn factor (j and the Fanning friction factor (f for wavy fin - and - flat tube (WFFT heat exchangers. Effects of the five geometrical factors of fin pitch, fin height, fin length, fin thickness, and wavy amplitude are investigated over a wide range of Reynolds number (600factors as a function of Reynolds number. The computational results have an adequate accuracy when compared to experimental data. The accuracy of the calculations of the j and f factors are evaluated by the values of the absolute average relative deviation (AARD, being respectively 3.8% and 8.2% for the CFD simulation and 1.3% and 1% for the neural network model. Finally, new correlations are proposed to estimate the values of the j and f factors with 3.22% and 3.68% AARD respectively.

  19. Exchange of Sex for Drugs or Money in Adolescents and Young Adults: An Examination of Sociodemographic Factors, HIV-Related Risk, and Community Context. (United States)

    Boyer, Cherrie B; Greenberg, Lauren; Chutuape, Kate; Walker, Bendu; Monte, Dina; Kirk, Jennifer; Ellen, Jonathan M


    The goal of this research was to examine associations among sociodemographic factors, HIV risk, and community context (e.g., economic insecurity, job training, housing instability, crime victimization, and perceived community norms) in adolescents and young adults who ever exchanged sex for drugs or money. Anonymous survey data were collected using ACASIs at community venues where adolescents and young adults congregate in resource-challenged, STI prevalent, urban, US neighborhoods. Conventional descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact tests, and generalized estimating equations approaches were used to examine associations. Participants (1818, 95.5 % of those screened eligible) were, on average, aged 21.0 years; 42.2 % were males, and 4.6 % were transgender. Almost one-third (32.1 %) identified as gay or lesbian, 18.1 % identified as bisexual; 66.2 % were Black and 21.0 % were Hispanic; 1.3 % was 'living on the street'. A sizeable proportion reported HIV-related risk: 16.3 % exchanged sex, 12.6 % had sex with someone they knew to be HIV-infected, 7.8 % had sex with someone who injected drugs, and 1.3 % injected drugs. Multivariate comparisons identified a number of variables (e.g., being male or transgender, homelessness, sex with a partner who has HIV, STI history, unemployment, job training access, housing instability, crime victimization, perceived community norms) that were significantly associated with exchange of sex (p development of effective evidence-based prevention strategies.

  20. Growing season length as a key factor of cumulative net ecosystem exchange over the pine forest ecosystems in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielewska, A.; Urbaniak, M.; Olejnik, Janusz


    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2015), s. 129-135 ISSN 0236-8722 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : forest * carbon dioxide * eddy covariance * growing season length Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.067, year: 2015

  1. One-step refolding and purification of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α (rhTNF-α) using ion-exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Ren, Wenxuan; Gao, Dong; Wang, Lili; Yang, Ying; Bai, Quan


    Protein refolding is a key step for the production of recombinant proteins, especially at large scales, and usually their yields are very low. Chromatographic-based protein refolding techniques have proven to be superior to conventional dilution refolding methods. High refolding yield can be achieved using these methods compared with dilution refolding of proteins. In this work, recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-α (rhTNF-α) from inclusion bodies expressed in Escherichia coli was renatured with simultaneous purification by ion exchange chromatography with a DEAE Sepharose FF column. Several chromatographic parameters influencing the refolding yield of the denatured/reduced rhTNF-α, such as the urea concentration, pH value and concentration ratio of glutathione/oxidized glutathione in the mobile phase, were investigated in detail. Under optimal conditions, rhTNF-α can be renatured and purified simultaneously within 30 min by one step. Specific bioactivity of 2.18 × 10(8) IU/mg, purity of 95.2% and mass recovery of 76.8% of refolded rhTNF-α were achieved. Compared with the usual dilution method, the ion exchange chromatography method developed here is simple and more effective for rhTNF-α refolding in terms of specific bioactivity and mass recovery. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. How amide hydrogens exchange in native proteins. (United States)

    Persson, Filip; Halle, Bertil


    Amide hydrogen exchange (HX) is widely used in protein biophysics even though our ignorance about the HX mechanism makes data interpretation imprecise. Notably, the open exchange-competent conformational state has not been identified. Based on analysis of an ultralong molecular dynamics trajectory of the protein BPTI, we propose that the open (O) states for amides that exchange by subglobal fluctuations are locally distorted conformations with two water molecules directly coordinated to the N-H group. The HX protection factors computed from the relative O-state populations agree well with experiment. The O states of different amides show little or no temporal correlation, even if adjacent residues unfold cooperatively. The mean residence time of the O state is ∼100 ps for all examined amides, so the large variation in measured HX rate must be attributed to the opening frequency. A few amides gain solvent access via tunnels or pores penetrated by water chains including native internal water molecules, but most amides access solvent by more local structural distortions. In either case, we argue that an overcoordinated N-H group is necessary for efficient proton transfer by Grotthuss-type structural diffusion.

  3. The auto-inhibitory state of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF5/TIM can be relieved by targeting its SH3 domain with rationally designed peptide aptamers. (United States)

    He, Ping; Tan, De-Li; Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lv, Feng-Lin; Wu, Wei


    The short isoform of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF5 is known as TIM, which plays diverse roles in, for example, tumorigenesis, neuronal development and Src-induced podosome formation through the activation of its substrates, the Rho family of GTPases. The activation is auto-inhibited by a putative helix N-terminal to the DH domain of TIM, which is stabilized by the intramolecular interaction of C-terminal SH3 domain with a poly-proline sequence between the putative helix and the DH domain. In this study, we systematically investigated the structural basis, energetic landscape and biological implication underlying TIM auto-inhibition by using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy analysis. The computational study revealed that the binding of SH3 domain to poly-proline sequence is the prerequisite for the stabilization of TIM auto-inhibition. Thus, it is suggested that targeting SH3 domain with competitors of the poly-proline sequence would be a promising strategy to relieve the auto-inhibitory state of TIM. In this consideration, we rationally designed a number of peptide aptamers for competitively inhibiting the SH3 domain based on modeled TIM structure and computationally generated data. Peptide binding test and guanine nucleotide exchange analysis solidified that these designed peptides can both bind to the SH3 domain potently and activate TIM-catalyzed RhoA exchange reaction effectively. Interestingly, a positive correlation between the peptide affinity and induced exchange activity was observed. In addition, separate mutation of three conserved residues Pro49, Pro52 and Lys54 - they are required for peptide recognition by SH3 domain -- in a designed peptide to Ala would completely abolish the capability of this peptide activating TIM. All these come together to suggest an intrinsic relationship between peptide binding to SH3 domain and the activation of TIM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de

  4. On Coordinating Collaborative Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdessamad Imine


    Full Text Available A collaborative object represents a data type (such as a text document designed to be shared by a group of dispersed users. The Operational Transformation (OT is a coordination approach used for supporting optimistic replication for these objects. It allows the users to concurrently update the shared data and exchange their updates in any order since the convergence of all replicas, i.e. the fact that all users view the same data, is ensured in all cases. However, designing algorithms for achieving convergence with the OT approach is a critical and challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a formal compositional method for specifying complex collaborative objects. The most important feature of our method is that designing an OT algorithm for the composed collaborative object can be done by reusing the OT algorithms of component collaborative objects. By using our method, we can start from correct small collaborative objects which are relatively easy to handle and incrementally combine them to build more complex collaborative objects.

  5. Exchange Network (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  6. Institutional Design, Macroeconomic Policy Coordination and Implications for the Financial Sector in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Muhammad Ali


    Full Text Available This study has analysed the implications of institutional design of macroeconomic policy making institutions for the macroeconomic policy interaction and financial sector in the United Kingdom. Employing a Vector Error Correction (VEC model and using monthly data from January 1985 to August 2008 we found that the changes in institutional arrangement and design of policy making authorities appeared to be a major contributing factor in dynamics of association between policy coordination/combination and financial sector. It was also found that the independence of the Bank of England (BoE and withdrawal from the Exchange Rate Mechanism led to the increase in macroeconomic policy maker’s ability to coordinate and restore financial stability. The results imply that although institutional autonomy in the form of instrument independence (monetary policy decisions could bring financial stability, there is a strong necessity for coordination, even in Post-MPC (Monetary Policy Committee and the BoE independence.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper experimentally investigates the performance and capacity of Purolite C100E commercial resin recommended for water softening applications in the food industry. The practical ion exchange capacity and the softening process efficiency are studied in batch mode as a function of the sorption specific process factors. Optimum operation conditions were determined as initial pH 7.1, resin dose 8 g dry resin•L-1, temperature 25 oC, contact time of 360 min, and in those conditions the retention capacity for the Ca2+ ions is 17.18 mg•g-1 that corresponds to a removal efficiency equal to 85.7%.

  8. The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 is required for directional migration stimulated via PDGFR-alpha in the primary cilium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Linda; Stock, Christian-Martin; Dieterich, Peter


    We previously demonstrated that the primary cilium coordinates platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor (PDGFR) alpha-mediated migration in growth-arrested fibroblasts. In this study, we investigate the functional relationship between ciliary PDGFR-alpha and the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 in...

  9. [Study of the Sociodemographic Factors and Risky Behaviours Associated with the Acquisition of Sexual Transmitted Infections by Foreign Exchange Students in Portugal]. (United States)

    Gravata, Andreia; Castro, Rita; Borges-Costa, João


    Sexual transmitted infections are a main cause of morbidity, being a public health problem due to its reproductive complications, mostly observed in teenagers and young adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sociodemographic factors and risky behaviours associated with sexual transmitted infections acquisition and to assess personal awareness of risky behaviour and the knowledge about Chlamydia trachomatis infection between foreign exchange students in Portugal. The main instrument for data collection was a questionnaire, applied to foreign students in university exchange in Portugal, during the years 2012/2013, 2013/2014 e 2014/2015 Results: Three hundred and thirty eight (338) questionnaires were evaluated, being 58.3% female students, aged between 17 and 30 years old. Mean age for the beginning of the sexual activity was 17.5 years old and the mean number of lifetime sexual partners was 6.9. Concerning the answers given: 11.8% mentioned a sexual relationship with the same gender, 9.5% mentioned that they have never done oral sex and 29% assumed they had practiced anal sex; 82.1% mentioned alcohol/drugs consumption; 21% did not know that Sexual transmitted infections can be transmitted through oral sex and 42.3% did not recognize Chlamydia trachomatis as an Sexual transmitted infections agent. Although sexual transmitted infections can affect individuals of all ages, races and sexual orientation, various demographic, social and behavioral factors have revealed influence in their prevalence rates. Despite knowing about sexual transmitted infections, these students maintain sexual risky behaviours, mainly early age for starting sexual activity, multiple sexual partners and the absence of protection during sexual activities.

  10. Parathyroid hormone inhibition of Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger 3 transcription: Intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factor expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Elida Adalgisa; Bezerra, Camila Nogueira Alves, E-mail:; Queiroz-Leite, Gabriella Duarte; Polidoro, Juliano Zequini; Rebouças, Nancy Amaral


    The main transport mechanism of reabsorption of sodium bicarbonate and fluid in the renal proximal tubules involves Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger 3 (NHE3), which is acutely and chronically downregulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Although PTH is known to exert an inhibitory effect on NHE3 expression and transcription, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that, in opossum kidney proximal tubule (OKP) cells, PTH-induced inhibition of Nhe3 gene promoter occurs even in the core promoter that controls expression of the reporter gene. We found that inhibition of the protein kinase A (PKA) and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways transformed PTH from an inhibitor of promoter activity into an activator of that same activity, as did point mutations in the EGR1, Sp1, and Sp3 binding consensus elements in the promoter. In nuclear extracts of PTH-treated OKP cells, we also observed increased expression of EGR1 mRNA and of some Sp3 isoforms. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed a supershift of the −61 to −42-bp probe with an anti-EGR1 antibody in PTH-treated cells, suggesting that EGR1 binding is relevant for the inhibitory activity of PTH. We conclude that PTH-induced inhibition of NHE3 transcription is related to higher EGR1 expression; to EGR1 binding to the proximal and core promoters; and to PKA and JAK/STAT pathway activation. This mechanism might be responsible, at least in part, for lower NHE3 expression and sodium reabsorption in renal proximal tubules in the presence of high PTH levels. - Highlights: • PTH regulation of Nhe3 promoter depends on EGR1 binding. • EGR1, PKA and JAK/STAT are involved in PTH inhibition of the Nhe3 promoter. • PTH alters expression of EGR1 and Sp3. • PTH inhibits the Nhe3 promoter by regulating PKA and JAK/STAT signaling.

  11. Factors affecting spatial and temporal variability in material exchange between the Southern Everglades wetlands and Florida Bay (USA) (United States)

    Sutula, Martha A.; Perez, Brian C.; Reyes, Enrique; Childers, Daniel L.; Davis, Steve; Day, John W.; Rudnick, David; Sklar, Fred


    Physical and biological processes controlling spatial and temporal variations in material concentration and exchange between the Southern Everglades wetlands and Florida Bay were studied for 2.5 years in three of the five major creek systems draining the watershed. Daily total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) fluxes were measured for 2 years in Taylor River, and ten 10-day intensive studies were conducted in this creek to estimate the seasonal flux of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), total organic carbon (TOC), and suspended matter. Four 10-day studies were conducted simultaneously in Taylor, McCormick, and Trout Creeks to study the spatial variation in concentration and flux. The annual fluxes of TOC, TN, and TP from the Southern Everglades were estimated from regression equations. The Southern Everglades watershed, a 460-km 2 area that includes Taylor Slough and the area south of the C-111 canal, exported 7.1 g C m -2, 0.46 g N m -2, and 0.007 g P m -2, annually. Everglades P flux is three to four orders of magnitude lower than published flux estimates from wetlands influenced by terrigenous sedimentary inputs. These low P flux values reflect both the inherently low P content of Everglades surface water and the efficiency of Everglades carbonate sediments and biota in conserving and recycling this limiting nutrient. The seasonal variation of freshwater input to the watershed was responsible for major temporal variations in N, P, and C export to Florida Bay; approximately 99% of the export occurred during the rainy season. Wind-driven forcing was most important during the later stages of the dry season when low freshwater head coincided with southerly winds, resulting in a net import of water and materials into the wetlands. We also observed an east to west decrease in TN:TP ratio from 212:1 to 127:1. Major spatial gradients in N:P ratios and nutrient concentration and flux among the creek were consistent with the westward decrease in

  12. Nitrous oxide exchanges with the atmosphere of a constructed wetland treating wastewater. Parameters and implications for emission factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, A.E.; Svenssom, B.H. [Linkoeing Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Water and Environmental Studies; Kasimir Klemedtsson, Aa. [Trollhaettan/Uddevalla Univ. College, Trollhaettan (Sweden). Dept. of Informatics and Mathematics; Klemedtsson, L. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Botanical Inst.


    Static chamber measurements of N{sub 2}O fluxes were taken during the 1998 and 1999 growth seasons in a Swedish constructed wetland receiving wastewater. The dominating plant species in different parts of the wetland were Lemna minor L., Typha latifolia L., Spirogyra sp. and Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) and Phalaris arundinacea (L.), respectively. There were large temporal and spatial variations in N{sub 2}O fluxes, which ranged from consumption at -350 to emissions at 1791 {mu}g N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2}/h. The largest positive flux occurred in October 1999 and the lowest in the middle of July 1999. The average N{sub 2}O flux for the two years was 130 {mu}g N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2}/h (SD = 220). No significant differences in N{sub 2}O fluxes were found between the years, even though the two growing seasons differed considerably with respect to both air temperature and precipitation. 15% of the fluxes were negative, showing a consumption of N{sub 2}O. Consumption occurred on a few occasions at most measurement sites and ranged from 1 - 350 {mu}g N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2}/h. 13 - 43% of the variation in N{sub 2}O fluxes was explained by multiple linear regression analysis including principal components. Emission factors were calculated according to IPCC methods from the N{sub 2}O fluxes in the constructed wetland. The calculated emission factors were always lower (0.02 - 0.27%) compared to the default factor provided by the IPCC (0.75%). Thus, direct application of the IPCC default factor may lead to overestimation of N{sub 2}O fluxes from constructed wastewater-treating wetlands.

  13. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman


    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  14. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg


    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  15. A three-factor Doehlert matrix design in optimising the determination of octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide by cation-exchange chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. (United States)

    Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Orlando, Donatella; Nardiello, Donatella; Rubino, Alessandra; Bianco, Giuliana; Abate, Salvatore; Ciriello, Rosanna; Guerrieri, Antonio


    A simple and effective chromatographic method with suppressed conductivity detection was developed and validated to determine dissolved samples of octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C18H37N+ Me3Br-, ODTAB) for purity testing. A response surface methodology generated with a Doehlert matrix design was applied to optimize the chromatographic and detection conditions in ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) with conductivity detection in the chemical suppression mode. A three-factor Doehlert design was performed to fit a second-order model and jointly optimize the peak intensity and shorten analysis time through a global desirability function. Regenerant flow rate, volume fraction of acetonitrile in the acidic eluent and its flow rate were studied at seven, five and three levels, respectively. The optimized separation and detection conditions were accomplished by using a cation-exchange column eluted at 0.5 mL min(-1) with an isocratic mobile phase composed of CH3CN and 25 mN H2SO4, 82/18 (v/v). Chemical suppression of ionic conductivity was performed by 100 mN tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAOH) as a regenerant at a flow-rate of 4.0 mL min(-1). Remarkably good agreement was found between predicted and experimental values of signal intensity and chromatographic retention. With the developed method, a linear calibration curve of ODTA+ as bromide salt from 5 to 1000 ppm was obtained using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as internal standard. The estimated limit of detection was 0.3 ppm (S/N=3). The effectiveness of electrochemically suppressed conductivity detection of ODTA+ was also demonstrated, thus making easier the whole detection operation and instrumental needs as well.

  16. Sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus frequency in human lymphocytes of 1,650 subjects in an Italian population: I. Contribution of methodological factors. (United States)

    Barale, R; Marrazzini, A; Bacci, E; Di Sibio, A; Tessa, A; Cocchi, L; Scarcelli, V; Lubrano, V; Vassalle, C; Landi, S


    The influence of several methodological factors on mean values of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN) in peripheral lymphocytes of 1,650 subjects was analyzed. Donors belonged to a general healthy population living in Pisa and in two nearby small cities: Cascina and Navacchio (Ca-Na). Blood samples were collected over a period of 29 months and processed in three different laboratories of the some institute. Slides were analyzed by several scorers. Our data showed that lymphocyte proliferation indexes (PIs) and baseline mean values of SCEs were affected mainly by sampling period. This factor accounted for a percentage ranging from roughly 10% (Pisa) to 20% (Ca-Na) of total SCE variance and from roughly 10% (Pisa) to 13% (Ca-Na) of total PIs variance. A marginal effect was attributable to the different laboratories involved (maximum 3% for SCEs and 7% for PIs). The sampling period variable included many sources of variability such as culture media batches, fetal calf serum, PHA, BrdUrd, and seasonality. MN counts revealed a more marked dependence on processing laboratories. This factor accounted for a percentage of roughly 10% (Pisa and Ca-Na) of total variance, while the sampling period was marginally effective (about 1-4% of total variability). Because laboratories were equipped and supplied with the same materials and consumables and technicians were rotated constantly, the only variable ascertained was represented by the three different models of CO2 incubators used for lymphocyte culturing. When "month" and "incubator" variables were considered jointly, experimental variability accounted for 15-20% of total variance, both for PIs and mean values SCEs and MN. The variability due to slide scoring was reduced by assigning each slide to five different scorers and matching low with high scorers in each group. Present data show that when the study is performed under these controlled conditions, about 20% of total interdonor variability can be

  17. MtbHLH1, a bHLH transcription factor involved in Medicago truncatula nodule vascular patterning and nodule to plant metabolic exchanges (United States)

    Godiard, Laurence; Lepage, Agnès; Moreau, Sandra; Laporte, Damien; Verdenaud, Marion; Timmers, Ton; Gamas, Pascal


    This study aimed at defining the role of a basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factor gene from Medicago truncatula, MtbHLH1, whose expression is upregulated during the development of root nodules produced upon infection by rhizobia bacteria. We used MtbHLH1 promoter::GUS fusions and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses to finely characterize the MtbHLH1 expression pattern. We altered MtbHLH1 function by expressing a dominantly repressed construct (CRES-T approach) and looked for possible MtbHLH1 target genes by transcriptomics. We found that MtbHLH1 is expressed in nodule primordia cells derived from pericycle divisions, in nodule vascular bundles (VBs) and in uninfected cells of the nitrogen (N) fixation zone. MtbHLH1 is also expressed in root tips, lateral root primordia cells and root VBs, and induced upon auxin treatment. Altering MtbHLH1 function led to an unusual phenotype, with a modified patterning of nodule VB development and a reduced growth of aerial parts of the plant, even though the nodules were able to fix atmospheric N. Several putative MtbHLH1 regulated genes were identified, including an asparagine synthase and a LOB (lateral organ boundary) transcription factor. Our results suggest that the MtbHLH1 gene is involved in the control of nodule vasculature patterning and nutrient exchanges between nodules and roots. PMID:21679315

  18. Unique classes of mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae G-protein translation elongation factor 1A suppress the requirement for guanine nucleotide exchange. (United States)

    Ozturk, Sedide B; Vishnu, Melanie R; Olarewaju, Olubunmi; Starita, Lea M; Masison, Daniel C; Kinzy, Terri Goss


    G-proteins play critical roles in many cellular processes and are regulated by accessory proteins that modulate the nucleotide-bound state. Such proteins, including eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A), are frequently reactivated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, only the catalytic subunit of the GEF complex, eEF1Balpha, is essential for viability. The requirement for the TEF5 gene encoding eEF1Balpha can be suppressed by the presence of excess substrate, eEF1A. These cells, however, have defects in growth and translation. Two independent unbiased screens performed to dissect the cause of these phenotypes yielded dominant suppressors that bypass the requirement for extra eEF1A. Surprisingly, all mutations are in the G-protein eEF1A and cluster in its GTP-binding domain. Five mutants were used to construct novel strains expressing only the eEF1A mutant at normal levels. These strains show no growth defects and little to no decreases in total translation, which raises questions as to the evolutionary expression of GEF complexity and other potential functions of this complex. The location of the mutations on the eEF1A-eEF1Balpha structure suggests that their mechanism of suppression may depend on effects on the conserved G-protein elements: the P-loop and NKXD nucleotide-binding element.

  19. Quantifying linguistic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    task (Bahrami et al 2010, Fusaroli et al. 2012) we extend to linguistic coordination dynamical measures of recurrence employed in the analysis of sensorimotor coordination (such as heart-rate (Konvalinka et al 2011), postural sway (Shockley 2005) and eye-movements (Dale, Richardson and Kirkham 2012...... of linguistic coordination and their effects at a fine-degree....

  20. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.


    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  1. Climate and site management as driving factors for the atmospheric greenhouse gas exchange of a restored wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herbst


    Full Text Available The atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG budget of a restored wetland in western Denmark was established for the years 2009–2011 from eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 fluxes. The water table in the wetland, which was restored in 2002, was unregulated, and the vegetation height was limited through occasional grazing by cattle and grass cutting. The annual net CO2 uptake varied between 195 and 983 g m−2 and the annual net CH4 release varied between 11 and 17 g m−2. In all three years the wetland was a carbon sink and removed between 42 and 259 g C m−2 from the atmosphere. However, in terms of the full annual GHG budget (assuming that 1 g CH4 is equivalent to 25 g CO2 with respect to the greenhouse effect over a time horizon of 100 years the wetland was a sink in 2009, a source in 2010 and neutral in 2011. Complementary observations of meteorological factors and management activities were used to explain the large inter-annual variations in the full atmospheric GHG budget of the wetland. The largest impact on the annual GHG fluxes, eventually defining their sign, came from site management through changes in grazing duration and animal stocking density. These changes accounted for half of the observed variability in the CO2 fluxes and about two thirds of the variability in CH4 fluxes. An unusually long period of snow cover in 2010 had the second largest effect on the annual CO2 flux, whose interannual variability was larger than that of the CH4 flux. Since integrated CO2 and CH4 flux data from restored wetlands are still very rare, it is concluded that more long-term flux measurements are needed to quantify the effects of ecosystem disturbance, in terms of management activities and exceptional weather patterns, on the atmospheric GHG budget more

  2. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange. (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D


    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.

  3. Movement coordination during conversation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Latif

    Full Text Available Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers' perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers.

  4. The Bipartite Rac1 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Engulfment and Cell Motility 1/Dedicator of Cytokinesis 180 (Elmo1/Dock180) Protects Endothelial Cells from Apoptosis in Blood Vessel Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeker, Kathrin; Bartsch, Susanne; Patry, Christian; Stoll, Sandra J.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Wieland, Thomas; Kroll, Jens


    Engulfment and cell motility 1/dedicator of cytokinesis 180 (Elmol/Dock180) is a bipartite guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the monomeric GTPase Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Racl). Elmol/Dock180 regulates Racl activity in a specific spatiotemporal manner in endothelial cells

  5. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y


    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  6. Multifaceted Roles of the Ras Guanine-Nucleotide Exchange Factor ChRgf in Development, Pathogenesis, and Stress Responses of Colletotrichum higginsianum. (United States)

    Gu, Qiongnan; Chen, Meijuan; Huang, Junbin; Wei, Yangdou; Hsiang, Tom; Zheng, Lu


    The infection process of Colletotrichum higginsianum, which causes a disease of crucifers, involves several key steps: conidial germination, appressorial formation, appressorial penetration, and invasive growth in host tissues. In this study, the ChRgf gene encoding a Ras guanine-nucleotide exchange factor protein was identified by screening T-DNA insertion mutants generated from Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation that were unable to cause disease on the host Arabidopsis thaliana. Targeted gene deletion of ChRgf resulted in a null mutant (ΔChrgf-42) with defects in vegetative growth, hyphal morphology, and conidiation, and poor surface attachment and low germination on hydrophobic surfaces; however, there were no apparent differences in appressorial turgor pressure between the wild type and the mutant. The conidia of the mutant were unable to geminate on attached Arabidopsis leaves and did not cause any disease symptoms. Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels in the ΔChrgf mutant were lower than that of the wild type. Our results suggest that ChRgf is a key regulator in response to salt and osmotic stresses in C. higginsianum, and indicate that it is involved in fungal pathogenicity. This gene seems to act as an important modulator upstream of several distinct signaling pathways that are involved in regulating vegetative growth, conidiation, infection-related structure development, and stress responses of C. higginsianum.

  7. The Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Plekhg5 modulates cell polarity, adhesion, migration, and podosome organization in macrophages and osteoclasts. (United States)

    Iwatake, Mayumi; Nishishita, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki


    Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone-resorbing cells that are formed by fusion of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Osteoclasts and macrophages generate podosomes that are actin-based dynamic organelles implicated in cell adhesion, spreading, migration, and degradation. However, the detailed mechanisms of podosome organization remain unknown. Here, we identified the Rho-specific guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF) Plekhg5 as an up-regulated gene during differentiation of osteoclasts from macrophages. Knockdown of Plekhg5 with small interfering RNA in both macrophages and osteoclasts induced larger cell formation with impaired cell polarity and resulted in an elongated and flattened shape. In macrophages, Plekhg5 depletion enhanced random migration, but impaired directional migration, adhesion, and matrix degradation. Plekhg5 in osteoclasts affected random migration, podosome organization, and bone resorption. Plekhg5 depletion affected signaling and localization of several Rho downstream effectors. In fact, end-binding protein 1 (EB1), cofilin and vinculin were abnormally localized in Plekhg5-depleted cells, and mDia1 and LIM kinase (LIMK)1 were upregulated in Plekhg5-depleted cells compared with control cells. However, overexpression of Plekhg5 in macrophages induced an increase in its mRNA level, but failed to increase the protein level, indicating that overexpressed Plekhg5 was degraded in macrophages but not HEK293T cells. Thus, Plekhg5 affects cell polarity, migration, adhesion, degradation, and podosome organization in macrophages and osteoclasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A bacterial cytotoxin identifies the RhoA exchange factor Net1 as a key effector in the response to DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Guerra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure of adherent cells to DNA damaging agents, such as the bacterial cytolethal distending toxin (CDT or ionizing radiations (IR, activates the small GTPase RhoA, which promotes the formation of actin stress fibers and delays cell death. The signalling intermediates that regulate RhoA activation and promote cell survival are unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that the nuclear RhoA-specific Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF Net1 becomes dephosphorylated at a critical inhibitory site in cells exposed to CDT or IR. Expression of a dominant negative Net1 or Net1 knock down by iRNA prevented RhoA activation, inhibited the formation of stress fibers, and enhanced cell death, indicating that Net1 activation is required for this RhoA-mediated responses to genotoxic stress. The Net1 and RhoA-dependent signals involved activation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 and its downstream target MAPK-activated protein kinase 2. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data highlight the importance of Net1 in controlling RhoA and p38 MAPK mediated cell survival in cells exposed to DNA damaging agents and illustrate a molecular pathway whereby chronic exposure to a bacterial toxin may promote genomic instability.

  9. Na+/H+ exchange regulatory factor 1 is required for ROMK1 K+ channel expression in the surface membrane of cultured M-1 cortical collecting duct cells. (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Mayanagi, Taira; Sobue, Kenji; Kubokawa, Manabu


    The ROMK1 K+ channel, a member of the ROMK channel family, is the major candidate for the K+ secretion pathway in the renal cortical collecting duct (CCD). ROMK1 possesses a PDZ domain-binding motif at its C-terminus that is considered a modulator of ROMK1 expression via interaction with Na+/H+ exchange regulatory factor (NHERF) 1 and NHERF2 scaffold protein. Although NHERF1 is a potential binding partner of the ROMK1 K+ channel, the interaction between NHERF1 and K+ channel activity remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we knocked down NHERF1 in cultured M-1 cells derived from mouse CCD and investigated the surface expression and K+ channel current in these cells after exogenous transfection with EGFP-ROMK1. NHERF1 knockdown resulted in reduced surface expression of ROMK1 as indicated by a cell biotinylation assay. Using the patch-clamp technique, we further found that the number of active channels per patched membrane and the Ba2+-sensitive whole-cell K+ current were decreased in the knockdown cells, suggesting that reduced K+ current was accompanied by decreased surface expression of ROMK1 in the NHERF1 knockdown cells. Our results provide evidence that NHERF1 mediates K+ current activity through acceleration of the surface expression of ROMK1 K+ channels in M-1 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An unexpected role for the yeast nucleotide exchange factor Sil1 as a reductant acting on the molecular chaperone BiP. (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Kevin D; Pareja, Kristeen A; Wang, Jie; Sevier, Carolyn S


    Unfavorable redox conditions in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can decrease the capacity for protein secretion, altering vital cell functions. While systems to manage reductive stress are well-established, how cells cope with an overly oxidizing ER remains largely undefined. In previous work (Wang et al., 2014), we demonstrated that the chaperone BiP is a sensor of overly oxidizing ER conditions. We showed that modification of a conserved BiP cysteine during stress beneficially alters BiP chaperone activity to cope with suboptimal folding conditions. How this cysteine is reduced to reestablish 'normal' BiP activity post-oxidative stress has remained unknown. Here we demonstrate that BiP's nucleotide exchange factor - Sil1 - can reverse BiP cysteine oxidation. This previously unexpected reductant capacity for yeast Sil1 has potential implications for the human ataxia Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome, where it is interesting to speculate that a disruption in ER redox-signaling (due to genetic defects in SIL1 ) may influence disease pathology.

  11. Role of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor in Akt2-mediated plasma membrane translocation of GLUT4 in insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Naoto; Nihata, Yuma; Hosooka, Tetsuya; Noguchi, Tetsuya; Aiba, Atsu; Satoh, Takaya


    The small GTPase Rac1 plays a key role in insulin-promoted glucose uptake mediated by the GLUT4 glucose transporter in skeletal muscle. Our recent studies have demonstrated that the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt2 is critically involved in insulin-dependent Rac1 activation. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor FLJ00068 in Akt2-mediated Rac1 activation and GLUT4 translocation in mouse skeletal muscle and cultured myocytes. Constitutively activated FLJ00068 induced GLUT4 translocation in a Rac1-dependent and Akt2-independent manner in L6 myocytes. On the other hand, knockdown of FLJ00068 significantly reduced constitutively activated Akt2-triggered GLUT4 translocation. Furthermore, Rac1 activation and GLUT4 translocation induced by constitutively activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase were inhibited by knockdown of FLJ00068. In mouse gastrocnemius muscle, constitutively activated FLJ00068 actually induced GLUT4 translocation to the sarcolemma. GLUT4 translocation by constitutively activated FLJ00068 was totally abolished in rac1 knockout mouse gastrocnemius muscle. Additionally, we were successful in detecting the activation of Rac1 following the expression of constitutively activated FLJ00068 in gastrocnemius muscle by immunofluorescence microscopy using an activation-specific probe. Collectively, these results strongly support the notion that FLJ00068 regulates Rac1 downstream of Akt2, leading to the stimulation of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Epitope mapping of inhibitory antibodies targeting the C2 domain of coagulation factor VIII by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (United States)

    Sevy, Alexander M.; Healey, John F.; Deng, Wei; Spiegel, P. Clint; Meeks, Shannon L.; Li, Renhao


    Summary Background The development of anti-factor VIII (fVIII) antibodies (inhibitors) is a significant complication in the management of patients with hemophilia A, leading to significant increases in morbidity and treatment cost. Using a panel of anti-fVIII monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to different epitopes on fVIII, we recently have shown that epitope specificity, inhibitor kinetics, and time to maximum inhibition are more important than inhibitor titer in predicting response to fVIII and the combination of fVIII and recombinant factor VIIa. In particular, a subset of high-titer inhibitors responded to high dose fVIII, which would not be predicted based on their inhibitor titer alone. Thus the ability to quickly map the epitope spectrum of patient plasma using a clinically feasible assay may fundamentally change how clinicians approach the treatment of high-titer inhibitor patients. Objectives To map the epitopes of anti-fVIII MAbs, of which 3 are classical inhibitors and one non-classical, using hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). Methods Binding epitopes of 4 MAbs targeting fVIII C2 domain were mapped using HDX-MS. Results The epitopes determined by HDX-MS are consistent with those obtained earlier through structural characterization and antibody competition assays. In addition classical and non-classical inhibitor epitopes could be distinguished using a limited subset of C2-derived peptic fragments. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the HDX-MS method for epitope mapping and suggest a potential role of rapid mapping of fVIII inhibitor epitopes in facilitating individualized treatment of inhibitor patients. PMID:24152306

  13. The signaling pathway of Campylobacter jejuni-induced Cdc42 activation: Role of fibronectin, integrin beta1, tyrosine kinases and guanine exchange factor Vav2

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Krause-Gruszczynska, Malgorzata


    Abstract Background Host cell invasion by the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is considered as one of the primary reasons of gut tissue damage, however, mechanisms and key factors involved in this process are widely unclear. It was reported that small Rho GTPases, including Cdc42, are activated and play a role during invasion, but the involved signaling cascades remained unknown. Here we utilised knockout cell lines derived from fibronectin-\\/-, integrin-beta1-\\/-, focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-\\/- and Src\\/Yes\\/Fyn-\\/- deficient mice, and wild-type control cells, to investigate C. jejuni-induced mechanisms leading to Cdc42 activation and bacterial uptake. Results Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, GTPase pulldowns, G-Lisa and gentamicin protection assays we found that each studied host factor is necessary for induction of Cdc42-GTP and efficient invasion. Interestingly, filopodia formation and associated membrane dynamics linked to invasion were only seen during infection of wild-type but not in knockout cells. Infection of cells stably expressing integrin-beta1 variants with well-known defects in fibronectin fibril formation or FAK signaling also exhibited severe deficiencies in Cdc42 activation and bacterial invasion. We further demonstrated that infection of wild-type cells induces increasing amounts of phosphorylated FAK and growth factor receptors (EGFR and PDGFR) during the course of infection, correlating with accumulating Cdc42-GTP levels and C. jejuni invasion over time. In studies using pharmacological inhibitors, silencing RNA (siRNA) and dominant-negative expression constructs, EGFR, PDGFR and PI3-kinase appeared to represent other crucial components upstream of Cdc42 and invasion. siRNA and the use of Vav1\\/2-\\/- knockout cells further showed that the guanine exchange factor Vav2 is required for Cdc42 activation and maximal bacterial invasion. Overexpression of certain mutant constructs indicated that Vav2 is a linker

  14. Coordination control of distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano


    This book describes how control of distributed systems can be advanced by an integration of control, communication, and computation. The global control objectives are met by judicious combinations of local and nonlocal observations taking advantage of various forms of communication exchanges between distributed controllers. Control architectures are considered according to  increasing degrees of cooperation of local controllers:  fully distributed or decentralized control,  control with communication between controllers,  coordination control, and multilevel control.  The book covers also topics bridging computer science, communication, and control, like communication for control of networks, average consensus for distributed systems, and modeling and verification of discrete and of hybrid systems. Examples and case studies are introduced in the first part of the text and developed throughout the book. They include: control of underwater vehicles, automated-guided vehicles on a container terminal, contro...

  15. Large-Scale Data Bases, Standards, and Exchange Procedures (United States)

    Weathersby, George B.


    The increasing data about institutions of higher education and the availability of this data are described and evaluated. The data bases need further development and coordination of standards, exchange guidelines, and accessing procedures to be most beneficial. (Author/LBH)

  16. Cooperative Optimal Coordination for Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tao; Wu, Di; Ren, Wei; Wang, Hong; Hong, Yiguang; Johansson, Karl


    In this paper, we consider the optimal coordination problem for distributed energy resources (DERs) including distributed generators and energy storage devices. We propose an algorithm based on the push-sum and gradient method to optimally coordinate storage devices and distributed generators in a distributed manner. In the proposed algorithm, each DER only maintains a set of variables and updates them through information exchange with a few neighbors over a time-varying directed communication network. We show that the proposed distributed algorithm solves the optimal DER coordination problem if the time-varying directed communication network is uniformly jointly strongly connected, which is a mild condition on the connectivity of communication topologies. The proposed distributed algorithm is illustrated and validated by numerical simulations.

  17. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone


    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  18. The nuclear guanine nucleotide exchange factors Ect2 and Net1 regulate RhoB-mediated cell death after DNA damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C Srougi


    Full Text Available Commonly used antitumor treatments, including radiation and chemotherapy, function by damaging the DNA of rapidly proliferating cells. However, resistance to these agents is a predominant clinical problem. A member of the Rho family of small GTPases, RhoB has been shown to be integral in mediating cell death after ionizing radiation (IR or other DNA damaging agents in Ras-transformed cell lines. In addition, RhoB protein expression increases after genotoxic stress, and loss of RhoB expression causes radio- and chemotherapeutic resistance. However, the signaling pathways that govern RhoB-induced cell death after DNA damage remain enigmatic. Here, we show that RhoB activity increases in human breast and cervical cancer cell lines after treatment with DNA damaging agents. Furthermore, RhoB activity is necessary for DNA damage-induced cell death, as the stable loss of RhoB protein expression using shRNA partially protects cells and prevents the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs and the induction of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim after IR. The increase in RhoB activity after genotoxic stress is associated with increased activity of the nuclear guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, Ect2 and Net1, but not the cytoplasmic GEFs p115 RhoGEF or Vav2. Importantly, loss of Ect2 and Net1 via siRNA-mediated protein knock-down inhibited IR-induced increases in RhoB activity, reduced apoptotic signaling events, and protected cells from IR-induced cell death. Collectively, these data suggest a mechanism involving the nuclear GEFs Ect2 and Net1 for activating RhoB after genotoxic stress, thereby facilitating cell death after treatment with DNA damaging agents.

  19. Cool-1/βPIX functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor in the cycling of Cdc42 to regulate insulin secretion. (United States)

    Kepner, Erica M; Yoder, Stephanie M; Oh, Eunjin; Kalwat, Michael A; Wang, Zhanxiang; Quilliam, Lawrence A; Thurmond, Debbie C


    Second-phase insulin release requires the sustained mobilization of insulin granules from internal storage pools to the cell surface for fusion with the plasma membrane. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this process remain largely unknown. GTP-loading of the small GTPase Cdc42 is the first glucose-specific activation step in the process, although how glucose triggers Cdc42 activation is entirely unknown. In a directed candidate screen for guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which directly activate small GTPases, Cool-1/βPix was identified in pancreatic islet beta cells. In support of its role as the beta cell Cdc42 GEF, βPix coimmunoprecipitated with Cdc42 in human islets and MIN6 beta cells in a glucose-dependent manner, peaking just prior to Cdc42 activation. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated βPix reduction by 50% corresponded to full ablation of glucose-induced Cdc42 activation and significant attenuation of basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Of the two Cdc42 guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) proteins identified in beta cells, βPix competed selectively with caveolin-1 (Cav-1) but not RhoGDI in coimmunoprecipitation and GST-Cdc42-GDP interaction assays. However, a phospho-deficient Cav-1-Y14F mutant failed to compete with βPix; Cav-1(Tyr14) is an established phosphorylation site for Src kinase. Taken together, these data support a new model, wherein glucose stimulates Cav-1 and induces its dissociation from Cdc42, possibly via Src kinase activation to phosphorylate Cav-1(Tyr14), to promote Cdc42-βPix binding and Cdc42 activation, and to trigger downstream signaling and ultimately sustain insulin release.

  20. Rac1 Activation Caused by Membrane Translocation of a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor in Akt2-Mediated Insulin Signaling in Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Takenaka

    Full Text Available Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT4, which is translocated to the plasma membrane following insulin stimulation. Several lines of evidence suggested that the protein kinase Akt2 plays a key role in this insulin action. The small GTPase Rac1 has also been implicated as a regulator of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, acting downstream of Akt2. However, the mechanisms whereby Akt2 regulates Rac1 activity remain obscure. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor FLJ00068 has been identified as a direct regulator of Rac1 in Akt2-mediated signaling, but its characterization was performed mostly in cultured myoblasts. Here, we provide in vivo evidence that FLJ00068 indeed acts downstream of Akt2 as a Rac1 regulator by using mouse skeletal muscle. Small interfering RNA knockdown of FLJ00068 markedly diminished GLUT4 translocation to the sarcolemma following insulin administration or ectopic expression of a constitutively activated mutant of either phosphoinositide 3-kinase or Akt2. Additionally, insulin and these constitutively activated mutants caused the activation of Rac1 as shown by immunofluorescent microscopy using a polypeptide probe specific to activated Rac1 in isolated gastrocnemius muscle fibers and frozen sections of gastrocnemius muscle. This Rac1 activation was also abrogated by FLJ00068 knockdown. Furthermore, we observed translocation of FLJ00068 to the cell periphery following insulin stimulation in cultured myoblasts. Localization of FLJ00068 in the plasma membrane in insulin-stimulated, but not unstimulated, myoblasts and mouse gastrocnemius muscle was further affirmed by subcellular fractionation and subsequent immunoblotting. Collectively, these results strongly support a critical role of FLJ00068 in Akt2-mediated Rac1 activation in mouse skeletal muscle insulin signaling.

  1. Release of GTP Exchange Factor Mediated Down-Regulation of Abscisic Acid Signal Transduction through ABA-Induced Rapid Degradation of RopGEFs (United States)

    Waadt, Rainer; Schroeder, Julian I.


    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is critical to plant development and stress responses. Abiotic stress triggers an ABA signal transduction cascade, which is comprised of the core components PYL/RCAR ABA receptors, PP2C-type protein phosphatases, and protein kinases. Small GTPases of the ROP/RAC family act as negative regulators of ABA signal transduction. However, the mechanisms by which ABA controls the behavior of ROP/RACs have remained unclear. Here, we show that an Arabidopsis guanine nucleotide exchange factor protein RopGEF1 is rapidly sequestered to intracellular particles in response to ABA. GFP-RopGEF1 is sequestered via the endosome-prevacuolar compartment pathway and is degraded. RopGEF1 directly interacts with several clade A PP2C protein phosphatases, including ABI1. Interestingly, RopGEF1 undergoes constitutive degradation in pp2c quadruple abi1/abi2/hab1/pp2ca mutant plants, revealing that active PP2C protein phosphatases protect and stabilize RopGEF1 from ABA-mediated degradation. Interestingly, ABA-mediated degradation of RopGEF1 also plays an important role in ABA-mediated inhibition of lateral root growth. The presented findings point to a PP2C-RopGEF-ROP/RAC control loop model that is proposed to aid in shutting off ABA signal transduction, to counteract leaky ABA signal transduction caused by “monomeric” PYL/RCAR ABA receptors in the absence of stress, and facilitate signaling in response to ABA. PMID:27192441

  2. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...

  3. Coordination failure caused by sunspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugnot, Julie; Gürgüç, Zeynep; Øvlisen, Frederik Roose


    In a coordination game with Pareto-ranked equilibria, we study whether a sunspot can lead to either coordination on an inferior equilibrium (mis-coordination) or to out-of equilibrium behavior (dis-coordination). While much of the literature searches for mechanisms to attain coordination on the e......In a coordination game with Pareto-ranked equilibria, we study whether a sunspot can lead to either coordination on an inferior equilibrium (mis-coordination) or to out-of equilibrium behavior (dis-coordination). While much of the literature searches for mechanisms to attain coordination...

  4. Segmented heat exchanger (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann


    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  5. Improving Information Exchange and Coordination Amongst Homeland Security Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goan, Terrance; Mayk, Israel


    ... events that involve dozens of local, state, and Federal organizations. In this paper we describe progress made in the development of new information access services that provide for improved situation awareness...

  6. Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Jonscher, Peter


    A problem exists in reducing the total heating power required to extract oxygen from lunar regolith. All such processes require heating a great deal of soil, and the heat energy is wasted if it cannot be recycled from processed material back into new material. The counterflow regolith heat exchanger (CoRHE) is a device that transfers heat from hot regolith to cold regolith. The CoRHE is essentially a tube-in-tube heat exchanger with internal and external augers attached to the inner rotating tube to move the regolith. Hot regolith in the outer tube is moved in one direction by a right-hand - ed auger, and the cool regolith in the inner tube is moved in the opposite direction by a left-handed auger attached to the inside of the rotating tube. In this counterflow arrangement, a large fraction of the heat from the expended regolith is transferred to the new regolith. The spent regolith leaves the heat exchanger close to the temperature of the cold new regolith, and the new regolith is pre-heated close to the initial temperature of the spent regolith. Using the CoRHE can reduce the heating requirement of a lunar ISRU system by 80%, reducing the total power consumption by a factor of two. The unique feature of this system is that it allows for counterflow heat exchange to occur between solids, instead of liquids or gases, as is commonly done. In addition, in variants of this concept, the hydrogen reduction can be made to occur within the counterflow heat exchanger itself, enabling a simplified lunar ISRU (in situ resource utilization) system with excellent energy economy and continuous nonbatch mode operation.

  7. CB-REFIM: A Practical Coordinated Beamforming in Multicell Networks


    Akbari, Mohammad Hossein; Vakili, Vahid Tabataba


    Performance of multicell systems is inevitably limited by interference and available resources. Although intercell interference can be mitigated by Base Station (BS) Coordination, the demand on inter-BS information exchange and computational complexity grows rapidly with the number of cells, subcarriers, and users. On the other hand, some of the existing coordination beamforming methods need computation of pseudo-inverse or generalized eigenvector of a matrix, which are practically difficult ...

  8. EMU, Monetary Policy Interactions and Exchange Rate Stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.D. Cavelaars


    textabstractThis memorandum discusses the possible impact of a monetary union in Europe on transatlantic exchange rate stability. EMU leads to the elimination of coordination failures within the euro area. Whether this translates into more stable exchange rates, depends on the origin of the shock.

  9. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Ligand Exchange Reaction Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Visible spectrophotometry is used to study the kinetics of ligand exchange in the system Ni(salpn)/H2salen with or without triethylamine (NEt3) and ... coordination chemistry.4,5 However, the kinetics of polydentate ligands exchange ..... chlorides and tetraaza Schiff bases: synthesis and characterization of some novel tin(IV) ...

  10. Investigating the effects of liquidity and exchange rate on Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younos Vakil Alroaia


    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of two macroeconomic factors; namely exchange rate and liquidity on stock index. The proposed study was applied in Iran and on major index of Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2001-2011. They reported that the currency exchange maintained negative impact on stock exchange for the period of investigation. This is due to the fact that when currency devalued, working capital decreases and firms did not enough money to purchase raw materials, pay wages, etc. In addition, liquidity marinated a direct and positive relationship with exchange index. However, the impact of liquidity seems to be bigger than currency exchange.

  11. The curvature coordinate system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik


    The paper describes a concept for a curvature coordinate system on regular curved surfaces from which faceted surfaces with plane quadrangular facets can be designed. The lines of curvature are used as parametric lines for the curvature coordinate system on the surface. A new conjugate set of lines......, called middle curvature lines, is introduced. These lines define the curvature coordinate system. Using the curvature coordinate system, the surface can be conformally mapped on the plane. In this mapping, elliptic sections are mapped as circles, and hyperbolic sections are mapped as equilateral...... hyperbolas. This means that when a plane orthogonal system of curves for which the vertices in a mesh always lie on a circle is mapped on a surface with positive Gaussian curvature using inverse mapping, and the mapped vertices are connected by straight lines, this network will form a faceted surface...

  12. Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination (United States)

    An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance

  13. Supercritical Airfoil Coordinates (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rectangular Supercritical Wing (Ricketts) - design and measured locations are provided in an Excel file RSW_airfoil_coordinates_ricketts.xls . One sheet is with Non...

  14. Australian Universities' Strategic Goals of Student Exchange and Participation Rates in Outbound Exchange Programmes (United States)

    Daly, Amanda; Barker, Michelle


    International student exchange programmes are acknowledged as one aspect of a broader suite of internationalisation strategies aimed at enhancing students' intercultural understanding and competence. The decision to participate in an exchange programme is dependent on both individual and contextual factors such as student exchange policies and…

  15. Metric Coordinate Systems


    Calcaterra, Craig; Boldt, Axel; Green, Michael; Bleecker, David


    Coordinate systems are defined on general metric spaces with the purpose of generalizing vector fields on a manifold. Conversion formulae are available between metric and Cartesian coordinates on a Hilbert space. Nagumo's Invariance Theorem is invoked to prove the analogue of the classical Cauchy-Lipschitz Theorem for vector fields on a locally compact coordinatized space. A metric space version of Nagumo's Theorem is one consequence. Examples are given throughout.

  16. The amino acid exchange R28E in ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) abrogates interleukin-6 receptor-dependent but retains CNTF receptor-dependent signaling via glycoprotein 130 (gp130)/leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR). (United States)

    Wagener, Eva-Maria; Aurich, Matthias; Aparicio-Siegmund, Samadhi; Floss, Doreen M; Garbers, Christoph; Breusing, Kati; Rabe, Björn; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Grötzinger, Joachim; Rose-John, Stefan; Scheller, Jürgen


    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neurotrophic factor with therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, therapeutic application of CNTF reduced body weight in mice and humans. CNTF binds to high or low affinity receptor complexes consisting of CNTFR·gp130·LIFR or IL-6R·gp130·LIFR, respectively. Clinical studies of the CNTF derivative Axokine revealed intolerance at higher concentrations, which may rely on the low-affinity binding of CNTF to the IL-6R. Here, we aimed to generate a CNTFR-selective CNTF variant (CV). CV-1 contained the single amino acid exchange R28E. Arg(28) is in close proximity to the CNTFR binding site. Using molecular modeling, we hypothesized that Arg(28) might contribute to IL-6R/CNTFR plasticity of CNTF. CV-2 to CV-5 were generated by transferring parts of the CNTFR-binding site from cardiotrophin-like cytokine to CNTF. Cardiotrophin-like cytokine selectively signals via the CNTFR·gp130·LIFR complex, albeit with a much lower affinity compared with CNTF. As shown by immunoprecipitation, all CNTF variants retained the ability to bind to CNTFR. CV-1, CV-2, and CV-5, however, lost the ability to bind to IL-6R. Although all variants induced cytokine-dependent cellular proliferation and STAT3 phosphorylation via CNTFR·gp130·LIFR, only CV-3 induced STAT3 phosphorylation via IL-6R·gp130·LIFR. Quantification of CNTF-dependent proliferation of CNTFR·gp130·LIFR expressing cells indicated that only CV-1 was as biologically active as CNTF. Thus, the CNTFR-selective CV-1 will allow discriminating between CNTFR- and IL-6R-mediated effects in vivo. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. The Amino Acid Exchange R28E in Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) Abrogates Interleukin-6 Receptor-dependent but Retains CNTF Receptor-dependent Signaling via Glycoprotein 130 (gp130)/Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor (LIFR)* (United States)

    Wagener, Eva-Maria; Aurich, Matthias; Aparicio-Siegmund, Samadhi; Floss, Doreen M.; Garbers, Christoph; Breusing, Kati; Rabe, Björn; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Grötzinger, Joachim; Rose-John, Stefan; Scheller, Jürgen


    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neurotrophic factor with therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, therapeutic application of CNTF reduced body weight in mice and humans. CNTF binds to high or low affinity receptor complexes consisting of CNTFR·gp130·LIFR or IL-6R·gp130·LIFR, respectively. Clinical studies of the CNTF derivative Axokine revealed intolerance at higher concentrations, which may rely on the low-affinity binding of CNTF to the IL-6R. Here, we aimed to generate a CNTFR-selective CNTF variant (CV). CV-1 contained the single amino acid exchange R28E. Arg28 is in close proximity to the CNTFR binding site. Using molecular modeling, we hypothesized that Arg28 might contribute to IL-6R/CNTFR plasticity of CNTF. CV-2 to CV-5 were generated by transferring parts of the CNTFR-binding site from cardiotrophin-like cytokine to CNTF. Cardiotrophin-like cytokine selectively signals via the CNTFR·gp130·LIFR complex, albeit with a much lower affinity compared with CNTF. As shown by immunoprecipitation, all CNTF variants retained the ability to bind to CNTFR. CV-1, CV-2, and CV-5, however, lost the ability to bind to IL-6R. Although all variants induced cytokine-dependent cellular proliferation and STAT3 phosphorylation via CNTFR·gp130·LIFR, only CV-3 induced STAT3 phosphorylation via IL-6R·gp130·LIFR. Quantification of CNTF-dependent proliferation of CNTFR·gp130·LIFR expressing cells indicated that only CV-1 was as biologically active as CNTF. Thus, the CNTFR-selective CV-1 will allow discriminating between CNTFR- and IL-6R-mediated effects in vivo. PMID:24802752

  18. Magnetic Coordinate Systems (United States)

    Laundal, K. M.; Richmond, A. D.


    Geospace phenomena such as the aurora, plasma motion, ionospheric currents and associated magnetic field disturbances are highly organized by Earth's main magnetic field. This is due to the fact that the charged particles that comprise space plasma can move almost freely along magnetic field lines, but not across them. For this reason it is sensible to present such phenomena relative to Earth's magnetic field. A large variety of magnetic coordinate systems exist, designed for different purposes and regions, ranging from the magnetopause to the ionosphere. In this paper we review the most common magnetic coordinate systems and describe how they are defined, where they are used, and how to convert between them. The definitions are presented based on the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and, in some of the coordinate systems, the position of the Sun which we show how to calculate from the time and date. The most detailed coordinate systems take the full IGRF into account and define magnetic latitude and longitude such that they are constant along field lines. These coordinate systems, which are useful at ionospheric altitudes, are non-orthogonal. We show how to handle vectors and vector calculus in such coordinates, and discuss how systematic errors may appear if this is not done correctly.

  19. Sites involved in intra- and interdomain allostery associated with the activation of factor VIIa pinpointed by hydrogen-deuterium exchange and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Hongjian; Olsen, Ole H; Persson, Egon


    enhancement remain elusive. Here we have applied hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry coupled to electron transfer dissociation to pinpoint individual residues in the heavy chain of FVIIa whose conformation and/or local interaction pattern changes when the enzyme transitions to the active form...

  20. Estrogen receptor alpha and nuclear factor Y coordinately regulate the transcription of the SUMO-conjugating UBC9 gene in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibo Ying

    Full Text Available UBC9 encodes a protein that conjugates small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO to target proteins thereby changing their functions. Recently, it was noted that UBC9 expression and activity play a role in breast tumorigenesis and response to anticancer drugs. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. To investigate the transcriptional regulation of the UBC9 gene, we identified and characterized its promoter and cis-elements. Promoter activity was tested using luciferase reporter assays. The binding of transcription factors to the promoter was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, and their functional role was confirmed by siRNA knockdown. UBC9 mRNA and protein levels were measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. An increased expression of UBC9 mRNA and protein was found in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with 17β-estradiol (E2. Analysis of various deletion mutants revealed a 137 bp fragment upstream of the transcription initiation site to be sufficient for reporter gene transcription. Mutations of putative estrogen receptor α (ER-α (one imperfect estrogen response element, ERE and/or nuclear factor Y (NF-Y binding sites (two CCAAT boxes markedly reduced promoter activity. Similar results were obtained in ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells except that the ERE mutation did not affect promoter activity. Additionally, promoter activity was stimulated upon E2 treatment and overexpression of ER-α or NF-YA in MCF-7 cells. ChIP confirmed direct binding of both transcription factors to the UBC9 promoter in vivo. Furthermore, UBC9 expression was diminished by ER-α and NF-Y siRNAs on the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, we identified the proximal UBC9 promoter and provided evidence that ER-α and NF-Y regulate UBC9 expression on the transcriptional level in response to E2 in MCF-7 cells. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the regulation of UBC9 in ER

  1. Estrogen receptor alpha and nuclear factor Y coordinately regulate the transcription of the SUMO-conjugating UBC9 gene in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Ying, Shibo; Dünnebier, Thomas; Si, Jing; Hamann, Ute


    UBC9 encodes a protein that conjugates small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) to target proteins thereby changing their functions. Recently, it was noted that UBC9 expression and activity play a role in breast tumorigenesis and response to anticancer drugs. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. To investigate the transcriptional regulation of the UBC9 gene, we identified and characterized its promoter and cis-elements. Promoter activity was tested using luciferase reporter assays. The binding of transcription factors to the promoter was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and their functional role was confirmed by siRNA knockdown. UBC9 mRNA and protein levels were measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. An increased expression of UBC9 mRNA and protein was found in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with 17β-estradiol (E2). Analysis of various deletion mutants revealed a 137 bp fragment upstream of the transcription initiation site to be sufficient for reporter gene transcription. Mutations of putative estrogen receptor α (ER-α) (one imperfect estrogen response element, ERE) and/or nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) binding sites (two CCAAT boxes) markedly reduced promoter activity. Similar results were obtained in ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells except that the ERE mutation did not affect promoter activity. Additionally, promoter activity was stimulated upon E2 treatment and overexpression of ER-α or NF-YA in MCF-7 cells. ChIP confirmed direct binding of both transcription factors to the UBC9 promoter in vivo. Furthermore, UBC9 expression was diminished by ER-α and NF-Y siRNAs on the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, we identified the proximal UBC9 promoter and provided evidence that ER-α and NF-Y regulate UBC9 expression on the transcriptional level in response to E2 in MCF-7 cells. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the regulation of UBC9 in ER

  2. Implicit Coordination Strategies for Effective Team Communication. (United States)

    Butchibabu, Abhizna; Sparano-Huiban, Christopher; Sonenberg, Liz; Shah, Julie


    We investigated implicit communication strategies for anticipatory information sharing during team performance of tasks with varying degrees of complexity. We compared the strategies used by teams with the highest level of performance to those used by the lowest-performing teams to evaluate the frequency and methods of communications used as a function of task structure. High-performing teams share information by anticipating the needs of their teammates rather than explicitly requesting the exchange of information. As the complexity of a task increases to involve more interdependence among teammates, the impact of coordination on team performance also increases. This observation motivated us to conduct a study of anticipatory information sharing as a function of task complexity. We conducted an experiment in which 13 teams of four people performed collaborative search-and-deliver tasks with varying degrees of complexity in a simulation environment. We elaborated upon prior characterizations of communication as implicit versus explicit by dividing implicit communication into two subtypes: (a) deliberative/goal information and (b) reactive status updates. We then characterized relationships between task structure, implicit communication, and team performance. We found that the five teams with the fastest task completion times and lowest idle times exhibited higher rates of deliberative communication versus reactive communication during high-complexity tasks compared with the five teams with the slowest completion times and longest idle times (p = .039). Teams in which members proactively communicated information about their next goal to teammates exhibited improved team performance. The findings from our work can inform the design of communication strategies for team training to improve performance of complex tasks. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  3. Rumen epithelial adaptation to ruminal acidosis in lactating cattle involves the coordinated expression of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins and a cholesterolgenic enzyme. (United States)

    Steele, M A; Dionissopoulos, L; AlZahal, O; Doelman, J; McBride, B W


    The objective of this study was to characterize the mRNA expression of metabolic and proliferative genes in the rumen epithelium during ruminal acidosis. To meet our objectives, 16 rumen-fistulated, lactating Holstein dairy cattle (618±35 kg of body weight, 221±32 d in milk) were used in a randomized complete block design. All cattle were fed a high-forage diet (HF; 88.9% of dry matter) for 5 wk before the experiment. After the baseline week (wk 0), half of the cattle were randomly assigned and transitioned to a high-concentrate diet (HC; 62.2% of dry matter) which was fed for 3 wk (wk 1, 2, and 3). For the last 48 h of each week, continuous ruminal pH, short-chain fatty acids, and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate were assessed, followed by a rumen papillae biopsy. Milk production was higher in HC cattle compared with HF during wk 1, 2, and 3 (17.4±0.5 vs. 23.4±0.9 kg/d, respectively); however, the mean ruminal pH was decreased (5.75±0.03 vs. 6.30±0.02). The HC cattle spent more time below pH 5.6 (594±54 vs. 3±3 min/d) and displayed greater concentrations of ruminal butyrate (15.8±0.9 vs. 10.2±0.4 mmol) and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (1,036±63 vs. 778±20 μM) compared with the HF cattle. The mRNA expression of genes involved in ketogenesis (HMGCS2 and PPARA) and short-chain fatty acid transport (MCT1) was unchanged by treatment. However, a downregulation in HMGCS1 (0.72±0.09), one of the cholesterol biosynthesis genes, was observed in HC cattle during wk 1 of the grain challenge. In addition, the relative mRNA expression value of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 was lower (0.78±0.06), whereas insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 was higher (1.79±0.15) in HC compared with HF cattle. These results suggest that grain-induced ruminal acidosis alters the mRNA expression of IGF-binding proteins and a cholesterolgenic enzyme in the rumen epithelium of lactating dairy cattle. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  4. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  5. Coordinated Action of Two Double-Stranded RNA Binding Motifs and an RGG Motif Enables Nuclear Factor 90 To Flexibly Target Different RNA Substrates. (United States)

    Schmidt, Tobias; Knick, Paul; Lilie, Hauke; Friedrich, Susann; Golbik, Ralph Peter; Behrens, Sven-Erik


    The mechanisms of how RNA binding proteins (RBP) bind to and distinguish different RNA molecules are yet uncertain. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the RNA binding properties of multidomain RBP nuclear factor 90 (NF90) by investigating specifically the functional activities of two double-stranded RNA binding motifs (dsRBM) and an RGG motif in the protein's unstructured C-terminus. By comparison of the RNA binding affinities of several NF90 variants and their modes of binding to a set of defined RNA molecules, the activities of the motifs turned out to be very different. While dsRBM1 contributes little to RNA binding, dsRBM2 is essential for effective binding of double-stranded RNA. The protein's immediate C-terminus, including the RGG motif, is indispensable for interactions of the protein with single-stranded RNA, and the RGG motif decisively contributes to NF90's overall RNA binding properties. Conformational studies, which compared wild-type NF90 with a variant that contains a pseudophosphorylated residue in the RGG motif, suggest that the NF90 C-terminus is involved in conformational changes in the protein after RNA binding, with the RGG motif acting as a central regulatory element. In summary, our data propose a concerted action of all RNA binding motifs within the frame of the full-length protein, which may be controlled by regulation of the activity of the RGG motif, e.g., by phosphorylation. This multidomain interplay enables the RBP NF90 to discriminate RNA features by dynamic and adaptable interactions.

  6. Calcium elevation at fertilization coordinates phosphorylation of XErp1/Emi2 by Plx1 and CaMK II to release metaphase arrest by cytostatic factor. (United States)

    Liu, Junjun; Maller, James L


    Vertebrate oocytes are arrested at second meiotic metaphase by cytostatic factor (CSF) while awaiting fertilization. Accumulating evidence has suggested that inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is responsible for this arrest. Xenopus polo-like kinase 1 (Plx1) is required for activation of the APC/C at the metaphase-anaphase transition, and calcium elevation, upon fertilization/activation of eggs, acting through calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is sufficient to activate the APC/C and terminate CSF arrest. However, connections between the Plx1 pathway and the CaMKII pathway have not been identified. Overexpression of Plx1 causes CSF release in the absence of calcium, and depletion of Plx1 from egg extracts blocks induction of CSF release by calcium and CaMKII. Prior phosphorylation of the APC/C inhibitor XErp1/Emi2 by CaMK II renders it a good substrate for Plx1, and phosphorylation by both kinases together promotes its degradation in egg extracts. The pathway is enhanced by the ability of Plx1 to cause calcium-independent activation of CaMKII. The results identify the targets of CaMKII and Plx1 that promote egg activation and define the first known pathway of CSF release in which an APC/C inhibitor is targeted for degradation only when both CaMKII and Plx1 are active after calcium elevation at fertilization. Plx1 with an intact polo-box domain is necessary for release of CSF arrest and sufficient when overexpressed. It acts at the same level as CaMKII in the pathway of calcium-induced CSF release by cooperating with CaMKII to regulate APC/C regulator(s), such as XErp1/Emi2, rather than by directly activating the APC/C itself.

  7. Coordinating Interactions: The Event Coordination Notation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    The purpose of a domain model is to concisely capture the concepts of an application’s domain, and their relation among each other. Even though the main purpose of domain models is not on implementing the application, major parts of an application can be generated from the application’s domain...... on a much more technical level. The Event Coordination Notation (ECNO) allows modelling the behaviour of an application on a high level of abstraction that is closer to the application’s domain than to the software realizing it. Still, these models contain all necessary details for actually executing...... models fully automatically with today’s technologies. The focus of today’s code generation technologies, however, is mostly on the structural aspects of the domain; the domain’s behaviour is often not modelled at all, or implemented manually based on some informal models, or the behaviour is modelled...

  8. Sharing and coordinating SDIs in the age of crowdsourcing and mobile technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, S


    Full Text Available Every spatial data infrastructure (SDI) reflects an evolving concept related to the facilitation and coordination of the exchange and sharing of spatial data and services. Today, SDIs are evolving in response to the mushrooming of cloud...

  9. Botanical drug puerarin coordinates with nerve growth factor in the regulation of neuronal survival and neuritogenesis via activating ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in the neurite extension process. (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Fan, Wen; Yang, Chuan-Bin; Ye, Shui-Fen; Cui, Wei; Wei, Wei; Lao, Li-Xing; Cai, Jing; Han, Yi-Fan; Rong, Jian-Hui


    Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates neuronal survival and differentiation by activating extracellular signal-regulated-kinases (ERK) 1/2 and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways in two distinct processes: latency process and neurite extension process. This study was designed to investigate whether botanical drug C-glucosylated isoflavone puerarin coordinates with NGF to regulate neuritogenesis via activating ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt in neurite extension process. We investigated the neuroprotective and neurotrophic activities of puerarin in MPTP-lesioned mice and dopaminergic PC12 cells. The effects of puerarin on ERK1/2, Akt, Nrf2, and HO-1 were assessed by Western blotting. The neurite outgrowth was assayed by neurite outgrowth staining kit. Puerarin protected dopaminergic cells and ameliorated the behavioral impairments in MPTP-lesioned mice. Puerarin potentiated the effect of NGF on neuritogenesis in PC12 cells by >10-fold. Mechanistic studies revealed: (1) puerarin rapidly activated ERK1/2 and Akt, leading to the activation of Nrf2/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathways; (2) ERK1/2, PI3K/Akt, and HO-1 inhibitors attenuated the neuritogenic activity of puerarin. Notably, puerarin enhanced NGF-induced neuritogenesis in a timing-dependent manner. Puerarin effectively coordinated with NGF to stimulate neuritogenesis via activating ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways in neurite extension process. These results demonstrated a general mechanism supporting the therapeutic application of puerarin-related compounds in neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Introduction to Coordination Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, Geoffrey Alan


    Introduction to Coordination Chemistry examines and explains how metals and molecules that bind as ligands interact, and the consequences of this assembly process. This book describes the chemical and physical properties and behavior of the complex assemblies that form, and applications that may arise as a result of these properties. Coordination complexes are an important but often hidden part of our world?even part of us?and what they do is probed in this book. This book distills the essence of this topic for undergraduate students and for research scientists.

  11. The role of shared visual information for joint action coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula; Schmitz, Laura; Safra, Lou


    Previous research has identified a number of coordination processes that enable people to perform joint actions. But what determines which coordination processes joint action partners rely on in a given situation? The present study tested whether varying the shared visual information available...... they held their movement duration constant to facilitate coordination. When they received additional visual information about each other’s movements they switched to a fundamentally different coordination process, exaggerating the curvature of their movements to communicate their arrival time....... These findings indicate that the availability of shared perceptual information is a major factor in determining how individuals coordinate their actions to obtain joint outcomes....

  12. Polymeric coordination compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Metal coordination polymers with one- and two-dimensional structures are of current interest due to their possible relevance to material science 1. In continuation of our previous studies 2,3, several new polymeric compounds are reported here. Among the complexes of silver with aminomethyl pyridine (amp) ...

  13. Coordination Games on Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Apt (Krzysztof); M.M. Rahn (Mona); G. Schäfer (Guido); S.E. Simon (Sunil)


    htmlabstractWe introduce natural strategic games on graphs, which capture the idea of coordination in a local setting.We show that these games have an exact potential and have strong equilibria when the graph is a pseudoforest. We also exhibit some other classes of games for which a strong

  14. Dimensions of Organizational Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Aldewereld, Huib; Dignum, Virginia


    be supported to include organizational objectives and constraints into their reasoning processes by considering two alternatives: agent reasoning and middleware regulation. We show how agents can use an organizational specification to achieve organizational objectives by delegating and coordinating...... their activities with other agents in the society, using the GOAL agent programming language and the OperA organizational model....

  15. Coordination Compounds in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Coordination Compounds in Biology - The Chemistry of Vitamin B12 and Model Compounds. K Hussian Reddy. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 67-77 ...

  16. Recursive Advice for Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terepeta, Michal Tomasz; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming


    Aspect-oriented programming is a programming paradigm that is often praised for the ability to create modular software and separate cross-cutting concerns. Recently aspects have been also considered in the context of coordination languages, offering similar advantages. However, introducing aspects...

  17. Coordination Games on Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apt, K.R.; Rahn, M.; Schäfer, G.; Simon, S.; Liu, T.-Y.; Qi, Q.; Ye, Y.


    We introduce natural strategic games on graphs, which capture the idea of coordination in a local setting. We show that these games have an exact potential and have strong equilibria when the graph is a pseudoforest. We also exhibit some other classes of graphs for which a strong equilibrium exists.

  18. Coordinating Supplemental Reading Instruction (United States)

    Deeney, Theresa A.


    Although supplemental reading services are meant to improve reading achievement of struggling readers and students with reading disabilities, without concerted effort to ensure communication and coordination with in-school instruction, they may fall short of their desired mark. To promote learning, it is critical that any services provided outside…

  19. The determinants of exchange rate in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel BENAZIC


    Full Text Available The dilemma for every country with an independent monetary policy is which kind of exchange rate arrangement should be applied. Through the exchange rate policy, countries can influence their economies, i.e. price stability and export competiveness. Croatia is a new EU member state, it has its own monetary policy and currency but it is on the way to euro introduction. Regarding the experiences from the beginning of the 1990s when Croatia was faced with serious monetary instabilities and hyperinflation, the goal of Croatian National Bank (CNB is to ensure price stability and one way to do so is through exchange rate policy. Croatia, as a small and open economy, has applied a managed floating exchange rate regime. The exchange rate is determined primarily by the foreign exchange supply and demand on the foreign exchange market, with occasional market interventions by the CNB. Therefore, in order to maintain exchange rate stability, policymakers must be able to recognize how changes in these factors affect changes in the exchange rate. This research aims to find a relationship among the main sources of foreign currency inflow and outflow and the level of exchange rate in Croatia. The analysis is carried out by using the bounds testing (ARDL approach for co-integration. The results indicate the existence of a stable co-integration relationship between the observed variables, whereby an increase in the majority of variables leads to an exchange rate appreciation.

  20. What is Coordinated in Bimanual Coordination? (United States)

    Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

    In periodic bimanual movements there is a characteristic spontaneous tendency towards mirror-symmetry. This phenomenon has widely been interpreted as a tendency towards co-activation of homologous muscles, possibly originating in motoric neuronal structures. The experiments reported here provide evidence contrary to this common claim. The symmetry tendency in bimanual abductive/adductive finger oscillation as well as in bimanual multi-finger tapping is actually towards spatial, perceptual symmetry, without regard to the muscles and thus to the motor commands involved. It is hypothesized that, as a rule, spontaneous coordination phenomena of this kind are purely perceptual-cognitive in nature. Moreover, in the case of a bimanual circling paradigm, the reported findings reveal that highly complex, even 'impossible' movements can easily be performed if, rather than the bodily movements themselves, simple sensory consequences are controlled. It is suggested that voluntary movements are organized by representing and controlling their perceptual goals or anticipated effects, whereas the corresponding motor activity of sometimes high formal complexity is rather spontaneously and flexibly tuned in service of these effects.

  1. Analyzing Influential Factors Against Timeliness of Financial Reporting (Empirical Study of Automation and Components and Telecommunication Companies Listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Suryanto


    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the effect of the relationship between firm size, profitability, solvency, public ownership, and the audit opinion on the timeliness of financial reporting. The dependent variable in the form of timekeeping company deliver the financial statements to the Stock Exchange. Meanwhile for the independent variables such as firm size measured by total asets of the company, profitability is measured by profit margin ratio, solvency measured by debt-to-equity ratio, public ownership is measured by the percentage of the number of shares owned by the community, and the audit opinion is measured with an unqualified opinion and otherwise unqualified. This study uses secondary data with population automotive companies and telecommunications components and annual financial statements issued on the Stock Exchange in the period 2010-2012. From the analysis conducted in this study it can be concluded that the size of the company significantly influence the timeliness of financial reporting. While profitability, solvency, public ownership, and the audit opinion does not affect the timeliness of financial reporting.

  2. The Radioecology Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Catherine L.; Beresford, Nicholas A.; Patel, Sabera; Wells, Claire; Howard, Brenda J. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av., Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Mora, Juan Carlos; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avenida complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [IRSN-Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92260 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Vesterbacka, Pia; Muikku, Maarit; Outola, Iisa [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Skuterud, Lavrans; AlbumYtre-Eide, Martin [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naeringspark 13, Oesteraas, 1332 (Norway); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina; Jaeschke, Ben [Stockholms Universitet, Universitetsvaegen 10, Stockholm, 10691 (Sweden); Oughton, Deborah; Skipperud, Lindis [NMBU Norwegian University of Life Science P.O. Box 5003N-1432 Aas, Oslo (Norway); Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Vanhoudt, Nathalie [SCK.CEN, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Avenue Herrmann-Debroux 40, BE-1160 Brussels (Belgium); Willrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Willy-Brandt-Strasse 5, 38226 Salzgitter (Germany)


    The Radioecology Exchange ( was created in 2011 under the EU FP7 STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) network of excellence. The project aims to integrate the research efforts on radioecology of nine European organisations into a sustainable network. The web site (together with associated Twitter feeds and Facebook page) currently provides the gateway to project outputs and other on-line radiation protection and radioecological resources. In 2013, the EU FP7 COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) project commenced; it aims to strengthen research on the impact of radiation on man and the environment. COMET includes the STAR partners with the addition of one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes. As STAR and COMET interact closely together and with the European Radioecology Alliance (, the Radioecology Exchange will be modified to become an international 'hub' for information related to radioecology. Project specific information will be hosted on separate web sites and This paper will present an overview of the resources hosted on the Radioecology Exchange inviting other scientists to contribute. Highlighted aspects of the site include: Social media (News blog, Twitter, Facebook) - Items announcing project outputs, training courses, jobs, studentships etc. Virtual laboratory - Information which encourages integration through joint research and integrated use of data and sample materials. These pages will focus on three categories: (1) Methodological: descriptions and video clips of commonly used analytical methods and protocols and the procedures used in STAR and COMET; (2) Informative: databases made available by STAR/COMET partners together with details of sample archives held. Fact-sheets on radio-ecologically important radionuclides and 'topical descriptions' which show absorbed

  3. The coordination dynamics of social neuromarkers (United States)

    Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J. A. Scott


    Social behavior is a complex integrative function that entails many aspects of the brain’s sensory, cognitive, emotional and movement capacities. Its neural processes are seldom simultaneous but occur according to precise spatiotemporal choreographies, manifested by the coordination of their oscillations within and between brains. Methods with good temporal resolution can help to identify so-called “neuromarkers” of social function and aid in disentangling the dynamical architecture of social brains. In our ongoing research, we have used dual-electroencephalography (EEG) to study neuromarker dynamics during synchronic interactions in which pairs of subjects coordinate behavior spontaneously and intentionally (social coordination) and during diachronic transactions that require subjects to perceive or behave in turn (action observation, delayed imitation). In this paper, after outlining our dynamical approach to the neurophysiological basis of social behavior, we examine commonalities and differences in the neuromarkers that are recruited for both kinds of tasks. We find the neuromarker landscape to be task-specific: synchronic paradigms of social coordination reveal medial mu, alpha and the phi complex as contributing neuromarkers. Diachronic tasks recruit alpha as well, in addition to lateral mu rhythms and the newly discovered nu and kappa rhythms whose functional significance is still unclear. Social coordination, observation, and delayed imitation share commonality of context: in each of our experiments, subjects exchanged information through visual perception and moved in similar ways. Nonetheless, there was little overlap between their neuromarkers, a result that hints strongly of task-specific neural mechanisms for social behavior. The only neuromarker that transcended both synchronic and diachronic social behaviors was the ubiquitous alpha rhythm, which appears to be a key signature of visually-mediated social behaviors. The present paper is both an

  4. Conformal Fermi Coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Liang; Schmidt, Fabian


    Fermi Normal Coordinates (FNC) are a useful frame for isolating the locally observable, physical effects of a long-wavelength spacetime perturbation. Their cosmological application, however, is hampered by the fact that they are only valid on scales much smaller than the horizon. We introduce a generalization that we call Conformal Fermi Coordinates (CFC). CFC preserve all the advantages of FNC, but in addition are valid outside the horizon. They allow us to calculate the coupling of long- and short-wavelength modes on all scales larger than the sound horizon of the cosmological fluid, starting from the epoch of inflation until today, by removing the complications of the second order Einstein equations to a large extent, and eliminating all gauge ambiguities. As an application, we present a calculation of the effect of long-wavelength tensor modes on small scale density fluctuations. We recover previous results, but clarify the physical content of the individual contributions in terms of locally measurable ef...

  5. Coordinating Shared Activities (United States)

    Clement, Bradley


    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  6. Global coordination: weighted voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Lane


    Full Text Available In order to halt the depletion of global ecological capital, a number of different kinds of meetings between Governments of countries in the world has been scheduled. The need for global coordination of environmental policies has become ever more obvious, supported by more and more evidence of the running down of ecological capital. But there are no formal or binding arrangements in sight, as global environmental coordination suffers from high transaction costs (qualitative voting. The CO2 equivalent emissions, resulting in global warming, are driven by the unstoppable economic expansion in the global market economy, employing mainly fossil fuel generated energy, although at the same time lifting sharply the GDP per capita of several emerging countries. Only global environmental coordination on the successful model of the World Band and the IMF (quantitative voting can stem the rising emissions numbers and stop further environmental degradation. However, the system of weighted voting in the WB and the IMF must be reformed by reducing the excessive voting power disparities, for instance by reducing all member country votes by the cube root expression.

  7. Guidelines for insulation coordination in live working

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Guide contains the main aspects to be taken into consideration in the assessment of insulation coordination during live working on overhead transmission lines; the basis rules and influence factors for the determination of the minimum distances to be maintained between parts at different potential, including the worker himself, are given as well as for the evaluation of the risk of insulation failure. (authors)

  8. Coordinated Displays to Assist Cyber Defenders (United States)


    checks: Detecting satisficing to increase statistical power. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology , 45, 867-872. Scarfone, K., & Mell, P. (2007...regardless of display condition (coordinated or uncoordinated). METHOD Participants & Experimental Design In this experiment, 46 people (19...previous experience in cyber defense. Experimental Design This study featured a single experimental factor, display condition, and a control

  9. Sorting Nexin 27 Protein Regulates Trafficking of a p21-activated Kinase (PAK) Interacting Exchange Factor (β-Pix)-G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase Interacting Protein (GIT) Complex via a PDZ Domain Interaction* (United States)

    Valdes, Julie L.; Tang, Jingrong; McDermott, Mark I.; Kuo, Jean-Cheng; Zimmerman, Seth P.; Wincovitch, Stephen M.; Waterman, Clare M.; Milgram, Sharon L.; Playford, Martin P.


    Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) is a 62-kDa protein localized to early endosomes and known to regulate the intracellular trafficking of ion channels and receptors. In addition to a PX domain, SNX27 is the only sorting family member that contains a PDZ domain. To identify novel SNX27-PDZ binding partners, we performed a proteomic screen in mouse principal kidney cortical collecting duct cells using a GST-SNX27 fusion construct as bait. We found that β-Pix (p21-activated kinase-interactive exchange factor), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rho family of small GTPases known to regulate cell motility directly interacted with SNX27. The association of β-Pix and SNX27 is specific for β-Pix isoforms terminating in the type-1 PDZ binding motif (ETNL). In the same screen we also identified Git1/2 as a potential SNX27 interacting protein. The interaction between SNX27 and Git1/2 is indirect and mediated by β-Pix. Furthermore, we show recruitment of the β-Pix·Git complex to endosomal sites in a SNX27-dependent manner. Finally, migration assays revealed that depletion of SNX27 from HeLa and mouse principal kidney cortical collecting duct cells significantly decreases cell motility. We propose a model by which SNX27 regulates trafficking of β-Pix to focal adhesions and thereby influences cell motility. PMID:21926430

  10. Exchange potentials of phosphorus between sediments and water coupled to alkaline phosphatase activity and environmental factors in an oligo-mesotrophic reservoir. (United States)

    Mhamdi, Badre Alaoui; Azzouzi, Assia; Elloumi, Jannet; Ayadi, Habib; Mhamdi, Mohammed Alaoui; Aleya, Lotfi


    We investigated the exchange potentials of phosphates at the water-sediment interface together with in situ benthic-chamber fractionated alkaline phosphatase activity and bacteria estimates during September and October 1998 at two stations: station 1, which received immediately the urban inputs from the Taounate city, and station 2, located in the centre of the Sahela reservoir (Morocco). The results showed that low oxygenation enhanced both the bacterial abundance and the alkaline phosphatase activity. Size-fractionated (0.65-100 microm) bacteria attached to dead organic matter together with algae and zooplankton contributed strongly (78%) to the total alkaline phosphatase synthesis in the two sampled stations, suggesting that attachment to organic particles stimulated phosphatase activities. The appearance of anoxic conditions and the decrease of pH supported the dissolution of particulate phosphorus and the release of soluble reactive phosphorus. This latter, together with persisting discharges of organic matter, sewage, and olive mill waste will exacerbate the eutrophication of the reservoir.

  11. T-duality as permutation of coordinates in double space (United States)

    Sazdović, B.


    We introduce the 2D dimensional double space with the coordinates ZM = (xμ , yμ ), whose components are the coordinates of initial space xμ and its T-dual yμ . We shall show that in this extended space the T-duality transformations can be realized simply by exchanging the places of some coordinates xa , along which we want to perform T-duality, and the corresponding dual coordinates ya . In such an approach it is evident that T-duality leads to the physically equivalent theory and that a complete set of T-duality transformations forms a subgroup of the 2D permutation group. So, in double space we are able to represent the backgrounds of all T-dual theories in a unified manner. Supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science (171031)

  12. Generalized Euler Angles Viewed as Spherical Coordinates


    Brezov, Danail; Mladenova, Clementina; Mladenov, Ivaïlo


    Here we develop a specific factorization technique for rotations in $\\mathbb{R}^3$ into five factors about two or three fixed axes. Although not always providing the most efficient solution, the method allows for avoiding gimbal lock singularities and decouples the dependence on the invariant axis ${\\bf n}$ and the angle $\\phi$ of the compound rotation. In particular, the solutions in the classical Euler setting are given directly by the angle of rotation $\\phi$ and the coordinate...

  13. VT Telephone Exchange Boundaries (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The UtilityTelecom_EXCHANGE represents Vermont Telephone Exchange boundaries as defined by the VT Public Service Board. The original data was...

  14. Symmetric two-coordinate photodiode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovolskiy Yu. G.


    Full Text Available The two-coordinate photodiode is developed and explored on the longitudinal photoeffect, which allows to get the coordinate descriptions symmetric on the steepness and longitudinal resistance great exactness. It was shown, that the best type of the coordinate description is observed in the case of scanning by the optical probe on the central part of the photosensitive element. The ways of improvement of steepness and linear of its coordinate description were analyzed.

  15. Facilitators and Barriers to Care Coordination in Patient-centered Medical Homes (PCMHs) from Coordinators' Perspectives. (United States)

    Friedman, Asia; Howard, Jenna; Shaw, Eric K; Cohen, Deborah J; Shahidi, Laleh; Ferrante, Jeanne M


    Care coordinators are increasingly featured in patient-centered medical home (PCMH) projects, yet little research examines how coordinators themselves define and experience their role. This is the first study describing experiences of care coordinators across the US from their own perspectives. This qualitative study used a 5-month private, online discussion forum to gather data from 25 care coordinators from PCMH practices representing diversity in practice size, setting, and type. Participants answered questions and interacted with one another, creating an online social learning collaborative while allowing for data collection for research. Coordinators identified barriers and facilitators in their work at the organization/system level, the interpersonal level, and the individual level. Some factors emerged as both barriers and facilitators, including the functionality of clinical information technology; the availability of community resources; interactions with clinicians and other health care facilities; interactions with patients; and self-care practices for mental health and wellness. Colocation and full integration into practices were other key facilitators, whereas excessive case loads and data management responsibilities were felt to be important barriers. While all the barriers and facilitators were important to performing coordinators' roles, relationship building materialized as key to effective care coordination, whether with clinicians, patients, or outside organizations. We discuss implications for practice and provide suggestions for further research. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  16. Understanding Leadership A Coordination Theory


    J. Foss, Nicolai


    Important aspects of leadership behavior can be rendered intelligible through a focus on coordination games. The concept of common knowledge is shown to be particularly important to understanding leadership. Thus, leaders may establish common knowledge conditions and assist the coordination of strategies in this way, or make decisions in situations where coordination problems persist in spite of common knowledge.

  17. Work Coordination Engine (United States)

    Zendejas, Silvino; Bui, Tung; Bui, Bach; Malhotra, Shantanu; Chen, Fannie; Kim, Rachel; Allen, Christopher; Luong, Ivy; Chang, George; Sadaqathulla, Syed


    The Work Coordination Engine (WCE) is a Java application integrated into the Service Management Database (SMDB), which coordinates the dispatching and monitoring of a work order system. WCE de-queues work orders from SMDB and orchestrates the dispatching of work to a registered set of software worker applications distributed over a set of local, or remote, heterogeneous computing systems. WCE monitors the execution of work orders once dispatched, and accepts the results of the work order by storing to the SMDB persistent store. The software leverages the use of a relational database, Java Messaging System (JMS), and Web Services using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) technologies to implement an efficient work-order dispatching mechanism capable of coordinating the work of multiple computer servers on various platforms working concurrently on different, or similar, types of data or algorithmic processing. Existing (legacy) applications can be wrapped with a proxy object so that no changes to the application are needed to make them available for integration into the work order system as "workers." WCE automatically reschedules work orders that fail to be executed by one server to a different server if available. From initiation to completion, the system manages the execution state of work orders and workers via a well-defined set of events, states, and actions. It allows for configurable work-order execution timeouts by work-order type. This innovation eliminates a current processing bottleneck by providing a highly scalable, distributed work-order system used to quickly generate products needed by the Deep Space Network (DSN) to support space flight operations. WCE is driven by asynchronous messages delivered via JMS indicating the availability of new work or workers. It runs completely unattended in support of the lights-out operations concept in the DSN.

  18. Markov stochasticity coordinates (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo


    Markov dynamics constitute one of the most fundamental models of random motion between the states of a system of interest. Markov dynamics have diverse applications in many fields of science and engineering, and are particularly applicable in the context of random motion in networks. In this paper we present a two-dimensional gauging method of the randomness of Markov dynamics. The method-termed Markov Stochasticity Coordinates-is established, discussed, and exemplified. Also, the method is tweaked to quantify the stochasticity of the first-passage-times of Markov dynamics, and the socioeconomic equality and mobility in human societies.

  19. Botanical Drug Puerarin Coordinates with Nerve Growth Factor in the Regulation of Neuronal Survival and Neuritogenesis via Activating ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways in the Neurite Extension Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuan‐Yuan; Fan, Wen; Yang, Chuan‐Bin; Ye, Shui‐Fen; Cui, Wei; Wei, Wei; Lao, Li‐Xing; Cai, Jing; Han, Yi‐Fan; Rong, Jian‐Hui


    .... This study was designed to investigate whether botanical drug C-glucosylated isoflavone puerarin coordinates with NGF to regulate neuritogenesis via activating ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt in neurite extension process...

  20. Keeping up with Coordination: From Clark's Triangle to Microcosmographia (United States)

    Salazar, Jose; Leihy, Peodair


    In 1986 (first published 1983) Clark's triangle of coordination compared national higher education systems according to the dimensions of state authority, market and academic oligarchy. The picture was of a particular time, one in which those three factors could be ably used to illustrate major differences in how coordination took place.…

  1. Ideal Heat Exchange System (United States)

    Tsirlin, A. M.


    The requirements with which a heat exchange system should comply in order that at certain values of the total contact surface and heat load the entropy production in it should be minimal have been determined. It has been shown that this system can serve as a standard for real systems of irreversible heat exchange. We have found the conditions for physical realizability of a heat exchange system in which heat exchange occurs by a law linear with respect to the temperature difference between contacting flows. Analogous conditions are given without deriving for the case of heat exchange by the Fourier law.

  2. Resolution exchange simulation. (United States)

    Lyman, Edward; Ytreberg, F Marty; Zuckerman, Daniel M


    We extend replica-exchange simulation in two ways and apply our approaches to biomolecules. The first generalization permits exchange simulation between models of differing resolution--i.e., between detailed and coarse-grained models. Such "resolution exchange" can be applied to molecular systems or spin systems. The second extension is to "pseudoexchange" simulations, which require little CPU usage for most levels of the exchange ladder and also substantially reduce the need for overlap between levels. Pseudoexchanges can be used in either replica or resolution exchange simulations. We perform efficient, converged simulations of a 50-atom peptide to illustrate the new approaches.

  3. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee, fiscal year 1997. Annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1997 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  4. Wireless coordinated multicell systems architectures and precoding designs

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Duy H N


    This SpringerBrief discusses the current research on coordinated multipoint transmission/reception (CoMP) in wireless multi-cell systems. This book analyzes the structure of the CoMP precoders and the message exchange mechanism in the CoMP system in order to reveal the advantage of CoMP. Topics include interference management in wireless cellular networks, joint signal processing, interference coordination, uplink and downlink precoding and system models. After an exploration of the motivations and concepts of CoMP, the authors present the architectures of a CoMP system. Practical implementati

  5. Challenges in humanitarian information management and exchange: evidence from Haiti. (United States)

    Altay, Nezih; Labonte, Melissa


    There is a growing recognition of the critical role information management can play in shaping effective humanitarian response, coordination and decision-making. Quality information, reaching more humanitarian actors, will result in better coordination and better decision-making, thus improving the response to beneficiaries as well as accountability to donors. The humanitarian response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake marked a watershed moment for humanitarian information management. Yet the fragmented nature of the response and the use of hierarchical models of information management, along with other factors, have led some observers to label the Haiti response a failure. Using an analytical framework often found in humanitarian emergencies, this study analyses challenges to information flow in the Haiti case and the implications for effective humanitarian response. It concludes by offering possible paths for overcoming such challenges, and for restoring the value and utility of humanitarian information management and exchange in humanitarian relief settings. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  6. Ammonium removal from aqueous solution by ion-exchange using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammonium removal from aqueous solution by a natural ion-exchange resin was investigated by considering the factors affecting the ammonium-exchange capacity including the zeolites' particle size, the loading flow rates and the impact of a number of regenerations upon the ion-exchange capacity. The resin column was ...

  7. A Range-Based Multivariate Model for Exchange Rate Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Tims (Ben); R.J. Mahieu (Ronald)


    textabstractIn this paper we present a parsimonious multivariate model for exchange rate volatilities based on logarithmic high-low ranges of daily exchange rates. The multivariate stochastic volatility model divides the log range of each exchange rate into two independent latent factors, which are

  8. Health information exchange among US hospitals. (United States)

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; DesRoches, Catherine M; Jha, Ashish K


    To determine the proportion of US hospitals engaged in health information exchange (HIE) with unaffiliated providers and to identify key hospital-level and market-level factors associated with participating in exchange. Using the 2009 American Hospital Association Information Technology survey, supplemented by Dartmouth Atlas, Area Resource File, and other national data, we examined which hospitals participated in regional efforts to electronically exchange clinical data. We used logistic regression models to determine hospital-level characteristics and market-level characteristics associated with hospitals' likelihood of participating in HIE. We found that 10.7% of US hospitals engaged in HIE with unaffiliated providers. In communities where exchange occurred, for-profit hospitals and those with a small market share were far less likely to engage in HIE than nonprofit hospitals or those with a larger market share. Hospitals in more concentrated markets were more likely to exchange and hospitals in markets with higher Medicare spending were less likely to exchange. At the start of implementation of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, only a small minority of US hospitals electronically exchange clinical data with unaffiliated providers. Health information exchange is a key part of reforming the healthcare system, and factors related to competitiveness may be holding some providers back.

  9. Does participation in health information exchange improve hospital efficiency? (United States)

    Walker, Daniel M


    The federal government allocated nearly $30 billion to spur the development of information technology infrastructure capable of supporting the exchange of interoperable clinical data, leading to growth in hospital participation in health information exchange (HIE) networks. HIEs have the potential to improve care coordination across healthcare providers, leading ultimately to increased productivity of health services for hospitals. However, the impact of HIE participation on hospital efficiency remains unclear. This dynamic prompts the question asked by this study: does HIE participation improve hospital efficiency. This study estimates the effect of HIE participation on efficiency using a national sample of 1017 hospitals from 2009 to 2012. Using a two-stage analytic design, efficiency indices were determined using the Malmquist algorithm and then regressed on a set of hospital characteristics. Results suggest that any participation in HIE can improve both technical efficiency change and total factor productivity (TFP). A second model examining total years of HIE participation shows a benefit of one and three years of participation on TFP. These results suggest that hospital investment in HIE participation may be a useful strategy to improve hospital operational performance, and that policy should continue to support increased participation and use of HIE. More research is needed to identify the exact mechanisms through which HIE participation can improve hospital efficiency.

  10. Factors Associated With Medical School Entrants' Interest in Military Financial Assistance in Exchange for a Service Obligation: The Michigan State University College of Human Medicine Cohort. (United States)

    Sienko, Dean G; Oberst, Kathleen


    The U.S. military offers comprehensive scholarships to medical students to help offset costs in exchange for either reserve or active duty service commitments. Our goal was to describe to what degree newly admitted students to Michigan State University's College of Human Medicine were aware of and interested in these opportunities. We surveyed 176 newly admitted students at the beginning and immediately following a presentation on military medicine opportunities. We collected anonymous paper surveys from program attendees and entered the data into Stata v13.1. The project was submitted for institutional review board review and deemed to not involve human subjects. Tests of association were performed using Chi-square test of independence and Fisher's exact test where needed. Our cohort was 49% female, 51% male, and over 90% were less than 30 years of age. Only 14% reported having family involved in the military. Our results indicated that over 90% of students were aware of these programs but less than 3% took advantage of the offerings. Despite 65% reporting somewhat or significant concerns over debt, financial concerns were not statistically associated with scholarship interest level. Instead, having a family member in the military was the most significant positive predictor of interest (47% compared with 17%, p service aside from financial support. Career vignettes and summaries may offer better insight into the service experience for those lacking familiarity thereby potentially increasing interest and applications. Focus groups with current scholarship awardees may inform recruitment strategies. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  11. [Effect of space flight factors simulated in ground-based experiments on the behavior, discriminant learning, and exchange of monoamines in different brain structures of rats]. (United States)

    Shtemberg, A S; Lebedeva-Georgievskaia, K V; Matveeva, M I; Kudrin, V S; Narkevich, V B; Klodt, P M; Bazian, A S


    Experimental treatment (long-term fractionated γ-irradiation, antiorthostatic hypodynamia, and the combination of these factors) simulating the effect of space flight in ground-based experiments rapidly restored the motor and orienting-investigative activity of animals (rats) in "open-field" tests. The study of the dynamics of discriminant learning of rats of experimental groups did not show significant differences from the control animals. It was found that the minor effect of these factors on the cognitive performance of animals correlated with slight changes in the concentration ofmonoamines in the brain structures responsible for the cognitive, emotional, and motivational functions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Moderate fluctuation of the exchange rate, basically in its floating regime is considered normality. Meanwhile,excessive volatility of the exchange rate is an issue for many countries. Its elimination is directed to foreign trade, which, through essential exports, followed by significant currency inflows, contribute to the stability of exchange rates. Unfortunately, Moldova’s foreign trade has become a key factor in maintaining the stability of foreign exchange.

  13. 78 FR 51242 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness... (United States)


    ... investigations with other exchanges designed to address potential intermarket manipulation and trading abuses... sharing is to coordinate regulatory efforts to address potential intermarket trading abuses and... much more labor intensive and requires greater expenditure of human and technical resources than...

  14. Coordinating Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In December 1992, western governors and four federal agencies established a Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-site Innovative Technologies for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (the DOIT Committee). The purpose of the Committee is to advise the federal government on ways to improve waste cleanup technology development and the cleanup of federal sites in the West. The Committee directed in January 1993 that information be collected from a wide range of potential stakeholders and that innovative technology candidate projects be identified, organized, set in motion, and evaluated to test new partnerships, regulatory approaches, and technologies which will lead to improve site cleanup. Five working groups were organized, one to develop broad project selection and evaluation criteria and four to focus on specific contaminant problems. A Coordinating Group comprised of working group spokesmen and federal and state representatives, was set up to plan and organize the routine functioning of these working groups. The working groups were charged with defining particular contaminant problems; identifying shortcomings in technology development, stakeholder involvement, regulatory review, and commercialization which impede the resolution of these problems; and identifying candidate sites or technologies which could serve as regional innovative demonstration projects to test new approaches to overcome the shortcomings. This report from the Coordinating Group to the DOIT Committee highlights the key findings and opportunities uncovered by these fact-finding working groups. It provides a basis from which recommendations from the DOIT Committee to the federal government can be made. It also includes observations from two public roundtables, one on commercialization and another on regulatory and institutional barriers impeding technology development and cleanup.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of a novel hybrid material as amphoteric ion exchanger for simultaneous removal of cations and anions. (United States)

    Shah, Brijesh; Chudasama, Uma


    A new hybrid chelating ion exchanger zirconium diethylene triamine (ZrD) has been synthesized by a simple sol-gel route using inexpensive and easily available chemicals. ZrD has been characterized for elemental analysis (ICP-AES, CHN analysis), TGA, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, SEM and EDX. Physical and ion exchange characteristics as well as chemical stability of the material in various media have been studied. Structural determination reveals that ZrD exhibits amphoteric character. Anion exchange capacity (AEC) for Cl(-), Br(-), Cr2O7(2-), F(-) and AsO4(3-) has been determined. Cations are exchanged through chelation where coordinating sites are offered by nitrogen atoms present in the amine groups of ZrD. Distribution coefficient Kd for Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) (transition metal ions) and Hg(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+) (heavy metal ions) has been evaluated by batch equilibration techniques in aqueous and various electrolyte media/concentrations. Based on α the separation factor, a few binary separations have been performed on a chromatographic column packed with ZrD. The amphoteric behaviour of ZrD has been demonstrated by simultaneous exchange of Cu(2+) and Cl(-) in CuCl2. A study on the regeneration and reuse of ZrD indicates that it is effective upto four cycles without much decline in performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam


    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  17. Infected cell protein 0 functional domains and their coordination in herpes simplex virus replication (United States)

    Gu, Haidong


    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen that establishes latent infection in ganglia neurons. Its unique life cycle requires a balanced “conquer and compromise” strategy to deal with the host anti-viral defenses. One of HSV-1 α (immediate early) gene products, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), is a multifunctional protein that interacts with and modulates a wide range of cellular defensive pathways. These pathways may locate in different cell compartments, which then migrate or exchange factors upon stimulation, for the purpose of a concerted and effective defense. ICP0 is able to simultaneously attack multiple host pathways by either degrading key restrictive factors or modifying repressive complexes. This is a viral protein that contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase, translocates among different cell compartments and interacts with major defensive complexes. The multiple functional domains of ICP0 can work independently and at the same time coordinate with each other. Dissecting the functional domains of ICP0 and delineating the coordination of these domains will help us understand HSV-1 pathogenicity as well as host defense mechanisms. This article focuses on describing individual ICP0 domains, their biochemical properties and their implication in HSV-1 infection. By putting individual domain functions back into the picture of host anti-viral defense network, this review seeks to elaborate the complex interactions between HSV-1 and its host. PMID:26870669

  18. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin


    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  19. Enterprise Coordination on the Internet


    Charles Petrie


    Enterprises are now connected internally and externally to other Enterprises via the Internet in ways that are increasingly difficult to manage, especially as these interconnections become more dynamic. Current methods of coordinating the effects of change as they propagate through these networks of connections are not likely to scale. What is needed is a new paradigm for how the Internet supports such coordination. Indeed, the Internet should and could provide fundamental coordination functi...

  20. Toroidal equilibria in spherical coordinates


    Tsui, K. H.


    The standard Grad-Shafranov equation for axisymmetric toroidal plasma equilibrium is customary expressed in cylindrical coordinates with toroidal contours, and through which benchmark equilibria are solved. An alternative approach to cast the Grad-Shafranov equation in spherical coordinates is presented. This equation, in spherical coordinates, is examined for toroidal solutions to describe low $\\beta$ Solovev and high $\\beta$ plasma equilibria in terms of elementary functions.

  1. Tetrahedrally coordinated half-metallic antiferromagnets (United States)

    Nakao, Masao


    We explore the electronic structures of transition-metal-based chalcopyrites TMX2 ( X=S , Se, and Te) to establish a concept of half-metallic antiferromagnets (HM-AFM’s) within the class of tetrahedrally coordinated ternary systems. Using a full-potential muffin-tin approach and the spin-polarized density functional method, we find two series of HM-AFM’s: CrFeX2 and VCoX2 , where two constituent magnetic ions in a unit cell have antialigned local moments that cancel exactly by virtue of the integer filling of one spin channel. The bonding nature is interpreted in terms of the “ghost-bond-orbital model”; the T - X bonds are covalent while the M - X bonds are ionic, suggesting the magnetic interaction in each bond is due to ferromagnetic double exchange and antiferromagnetic superexchange, respectively, in the conventional scheme.

  2. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers (United States)

    Hansen, Scott


    The Laser Processed Heat Exchanger project will investigate the use of laser processed surfaces to reduce mass and volume in liquid/liquid heat exchangers as well as the replacement of the harmful and problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHX). For this project, two scale unit test articles will be designed, manufactured, and tested. These two units are a high efficiency liquid/liquid HX and a high reliability CHX.

  3. Microsoft Exchange 2013 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horenbeeck, Michael


    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of clear, step-by-step exercises.""Microsoft Exchange 2013 Cookbook"" is targeted at network administrators who deal with the Exchange server in their day-to-day jobs. It assumes you have some practical experience with previous versions of Exchange (although this is not a requirement), without being a subject matter expert.

  4. Implementation of a Relay Coordination System for the Mars Network (United States)

    Allard, Daniel A.


    Mars network relay operations involve the coordination of lander and orbiter teams through long-term and short-term planning, tactical changes and post-pass analysis. Much of this coordination is managed through email traffic and point-to-point file data exchanges. It is often difficult to construct a complete and accurate picture of the relay situation at any given moment, as there is no centralized store of correlated relay data. The Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) is being implemented to address the problem of relay coordination for current and next-generation relay missions. The service is provided for the purpose of coordinating communications sessions between landed spacecraft assets and orbiting spacecraft assets at Mars. The service centralizes a set of functions previously distributed across multiple spacecraft operations teams, and as such greatly improves visibility into the end-to-end strategic coordination process. Most of the process revolves around the scheduling of communications sessions between the spacecraft during periods of time when a landed asset on Mars is geometrically visible by an orbiting spacecraft. These "relay" sessions are used to transfer data both to and from the landed asset via the orbiting asset on behalf of Earth-based spacecraft operators. This paper will discuss the relay coordination problem space, overview the architecture and design selected to meet system requirements, and describe the first phase of system implementation

  5. Coordination pattern adaptability: energy cost of degenerate behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Seifert

    Full Text Available This study investigated behavioral adaptability, which could be defined as a blend between stability and flexibility of the limbs movement and their inter-limb coordination, when individuals received informational constraints. Seven expert breaststroke swimmers performed three 200-m in breaststroke at constant submaximal intensity. Each trial was performed randomly in a different coordination pattern: 'freely-chosen', 'maximal glide' and 'minimal glide'. Two underwater and four aerial cameras enabled 3D movement analysis in order to assess elbow and knee angles, elbow-knee pair coordination, intra-cyclic velocity variations of the center of mass, stroke rate and stroke length and inter-limb coordination. The energy cost of locomotion was calculated from gas exchanges and blood lactate concentration. The results showed significantly higher glide, intra-cyclic velocity variations and energy cost under 'maximal glide' compared to 'freely-chosen' instructional conditions, as well as higher reorganization of limb movement and inter-limb coordination (p<0.05. In the 'minimal glide' condition, the swimmers did not show significantly shorter glide and lower energy cost, but they exhibited significantly lower deceleration of the center of mass, as well as modified limb movement and inter-limb coordination (p<0.05. These results highlight that a variety of structural adaptations can functionally satisfy the task-goal.

  6. Consideration in GIS insulation coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargigia, A.


    Analysis of electrical system failures reveals that many are caused by insulation breakdowns due to overvoltages. The problem of insulation co-ordination is then one of the most important aspects in the design of an electrical system. Insulation co-ordination of gas-insulated sub-stations (GIS) has recently received much attention especially due to a large diffusion of this insulation technique. In this review of GIS insulation co-ordination, attention is given to the impact on the insulation co-ordination strategy of the metal-clad disconnector performance during capacity current switching operations.

  7. Octanuclear cubic coordination cages. (United States)

    Tidmarsh, Ian S; Faust, Thomas B; Adams, Harry; Harding, Lindsay P; Russo, Luca; Clegg, William; Ward, Michael D


    Two new bis-bidentate bridging ligands have been prepared, L (naph) and L (anth), which contain two chelating pyrazolyl-pyridine units connected to an aromatic spacer (naphthalene-1,5-diyl and anthracene-9,10-diyl respectively) via methylene connectors. Each of these reacts with transition metal dications having a preference for octahedral coordination geometry to afford {M 8L 12} (16+) cages (for L (anth), M = Cu, Zn; for L (naph), M = Co, Ni, Cd) which have an approximately cubic arrangement of metal ions with a bridging ligand spanning each of the twelve edges, and a large central cavity containing a mixture of anions and/or solvent molecules. The cages based on L (anth) have two cyclic helical {M 4L 4} faces, of opposite chirality, connected by four additional L (anth) ligands as "pillars"; all metal centers have a meridional tris-chelate configuration. In contrast the cages based on L (naph) have (noncrystallographic) S 6 symmetry, with a diagonally opposite pair of corners having a facial tris-chelate configuration with the other six being meridional. An additional significant difference between the two types of structure is that the cubes containing L (anth) do not show significant interligand aromatic stacking interactions. However, in the cages based on L (naph), there are six five-membered stacks of aromatic ligand fragments around the periphery, each based on an alternating array of electron-rich (naphthyl) and electron-deficient (pyrazolyl-pyridine, coordinated to M (2+)) aromatic units. A consequence of this is that the cages {M 8(L (naph)) 12} (16+) retain their structural integrity in polar solvents, in contrast to the cages {M 8(L (anth)) 12} (16+) which dissociate in polar solvents. Consequently, the cages {M 8(L (naph)) 12} (16+) give NMR spectra in agreement with the symmetry observed in the solid state, and their fluorescence spectra (for M = Cd) display (in addition to the normal naphthalene-based pi-pi* fluorescence) a lower-energy exciplex

  8. Microtube strip heat exchanger (United States)

    Doty, F. D.


    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchanger. The DSI completed a heat exchanger stress analysis of the ten-module heat exchanger bank; and performed a shell-side flow inhomogeneity analysis of the three-module heat exchanger bank. The company produced 50 tubestrips using an in-house CNC milling machine and began pressing them onto tube arrays. The DSI revised some of the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips into the array to improve some of the prototype tooling.

  9. coordination polymer with a coordinated nitro group of 2-nitrobenzoate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    For correspondence. A one-dimensional barium(II) coordination polymer with a coordinated nitro group of 2-nitrobenzoate*. BIKSHANDARKOIL R SRINIVASAN. 1,#. , SANTOSH Y SHETGAONKAR. 1 and. PALLEPOGU RAGHAVAIAH. 1,2. 1. Department of Chemistry, Goa University, Goa 403 206. 2. School of Chemistry ...

  10. Are electronic medical records helpful for care coordination? Experiences of physician practices. (United States)

    O'Malley, Ann S; Grossman, Joy M; Cohen, Genna R; Kemper, Nicole M; Pham, Hoangmai H


    Policies promoting widespread adoption of electronic medical records (EMRs) are premised on the hope that they can improve the coordination of care. Yet little is known about whether and how physician practices use current EMRs to facilitate coordination. We examine whether and how practices use commercial EMRs to support coordination tasks and identify work-around practices have created to address new coordination challenges. Semi-structured telephone interviews in 12 randomly selected communities. Sixty respondents, including 52 physicians or staff from 26 practices with commercial ambulatory care EMRs in place for at least 2 years, chief medical officers at four EMR vendors, and four national thought leaders. Six major themes emerged: (1) EMRs facilitate within-office care coordination, chiefly by providing access to data during patient encounters and through electronic messaging; (2) EMRs are less able to support coordination between clinicians and settings, in part due to their design and a lack of standardization of key data elements required for information exchange; (3) managing information overflow from EMRs is a challenge for clinicians; (4) clinicians believe current EMRs cannot adequately capture the medical decision-making process and future care plans to support coordination; (5) realizing EMRs' potential for facilitating coordination requires evolution of practice operational processes; (6) current fee-for-service reimbursement encourages EMR use for documentation of billable events (office visits, procedures) and not of care coordination (which is not a billable activity). There is a gap between policy-makers' expectation of, and clinical practitioners' experience with, current electronic medical records' ability to support coordination of care. Policymakers could expand current health information technology policies to support assessment of how well the technology facilitates tasks necessary for coordination. By reforming payment policy to include

  11. Coordinating health care: lessons from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Tjerbo


    Full Text Available Objective: What influences the coordination of care between general practitioners and hospitals? In this paper, general practitioner satisfaction with hospital—GP interaction is revealed, and related to several background variables. Method: A questionnaire was sent to all general practitioners in Norway (3388, asking their opinion on the interaction and coordination of health care in their district. A second questionnaire was sent to all the somatic hospitals in Norway (59 regarding formal routines and structures. The results were analysed using ordinary least squares regression. Results: General practitioners tend to be less satisfied with the coordination of care when their primary hospital is large and cost-effective with a high share of elderly patients. Together with the degree to which the general practitioner is involved in arenas where hospital physicians and general practitioners interact, these factors turned out to be good predictors of general practitioner satisfaction. Implication: To improve coordination between general practitioners and specialists, one should focus upon the structural traits within the hospitals in different regions as well as creating common arenas where the physicians can interact.

  12. Coordination of Conditional Poisson Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grafström Anton


    Full Text Available Sample coordination seeks to maximize or to minimize the overlap of two or more samples. The former is known as positive coordination, and the latter as negative coordination. Positive coordination is mainly used for estimation purposes and to reduce data collection costs. Negative coordination is mainly performed to diminish the response burden of the sampled units. Poisson sampling design with permanent random numbers provides an optimum coordination degree of two or more samples. The size of a Poisson sample is, however, random. Conditional Poisson (CP sampling is a modification of the classical Poisson sampling that produces a fixed-size πps sample. We introduce two methods to coordinate Conditional Poisson samples over time or simultaneously. The first one uses permanent random numbers and the list-sequential implementation of CP sampling. The second method uses a CP sample in the first selection and provides an approximate one in the second selection because the prescribed inclusion probabilities are not respected exactly. The methods are evaluated using the size of the expected sample overlap, and are compared with their competitors using Monte Carlo simulation. The new methods provide a good coordination degree of two samples, close to the performance of Poisson sampling with permanent random numbers.

  13. 75 FR 55947 - Coordinated Communications (United States)


    ... for Final Rules on General Public Political Communications Coordinated with Candidates and Party... Coalition, the Commission defined a new term, ``coordinated general public political communication'' (``GPPC... communications directed or made by persons who previously served as an employee of a candidate or a political...

  14. Introduction to coordinated linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempker, P.L.


    This chapter serves as an introduction to the concepts of coordinated linear systems, in formal as well as intuitive terms. The concept of a coordinated linear system is introduced and formulated, and some basic properties are derived, providing both a motivaton and a formal basis for the following

  15. GRUNDTVIG in transnational exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg.......Grundtvig in transnational exchange is the report from the seminar in december 2015 in cooperation with University of Cape Town and University of Hamburg....

  16. Optimization of Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivan Catton


    The objective of this research is to develop tools to design and optimize heat exchangers (HE) and compact heat exchangers (CHE) for intermediate loop heat transport systems found in the very high temperature reator (VHTR) and other Generation IV designs by addressing heat transfer surface augmentation and conjugate modeling. To optimize heat exchanger, a fast running model must be created that will allow for multiple designs to be compared quickly. To model a heat exchanger, volume averaging theory, VAT, is used. VAT allows for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy to be solved for point by point in a 3 dimensional computer model of a heat exchanger. The end product of this project is a computer code that can predict an optimal configuration for a heat exchanger given only a few constraints (input fluids, size, cost, etc.). As VAT computer code can be used to model characteristics )pumping power, temperatures, and cost) of heat exchangers more quickly than traditional CFD or experiment, optimization of every geometric parameter simultaneously can be made. Using design of experiment, DOE and genetric algorithms, GE, to optimize the results of the computer code will improve heat exchanger disign.

  17. Education and Industry Exchange (United States)

    Webb, Gerald A.


    Through an exchange plan a school representative worked at the personnel counter of a local company, and a supervisor from that company worked with counselors, faculty, administrators, and students from the local school. The exchange of ideas and insights were of benefit to the school and the company. (KP)

  18. Bimanual coordination in dyslexic adults. (United States)

    Moore, L H; Brown, W S; Markee, T E; Theberge, D C; Zvi, J C


    Various types of dyslexia have been associated with tactile-motor coordination deficits and inefficient transfer of information between the two cerebral hemispheres. Twenty-one dyslexic adults were compared to 21 controls on the Bimanual Coordination Task, a test of tactile-motor coordination and interhemispheric collaboration. When compared to control subjects, dyslexics showed a consistent pattern of deficits in bimanual motor coordination, both with and without visual feedback. In particular, dyslexics had greater difficulty relative to normals when the left hand had to move faster than the right, and when the hands had to make opposite (mirror-image) movements, suggesting problems with interhemispheric modulation of visuomotor control. In addition, accuracy on this bimanual coordination task was significantly correlated with the Block Design subtest of the WAIS--R, but not with a rhyme fluency task, suggesting some contribution of right hemisphere controlled visuospatial skill to performance.

  19. Care coordination of multimorbidity: a scoping study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Doessing


    Full Text Available Background: A key challenge in healthcare systems worldwide is the large number of patients who suffer from multimorbidity; despite this, most systems are organized within a single-disease framework. Objective: The present study addresses two issues: the characteristics and preconditions of care coordination for patients with multimorbidity; and the factors that promote or inhibit care coordination at the levels of provider organizations and healthcare professionals. Design: The analysis is based on a scoping study, which combines a systematic literature search with a qualitative thematic analysis. The search was conducted in November 2013 and included the PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases, as well as the Cochrane Library, websites of relevant organizations and a hand-search of reference lists. The analysis included studies with a wide range of designs, from industrialized countries, in English, German and the Scandinavian languages, which focused on both multimorbidity/comorbidity and coordination of integrated care. Results: The analysis included 47 of the 226 identified studies. The central theme emerging was complexity. This related to both specific medical conditions of patients with multimorbidity (case complexity and the organization of care delivery at the levels of provider organizations and healthcare professionals (care complexity. Conclusions: In terms of how to approach care coordination, one approach is to reduce complexity and the other is to embrace complexity. Either way, future research must take a more explicit stance on complexity and also gain a better understanding of the role of professionals as a prerequisite for the development of new care coordination interventions.

  20. İşletmelerde Bir Avantaj Unsuru Olarak Kur Korelasyonlarının Kullanımı(Using Exchange Rate Correlation as An Advantage Factor in Managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantürk KAYAHAN


    Full Text Available Today, international competition is not only based on production of technology and product, but also requires use of some financial advantages. Exchange rate correlations one of these advantages allow the financial managers to understand how exchange rates change and to follow portfolio risks better. Some exchange rates may change the same way, while the others may change opposite way. In this study, the effect of exchange rate correlations over a sample portfolio is analyzed and their possible advantages or disadvantages over firms are evaluated.

  1. Keep Meaning in Conversational Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Clare Cuffari


    Full Text Available Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making. These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination.

  2. Keep meaning in conversational coordination. (United States)

    Cuffari, Elena C


    Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making). These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination.

  3. A cross-country Exchange Market Pressure (EMP) dataset. (United States)

    Desai, Mohit; Patnaik, Ila; Felman, Joshua; Shah, Ajay


    The data presented in this article are related to the research article titled - "An exchange market pressure measure for cross country analysis" (Patnaik et al. [1]). In this article, we present the dataset for Exchange Market Pressure values (EMP) for 139 countries along with their conversion factors, ρ (rho). Exchange Market Pressure, expressed in percentage change in exchange rate, measures the change in exchange rate that would have taken place had the central bank not intervened. The conversion factor ρ can interpreted as the change in exchange rate associated with $1 billion of intervention. Estimates of conversion factor ρ allow us to calculate a monthly time series of EMP for 139 countries. Additionally, the dataset contains the 68% confidence interval (high and low values) for the point estimates of ρ's. Using the standard errors of estimates of ρ's, we obtain one sigma intervals around mean estimates of EMP values. These values are also reported in the dataset.

  4. The MarR family transcription factor Rv1404 coordinates adaptation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to acid stress via controlled expression of Rv1405c, a virulence-associated methyltransferase. (United States)

    Healy, Claire; Golby, Paul; MacHugh, David E; Gordon, Stephen V


    Coordinated regulation of gene expression is essential for pathogen adaptation in vivo. Understanding the control of these virulence circuits in the TB pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a key challenge if we are to increase our basic understanding of how this organism establishes infection. In this study we focused on the transcriptional regulator Rv1404 that shows similarity to the MarR family of transcriptional repressors. Rv1404 derepresses a set of genes in vivo that have been implicated in virulence and may therefore allow adaptation of M. tuberculosis to the intracellular environment. We used a combination of ChIP-qPCR and Electromobility Band Shift Assays (EMSA) to show that Rv1404 coordinates gene expression in response to stresses such as low pH in M. tuberculosis. Two genes regulated by Rv1404, rv1403c and rv1405c, encode putative SAM-dependent methyltransferases. To elucidate gene function, M. tuberculosis rv1403c and rv1405c mutants were constructed. The mutants showed attenuated growth in response to in vitro stress conditions that mimic the intracellular milieu. Our data sheds new light on the function of a novel regulon controlled by Rv1404 that coordinates adaptation of M. tuberculosis to the in vivo environment and reveals the Rv1405c and Rv1403c methyltransferases as playing a role in this adaptive process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Coordinating distributed work : Exploring situated coordination with gaming-simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laere, J.


    Organizational work has become more and more distributed nowadays. Information and communication technologies (ICT) provide opportunities to improve coordination of distributed work, but in practice many organizations struggle with integrating new organizational structures, new work practices and

  6. Information Exchange, Market Transparency and Dynamic Oligopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Per Baltzer; Møllgaard, Peter


    In the economics literature, various views on the likely (efficiency) effects of information exchange,communication between firms and market transparency present themselves. Often these views oninformation flows are highly conflicting. On the one hand, it is argued that increased informationdisse......In the economics literature, various views on the likely (efficiency) effects of information exchange,communication between firms and market transparency present themselves. Often these views oninformation flows are highly conflicting. On the one hand, it is argued that increased...... informationdissemination improves firm planning to the benefit of society (including customers) and/or allowspotential customers to make the right decisions given their preferences. On the other hand, theliterature also suggests that increased information dissemination can have significant coordinating orcollusive...

  7. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Annual technical report, Fiscal Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department's materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations.

  8. Heat exchanger design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Thulukkanam, Kuppan


    Completely revised and updated to reflect current advances in heat exchanger technology, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Second Edition includes enhanced figures and thermal effectiveness charts, tables, new chapter, and additional topics--all while keeping the qualities that made the first edition a centerpiece of information for practicing engineers, research, engineers, academicians, designers, and manufacturers involved in heat exchange between two or more fluids.See What's New in the Second Edition: Updated information on pressure vessel codes, manufacturer's association standards A new c

  9. Anion exchange membrane (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus


    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  10. Coordination modes of novel rhodanine azodye complexes (United States)

    El-Bindary, A. A.; El-Sonbati, A. Z.; Ahmed, R. M.


    The reaction products of metal(II) salts with 5-sulphamethoxazoleazo-3-phenyl-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone (H 2L) have been characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, electronic, infrared and electron paramagnetic resonance spectral measurements. The spectral data suggest a square pyramidal structure for Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes and an octahedral for Ni(II) complexes. Various EPR parameters have been calculated. From the electron paramagnetic resonance and spectral data, the orbital reduction factors were calculated. In all case k⊥> k∣∣ which indicates a 2B 1g ground state. These five coordinated complex of Cu(II) react further with pyridine forming six coordinate base adduct. The different modes of chelation of the ligand and stereochemistry around the metal ion are discussed.

  11. Competing for consumers. Coming coordinated-care squeeze prompts providers to push into insurance market. (United States)

    Evans, Melanie


    Squeezed by coordinated-care initiatives, a number of hospital systems are looking to help fill beds and reap more revenue by offering insurance plans on the state exchanges set to launch this fall. Some will use narrow networks, a strategy that allows systems to create a captive customer base. "I think it's going to be a huge growth area in the exchanges," says Jonathan Gruber, left, a professor of economics at MIT.

  12. An in-depth analysis of theoretical frameworks for the study of care coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Van Houdt


    Full Text Available Introduction: Complex chronic conditions often require long-term care from various healthcare professionals. Thus, maintaining quality care requires care coordination. Concepts for the study of care coordination require clarification to develop, study and evaluate coordination strategies. In 2007, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality defined care coordination and proposed five theoretical frameworks for exploring care coordination. This study aimed to update current theoretical frameworks and clarify key concepts related to care coordination. Methods: We performed a literature review to update existing theoretical frameworks. An in-depth analysis of these theoretical frameworks was conducted to formulate key concepts related to care coordination.Results: Our literature review found seven previously unidentified theoretical frameworks for studying care coordination. The in-depth analysis identified fourteen key concepts that the theoretical frameworks addressed. These were ‘external factors’, ‘structure’, ‘tasks characteristics’, ‘cultural factors’, ‘knowledge and technology’, ‘need for coordination’, ‘administrative operational processes’, ‘exchange of information’, ‘goals’, ‘roles’, ‘quality of relationship’, ‘patient outcome’, ‘team outcome’, and ‘(interorganizational outcome’.Conclusion: These 14 interrelated key concepts provide a base to develop or choose a framework for studying care coordination. The relational coordination theory and the multi-level framework are interesting as these are the most comprehensive.

  13. Coordinated action in multiteam systems. (United States)

    Davison, Robert B; Hollenbeck, John R; Barnes, Christopher M; Sleesman, Dustin J; Ilgen, Daniel R


    This study investigated coordinated action in multiteam systems employing 233 correspondent systems, comprising 3 highly specialized 6-person teams, that were engaged in an exercise that was simultaneously "laboratory-like" and "field-like." It enriches multiteam system theory through the combination of theoretical perspectives from the team and the large organization literatures, underscores the differential impact of large size and modular organization by specialization, and demonstrates that conventional wisdom regarding effective coordination in traditional teams and large organizations does not always transfer to multiteam systems. We empirically show that coordination enacted across team boundaries at the component team level can be detrimental to performance and that coordinated actions enacted by component team boundary spanners and system leadership positively impact system performance only when these actions are centered around the component team most critical to addressing the demands of the task environment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Coordination Games on Dynamical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Pestelacci


    Full Text Available We propose a model in which agents of a population interacting according to a network of contacts play games of coordination with each other and can also dynamically break and redirect links to neighbors if they are unsatisfied. As a result, there is co-evolution of strategies in the population and of the graph that represents the network of contacts. We apply the model to the class of pure and general coordination games. For pure coordination games, the networks co-evolve towards the polarization of different strategies. In the case of general coordination games our results show that the possibility of refusing neighbors and choosing different partners increases the success rate of the Pareto-dominant equilibrium.

  15. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  16. Microplate Heat Exchanger Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a microplate heat exchanger for cryogenic cooling systems used for continuous flow distributed cooling systems, large focal plane arrays, multiple cooling...

  17. Exchange Risk Management Policy

    CERN Document Server


    At the Finance Committee of March 2005, following a comment by the CERN Audit Committee, the Chairman invited the Management to prepare a document on exchange risk management policy. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of this document.

  18. HUD Exchange Grantee Database (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The About Grantees section of the HUD Exchange brings up contact information, reports, award, jurisdiction, and location data for organizations that receive HUD...

  19. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  20. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik


    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  1. Coordination theory and collaboration technology

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Gary M; Smith, John B


    The National Science Foundation funded the first Coordination Theory and Collaboration Technology initiative to look at systems that support collaborations in business and elsewhere. This book explores the global revolution in human interconnectedness. It will discuss the various collaborative workgroups and their use in technology. The initiative focuses on processes of coordination and cooperation among autonomous units in human systems, in computer and communication systems, and in hybrid organizations of both systems. This initiative is motivated by three scientific issues which have been

  2. Rapgef2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rap1 small GTPases, plays a crucial role in adherence junction (AJ) formation in radial glial cells through ERK-mediated upregulation of the AJ-constituent protein expression. (United States)

    Farag, Maged Ibrahim; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Maeta, Kazuhiro; Kataoka, Tohru


    Rapgef2 and Rapgef6 define a subfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap1, characterized by possession of the Ras/Rap-associating domains and implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. We previously found that dorsal telencephalon-specific Rapgef2 conditional knockout mice exhibits severe defects in formation of apical surface adherence junctions (AJs) and localization of radial glial cells (RGCs). In this study, we analyze the underlying molecular mechanism by using primary cultures of RGCs established from the developing cerebral cortex. The results show that Rapgef2-deficient RGCs exhibit a decreased ability of neurosphere formation, morphological changes represented by regression of radial glial (RG) fibers and reduced expression of AJ-constituent proteins such as N-cadherin, zonula occludens-1, E-cadherin and β-catenin. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Rapgef2 or Rap1A inhibits the AJ protein expression and RG fiber formation while overexpression of Rapgef2, Rapgef6, Rap1AG12V or Rap1BG12V in Rapgef2-deficient RGCs restores them. Furthermore, Rapgef2-deficient RGCs exhibit a reduction in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) leading to downregulation of the expression of c-jun, which is implicated in the AJ protein expression. These results indicate a crucial role of the Rapgef2-Rap1A-ERK-c-jun pathway in regulation of the AJ formation in RGCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics of Vertical Coordination in the Hungarian Wine Sector


    Sidlovits, Diana; Kator, Zoltan


    In our paper, we analyse the vertical coordination forms between vine grape producers and wine producer-merchants; and examine the characteristics of the contractual relationships and contract design in the Hungarian wine sector on the basis of the New Institution Economics theory. In this theoretical framework, we analyse the determinant factors in development of different coordination forms concerning the transactions on vine varieties for wine production. We have carried out interviews wit...

  4. Muscle coordination: the discussion continues (United States)



    In this response, the major criticisms of the target article are addressed. Terminology from the target article that may have caused some confusion is clarified. In particular, the tasks that have the basic features of muscle coordination, as identified in the target article, have been limited in scope. A new metabolic optimization criterion suggested by Alexander (2000) is examined for its ability to predict muscle coordination in walking. Issues concerning the validation of muscle force predictions, the rules of muscle coordination, and the role of directional constraints in coordination of two-joint muscles are discussed. It is shown in particular that even in one-joint systems, the forces predicted by the criterion of Crowninshield and Brand (1981) depend upon the muscle moment arms and the physiological cross-sectional areas in much more complex ways than either previously assumed in the target article, or incorrectly derived by Herzog and Ait-Haddou (2000). It is concluded that the criterion of Crowninshield and Brand qualitatively predicts the basic coordination features of the major one- and two-joint muscles in a number of highly skilled, repetitive motor tasks performed by humans under predictable conditions and little demands on stability and accuracy. A possible functional significance of such muscle coordination may be the minimization of perceived effort, muscle fatigue, and/or energy expenditure.

  5. Cryptographic Combinatorial Securities Exchanges (United States)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    We present a useful new mechanism that facilitates the atomic exchange of many large baskets of securities in a combinatorial exchange. Cryptography prevents information about the securities in the baskets from being exploited, enhancing trust. Our exchange offers institutions who wish to trade large positions a new alternative to existing methods of block trading: they can reduce transaction costs by taking advantage of other institutions’ available liquidity, while third party liquidity providers guarantee execution—preserving their desired portfolio composition at all times. In our exchange, institutions submit encrypted orders which are crossed, leaving a “remainder”. The exchange proves facts about the portfolio risk of this remainder to third party liquidity providers without revealing the securities in the remainder, the knowledge of which could also be exploited. The third parties learn either (depending on the setting) the portfolio risk parameters of the remainder itself, or how their own portfolio risk would change if they were to incorporate the remainder into a portfolio they submit. In one setting, these third parties submit bids on the commission, and the winner supplies necessary liquidity for the entire exchange to clear. This guaranteed clearing, coupled with external price discovery from the primary markets for the securities, sidesteps difficult combinatorial optimization problems. This latter method of proving how taking on the remainder would change risk parameters of one’s own portfolio, without revealing the remainder’s contents or its own risk parameters, is a useful protocol of independent interest.

  6. Metallogels from Coordination Complexes, Organometallic, and Coordination Polymers. (United States)

    Dastidar, Parthasarathi; Ganguly, Sumi; Sarkar, Koushik


    A supramolecular gel results from the immobilization of solvent molecules on a 3D network of gelator molecules stabilized by various supramolecular interactions that include hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking, van der Waals interactions, and halogen bonding. In a metallogel, a metal is a part of the gel network as a coordinated metal ion (in a discrete coordination complex), as a cross-linking metal node with a multitopic ligand (in coordination polymer), and as metal nanoparticles adhered to the gel network. Although the field is relatively new, research into metallogels has experienced a considerable upsurge owing to its fundamental importance in supramolecular chemistry and various potential applications. This focus review aims to provide an insight into the development of designing metallogelators. Because of the limited scope, discussions are confined to examples pertaining to metallogelators derived from discrete coordination complexes, organometallic gelators, and coordination polymers. This review is expected to enlighten readers on the current development of designing metallogelators of the abovementioned class of molecules. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Les coordonnateurs comme médiateurs entre deux cultures dans les interactions en ligne : le cas d'un échange franco-japonais Project coordinators as mediators between two cultures within a French-Japanese on-line exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Tanaka


    Full Text Available Analysant une expérience de trois mois qui a mis en relation via Internet, en mode essentiellement asynchrone, soixante étudiants japonais apprenant le français avec neuf étudiants de master 2 de FLE en France, futurs enseignants, cet article décrit le rôle joué par l'enseignante japonaise et par l'enseignant français (coordonnateurs du projet pour que les échanges se déroulent de manière satisfaisante, aussi bien au plan de l'assiduité qu'à celui de la communication interculturelle. L'écart entre les deux cultures en présence, notamment en ce qui concerne la culture d'apprentissage, constituait un véritable défi : l'article montre comment certains écueils ont pu être surmontés et tente de modéliser les solutions adoptées. Après un cadrage théorique qui rappelle certaines difficultés de la communication interculturelle et de la télécollaboration, il aborde trois dimensions importantes des échanges en ligne, en mettant l'accent sur le rôle joué par les coordonnateurs : la recherche d'une participation régulière, la présentation réciproque d'éléments culturels concrets par les étudiants, la gestion des positionnements et de la dimension socio-affective des échanges.Based on a 3-month experiment involving sixty Japanese learners of French as a Foreign Language and nine French teacher trainees engaged in mostly asynchronous Internet-based communication, this paper describes how French and Japanese project coordinators managed to sustain continuous communication on both parts and to provide opportunities for intercultural learning. The culture gap, notably with regards to the learning culture, was a real challenge: this paper shows how some of the pitfalls were avoided and attempts to draw a model for the approach the coordinators adopted. Following a theoretical framework emphasizing the challenges of intercultural communication and online collaboration, three major dimensions of online communication are then

  8. The microcomputer scientific software series 7: data recorder program for storing plant lists and calculating synecological coordinates. (United States)

    Kevin Nimerfro; Gary Brand


    Describes a computer program designed for data recorders that stores plant lists and computes synecological coordinates from the stored list. The method of synecological coordinates uses plant species present on a site to quantify the site`s environmental factors.

  9. Exchanging Description Logic Knowledge Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arenas, M.; Botoeva, E.; Calvanese, D.; Ryzhikov, V.; Sherkhonov, E.


    In this paper, we study the problem of exchanging knowledge between a source and a target knowledge base (KB), connected through mappings. Differently from the traditional database exchange setting, which considers only the exchange of data, we are interested in exchanging implicit knowledge. As

  10. Werner coordination chemistry and neurodegeneration. (United States)

    Telpoukhovskaia, Maria A; Orvig, Chris


    Neurodegenerative diseases are capturing the world's attention as being the next set of diseases we must tackle collectively. Not only are the patients experiencing gradual cognitive and physical decline in most cases, but these diseases are fatal with no prevention currently available. As these diseases are progressive, providing care and symptom treatment for the ageing population is becoming both a medical and a financial challenge. This review discusses how Werner coordination chemistry plays a role in three diseases - those of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and prions. Metal ions are considered to be involved in these diseases in part via their propensity to cause toxic aggregation of proteins. First, the coordination of metal ions, with emphasis on copper(II), to metalloproteins that are hallmarks of these diseases - amyloid β, α-synuclein, and prion, respectively - will be discussed. We will present the current understanding of the metal coordination environments created by the amino acids of these proteins, as well as metal binding affinity. Second, a diverse set of examples of rationally designed metal chelators to outcompete this deleterious binding will be examined based on coordination mode and affinity toward bio-relevant metal ions. Overall, this review will give a general overview of protein and metal chelator coordination environments in neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Microgravity condensing heat exchanger (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher M. (Inventor); Ma, Yonghui (Inventor); North, Andrew (Inventor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Inventor)


    A heat exchanger having a plurality of heat exchanging aluminum fins with hydrophilic condensing surfaces which are stacked and clamped between two cold plates. The cold plates are aligned radially along a plane extending through the axis of a cylindrical duct and hold the stacked and clamped portions of the heat exchanging fins along the axis of the cylindrical duct. The fins extend outwardly from the clamped portions along approximately radial planes. The spacing between fins is symmetric about the cold plates, and are somewhat more closely spaced as the angle they make with the cold plates approaches Passageways extend through the fins between vertex spaces which provide capillary storage and communicate with passageways formed in the stacked and clamped portions of the fins, which communicate with water drains connected to a pump externally to the duct. Water with no entrained air is drawn from the capillary spaces.

  12. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.


    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common stock value is affected by two important economic and financial risk factors namely interest rate and exchange rate. Interest rate which reflects the price of money also affects other variables in the financial market. Valuation of stock prices is indirectly affected by interest rates while directly its volatility causes a shift ...

  14. Modeling foreign exchange risk premium in Armenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Kocenda, Evnen; Zemcik, Petr


    This paper applies stochastic discount factor methodology to modeling the foreign exchange risk premium in Armenia. We use weekly data on foreign and domestic currency deposits, which coexist in the Armenian banking system. This coexistence implies elimination of the cross-country risks and

  15. Rapid and enhanced activation of microporous coordination polymers by flowing supercritical CO.sub.2 (United States)

    Matzger, Adam J.; Liu, Baojian; Wong-Foy, Antek G.


    Flowing supercritical CO.sub.2 is used to activate metal organic framework materials (MOF). MOFs are activated directly from N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) thus avoiding exchange with a volatile solvent. Most MCPs display increased surface areas directly after treatment although those with coordinatively unsaturated metal centers benefit from additional heating.

  16. Academic coordination at university: Strategies for high quality education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Durán Bellonch


    Full Text Available Most lecturers and professors involved in teaching School Management and Education Management courses have been engaged in developing some innovative actions to improve the training quality that we offer to students in the Pedagogy degree at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. These actions are aimed at increasing co-ordination among the teaching staff when designing and implementing the course curricula. Co-ordination meetings, exchanges of teaching experiences, discussions about what, how and when to teach the different contents, in which courses and at what level, methodological issues pointed out through technical description cards or the elaboration of study cases to be solved have become the basis of relevant actions during the last academic years. This paper explains each one of them, and provides useful information about the theoretical background, the process carried out, some of the results obtained, the output and the tools created.

  17. Recent Gene Duplication and Subfunctionalization Produced a Mitochondrial GrpE, the Nucleotide Exchange Factor of the Hsp70 Complex, Specialized in Thermotolerance to Chronic Heat Stress in Arabidopsis1[W][OA (United States)

    Hu, Catherine; Lin, Siou-ying; Chi, Wen-tzu; Charng, Yee-yung


    The duplication and divergence of heat stress (HS) response genes might help plants adapt to varied HS conditions, but little is known on the topic. Here, we examined the evolution and function of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mitochondrial GrpE (Mge) proteins. GrpE acts as a nucleotide-exchange factor in the Hsp70/DnaK chaperone machinery. Genomic data show that AtMge1 and AtMge2 arose from a recent whole-genome duplication event. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that duplication and preservation of Mges occurred independently in many plant species, which suggests a common tendency in the evolution of the genes. Intron retention contributed to the divergence of the protein structure of Mge paralogs in higher plants. In both Arabidopsis and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Mge1 is induced by ultraviolet B light and Mge2 is induced by heat, which suggests regulatory divergence of the genes. Consistently, AtMge2 but not AtMge1 is under the control of HsfA1, the master regulator of the HS response. Heterologous expression of AtMge2 but not AtMge1 in the temperature-sensitive Escherichia coli grpE mutant restored its growth at 43°C. Arabidopsis T-DNA knockout lines under different HS regimes revealed that Mge2 is specifically required for tolerating prolonged exposure to moderately high temperature, as compared with the need of the heat shock protein 101 and the HS-associated 32-kD protein for short-term extreme heat. Therefore, with duplication and subfunctionalization, one copy of the Arabidopsis Mge genes became specialized in a distinct type of HS. We provide direct evidence supporting the connection between gene duplication and adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:22128139

  18. Adaptive control strategies for interlimb coordination in legged robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoi, Shinya; Manoonpong, Poramate; Ambe, Yuichi


    Walking animals produce adaptive interlimb coordination during locomotion in accordance with their situation. Interlimb coordination is generated through the dynamic interactions of the neural system, the musculoskeletal system, and the environment, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear....... Recently, investigations of the adaptationmechanisms of living beings have attracted attention, and bio-inspired control systems based on neurophysiological findings regarding sensorimotor interactions are being developed for legged robots. In this review, we introduce adaptive interlimb coordination...... for legged robots induced by various factors (locomotion speed, environmental situation, body properties, and task). In addition, we show characteristic properties of adaptive interlimb coordination, such as gait hysteresis and different time-scale adaptations. We also discuss the underlying mechanisms...

  19. Coordination Processes in International Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter


    The EU is not a member of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), but relatively elaborate EU coordination takes place anyway. This paper addresses two research questions: 1) How is it possible to evaluate the coordination of the EU in its specific observable configuration in the ILO?, and 2......-à-vis their principals, the Member States. The Commission is the leading agent in the phase leading up to the Conference; the Presidency then takes over. On the one hand, due to the Treaty obligations and their interpretations by the Court of Justice, both the Presidency and the Commission are kept within tight limits...

  20. Heat exchanger panel (United States)

    Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)


    The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

  1. Microscale Regenerative Heat Exchanger (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Stelter, Stephan; Stelter, Manfred


    The device described herein is designed primarily for use as a regenerative heat exchanger in a miniature Stirling engine or Stirling-cycle heat pump. A regenerative heat exchanger (sometimes called, simply, a "regenerator" in the Stirling-engine art) is basically a thermal capacitor: Its role in the Stirling cycle is to alternately accept heat from, then deliver heat to, an oscillating flow of a working fluid between compression and expansion volumes, without introducing an excessive pressure drop. These volumes are at different temperatures, and conduction of heat between these volumes is undesirable because it reduces the energy-conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle.

  2. An Integrative Perspective on Interpersonal Coordination in Interactive Team Sports. (United States)

    Steiner, Silvan; Macquet, Anne-Claire; Seiler, Roland


    Interpersonal coordination is a key factor in team performance. In interactive team sports, the limited predictability of a constantly changing context makes coordination challenging. Approaches that highlight the support provided by environmental information and theories of shared mental models provide potential explanations of how interpersonal coordination can nonetheless be established. In this article, we first outline the main assumptions of these approaches and consider criticisms that have been raised with regard to each. The aim of this article is to define a theoretical perspective that integrates the coordination mechanisms of the two approaches. In doing so, we borrow from a theoretical outline of group action. According to this outline, group action based on a priori shared mental models is an example of how interpersonal coordination is established from the top down. Interpersonal coordination in reaction to the perception of affordances represents the bottom-up component of group action. Both components are inextricably involved in the coordination of interactive sports teams. We further elaborate on the theoretical outline to integrate a third, constructivist approach. Integrating this third approach helps to explain interpersonal coordination in game situations for which no shared mental models are established and game situations that remain ambiguous in terms of perceived affordances. The article describes how hierarchical, sequential, and complex dimensions of action organization are important aspects of this constructivist perspective and how mental models may be involved. A basketball example is used to illustrate how top-down, bottom-up and constructivist processes may be simultaneously involved in enabling interpersonal coordination. Finally, we present the implications for research and practice.

  3. An Integrative Perspective on Interpersonal Coordination in Interactive Team Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvan Steiner


    Full Text Available Interpersonal coordination is a key factor in team performance. In interactive team sports, the limited predictability of a constantly changing context makes coordination challenging. Approaches that highlight the support provided by environmental information and theories of shared mental models provide potential explanations of how interpersonal coordination can nonetheless be established. In this article, we first outline the main assumptions of these approaches and consider criticisms that have been raised with regard to each. The aim of this article is to define a theoretical perspective that integrates the coordination mechanisms of the two approaches. In doing so, we borrow from a theoretical outline of group action. According to this outline, group action based on a priori shared mental models is an example of how interpersonal coordination is established from the top down. Interpersonal coordination in reaction to the perception of affordances represents the bottom-up component of group action. Both components are inextricably involved in the coordination of interactive sports teams. We further elaborate on the theoretical outline to integrate a third, constructivist approach. Integrating this third approach helps to explain interpersonal coordination in game situations for which no shared mental models are established and game situations that remain ambiguous in terms of perceived affordances. The article describes how hierarchical, sequential, and complex dimensions of action organization are important aspects of this constructivist perspective and how mental models may be involved. A basketball example is used to illustrate how top-down, bottom-up and constructivist processes may be simultaneously involved in enabling interpersonal coordination. Finally, we present the implications for research and practice.

  4. Coordinated Fault Tolerance for High-Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, Jack; Bosilca, George; et al.


    Our work to meet our goal of end-to-end fault tolerance has focused on two areas: (1) improving fault tolerance in various software currently available and widely used throughout the HEC domain and (2) using fault information exchange and coordination to achieve holistic, systemwide fault tolerance and understanding how to design and implement interfaces for integrating fault tolerance features for multiple layers of the software stack—from the application, math libraries, and programming language runtime to other common system software such as jobs schedulers, resource managers, and monitoring tools.

  5. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC). Fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The committee serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. This is accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops involving DOE and major contractors. The program descriptions consist of a funding summary for each Assistant Secretary office and the Office of Energy Research, and detailed project summaries with project goals and accomplishments. A FY 1994 budget summary table for each program is included. A directory and a keyword index is included at the end of this document.

  6. Sink-to-Sink Coordination Framework Using RPL: Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meer M. Khan


    Full Text Available RPL (Routing Protocol for low power and Lossy networks is recommended by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF for IPv6-based LLNs (Low Power and Lossy Networks. RPL uses a proactive routing approach and each node always maintains an active path to the sink node. Sink-to-sink coordination defines syntax and semantics for the exchange of any network defined parameters among sink nodes like network size, traffic load, mobility of a sink, and so forth. The coordination allows sink to learn about the network condition of neighboring sinks. As a result, sinks can make coordinated decision to increase/decrease their network size for optimizing over all network performance in terms of load sharing, increasing network lifetime, and lowering end-to-end latency of communication. Currently, RPL does not provide any coordination framework that can define message exchange between different sink nodes for enhancing the network performance. In this paper, a sink-to-sink coordination framework is proposed which utilizes the periodic route maintenance messages issued by RPL to exchange network status observed at a sink with its neighboring sinks. The proposed framework distributes network load among sink nodes for achieving higher throughputs and longer network’s life time.

  7. Coordination in networks for improved mental health service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Hansson


    Full Text Available Background: Well-organised clinical cooperation between health and social services has been difficult to achieve in Sweden as in other countries. Purpose: This paper presents an empirical study of a mental health coordination network in one area in Stockholm. The aim was to describe the development and nature of coordination within a mental health and social care consortium and to assess the impact on care processes and client outcomes. Method: Data was gathered through interviews with coordina­tors from three rehabilitation units. The interviews focused on coordination activities aimed at supporting the clients’ needs and investigated how the coordinators acted according to the consortium's holistic approach. Data on The Camberwell Assess­ment of Need (CAN-S showing clients’ satisfaction was used to assess on set of outcomes. Findings: The findings revealed different coordination activities and factors both helping and hindering the network coordination activities. One factor helping was the history of local and personal informal cooperation and shared responsibilities evident. Unclear roles and routines hindered cooperation Practical value: The contribution is an empirical example and a model for organisations establishing structures for network coordination. One lesson for current policy about integrated health care is to adapt and implement ”pair coordinators” where full structural integration is not possible. Another lesson, based on the idea of patient quality by coordinated care, is specific to adapt the work of the local psychiatric addictive team – an independent special team in the psychiatric outpatient care serving psychotic clients with complex addictive problems.

  8. Coordination in networks for improved mental health service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Hansson


    Full Text Available Background: Well-organised clinical cooperation between health and social services has been difficult to achieve in Sweden as in other countries.Purpose: This paper presents an empirical study of a mental health coordination network in one area in Stockholm. The aim was to describe the development and nature of coordination within a mental health and social care consortium and to assess the impact on care processes and client outcomes.Method: Data was gathered through interviews with coordina­tors from three rehabilitation units. The interviews focused on coordination activities aimed at supporting the clients’ needs and investigated how the coordinators acted according to the consortium's holistic approach. Data on The Camberwell Assess­ment of Need (CAN-S showing clients’ satisfaction was used to assess on set of outcomes. Findings: The findings revealed different coordination activities and factors both helping and hindering the network coordination activities. One factor helping was the history of local and personal informal cooperation and shared responsibilities evident. Unclear roles and routines hindered cooperationPractical value: The contribution is an empirical example and a model for organisations establishing structures for network coordination. One lesson for current policy about integrated health care is to adapt and implement ”pair coordinators” where full structural integration is not possible. Another lesson, based on the idea of patient quality by coordinated care, is specific to adapt the work of the local psychiatric addictive team – an independent special team in the psychiatric outpatient care serving psychotic clients with complex addictive problems.

  9. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Chuixiang; Ricciuto, Daniel; Li, Runze


    climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems...

  10. Exchange rates, petroleum prices and price determination in Sierra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the effects of monetary environment, exchange rate movement and petroleum prices on domestic prices in Sierra Leone by estimating a hybrid model of inflation. The empirical results showed that petroleum product prices, exchange rate as well as monetary factors determined inflation in Sierra Leone ...

  11. Operating revenue changes in a demutualized stock exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hesham Abdel-Hafez


    Full Text Available Stock exchanges were traditionally run as cooperative venues. The globalization, the development of technology, and the increase of competition among stock exchanges forced these venues to change their structure and adopt a new one-demutualization- that can be a lifeline in facing these environmental changes in regards to stock exchanges. This new trend enables the exchange to expand their activities and supply the market with new products and services, therefore enhancing the value of the exchange itself. The main sources of revenue for traditional exchanges have been listing fees, transaction fees, membership fees and the sale of information services such as market data, quotations, and trade data. Due to the environmental changes the stock exchanges' services are now executed electronically, and in turn, this has led to an increase in the competition among exchanges. Furthermore, this increased competition has led to the re-adjustment of the regulation structure which gradually erodes the sources of revenues provided by the conventional stock exchanges. The paper divided the research plan into two sections: the first section is to highlight the concept of demutualization process; the phases of demutualization, the factors that push the stock exchanges to demutualize and the benefits of demutualization. The second section was based on statistical comparative analysis of the stock exchanges' revenues prior and after demutualization. The researcher used the regression analysis tool on seven demutualized stock exchanges during the period from 1997-2012. The paper aims to prove that demutualization has a positive effect on the revenues of the stock exchange, thus it enhances the value of the exchange.

  12. Insulation coordination for 38 KV circuit breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Few, R.A.; Harder, J.E.


    Based on a review of the impulse insulation requirements for 38 kV circuit breakers and the impact of insulation coordination using modern arresters, a change is suggested in the way the impulse requirements are stated for the circuit breaker. The facets of circuit breaker design which may be affected are indicated. While the general principles of this paper apply to the insulation coordination of all ratings of circuit breakers, a number of factors seem to make the 38 kV vaccum circuit breaker a particularly attractive candidate to consider for revision. Most of these factors are outlined to provide a basis for the consideration of other ratings and types of circuit breakers. Specifically it is suggested that in the present state of the art, circuit breakers for general application at 34.5 kV should have a standard requirement for 150 kV BIL phase to ground, and 200 kV BIL phase to phase and across the open break.

  13. Nature's Heat Exchangers. (United States)

    Barnes, George


    Discusses the heat-transfer systems of different animals. Systems include heat conduction into the ground, heat transferred by convection, heat exchange in lizards, fish and polar animals, the carotid rete system, electromagnetic radiation from animals and people, and plant and animal fiber optics. (MDH)

  14. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)


    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  15. Technology Performance Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    To address the need for accessible, high-quality data, the Department of Energy has developed the Technology Performance Exchange (TPEx). TPEx enables technology suppliers, third-party testing laboratories, and other entities to share product performance data. These data are automatically transformed into a format that technology evaluators can easily use in their energy modeling assessments to inform procurement decisions.

  16. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Document Server


    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at

  17. Baltic Exchange toodi Tallinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Viimane osa merekonteineritesse kokkupakitud Londoni laevandus- ja merebörsi Baltic Exchange'i endise peakorteri detailidest jõudis 2007. a. juunis Tallinna. Hoone detailid ostnud ärimehed Heiti Hääl ja Eerik-Niiles Kross plaanivad leida hoonele koha Tallinna kesklinnas. E.-N. Krossi kommentaar

  18. Heat exchanger. Varmeveksler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, I.E.; Wagner, W.R.


    The invention concerns a manifold for a plate-type heat exchanger, and includes a side channel connected the inlet of the manifold. The plates can be designed as an integral assembly together with the integrated side- and external end-manifolds as well. 16 drawings.

  19. Coordination games on directed graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.R. Apt (Krzysztof); S.E. Simon (Sunil); D.K. Wojtczak (Dominik)


    textabstractWe study natural strategic games on directed graphs, which capture the idea of coordination in the absence of globally common strategies. We show that these games do not need to have a pure Nash equilibrium and that the problem of determining their existence is NP-complete. The same

  20. [Coordination in oncology, pivot nurses]. (United States)

    Feld, Dominique


    The function of the pivot nurse was created when the Cancer Plans were first introduced to improve patient management and has constantly developed since then. It is an essential role for the coordination of care and the different players involved along the patient's care pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Strichartz Estimates in Spherical Coordinates


    Cho, Yonggeun; Lee, Sanghyuk


    In this paper we study Strichartz estimates for dispersive equations which are defined by radially symmetric pseudo-differential operators, and of which initial data belongs to spaces of Sobolev type defined in spherical coordinates. We obtain the space time estimates on the best possible range including the endpoint cases.

  2. Atomic coordination reflects peptide immunogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios S.E. Antipas


    Full Text Available We demonstrated that the immunological identity of variant peptides may be accurately predicted on the basis of atomic coordination of both unprotonated and protonated tertiary structures, provided that the structure of the native peptide (index is known. The metric which was discovered to account for this discrimination is the coordination difference between the variant and the index; we also showed that increasing coordination difference in respect to the index was correlated to a correspondingly weakening immunological outcome of the variant. Additionally, we established that this metric quickly seizes to operate beyond the peptide scale, e.g. over a coordination shell inclusive of atoms up to a distance of 7 Å away from the peptide or over the entire pMHC-TCR complex. Analysis of molecular orbital interactions over a range of formal charges further revealed that the N-terminus of the agonists was always able to sustain a stable ammonium (NH3+ group which was consistently absent in antagonists. We deem that the presence of NH3+ constitutes a secondary observable with a biological consequence, signifying a change in T cell activation. While our analysis of protonated structures relied on the quantum chemical relaxation of the H species, the results were consistent over a wide range of peptide charge and spin polarization conditions.

  3. Spin-crossover coordination nanoparticles. (United States)

    Volatron, Florence; Catala, Laure; Rivière, Eric; Gloter, Alexandre; Stéphan, Odile; Mallah, Talal


    Spin-crossover coordination nanoparticles of the cyanide-bridged three-dimensional network Fe(pyrazine){Pt(CN) 4} were prepared at three different sizes using a microemulsion. The 14 nm particles present a transition centered around 265 K with a hysteresis of 6 K.

  4. Mutually coordinated anticipatory multimodal interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; van Welbergen, H.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Esposito, A.; Bourbakis, N.G.; Avouris, N.; Hatzilygeroudis, I.


    We introduce our research on anticipatory and coordinated interaction between a virtual human and a human partner. Rather than adhering to the turn taking paradigm, we choose to investigate interaction where there is simultaneous expressive behavior by the human interlocutor and a humanoid. We have

  5. Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.


    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

  6. Coordinating talk and practical action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Streeck, Jürgen


    This paper investigates how talk and practical action are coordinated during one type of activity involving professional communication: the service-assessment sequence in hair salons. During this activity, a practical inspection of the haircut must be coupled with sequentially produced verbal acts...

  7. Chemical exchange program analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waffelaert, Pascale


    As part of its EMS, Sandia performs an annual environmental aspects/impacts analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the environmental aspects associated with Sandia's activities, products, and services and the potential environmental impacts associated with those aspects. Division and environmental programs established objectives and targets based on the environmental aspects associated with their operations. In 2007 the most significant aspect identified was Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage). The objective for Hazardous Materials (Use and Storage) was to improve chemical handling, storage, and on-site movement of hazardous materials. One of the targets supporting this objective was to develop an effective chemical exchange program, making a business case for it in FY07, and fully implementing a comprehensive chemical exchange program in FY08. A Chemical Exchange Program (CEP) team was formed to implement this target. The team consists of representatives from the Chemical Information System (CIS), Pollution Prevention (P2), the HWMF, Procurement and the Environmental Management System (EMS). The CEP Team performed benchmarking and conducted a life-cycle analysis of the current management of chemicals at SNL/NM and compared it to Chemical Exchange alternatives. Those alternatives are as follows: (1) Revive the 'Virtual' Chemical Exchange Program; (2) Re-implement a 'Physical' Chemical Exchange Program using a Chemical Information System; and (3) Transition to a Chemical Management Services System. The analysis and benchmarking study shows that the present management of chemicals at SNL/NM is significantly disjointed and a life-cycle or 'Cradle-to-Grave' approach to chemical management is needed. This approach must consider the purchasing and maintenance costs as well as the cost of ultimate disposal of the chemicals and materials. A chemical exchange is needed as a mechanism to re-apply chemicals on site. This

  8. Hard Colour Singlet Exchange at the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian; Lonnblad, Leif; Cox, Brian; Forshaw, Jeff; Lonnblad, Leif


    We have performed a detailed phenomenological investigation of the hard colour singlet exchange process which is observed at the Tevatron in events which have a large rapidity gap between outgoing jets. We include the effects of multiple interactions to obtain a prediction for the gap survival factor. Comparing the data on the fraction of gap events with the prediction from BFKL pomeron exchange we find agreement provided that a constant value of alpha_s is used in the BFKL calculation. Moreover, the value of alpha_s is in line with that extracted from measurements made at HERA.

  9. [Eco-physiological investigations on wild and cultivated plants in the Negev Desert : II. The influence of climatic factors on carbon dioxide exchange and transpiration at the end of the dry period]. (United States)

    Schulze, E -D; Lange, O L; Koch, W


    The influence of climatic factors on net photosynthesis, dark respiration and transpiration was investigated in the Negev Desert at the end of the dry summer period when plant water stress was at a maximum. Species studied included: dominant species of the natural vegetation (Artemisia herba-alba, Hammada scoparia, Noaea mucronata, Reaumuria negevensis, Salsola inermis, Zygophyllum dumosum), cultivated plants receiving rainfall and run-off water during the winter season in the run-off farm Avdat (Prunus armeniaca, Vitis vinifera), and irrigated cultivated plants receiving additional water during the summer season (Citrullus colocynthis, Datura metel). 1. Light saturation of net photosynthesis was reached at 60-90 klx conforming to the high solar radiation intensities of the desert. 2. Maximum rates of CO2 uptake per unit of dry weight for the irrigated mesomorphic plants was ten times that of the wild plants. However, in comparison to the other species, maximal rates of CO2 uptake for wild plants were higher when calculated on a leaf area basis than when represented on a dry weight basis. Maximum rates of net photosynthesis per unit chlorophyll content for some of the wild plants (Salsola and Noaea) were comparable to those of the cultivated Vitis and irrigated Citrullus and Datura, Hammada exhibited even higher rates than Prunus. This demonstrates the great photosynthetic capacity of the wild plants even at the end of the dry season. 3. The upper temperature compensation point for net photosynthesis of the wild plants was unusually high as an adaptation to the temperatures of the habitat. Compensation points higher than 49°C exceed the maxima known so far for other flowering species. Maximum rates of net photosynthesis of Hammada were measured when the temperature of the photosynthetic organs was 37°C; at 49°C photosynthesis was only reduced by 50%. 4. Leaf temperature affects plant gas exchange by influencing stomatal aperture. Diffusion resistance of leaves

  10. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J


    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Rozsa


    Full Text Available The profitability of the operation of an enterprise is influenced by several factors. Beside the evolution of market supply and demand the hectic changes in exchange rates have an increasingly important role too. Since the start of the economic crisis in the autumn of 2008, changes in the exchange rate have been more and more emphasized. The article deals with methods for decreasing exchange risks of foreign currency transactions, without the need of completeness. In international trade due to the growth of the number of currency loans the significance of managing financial risks coming from the changes in exchange rates has increased. One of the most obvious tools is properly selected currency.

  12. A regulatory network for coordinated flower maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H Reeves


    Full Text Available For self-pollinating plants to reproduce, male and female organ development must be coordinated as flowers mature. The Arabidopsis transcription factors AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 6 (ARF6 and ARF8 regulate this complex process by promoting petal expansion, stamen filament elongation, anther dehiscence, and gynoecium maturation, thereby ensuring that pollen released from the anthers is deposited on the stigma of a receptive gynoecium. ARF6 and ARF8 induce jasmonate production, which in turn triggers expression of MYB21 and MYB24, encoding R2R3 MYB transcription factors that promote petal and stamen growth. To understand the dynamics of this flower maturation regulatory network, we have characterized morphological, chemical, and global gene expression phenotypes of arf, myb, and jasmonate pathway mutant flowers. We found that MYB21 and MYB24 promoted not only petal and stamen development but also gynoecium growth. As well as regulating reproductive competence, both the ARF and MYB factors promoted nectary development or function and volatile sesquiterpene production, which may attract insect pollinators and/or repel pathogens. Mutants lacking jasmonate synthesis or response had decreased MYB21 expression and stamen and petal growth at the stage when flowers normally open, but had increased MYB21 expression in petals of older flowers, resulting in renewed and persistent petal expansion at later stages. Both auxin response and jasmonate synthesis promoted positive feedbacks that may ensure rapid petal and stamen growth as flowers open. MYB21 also fed back negatively on expression of jasmonate biosynthesis pathway genes to decrease flower jasmonate level, which correlated with termination of growth after flowers have opened. These dynamic feedbacks may promote timely, coordinated, and transient growth of flower organs.

  13. A regulatory network for coordinated flower maturation. (United States)

    Reeves, Paul H; Ellis, Christine M; Ploense, Sara E; Wu, Miin-Feng; Yadav, Vandana; Tholl, Dorothea; Chételat, Aurore; Haupt, Ina; Kennerley, Brian J; Hodgens, Charles; Farmer, Edward E; Nagpal, Punita; Reed, Jason W


    For self-pollinating plants to reproduce, male and female organ development must be coordinated as flowers mature. The Arabidopsis transcription factors AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 6 (ARF6) and ARF8 regulate this complex process by promoting petal expansion, stamen filament elongation, anther dehiscence, and gynoecium maturation, thereby ensuring that pollen released from the anthers is deposited on the stigma of a receptive gynoecium. ARF6 and ARF8 induce jasmonate production, which in turn triggers expression of MYB21 and MYB24, encoding R2R3 MYB transcription factors that promote petal and stamen growth. To understand the dynamics of this flower maturation regulatory network, we have characterized morphological, chemical, and global gene expression phenotypes of arf, myb, and jasmonate pathway mutant flowers. We found that MYB21 and MYB24 promoted not only petal and stamen development but also gynoecium growth. As well as regulating reproductive competence, both the ARF and MYB factors promoted nectary development or function and volatile sesquiterpene production, which may attract insect pollinators and/or repel pathogens. Mutants lacking jasmonate synthesis or response had decreased MYB21 expression and stamen and petal growth at the stage when flowers normally open, but had increased MYB21 expression in petals of older flowers, resulting in renewed and persistent petal expansion at later stages. Both auxin response and jasmonate synthesis promoted positive feedbacks that may ensure rapid petal and stamen growth as flowers open. MYB21 also fed back negatively on expression of jasmonate biosynthesis pathway genes to decrease flower jasmonate level, which correlated with termination of growth after flowers have opened. These dynamic feedbacks may promote timely, coordinated, and transient growth of flower organs.

  14. Lessons from the evolution of foreign exchange trading strategies


    Neely, Christopher J.; Weller, Paul A.


    The adaptive markets hypothesis posits that trading strategies evolve as traders adapt their behavior to changing circumstances. This paper studies the evolution of trading strategies for a hypothetical trader who chooses portfolios from foreign exchange (forex) technical rules in major and emerging markets, the carry trade, and U.S. equities. The results show that forex trading alone dramatically outperforms the S&P 500 but there is little gain to coordinating forex and equity strategies, wh...

  15. Patient privacy, consent, and identity management in health information exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Hosek, Susan D


    As a step toward improving its health information technology (IT) interoperability, the Military Health System is seeking to develop a research roadmap to better coordinate health IT research efforts, address IT capability gaps, and reduce programmatic risk for its enterprise projects. This report identifies gaps in research, policy, and practice involving patient privacy, consent, and identity management that need to be addressed to improve the quality and efficiency of care through health information exchange.

  16. Extratropical Stratosphere-Troposphere Mass Exchange (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.


    Understanding the exchange of gases between the stratosphere and the troposphere is important for determining how pollutants enter the stratosphere and how they leave. This study does a global analysis of that the exchange of mass between the stratosphere and the troposphere. While the exchange of mass is not the same as the exchange of constituents, you can t get the constituent exchange right if you have the mass exchange wrong. Thus this kind of calculation is an important test for models which also compute trace gas transport. In this study I computed the mass exchange for two assimilated data sets and a GCM. The models all agree that amount of mass descending from the stratosphere to the troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere extra tropics is approx. 10(exp 10) kg/s averaged over a year. The value for the Southern Hemisphere by about a factor of two. ( 10(exp 10) kg of air is the amount of air in 100 km x 100 km area with a depth of 100 m - roughly the size of the D.C. metro area to a depth of 300 feet.) Most people have the idea that most of the mass enters the stratosphere through the tropics. But this study shows that almost 5 times more mass enters the stratosphere through the extra-tropics. This mass, however, is quickly recycled out again. Thus the lower most stratosphere is a mixture of upper stratospheric air and tropospheric air. This is an important result for understanding the chemistry of the lower stratosphere.

  17. Time-Coordination Strategies and Control Laws for Multi-Agent Unmanned Systems (United States)

    Puig-Navarro, Javier; Hovakimyan, Naira; Allen, B. Danette


    Time-critical coordination tools for unmanned systems can be employed to enforce the type of temporal constraints required in terminal control areas, ensure minimum distance requirements among vehicles are satisfied, and successfully perform coordinated missions. In comparison with previous literature, this paper presents an ampler spectrum of coordination and temporal specifications for unmanned systems, and proposes a general control law that can enforce this range of constraints. The constraint classification presented con- siders the nature of the desired arrival window and the permissible coordination errors to define six different types of time-coordination strategies. The resulting decentralized coordination control law allows the vehicles to negotiate their speeds along their paths in response to information exchanged over the communication network. This control law organizes the different members in the fleet hierarchically per their behavior and informational needs as reference agent, leaders, and followers. Examples and simulation results for all the coordination strategies presented demonstrate the applicability and efficacy of the coordination control law for multiple unmanned systems.

  18. A coordination theory for intelligent machines (United States)

    Wang, Fei-Yue; Saridis, George N.


    A formal model for the coordination level of intelligent machines is established. The framework of the coordination level investigated consists of one dispatcher and a number of coordinators. The model called coordination structure has been used to describe analytically the information structure and information flow for the coordination activities in the coordination level. Specifically, the coordination structure offers a formalism to (1) describe the task translation of the dispatcher and coordinators; (2) represent the individual process within the dispatcher and coordinators; (3) specify the cooperation and connection among the dispatcher and coordinators; (4) perform the process analysis and evaluation; and (5) provide a control and communication mechanism for the real-time monitor or simulation of the coordination process. A simple procedure for the task scheduling in the coordination structure is presented. The task translation is achieved by a stochastic learning algorithm. The learning process is measured with entropy and its convergence is guaranteed. Finally, a case study of the coordination structure with three coordinators and one dispatcher for a simple intelligent manipulator system illustrates the proposed model and the simulation of the task processes performed on the model verifies the soundness of the theory.

  19. Data Exchange Inventory (DEXI) System (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEXI is an intranet application used by SSA users to track all incoming and outgoing data exchanges between SSA and our data exchange partners. Information such as...

  20. A Protein Scaffold Coordinates SRC-Mediated JNK Activation in Response to Metabolic Stress. (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Standen, Claire L; Morel, Caroline; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jason K; Swat, Wojciech; Flavell, Richard A; Davis, Roger J


    Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. How obesity contributes to metabolic syndrome is unclear. Free fatty acid (FFA) activation of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase (SRC)-dependent cJun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is implicated in this process. However, the mechanism that mediates SRC-dependent JNK activation is unclear. Here, we identify a role for the scaffold protein JIP1 in SRC-dependent JNK activation. SRC phosphorylation of JIP1 creates phosphotyrosine interaction motifs that bind the SH2 domains of SRC and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV. These interactions are required for SRC-induced activation of VAV and the subsequent engagement of a JIP1-tethered JNK signaling module. The JIP1 scaffold protein, therefore, plays a dual role in FFA signaling by coordinating upstream SRC functions together with downstream effector signaling by the JNK pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relativity explained by physical interpretation of coordinates of energy (United States)

    Fernando, Viraj


    This paper is based on Einstein's key concept, 'Physical Interpretation of Co-ordinates' on which basis he developed his theory of relativity. However, in the present theory, space and time co-ordinates are abandoned and instead, internal components of energy are recognized as co-ordinates of Nature's geometry. This enables the development of the theory in full conformity to the principle of conservation of energy. Whereas, the co-ordinates that vary in the motions of matter particles are inertia and velocity of the applied momentum, in motion of photons, it is the inertia and frequency co-ordinates that vary, while velocity co-ordinate remains invariant at value c, making the result of Michelson's experiment self-explanatory. Thus, although this theory vindicates special theory of relativity in regard to the principle of the constancy of the velocity of light, it contradicts it by recognizing the possession of mass by a photon. By identifying that Newton has willfully omitted two important laws by the use of the Ockham's razor, since these have no significant effects on the motion of bodies at low velocities, and by re-instating these laws, classical mechanics is revised to apply to bodies moving at all velocities whatsoever, so that the revised theory becomes capable of accounting for gamma-factor, Lorentz transformation and other relativistic phenomena. The parallel between 'Lorentz transformation' of the displacement of a fast moving particle in a laboratory on earth, in terms of co-ordinate variation of inertia and velocity, and the relativistic Doppler effect of starlight incident on earth in terms of co-ordinate variation of inertia and frequency, is established.

  2. Dynamical Clustering of Exchange Rates


    Fenn, Daniel J.; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J; Mark McDonald; Stacy Williams; Johnson, Neil F.; Jones, Nick S


    We use techniques from network science to study correlations in the foreign exchange (FX) market over the period 1991--2008. We consider an FX market network in which each node represents an exchange rate and each weighted edge represents a time-dependent correlation between the rates. To provide insights into the clustering of the exchange rate time series, we investigate dynamic communities in the network. We show that there is a relationship between an exchange rate's functional role withi...

  3. Serial tempering without exchange. (United States)

    Nymeyer, Hugh


    Serial tempering is a computational method that turns the temperature T (or more generally any independent λ parameter) into a dynamical variable. It is shown that, under conditions for which this variable is fast, serial tempering is equivalent to the umbrella sampling method with a single effective potential. This equivalence is demonstrated using both a small one-dimensional system and a small solvated peptide. The suggestion is then made to replace the serial tempering protocol with the equivalent umbrella sampling calculation. This approach, serial tempering without exchange (STeWiE), has the same performance as serial tempering in the limit that exchanges are frequent, is simpler to implement, and has fewer adjustable parameters than conventional serial tempering. The equivalence of serial tempering and STeWiE also provides a convenient route for estimating and optimizing the performance of serial tempering simulations and other generalized-ensemble methods.

  4. Lipid exchange by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, Nikolaj Düring; Olesen, Claus


    Lipids play an important role in maintaining P-type ATPase structure and function, and often they are crucial for ATPase activity. When the P-type ATPases are in the membrane, they are surrounded by a mix of different lipids species with varying aliphatic chain lengths and saturation......, and the complex interplay between the lipids and the P-type ATPases are still not well understood. We here describe a robust method to exchange the majority of the lipids surrounding the ATPase after solubilisation and/or purification with a target lipid of interest. The method is based on an ultracentrifugation...... step, where the protein sample is spun through a dense buffer containing large excess of the target lipid, which results in an approximately 80-85 % lipid exchange. The method is a very gently technique that maintains protein folding during the process, hence allowing further characterization...

  5. Argumentation for coordinating shared activities (United States)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Barrett, Anthony C.; Schaffer, Steven R.


    an increasing need for space missions to be able to collaboratively (and competitively) develop plans both within and across missions. In addition, interacting spacecraft that interleave onboard planning and execution must reach consensus on their commitments to each other prior to execution. In domains where missions have varying degrees of interaction and different constraints on communication and computation, the missions will require different coordination protocols in order to efficiently reach consensus with in their imposed deadlines. We describe a Shared Activity Coordination (SHAC) framework that provides a decentralized algorithm for negotiating the scheduling of shared activities over the lifetimes of multiple agents and a foundation for customizing protocols for negotiating planner interactions. We investigate variations of a few simple protocols based on argumentation and distributed constraints satisfaction techniques and evaluate their abilities to reach consistent solutions according to computation, time, and communication costs in an abstract domain where spacecraft propose joint measurements.

  6. A coordination language for databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ximeng; Wu, Xi; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto


    We present a coordination language for the modeling of distributed database applications. The language, baptized Klaim-DB, borrows the concepts of localities and nets of the coordination language Klaim but re-incarnates the tuple spaces of Klaim as databases. It provides high-level abstractions...... and primitives for the access and manipulation of structured data, with integrity and atomicity considerations. We present the formal semantics of Klaim-DB and develop a type system that avoids potential runtime errors such as certain evaluation errors and mismatches of data format in tables, which are monitored...... in the semantics. The use of the language is illustrated in a scenario where the sales from different branches of a chain of department stores are aggregated from their local databases. Raising the abstraction level and encapsulating integrity checks in the language primitives have benefited the modeling task...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin HROMÁDKA


    Full Text Available Both low cost carriers ‘fresh wind’ and liberalisation of ground handling market makes airlines to be cost-wise in every single field. Thus, ground handling contract are cutting down in terms of their costs. Handling companies struggle with pressure being put from the market environment, they rush 25 minutes turnaround with couple of people. This can be potentially dangerous from the safety point of view. One of possible solutions seems to be introducing turnaround coordinator, person who would supervise the ramp handling procedures. This paper discusses the role of turnaround coordinator within the aircraft turnaround process. Duties and responsibilities of this person are described. However, not every airport is staffing this position. The survey shows that smaller airports pay much more attention to this issue than the big ones.

  8. Coordination Dynamics in Cognitive Neuroscience. (United States)

    Bressler, Steven L; Kelso, J A Scott


    Many researchers and clinicians in cognitive neuroscience hold to a modular view of cognitive function in which the cerebral cortex operates by the activation of areas with circumscribed elementary cognitive functions. Yet an ongoing paradigm shift to a dynamic network perspective is underway. This new viewpoint treats cortical function as arising from the coordination dynamics within and between cortical regions. Cortical coordination dynamics arises due to the unidirectional influences imposed on a cortical area by inputs from other areas that project to it, combined with the projection reciprocity that characterizes cortical connectivity and gives rise to reentrant processing. As a result, cortical dynamics exhibits both segregative and integrative tendencies and gives rise to both cooperative and competitive relations within and between cortical areas that are hypothesized to underlie the emergence of cognition in brains.

  9. Coordination dynamics in cognitive neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L Bressler


    Full Text Available Many researchers and clinicians in cognitive neuroscience hold to a modular view of cognitive function in which the cerebral cortex operates by the activation of areas with circumscribed elementary cognitive functions. Yet an ongoing paradigm shift to a dynamic network perspective is underway. This new viewpoint treats cortical function as arising from the coordination dynamics within and between cortical regions. Cortical coordination dynamics arises due to the unidirectional influences imposed on a cortical area by inputs from other areas that project to it, combined with the projection reciprocity that characterizes cortical connectivity and gives rise to reentrant processing. As a result, cortical dynamics exhibits both segregative and integrative tendencies and gives rise to both cooperative and competitive relations within and between cortical areas that are hypothesized to underlie the emergence of cognition in brains.

  10. Asynchronous replica exchange software for grid and heterogeneous computing (United States)

    Gallicchio, Emilio; Xia, Junchao; Flynn, William F.; Zhang, Baofeng; Samlalsingh, Sade; Mentes, Ahmet; Levy, Ronald M.


    Parallel replica exchange sampling is an extended ensemble technique often used to accelerate the exploration of the conformational ensemble of atomistic molecular simulations of chemical systems. Inter-process communication and coordination requirements have historically discouraged the deployment of replica exchange on distributed and heterogeneous resources. Here we describe the architecture of a software (named ASyncRE) for performing asynchronous replica exchange molecular simulations on volunteered computing grids and heterogeneous high performance clusters. The asynchronous replica exchange algorithm on which the software is based avoids centralized synchronization steps and the need for direct communication between remote processes. It allows molecular dynamics threads to progress at different rates and enables parameter exchanges among arbitrary sets of replicas independently from other replicas. ASyncRE is written in Python following a modular design conducive to extensions to various replica exchange schemes and molecular dynamics engines. Applications of the software for the modeling of association equilibria of supramolecular and macromolecular complexes on BOINC campus computational grids and on the CPU/MIC heterogeneous hardware of the XSEDE Stampede supercomputer are illustrated. They show the ability of ASyncRE to utilize large grids of desktop computers running the Windows, MacOS, and/or Linux operating systems as well as collections of high performance heterogeneous hardware devices.

  11. Exchange rate rebounds after foreign exchange market interventions (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Takeshi


    This study examined the rebounds in the exchange rate after foreign exchange intervention. When intervention is strongly effective, the exchange rate rebounds at next day. The effect of intervention is reduced slightly by the rebound after the intervention. The exchange rate might have been 67.12-77.47 yen to a US dollar without yen-selling/dollar-purchasing intervention of 74,691,100 million yen implemented by the Japanese government since 1991, in comparison to the actual exchange rate was 103.19 yen to the US dollar at the end of March 2014.

  12. Coordination strategies of crew management (United States)

    Conley, Sharon; Cano, Yvonne; Bryant, Don


    An exploratory study that describes and contrasts two three-person flight crews performing in a B-727 simulator is presented. This study specifically attempts to delineate crew communication patterns accounting for measured differences in performance across routine and nonroutine flight patterns. The communication patterns in the two crews evaluated indicated different modes of coordination, i.e., standardization in the less effective crew and planning/mutual adjustment in the more effective crew.

  13. Medium voltage substation insulation coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccia, M.; Gambirasio, D. (SAE Sadelmi, Milan (Italy))


    With reference to the provisions contained in applicable CEI (Italian Electrotechnical Committee) and IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) normatives, a review is made of design criteria for the coordination of medium voltage substation switchgear and control gear. The design problematics are discussed with reference to optimization of neutral grounding, three phase ac short circuit calculation methods, and methods for the evaluation of voltages in fault conditions.

  14. Self-organising coordination systems


    Casadei, Matteo


    Many research fields are pushing the engineering of large-scale, mobile, and open systems towards the adoption of techniques inspired by self-organisation: pervasive computing, but also distributed artificial intelligence, multi-agent systems, social networks, peer-topeer and grid architectures exploit adaptive techniques to make global system properties emerge in spite of the unpredictability of interactions and behaviour. Such a trend is visible also in coordination models and languages, wh...

  15. Coordination Games on Directed Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof R. Apt


    Full Text Available We study natural strategic games on directed graphs, which capture the idea of coordination in the absence of globally common strategies. We show that these games do not need to have a pure Nash equilibrium and that the problem of determining their existence is NP-complete. The same holds for strong equilibria. We also exhibit some classes of games for which strong equilibria exist and prove that a strong equilibrium can then be found in linear time.

  16. International Tax Competition and Coordination


    Michael Keen; Konrad, Kai A.


    This paper aims to provide a comprehensive survey of the theory of international tax competition. Starting with the standard framework, it visits the non-cooperative equilibrium of tax competition, analyses aspects of partial and regional coordination, repeated interaction, stock-flow-effects, agglomeration effects and time consistency issues in dynamic models. We discuss profit shifting in the Keen-Kanbur model and then survey frameworks to analyze countries’ bidding for firms, tax rate diff...

  17. Co[sup 2+] ion exchange with NaY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, I.; Solache-Rios, M.; Bulbulian, S. (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico)); Bosch, P. (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico) Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa (Mexico))


    Co[sup 2+] ion exchange from aqueous cobalt chloride-sodium chloride solutions with NaY zeolite has been investigated. The effect of contact time on the sorption of Co[sup 2+] by dehydrated Y zeolite at 150[degrees]C is unusual. A fast sorption uptake is observed in which 1.73 mequiv/g of zeolite of Na[sup +] ions is replaced by cobalt ions, followed by a desorption process where the uptake decreases to 1.56 mequiv/g of zeolite. This behavior is explained by the location and coordination of cobalt in Y zeolite sites. It is suggested that the maximum uptake corresponds to cobalt ions being simultaneously in two sites; tetrahedrally coordinated in the sodalite units and octahedrally coordinated in the large cavities. It is also suggested that the desorption process is a consequence of a reaction between Cl[sup [minus

  18. O3 and NOx Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubet, B.; Castell, J.F.; Laville, P.; Personne, E.; Tuzet, A.; Ammann, C.; Emberson, L.; Ganzeveld, L.; Kowalski, A.S.; Merbold, L.; Stella, P.; Tuovinen, J.P.


    This discussion was based on the background document “Review on modelling atmosphere-biosphere exchange of Ozone and Nitrogen oxides”, which reviews the processes contributing to biosphere-atmosphere exchange of O3 and NOx, including stomatal and non-stomatal exchange of O3 and NO, NO2.

  19. The stability of exchange networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doğan, G.; Assen, M. van; Rijt, A. van de; Buskens, V.W.


    Economic and sociological exchange theories predict divisions of exchange benefits given an assumed fixed network of exchange relations. Since network structure has been found to have a large impact on actors’ payoffs, actors have strong incentives for network change.Weanswer the question what

  20. Integrated foreign exchange risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen


    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of impor...

  1. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...

  2. Scraped surface heat exchangers. (United States)

    Rao, Chetan S; Hartel, Richard W


    Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHEs) are commonly used in the food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries for heat transfer, crystallization, and other continuous processes. They are ideally suited for products that are viscous, sticky, that contain particulate matter, or that need some degree of crystallization. Since these characteristics describe a vast majority of processed foods, SSHEs are especially suited for pumpable food products. During operation, the product is brought in contact with a heat transfer surface that is rapidly and continuously scraped, thereby exposing the surface to the passage of untreated product. In addition to maintaining high and uniform heat exchange, the scraper blades also provide simultaneous mixing and agitation. Heat exchange for sticky and viscous foods such as heavy salad dressings, margarine, chocolate, peanut butter, fondant, ice cream, and shortenings is possible only by using SSHEs. High heat transfer coefficients are achieved because the boundary layer is continuously replaced by fresh material. Moreover, the product is in contact with the heating surface for only a few seconds and high temperature gradients can be used without the danger of causing undesirable reactions. SSHEs are versatile in the use of heat transfer medium and the various unit operations that can be carried out simultaneously. This article critically reviews the current understanding of the operations and applications of SSHEs.

  3. Paste heat exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The subject of coal paste heat exchangers is discussed in this letter report from Gelsenberg A.G. to I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G. Gelsenberg had given little consideration to the heating of coal paste by means of regeneration (heat exchange) because of the lack of experience in paste regeneration with bituminous coal, especially at 700 atmospheres. At the I.G. Farben plant at Poelitz, paste regeneration was carried out so that low concentration coal paste was heated in the regenerator together with the process gas, and the remaining coal was fed into the cold pass of the preheater in a thicker paste. Later tests proved this process viable. Gelsenberg heated normal coal paste and the gas in heat exchangers with the goal of relieving the preheater. Good results were achieved without change in design. The coal paste was heated with process gas in the regenerator at up to 315 degrees with constant pressure difference, so that after three months no decrease in K-values and no deposition or thickening was observed. Through the omission of paste gas, the pressure difference of the system became more constant and did not rise above the former level. The temperature also was more controllable, the chamber smoother running. Principal thermal data are given in a table. 1 table, 1 graph.

  4. Coordinate unsaturation with fluorinated ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rack, J.L.; Hurlburt, P.K.; Anderson, O.P.; Strauss, S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States)


    The preparation and characterization of Zn(OTeF{sub 5}){sub 2} has resulted in a model compound with which to explore the concept of coordinative unsaturation. The coordination of solvents of varying donicity and dielectric constant to the Zn(II) ions in Zn(OTeF{sub 5}){sub 2} was studied by vapor phase monometry, NMR and IR spectroscopy, conductimetry, and X-Ray crystallography. The structures of [Zn(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}NO{sub 2}){sub 2}(OTeF{sub 5})2]2 and Zn(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}NO{sub 2}){sub 3}(OTEF{sub 5}){sub 2} demonstrate the electronic flexibility of some weakly coordinating solvents in that nitrobenzene can function as either an {eta}{sup 1}O or {eta}{sup 2}O,O`-ligand. The dependence of the number of bound solvent molecules and the degree of OTeF{sub 5}{minus} dissociation on solvent donor number and dielectric constant will be presented.

  5. Coordination of plant mitochondrial biogenesis: keeping pace with cellular requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina eWelchen


    Full Text Available Plant mitochondria are complex organelles that carry out numerous metabolic processes related with the generation of energy for cellular functions and the synthesis and degradation of several compounds. Mitochondria are semiautonomous and dynamic organelles changing in shape, number and composition depending on tissue or developmental stage. The biogenesis of functional mitochondria requires the coordination of genes present both in the nucleus and the organelle. In addition, due to their central role, all processes held inside mitochondria must be finely coordinated with those in other organelles according to cellular demands. Coordination is achieved by transcriptional control of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins by specific transcription factors that recognize conserved elements in their promoter regions. In turn, the expression of most of these transcription factors is linked to developmental and environmental cues, according to the availability of nutrients, light-dark cycles and warning signals generated in response to stress conditions. Among the signals impacting in the expression of nuclear genes, retrograde signals that originate inside mitochondria help to adjust mitochondrial biogenesis to organelle demands. Adding more complexity, several nuclear encoded proteins are dual localized to mitochondria and either chloroplasts or the nucleus. Dual targeting might establish a crosstalk between the nucleus and cell organelles to ensure a fine coordination of cellular activities. In this article, we discuss how the different levels of coordination of mitochondrial biogenesis interconnect to optimize the function of the organelle according to both internal and external demands.

  6. Mechanism and Dynamics of Molecular Exchange at the Silica/Binary Solvent Mixtures Interface. (United States)

    Karnes, John J; Benjamin, Ilan


    Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of acetonitrile/methanol mixtures in contact with a hydroxylated silica surface are used to elucidate the mechanism of molecular exchange at a hydrophilic liquid/solid interface. The different hydrogen-bonding ability of the two solvents provides a driving force for the adsorption/desorption process, which is followed by examining several structural and energetic properties of the system. Two different reaction coordinates for the hydrogen bonding exchange are defined and are used to identify transition states in which the methanol attains a well-defined orientation. The reaction coordinates are used to examine the mechanism and dynamics of the exchange. We find that the exchange process involves multiple recrossing of the transition state and can progress via two different mechanisms, depending whether the methanol first acts as a hydrogen bond donor or acceptor at the silica surface.

  7. Building AN International Polar Data Coordination Network (United States)

    Pulsifer, P. L.; Yarmey, L.; Manley, W. F.; Gaylord, A. G.; Tweedie, C. E.


    In the spirit of the World Data Center system developed to manage data resulting from the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58, the International Polar Year 2007-2009 (IPY) resulted in significant progress towards establishing an international polar data management network. However, a sustained international network is still evolving. In this paper we argue that the fundamental building blocks for such a network exist and that the time is right to move forward. We focus on the Arctic component of such a network with linkages to Antarctic network building activities. A review of an important set of Network building blocks is presented: i) the legacy of the IPY data and information service; ii) global data management services with a polar component (e.g. World Data System); iii) regional systems (e.g. Arctic Observing Viewer; iv) nationally focused programs (e.g. Arctic Observing Viewer, Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service, Polar Data Catalogue, Inuit Knowledge Centre); v) programs focused on the local (e.g. Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic, Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre). We discuss current activities and results with respect to three priority areas needed to establish a strong and effective Network. First, a summary of network building activities reports on a series of productive meetings, including the Arctic Observing Summit and the Polar Data Forum, that have resulted in a core set of Network nodes and participants and a refined vision for the Network. Second, we recognize that interoperability for information sharing fundamentally relies on the creation and adoption of community-based data description standards and data delivery mechanisms. There is a broad range of interoperability frameworks and specifications available; however, these need to be adapted for polar community needs. Progress towards Network interoperability is reviewed, and a prototype distributed data systems is demonstrated. We

  8. Perceptions of care coordination in a population-based sample of diverse breast cancer patients. (United States)

    Hawley, Sarah T; Janz, Nancy K; Lillie, Sarah E; Friese, Christopher R; Griggs, Jennifer J; Graff, John J; Hamilton, Ann S; Jain, Sarika; Katz, Steven J


    To identify factors associated with perceptions of care coordination in a diverse sample of breast cancer patients. Breast cancer patients reported to the metropolitan SEER registries of Detroit or Los Angeles from 6/05 to 2/07 were surveyed after diagnosis (N=2268, RR=72.4%). Outcomes were two dichotomous measures reflecting patient appraisal of care coordination during their treatment experience. Primary independent variables were race/ethnicity (white, African American, Latina-high acculturated, Latina-low acculturated) and health literacy (low, moderate, high). Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with both measures of care coordination. 2148 subjects were included in the analytic dataset. 16.4% of women perceived low care coordination and 12.5% reported low satisfaction. Race/ethnicity was not significantly associated with care coordination. Women with low subjective health literacy were 3-4 times as likely as those with high health literacy to perceive low care coordination and low satisfaction with care coordination (OR=3.88; 95% CI: 2.78-5.41; OR=3.19 95% CI: 2.25-4.52, respectively). Many breast cancer patients positively appraised their care coordination, but patients with low health literacy perceived low care coordination. Providers should be aware of the health literacy deficits that may contribute to their patients' attitudes towards their breast cancer care coordination. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Randomized controlled trial of a coordinated care intervention to improve risk factor control after stroke or transient ischemic attack in the safety net: Secondary stroke prevention by Uniting Community and Chronic care model teams Early to End Disparities (SUCCEED). (United States)

    Towfighi, Amytis; Cheng, Eric M; Ayala-Rivera, Monica; McCreath, Heather; Sanossian, Nerses; Dutta, Tara; Mehta, Bijal; Bryg, Robert; Rao, Neal; Song, Shlee; Razmara, Ali; Ramirez, Magaly; Sivers-Teixeira, Theresa; Tran, Jamie; Mojarro-Huang, Elizabeth; Montoya, Ana; Corrales, Marilyn; Martinez, Beatrice; Willis, Phyllis; Macias, Mireya; Ibrahim, Nancy; Wu, Shinyi; Wacksman, Jeremy; Haber, Hilary; Richards, Adam; Barry, Frances; Hill, Valerie; Mittman, Brian; Cunningham, William; Liu, Honghu; Ganz, David A; Factor, Diane; Vickrey, Barbara G


    Recurrent strokes are preventable through awareness and control of risk factors such as hypertension, and through lifestyle changes such as healthier diets, greater physical activity, and smoking cessation. However, vascular risk factor control is frequently poor among stroke survivors, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged blacks, Latinos and other people of color. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an effective framework for multi-component interventions aimed at improving care processes and outcomes for individuals with chronic disease. In addition, community health workers (CHWs) have played an integral role in reducing health disparities; however, their effectiveness in reducing vascular risk among stroke survivors remains unknown. Our objectives are to develop, test, and assess the economic value of a CCM-based intervention using an Advanced Practice Clinician (APC)-CHW team to improve risk factor control after stroke in an under-resourced, racially/ethnically diverse population. In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 516 adults (≥40 years) with an ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack or intracerebral hemorrhage within the prior 90 days are being enrolled at five sites within the Los Angeles County safety-net setting and randomized 1:1 to intervention vs usual care. Participants are excluded if they do not speak English, Spanish, Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean or if they are unable to consent. The intervention includes a minimum of three clinic visits in the healthcare setting, three home visits, and Chronic Disease Self-Management Program group workshops in community venues. The primary outcome is blood pressure (BP) control (systolic BP control of other vascular risk factors including lipids and hemoglobin A1c, (3) inflammation (C reactive protein [CRP]), (4) medication adherence, (5) lifestyle factors (smoking, diet, and physical activity), (6) estimated relative reduction in risk for recurrent stroke or myocardial

  10. Cantilever torque magnetometry on coordination compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perfetti, Mauro


    Cantilever Torque Magnetometry (CTM) is one of the leading techniques to deeply understand magnetic anisotropy of coordination compounds. The knowledge of magnetic anisotropy is a mandatory requirement before proceeding with any future application related to the magnetic properties of coordination...

  11. Anion exchangers with branched functional ion exchange layers of different hydrophilicity for ion chromatography. (United States)

    Shchukina, O I; Zatirakha, A V; Smolenkov, A D; Nesterenko, P N; Shpigun, O A


    Novel polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) based anion exchangers differing from each other in the structure of the branched functional ion exchange layer are prepared to investigate the role of linker and functional site on ion exchange selectivity. The proposed method of synthesis includes the obtaining of aminated PS-DVB particles by means of their acylation with following reductive amination with methylamine. Further modification of the obtained secondary aminogroups is provided by the alkylation with either 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (1,4-BDDGE) or resorcinol diglycidyl ether (RDGE), which form the linkers of different hydrophobicity, and amination of terminal epoxide rings with trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) or triethanolamine (TEA). The variation of the structure and hydrophobicity of the linker and terminal quaternary ammonium sites in the functional layer allows the alteration of selectivity and separation efficiency of the obtained adsorbents. The ion exchange selectivity and separation efficiency of the anion exchangers are evaluated using the model mixtures of anions (F(-), HCOO(-), Cl(-), NO2(-), Br(-), NO3(-), HPO4(2-) and SO4(2-)) in potassium hydroxide eluents. The adsorbents show the decrease of selectivity with increasing the hydrophilicity of the terminal functional site. The anion exchangers having more flexible and hydrophilic 1,4-BDDGE linker provide smaller separation factors for most of the analytes as compared with RDGE-containing adsorbents with the same terminal ion exchange sites, but are characterized with higher column efficiencies and better peak symmetry for polarizable anions. In case of 1,4-BDDGE-modified anion exchangers of the particle size of 3.3μm functionalized with DMEA and MDEA the calculated values of column efficiencies for polarizable NO3(-) and Br(-) are up to 49,000 and 53,000N/m, respectively, which is almost twice higher than the values obtained for the RDGE

  12. Learning from health information exchange technical architecture and implementation in seven beacon communities. (United States)

    McCarthy, Douglas B; Propp, Karen; Cohen, Alexander; Sabharwal, Raj; Schachter, Abigail A; Rein, Alison L


    As health care providers adopt and make "meaningful use" of health information technology (health IT), communities and delivery systems must set up the infrastructure to facilitate health information exchange (HIE) between providers and numerous other stakeholders who have a role in supporting health and care. By facilitating better communication and coordination between providers, HIE has the potential to improve clinical decision-making and continuity of care, while reducing unnecessary use of services. When implemented as part of a broader strategy for health care delivery system and payment reform, HIE capability also can enable the use of analytic tools needed for population health management, patient engagement in care, and continuous learning and improvement. The diverse experiences of seven communities that participated in the three-year federal Beacon Community Program offer practical insight into factors influencing the technical architecture of exchange infrastructure and its role in supporting improved care, reduced cost, and a healthier population. The case studies also document challenges faced by the communities, such as significant time and resources required to harmonize variations in the interpretation of data standards. Findings indicate that their progress developing community-based HIE strategies, while driven by local needs and objectives, is also influenced by broader legal, policy, and market conditions.

  13. Separation of tryptophan enantiomers by ligand-exchange chromatography with novel chiral ionic liquids ligand. (United States)

    Qing, Haiqun; Jiang, Xinyu; Yu, Jingang


    Chiral ionic liquids (CILs) with amino acids as cations have been applied as novel chiral ligands coordinated with Cu(2+) to separate tryptophan enantiomers in ligand exchange chromatography. Four kinds of amino acid ionic liquids, including [L-Pro][CF3COO], [L-Pro][NO3], [L-Pro]2[SO4], and [L-Phe][CF3COO] were successfully synthesized and used for separation of tryptophan enantiomers. To optimize the separation conditions, [L-Pro][CF3COO] was selected as the model ligand. Some factors influencing the efficiency of chiral separation, such as copper ion concentration, CILs concentration, methanol ratio (methanol/H2O, v/v), and pH, were investigated. The obtained optimal separation conditions were as follows: 8.0 mmol/L Cu(OAc)2, 4.0 mmol/L [L-Pro][CF3COO], and 20% (v/v) methanol at pH 3.6. Under the optimum conditions, acceptable enantioseparation of tryptophan enantiomers could be observed with a resolution of 1.89. The results demonstrate the good applicability of CILs with amino acids as cations for chiral separation. Furthermore, a comparative study was also conducted for exploring the mechanism of the CILs as new ligands in ligand exchange chromatography. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The committee of scientific expertise coordination; Le comite de coordination d'expertise scientifique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Placed under the MIES control, the Committee of scientific expertise coordination defines the needs, the contain and the planing of expertises realized in function of Climate national and international decisions and negotiations calendars. The Committee verifies the different expertises and offers the administrations, scientific tools and techniques useful for the negotiations. It can also define long-dated research needs which require the scientific community mobilization. This paper provides some document of the Committee: objectives, operating and priorities of the Committee, scenarios ''Factor 4'' and ''crack technology'', perceptions and practices, developing countries (China, India...), Euromed. (A.L.B.)

  15. Inhibition of endogenous heat shock protein 70 attenuates inducible nitric oxide synthase induction via disruption of heat shock protein 70/Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1-Ca(2+) -calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II/transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1-nuclear factor-κB signals in BV-2 microglia. (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Lu, Xu; Wang, Jia; Tong, Lijuan; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Wei


    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) critically contributes to inflammation and host defense. The inhibition of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) prevents iNOS induction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. However, the role and mechanism of endogenous Hsp70 in iNOS induction in microglia remains unclear. This study addresses this issue in BV-2 microglia, showing that Hsp70 inhibition or knockdown prevents LPS-induced iNOS protein expression and nitric oxide production. Real-time PCR experiments showed that LPS-induced iNOS mRNA transcription was blocked by Hsp70 inhibition. Further studies revealed that the inhibition of Hsp70 attenuated LPS-stimulated nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB)-α and phosphorylation of IκB kinase β (IKKβ). This prevention effect of Hsp70 inhibition on IKKβ-NF-κB activation was found to be dependent on the Ca(2+) /calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)/transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) signals based on the following observations: 1) chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) or inhibition of CaMKII reduced LPS-induced increases in TAK1 phosphorylation and 2) Hsp70 inhibition reduced LPS-induced increases in CaMKII/TAK1 phosphorylation, intracellular pH value, [Ca(2+) ]i , and CaMKII/TAK1 association. Mechanistic studies showed that Hsp70 inhibition disrupted the association between Hsp70 and Na(+) /H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1), which is an important exchanger responsible for Ca(2+) influx in LPS-stimulated cells. These studies demonstrate that the inhibition of endogenous Hsp70 attenuates the induction of iNOS, which likely occurs through the disruption of NHE1/Hsp70-Ca(2+) -CaMKII/TAK1-NF-κB signals in BV-2 microglia, providing further insight into the functions of Hsp70 in the CNS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Dynamic structural transformations of coordination supramolecular systems upon exogenous stimulation. (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Peng; Chen, Jing; Liu, Chun-Sen; Du, Miao


    Reactions in the solid state, especially single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SC-SC) transformations, provide an appealing pathway to obtain target crystalline materials with modified properties via a solvent-free green chemistry approach. This feature article focuses on the progress to date in the context of coordination supramolecular systems (CSSs), especially coordination polymers (CPs) or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which show interesting dynamic natures upon exposure to various exogenous stimuli, including concentration, temperature, light and mechanical force, as well as their synergic effect. In essence, dynamic CSSs normally possess crucial crystalline-reactive characteristics: (i) metal ions or clusters with unstable or metastable electronic configurations and coordination geometries; (ii) organic ligands bearing physicochemically active functional groups for subsequent reactions; (iii) polymeric networks of high flexibility for structural bending, rotation, swelling, or shrinking; (iv) guest moieties to be freely exchanged or eliminated by varying the environmental conditions. The significant changes in catalytic, sorption, magnetic, or luminescent properties accompanied by the structural transformations will also be discussed, which reveal the proof-of-concept thereof in designing new functional crystalline materials.

  17. An anatomically oriented breast coordinate system for mammogram analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Sami; Karemore, Gopal; Karssemeijer, Nico


    and orientations are registered and extracted without non-linearly deforming the images. We use the proposed breast coordinate transform in a cross-sectional breast cancer risk assessment study of 490 women, in which we attempt to learn breast cancer risk factors from mammograms that were taken prior to when...... between the mammograms of each woman and among the mammograms of all of the women in the study. The results of the cross-sectional study show that the classification into cancer and control groups can be improved by using the new coordinate system, compared to other systems evaluated. Comparisons were...

  18. The Dynamics of Multilateral Exchange (United States)

    Hausken, Kjell; Moxnes, John F.

    The article formulates a dynamic mathematical model where arbitrarily many players produce, consume, exchange, loan, and deposit arbitrarily many goods over time to maximize utility. Consuming goods constitutes a benefit, and producing, exporting, and loaning away goods constitute a cost. Utilities are benefits minus costs, which depend on the exchange ratios and bargaining functions. Three-way exchange occurs when one player acquires, through exchange, one good from another player with the sole purpose of using this good to exchange against the desired good from a third player. Such a triple handshake is not merely a set of double handshakes since the player assigns no interest to the first good in his benefit function. Cognitive and organization costs increase dramatically for higher order exchanges. An exchange theory accounting for media of exchange follows from simple generalization of two-way exchange. The examples of r-way exchange are the triangle trade between Africa, the USA, and England in the 17th and 18th centuries, the hypothetical hypercycle involving RNAs as players and enzymes as goods, and reaction-diffusion processes. The emergence of exchange, and the role of trading agents are discussed. We simulate an example where two-way exchange gives zero production and zero utility, while three-way exchange causes considerable production and positive utility. Maximum utility for each player is reached when exchanges of the same order as the number of players in society are allowed. The article merges micro theory and macro theory within the social, natural, and physical sciences.

  19. 45 CFR 1310.23 - Coordinated transportation. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coordinated transportation. 1310.23 Section 1310... START PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Special Requirements § 1310.23 Coordinated transportation. (a) Each agency providing transportation services must make reasonable efforts to coordinate transportation...

  20. 78 FR 44519 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (United States)


    ... Office of the Secretary Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Re-establishment of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee and call for nominations. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture re-established the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (Committee...

  1. 78 FR 34035 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (United States)


    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee will meet via teleconference every month on... conference call will be posted to the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Web site,

  2. A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.; Neef, R.M.


    Agents in an organization need to coordinate their actions in order to reach the organizational goals. This research describes the relation between types of coordination and the autonomy of actors. In an experimental setting we show that there is not one best way to coordinate in all situations. The

  3. A Dynamic Coordination Mechanism Using Adjustable Autonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Vecht, B. van der; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.J.C.


    Agents in an organization need to coordinate their actions in order to reach the organizational goals. This research describes the relation between types of coordination and the autonomy of actors. In an experimental setting we show that there is not one best way to coordinate in all situations. The

  4. Is fiscal policy coordination in EMU desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Debrun, X.; Klaassen, F.J.G.M.


    'It is widely argued that Europe's unified monetary policy calls for international coordination of fiscal policy. This paper surveys the issues involved with the coordination of fiscal policies as a demand management tool. We discuss ex-ante and ex-post coordination. The former operates through

  5. 36 CFR 13.1104 - Coordinates. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coordinates. 13.1104 Section 13.1104 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Administrative Provisions § 13.1104 Coordinates. All coordinates referenced in this subpart use horizontal datum...

  6. Cryogenic regenerative heat exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Robert A


    An in-depth survey of regenerative heat exchangers, this book chronicles the development and recent commercialization of regenerative devices for cryogenic applications. Chapters cover historical background, concepts, practical applications, design data, and numerical solutions, providing the latest information for engineers to develop advanced cryogenic machines. The discussions include insights into the operation of a regenerator; descriptions of the cyclic and fluid temperature distributions in a regenerator; data for various matrix geometries and materials, including coarse and fine bronze, stainless steel-woven wire mesh screens, and lead spheres; and unique operating features of cryocoolers that produce deviations from ideal regenerator theory.

  7. Coordination of multiple robot arms (United States)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.


    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  8. Application coordination in pervasive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Majuntke, Verena Elisabeth


    Pervasive applications are designed to support users in their daily life. For this purpose, applications interact with their environment, i.e. their context. They are able to adapt themselves to context changes or to explicitly change the context via actuators. If multiple applications are executed in the same context, interferences are likely to occur. To manage interferences, a coordination framework is presented in this thesis. Interferences are detected using a context model and information about applications' interaction with the context. The resolution of interference is achieved through

  9. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz


    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  10. Geometrical product specifications. Datums and coordinate systems (United States)

    Glukhov, V. I.; Ivleva, I. A.; Zlatkina, O. Y.


    The work is devoted to the relevant topic such as the technical products quality improvement due to the geometrical specifications accuracy. The research purpose is to ensure the quality indicators on the basis of the systematic approach to the values normalization and geometrical specifications accuracy in the workpiece coordinate systems in the process of design. To achieve the goal two tasks are completed such as the datum features classification according to the number of linear and angular freedom degrees constraints, called the datums informativeness, and the rectangular coordinate systems identification, materialized by workpiece datums sets. The datum features informativeness characterizes the datums functional purpose to limit product workpiece linear and angular degrees of freedom. The datum features informativeness numerically coincides with the kinematic pairs classes and couplings in mechanics. The datum features informativeness identifies the coordinate system without the location redundancy. Each coordinate plane of a rectangular coordinate system has different informativeness 3 + 2 + 1. Each coordinate axis also has different informativeness 4+2+Θ (zero). It is possible to establish the associated workpiece position with three linear and three angular coordinates relative to two axes with the informativeness 4 and 2. is higher, the more informativeness of the coordinate axis or a coordinate plane is, the higher is the linear and angular coordinates accuracy, the coordinate being plotted along the coordinate axis or plane. The systematic approach to the geometrical products specifications positioning in coordinate systems is the scientific basis for a natural transition to the functional dimensions of features position - coordinating dimensions and the size of the features form - feature dimensions of two measures: linear and angular ones. The products technical quality improving is possible due to the coordinate systems introduction materialized by

  11. Differences in the Motor Coordination Abilities Among Adolescent Gymnasts, Swimmers, and Ice Hockey Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakkola Timo


    Full Text Available Purpose. Motor coordination is proposed to be a relatively stable age-related construct, unlikely to be influenced by aligned experiential factors such as intensive sport-specific training. The purpose of the study is to investigate if there are differences in motor coordination abilities among young artistic gymnasts, swimmers, and ice hockey players.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena I. Bondarchuk


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to actual problem of decentralized management – coordination of scientific investigation in the system of pedagogical postgraduate education. The author analyzes the conditions of scientific investigations coordination of regional postgraduate pedagogical organizations as an important factor of effectiveness of its activity.

  13. Astroglial networks promote neuronal coordination. (United States)

    Chever, Oana; Dossi, Elena; Pannasch, Ulrike; Derangeon, Mickael; Rouach, Nathalie


    Astrocytes interact with neurons to regulate network activity. Although the gap junction subunits connexin 30 and connexin 43 mediate the formation of extensive astroglial networks that cover large functional neuronal territories, their role in neuronal synchronization remains unknown. Using connexin 30- and connexin 43-deficient mice, we showed that astroglial networks promoted sustained population bursts in hippocampal slices by setting the basal active state of neurons. Astroglial networks limited excessive neuronal depolarization induced by spontaneous synaptic activity, increased neuronal release probability, and favored the recruitment of neurons during bursting, thus promoting the coordinated activation of neuronal networks. In vivo, this sustained neuronal coordination translated into increased severity of acutely evoked epileptiform events and convulsive behavior. These results revealed that connexin-mediated astroglial networks synchronize bursting of neuronal assemblies, which can exacerbate pathological network activity and associated behavior. Our data thus provide molecular and biophysical evidence predicting selective astroglial gap junction inhibitors as anticonvulsive drugs. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Modeling Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index Using Time Series Analysis (United States)

    Gayo, W. S.; Urrutia, J. D.; Temple, J. M. F.; Sandoval, J. R. D.; Sanglay, J. E. A.


    This study was conducted to develop a time series model of the Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index and its volatility using the finite mixture of ARIMA model with conditional variance equations such as ARCH, GARCH, EG ARCH, TARCH and PARCH models. Also, the study aimed to find out the reason behind the behaviorof PSEi, that is, which of the economic variables - Consumer Price Index, crude oil price, foreign exchange rate, gold price, interest rate, money supply, price-earnings ratio, Producers’ Price Index and terms of trade - can be used in projecting future values of PSEi and this was examined using Granger Causality Test. The findings showed that the best time series model for Philippine Stock Exchange Composite index is ARIMA(1,1,5) - ARCH(1). Also, Consumer Price Index, crude oil price and foreign exchange rate are factors concluded to Granger cause Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index.

  15. Can muscle coordination be precisely studied by surface electromyography? (United States)

    Hug, François


    Despite the many reviews and research papers on the limitations of surface electromyography (EMG), there are relatively few that address this issue by considering dynamic contractions and specifically from the point of view of muscle coordination. Nevertheless, whether muscle coordination can be precisely studied using surface EMG signals is still a matter of discussion in the scientific community. In other words, it is uncertain whether neural control strategies of movement can be inferred from EMG. This review article discusses the appropriateness of using EMG recordings for studying muscle coordination. First, the main uses of surface EMG for studying muscle coordination are depicted. Then, the main intrinsic drawbacks of the EMG technique (i.e., amplitude cancellation, crosstalk and spatial variability of muscle activity) and of EMG processing (i.e., smoothing of the linear envelope, normalization of the time scale and the amplitude and timing of muscle activation) are described and discussed. Finally, three other factors (i.e., variability, electromechanical delay and neuromuscular fatigue), which can affect the interpretation of EMG and have received little attention in the literature, are presented and discussed. All of this information is crucial to the proper interpretation of muscle coordination from EMG signals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Likability's Effect on Interpersonal Motor Coordination: Exploring Natural Gaze Direction. (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong; Salesse, Robin N; Marin, Ludovic; Gueugnon, Mathieu; Bardy, Benoît G


    Although existing studies indicate a positive effect of interpersonal motor coordination (IMC) on likability, no consensus has been reached as for the effect of likability back onto IMC. The present study specifically investigated the causal effect of likability on IMC and explored, by tracking the natural gaze direction, the possible underlying mechanisms. Twenty-two participants were engaged in an interpersonal finger-tapping task with a confederate in three likability conditions (baseline, likable, and unlikable), while wearing an eye tracker. They had to perform finger tapping at their comfort tempo with the confederate who tapped at the same or 1.5 times of the participant's preferred frequency. Results showed that when tapping at the same frequency, the effect of likability on IMC varied with time. Participants coordinated at a higher level in the baseline condition at the beginning of the coordination task, and a facilitative effect of likability on IMC was revealed in the last session. As a novelty, our results evidenced a positive correlation between IMC and the amount of gaze onto the coordination partner's movement only in the likable condition. No effect of likability was found when the confederate was tapping at 1.5 times of the participant's preferred frequency. Our research suggests that the psychosocial property of the coordinating partner should be taken into consideration when investigating the performance of IMC and that IMC is a parameter that is sensitive to multiple factors.

  17. Magnetic properties of dendrimer structures with different coordination numbers: A Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masrour, R., E-mail:; Jabar, A.


    We investigate the magnetic properties of Cayley trees of large molecules with dendrimer structure using Monte Carlo simulations. The thermal magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of a dendrimer structure are given with different coordination numbers, Z=3, 4, 5 and different generations g=3 and 2. The variation of magnetizations with the exchange interactions and crystal fields have been given of this system. The magnetic hysteresis cycles have been established. - Highlights: • The dendrimer structure is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. • The transition temperatures are obtained for different coordination numbers and generations. • The magnetic hysteresis cycle has been established. • The dendrimer structure exhibit the superparamagnetic behavior.

  18. Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) Fiscal Year 1999 annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The DOE Energy Materials Coordinating Committee (EMaCC) serves primarily to enhance coordination among the Department`s materials programs and to further effective use of materials expertise within the Department. These functions are accomplished through the exchange of budgetary and planning information among program managers and through technical meetings/workshops on selected topics involving both DOE and major contractors. In addition, EMaCC assists in obtaining materials-related inputs for both intra- and interagency compilations. This report summarizes EMaCC activities for FY 1999 and describes the materials research programs of various offices and divisions within the Department.

  19. Regioisomeric control induced by DABCO coordination to rotatable self-assembled bis- and tetraporphyrin α,γ-cyclic octapeptide dimers. (United States)

    Hernández-Eguía, Laura P; Brea, Roberto J; Castedo, Luis; Ballester, Pablo; Granja, Juan R


    The design and synthesis of two α,γ-cyclic octapeptides decorated with one and two Zn-porphyrin units in their periphery is described. In nonpolar organic solvents the α,γ-cyclic octapeptides quantitatively self-assemble into Zn-bis- or -tetraporphyrin architectures that could act as molecular tweezers. The self-assembly process, however, is not regioselective and affords a mixture of different regioisomers that are involved in chemical exchange processes. The regioisomers with the Zn-porphyrin units positioned in register with respect to each other are proposed to be the less abundant species in the solution mixture. It has been demonstrated that the coordination of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) to the supramolecular bis- or tetraporphyrin tweezers is an effective way to achieve regioisomeric control of the self-assembled mixture of dimers. Thus, DABCO functions as an external molecular trigger and, when used under strict stoichiometric control with respect to the Zn-porphyrin units, provokes the exclusive formation of self-assembled dimers with a cofacial arrangement of Zn-porphyrin units through the formation of sandwich-type complexes. The use of excess DABCO fragments the sandwich complexes and affords open dimers of high stoichiometry with DABCO molecules axially monocoordinated to the Zn-porphyrin units, probably as a regioisomeric mixture. In the case of Zn-tetraporphyrin tweezers, the ditopic coordination of DABCO at the two binding sites shows a moderate positive cooperativity factor, αP=5. These assemblies have potential applications as light-induced energy and electron-transfer switches regulated by DABCO coordination; such applications would require the introduction of additional chromophores in the cyclic peptide scaffold. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Coordinating and Negotiating Blue Nile Water Resource Development (United States)

    Geressu, R. T.; Harou, J. J.


    Many countries are proposing new reservoirs in transboundary river basins world-wide that impact downstream regions. Failure to consider and incorporate multiple stakeholder interests in system design and decision making could contribute to regional disputes. Negotiated introduction of new assets and associated coordination strategies (e.g. cost and power sharing arrangements) could reduce conflict and help achieve consensus. In multi-stakeholders problems, parties are likely to prioritize performance targets differently and hence will often prefer different water system designs, stalling negotiations. An ideal solution is where individual and group benefits are maximized by allocating (exchanging) resources according to the relative preferences of stakeholders. Hence, a negotiation support mechanism should be able to incorporate stakeholder preference information. In this paper, we propose a three-step search & deliberate, elicit preferences, and search & negotiate approach for supporting negotiations in complex infrastructure-environmental systems. The approach seeks to find designs and coordination mechanisms that are more beneficial than non-cooperative actions. The proposed approach is applied to a stylized Blue Nile reservoir design problem in Ethiopia seeking to set reservoir capacity and operating rules. We consider cost and energy performance metrics for Ethiopia and energy and irrigation water supply in Sudan. We use example stakeholder (i.e., Ethiopian and Sudanese) priorities for demonstration purpose. The result is an agreed system design and coordination schemes (co-financing and power trade). The application results demonstrate that incorporating coordination strategies, such as energy trade, cost sharing, and financing in assessing transboundary reservoir development options could help find compromise designs that different parties can support.

  1. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.


    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  2. Characteristics of model heat exchanger (United States)

    Kolínský, Jan


    The aim of this paper is thermal analysis of model water to water heat exchanger at different mass flow rates. Experimental study deals with determination of total heat transfer - power of the heat exchanger. Furthermore the paper deals with analysis of heat exchanger charakcteristic using a definition of thermal efficiency. It is demonstrated that it is advisable to monitor the dependence of thermal efficiency and flow ratio.

  3. Role of Sacrificial Protein-Metal Bond Exchange in Mussel Byssal Thread Self-Healing. (United States)

    Schmitt, Clemens N Z; Politi, Yael; Reinecke, Antje; Harrington, Matthew J


    Marine mussels tether to seashore surfaces with byssal threads, proteinaceous fibers that effectively dissipate energy from crashing waves. Protein-metal coordination bonds have been proposed to contribute to the characteristic mechanical and self-healing properties of byssal threads; however, very little is understood about how these cross-links function at the molecular level. In the present study, combined Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements were employed to confirm the presence of protein-Zn(2+) coordination bonds in the mussel byssus and to monitor transitions in the coordination structure during thread deformation and self-healing. Results indicate that Zn(2+) coordination bonds, primarily mediated via histidine, are ruptured during thread yield and reformed immediately following thread relaxation. Mechanical healing, on the other hand, is correlated with the transition toward shorter coordination bond lengths. Calculation of the healing activation energy suggests that protein-Zn bond exchange provides a primary rate-limiting step during healing.

  4. Oxygen isotope fractionation in phosphates: the role of dissolved complex anions in isotope exchange. (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei


    Oxygen isotope fractionation factors for phosphates were calculated by means of the increment method. The results suggest that Ag3PO4 and BiPO4 are enriched in (18)O relative to AgPO4, and the three phosphates are consistently depleted in (18)O relative to Ba3[PO4]2; fluorapatite and chlorapatite exhibit a similar behaviour of oxygen isotope fractionation with consistent enrichment of (18)O relative to hydroxyapatite. The valence, radii and coordination of metal cations play a quantitative role in dictating the (18)O/(16)O partitioning in these phosphates of different compositions. The calculated fractionation factors for the Ag3PO4-H2O system are in agreement with experimental determinations derived from enzyme-catalysed isotope exchange between dissolved inorganic phosphate and water at the longest reaction durations at low temperatures. This demonstrates that the precipitated Ag3PO4 has completely captured the oxygen isotope fractionation in the dissolved inorganic phosphate. The calculated fractionation factors for the F/Cl-apatite-water systems are in agreement with the enzyme-catalysed experimental fractionations for the dissolved phosphate-water system at the longest reaction durations but larger than fractionations derived from bacteria-facilitated exchange and inorganic precipitation experiments as well as natural observations. For the experimental calibrations of oxygen isotope fractionation involving the precipitation of dissolved phosphate species from aqueous solutions, the fractionation between precipitate and water is primarily dictated by the isotope equilibration between the dissolved complex anions and water prior to the precipitation. Therefore, the present results provide a quantitative means to interpret the temperature dependence of oxygen isotope fractionation in inorganic and biogenic phosphates.

  5. What Drives Stock Exchange Integration?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ekaterina Dorodnykh


    .... After a broad discussion of the existent literature, the investigation combines a large number of potentially relevant determinants for the explanation of whether stock exchanges are participating...

  6. Mastering Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Elfassy, David


    The bestselling guide to Exchange Server, fully updated for the newest version Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 is touted as a solution for lowering the total cost of ownership, whether deployed on-premises or in the cloud. Like the earlier editions, this comprehensive guide covers every aspect of installing, configuring, and managing this multifaceted collaboration system. It offers Windows systems administrators and consultants a complete tutorial and reference, ideal for anyone installing Exchange Server for the first time or those migrating from an earlier Exchange Server version.Microsoft

  7. Hybrid Heat Exchangers (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei


    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  8. Doctors' opinions on clinical coordination between primary and secondary care in the Catalan healthcare system. (United States)

    Aller, Marta-Beatriz; Vargas, Ingrid; Coderch, Jordi; Calero, Sebastià; Cots, Francesc; Abizanda, Mercè; Colomés, Lluís; Farré, Joan; Vázquez-Navarrete, María-Luisa


    To analyse doctors' opinions on clinical coordination between primary and secondary care in different healthcare networks and on the factors influencing it. A qualitative descriptive-interpretative study was conducted, based on semi-structured interviews. A two-stage theoretical sample was designed: 1) healthcare networks with different management models; 2) primary care and secondary care doctors in each network. Final sample size (n = 50) was reached by saturation. A thematic content analysis was conducted. In all networks doctors perceived that primary and secondary care given to patients was coordinated in terms of information transfer, consistency and accessibility to SC following a referral. However, some problems emerged, related to difficulties in acceding non-urgent secondary care changes in prescriptions and the inadequacy of some referrals across care levels. Doctors identified the following factors: 1) organizational influencing factors: coordination is facilitated by mechanisms that facilitate information transfer, communication, rapid access and physical proximity that fosters positive attitudes towards collaboration; coordination is hindered by the insufficient time to use mechanisms, unshared incentives in prescription and, in two networks, the change in the organizational model; 2) professional factors: clinical skills and attitudes towards coordination. Although doctors perceive that primary and secondary care is coordinated, they also highlighted problems. Identified factors offer valuable insights on where to direct organizational efforts to improve coordination. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  9. Coordinated Exploration for Grand Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph


    on the acceptance and support of important stakeholders. In this study, we suggest that search consortia are more likely to receive funding when they include representatives of stakeholder concerns, so-called advocacy groups. We extend theory on coordinated exploration in joint search by integrating mechanisms from...... stakeholder theory and argue that advocacy groups improve the generation of potential solutions and provide legitimacy. We test our theory with a unique dataset of 35,249 consortia that proposed solutions to 2,349 grand challenge problems as part of a large European funding program. Our results show...... that advocacy groups benefit search consortia, particularly when consortia exhibit a high dispersion of technological knowledge and when they are inexperienced....

  10. Coordination Frictions and Job Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    This paper develops and extends a dynamic, discrete time, job to worker matching model in which jobs are heterogeneous in equilibrium. The key assumptions of this economic environment are (i) matching is directed and (ii) coordination frictions lead to heterogeneous local labor markets. We de- rive...... a number of new theoretical results, which are essential for the empirical application of this type of model to matched employer-employee microdata. First, we o¤er a robust equilibrium concept in which there is a continu- ous dispersion of job productivities and wages. Second, we show that our model can...... be readily solved with continuous exogenous worker heterogene- ity, where high type workers (high outside options and productivity) earn higher wages in high type jobs and are hired at least as frequently to the better job types as low type workers (low outside options and productivity). Third, we...

  11. Exchange rate risk in Central European countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Poghosyan, T.


    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2010), s. 22-39 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/08/1376; GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : foreign exchange risk * time-varying risk premium * stochastic discount factor Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.278, year: 2010

  12. Research on Heat Exchange Process in Aircraft Air Conditioning System (United States)

    Chichindaev, A. V.


    Using of heat-exchanger-condenser in the air conditioning system of the airplane Tu-204 (Boeing, Airbus, Superjet 100, MS-21, etc.) for cooling the compressed air by the cold air with negative temperature exiting the turbine results in a number of operational problems. Mainly it’s frosting of the heat exchange surface, which is the cause of live-section channels frosting, resistance increasing and airflow in the system decreasing. The purpose of this work is to analyse the known freeze-up-fighting methods for heat-exchanger-condenser, description of the features of anti-icing protection and offering solutions to this problem. For the problem of optimizing the design of heat exchangers in this work used generalized criterion that describes the ratio of thermal resistances of cold and hot sections, which include: the ratio of the initial values of heat transfer agents flow state; heat exchange surface finning coefficients; factors which describes the ratio of operating parameters and finning area. By controlling the ratio of the thermal resistances can be obtained the desired temperature of the heat exchange surface, which would prevent freezing. The work presents the results of a numerical study of the effect of different combinations of regime and geometrical factors changes on reduction of the heat-exchanger-condenser freezing surface area, including using of variable ratio of thermal resistances.

  13. Vertical jump coordination: fatigue effects. (United States)

    Rodacki, André Luiz Felix; Fowler, Neil E; Bennett, Simon J


    The aim of this study was to investigate the segmental coordination of vertical jumps under fatigue of the knee extensor and flexor muscles. Eleven healthy and active subjects performed maximal vertical jumps with and without fatigue, which was imposed by requesting the subjects to extend/flex their knees continuously in a weight machine, until they could not lift a load corresponding to approximately 50% of their body weight. Knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torques were also measured before and after fatigue. Video, ground reaction forces, and electromyographic data were collected simultaneously and used to provide several variables of the jumps. Fatiguing the knee flexor muscles did not reduce the height of the jumps or induce changes in the kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic profiles. Knee extensor fatigue caused the subjects to adjust several variables of the movement, in which the peak joint angular velocity, peak joint net moment, and power around the knee were reduced and occurred earlier in comparison with the nonfatigued jumps. The electromyographic data analyses indicated that the countermovement jumps were performed similarly, i.e., a single strategy was used, irrespective of which muscle group (extensor or flexors) or the changes imposed on the muscle force-generating characteristics (fatigue or nonfatigue). The subjects executed the movements as if they scaled a robust template motor program, which guided the movement execution in all jump conditions. It was speculated that training programs designed to improve jump height performance should avoid severe fatigue levels, which may cause the subjects to learn and adopt a nonoptimal and nonspecific coordination solution. It was suggested that the neural input used in the fatigued condition did not constitute an optimal solution and may have played a role in decreasing maximal jump height achievement.

  14. Coordinating towards a Common Good (United States)

    Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.


    Throughout their life, humans often engage in collective endeavors ranging from family related issues to global warming. In all cases, the tragedy of the commons threatens the possibility of reaching the optimal solution associated with global cooperation, a scenario predicted by theory and demonstrated by many experiments. Using the toolbox of evolutionary game theory, I will address two important aspects of evolutionary dynamics that have been neglected so far in the context of public goods games and evolution of cooperation. On one hand, the fact that often there is a threshold above which a public good is reached [1, 2]. On the other hand, the fact that individuals often participate in several games, related to the their social context and pattern of social ties, defined by a social network [3, 4, 5]. In the first case, the existence of a threshold above which collective action is materialized dictates a rich pattern of evolutionary dynamics where the direction of natural selection can be inverted compared to standard expectations. Scenarios of defector dominance, pure coordination or coexistence may arise simultaneously. Both finite and infinite population models are analyzed. In networked games, cooperation blooms whenever the act of contributing is more important than the effort contributed. In particular, the heterogeneous nature of social networks naturally induces a symmetry breaking of the dilemmas of cooperation, as contributions made by cooperators may become contingent on the social context in which the individual is embedded. This diversity in context provides an advantage to cooperators, which is particularly strong when both wealth and social ties follow a power-law distribution, providing clues on the self-organization of social communities. Finally, in both situations, it can be shown that individuals no longer play a defection dominance dilemma, but effectively engage in a general N-person coordination game. Even if locally defection may seem

  15. Analysis of heat exchanger network for temperature fluctuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zunlong


    Full Text Available Subject to temperature disturbance, exchangers in heat exchanger network will interact. It is necessary to evaluate the degree of temperature fluctuation in the network. There is inherently linear relationship between output and inlet temperatures of heat exchanger network. Based on this, the concept of temperature-change sensitivity coefficient was put forward. Quantitative influence of temperature fluctuation in the network was carried out in order to examine transmission character of temperature fluctuation in the system. And the information was obtained for improving the design quality of heat exchanger network. Favorable results were obtained by the introduced method compared with the experimental results. These results will assist engineers to distinguish primary and secondary influencing factors, which can be used in observing and controlling influencing factors accurately.

  16. Determinants of International Outsourcing and Performance: A Relational Exchange Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl E. Dresden


    Full Text Available Prescriptive discussions regarding international outsourcing abound, but there are few previously proposed models of the antecedents leading to such sourcing. This empirical study utilizes the relational exchange framework proposed by Dwyer, Schurr and Oh (1987 and builds a conceptual model of the firm's use of international outsourcing within the context of relational exchange. The model concentrates on the aspects of relational exchange that are crucial antecedents to successful international outsourcing and empirically demonstrates how both economic and social factors have their influence. The resulting model demonstrates how cooperation, rather than competition, leads to successful international outsourcing.

  17. Coordination of metabolic plasticity in skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Hood, David A; Irrcher, Isabella; Ljubicic, Vladimir; Joseph, Anna-Maria


    Skeletal muscle is a highly malleable tissue, capable of pronounced metabolic and morphological adaptations in response to contractile activity (i.e. exercise). Each bout of contractile activity results in a coordinated alteration in the expression of a variety of nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene products, leading to phenotypic adaptations. This results in an increase in muscle mitochondrial volume and changes in organelle composition, referred to as mitochondrial biogenesis. The functional consequence of this biogenesis is an improved resistance to fatigue. Signals initiated by the exercise bout involve changes in intracellular Ca2+ as well as alterations in energy status (i.e. ATP/ADP ratio) and the consequent activation of downstream kinases such as AMP kinase and Ca2+-calmodulin-activated kinases. These kinases activate transcription factors that bind DNA to affect the transcription of genes, the most evident manifestation of which occurs during the post-exercise recovery period when energy metabolism is directed toward anabolism, rather than contractile activity. An important protein that is affected by exercise is the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha, which cooperates with multiple transcription factors to induce the expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. Once translated in the cytosol, these mitochondrially destined proteins are imported into the mitochondrial outer membrane, inner membrane or matrix space via specific import machinery transport components. Contractile activity affects the expression of the import machinery, as well as the kinetics of import, thus facilitating the entry of newly synthesized proteins into the expanding organelle. An important set of proteins that are imported are the mtDNA transcription factors, which influence the expression and replication of mtDNA. While mtDNA contributes only 13 proteins to the synthesis of the organelle, these proteins are vital for the proper assembly of multi

  18. The city in motions : circulations, commercial exchanges and materiality of the city : a systemic approach of the factors of Parisian fabric evolution between the 15th century and the 19th century


    Hermenault, Léa


    In this work, we sought to understand effects of circulations on the Parisian urban fabric between the 15th and the first third of the 19th century, and, in particular, we sought to understand how it is evolving according to the interactions that develop at different scales between the materiality of the city and potentialities of exchange. The mapping of several corpus of planimetric and written data allow us to build our own geohistoric data, while theirs integration in a GIS bas made compa...

  19. Hydrogen production and deuterium-proton exchange reactions catalyzed by Desulfovibrio nickel(II)-substituted rubredoxins (United States)

    Saint-Martin, Pascal; Lespinat, Paul A.; Fauque, Guy; Berlier, Yves; LeGall, Jean; Moura, Isabel; Teixeira, Miguel; Xavier, Antonio V.; Moura, Jose J. G.


    The nickel tetrahedral sulfur-coordinated core formed upon metal replacement of the native iron in Desulfovibrio sp. rubredoxins is shown to mimic the reactivity pattern of nickel-containing hydrogenases with respect to hydrogen production, deuterium-proton exchange, and inhibition by carbon monoxide. PMID:16594005

  20. Hydration structure and water exchange dynamics of Fe(II) ion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer simulation studies of the hydration structure and water exchange dynamics in the first hydration shell for Fe(II) in water are presented. The structure of the hydrated ion is discussed in terms of radial distribution functions, coordination numbers, and angular distributions. The average first-shell hydration structure is ...

  1. Physicians' potential use and preferences related to health information exchange. (United States)

    Patel, Vaishali; Abramson, Erika L; Edwards, Alison; Malhotra, Sameer; Kaushal, Rainu


    To characterize physician attitudes and preferences towards health information exchange (HIE), which is the ability to transmit health information electronically across institutions, and identify factors that influence physicians' interest in using HIE for their clinical work. A survey was conducted of physicians affiliated with institutions that are stakeholders of a regional health information organization in the United States (U.S.). Surveys were administered between May and October, 2009 at educational conferences and on site at physician practices. Of the 328 physicians asked to participate, 44% (n=144) completed the survey. Sixty-eight percent (n=88) of physicians expressed interest in using HIE for their clinical work. Most physicians expected HIE to improve provider communication (89%), coordination and continuity of care (87%) and efficiency (87%). Potential barriers to adopting or using HIE included start-up costs (57%) and resources to select and implement a system (38%). A majority reported that technical assistance (70%) and financial incentives to use (65%) or purchase (54%) health IT systems would positively influence their adoption and use of HIE. Physicians who believe that financial incentives would be helpful, that HIE would be easy to use, or who prefer viewing patient health information electronically were found to be at least three times more likely to indicate they would adopt and use HIE. These findings suggest that providers largely consider HIE as potentially valuable and a majority would be willing to use HIE. Recent U.S. federal health IT policies that provide financial incentives as well as technical assistance may address potential barriers to adoption and usage of HIE. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Treasury Bond Market Segment at Bucharest Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu Maria Andrada


    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the level of development reached by Romanian Treasury bond market segment at Bucharest Stock Exchange. A trial will be made to identify the determinants that contributed to the current level of development of domestic secondary government bond market and the factors that can generate a further (and improved development. The analysis will be descriptive (the data series available for Romanian are short, based on the secondary data offered by Bucharest Stock Exchange.

  3. 78 FR 69910 - Joint Industry Plan; BATS Exchange, Inc., BATS-Y Exchange, Inc., BOX Options Exchange LLC, C2... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Joint Industry Plan; BATS Exchange, Inc., BATS-Y Exchange, Inc., BOX Options Exchange LLC, C2... LLC, NYSE Arca, Inc. and Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed National Market System Plan... and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed National Market System (``NMS'') Plan Governing...

  4. Control coordination abilities in shock combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Boychenko


    Full Text Available Purpose: optimize the process control level of coordination abilities in martial arts. Material and Methods: analysis and compilation of scientific and methodological literature, interviews with coaches of drum martial arts, video analysis techniques, teacher observations. Results: identified specific types of coordination abilities in shock combat sports. Pod branny and offered specific and nonspecific tests to monitor the level of species athletes coordination abilities. Conclusion: it is determined that in order to achieve victory in the fight martial artists to navigate the space to be able to assess and manage dynamic and spatio-temporal parameters of movements, maintain balance, have a high coordination of movements. The proposed tests to monitor species coordination abilities athletes allow an objective assessment of not only the overall level of coordination, and the level of specific types of manifestations of this ability.

  5. Liquid/liquid heat exchanger (United States)

    Miller, C. G.


    Conceptual design for heat exchanger, utilizing two immiscible liquids with dissimilar specific gravities in direct contact, is more efficient mechanism of heat transfer than conventional heat exchangers with walls or membranes. Concept could be adapted for collection of heat from solar or geothermal sources.

  6. Educators Exchange: A Program Evaluation. (United States)

    Armstrong, William B.

    The Educators Exchange Program (EEP) was established under a training and educational exchange agreement reached by California's San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) and the republic of Mexico. In the program, the District provided a 4-week technological training program to faculty at Centros de Capacitacion Tecnologica Industrial…

  7. Risk Balance in Exchange Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Dashti (Mohammad); Y. Wang (Yanjing); I. Cervesato


    htmlabstractWe study the behaviour of rational agents in exchange protocols which rely on trustees. We allow malicious parties to compromise the trustee by paying a cost and, thereby, present a game analysis that advocates exchange protocols which induce balanced risks on the participants. We also

  8. Professional Exchange: Mapping the Future. (United States)

    Dingman, Robert L.


    New associate editor of Professional Exchange section of "Journal of Mental Health Counseling" discusses importance of section. Lists potential topics suggested in 1989, then adds several other topics to the list. Concludes with guidelines for submission to Professional Exchange section. (NB)

  9. A cross-country Exchange Market Pressure (EMP dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Desai


    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article titled - “An exchange market pressure measure for cross country analysis” (Patnaik et al. [1]. In this article, we present the dataset for Exchange Market Pressure values (EMP for 139 countries along with their conversion factors, ρ (rho. Exchange Market Pressure, expressed in percentage change in exchange rate, measures the change in exchange rate that would have taken place had the central bank not intervened. The conversion factor ρ can interpreted as the change in exchange rate associated with $1 billion of intervention. Estimates of conversion factor ρ allow us to calculate a monthly time series of EMP for 139 countries. Additionally, the dataset contains the 68% confidence interval (high and low values for the point estimates of ρ’s. Using the standard errors of estimates of ρ’s, we obtain one sigma intervals around mean estimates of EMP values. These values are also reported in the dataset.

  10. Knowledge coordination in distributed software management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Mathiassen, Lars


    Software organizations are increasingly relying on cross-organizational and cross-border collaboration, requiring effective coordination of distributed knowledge. However, such coordination is challenging due to spatial separation, diverging communities-of-practice, and unevenly distributed...... communication breakdowns on recordings of their combined teleconferencing and real-time collaborative modeling. As a result, we offer theoretical propositions that explain how distributed software managers can deal with communication breakdowns and effectively coordinate knowledge through multimodal virtual...

  11. Collaborative Supply Chain Planning and Coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew

    generalizes their key findings, insights, and implications to theory and practice. The thesis concludes several theoretical frameworks and contributions to the theory of responsiveness and supply chain coordination. The thesis begins with analyzing four different responsiveness strategies – differentiating...... processes, particularly the behaviour of risk-taking/avoidance, conflict resolutions, and self-interest. All these lead to conclusion of five propositions or principles of supply chain coordination, and the theory of coordination process and behaviour. Combining the propositions of responsiveness...

  12. Convergence of barycentric coordinates to barycentric kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Kosinka, Jiří


    We investigate the close correspondence between barycentric coordinates and barycentric kernels from the point of view of the limit process when finer and finer polygons converge to a smooth convex domain. We show that any barycentric kernel is the limit of a set of barycentric coordinates and prove that the convergence rate is quadratic. Our convergence analysis extends naturally to barycentric interpolants and mappings induced by barycentric coordinates and kernels. We verify our theoretical convergence results numerically on several examples.

  13. Reverse supply chain coordination by revenue sharing contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Popiuc, M.N.


    Products that are not recycled at the end of their life increasingly damage the environment. In a collection - remanufacturing scheme, these end-of-life products can generate new profits. Designed on the personal computers industry, this study defines an analytical model used to explore...... the implications of recycling on the reverse supply chain from an efficiency perspective for all participants in the process. The cases considered for analysis are the two- and three-echelon supply chains, where we first look at the decentralized reverse setting followed by the coordinated setting through...... implementation of revenue sharing contract. We define customer willingness to return obsolete units as a function of the discount offered by the retailer in exchange for recycling devices with a remanufacturing value. The results show that performance measures and total supply chain profits improve through...

  14. Heat exchanger leakage problem location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav


    Full Text Available Recent compact heat exchangers are very often assembled from numerous parts joined together to separate heat transfer fluids and to form the required heat exchanger arrangement. Therefore, the leak tightness is very important property of the compact heat exchangers. Although, the compact heat exchangers have been produced for many years, there are still technological problems associated with manufacturing of the ideal connection between the individual parts, mainly encountered with special purpose heat exchangers, e.g. gas turbine recuperators. This paper describes a procedure used to identify the leakage location inside the prime surface gas turbine recuperator. For this purpose, an analytical model of the leaky gas turbine recuperator was created to assess its performance. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data which were acquired during the recuperator thermal performance analysis. The differences between these two data sets are used to indicate possible leakage areas.

  15. Transendothelial lipoprotein exchange and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Jensen, Kurt Svarre


    OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria associates with increased risk of atherosclerosis in individuals without diabetes. We hypothesized that transendothelial lipoprotein exchange is elevated among such individuals, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein accumulation and thus atherosclerosis....... METHODS: Using an in vivo isotope technique, transendothelial exchange of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured in 77 non-diabetic individuals. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL was reinjected intravenously, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was calculated as index of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS......: There was no difference in transendothelial LDL exchange between subjects with microalbuminuria versus normoalbuminuria (mean (95% confidence interval) 3.8%/h (3.3-4.3%/h) versus 4.2%/h (3.7-4.7%/h); P=0.33). In contrast, there was a positive correlation between transendothelial LDL exchange and (logarithmically...

  16. Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Ohadi, Michael; Dessiatoun, Serguei; Cetegen, Edvin


    In Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, the authors’ focus on the new generation highly efficient heat exchangers and presentation of novel data and technical expertise not available in the open literature.  Next generation micro channels offer record high heat transfer coefficients with pressure drops much less than conventional micro channel heat exchangers. These inherent features promise fast penetration into many mew markets, including high heat flux cooling of electronics, waste heat recovery and energy efficiency enhancement applications, alternative energy systems, as well as applications in mass exchangers and chemical reactor systems. The combination of up to the minute research findings and technical know-how make this book very timely as the search for high performance heat and mass exchangers that can cut costs in materials consumption intensifies.

  17. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.


    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  18. Coordinating Care Across Health Care Systems for Veterans With Gynecologic Malignancies: A Qualitative Analysis. (United States)

    Zuchowski, Jessica L; Chrystal, Joya G; Hamilton, Alison B; Patton, Elizabeth W; Zephyrin, Laurie C; Yano, Elizabeth M; Cordasco, Kristina M


    Veterans concurrently using both Veterans Affairs (VA) and community providers and facilities have increased coordination needs related to bridging their care across health care settings. Women Veterans commonly require a combination of VA and community care if they have women-specific specialty care needs, such as gynecologic malignancies. We assessed VA women's health providers' and administrators' perceptions of coordination challenges for Veterans' gynecologic cancer care, and potential approaches for addressing these challenges. We carried out semistructured qualitative interviews with field-based key informants (VA gynecologists, women's health medical directors, and other staff directly involved in women's health care coordination) at 15 VA facilities. Transcripts were summarized in a template to capture key points. Themes were identified and iteratively revised (inductively/deductively) via a collaborative decision-making process utilizing matrices to compare content across interviews. Key informants (n=23) noted that services for patients with gynecologic cancers are provided through a combination of VA and community care with wide variation in care arrangements by facility. Care coordination challenges included care fragmentation, lack of role clarity and care tracking, and difficulties associated with VA and community provider communication, patient communication, patient records exchange, and authorizations. Care coordination roles suggested for addressing challenges included: care tracker, provider point-of-contact, patient liaison, and records administrator. Experiences in coordinating care for women Veterans with gynecologic malignancies receiving concurrent VA and community cancer care reveal challenges inherent in delivering care across health care systems, as well as potential approaches for addressing them.

  19. [In-service training for pedagogical coordinators in school nutrition: the report of an experience]. (United States)

    Santos, Ligia Amparo da Silva; Carvalho, Danilo Melo de Morais; Reis, Amélia Borba Costa; Ramos, Lilian Barbosa; de Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares


    This article describes the experience of in-service training for pedagogical coordinators of the Brazilian School Nutrition Program (PNAE) developed by the Cooperation Center for Student Food and Nutrition of the Federal University of Bahia (CECANE-UFBA). Participant observation and analysis of data documented in films, group discussion summaries, procedural and final evaluations and field diaries are used. The formative experiences were in 2011, in two municipalities in Bahia and Sergipe states, involving 118 pedagogical coordinators from 79 municipalities in both states. It was revealed that the objective of raising awareness and guiding pedagogical coordinators for mainstreaming the theme of food and nutrition has been achieved. The educational proposal was evaluated by the coordinators as "dynamic," "productive" and "interactive," promoting the exchange of experiences among participants. Despite considering the theme relevant, the pedagogical coordinators do not have sufficient training about food and nutrition to back their teaching practices. It is considered that their training has some limitations on the impact in the fieldwork, as the knowledge acquired night be dissipated when the coordinators return to their workplace due to the lack of ongoing training.

  20. Surface Coordination Chemistry of Metal Nanomaterials. (United States)

    Liu, Pengxin; Qin, Ruixuan; Fu, Gang; Zheng, Nanfeng


    Surface coordination chemistry of nanomaterials deals with the chemistry on how ligands are coordinated on their surface metal atoms and influence their properties at the molecular level. This Perspective demonstrates that there is a strong link between surface coordination chemistry and the shape-controlled synthesis, and many intriguing surface properties of metal nanomaterials. While small adsorbates introduced in the synthesis can control the shapes of metal nanocrystals by minimizing their surface energy via preferential coordination on specific facets, surface ligands properly coordinated on metal nanoparticles readily promote their catalysis via steric interactions and electronic modifications. The difficulty in the research of surface coordination chemistry of nanomaterials mainly lies in the lack of effective tools to characterize their molecular surface coordination structures. Also highlighted are several model material systems that facilitate the characterizations of surface coordination structures, including ultrathin nanostructures, atomically precise metal nanoclusters, and atomically dispersed metal catalysts. With the understanding of surface coordination chemistry, the molecular mechanisms behind various important effects (e.g., promotional effect of surface ligands on catalysis, support effect in supported metal nanocatalysts) of metal nanomaterials are disclosed.