Sample records for exchange current density

  1. Comparison of exact-exchange calculations for solids in current-spin-density- and spin-density-functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, S.; Pittalis, S.; Kurth, S.


    The relative merits of current-spin-density- and spin-density-functional theory are investigated for solids treated within the exact-exchange-only approximation. Spin-orbit splittings and orbital magnetic moments are determined at zero external magnetic field. We find that for magnetic (Fe, Co...

  2. In-plane structuring of proton exchange membrane fuel cell cathodes: Effect of ionomer equivalent weight structuring on performance and current density distribution (United States)

    Herden, Susanne; Riewald, Felix; Hirschfeld, Julian A.; Perchthaler, Markus


    Within the active area of a fuel cell inhomogeneous operating conditions occur, however, state of the art electrodes are homogenous over the complete active area. This study uses current density distribution measurements to analyze which ionomer equivalent weight (EW) shows locally the highest current densities. With this information a segmented cathode electrode is manufactured by decal transfer. The segmented electrode shows better performance especially at high current densities compared to homogenous electrodes. Furthermore this segmented catalyst coated membrane (CCM) performs optimal in wet as well as dry conditions, both operating conditions arise in automotive fuel cell applications. Thus, cathode electrodes with an optimized ionomer EW distribution might have a significant impact on future automotive fuel cell development.

  3. Part-II: Exchange current density and ionic diffusivity studies on the ordered and disordered spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Belharouak, Ilias


    Additive-free pellets of Li1-xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 have been prepared for the purpose of performing ionic diffusivity and exchange current density studies. Here we report on the characterization of interfacial charge transfer kinetics and ionic diffusivity of ordered (P4332) and disordered (Fd 3 bar m) Li1-xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a function of lithium content at ambient temperature. The exchange current density at the electrode/electrolyte interface is found to be continuously increased with increasing the degree of delithiation for ordered phase (∼0.21-6.5 mA/cm2) at (x = 0.01-0.60), in contrast the disordered phase exhibits gradually decrease of exchange current density in the initial delithiation at the 4 V plateau regime (x = 0.01-0.04) and again monotonously increases (0.65-6.8 mA/cm2) with further delithiation at (x = 0.04-0.60). The ionic diffusivity of ordered and disordered phase is found to be ∼5 × 10-10cm2s-1 and ∼10-9cm2s-1, respectively, and does not vary much with the degree of delithiation. From the obtained results it appears that the chemical diffusivity during electrochemical use is limited by lithium transport, but is fast enough over the entire state-of-charge range to allow charge/discharge of micron-scale particles at practical C-rates.

  4. Trends in the exchange current for hydrogen evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Bligaard, Thomas; Logadottir, Ashildur


    A density functional theory database of hydrogen chemisorption energies on close packed surfaces of a number of transition and noble metals is presented. The bond energies are used to understand the trends in the exchange current for hydrogen evolution. A volcano curve is obtained when measured...... exchange currents are plotted as a function of the calculated hydrogen adsorption energies and a simple kinetic model is developed to understand the origin of the volcano. The volcano curve is also consistent with Pt being the most efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution. (c) 2005...

  5. Different Densities of Na-Ca Exchange Current in T-Tubular and Surface Membranes and Their Impact on Cellular Activity in a Model of Rat Ventricular Cardiomyocyte

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pásek, Michal; Šimurda, J.; Christé, G.


    Roč. 2017 (2017), č. článku 6343821. ISSN 2314-6133 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : rat ventricular cell * mathematical model * Na-Ca current * t-tubules Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.476, year: 2016

  6. Meson exchange-current effects in heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehesa, J.S.; Lallena, A. (Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear); Krewald, S. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kernphysik); Donnelly, T.W. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Lab. for Nuclear Science; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Physics)


    Meson exchange-current effects in the electroexcitation of magnetic states are evaluated in /sup 16/O and /sup 208/Pb. A new method is suggested which properly includes the influence of the nuclear mean field on meson exchange-current effects. In addition, an effective meson exchange-current operator is developed which considerably simplifies the evaluation of meson exchange-current effects. Over a wide range of momentum transfers, the magnetic cross sections for the electroexcitation of high-spin, stretched 1 plh states are found to be smoothly enhanced by meson exchange currents.

  7. Exchange Rate Expectations and the Current Exchange Rate: A Test of the Monetarist Approach


    V S Somanath


    The monetarist model of the exchange rate includes expectations of the future exchange rate as a determinant of the current exchange rate. This paper investigates whether expectations are a significant determinant of the exchange rate. An expectations process that is consistent with a basic monetarist exchange rate model is considered. Alternative measures of expectations are generated using this process. In the empirical tests, while the standard forward exchange premium measure of expectati...

  8. Critical current densities in superconducting materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss recent research in the area of critical current densities ( J C ) in superconductors. This shall cover recent work on newly discovered superconductors, as well as on the magnetic-field dependence of J C . Author Affiliations. P Chaddah1. Cryogenics and Superconductivity Section, Centre for Advanced Technology ...

  9. Surface current density K: an introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson


    The author discusses the vector surface of current density K used in electrical insulation studies. K is related to the vector tangential electric field Kt at the surface of a body by the vector equation K=ΓE t where Γ represents the surface conductivity. The author derives a surface continuity...

  10. Formation of current density profile in tilted current sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Petrukovich


    Full Text Available We investigate Cluster observations of strongly tilted sheets (flapping events in the magnetotail. In accordance with the simple model of slip deformation (vertical differential displacement of neighboring flux tubes, the Jy current density component in the tilted sheet remains constant and equal to that in the horizontal undisturbed sheet. However, a substantial Jz component appears proportional to the local sheet tilt. Slip-type variations, having smaller scale than the full crossing, locally change the tilt and Jz and may thus create a variety of non-classical (bifurcated, asymmetric etc current density profiles.

  11. Reconstruction of Cell Surface Densities of Ion Pumps, Exchangers, and Channels from mRNA Expression, Conductance Kinetics, Whole-Cell Calcium, and Current-Clamp Voltage Recordings, with an Application to Human Uterine Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Atia


    Full Text Available Uterine smooth muscle cells remain quiescent throughout most of gestation, only generating spontaneous action potentials immediately prior to, and during, labor. This study presents a method that combines transcriptomics with biophysical recordings to characterise the conductance repertoire of these cells, the 'conductance repertoire' being the total complement of ion channels and transporters expressed by an electrically active cell. Transcriptomic analysis provides a set of potential electrogenic entities, of which the conductance repertoire is a subset. Each entity within the conductance repertoire was modeled independently and its gating parameter values were fixed using the available biophysical data. The only remaining free parameters were the surface densities for each entity. We characterise the space of combinations of surface densities (density vectors consistent with experimentally observed membrane potential and calcium waveforms. This yields insights on the functional redundancy of the system as well as its behavioral versatility. Our approach couples high-throughput transcriptomic data with physiological behaviors in health and disease, and provides a formal method to link genotype to phenotype in excitable systems. We accurately predict current densities and chart functional redundancy. For example, we find that to evoke the observed voltage waveform, the BK channel is functionally redundant whereas hERG is essential. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that activation of calcium-activated chloride conductances by intracellular calcium release is the key factor underlying spontaneous depolarisations.

  12. Nuclear macroscopic properties and pionic exchange currents in (e,e/sup '/) processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallena, A.M.; Dehesa, J.S.; Krewald, S.


    Using the effective pion propagator approximation, the two-body pion exchange current contributions to the form factor of the inelastic electron scattering from closed-shell nuclei are explicitly calculated in terms of nuclear densities (nucleon density, kinetic energy density, . . .). The electroexcitation of some high-spin magnetic stretched states in /sup 16/O and /sup 208/Pb is studied to illustrate our approach, and the goodness of the agreement with the exact results is discussed.

  13. Spin-density functional for exchange anisotropic Heisenberg model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prata, G.N.; Penteado, P.H.; Souza, F.C. [Departamento de Fisica e Informatica, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 369, Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Libero, Valter L., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica e Informatica, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 369, Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil)


    Ground-state energies for antiferromagnetic Heisenberg models with exchange anisotropy are estimated by means of a local-spin approximation made in the context of the density functional theory. Correlation energy is obtained using the non-linear spin-wave theory for homogeneous systems from which the spin functional is built. Although applicable to chains of any size, the results are shown for small number of sites, to exhibit finite-size effects and allow comparison with exact-numerical data from direct diagonalization of small chains.

  14. Extended screened exchange functional derived from transcorrelated density functional theory (United States)

    Umezawa, Naoto


    We propose a new formulation of the correlation energy functional derived from the transcorrelated method in use in density functional theory (TC-DFT). An effective Hamiltonian, HTC, is introduced by a similarity transformation of a many-body Hamiltonian, H , with respect to a complex function F: HTC=1/F H F . It is proved that an expectation value of HTC for a normalized single Slater determinant, Dn, corresponds to the total energy: E [n ] = ⟨Ψn|H |Ψn ⟩ /⟨Ψn|Ψn ⟩ = ⟨Dn|HTC|Dn ⟩ under the two assumptions: (1) The electron density n (r ) associated with a trial wave function Ψn = DnF is v -representable and (2) Ψn and Dn give rise to the same electron density n (r ). This formulation, therefore, provides an alternative expression of the total energy that is useful for the development of novel correlation energy functionals. By substituting a specific function for F, we successfully derived a model correlation energy functional, which resembles the functional form of the screened exchange method. The proposed functional, named the extended screened exchange (ESX) functional, is described within two-body integrals and is parametrized for a numerically exact correlation energy of the homogeneous electron gas. The ESX functional does not contain any ingredients of (semi-)local functionals and thus is totally free from self-interactions. The computational cost for solving the self-consistent-field equation is comparable to that of the Hartree-Fock method. We apply the ESX functional to electronic structure calculations for a solid silicon, H- ion, and small atoms. The results demonstrate that the TC-DFT formulation is promising for the systematic improvement of the correlation energy functional.

  15. High power density proton exchange membrane fuel cells (United States)

    Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Manko, David J.


    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells use a perfluorosulfonic acid solid polymer film as an electrolyte which simplifies water and electrolyte management. Their thin electrolyte layers give efficient systems of low weight, and their materials of construction show extremely long laboratory lifetimes. Their high reliability and their suitability for use in a microgravity environment makes them particularly attractive as a substitute for batteries in satellites utilizing high-power, high energy-density electrochemical energy storage systems. In this investigation, the Dow experimental PEM (XUS-13204.10) and unsupported high platinum loading electrodes yielded very high power densities, of the order of 2.5 W cm(exp -2). A platinum black loading of 5 mg per cm(exp 2) was found to be optimum. On extending the three-dimensional reaction zone of fuel cell electrodes by impregnating solid polymer electrolyte into the electrode structures, Nafion was found to give better performance than the Dow experimental PEM. The depth of penetration of the solid polymer electrolyte into electrode structures was 50-70 percent of the thickness of the platinum-catalyzed active layer. However, the degree of platinum utilization was only 16.6 percent and the roughness factor of a typical electrode was 274.

  16. Current-voltage curve of a bipolar membrane at high current density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aritomi, T.; van den Boomgaard, Anthonie; Strathmann, H.


    The potential drop across a bipolar membrane was measured as a function of the applied current density. As a result, an inflection point was observed in the obtained current-voltage curve at high current density. This inflection point indicates that at high current densities water supply from

  17. Limiting current density and water dissociation in bipolar membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strathmann, H.; Krol, J.J.; Rapp, H.J.; Eigenberger, G.


    The behaviour of bipolar membranes in NaCl and Na2SO4 solutions is discussed. The membranes are characterized in terms of their limiting current densities. Below the limiting current density the electric current is carried by salt ions migrating from the transition region between the anion and the

  18. Critical current densities in superconducting materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The electrical resistance of a superconducting material drops to zero below its critical temper-. atureTC, and the Joule heating given byi2R drops to zero. The largest commercial applications of superconductors have been based on this ability to carry current without resistance, and have been in the form of superconducting ...

  19. The Keldysh formalism applied to time-dependent current-density-functional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gidopoulos, NI; Wilson, S


    In this work we demonstrate how to derive the Kohn-Sham equations of time-dependent current-density functional theory from a generating action functional defined on a Keldysh time contour. These Kohn-Sham equations contain an exchange-correlation contribution to the vector potential. For this

  20. Spin orbit coupling in the spin-current-density-functional theory (United States)

    Bencheikh, K.


    Starting from the spin-current-density-functional theory for electronic systems, we extend the formulation to include spin-orbit coupling. Particular attention is devoted to the symmetry of the problem. Here we show that the exchange-correlation energy functional is invariant by the U(1)em × SU(2)spin gauge transformations. We give the transformation laws of the paramagnetic current and also the paramagnetic spin current density by the U(1)em × SU(2)spin gauge transformations. For the case where the spin-orbit coupling is taken into account, we generalize the equations of continuity satisfied by the current density and the spin current density, derived by Vignale and Rasolt.

  1. Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.H. Boozer and N. Pomphrey


    The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

  2. A Critical Evaluation of the Influence of the Dark Exchange Current on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Villanueva-Cab, Julio; Anta, Juan A.; Oskam, Gerko


    The influence of the thickness of the nanostructured, mesoporous TiO2 film on several parameters determining the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. We pay special attention to the effect of the exchange current density in the dark, and we compare the values obtained by steady state measurements with values extracted from small perturbation techniques. We also evaluate the influence of exchange current density, the solar cell ideality factor, and the effective absorption coefficient of the cell on the optimal film thickness. The results show that the exchange current density in the dark is proportional to the TiO2 film thickness, however, the effective absorption coefficient is the parameter that ultimately defines the ideal thickness. We illustrate the importance of the exchange current density in the dark on the determination of the current–voltage characteristics and we show how an important improvement of the cell performance can be achieved by decreasing values of the total series resistance and the exchange current density in the dark. PMID:28787833

  3. A Critical Evaluation of the Influence of the Dark Exchange Current on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo García-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available The influence of the thickness of the nanostructured, mesoporous TiO2 film on several parameters determining the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. We pay special attention to the effect of the exchange current density in the dark, and we compare the values obtained by steady state measurements with values extracted from small perturbation techniques. We also evaluate the influence of exchange current density, the solar cell ideality factor, and the effective absorption coefficient of the cell on the optimal film thickness. The results show that the exchange current density in the dark is proportional to the TiO2 film thickness, however, the effective absorption coefficient is the parameter that ultimately defines the ideal thickness. We illustrate the importance of the exchange current density in the dark on the determination of the current–voltage characteristics and we show how an important improvement of the cell performance can be achieved by decreasing values of the total series resistance and the exchange current density in the dark.

  4. Current Injection Attack against the KLJN Secure Key Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hsien-Pu


    Full Text Available The Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN scheme is a statistical/physical secure key exchange system based on the laws of classical statistical physics to provide unconditional security. We used the LTSPICE industrial cable and circuit simulator to emulate one of the major active (invasive attacks, the current injection attack, against the ideal and a practical KLJN system, respectively. We show that two security enhancement techniques, namely, the instantaneous voltage/current comparison method, and a simple privacy amplification scheme, independently and effectively eliminate the information leak and successfully preserve the system’s unconditional security.

  5. Field dependence of critical current density in flat superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Ryuji [Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu Oita (Japan); Fukami, Takeshi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Himeji Institute of Technology, Himeji (Japan); Tamegai, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    Surface field of a thin superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-delta} in mixed state is measured by a Hall probe array. To reproduce the measured field profiles, shielding current distributions are determined by numerical iterative calculations without supposing any models for field dependence of critical current density J{sub c} (B). Utilizing the estimated local current density and local magnetic field for x - y coordinates, a field variation of current density is plotted. Though any model for J{sub c} (B) is not used for numerical calculations, the field variation roughly shows a dependence like Kim model.

  6. Spin Densities and Currents in the Routhian Approximation (United States)

    Bartel, Johann; Bencheikh, Kamel; Quentin, Philippe

    The structure of spin densities and the associated spin-current densities, induced by the coupling of external vector fields to the orbital and spin degrees of freedom, is studied within the framework of the Extended Thomas-Fermi method, a semiclassical version of the density-functional theory. A special emphasis is put on the rotational case where our approach amounts to perform a semiclassical approximation of the so-called generalized Routhian approach.

  7. Determining the Limiting Current Density of Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Yu Chen


    Full Text Available All-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs are used as energy storage systems for intermittent renewable power sources. The performance of VRFBs depends on materials of key components and operating conditions, such as current density, electrolyte flow rate and electrolyte composition. Mass transfer overpotential is affected by the electrolyte flow rate and electrolyte composition, which is related to the limiting current density. In order to investigate the effect of operating conditions on mass transport overpotential, this study established a relationship between the limiting current density and operating conditions. First, electrolyte solutions with different states of charge were prepared and used for a single cell to obtain discharging polarization curves under various operating conditions. The experimental results were then analyzed and are discussed in this paper. Finally, this paper proposes a limiting current density as a function of operating conditions. The result helps predict the effect of operating condition on the cell performance in a mathematical model.

  8. Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells: Degradation at High Current Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knibbe, Ruth; Traulsen, Marie Lund; Hauch, Anne


    The degradation of Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based solid oxide electrolysis cells operated at high current densities was studied. The degradation was examined at 850°C, at current densities of −1.0, −1.5, and −2.0 A/cm2, with a 50:50 (H2O:H2) gas supplied to the Ni/YSZ hydrogen electrode...

  9. Cardiac current density distribution by electrical pulses from TASER devices. (United States)

    Stratbucker, Robert A; Kroll, Mark W; McDaniel, Wayne; Panescu, Dorin


    TASERs deliver electrical pulses that can temporarily incapacitate subjects. The goal of this paper is to analyze the distribution of TASER currents in the heart and understand their chances of triggering cardiac arrhythmias. The models analyzed herein describe strength-duration thresholds for myocyte excitation and ventricular fibrillation induction. Finite element modeling is used to compute current density in the heart for worst-case TASER electrode placement. The model predicts a maximum TASER current density of 0.27 mA/cm(2) in the heart. It is conclude that the numerically simulated TASER current density in the heart is about half the threshold for myocytes excitation and more than 500 times lower than the threshold required for inducing ventricular fibrillation. Showing a substantial cardiac safety margin, TASER devices do not generate currents in the heart that are high enough to excite myocytes or trigger VF.

  10. Anion Exchange Membranes: Current Status and Moving Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickner, MA; Herring, AM; Coughlin, EB


    This short review is meant to provide the reader with highlights in anion exchange membrane research, describe current needs in the field, and point out promising directions for future work. Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) provide one possible route to low platinum or platinum-free fuel cells with the potential for facile oxidation of complex fuels beyond hydrogen and methanol. AEMs and related stable cationic polymers also have applications in energy storage and other electrochemical technologies such as water electrolyzers and redox flow batteries. While anion exchange membranes have been known for a long time in water treatment applications, materials for electrochemical technology with robust mechanical properties in thin film format have only recently become more widely available. High hydroxide and bicarbonate anion conductivity have been demonstrated in a range of AEM formats, but intrinsic stability of the polymers and demonstration of long device lifetime remain major roadblocks. Novel approaches to stable materials have focused on new types of cations that employ delocalization and steric shielding of the positive center to mitigate nucleophilic attack by hydroxide. A number of promising polymer backbones and membrane architectures have been identified, but limited device testing and a lack of understanding of the degradation mechanisms in operating devices is slowing progress on engineered systems with alkaline fuel cell technology. Our objective is to spur more research in this area to develop fuel cell systems that approach the costs of inexpensive batteries for large-scale applications. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2013, 51, 1727-1735, 2013

  11. A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homsy, Alexandra; Koster, Sander; Hogen-Koster, S.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Lucklum, F.; Verpoorte, E.; de Rooij, Nico F.


    This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-µm-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a micromachined

  12. A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homsy, A; Koster, Sander; Eijkel, JCT; van den Berg, A; Lucklum, F; Verpoorte, E; de Rooij, NF


    This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-mu m-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a

  13. Estimation of current density distribution under electrodes for external defibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papazov Sava P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transthoracic defibrillation is the most common life-saving technique for the restoration of the heart rhythm of cardiac arrest victims. The procedure requires adequate application of large electrodes on the patient chest, to ensure low-resistance electrical contact. The current density distribution under the electrodes is non-uniform, leading to muscle contraction and pain, or risks of burning. The recent introduction of automatic external defibrillators and even wearable defibrillators, presents new demanding requirements for the structure of electrodes. Method and Results Using the pseudo-elliptic differential equation of Laplace type with appropriate boundary conditions and applying finite element method modeling, electrodes of various shapes and structure were studied. The non-uniformity of the current density distribution was shown to be moderately improved by adding a low resistivity layer between the metal and tissue and by a ring around the electrode perimeter. The inclusion of openings in long-term wearable electrodes additionally disturbs the current density profile. However, a number of small-size perforations may result in acceptable current density distribution. Conclusion The current density distribution non-uniformity of circular electrodes is about 30% less than that of square-shaped electrodes. The use of an interface layer of intermediate resistivity, comparable to that of the underlying tissues, and a high-resistivity perimeter ring, can further improve the distribution. The inclusion of skin aeration openings disturbs the current paths, but an appropriate selection of number and size provides a reasonable compromise.

  14. Anion exchange membrane fuel cells: Current status and remaining challenges (United States)

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Dekel, Dario R.; Page, Miles; Bae, Chulsung; Yan, Yushan; Zelenay, Piotr; Kim, Yu Seung


    The anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) is an attractive alternative to acidic proton exchange membrane fuel cells, which to date have required platinum-based catalysts, as well as acid-tolerant stack hardware. The AEMFC could use non-platinum-group metal catalysts and less expensive metal hardware thanks to the high pH of the electrolyte. Over the last decade, substantial progress has been made in improving the performance and durability of the AEMFC through the development of new materials and the optimization of system design and operation conditions. In this perspective article, we describe the current status of AEMFCs as having reached beginning of life performance very close to that of PEMFCs when using ultra-low loadings of Pt, while advancing towards operation on non-platinum-group metal catalysts alone. In the latter sections, we identify the remaining technical challenges, which require further research and development, focusing on the materials and operational factors that critically impact AEMFC performance and/or durability. These perspectives may provide useful insights for the development of next-generation of AEMFCs.

  15. A self-similar scaling for cross-shelf exchange driven by transient rip currents (United States)

    Suanda, Sutara H.; Feddersen, Falk


    Transient rip currents, episodic offshore flows from the surf zone to the inner shelf, present a recreational beach hazard and exchange material across the nearshore ocean. The magnitude and offshore extent of transient rip-current-induced exchange and its relative importance to other inner shelf exchange processes are poorly understood. Here 120 model simulations with random, normally incident, directionally spread waves spanning a range of beach slopes and wave conditions show that the transient rip current exchange velocity is self-similar. The nondimensional exchange velocity, surf zone flushing time, and cross-shore decay length scale are scaled by beach slope and wave properties, depending strongly on wave directional spread. Transient rip-current-driven exchange can be compared to other cross-shelf exchange processes. For example, transient rip-current-driven exchange is stronger than wave-induced Stokes-drift-driven exchange up to six surf zone widths from shore.

  16. Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield


    High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes

  17. Density functional with full exact exchange, balanced nonlocality of correlations, and constraint satisfaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Jianmin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perdew, John P [TULANE UNIV; Staroverov, Viktor N [UNIV OF WESTERN ONTARIO; Scuseria, Gustavo E [RICE UNIV


    We construct a nonlocal density functional approximation with full exact exchange, while preserving the constraint-satisfaction approach and justified error cancellations of simpler semilocal functionals. This is achieved by interpolating between different approximations suitable for two extreme regions of the electron density. In a 'normal' region, the exact exchange-correlation hole density around an electron is semilocal because its spatial range is reduced by correlation and because it integrates over a narrow range to -1. These regions are well described by popular semilocal approximations (many of which have been constructed nonempirically), because of proper accuracy for a slowly-varying density or because of error cancellation between exchange and correlation. 'Abnormal' regions, where non locality is unveiled, include those in which exchange can dominate correlation (one-electron, nonuniform high-density, and rapidly-varying limits), and those open subsystems of fluctuating electron number over which the exact exchange-correlation hole integrates to a value greater than -1. Regions between these extremes are described by a hybrid functional mixing exact and semi local exchange energy densities locally (i.e., with a mixing fraction that is a function of position r and a functional of the density). Because our mixing fraction tends to 1 in the high-density limit, we employ full exact exchange according to the rigorous definition of the exchange component of any exchange-correlation energy functional. Use of full exact exchange permits the satisfaction of many exact constraints, but the nonlocality of exchange also requires balanced nonlocality of correlation. We find that this nonlocality can demand at least five empirical parameters (corresponding roughly to the four kinds of abnormal regions). Our local hybrid functional is perhaps the first accurate size-consistent density functional with full exact exchange. It satisfies other known

  18. Capacitively coupled nano conductors. Ratchet currents and exchange fluctuation relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Robert; Kohler, Sigmund [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)


    We investigate electron transport in two quantum circuits with mutual Coulomb interaction. The first circuit is a double quantum dot connected to two electron reservoirs, while the second one is a quantum point contact in the weak tunneling limit. The coupling is such that an electron in the first circuit enhances the barrier of the point contact and, thus, reduces its conductivity. While such setups are frequently used as charge monitors, we focus on two different aspects. First, we derive transport coefficients which have recently been employed for testing generalized equilibrium conditions known as exchange fluctuation relations. These formally exact relations allow us to test the consistency of our master equation approach. Second, a biased point contact entails noise on the DQD and induces non-equilibrium phenomena such as a ratchet current. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Current distribution and enhancement of the engineering critical current density in multifilament Bi-2223 tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W.G.; Jensen, M.B.; Kindl, B.


    The spatial distribution of the critical current density (Jc) and engineering critical current density (Je) along the tape width direction was studied by a cutting technique on Bi-2223 multifilamentary tapes. In general, an increase of Jc towards the centre of the tape was measured. We attribute ...

  20. Exchange Flow Rate Measurement Technique in Density Different Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoo Fumizawa


    Full Text Available Buoyancy-driven exchange flows of helium-air through inclined a narrow tube was investigated. Exchange flows may occur following the opening of a window for ventilation, as well as when a pipe ruptures in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. The experiment in this paper was carried out in a test chamber filled with helium and the flow was visualized using the smoke wire method. A high-speed camera recorded the flow behavior. The image of the flow was transferred to digital data, and the slow flow velocity, i.e. micro flow rate was measured by PIV software. Numerical simulation was carried out by the code of moving particle method with Lagrange method.

  1. Density functionals for surface science: Exchange-correlation model development with Bayesian error estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorff, Jess; Lundgård, Keld Troen; Møgelhøj, Andreas


    A methodology for semiempirical density functional optimization, using regularization and cross-validation methods from machine learning, is developed. We demonstrate that such methods enable well-behaved exchange-correlation approximations in very flexible model spaces, thus avoiding the overfit......A methodology for semiempirical density functional optimization, using regularization and cross-validation methods from machine learning, is developed. We demonstrate that such methods enable well-behaved exchange-correlation approximations in very flexible model spaces, thus avoiding...

  2. Current Density Measurements of an Annular-Geometry Ion Engine (United States)

    Shastry, Rohit; Patterson, Michael J.; Herman, Daniel A.; Foster, John E.


    The concept of the annular-geometry ion engine, or AGI-Engine, has been shown to have many potential benefits when scaling electric propulsion technologies to higher power. However, the necessary asymmetric location of the discharge cathode away from thruster centerline could potentially lead to non-uniformities in the discharge not present in conventional geometry ion thrusters. In an effort to characterize the degree of this potential non-uniformity, a number of current density measurements were taken on a breadboard AGI-Engine. Fourteen button probes were used to measure the ion current density of the discharge along a perforated electrode that replaced the ion optics during conditions of simulated beam extraction. Three Faraday probes spaced apart in the vertical direction were also used in a separate test to interrogate the plume of the AGI-Engine during true beam extraction. It was determined that both the discharge and the plume of the AGI-Engine are highly uniform, with variations under most conditions limited to +/-10% of the average current density in the discharge and +/-5% of the average current density in the plume. Beam flatness parameter measured 30 mm from the ion optics ranged from 0.85 - 0.95, and overall uniformity was shown to generally increase with increasing discharge and beam currents. These measurements indicate that the plasma is highly uniform despite the asymmetric location of the discharge cathode.

  3. New approaches for the calibration of exchange-energy densities in local hybrid functionals. (United States)

    Maier, Toni M; Haasler, Matthias; Arbuznikov, Alexei V; Kaupp, Martin


    The ambiguity of exchange-energy densities is a fundamental challenge for the development of local hybrid functionals, or of other functionals based on a local mixing of exchange-energy densities. In this work, a systematic construction of semi-local calibration functions (CFs) for adjusting the exchange-energy densities in local hybrid functionals is provided, which directly links a given CF to an underlying semi-local exchange functional, as well as to the second-order gradient expansion of the exchange hole. Using successive steps of integration by parts allows the derivation of correction terms of increasing order, resulting in more and more complicated but also more flexible CFs. We derive explicit first- and second-order CFs (pig1 and pig2) based on B88 generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) exchange, and a first-order CF (tpig1) based on τ-dependent B98 meta-GGA exchange. We combine these CFs with different long-range damping functions and evaluate them for calibration of LDA, B88 GGA, and TPSS meta-GGA exchange-energy densities. Based on a minimization of unphysical nondynamical correlation contributions in three noble-gas dimer potential-energy curves, free parameters in the CFs are optimized, and performance of various approaches in the calibration of different exchange-energy densities is compared. Most notably, the second-order pig2 CF provides the largest flexibility with respect to the diffuseness of the damping function. This suggests that higher-order CFs based on the present integration-by-parts scheme may be particularly suitable for the flexible construction of local hybrid functionals.

  4. Current density imaging sequence for monitoring current distribution during delivery of electric pulses in irreversible electroporation. (United States)

    Serša, Igor; Kranjc, Matej; Miklavčič, Damijan


    Electroporation is gaining its importance in everyday clinical practice of cancer treatment. For its success it is extremely important that coverage of the target tissue, i.e. treated tumor, with electric field is within the specified range. Therefore, an efficient tool for the electric field monitoring in the tumor during delivery of electroporation pulses is needed. The electric field can be reconstructed by the magnetic resonance electric impedance tomography method from current density distribution data. In this study, the use of current density imaging with MRI for monitoring current density distribution during delivery of irreversible electroporation pulses was demonstrated. Using a modified single-shot RARE sequence, where four 3000 V and 100 μs long pulses were included at the start, current distribution between a pair of electrodes inserted in a liver tissue sample was imaged. Two repetitions of the sequence with phases of refocusing radiofrequency pulses 90° apart were needed to acquire one current density image. For each sample in total 45 current density images were acquired to follow a standard protocol for irreversible electroporation where 90 electric pulses are delivered at 1 Hz. Acquired current density images showed that the current density in the middle of the sample increased from first to last electric pulses by 60%, i.e. from 8 kA/m2 to 13 kA/m2 and that direction of the current path did not change with repeated electric pulses significantly. The presented single-shot RARE-based current density imaging sequence was used successfully to image current distribution during delivery of short high-voltage electric pulses. The method has a potential to enable monitoring of tumor coverage by electric field during irreversible electroporation tissue ablation.

  5. Three-dimensional structure of dilute pyroclastic density currents (United States)

    Andrews, B. J.


    Unconfined experimental density currents dynamically similar to pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) suggest that cross-stream motions of the currents and air entrainment through currents' lateral margins strongly affects PDC behavior. Experiments are conducted within an air-filled tank 8.5 m long by 6.1 m wide by 2.6 m tall. Currents are generated by feeding heated powders down a chute into the tank at controlled rates to form dilute, particle-laden, turbulent gravity currents that are fed for 30 to 600 seconds. Powders include 5 μm aluminum oxide, 25 μm talc, 27 μm walnut, 76 μm glass beads and mixtures thereof. Experiments are scaled such that Froude, densimetric and thermal Richardson, particle Stokes and Settling numbers, and thermal to kinetic energy densities are all in agreement with dilute PDCs; experiments have lower Reynolds numbers that natural currents, but the experiments are fully turbulent, thus the large scale structures should be similar. The experiments are illuminated with 3 orthogonal laser sheets (650, 532, and 450 nm wavelengths) and recorded with an array of HD video cameras and a high speed camera (up to 3000 fps); this system provides synchronous observation of a vertical streamwise and cross-stream planes, and a horizontal plane. Ambient temperature currents tend to spread out radially from the source and have long run out distances, whereas warmer currents tend to focus along narrow sectors and have shorter run outs. In addition, when warm currents lift off to form buoyant plumes, lateral spreading ceases. The behavior of short duration currents are dominated by the current head; as eruption duration increases, current transport direction tends to oscillate back and forth (this is particularly true for ambient temperature currents). Turbulent structures in the horizontal plane show air entrainment and advection downstream. Eddies illuminated by the vertical cross-stream laser sheet often show vigorous mixing along the current margins

  6. Engineering Critical Current Density Improvement in Ag- Bi-2223 Tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W. G.; Seifi, Behrouz; Eriksen, Morten


    factor of the tapes. Phase evolution at initial sintering stage has been studied by a quench experiment in Ag-Bi-2223 tapes. The content, texture, and microstructure of various phases were determined by XRD and SEM. A novel process approach has been invented in which square wire was chosen rather than......Ag alloy sheathed Bi-2223 multifilament tapes were produced by the powder-in-tube method. Engineering critical current density improvement has been achieved through both enhancement of critical current density by control of the thermal behavior of oxide powder and by an increase of the filling...... round wire as a preform prior to the flat rolling that achieved more homogenous filament distribution. Filament geometry and density were simulated by Finite Element Modeling. The tapes with large filling factor up to 45 % have been produced with a hard metal outer sheath, which facilitates...

  7. Skyrmion flow near room temperature in an ultralow current density. (United States)

    Yu, X Z; Kanazawa, N; Zhang, W Z; Nagai, T; Hara, T; Kimoto, K; Matsui, Y; Onose, Y; Tokura, Y


    The manipulation of spin textures with electric currents is an important challenge in the field of spintronics. Many attempts have been made to electrically drive magnetic domain walls in ferromagnets, yet the necessary current density remains quite high (~10(7) A cm(-2)). A recent neutron study combining Hall effect measurements has shown that an ultralow current density of J~10(2) A cm(-2) can trigger the rotational and translational motion of the skyrmion lattice in MnSi, a helimagnet, within a narrow temperature range. Raising the temperature range in which skyrmions are stable and reducing the current required to drive them are therefore desirable objectives. Here we demonstrate near-room-temperature motion of skyrmions driven by electrical currents in a microdevice composed of the helimagnet FeGe, by using in-situ Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. The rotational and translational motions of skyrmion crystal begin under critical current densities far below 100 A cm(-2).

  8. Ionospheric midlatitude electric current density inferred from multiple magnetic satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shore, R. M.; Whaler, K. A.; Macmillan, S.


    for estimates of main and crustal magnetic fields. Current density in the range ±0.1 μA/m2 is resolved, with the distribution of electric current largely matching known features such as the Appleton anomaly. The currents appear unmodulated at times of either high-negative Dst or high F10.7, which has......A method for inferring zonal electric current density in the mid-to-low latitude F region ionosphere is presented. We describe a method of using near-simultaneous overflights of the Ørsted and CHAMP satellites to define a closed circuit for an application of Ampère's integral law to magnetic data....... Zonal current density from sources in only the region between the two satellites is estimated for the first time. Six years of mutually available vector magnetic data allows overlaps spanning the full 24 h range of local time twice. Solutions are computed on an event-by-event basis after correcting...

  9. Accurate alkynyl radical structures from density functional calculations without Hartree-Fock exchange (United States)

    Janesko, Benjamin G.; Proynov, Emil


    Density functional approximations (DFAs) often suffer from self-repulsion and delocalization errors which are reduced by exact (Hartree-Fock-like) exchange admixture. Oyeyemi and co-workers recently showed that several DFAs with little exact exchange incorrectly predict bent alkynyl radical geometries, giving errors in ab initio composite methods using density functional theory geometries [V. B. Oyeyemi et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 289 (2012)]. We show that the simple Hartree-Fock-Slater and Xα DFAs, which have substantial delocalization error, predict linear alkynyl radical geometries without incorporating exact exchange. Our Rung 3.5 DFAs, and rescaled generalized gradient approximations, can give either linear σ, bent σ -π , or nearly linear π radicals, all without incorporating exact exchange. This highlights the complexity of delocalization error, the utility of accurate empirical DFA geometries for ab initio composite methods, and the insights to be gained from Rung 3.5 DFAs.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Density Current Evolution in a Diverging Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Javan


    Full Text Available When a buoyant inflow of higher density enters a reservoir, it sinks below the ambient water and forms an underflow. Downstream of the plunge point, the flow becomes progressively diluted due to the fluid entrainment. This study seeks to explore the ability of 2D width-averaged unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS simulation approach for resolving density currents in an inclined diverging channel. 2D width-averaged unsteady RANS equations closed by a buoyancy-modified − turbulence model are integrated in time with a second-order fractional step approach coupled with a direct implicit method and discretized in space on a staggered mesh using a second-order accurate finite volume approach incorporating a high-resolution semi-Lagrangian technique for the convective terms. A series of 2D width-averaged unsteady simulations is carried out for density currents. Comparisons with the experimental measurements and the other numerical simulations show that the predictions of velocity and density field are with reasonable accuracy.

  11. Evidence for explosive volcanic density currents on certain Martian volcanoes (United States)

    Reimers, C. E.; Komar, P. D.


    The morphologies of certain of the smaller Martian volcanoes are discussed as possible results of explosive volcanic density currents. An examination of newly-photographed flank and caldera features of the Martian volcanoes Ceraunius Tholus, Uranius Tholus, Uranius Patera and Hecates Tholus, including steep slope angles, Krakatoa-type caldera morphologies, erosional features (radial channels and anastamosing gullies) and constructional features (blanketed flanks and possible lava deltas) reveals their similarity to terrestrial cones and composite volcanoes such as Barcena Volcano. Crater age data from the surface of Martian domes and shields indicates that such explosive activity occurred more frequently early in Martian geologic history, consistent with the view that the volcanic density currents were base surges rather than nuees ardentes, with the melting of permafrost supplying the water required in base surge generation.

  12. Morphology and Density Structure of Post-CME Current Sheets (United States)

    Vrsnak, B.; Poletto, G.; Vujic, E.; Vourlidas, A.


    Eruption of a coronal mass ejection (CME) is believed to drag and open the coronal magnetic field, presumably leading to the formation of a large-scale current sheet and field relaxation by magnetic reconnection. This paper analyzes the physical characteristics of ray-like coronal features formed in the aftermath of CMEs, to confirm whether interpreting such phenomena in terms of a reconnecting current sheet is consistent with observations. Methods: The study focuses on UVCS/SOHO and LASCO/SOHO measurements of the ray width, density excess, and coronal velocity field as a function of the radial distance. The morphology of the rays implies that they are produced by Petschek-like reconnection in the large-scale current sheet formed in the wake of CME. The hypothesis is supported by the flow pattern, often showing outflows along the ray, and sometimes also inflows into the ray. The inferred inflow velocities range from 3 to 30 km/s, and are consistent with the narrow opening-angle of rays, which add up to a few degrees. The density of rays is an order of magnitude higher than in the ambient corona. The model results are consistent with the observations, revealing that the main cause of the density excess in rays is a transport of the dense plasma from lower to higher heights by the reconnection outflow.

  13. Results of Current Density Distribution Mapping in PEM Fuel Cells Dependent on Operation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew A. Styczynski


    Full Text Available This paper presents in situ measurements of a newly developed current density measurement system for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC. While the functional principle and technical evaluation of the measurement system were presented in a previous paper, this paper analyzes the influence of various operation parameters, including multiple start-stop operation, at the anode, cathode and cooling locations on the distribution and long-term development of the current density. The system was operated for 500 h over two years with long periods of inactivity between measurements. The measurement results are evaluated and provide additional information on how to optimize the operation modes of fuel cells, including the start and stop of such systems as well as the water balance.

  14. Distribution of the Current Density in Electrolyte of the Pem Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Kurgan


    Full Text Available In this paper water management in proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell is considered. Firt mass convervation law for water is applied. Next proton transport is described by the Nernst-Planck equation and liqid water convection velocity is eliminated by the Schlogl equation. Electro-osmotic drag coefficient is related to hydrogen index and experimentally determined swelling coefficient. Three partial differential equations for molar water concentration Cw, electric potential ϕ and water pressure Pw are formulated. Current density vector i is derived from proton flux expression. These equations together with adequate boundary conditions were solved using finite element method. The distribution of electric potential and current density in function of geometrical parametres is investigated. At the end some illustrative example is given.

  15. Transendothelial exchange of low-density lipoprotein is unaffected by the presence of severe atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Karen; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Jensen, Trine Krogsgaard


    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that transendothelial exchange of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is influenced by the presence of severe atherosclerosis; we previously found this exchange elevated in diabetes patients. METHODS: By an in vivo isotope method, we compared transendothelial LDL...... exchange in 24 patients with angiographically verified coronary atherosclerosis, 11 patients with angiographically verified peripheral atherosclerosis, 60 patients with diabetes, and in 42 controls. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL ((131)I-LDL) and 125-iodinated albumin ((125)I-albumin) were injected...... intravenously (i.v.), and the 1-h fractional escape rates (FER(LDL) and FER(alb)) were taken as indices of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS: Patients with coronary or peripheral atherosclerosis had FER(LDL) similar to that of controls [4.3 (3.5-5.1) and 3.2 (2.3-4.1) versus 4.2 (3.7-4.7)%/h; P>0.05], even...

  16. The current density in quantum electrodynamics in external potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, Jan, E-mail: [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Zahn, Jochen, E-mail: [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstr. 16, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)


    We review different definitions of the current density for quantized fermions in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. Several deficiencies in the popular prescription due to Schwinger and the mode sum formula for static external potentials are pointed out. We argue that Dirac’s method, which is the analog of the Hadamard point-splitting employed in quantum field theory in curved space–times, is conceptually the most satisfactory. As a concrete example, we discuss vacuum polarization and the stress–energy tensor for massless fermions in 1+1 dimension. Also a general formula for the vacuum polarization in static external potentials in 3+1 dimensions is derived.

  17. Large Eddy Simulations of Compositional Density Currents Flowing Over a Mobile Bed (United States)

    Kyrousi, Foteini; Zordan, Jessica; Leonardi, Alessandro; Juez, Carmelo; Zanello, Francesca; Armenio, Vincenzo; Franca, Mário J.


    Density currents are a ubiquitous phenomenon caused by natural events or anthropogenic activities, and play an important role in the global sediment cycle; they are agents of long distance sediment transport in lakes, seas and oceans. Density gradients induced by salinity, temperature differences, or by the presence of suspended material are all possible triggers of a current. Such flows can travel long distances while eroding or depositing bed materials. This can provoke rapid topological changes, which makes the estimation of their transport capacity of prime interest for environmental engineering. Despite their relevance, field data regarding their dynamics is limited due to density currents scattered and unpredictable occurrence in nature. For this reason, laboratory experiments and numerical simulations have been a preferred way to investigate sediment transport processes associated to density currents. The study of entrainment and deposition processes requires detailed data of velocities spatial and temporal distributions in the boundary layer and bed shear stress, which are troublesome to obtain in laboratory. Motivated by this, we present 3D wall-resolved Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of density currents generated by lock-exchange. The currents travel over a smooth flat bed, which includes a section composed by erodible fine sediment susceptible of eroding. Several sediment sizes and initial density gradients are considered. The grid is set to resolve the velocity field within the boundary layer of the current (a tiny fraction of the total height), which in turn allows to obtain predictions of the bed shear stress. The numerical outcomes are compared with experimental data obtained with an analogous laboratory setting. In laboratory experiments salinity was chosen for generating the initial density gradient in order to facilitate the identification of entrained particles, since salt does not hinder the possibility to track suspended particles. Under these

  18. The dynamics of pyroclastic density currents on Mars (United States)

    Brand, B. D.; Clarke, A. B.


    The products of explosive volcanism have long been observed on the surface of Mars, and their corresponding dynamics, associated with phenomenon such as dike propagation, magma fragmentation, and eruption columns under Martian conditions, have been modeled with significant success (e.g., Wilson, L., J. W. Head (1994), Mars- Review and analysis of volcanic eruption theory and relationships to observed landforms, Rev. Geophy, 32, 221-263). However, the dynamics of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) under Martian conditions is still poorly constrained. Our increasing capability to image the surface at high resolution, both from orbit and from rovers, presents an opportunity for more rigorous deposit observations and descriptions. For example, observations and measurements from Orbiters identify what have been interpreted as extensive aprons of volcanic ash deposits in several volcanic regions, namely those surrounding several southern highland patera, which have been interpreted as the deposits of PDCs. In addition the bedded deposits identified by the Spirit rover at “Home Plate,” an outcrop within the Columbia Hills in Gusev Crater, have been interpreted by many as the deposits of dilute pyroclastic density currents. This demonstrates that the need to understand the role of the Martian atmosphere on flow dynamics and depositional processes is much more important and relevant than it has been in the past. We have developed a quantitative, axi-symmetric model for flow of and sedimentation from a steady-state, vertically uniform dilute density current for application to PDCs on Earth and Mars (following Bursik, M. I., A. W. Woods, 1996, The dynamics and thermodynamics of large ash flows, Bull Volcan, 58, 175-193). The conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are solved simultaneously, and include the effects of atmospheric entrainment, particle sedimentation, basal friction, temperature changes, and variations in current thickness and density. For a given set of

  19. Synthetic ferrimagnet nanowires with very low critical current density for coupled domain wall motion. (United States)

    Lepadatu, Serban; Saarikoski, Henri; Beacham, Robert; Benitez, Maria Jose; Moore, Thomas A; Burnell, Gavin; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Yesudas, Daniel; Wheeler, May C; Miguel, Jorge; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; McGrouther, Damien; McVitie, Stephen; Tatara, Gen; Marrows, Christopher H


    Domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires are potential building-blocks of future technologies such as racetrack memories, in which data encoded in the domain walls are transported using spin-polarised currents. However, the development of energy-efficient devices has been hampered by the high current densities needed to initiate domain wall motion. We show here that a remarkable reduction in the critical current density can be achieved for in-plane magnetised coupled domain walls in CoFe/Ru/CoFe synthetic ferrimagnet tracks. The antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between the layers leads to simple Néel wall structures, imaged using photoemission electron and Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, with a width of only ~100 nm. The measured critical current density to set these walls in motion, detected using magnetotransport measurements, is 1.0 × 10(11) Am(-2), almost an order of magnitude lower than in a ferromagnetically coupled control sample. Theoretical modelling indicates that this is due to nonadiabatic driving of anisotropically coupled walls, a mechanism that can be used to design efficient domain-wall devices.

  20. Correlation energy, correlated electron density, and exchange-correlation potential in some spherically confined atoms. (United States)

    Vyboishchikov, Sergei F


    We report correlation energies, electron densities, and exchange-correlation potentials obtained from configuration interaction and density functional calculations on spherically confined He, Be, Be(2+) , and Ne atoms. The variation of the correlation energy with the confinement radius Rc is relatively small for the He, Be(2+) , and Ne systems. Curiously, the Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP) functional works well for weak confinements but fails completely for small Rc . However, in the neutral beryllium atom the CI correlation energy increases markedly with decreasing Rc . This effect is less pronounced at the density-functional theory level. The LYP functional performs very well for the unconfined Be atom, but fails badly for small Rc . The standard exchange-correlation potentials exhibit significant deviation from the "exact" potential obtained by inversion of Kohn-Sham equation. The LYP correlation potential behaves erratically at strong confinements. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Current-density maps as probes of aromaticity: global and Clar π ring currents in totally resonant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiner, E.; Fowler, P.W.; Soncini, A.; Jenneskens, L.W.


    Calculation and visualisation of induced current density are important aids to the study of both aromaticity and observable molecular magnetic response properties. The ipsocentric method offers an accurate and economical approach to calculation of induced current density, and a physical

  2. Effect of particle entrainment on the runout of pyroclastic density currents (United States)

    Fauria, Kristen E.; Manga, Michael; Chamberlain, Michael


    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) can erode soil and bedrock, yet we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of particle entrainment that can be incorporated into models and used to understand how PDC bulking affects runout. Here we quantify how particle splash, the ejection of particles due to impact by a projectile, entrains particles into dilute PDCs. We use scaled laboratory experiments to measure the mass of sand ejected by impacts of pumice, wood, and nylon spheres. We then derive an expression for particle splash that we validate with our experimental results as well as results from seven other studies. We find that the number of ejected particles scales with the kinetic energy of the impactor and the depth of the crater generated by the impactor. Last, we use a one-dimensional model of a dilute, compressible density current—where runout distance is controlled by air entrainment and particle exchange with the substrate—to examine how particle entrainment by splash affects PDC density and runout. Splash-driven particle entrainment can increase the runout distance of dilute PDCs by an order of magnitude. Furthermore, the temperature of entrained particles greatly affects runout and PDCs that entrain ambient temperature particles runout farther than those that entrain hot particles. Particle entrainment by splash therefore not only increases the runout of dilute PDCs but demonstrates that the temperature and composition of the lower boundary have consequences for PDC density, temperature, runout, hazards and depositional record.

  3. Critical current density and current distribution in field cooled superconducting disks (United States)

    Bernstein, Pierre; Noudem, Jacques; Dupont, Louis


    Applications of bulk superconductors concern superconducting motors and generators, the levitation of vehicles, the generation of high magnetic fields with small size cryo-magnets, the shielding of magnetic fields and other applications. For all of them, it is essential to determine the critical current density, and to understand the effect of the shape and size of the bulks on the properties of interest. In this contribution, we show how the combination of levitation force and trapped field measurements allow one to determine the characteristics and the potential performances of superconducting disks using analytical modeling. As examples of applications we detail the effects of the magnetizing field and of the bulk sheet critical current density on the levitation force. An important result of the reported measurements is that in field-cooled samples, the shielding currents possibly do not flow along the whole thickness of the disks.

  4. Ionic strength-dependent changes in tentacular ion exchangers with variable ligand density. I. Structural properties. (United States)

    Bhambure, Rahul; Gillespie, Christopher M; Phillips, Michael; Graalfs, Heiner; Lenhoff, Abraham M


    The ligand density critically affects the performance of ion-exchange resins in such measures as the adsorption capacity and transport characteristics. However, for tentacular and other polymer-modified exchangers, the mechanistic basis of the effect of ligand density on performance is not yet fully understood. In this study we map the ionic strength-dependent structural changes in tentacular cation exchangers with variable ligand densities as the basis for subsequent investigation of effects on functional properties. Inverse size-exclusion chromatography (ISEC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) were used to assess the effect of ionic strength on the pore size and intraparticle architecture of resin variants with different ligand densities. Comparison of ISEC and cryo-SEM results shows a considerable reduction in average pore size with increasing ligand density; these methods also confirm an increase of average pore size at higher ionic strengths. SAXS analysis of ionic strength-dependent conformational changes in the grafted polyelectrolyte layer shows a characteristic ionomer peak at values of the scattering vector q (0.1-0.2Å(-1)) that depend on the ligand density and the ionic strength of the solution. This peak attribution reflects nanoscale changes in the structure of the grafted polyelectrolyte chains that can in turn be responsible for observed pore-size changes in the resins. Finally, salt breakthrough experiments confirm a stronger Donnan exclusion effect on pore accessibility for small ions in the high ligand density variant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. What happens in Josephson junctions at high critical current densities (United States)

    Massarotti, D.; Stornaiuolo, D.; Lucignano, P.; Caruso, R.; Galletti, L.; Montemurro, D.; Jouault, B.; Campagnano, G.; Arani, H. F.; Longobardi, L.; Parlato, L.; Pepe, G. P.; Rotoli, G.; Tagliacozzo, A.; Lombardi, F.; Tafuri, F.


    The impressive advances in material science and nanotechnology are more and more promoting the use of exotic barriers and/or superconductors, thus paving the way to new families of Josephson junctions. Semiconducting, ferromagnetic, topological insulator and graphene barriers are leading to unconventional and anomalous aspects of the Josephson coupling, which might be useful to respond to some issues on key problems of solid state physics. However, the complexity of the layout and of the competing physical processes occurring in the junctions is posing novel questions on the interpretation of their phenomenology. We classify some significant behaviors of hybrid and unconventional junctions in terms of their first imprinting, i.e., current-voltage curves, and propose a phenomenological approach to describe some features of junctions characterized by relatively high critical current densities Jc. Accurate arguments on the distribution of switching currents will provide quantitative criteria to understand physical processes occurring in high-Jc junctions. These notions are universal and apply to all kinds of junctions.

  6. Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode (United States)

    Wang, Qi [Littleton, CO


    A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.

  7. Development of high temperature superconductors having high critical current density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Gye Wong; Kim, C. J.; Lee, H.G.; Kwon, S. C.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, K. B.; Park, J. Y.; Jung, C. H


    Fabrication of high T{sub c} superconductors and its applications for electric power device were carried out for developing superconductor application technologies. High quality YBCO superconductors was fabricated by melt texture growth, top-seeded melt growth process and multi-seeded melt growth process and the properties was compared. The critical current density of the melt processed YBCO superconductors was about few 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} and the levitation force was 50 N. The processing time needed for the growth of the 123 single grain was greatly reduced by applying multi-seeding without no significant degradation of the levitation force. The multi-seeded melt growth process was confirmed as a time-saving and cost-effective method for the fabrication of bulk superconductors with controlled crystallographic orientation.

  8. Sparse imaging of cortical electrical current densities via wavelet transforms (United States)

    Liao, Ke; Zhu, Min; Ding, Lei; Valette, Sébastien; Zhang, Wenbo; Dickens, Deanna


    While the cerebral cortex in the human brain is of functional importance, functions defined on this structure are difficult to analyze spatially due to its highly convoluted irregular geometry. This study developed a novel L1-norm regularization method using a newly proposed multi-resolution face-based wavelet method to estimate cortical electrical activities in electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) inverse problems. The proposed wavelets were developed based on multi-resolution models built from irregular cortical surface meshes, which were realized in this study too. The multi-resolution wavelet analysis was used to seek sparse representation of cortical current densities in transformed domains, which was expected due to the compressibility of wavelets, and evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. The EEG/MEG inverse problems were solved with the use of the novel L1-norm regularization method exploring the sparseness in the wavelet domain. The inverse solutions obtained from the new method using MEG data were evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations too. The present results indicated that cortical current densities could be efficiently compressed using the proposed face-based wavelet method, which exhibited better performance than the vertex-based wavelet method. In both simulations and auditory experimental data analysis, the proposed L1-norm regularization method showed better source detection accuracy and less estimation errors than other two classic methods, i.e. weighted minimum norm (wMNE) and cortical low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (cLORETA). This study suggests that the L1-norm regularization method with the use of face-based wavelets is a promising tool for studying functional activations of the human brain.

  9. Orbital functionals in density-matrix- and current-density-functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbig, N.


    Density-Functional Theory (DFT), although widely used and very successful in the calculation of several observables, fails to correctly describe strongly correlated materials. In the first part of this work we, therefore, introduce reduced-densitymatrix- functional theory (RDMFT) which is one possible way to treat electron correlation beyond DFT. Within this theory the one-body reduced density matrix (1- RDM) is used as the basic variable. Our main interest is the calculation of the fundamental gap which proves very problematic within DFT. In order to calculate the fundamental gap we generalize RDMFT to fractional particle numbers M by describing the system as an ensemble of an N and an N+1 particle system (with N{<=}M{<=}N+1). For each fixed particle number, M, the total energy is minimized with respect to the natural orbitals and their occupation numbers. This leads to the total energy as a function of M. The derivative of this function with respect to the particle number has a discontinuity at integer particle number which is identical to the gap. In addition, we investigate the necessary and sufficient conditions for the 1- RDM of a system with fractional particle number to be N-representable. Numerical results are presented for alkali atoms, small molecules, and periodic systems. Another problem within DFT is the description of non-relativistic many-electron systems in the presence of magnetic fields. It requires the paramagnetic current density and the spin magnetization to be used as basic variables besides the electron density. However, electron-gas-based functionals of current-spin-density-functional Theory (CSDFT) exhibit derivative discontinuities as a function of the magnetic field whenever a new Landau level is occupied, which makes them difficult to use in practice. Since the appearance of Landau levels is, intrinsically, an orbital effect it is appealing to use orbital-dependent functionals. We have developed a CSDFT version of the optimized

  10. Effect of roughness and porosity on geometry and kinematics of lock-exchange gravity currents (United States)

    Gatto, Elena; Adduce, Claudia; Ferreira, Rui M. L.


    Gravity currents generated by lock-exchange are an important research tool to understand key features of flows driven by a density may be naturally caused by interaction of geophysical nature but may also be triggered by adverse anthropic actions, from oil spills to pollution related turbidity. Research on the fundamental geometrical and kinematic features of these currents is still necessary, especially when they propagate on complex geometries. The purpose of this work is to investigate the shape and the velocity of propagation of gravity currents over rough beds and over rough-porous beds. To attain this objective, different initial conditions were specified, namely smooth bed, rough bed composed of a single layer of 2 mm glass beads and rough and porous bed composed of 4 layers of the same beads. The dimensions of the channel are 300 × 19,6 × 40 cm in which a steel gate is inserted to define the lock. Two initial mixtures were tested: 1015 and 1030 kgm-3. The density is measured with a pycnometer on a high precision balance. The mixture is composed of fresh water, salt and rhodamine, to allow for visualization and measurements based on image analysis. A high-speed video system camera was used to record the motion of the current. The camera has a 50 mm lens and a sampling frequency of 100 fps. Gray-level images were obtained with 8 bit depth. Calibration of gray-levels was performed pixel by pixel to mixture concentrations. The current is examined in three positions: immediately after the gate ((x-x0)/x0 = 0 to 3), in the middle ((x-x0)/x0 = 5 to 8) and at the end of the channel((x - x0)/x0 = 10 to 13). It is shown that the celerity of the gravity current wave front varies with the different boundary conditions. Indeed, the current is faster for the smooth bed and slower for the rough bed conditions. No appreciable effects of porosity were registered on the wave celerity. The shape of the current varied slightly between the rough and the porous-rough tests

  11. Ionic strength-dependent changes in tentacular ion exchangers with variable ligand density. II. Functional properties. (United States)

    Bhambure, Rahul; Angelo, James M; Gillespie, Christopher M; Phillips, Michael; Graalfs, Heiner; Lenhoff, Abraham M


    The effect of ligand density was studied on protein adsorption and transport behavior in tentacular cation-exchange sorbents at different ionic strengths. Results were obtained for lysozyme, lactoferrin and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) in order to examine the effects of protein size and charge. The combination of ligand density and ionic strength results in extensive variability of the static and dynamic binding capacities, transport rate and binding affinity of the proteins. Uptake and elution experiments were performed to quantify the transport behavior of selected proteins, specifically to estimate intraparticle protein diffusivities. The observed trend of decreasing uptake diffusivities with an increase in ligand density was correlated to structural properties of the ligand-density variants, particularly the accessible porosity. Increasing the ionic strength of the equilibration buffer led to enhanced mass transfer during uptake, independent of the transport model used, and specifically for larger proteins like lactoferrin and mAb, the most significant effects were evident in the sorbent of the highest ligand density. For lysozyme, higher ligand density leads to higher static and dynamic binding capacities whereas for lactoferrin and the mAb, the binding capacity is a complex function of accessible porosity due to ionic strength-dependent changes. Ligand density has a less pronounced effect on the elution rate, presumably due to ionic strength-dependent changes in the pore architecture of the sorbents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential modulation of corticospinal excitability by different current densities of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andisheh Bastani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Novel non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS have been developed in recent years. TDCS-induced corticospinal excitability changes depend on two important factors current intensity and stimulation duration. Despite clinical success with existing tDCS parameters, optimal protocols are still not entirely set. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The current study aimed to investigate the effects of four different anodal tDCS (a-tDCS current densities on corticospinal excitability. METHODS: Four current intensities of 0.3, 0.7, 1.4 and 2 mA resulting in current densities (CDs of 0.013, 0.029, 0.058 and 0.083 mA/cm(2 were applied on twelve right-handed (mean age 34.5±10.32 yrs healthy individuals in different sessions at least 48 hours apart. a-tDCS was applied continuously for 10 minute, with constant active and reference electrode sizes of 24 and 35 cm(2 respectively. The corticospinal excitability of the extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR was measured before and immediately after the intervention and at 10, 20 and 30 minutes thereafter. RESULTS: Post hoc comparisons showed significant differences in corticospinal excitability changes for CDs of 0.013 mA/cm(2 and 0.029 mA/cm(2 (P = 0.003. There were no significant differences between excitability changes for the 0.013 mA/cm(2 and 0.058 mA/cm(2 (P = 0.080 or 0.013 mA/cm(2 and 0.083 mA/cm(2 (P = 0.484 conditions. CONCLUSION: This study found that a-tDCS with a current density of 0.013 mA/cm(2 induces significantly larger corticospinal excitability changes than CDs of 0.029 mA/cm(2. The implication is that might help to avoid applying unwanted amount of current to the cortical areas.

  13. Concentration polarization with monopolar ion exchange membranes: current-voltage curves and water dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, J.J.; Wessling, Matthias; Strathmann, H.


    Concentration polarization is studied using a commercial anion and cation exchange membrane. Current¿voltage curves show the occurrence of an overlimiting current. The nature of this overlimiting current is investigated in more detail, especially with respect to the contribution of water

  14. Comparison of current density profiles based on particle orbit-driven current in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Md Mahbub, E-mail: [IGSES, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuo [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Xia, Fan [CFS, SWIP, P.O. Box 432, 610041 Chengdu (China); Mitarai, Osamu [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Hasegawa, Makoto; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Araki, Kuniaki; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki; Nagata, Takahiro [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) of QUEST. • Particle guiding center orbit calculation. • Orbit-driven current density profile. • Hollow current density. • Equilibrium condition for steady-state operation of QUEST. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven divertor plasma of QUEST, it has been observed that orbit-driven current flows in the open magnetic surfaces outside of the closed magnetic surfaces. To observe this phenomenon and the characteristics of the orbit-driven current, current density profiles have been calculated on two different equilibrium conditions. We calculated current density profiles from particle guiding center orbits both for the fundamental and the second harmonic resonances for the 8.2 GHz electron cyclotron current drive. From this calculation, hollow current density profiles have been obtained with significant characteristics on both conditions. Only positive current distribution has been observed in the open magnetic surfaces outside of the closed magnetic surfaces.

  15. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J. R.


    Full Text Available There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC. This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  16. Plasma density scaling at the current reversal in the STOR-1M tokamak with AC operation (United States)

    Mitarai, Osamu; Hirose, Akira; Skarsgard, Harvey M.


    Plasma density behavior in the STOR-1M tokamak with alternating current operation is described in the Murakami-Hugill diagram. At the current reversal, the density remains finite. Gas puffing before current reversal allows alternating current operation with larger currents, and improves its reproducibility. A qualitative explanation for the finite plasma density at the current reversal is presented, based on a short-circuit effect by the limiter.

  17. Computation of local exchange coefficients in strongly interacting one-dimensional few-body systems: local density approximation and exact results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchukov, O. V.; Eriksen, E. H.; Midtgaard, J. M.


    been the focus of previous studies and consider some double-wells of current experimental interest. We find that the local density approximation works quite well as long as the potentials resemble harmonic wells but break down for larger barriers. In order to explore the consequences of applying...... the local density approximation in a concrete setup we consider quantum state transfer in the effective spin models that one obtains. Here we find that even minute deviations in the local exchange coefficients between the exact and the local density approximation can induce large deviations in the fidelity...

  18. Direct alcohol fuel cells: toward the power densities of hydrogen-fed proton exchange membrane fuel cells. (United States)

    Chen, Yanxin; Bellini, Marco; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Fornasiero, Paolo; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Miller, Hamish A; Wang, Lianqin; Vizza, Francesco


    A 2 μm thick layer of TiO2 nanotube arrays was prepared on the surface of the Ti fibers of a nonwoven web electrode. After it was doped with Pd nanoparticles (1.5 mgPd  cm(-2) ), this anode was employed in a direct alcohol fuel cell. Peak power densities of 210, 170, and 160 mW cm(-2) at 80 °C were produced if the cell was fed with 10 wt % aqueous solutions of ethanol, ethylene glycol, and glycerol, respectively, in 2 M aqueous KOH. The Pd loading of the anode was increased to 6 mg cm(-2) by combining four single electrodes to produce a maximum peak power density with ethanol at 80 °C of 335 mW cm(-2) . Such high power densities result from a combination of the open 3 D structure of the anode electrode and the high electrochemically active surface area of the Pd catalyst, which promote very fast kinetics for alcohol electro-oxidation. The peak power and current densities obtained with ethanol at 80 °C approach the output of H2 -fed proton exchange membrane fuel cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Current Density Distribution Mapping in PEM Fuel Cells as An Instrument for Operational Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Geske


    Full Text Available A newly developed measurement system for current density distribution mapping has enabled a new approach for operational measurements in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC. Taking into account previously constructed measurement systems, a method based on a multi layer printed circuit board was chosen for the development of the new system. This type of system consists of a sensor, a special electronic device and the control and visualization PC. For the acquisition of the current density distribution values, a sensor device was designed and installed within a multilayer printed circuit board with integrated shunt resistors. Varying shunt values can be taken into consideration with a newly developed and evaluated calibration method. The sensor device was integrated in a PEM fuel cell stack to prove the functionality of the whole measurement system. A software application was implemented to visualize and save the measurement values. Its functionality was verified by operational measurements within a PEMFC system. Measurement accuracy and possible negative reactions of the sensor device during PEMFC operation are discussed in detail in this paper. The developed system enables operational measurements for different operating phases of PEM fuel cells. Additionally, this can be seen as a basis for new opportunities of optimization for fuel cell design and operation modes.

  20. Improved critical current density in Zn doped YBCO single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Manzoor, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University Technology PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Takita, Koki [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan)


    Magnetic measurements were made using pure YBCO and Zn doped YBa{sub 2}(Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}){sub 3}O{sub 7-s}igma. Single crystals with Zn concentration of 0.5%, 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.3%. The magnetic hysteresis loops for these samples were measured in the temperature range 0.1 <= T/T{sub c} <= 0.96 under magnetic fields of 5 T using SQUID. It was found that the critical current density J{sub c} increased for low Zn content samples up to 3% Zn concentration compared to pure YBCO sample and decreased for the higher Zn content samples. These values varied consistently when compared at magnetic fields of 1 T and 3 T. Moreover Zn doped samples showed significant values of J{sub c} in the temperature range of 0.7-0.9T{sub c}, close to critical temperature compared to pure YBCO sample. The irreversibility field H{sub irr} was also enhanced in this temperature range showing consistent decrease with increase of Zn concentration. The peak field H{sub p} above H{sub c1} and irreversibility field H{sub irr}, both show power law dependence of the form H = m{sub 1}(1 - T/T{sub c}){sup m2} in the temperature range of 0.75-0.96T{sub c}. The values of parameter m{sub 2} increased from 1.44 to 1.95 for the samples up to 3% Zn content and decreased to 1.37 for higher Zn contents. The ratio H{sub irr}/H{sub p} was found to be 3-4 for the lower Zn content samples and was 7-8 for the sample with high Zn content indicating more disorder for higher Zn content samples. The region between peak field H{sub p} and irreversibility field H{sub irr} was broadened with the increase of Zn concentration. The strong effect of Zn substitution in modifying behavior of these samples even at elevated temperatures is possibly due to the changes in the anisotropy of our samples with the increase of Zn concentration and also due to the locally induced changes in magnetic moments by Zn substitution.

  1. Alternative separation of exchange and correlation energies in range-separated density-functional perturbation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornaton, Y.; Stoyanova, A.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard


    An alternative separation of short-range exchange and correlation energies is used in the framework of second-order range-separated density-functional perturbation theory. This alternative separation was initially proposed by Toulouse and relies on a long-range-interacting wave function instead...... of the noninteracting Kohn-Sham one. When second-order corrections to the density are neglected, the energy expression reduces to a range-separated double-hybrid (RSDH) type of functional, RSDHf, where "f" stands for "full-range integrals" as the regular full-range interaction appears explicitly in the energy...... on the potential energy curves in the equilibrium region, improving the accuracy of binding energies and equilibrium bond distances when second-order perturbation theory is appropriate....

  2. Time-Dependent (Current) Density Functional Theory for Periodic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, F.; Boeij, P.L. de; Leeuwen, R. van; Snijders, J.G.


    In this article we review time-dependent density functional theory for calculating the static and frequency-dependent dielectric function ε(ω) of nonmetallic crystals. We show that a real-space description becomes feasible for solids by using a combination of a lattice-periodic (microscopic) scalar

  3. Current Issues in Finite-T Density-Functional Theory and Warm-Correlated Matter †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. C. Dharma-wardana


    Full Text Available Finite-temperature density functional theory (DFT has become of topical interest, partly due to the increasing ability to create novel states of warm-correlated matter (WCM.Warm-dense matter (WDM, ultra-fast matter (UFM, and high-energy density matter (HEDM may all be regarded as subclasses of WCM. Strong electron-electron, ion-ion and electron-ion correlation effects and partial degeneracies are found in these systems where the electron temperature Te is comparable to the electron Fermi energy EF. Thus, many electrons are in continuum states which are partially occupied. The ion subsystem may be solid, liquid or plasma, with many states of ionization with ionic charge Zj. Quasi-equilibria with the ion temperature Ti ≠ Te are common. The ion subsystem in WCM can no longer be treated as a passive “external potential”, as is customary in T = 0 DFT dominated by solid-state theory or quantum chemistry. Many basic questions arise in trying to implement DFT for WCM. Hohenberg-Kohn-Mermin theory can be adapted for treating these systems if suitable finite-T exchange-correlation (XC functionals can be constructed. They are functionals of both the one-body electron density ne and the one-body ion densities ρj. Here, j counts many species of nuclei or charge states. A method of approximately but accurately mapping the quantum electrons to a classical Coulomb gas enables one to treat electron-ion systems entirely classically at any temperature and arbitrary spin polarization, using exchange-correlation effects calculated in situ, directly from the pair-distribution functions. This eliminates the need for any XC-functionals. This classical map has been used to calculate the equation of state of WDM systems, and construct a finite-T XC functional that is found to be in close agreement with recent quantum path-integral simulation data. In this review, current developments and concerns in finite-T DFT, especially in the context of non-relativistic warm

  4. High energy efficiency and high power density proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Electrode kinetics and mass transport (United States)

    Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Velev, Omourtag A.; Parthasathy, Arvind; Manko, David J.; Appleby, A. John


    The development of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell power plants with high energy efficiencies and high power densities is gaining momentum because of the vital need of such high levels of performance for extraterrestrial (space, underwater) and terrestrial (power source for electric vehicles) applications. Since 1987, considerable progress has been made in achieving energy efficiencies of about 60 percent at a current density of 200 mA/sq cm and high power densities (greater than 1 W/sq cm) in PEM fuel cells with high (4 mg/sq cm) or low (0.4 mg/sq cm) platinum loadings in electrodes. The following areas are discussed: (1) methods to obtain these high levels of performance with low Pt loading electrodes - by proton conductor impregnation into electrodes, localization of Pt near front surface; (2) a novel microelectrode technique which yields electrode kinetic parameters for oxygen reduction and mass transport parameters; (3) demonstration of lack of water transport from anode to cathode; (4) modeling analysis of PEM fuel cell for comparison with experimental results and predicting further improvements in performance; and (5) recommendations of needed research and development for achieving the above goals.

  5. Currents and convection cause enhanced gas exchange in the ice–water boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Loose


    Full Text Available The presence of sea ice acts as a physical barrier for air–sea exchange. On the other hand it creates additional turbulence due to current shear and convection during ice formation. We present results from a laboratory study that demonstrate how shear and convection in the ice–ocean boundary layer can lead to significant gas exchange. In the absence of wind, water currents beneath the ice of 0.23 m s−1 produced a gas transfer velocity (k of 2.8 m d−1, equivalent to k produced by a wind speed of 7 m s−1 over the open ocean. Convection caused by air–sea heat exchange also increased k of as much as 131 % compared to k produced by current shear alone. When wind and currents were combined, k increased, up to 7.6 m d−1, greater than k produced by wind or currents alone, but gas exchange forcing by wind produced mixed results in these experiments. As an aggregate, these experiments indicate that using a wind speed parametrisation to estimate k in the sea ice zone may underestimate k by ca. 50 % for wind speeds <8 m s−1.

  6. Density functionals for surface science: Exchange-correlation model development with Bayesian error estimation (United States)

    Wellendorff, Jess; Lundgaard, Keld T.; Møgelhøj, Andreas; Petzold, Vivien; Landis, David D.; Nørskov, Jens K.; Bligaard, Thomas; Jacobsen, Karsten W.


    A methodology for semiempirical density functional optimization, using regularization and cross-validation methods from machine learning, is developed. We demonstrate that such methods enable well-behaved exchange-correlation approximations in very flexible model spaces, thus avoiding the overfitting found when standard least-squares methods are applied to high-order polynomial expansions. A general-purpose density functional for surface science and catalysis studies should accurately describe bond breaking and formation in chemistry, solid state physics, and surface chemistry, and should preferably also include van der Waals dispersion interactions. Such a functional necessarily compromises between describing fundamentally different types of interactions, making transferability of the density functional approximation a key issue. We investigate this trade-off between describing the energetics of intramolecular and intermolecular, bulk solid, and surface chemical bonding, and the developed optimization method explicitly handles making the compromise based on the directions in model space favored by different materials properties. The approach is applied to designing the Bayesian error estimation functional with van der Waals correlation (BEEF-vdW), a semilocal approximation with an additional nonlocal correlation term. Furthermore, an ensemble of functionals around BEEF-vdW comes out naturally, offering an estimate of the computational error. An extensive assessment on a range of data sets validates the applicability of BEEF-vdW to studies in chemistry and condensed matter physics. Applications of the approximation and its Bayesian ensemble error estimate to two intricate surface science problems support this.

  7. Linking stomata geometries and densities to leaf gas exchange - new opportunities and old pitfalls (United States)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus; Singer, Thomas; Or, Dani


    Historical trends in stomatal sizes and numbers are believed to be directly related to trends in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, where lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations selected for larger leaf conductance to achieve adequate CO2 assimilation rates. In addition to affecting maximum stomatal conductance, stomatal size is considered to affect transition time between full opening and full closure with smaller stomata responding faster. Stomatal sizes and numbers are often deduced by direct microscopy of leaf surfaces (fresh or fossil), or from nail polish imprints obtained from leaf epidermis. The maximum stomatal conductance is then calculated for fully open stomata of assumed aperture shape based on gas diffusion from within the leaf across a leaf boundary layer. Direct microscopic observations of leaves in specialised gas exchange chambers or snap-frozen leaves right after removal from a gas exchange chamber enabled correlation of actual stomatal apertures with directly measured bulk stomatal conductance. We combined systematic analyses of stomatal conductance and response times with laser scanning microscopy of epidermis imprints using fast setting dental imprint that preserve highly resolved stomatal apertures after removal from a gas exchange chamber. The simplicity of data collection relative to previous approaches enables data collection across a range of species with different stomatal sizes and numbers. The dataset was used to evaluate the adequacy of different physically-based stomatal conductance formulas based on geometrical attributes relative to measured conductance for a range of external CO2 concentrations. We also investigated the link between stomata size and response time to environmental perturbation. Results point to uncertainties in inferred geometrical attributes and suggest highly patchy stomatal opening that complicates links between stomata aperture and density for estimation of actual stomatal conductance. Additionally, we identified

  8. CdS-metal contact at higher current densities. (United States)

    Stirn, R. J.; Boeer, K. W.; Dussel, G. A.


    An investigation is conducted concerning the mechanisms by which a steady flow of current proceeds through the contact when an external voltage is applied. The main characteristics of current mechanisms are examined, giving attention to photoemission from the cathode, thermionic emission, minority-carrier extraction, and the tunneling of electrons. A high-field domain analysis is conducted together with experimental studies. Particular attention is given to the range in which tunneling predominates.

  9. Highly conductive anion exchange membrane for high power density fuel-cell performance. (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Price, Samuel C; Jackson, Aaron C; Pomerantz, Natalie; Beyer, Frederick L


    Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) are regarded as a new generation of fuel cell technology that has the potential to overcome many obstacles of the mainstream proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) in cost, catalyst stability, efficiency, and system size. However, the low ionic conductivity and poor thermal stability of current anion exchange membranes (AEMs) have been the key factors limiting the performance of AEMFCs. In this study, an AEM made of styrenic diblock copolymer with a quaternary ammonium-functionalized hydrophilic block and a cross-linkable hydrophobic block and possessing bicontinuous phases of a hydrophobic network and hydrophilic conduction paths was found to have high ionic conductivity at 98 mS cm(-1) and controlled membrane swelling with water uptake at 117 wt % at 22 °C. Membrane characterizations and fuel cell tests of the new AEM were carried out together with a commercial AEM, Tokuyama A201, for comparison. The high ionic conductivity and water permeability of the new membrane reported in this study is attributed to the reduced torturosity of the ionic conduction paths, while the hydrophobic network maintains the membrane mechanical integrity, preventing excessive water uptake.

  10. Modeling surf zone-inner shelf exchange: Interaction of rip currents and stratification (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Feddersen, F.


    Transient rip currents on alongshore uniform beaches develop from the coalescence of surf zone eddies, exchanging tracers between the surf zone and the potentially stratified inner shelf. The interaction of stratification and transient rip currents has not yet been investigated. Surf zone eddies responsible for transient rip currents are generated by short-crested wave breaking, a process included in wave-resolving (WR) Boussinesq models. However, WR models are depth-integrated and cannot account for stratification and vertically sheared flows. Wave-averaged (WA) models can simulate these processes, but cannot create surf zone eddies. A combination of WR and WA models is required to accurately simulate surf zone-inner shelf exchange. Here, WR depth-integrated Boussinessq model funwaveC is coupled to the stratification and depth-resolving WA Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. The surf zone eddy generation forcing is extracted from a funwaveC simulation of normally incident waves on a planar beach, and provided to COAWST as a depth-uniform surf zone force. COAWST model simulations resolving the surf zone to mid-shelf are conducted with surf zone eddy forcing, idealistic surface heating/cooling, stratification, and Coriolis effects. These simulations provide three-dimensional evolution of velocity and temperature, diagnosed to quantify the role of surf zone eddy forcing in surf zone-inner shelf exchange. The impact of stratification on rip currents and exchange is studied by varying the stratification. Funded by the Office of Naval Research.

  11. Government Spending Shocks, the Current Account and the Real Exchange Rate in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Kim


    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of government spending shocks on the current account and the real exchange rate for 20 OECD countries using panel VAR model, in order to provide empirical stylized facts. The countries were grouped based on openness and size, and the influence of openness and size on the effects of government spending shocks. The main findings are as follows. First, in the analysis of all 20 countries, in response to government spending shocks, the worsening of the current account is significant, but real exchange rate appreciation is not significant. Second, real exchange rate appreciation is more significant and worsening of the current account is more temporary in the group of countries with higher openness than in those with low openness. Third, the worsening of the current account is more significant in the group of large countries than in the group of small countries. Although real exchange rate depreciation under fiscal expansion is not consistent with traditional theories, the results are broadly consistent with the existing theories that incorporate openness and the size of the country.

  12. Variation of magnetoimpedance of electrodeposited NiFe/Cu with deposition current density (United States)

    Mishra, A. C.; Jha, A. K.


    An investigation about influence of deposition current density on electrodeposited magnetic film is reported in this paper. Ferromagnetic NiFe thin films were electrodeposited on copper wires of 100 μm diameter for various electrdepostion current densities ranging from 10 to 60 mA/cm2 maintaining equal thickness in all films. The composition of deposited film varied with deposition current density and in particular, a composition of Ni79Fe21 was achieved for a current density of 20 mA/cm2. The surface microstructure of the film deposited at the current density of 20 mA/cm2 was found to have excellent smoothness. The coercivity of the film was lowest and highest value of magnetoimpedance was measured for this film. The influence of current density on film composition and hence magnetic properties was attributed to the change of deposition mechanism.

  13. Dynamic through-silicon-via filling process using copper electrochemical deposition at different current densities (United States)

    Wang, Fuliang; Zhao, Zhipeng; Nie, Nantian; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Wenhui


    This work demonstrates the dynamic through-silicon-via (TSV) filling process through staged electrodeposition experiments at different current densities. Different morphologies corresponding to TSV filling results can be obtained by controlling the applied current density. Specifically, a low current density (4 mA/cm2) induces seam defect filling, a medium current density (7 mA/cm2) induces defect-free filling, and a high current density (10 mA/cm2) induces void defect filling. Analysis of the filling coefficient indicates that the effect of current density on the TSV filling models is triggered by the coupling effect of consumption and diffusion of additives and copper ions. Further, the morphological evolution of plating reveals that the local deposition rate is affected by the geometrical characteristics of the plating. PMID:28422170

  14. Eddy current inspection of power plant heat-exchanger tubing in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkin, P.; Nash, J. [MQS Inspection, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)


    The latest experience in the eddy current inspection of heat-exchanger tubing by means of ID probes is reported and generalized. The authors demonstrate the feasibility of using modern, general-purpose, digital eddy current flaw detectors equipped with microprocessors, displays, the capability for recording inspection results on paper or magnetic media, sound and visual alarms. The NDE personnel qualification and certification requirements are described.

  15. Effects of electrolyte concentration and current density on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... that upon increasing the concentration of FeCl 2 , initially the Fe content of the coating increased and then tended to be stable; the deposition rate and microhardness of coating decreased when the cathodic current efficiency ( η ) initially increased and then decreased; and for a FeCl 2 concentration of 3.6 gl − 1 , t h e c a t ...

  16. Density-Driven Currents and Deposition of Fine Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saremi, Sina

    in the flow and the accretion of the bed layer inside the hopper. The model has been validated successfully with experiment and has been used to study different processes critical to overflow losses. The placement of the inlet pipes along the length of the hopper, which is primarily arranged to balance...... pipe, velocity ratio between the overflow jet and the ambient current, and the water depth. The results from the CFD model have shown that presence of the dredgers propeller in the vicinity of the overflow plume increases the mixing rate, drags the plume towards the surface and retards its settling...... the load distribution in the hopper, has been studied from the perspective of dredging efficiency. The results show large influences from the arrangement of the inlet pipes on the sedimentation rates, and the overflow losses in the hopper. Natural seabed vmaterial is composed by many fractions and the size...

  17. Qualification of Fin-Type Heat Exchangers for the ITER Current Leads

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A; Bordini, B; Devred, A; Ding, K; Niu, E; Sitko, M; Taylor, T; Yang, Y; Zhou, T


    The ITER current leads will transfer large currents of up to 68 kA into the biggest superconducting magnets ever built. Following the development of prototypes and targeted trials of specific manufacturing processes through mock-ups, the ASIPP (Chinese Institute of Plasma Physics) is preparing for the series fabrication. A key component of the ITER HTS current leads are the resistive heat exchangers. Special R&D was conducted for these components at CERN and ASIPP in support of their designs. In particular several mock-ups were built and tested in room temperature gas to measure the dynamic pressure drop and compare to 3D CFD models.

  18. Evaluation of current densities and total contact currents in occupational exposure at 400 kV substations and power lines. (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena H; Elovaara, Jarmo A; Kuisti, Harri A


    This investigation studied the current densities in the neck and total contact currents in occupational exposure at 400 kV substations and power lines. Eight voluntary workers simulated their normal work tasks using the helmet-mask measuring system. In all, 151 work tasks with induced current measurements were made. Work situations were: tasks in 400 kV substations, tasks in 400-110 kV towers and the cutting of vegetation under 400 kV power lines. The average current density in the neck was estimated from the current induced in the helmet. The calculated maximum average current densities in the neck varied from 1.5 to 6.4 mA/m(2) and the maximum total contact currents from 66.8 to 458.4 microA. The study shows that the maximum average current densities and the total contact currents (caused by electric field) in occupational exposure at 400 kV substations and power lines does not exceed the limit and action values (10 mA/m(2) and 1 mA) of the new EU-directive 2004/40/EC (live-line bare-hand works excluded). (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. In vivo mapping of current density distribution in brain tissues during deep brain stimulation (DBS) (United States)

    Sajib, Saurav Z. K.; Oh, Tong In; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je


    New methods for in vivo mapping of brain responses during deep brain stimulation (DBS) are indispensable to secure clinical applications. Assessment of current density distribution, induced by internally injected currents, may provide an alternative method for understanding the therapeutic effects of electrical stimulation. The current flow and pathway are affected by internal conductivity, and can be imaged using magnetic resonance-based conductivity imaging methods. Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is an imaging method that can enable highly resolved mapping of electromagnetic tissue properties such as current density and conductivity of living tissues. In the current study, we experimentally imaged current density distribution of in vivo canine brains by applying MREIT to electrical stimulation. The current density maps of three canine brains were calculated from the measured magnetic flux density data. The absolute current density values of brain tissues, including gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid were compared to assess the active regions during DBS. The resulting current density in different tissue types may provide useful information about current pathways and volume activation for adjusting surgical planning and understanding the therapeutic effects of DBS.

  20. Phase dynamics of low critical current density YBCO Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massarotti, D., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Stornaiuolo, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Rotoli, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); Carillo, F. [Nest, Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Galletti, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Longobardi, L. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); American Physical Society, 1 Research Road, Ridge, NY 11961 (United States); Beltram, F. [Nest, Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Tafuri, F. [CNR-SPIN UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy)


    Highlights: • We study the phase dynamics of YBaCuO Josephson junctions using various tools. • We derive information on the dissipation in a wide range of transport parameters. • Dissipation in such devices can be described by a frequency dependent damping model. • The use of different substrates allows us to tune the shell circuit. - Abstract: High critical temperature superconductors (HTS) based devices can have impact in the study of the phase dynamics of Josephson junctions (JJs) thanks to the wide range of junction parameters they offer and to their unconventional properties. Measurements of current–voltage characteristics and of switching current distributions constitute a direct way to classify different regimes of the phase dynamics and of the transport, also in nontrivial case of the moderately damped regime (MDR). MDR is going to be more and more common in JJs with advances in nanopatterning superconductors and synthesizing novel hybrid systems. Distinctive signatures of macroscopic quantum tunneling and of thermal activation in presence of different tunable levels of dissipation have been detected in YBCO grain boundary JJs. Experimental data are supported by Monte Carlo simulations of the phase dynamics, in a wide range of temperatures and dissipation levels. This allows us to quantify dissipation in the MDR and partially reconstruct a phase diagram as guideline for a wide range of moderately damped systems.

  1. Meson exchange current effects in the electroexcitation of magnetic states in closed shell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallena, A.M.; Dehesa, J.S. (Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear); Krewald, S. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kernphysik)


    A microscopic approach to evaluate the contributions of one-pion exchange currents to the inelastic (e, e') scattering form factor of closed shell nuclei is developed. Both segull and pionic parts of the two-body term are treated on the same footing and their final expressions are simple, clear and physically transparent. Application to the magnetic stretched states 4/sup -/(18.98 MeV) of /sup 16/O and 14/sup -/(6.74 MeV) of /sup 208/Pb is done. Agreement with the available experimental data is discussed. It is found that the effect of the meson exchange currents is a smooth but non-negligible enhancement (> or approx. 15% at the first scattering maximum) at small momentum transfers and an increase by a factor bigger than 1.5 in the region of the second maximum.

  2. Review of Current Experience on Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and A Recommended Code Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane Spencer; Kevin McCoy


    The purpose of the ASME/DOE Gen IV Task 7 Part I is to review the current experience on various high temperature reactor intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts. There are several different IHX concepts that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850C to 950C. The concepts that will be primarily discussed herein are: (1) Tubular Helical Coil Heat Exchanger (THCHE); (2) Plate-Stamped Heat Exchanger (PSHE); (3) Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger (PFHE); and (4) Plate-Machined Heat Exchanger (PMHE). The primary coolant of the NGNP is potentially subject to radioactive contamination by the core as well as contamination from the secondary loop fluid. To isolate the radioactivity to minimize radiation doses to personnel, and protect the primary circuit from contamination, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) have been proposed as a means for separating the primary circuit of the NGNP (Next Generation Nuclear Plant) or other process heat application from the remainder of the plant. This task will first review the different concepts of IHX that could be envisioned for HTR/VHTR applications in a range of temperature from 850 to 950 C. This will cover shell-and-tube and compact designs (including the platefin concept). The review will then discuss the maturity of the concepts in terms of design, fabricability and component testing (or feedback from experience when applicable). Particular attention will be paid to the feasibility of developing the IHX concepts for the NGNP with operation expected in 2018-2021. This report will also discuss material candidates for IHX applications and will discuss specific issues that will have to be addressed in the context of the HTR design (thermal aging, corrosion, creep, creep-fatigue, etc). Particular attention will be paid to specific issues associated with operation at the upper end of the creep regime.

  3. Exchange-current contribution to the pion-deuteron scattering length (United States)

    Robilotta, M. R.


    Chiral symmetry, implemented by means of effective lagrangians, is used to evaluate the exchange-current contribution to the pion-deuteron scattering length. It is shown that this approximate ssymmetry is responsible for partial cancellations, yielding an overall contribution of about 10% of the total scattering length. Work supported in part by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnológico, Brazil.

  4. Comparison of the performance of exact-exchange-based density functional methods. (United States)

    Liu, Fenglai; Proynov, Emil; Yu, Jian-Guo; Furlani, Thomas R; Kong, Jing


    How to describe nondynamic electron correlation is still a major challenge to density functional theory (DFT). Recent models designed particularly for this problem, such as Becke'05 (B05) and Perdew-Staroverov-Tao-Scuseria (PSTS) functionals employ the exact-exchange density, the efficient calculation of which is technically quite challenging. We have recently implemented self-consistently the B05 functional based on an efficient resolution-identity (RI) technique. In this study, we report a self-consistent RI implementation of the PSTS functional. In contrast to its original implementation, our version brings no limitation on the choice of the basis set. We have also implemented the Mori-Sanchez-Cohen-Yang-2 (MCY2) functional, another recent DFT method that includes full exact exchange. The performance of PSTS, B05, and MCY2 is validated on thermochemistry, reaction barriers, and dissociation energy curves, with an emphasis on nondynamic correlation effects in the discussion. All three methods perform rather well in general, B05 and MCY2 being on average somewhat better than PSTS. We include also results with other functionals that represent various aspects of the development in this field in recent years, including B3LYP, M06-HF, M06-2X, ωB97X, and TPSSh. The performance of the heavy-parameterized functionals M06-2X and ωB97X is on average better than that of B05, MCY2, and PSTS for standard thermodynamic properties and reactions, while the latter functionals do better in hydrogen abstraction reactions and dissociation processes. In particular, B05 is found to be the only functional that yields qualitatively correct dissociation curves for two-center symmetric radicals like He(2)(+). Finally, we compare the performance of all these functionals on a strongly correlated exemplary case system, the NO dimer. Only PSTS, B05, and MCY2 describe the system qualitatively correctly. Overall, this new type of functionals show good promise of overcoming some of the

  5. Scaling of stomatal size and density optimizes allocation of leaf epidermal space for gas exchange in angiosperms (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo Jan; Price, Charles A.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Dekker, Stefan C.; Franks, Peter J.; Veneklaas, Erik J.


    Stomata on plant leaves are key traits in the regulation of terrestrial fluxes of water and carbon. The basic morphology of stomata consists of a diffusion pore and two guard cells that regulate the exchange of CO2 and water vapour between the leaf interior and the atmosphere. This morphology is common to nearly all land plants, yet stomatal size (defined as the area of the guard cell pair) and stomatal density (the number of stomata per unit area) range over three orders of magnitude across species. Evolution of stomatal sizes and densities is driven by selection pressure on the anatomical maximum stomatal conductance (gsmax), which determines the operational range of leaf gas exchange. Despite the importance of stomata traits for regulating leaf gas exchange, a quantitative understanding of the relation between adaptation of gsmax and the underlying co-evolution of stomatal sizes and densities is still lacking. Here we develop a theoretical framework for a scaling relationship between stomatal sizes and densities within the constraints set by the allocation of epidermal space and stomatal gas exchange. Our theory predicts an optimal scaling relationship that maximizes gsmax and minimizes epidermal space allocation to stomata. We test whether stomatal sizes and densities reflect this optimal scaling with a global compilation of stomatal trait data on 923 species reflecting most major clades. Our results show optimal scaling between stomatal sizes and densities across all species in the compiled data set. Our results also show optimal stomatal scaling across angiosperm species, but not across gymnosperm and fern species. We propose that the evolutionary flexibility of angiosperms to adjust stomatal sizes underlies their optimal allocation of leaf epidermal space to gas exchange.

  6. Variation of Eddy Current Density Distribution and its Effect on Crack Signal in Eddy Current Non-Destructive of Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Janousek


    Full Text Available The paper deals with variation of eddy current density distribution along material depth and investigates an effect of the variation on a crack signal in eddy current non-destructive testing. Four coaxial rectangular tangential coils are used to induce eddy currents in a tested conductive object. The exciting coils are driven independently by phase-shifted AC currents; a ratio of amplitudes of the exciting currents is continuously changed to vary the distribution of eddy current density along material depth under a circular pick-up coil positioned in centre between the exciting coils. Dependences of a crack signal amplitude and its phase on the ratio are evaluated and special features are extracted. It is revealed that the dependences are strongly influenced by depth of a crack, and thus the extracted features can enhance evaluation of a detected crack.

  7. European radiological emergency information exchange systems developed at EC-JRC/IES: current status future developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cort, M.; Vries, G. de; Galmarini, S. [European Comission, Ispra (Italy). Inst. for Environment and Sustainability


    Shortly after the Chernobyl accident the European Commission initiated various activities with the scope to make early notification and reliable radiological information available to the EU member states in case of nuclear accidents. JRC-IES/REM in Ispra, Italy, is responsible for the scientific and technical development of three closely related projects that should be a source of valuable information to support decision support in European during major radiological accidents: ECURIE (European Community Urgent Radiological Information Exchange) notifies the competent authorities and continuously informs them about the current status of the accident and its consequences; EURDEP (European Radiological Data Exchange Platform) makes radiological monitoring data from most European countries available in real-time. Currently 23 European countries exchange on a daily basis gamma dose-rates; ENSEMBLE produces a comprehensive overview and comparison of the contamination predictions calculated by world-leading long-range dispersion models. Starting from the legal background these information systems are further described in detail, with an emphasis on their current status, our experience and the planned future developments. (orig.)

  8. Plasma density at the current reversal in the STOR-1M tokamak with AC operation (United States)

    Mitarai, O.; Hirose, A.; Skarsgard, H. M.


    The plasma density behaviour in the STOR-1M tokamak with alternating current (AC) operation is described using the Murakami-Hugill diagram (1/qa, nR/Bt). At the current reversal, Ip = 0 (1/qa = 0), the plasma density remains finite and the Murakami parameter is nR/Bt = (0.66 ± 0.22) × 1018m-2.T-1. Gas puffing before the current reversal does not noticeably increase the plasma density at the current reversal, but allows AC operation with larger currents and improves its reproducibility. A qualitative explanation for the finite plasma density at the current reversal is given on the basis of a short circuit effect by the limiter

  9. Current-density maps as probes of aromaticity: global and Clar pi ring currents in totally resonant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Steiner, Erich; Fowler, Patrick W; Soncini, Alessandro; Jenneskens, Leonardus W


    Calculation and visualisation of induced current density are important aids to the study of both aromaticity and observable molecular magnetic response properties. The ipsocentric method offers an accurate and economical approach to calculation of induced current density, and a physical interpretation in terms of occupied-orbital contributions. In monocyclic systems, these contributions allow rationalisation of the existence, sense, and strength of ring current using simple symmetry and node-counting arguments. Here we show maps computed with the model pseudo-pi version of the ipsocentric theory for large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of the Clar type. Maps are presented for D(6h)-symmetric systems with up to 438 carbon centres; a full ab initio calculation for an isomer of C114H30 confirms that the success of the pseudo-pi method for small PAH carries over to these larger systems. The computed maps follow a generic overall pattern that can be understood with a natural extension of the orbital arguments to a 'band theory' of totally resonant PAH. All show pi current densities that combine a Clar-sextet structure of localised benzenoid diatropic ring currents (contributed by just four HOMO electrons) with a global perimeter diatropic ring current contributed by the remaining pi electrons. Both currents are explained in the ipsocentric model: the localised currents arise from excitations from the HOMO; the perimeter current from excitations from the rest of the HOMO-band.

  10. Anodic Oxidation of Sulfide to Sulfate: Effect of the Current Density on the Process Kinetics


    Caliari, Paulo C.; MARIA J PACHECO; Ciríaco, Lurdes F.; Lopes, Ana M. C.


    The kinetics of the conversion of sulfide to sulfate by electro-oxidation, using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode was studied. Different applied current densities were tested, from 10 to 60 mA cm-2. The results showed that the electrochemical conversion of sulfide to sulfate occurs in steps, via intermediate production of other sulfur species. The oxidation rate of the sulfide ion is dependent on its concentration and current density. The reaction order varies with the current intensity,...

  11. Currents, Spin Densities and Mean-Field Form Factors in Rotating Nuclei: (United States)

    Bartel, J.; Bencheikh, K.; Quentin, P.

    We present self-consistent semi-classical local densities characterising the structure of rotating nuclei. A particular emphasis is put on those densities which are generated by the breaking of time-reversal symmetry through the cranking piece of the Routhian, namely the current density and the spin vector density. Our approach which is based on the Extended-Thomas-Fermi method goes beyond the Inglis cranking approach and contains naturally the Thouless-Valatin self-consistency terms expressing the response of the mean field to the time-odd part of the density matrix.

  12. Critical current density of domain wall oscillation due to spin-transfer torque (United States)

    Taniguchi, T.; Imamura, H.


    The domain wall oscillation due to spin-transfer torque was studied by numerically solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. For a domain wall whose rotation angle θmax is less than 180°, we found the existence of the critical current density above which the magnetization dynamics are induced. We studied the dependence of the critical current density on the rotation angle θmax and found that the critical current density is proportional to 180° - θmax.

  13. Critical current density of domain wall oscillation due to spin-transfer torque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, T; Imamura, H, E-mail:, E-mail: [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)


    The domain wall oscillation due to spin-transfer torque was studied by numerically solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. For a domain wall whose rotation angle {theta}{sub max} is less than 180{sup 0}, we found the existence of the critical current density above which the magnetization dynamics are induced. We studied the dependence of the critical current density on the rotation angle {theta}{sub max} and found that the critical current density is proportional to 180{sup 0} - {theta}{sub max}.

  14. Estimation of current density distribution of PAFC by analysis of cell exhaust gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, S.; Seya, A. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Ichihara-shi (Japan); Asano, A. [Fuji Electric Corporate, Ltd., Yokosuka-shi (Japan)


    To estimate distributions of Current densities, voltages, gas concentrations, etc., in phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stacks, is very important for getting fuel cells with higher quality. In this work, we leave developed a numerical simulation tool to map out the distribution in a PAFC stack. And especially to Study Current density distribution in the reaction area of the cell, we analyzed gas composition in several positions inside a gas outlet manifold of the PAFC stack. Comparing these measured data with calculated data, the current density distribution in a cell plane calculated by the simulation, was certified.

  15. Effect of coating current density on the wettability of electrodeposited copper thin film on aluminum substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Augustin


    Full Text Available Copper is the only one solid metal registered by the US Environmental Protection Agency as an antimicrobial touch surface. In touch surface applications, wettability of the surface has high significance. The killing rate of the harmful microbes depends on the wetting of pathogenic solution. Compared to the bulk copper, coated one on aluminum has the advantage of economic competitiveness and the possibility of manufacturing complex shapes. In the present work, the copper coating on the aluminum surface has successfully carried out by electrodeposition using non cyanide alkaline bath. To ensure good adhesion strength, the substrate has been pre-zincated prior to copper deposition. The coating current density is one of the important parameters which determine the nucleation density of the copper on the substrate. To understand the effect of current density on wettability, the coating has done at different current densities in the range of 3 A dm−2 to 9 A dm−2 for fixed time interval. The grain size has been measured from TEM micrographs and showed that as current density increases, grain size reduces from 62 nm to 35 nm. Since the grain size reduces, grain boundary volume has increases. As a result the value of strain energy (calculated by Williamson–Hall method has increased. The density of nodular morphology observed in SEM analysis has been increased with coating current density. Further, wettability studies with respect to double distilled water on the electrodeposited copper coatings which are coated at different current densities are carried out. At higher current density the coating is more wettable by water because at these conditions grain size of the coating decreases and morphology of grain changes to a favorable dense nodularity.

  16. The increase of the spin-transfer torque threshold current density in coupled vortex domain walls (United States)

    Lepadatu, S.; Mihai, A. P.; Claydon, J. S.; Maccherozzi, F.; Dhesi, S. S.; Kinane, C. J.; Langridge, S.; Marrows, C. H.


    We have studied the dependence on the domain wall structure of the spin-transfer torque current density threshold for the onset of wall motion in curved, Gd-doped Ni80Fe20 nanowires with no artificial pinning potentials. For single vortex domain walls, for both 10% and 1% Gd-doping concentrations, the threshold current density is inversely proportional to the wire width and significantly lower compared to the threshold current density measured for transverse domain walls. On the other hand for high Gd concentrations and large wire widths, double vortex domain walls are formed which require an increase in the threshold current density compared to single vortex domain walls at the same wire width. We suggest that this is due to the coupling of the vortex cores, which are of opposite chirality, and hence will be acted on by opposing forces arising through the spin-transfer torque effect.

  17. Anodic Oxidation of Carbon Steel at High Current Densities and Investigation of Its Corrosion Behavior (United States)

    Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash; Khan, Hamid Yazdani


    This work aims at studying the influence of high current densities on the anodization of carbon steel. Anodic protective coatings were prepared on carbon steel at current densities of 100, 125, and 150 A/dm2 followed by a final heat treatment. Coatings microstructures and morphologies were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The corrosion resistance of the uncoated carbon steel substrate and the anodic coatings were evaluated in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results showed that the anodic oxide coatings which were prepared at higher current densities had thicker coatings as a result of a higher anodic forming voltage. Therefore, the anodized coatings showed better anti-corrosion properties compared to those obtained at lower current densities and the base metal.

  18. Fresh water-salt water density currents, a major cause of siltation in estuaries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schultz, E.A; Simmons, H.B


    ... the effects of changing the upland discharge into estuaries, rivers, and harbours where the fresh water-salt water density currents are present in some degree, and in some cases are the major cause of siltation; and 4...

  19. Insights to emitter saturation current densities of boron implanted samples based on defects simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mok, K.R.C.; Naber, R.C.G.; Nanver, L.K.


    Emitter saturation current densities, Joe have been investigated with different boron implantation dose and annealing conditions. The higher thermal budgets used here are shown experimentally to improve Joe, implying more complete defect dissolution. Simulations show that significant degradation in

  20. Maximum current density and beam brightness achievable by laser-driven electron sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Filippetto


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the extension to different electron beam aspect ratio of the Child-Langmuir law for the maximum achievable current density in electron guns. Using a simple model, we derive quantitative formulas in good agreement with simulation codes. The new scaling laws for the peak current density of temporally long and transversely narrow initial beam distributions can be used to estimate the maximum beam brightness and suggest new paths for injector optimization.

  1. Maximum current density and beam brightness achievable by laser-driven electron sources (United States)

    Filippetto, D.; Musumeci, P.; Zolotorev, M.; Stupakov, G.


    This paper discusses the extension to different electron beam aspect ratio of the Child-Langmuir law for the maximum achievable current density in electron guns. Using a simple model, we derive quantitative formulas in good agreement with simulation codes. The new scaling laws for the peak current density of temporally long and transversely narrow initial beam distributions can be used to estimate the maximum beam brightness and suggest new paths for injector optimization.

  2. Functional derivatives of meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) type exchange-correlation density functionals (United States)

    Zahariev, F.; Leang, S. S.; Gordon, Mark S.


    Meta-generalized gradient approximation (meta-GGA) exchange-correlation density functionals depend on the Kohn-Sham (KS) orbitals through the kinetic energy density. The KS orbitals in turn depend functionally on the electron density. However, the functional dependence of the KS orbitals is indirect, i.e., not given by an explicit expression, and the computation of analytic functional derivatives of meta-GGA functionals with respect to the density imposes a challenge. The practical solution used in many computer implementations of meta-GGA density functionals for ground-state calculations is abstracted and generalized to a class of density functionals that is broader than meta-GGAs and to any order of functional differentiation. Importantly, the TDDFT working equations for meta-GGA density functionals are presented here for the first time, together with the technical details of their computer implementation. The analysis presented here also uncovers the implicit assumptions in the practical solution to computing functional derivatives of meta-GGA density functionals. The connection between the approximation that is invoked in taking functional derivatives of density functionals, the non-uniqueness with respect to the KS orbitals, and the non-locality of the resultant potential is also discussed.

  3. A carbon nanotube field emission cathode with high current density and long-term stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Zhou, Otto [Curriculum in Applied Science and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Geng Huaizhi; Gao Bo [Xintek, Incorporated, 7020 Kit Creek Road, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); An Lei; Cao Guohua [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)


    Carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitters are now being evaluated for a wide range of vacuum electronic applications. However, problems including short lifetime at high current density, instability under high voltage, poor emission uniformity, and pixel-to-pixel inconsistency are still major obstacles for device applications. We developed an electrophoretic process to fabricate composite CNT films with controlled nanotube orientation and surface density, and enhanced adhesion. The cathodes have significantly enhanced macroscopic field emission current density and long-term stability under high operating voltages. The application of this CNT electron source for high-resolution x-ray imaging is demonstrated.

  4. Interaction of pyroclastic density currents with human settlements: Evidence from ancient Pompeii (United States)

    Gurioli, Lucia; Pareschi, M. Teresa; Zanella, Elena; Lanza, Roberto; Deluca, Enrico; Bisson, Marina


    Integrating field observations and rock-magnetic measurements, we report how a turbulent pyroclastic density current interacted with and moved through an urban area. The data are from the most energetic, turbulent pyroclastic density current of the A.D. 79 eruption of Vesuvius, Italy, which partially destroyed the Roman city of Pompeii. Our results show that the urban fabric was able to divide the lower portion of the current into several streams that followed the city walls and the intracity roads. Vortices, revealed by upstream particle orientations and decreases in deposit temperature, formed downflow of obstacles or inside cavities. Although these perturbations affected only the lower part of the current and were localized, they could represent, in certain cases, cooler zones within which chances of human survival are increased. Our integrated field data for pyroclastic density current temperature and flow direction, collected for the first time across an urban environment, enable verification of coupled thermodynamic numerical models and their hazard simulation abilities.

  5. Wall current probe: a non-invasive in situ plasma diagnostic for space and time resolved current density distribution measurement. (United States)

    Baude, R; Gaboriau, F; Hagelaar, G J M


    In the context of low temperature plasma research, we propose a wall current probe to determine the local charged particle fluxes flowing to the chamber walls. This non-intrusive planar probe consists of an array of electrode elements which can be individually biased and for which the current can be measured separately. We detail the probe properties and present the ability of the diagnostic to be used as a space and time resolved measurement of the ion and electron current density at the chamber walls. This diagnostic will be relevant to study the electron transport in magnetized low-pressure plasmas.

  6. Software Toolbox for Low-Frequency Conductivity and Current Density Imaging Using MRI. (United States)

    Sajib, Saurav Z K; Katoch, Nitish; Kim, Hyung Joong; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    Low-frequency conductivity and current density imaging using MRI includes magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT), diffusion tensor MREIT (DT-MREIT), conductivity tensor imaging (CTI), and magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI). MRCDI and MREIT provide current density and isotropic conductivity images, respectively, using current-injection phase MRI techniques. DT-MREIT produces anisotropic conductivity tensor images by incorporating diffusion weighted MRI into MREIT. These current-injection techniques are finding clinical applications in diagnostic imaging and also in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and electroporation where treatment currents can function as imaging currents. To avoid adverse effects of nerve and muscle stimulations due to injected currents, conductivity tensor imaging (CTI) utilizes B1 mapping and multi-b diffusion weighted MRI to produce low-frequency anisotropic conductivity tensor images without injecting current. This paper describes numerical implementations of several key mathematical functions for conductivity and current density image reconstructions in MRCDI, MREIT, DT-MREIT, and CTI. To facilitate experimental studies of clinical applications, we developed a software toolbox for these low-frequency conductivity and current density imaging methods. This MR-based conductivity imaging (MRCI) toolbox includes 11 toolbox functions which can be used in the MATLAB environment. The MRCI toolbox is available at . Its functions were tested by using several experimental datasets, which are provided together with the toolbox. Users of the toolbox can focus on experimental designs and interpretations of reconstructed images instead of developing their own image reconstruction softwares. We expect more toolbox functions to be added from future research outcomes. Low-frequency conductivity and current density imaging using MRI includes

  7. Comments on the Origin and Significance of Density Stratification in Turbidity Currents (United States)

    Kneller, B. C.


    In turbidity currents the unidirectional sediment flux towards the bed due to particle settling, which potentially limits run-out distance, is balanced by turbulent diffusion of particles away from the bed due to boundary layer turbulence. This creates a Rouse-like distribution of particles that is dependent on the ratio of shear velocity to particle settling velocities, resulting in a density stratification. Although turbidity currents are often modelled using depth-averaged equations, their stratification, at both top and bottom of the current, generally has a significant effect on their behaviour. In the lower parts of stratified flows, response to topography - which is almost ubiquitous on the sea floor - is determined by an internal Froude number of the form: where is velocity, is a characteristic length scale, and is the buoyancy frequency, given by: where is the vertical density gradient and is the ambient density. This is true , both upstream and downstream of an obstacle. In the upper parts of turbidity currents (and other gravity currents) the entrainment of ambient fluid and the internal fluid friction due to turbulence are also dependent on the density gradient within the upper part of the current via the gradient Richardson number, given as: Where exceeds 0.25, turbulence and mixing at the upper boundary are minimal. Thus most aspects of turbidity current behaviour, at both lower and upper boundaries, are dependent on density stratification.

  8. Dependence of critical current density on crystalline direction in thin YBCO films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paturi, P.; Peurla, M.; Raittila, J.


    The dependence of critical current density (J(c)) on the angle between the current direction and the (100) direction in the ab-plane of thin YBCO films deposited on (001)-SrTiO3 from natiocrystalline and microcrystalline targets is studied using magneto-optical microscopy. In the films made from...

  9. High current densities enable exoelectrogens to outcompete aerobic heterotrophs for substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao


    © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates could be described by first-order kinetics with respect to COD concentration at different current densities, even under open circuit conditions with no current generation. The COD concentration was reduced more quickly with current generation due to the greater consumption of substrate by exoelectrogens, and less substrate was lost to aerobic heterotrophs. Higher current densities enabled exoelectrogens to outcompete aerobic heterotrophs for substrate, allowing for increased coulombic efficiencies with current densities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. In mixed-culture microbial fuel cells (MFCs), exoelectrogens and other microorganisms compete for substrate. It has previously been assumed that substrate losses to other terminal electron acceptors over a fed-batch cycle, such as dissolved oxygen, are constant. However, a constant rate of substrate loss would only explain small increases in coulombic efficiencies (CEs, the fraction of substrate recovered as electrical current) with shorter cycle times, but not the large increases in CE that are usually observed with higher current densities and reduced cycle times. To better understand changes in CEs, COD concentrations were measured over time in fed-batch, single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs at different current densities (external resistances). COD degradation rates were all found to be first-order with respect to COD concentration, even under open circuit conditions with no current generation (first-order rate constant of 0.14±0.01h-1). The rate of COD removal increased when there was current generation, with the highest rate constant (0.33±0.02h-1) obtained at the lowest external resistance (100Ω). Therefore, as the substrate concentration was reduced more quickly due to current generation, the rate of loss of substrate to non-exoelectrogens decreased due to this first-order substrate-concentration dependence. As a result, coulombic

  10. Current density reversibly alters metabolic spatial structure of exoelectrogenic anode biofilms (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Cheng, Shaoan; Zhang, Fang; Logan, Bruce E.


    Understanding how current densities affect electrogenic biofilm activity is important for wastewater treatment as current densities can substantially decrease at COD concentrations greater than those suitable for discharge to the environment. We examined the biofilm's response, in terms of viability and enzymatic activity, to different current densities using microbial electrolysis cells with a lower (0.7 V) or higher (0.9 V) added voltage to alter current production. Viability was assessed using florescent dyes, with dead cells identified on the basis of dye penetration due to a compromised cell outer-membrane (red), and live cells (intact membrane) fluorescing green. Biofilms operated with 0.7 V produced 2.4 ± 0.2 A m-2, and had an inactive layer near the electrode and a viable layer at the biofilm-solution interface. The lack of cell activity near the electrode surface was confirmed by using an additional dye that fluoresces only with enzymatic activity. Adding 0.9 V increased the current by 61%, and resulted in a single, more homogeneous and active biofilm layer. Switching biofilms between these two voltages produced outcomes associated with the new current rather than the previous biofilm conditions. These findings suggest that maintaining higher current densities will be needed to ensure long-term viability electrogenic biofilms.

  11. LORETA current source density for duration mismatch negativity and neuropsychological assessment in early schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Miyanishi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients with schizophrenia elicit cognitive decline from the early phase of the illness. Mismatch negativity (MMN has been shown to be associated with cognitive function. We investigated the current source density of duration mismatch negativity (dMMN, by using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA, and neuropsychological performance in subjects with early schizophrenia. METHODS: Data were obtained from 20 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder, and 20 healthy control (HC subjects. An auditory odd-ball paradigm was used to measure dMMN. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated by the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia Japanese version (BACS-J. RESULTS: Patients showed smaller dMMN amplitudes than those in the HC subjects. LORETA current density for dMMN was significantly lower in patients compared to HC subjects, especially in the temporal lobes. dMMN current density in the frontal lobe was positively correlated with working memory performance in patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to identify brain regions showing smaller dMMN current density in early schizophrenia. Further, poor working memory was associated with decreased dMMN current density in patients. These results are likely to help understand the neural basis for cognitive impairment of schizophrenia.

  12. Multishot echo-planar MREIT for fast imaging of conductivity, current density, and electric field distributions. (United States)

    Chauhan, Munish; Vidya Shankar, Rohini; Ashok Kumar, Neeta; Kodibagkar, Vikram D; Sadleir, Rosalind


    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) sequences typically use conventional spin or gradient echo-based acquisition methods for reconstruction of conductivity and current density maps. Use of MREIT in functional and electroporation studies requires higher temporal resolution and faster sequences. Here, single and multishot echo planar imaging (EPI) based MREIT sequences were evaluated to see whether high-quality MREIT phase data could be obtained for rapid reconstruction of current density, conductivity, and electric fields. A gel phantom with an insulating inclusion was used as a test object. Ghost artifact, geometric distortion, and MREIT correction algorithms were applied to the data. The EPI-MREIT-derived phase-projected current density and conductivity images were compared with simulations and spin-echo images as a function of EPI shot number. Good agreement among measures in simulated, spin echo, and EPI data was achieved. Current density errors were stable and below 9% as the shot number decreased from 64 to 2, but increased for single-shot images. Conductivity reconstruction relative contrast ratios were stable as the shot number decreased. The derived electric fields also agreed with the simulated data. The EPI methods can be combined successfully with MREIT reconstruction algorithms to achieve fast imaging of current density, conductivity, and electric field. Magn Reson Med 79:71-82, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Hydrodynamics of Lock-exchange Turbidity Currents down a Slope Based on Direct Numerical Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Liang; Lin, Ying-Tien; Hu, Peng; Liang, Xiaolong; He, Zhiguo


    Turbidity currents play a vital role in various geophysical environments. However, until now, few studies have taken into the effects of both suspended particle and slope on its evolution, which requires a precise information of the spatio-temporal flow field. Hence, this study presents high-resolution and two-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of lock-exchange turbidity currents down a slope. By analyzing front velocity, water entrainment, and energy budget, the factors that affect the driving force, thus the development of the turbidity current, are detailedly investigated. The front velocity history exhibits three distinct stages over time, i.e., a short acceleration stage, a quasi-constant stage, and a deceleration stage. The calculation of the entrainment ratio shows that the mixing due to the collapse of the dense fluid is much stronger than that due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and turbulent billows. For a turbidity current down a slope, the entrainment volume of ambient water decr...

  14. Eddy current density asymmetric distribution of damper bars in bulb tubular turbine generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Hongbo


    Full Text Available The major reasons that cause the damage of damper bars in the leeward side are found in this paper. It provides a route for the structure optimization design of a hydro generator. Firstly, capacity of a 24 MW bulb tubular turbine generator is taken as an example in this paper. The transient electromagnetic field model is established, and the correctness of the model is verified by the comparison of experimental results and simulation data. Secondly, when the generator is operated at rated condition, the eddy current density distributions of damper bars are studied. And the asymmetric phenomenon of the eddy current density on damper bars is discovered. The change laws of the eddy currents in damper bars are determined through further analysis. Thirdly, through the study of eddy current distributions under different conditions, it is confirmed that the stator slots and armature reaction are the main factors to affect the asymmetric distribution of the eddy current in damper bars. Finally, the studies of the magnetic density distribution and theoretical analysis revealed the asymmetric distribution mechanism of eddy current density.

  15. Effect of current density on the deposit stress in gold electroplating (United States)

    Hou, Shuangyue; Xiong, Ying; Chen, Shan; Chen, Xiangyu; Xiong, Penghui; Tian, Yangchao; Liu, Gang


    As the key components of grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging, absorption gratings are essential to be fabricated. In fact, the internal stress is one of the critical issues for the application of the electroplated gold deposit as the absorption metal for absorption gratings. It is common that high internal stress levels can cause the deposit cracking, blistering and peeling away from the substrate material. This study investigates the effect of current density on the internal stress by the bent strip method. The surface morphologies of gold deposits are examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the crystal structure of the electroplated deposit is analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The change of current density reverses the internal stress of the deposits from compressive to tensile. The value of deposit stress can be near zero by optimizing the current density.

  16. Microstructure characterisation of solid oxide electrolysis cells operated at high current density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Jacob R.; Bentzen, Janet Jonna; Chen, Ming

    High temperature solid oxide cells can be operated either as fuel cells or electrolysis cells for efficient power generation or production of hydrogen from steam or synthesis gas (H2 + CO) from steam and CO2 respectively. When operated under harsh conditions, they often exhibit microstructural......, microstructure evolution of the Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is followed as a function of galvanostatic steam electrolysis testing at current densities between -0.5 and -1.0 A cm-2 for periods of up to 750 hours at 800 °C. The volume fraction and size of the percolating Ni particles was statistically...... quantified using the mean linear intercept method as a function of current density and correlated to increases in serial resistance. The above structural changes are then compared in terms of electrode degradation observed during the co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 at current densities up to -1.5 A cm-2...

  17. Prediction of the Corrosion Current Density in Reinforced Concrete Using a Self-Organizing Feature Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nikoo


    Full Text Available A disadvantage of using linear polarization resistance (LPR in the measurement of corrosion current density is the need to partially destroy a concrete cover. In this article, a new technique of predicting the corrosion current density in reinforced concrete using a self-organizing feature map (SOFM is presented. For this purpose, air temperature, and also the parameters determined by the resistivity four-probe method and galvanostatic resistivity measurements, were employed as input variables. The corrosion current density, predicted by the destructive LPR method, was employed as the output variable. The weights of the SOFM were optimized using the genetic algorithm (GA. To evaluate the accuracy of the SOFM, a comparison with the radial basis function (RBF and linear regression (LR was performed. The results indicate that the SOFM–GA model has a higher ability, flexibility, and accuracy than the RBF and LR.

  18. Towards the definition of AMS facies in the deposits of pyroclastic density currents (United States)

    Ort, M.H.; Newkirk, T.T.; Vilas, J.F.; Vazquez, J.A.; Ort, M.H.; Porreca, Massimiliano; Geissman, J.W.


    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) provides a statistically robust technique to characterize the fabrics of deposits of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). AMS fabrics in two types of pyroclastic deposits (small-volume phreatomagmatic currents in the Hopi Buttes volcanic field, Arizona, USA, and large-volume caldera-forming currents, Caviahue Caldera, Neuquén, Argentina) show similar patterns. Near the vent and in areas of high topographical roughness, AMS depositional fabrics are poorly grouped, with weak lineations and foliations. In a densely welded proximal ignimbrite, this fabric is overprinted by a foliation formed as the rock compacted and deformed. Medial deposits have moderate–strong AMS lineations and foliations. The most distal deposits have strong foliations but weak lineations. Based on these facies and existing models for pyroclastic density currents, deposition in the medial areas occurs from the strongly sheared, high-particle-concentration base of a density-stratified current. In proximal areas and where topography mixes this denser base upwards into the current, deposition occurs rapidly from a current with little uniformity to the shear, in which particles fall and collide in a chaotic fashion. Distal deposits are emplaced by a slowing or stalled current so that the dominant particle motion is vertical, leading to weak lineation and strong foliation.

  19. MHD Equilibrium with Reversed Current Density and Magnetic Islands Revisited: the Vacuum Vector Potential Calculus (United States)

    L. Braga, F.


    The solution of Grad-Shafranov equation determines the stationary behavior of fusion plasma inside a tokamak. To solve the equation it is necessary to know the toroidal current density profile. Recent works show that it is possible to determine a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium with reversed current density (RCD) profiles that presents magnetic islands. In this work we show analytical MHD equilibrium with a RCD profile and analyze the structure of the vacuum vector potential associated with these equilibria using the virtual casing principle.

  20. Calculation of induced current densities for humans by magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices (United States)

    Gandhi, Om P.; Kang, Gang


    This paper illustrates the use of the impedance method to calculate the electric fields and current densities induced in millimetre resolution anatomic models of the human body, namely an adult and 10- and 5-year-old children, for exposure to nonuniform magnetic fields typical of two assumed but representative electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices at 1 and 30 kHz, respectively. The devices assumed for the calculations are a solenoid type magnetic deactivator used at store checkouts and a pass-by panel-type EAS system consisting of two overlapping rectangular current-carrying coils used at entry and exit from a store. The impedance method code is modified to obtain induced current densities averaged over a cross section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the direction of induced currents. This is done to compare the peak current densities with the limits or the basic restrictions given in the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Because of the stronger magnetic fields at lower heights for both the assumed devices, the peak 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the CNS tissues such as the brain and the spinal cord are increasingly larger for smaller models and are the highest for the model of the 5-year-old child. For both the EAS devices, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the brain of the model of the adult are lower than the ICNIRP safety guideline, but may approach or exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for models of 10- and 5-year-old children if sufficiently strong magnetic fields are used.

  1. Information on Gas-Phase Diatomic Molecules from Magnetically Induced Current Densities. (United States)

    Alvarez-Thon, Luis; Mammino, Liliana


    Magnetically induced current densities are different for different types of chemical bonds, and may help highlight some of their characteristics and stress their main differences. The present work considers magnetically induced current densities in the bonds of diatomic molecules bonded by covalent bonds as well as the gas phase molecules of 1:1 ionic compounds, comparing the current strength values and visualizing current density maps. The results show clear-cut differences for the different types of bonds (non-polar covalent, polar covalent, and ionic), and can also be related to the extent of the covalent or ionic character of a bond. For ionic compounds, the results also show relevant differences depending on the charges of the ions and on their electron configuration (including significant effects from the presence of d electrons in the outer shell of the ions). The article presents and analyses the results in detail. It is concluded that the magnetically induced current densities contribute to the description and interpretation of chemical bonding in diatomic molecules. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Energy Transport in Tokamak Plasmas with Central Current Density Control Using Fast Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, C.B.; Petty, C.C.; Austin, M.E.; Baity, F.W.; Burrell, K.H.; Chiu, S.C.; Chu, M.S.; deGrassie, J.S.; Gohil, P.; Hyatt, A.W.; Ikezi, H.; Lazarus, E.A.; Murakami, M.; Pinsker, R.I.; Porkolab, M.; Prater, R.; Rice, B.W.; Staebler, G.M.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S.; Whyte, D.G. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-9784 (United States)]|[University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3280 (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States)]|[Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-9900 (United States)]|[Centre Canadien de Fusion Magnetique, Varennes, Quebec (Canada)


    Fast wave current drive has been used to substantially modify the central current density profile in a tokamak plasma. Counter-fast wave current drive (FWCD) applied to discharges with negative central magnetic shear enhances the shear reversal and leads to a distinct transition to a mode of improved core confinement. In this state, the electron thermal diffusivity decreases by (50{plus_minus}20){percent} and the ion diffusivity by (80{plus_minus}20){percent}, compared to just before the transition. The FWCD and electron heating elucidates the role of the current profile on confinement and stability. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. Effect of electrolysis parameters on the morphologies of copper powder obtained at high current densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Gökhan


    Full Text Available The effects of copper ion concentrations and electrolyte temperature on the morphologies and on the apparent densities of electrolytic copper powders at high current densities under galvanostatic regime were examined. These parameters were evaluated by the current efficiency of hydrogen evolution. In addition, scanning electron microscopy was used for analyzing the morphology of the copper powders. It was found that the morphology was dependent over the copper ion concentration and electrolyte temperature under same current density (CD conditions. At 150 mA cm-2 and the potential of 1000±20 mV (vs. SCE, porous and disperse copper powders were obtained at low concentrations of Cu ions (0.120 M Cu2+ in 0.50 M H2SO4. Under this condition, high rate of hydrogen evolution reaction took place parallel to copper electrodeposition. The morphology was changed from porous, disperse and cauliflower-like to coral-like, shrub-like and stalk-stock like morphology with the increasing of Cu ion concentrations towards 0.120 M, 0.155 M, 0.315 M, 0.475 M and 0.630 M Cu2+ in 0.5 M H2SO4 respectively at the same CD. Similarly, as the temperature was increased, powder morphology and apparent density were observed to be changed. The apparent density values of copper powders were found to be suitable for many of the powder metallurgy applications.

  4. Determination of plasma density from data on the ion current to cylindrical and planar probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshin, D. G., E-mail:; Vasil’eva, A. N.; Kovalev, A. S.; Mankelevich, Yu. A.; Rakhimova, T. V. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)


    To improve probe methods of plasma diagnostics, special probe measurements were performed and numerical models describing ion transport to a probe with allowance for collisions were developed. The current–voltage characteristics of cylindrical and planar probes were measured in an RF capacitive discharge in argon at a frequency of 81 MHz and plasma densities of 10{sup 10}–10{sup 11} cm{sup –3}, typical of modern RF reactors. 1D and 2D numerical models based on the particle-in-cell method with Monte Carlo collisions for simulating ion motion and the Boltzmann equilibrium for electrons are developed to describe current collection by a probe. The models were used to find the plasma density from the ion part of the current–voltage characteristic, study the effect of ion collisions, and verify simplified approaches to determining the plasma density. A 1D hydrodynamic model of the ion current to a cylindrical probe with allowance for ion collisions is proposed. For a planar probe, a method to determine the plasma density from the averaged numerical results is developed. A comparative analysis of different approaches to calculating the plasma density from the ion current to a probe is performed.

  5. A mathematical model of the current density distribution in electrochemical cells - AUTHORS’ REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An approach based on the equations of electrochemical kinetics for the estimation of the current density distribution in electrochemical cells is presented. This approach was employed for a theoretical explanation of the phenomena of the edge and corner effects. The effects of the geometry of the system, the kinetic parameters of the cathode reactions and the resistivity of the solution are also discussed. A procedure for a complete analysis of the current distribution in electrochemical cells is presented.

  6. Performance of water source heat pump system using high-density polyethylene tube heat exchanger wound with square copper wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wen Zhang


    Full Text Available Surface water source heat pump system is an energy-efficient heat pump system. Surface water heat exchanger is an important part of heat pump system that can affect the performance of the system. In order to enhance the performance of the system, the overall heat transfer coefficient (U value of the water exchanger using a 32A square copper coiled high-density polyethylene tube was researched. Comparative experiments were conducted between the performance of the coiled high-density polyethylene tube and the 32A smooth high-density polyethylene tube. At the same time, the coefficient of performance of the heat pump was investigated. According to the result, the U value of the coiled tube was 18% higher than that of the smooth tube in natural convection and 19% higher in forced convection. The coefficient of performance of the heat pump with the coiled tube is higher than that with the smooth tube. The economic evaluation of the coiled tube was also investigated.

  7. Faraday-effect polarimeter-interferometer system for current density measurement on EAST. (United States)

    Liu, H Q; Jie, Y X; Ding, W X; Brower, D L; Zou, Z Y; Li, W M; Wang, Z X; Qian, J P; Yang, Y; Zeng, L; Lan, T; Wei, X C; Li, G S; Hu, L Q; Wan, B N


    A multichannel far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique is under development for current density and electron density profile measurements in the EAST tokamak. Novel molybdenum retro-reflectors are mounted in the inside wall for the double-pass optical arrangement. A Digital Phase Detector with 250 kHz bandwidth, which will provide real-time Faraday rotation angle and density phase shift output, have been developed for use on the POINT system. Initial calibration indicates the electron line-integrated density resolution is less than 5 × 10(16) m(-2) (∼2°), and the Faraday rotation angle rms phase noise is <0.1°.

  8. Persistent current and Drude weight for the one-dimensional Hubbard model from current lattice density functional theory. (United States)

    Akande, A; Sanvito, S


    The Bethe ansatz local density approximation (LDA) to lattice density functional theory (LDFT) for the one-dimensional repulsive Hubbard model is extended to current-LDFT (CLDFT). The transport properties of mesoscopic Hubbard rings threaded by a magnetic flux are then systematically investigated by this scheme. In particular we present calculations of ground state energies, persistent currents and Drude weights for both a repulsive homogeneous and a single impurity Hubbard model. Our results for the ground state energies in the metallic phase compare favorably well with those obtained with numerically accurate many-body techniques. Also the dependence of the persistent currents on the Coulomb and the impurity interaction strength, and on the ring size are all well captured by LDA-CLDFT. Our study demonstrates the value of CLDFT in describing the transport properties of one-dimensional correlated electron systems. As its computational overheads are rather modest, we propose this method as a tool for studying problems where both disorder and interaction are present.

  9. Microstructure Evolution of Cu-Cored Sn Solder Joints Under High Temperature and High Current Density (United States)

    Sa, Xianzhang; Wu, Ping


    This work investigated the microstructure evolution of Cu-cored Sn solder joints under high temperature and high current density. The Cu6Sn5 phase formed at both the Cu core/Sn interface and Cu wire/Sn interface right after reflow and grew with increasing annealing time, while the Cu3Sn phase formed and grew at the Cu/Cu6Sn5 interfaces. Intermetallic compound (IMC) growth followed a linear relationship with the square root of annealing time due to a diffusion-controlled mechanism. Under high current density, the thickness of the interfacial IMCs of the Cu core/Sn interface at the cathode side increased and the Cu core/Sn interface at the anode side exhibited an irregular and serrated morphology with prolonged current stressing time. Finite-element simulation was carried out to obtain the distribution of current density in the solder joint. Since Cu has lower resistivity, the electrical current primarily selected the Cu core as its electrical path, resulting in current crowding at the Cu core and the region between the Cu core and Cu wire. Compared with the conventional solder joint, the electromigration (EM) lifetime of the Cu-cored solder joint was much longer.

  10. Small Barriers Trigger Liftoff of Unconfined Dilute Heated Laboratory Density Currents (United States)

    Fauria, K.; Andrews, B. J.; Manga, M.


    Dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are hot, turbulent, particle-laden flows that propagate because they are denser than air. PDCs can traverse tens to hundreds of kilometers and surmount ridges 100s of m tall, yet the effects of complex topography on PDC liftoff and runout distance are uncertain. Here we used scaled laboratory experiments to explore how barriers affect dilute density current dynamics and the occurrence of liftoff. We created dilute density currents by heating and suspending 20 μm diameter talc in air in an 8.5 x 6.1 x 2.6 m tank. We scaled the currents with respect to Froude, densimetric and thermal Richardson, particle Stokes and Settling numbers such that they were dynamically similar to natural PDCs. While currents were fully turbulent, their Reynolds numbers were not as high as those for natural PDCs. We performed the first set of experiments in a laterally unconfined volume, used laser sheets to illuminate the currents, measured bulk sedimentation rates down the current centerlines, and positioned four to twenty-four cm tall ridge-like barriers in the path of the currents. We found that relatively small barriers (~ half the current height) caused PDC liftoff. By comparison, conservation of kinetic and potential energy predicts that incompressible density currents are able to surmount barriers twice their height. Furthermore, we observed increased sedimentation immediately upstream of barriers and conclude that small barriers initiated buoyancy reversal through a combination of increased air entrainment and sedimentation. We conducted a second set of experiments with the same thermal scaling and mass flux rates but where the currents were laterally confined within a 0.6 m wide channel. We found that small barriers also triggered liftoff of confined currents, but that the body of these currents reattached after liftoff. Those results suggest that lateral confinement inhibits buoyancy reversal by limiting the surface area of the current

  11. Contributions for the modelling of submarine cables – current density and simplified modelling of wired layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Ebdrup, Thomas


    This article researches two topics relevant for the development of accurate formulae able to estimate the ampacity of HVAC submarine cables. Simplified formulae for estimating the current density distribution, which can be used for theoretical analyses, are developed and compared with the exact...

  12. Model Predictive Control with Integral Action for Current Density Profile Tracking in NSTX-U (United States)

    Ilhan, Z. O.; Wehner, W. P.; Schuster, E.; Boyer, M. D.


    Active control of the toroidal current density profile may play a critical role in non-inductively sustained long-pulse, high-beta scenarios in a spherical torus (ST) configuration, which is among the missions of the NSTX-U facility. In this work, a previously developed physics-based control-oriented model is embedded in a feedback control scheme based on a model predictive control (MPC) strategy to track a desired current density profile evolution specified indirectly by a desired rotational transform profile. An integrator is embedded into the standard MPC formulation to reject various modeling uncertainties and external disturbances. Neutral beam powers, electron density, and total plasma current are used as actuators. The proposed MPC strategy incorporates various state and actuator constraints directly into the control design process by solving a constrained optimization problem in real-time to determine the optimal actuator requests. The effectiveness of the proposed controller in regulating the current density profile in NSTX-U is demonstrated in closed-loop nonlinear simulations. Supported by the US DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. Effect of Secondary Annealing Process on Critical Current Density in Highly Textured Bi-2212 Superconducting System (United States)

    Aksan, M. A.; Madre, M. A.; Rasekh, Sh.; Constantinescu, G.; Torres, M. A.; Diez, J. C.; Sotelo, A.; Yakinci, M. E.


    Bi-2212 samples prepared by a solid-state reaction technique have been grown from the melt using the laser floating zone method. After annealing the as-grown bars, the samples showed a good grain alignment and a high transport critical current density. Secondary annealing processes were performed on the annealed samples with the aim of producing Bi-2212 phase controlled decomposition. Hence, the Bi-2201 phase and the secondary phases, which act as effective pinning centers, were obtained with the secondary annealing process. After these thermal treatments, the transport critical current densities of samples significantly increased, when compared to the annealed ones. The maximum critical current density was achieved when the samples were subjected to secondary annealing at 680°C for 168 h with an improvement of ~80%, compared to the annealed ones. Moreover, it was found that magnetization of the secondarily annealed samples was also increased. The magnetic critical current densities in these secondary annealed samples were about 3 times higher than the values obtained for the annealed ones. These results clearly indicate that the secondary annealing processes lead to the formation of effective pinning centers in the bulk material.

  14. Time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the metallic response of solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaniello, P; de Boeij, PL

    We extend the formulation of time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the linear response properties of dielectric and semi-metallic solids [Kootstra , J. Chem. Phys. 112, 6517 (2000)] to treat metals as well. To achieve this, the Kohn-Sham response functions have to include both

  15. Nonequilibrium green functions in time-dependent current-density-functional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonitz, M; Semkat, D


    We give an overview of the underlying concepts of time-dependent current-density functional theory (TDCDFT). We show how the basic equations of TDCDFT can be elegantly derived using the time contour method of nonequilibrium Green function theory. We further demonstrate how the formalism can be used

  16. Accurate Prediction of Transimpedances and Equivalent Input Noise Current Densities of Tuned Optical Receiver Front Ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qing Zhong


    Novel analytical expressions have been derived for calculating transimpedances and equivalent input noise current densities of five tuned optical receiver front ends based on PIN diode and MESFETs or HEMTs. Miller's capacitance, which has been omitted in previous studies, has been taken...

  17. Finite temperature fermion condensate, charge and current densities in a (2+1)-dimensional conical space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Bezerra de Mello, E.R. [Universidade Federal da Parai ba, Departamento de Fisica, 58.059-970, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Braganca, E. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Universidade Federal da Parai ba, Departamento de Fisica, 58.059-970, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Saharian, A.A. [Yerevan State University, Department of Physics, Yerevan (Armenia)


    We evaluate the fermion condensate and the expectation values of the charge and current densities for a massive fermionic field in (2+1)-dimensional conical spacetime with a magnetic flux located at the cone apex. The consideration is done for both irreducible representations of the Clifford algebra. The expectation values are decomposed into the vacuum expectation values and contributions coming from particles and antiparticles. All these contributions are periodic functions of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the flux quantum. Related to the non-invariance of the model under the parity and time-reversal transformations, the fermion condensate and the charge density have indefinite parity with respect to the change of the signs of the magnetic flux and chemical potential. The expectation value of the radial current density vanishes. The azimuthal current density is the same for both the irreducible representations of the Clifford algebra. It is an odd function of the magnetic flux and an even function of the chemical potential. The behavior of the expectation values in various asymptotic regions of the parameters are discussed in detail. In particular, we show that for points near the cone apex the vacuum parts dominate. For a massless field with zero chemical potential the fermion condensate and charge density vanish. Simple expressions are derived for the part in the total charge induced by the planar angle deficit and magnetic flux. Combining the results for separate irreducible representations, we also consider the fermion condensate, charge and current densities in parity and time-reversal symmetric models. Possible applications to graphitic nanocones are discussed. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HATEGAN D.B. Anca


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to explain what measures can be taken in order to fix the trade deficit, and the pressure that is upon a country by imposing such measures. The international and the national supply and demand conditions change rapidly, and if a country doesn’t succeed in keeping a tight control over its deficit, a lot of factors will affect its wellbeing. In order to reduce the external trade deficit, the government needs to resort to several techniques. The desired result is to have a balanced current account, and therefore, the government is free to use measures such as fixing its exchange rate, reducing government spending etc. We have shown that all these measures will have a certain impact upon an economy, by allowing its exports to thrive and eliminate the danger from excessive imports, or vice-versa. The main conclusion our paper is that government intervention is allowed in order to maintain the balance of the current account.

  19. The Impact of Cathode Material and Shape on Current Density in an Aluminum Electrolysis Cell (United States)

    Song, Yang; Peng, Jianping; Di, Yuezhong; Wang, Yaowu; Li, Baokuan; Feng, Naixiang


    A finite element model was developed to determine the impact of cathode material and shape on current density in an aluminum electrolysis cell. For the cathode material, results show that increased electrical resistivity leads to a higher cathode voltage drop; however, the horizontal current is reduced in the metal. The horizontal current magnitude for six different cathode materials in decreasing order is graphitized, semi-graphitized, full graphitic, 50% anthracite (50% artificial graphite), 70% anthracite (30% artificial graphite), 100% anthracite. The modified cathode shapes with an inclined cathode surface, higher collector bar and cylindrical protrusions are intended to improve horizontal current and flow resistance. Compared to a traditional cathode, modified collector bar sizes of 70 mm × 230 mm and 80 mm × 270 mm can reduce horizontal current density component Jx by 10% and 19%, respectively, due to better conductivity of the steel. The horizontal current in the metal decreases with increase of cathode inclination. The peak value of Jx can be approximately reduced by 20% for a 2° change in inclination. Cylindrical protrusions lead to local horizontal current increase on their tops, but the average current is less affected and the molten metal is effectively slowed down.

  20. Density-driven water exchange controls seasonal declines in the abundance of jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) in a Danish fjord system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Josephine; Jürgensen, Carsten; Steiner, Ulrich


    a dynamic description for the density-driven water exchange in Kerteminde Fjord/Kertinge Nor to quantify the degree of physical dilution of the jellyfish population. The predicted mean residence time (± SD) of 45 ± 1 d for the water masses in Kertinge Nor is in good agreement with an observed residence time......, respectively. Our findings emphasize the relevance of hydrodynamic processes in context with jellyfish blooms by ensuring dispersal of local jellyfish populations from semi-enclosed, food-limited regions to open coastal waters....

  1. Human in-vivo brain magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Cihan; Hanson, Lars G.; Siebner, Hartwig R


    Magnetic resonance current density imaging (MRCDI) and MR electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) are two emerging modalities, which combine weak time-varying currents injected via surface electrodes with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to acquire information about the current flow and ohmic......-FID measurements, we demonstrate a strong influence of magnetic stray fields on the ΔBz,c images, caused by non-ideal paths of the electrode cables, and validate a correction method. Finally, we perform measurements with two different current injection profiles in five subjects. We demonstrate reliable recordings...... conductivity distribution at high spatial resolution. The injected current flow creates a magnetic field in the head, and the component of the induced magnetic field ΔBz,c parallel to the main scanner field causes small shifts in the precession frequency of the magnetization. The measured MRI signal...

  2. Responsivity Dependent Anodization Current Density of Nanoporous Silicon Based MSM Photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Eneaze B. Al-Jumaili


    Full Text Available Achieving a cheap and ultrafast metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM photodetector (PD for very high-speed communications is ever-demanding. We report the influence of anodization current density variation on the response of nanoporous silicon (NPSi based MSM PD with platinum (Pt contact electrodes. Such NPSi samples are grown from n-type Si (100 wafer using photoelectrochemical etching with three different anodization current densities. FESEM images of as-prepared samples revealed the existence of discrete pores with spherical and square-like shapes. XRD pattern displayed the growth of nanocrystals with (311 lattice orientation. The nanocrystallite sizes obtained using Scherrer formula are found to be between 20.8 nm and 28.6 nm. The observed rectifying behavior in the I-V characteristics is ascribed to the Pt/PSi/n-Si Schottky barrier formation, where the barrier height at the Pt/PSi interface is estimated to be 0.69 eV. Furthermore, this Pt/PSi/Pt MSM PD achieved maximum responsivity of 0.17 A/W and quantum efficiency as much as 39.3%. The photoresponse of this NPSi based MSM PD demonstrated excellent repeatability, fast response, and enhanced saturation current with increasing anodization current density.

  3. Topsy-turvy: Turning the counter-current heat exchange of leatherback turtles upside down (United States)

    Davenport, John; Jones, T. Todd; Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, George H.


    Counter-current heat exchangers associated with appendages of endotherms feature bundles of closely applied arteriovenous vessels. The accepted paradigm is that heat from warm arterial blood travelling into the appendage crosses into cool venous blood returning to the body. High core temperature is maintained, but the appendage functions at low temperature. Leatherback turtles have elevated core temperatures in cold seawater and arteriovenous plexuses at the roots of all four limbs. We demonstrate that plexuses of the hindlimbs are situated wholly within the hip musculature, and that, at the distal ends of the plexuses, most blood vessels supply or drain the hip muscles, with little distal vascular supply to, or drainage from the limb blades. Venous blood entering a plexus will therefore be drained from active locomotory muscles that are overlaid by thick blubber when the adults are foraging in cold temperate waters. Plexuses maintain high limb muscle temperature and avoid excessive loss of heat to the core, the reverse of the accepted paradigm. Plexuses protect the core from overheating generated by muscular thermogenesis during nesting.

  4. Eddy current technology for heat exchanger and steam generator tube inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrutsky, L.; Lepine, B.; Lu, J.; Cassidy, R.; Carter, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)


    A variety of degradation modes can affect the integrity of both heat exchanger (HX) and balance of plant tubing, resulting in expensive repairs, tube plugging or replacement of tube bundles. One key component for ensuring tube integrity is inspection and monitoring for detection and characterization of the degradation. In-service inspection of HX and balance of plant tubing is usually carried out using eddy current (EC) bobbin coils, which are adequate for the detection of volumetric degradations. However, detection and quantification of additional modes of degradation such as pitting, intergranular attack (IGA), axial cracking and circumferential cracking require specialized probes. The need for timely, reliable detection and characterization of these modes of degradation is especially critical in Nuclear Generating Stations. Transmit-receive single-pass array probes, developed by AECL, offer high defect detectability in conjunction with fast and reliable inspection capabilities. They have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization for circumferential or axial crack detection. Compared to impedance probes, they offer improved performance in the presence of variable lift-off. This EC technology can help resolve critical detection issues at susceptible areas, such as the rolled-joint transitions at the tubesheet, U-bends and tube-support intersections. This paper provides an overview of the operating principles and the capabilities of advanced ET inspection technology available for HX tube inspection. Examples of recent application of this technology in Nuclear Generating Stations (NGSs) are discussed. (author)

  5. Orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functionals in density-functional theory realized by the FLAPW method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betzinger, Markus


    In this thesis, we extended the applicability of the full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave (FLAPW) method, one of the most precise, versatile and generally applicable electronic structure methods for solids working within the framework of density-functional theory (DFT), to orbital-dependent functionals for the exchange-correlation (xc) energy. Two different schemes that deal with orbital-dependent functionals, the Kohn-Sham (KS) and the generalized Kohn-Sham (gKS) formalism, have been realized. Hybrid functionals, combining some amount of the orbital-dependent exact exchange energy with local or semi-local functionals of the density, are implemented within the gKS scheme. We work in particular with the PBE0 hybrid of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof. Our implementation relies on a representation of the non-local exact exchange potential - its calculation constitutes the most time consuming step in a practical calculation - by an auxiliary mixed product basis (MPB). In this way, the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian corresponding to the non-local potential become a Brillouin-zone (BZ) sum over vector-matrix-vector products. Several techniques are developed and explored to further accelerate our numerical scheme. We show PBE0 results for a variety of semiconductors and insulators. In comparison with experiment, the PBE0 functional leads to improved band gaps and an improved description of localized states. Even for the ferromagnetic semiconductor EuO with localized 4f electrons, the electronic and magnetic properties are correctly described by the PBE0 functional. Subsequently, we discuss the construction of the local, multiplicative exact exchange (EXX) potential from the non-local, orbital-dependent exact exchange energy. For this purpose we employ the optimized effective potential (OEP) method. Central ingredients of the OEP equation are the KS wave-function response and the single-particle density response function. We show that a balance between the LAPW

  6. Interface modulated currents in periodically proton exchanged Mg doped lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kholkin, Andrei L. [Department of Physics and CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal and Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)


    Conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) plays a key role in the reduction of photorefraction and is therefore widely exploited in optical devices. However, charge transport through Mg:LN and across interfaces such as electrodes also yields potential electronic applications in devices with switchable conductivity states. Furthermore, the introduction of proton exchanged (PE) phases in Mg:LN enhances ionic conductivity, thus providing tailorability of conduction mechanisms and functionality dependent on sample composition. To facilitate the construction and design of such multifunctional electronic devices based on periodically PE Mg:LN or similar ferroelectric semiconductors, fundamental understanding of charge transport in these materials, as well as the impact of internal and external interfaces, is essential. In order to gain insight into polarization and interface dependent conductivity due to band bending, UV illumination, and chemical reactivity, wedge shaped samples consisting of polar oriented Mg:LN and PE phases were investigated using conductive atomic force microscopy. In Mg:LN, three conductivity states (on/off/transient) were observed under UV illumination, controllable by the polarity of the sample and the externally applied electric field. Measurements of currents originating from electrochemical reactions at the metal electrode–PE phase interfaces demonstrate a memresistive and rectifying capability of the PE phase. Furthermore, internal interfaces such as domain walls and Mg:LN–PE phase boundaries were found to play a major role in the accumulation of charge carriers due to polarization gradients, which can lead to increased currents. The insight gained from these findings yield the potential for multifunctional applications such as switchable UV sensitive micro- and nanoelectronic devices and bistable memristors.

  7. Evaluating humidity recovery efficiency of currently available heat and moisture exchangers: a respiratory system model study. (United States)

    Lucato, Jeanette Janaina Jaber; Adams, Alexander Bernard; Souza, Rogério; Torquato, Jamili Anbar; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Marini, John J


    To evaluate and compare the efficiency of humidification in available heat and moisture exchanger models under conditions of varying tidal volume, respiratory rate, and flow rate. Inspired gases are routinely preconditioned by heat and moisture exchangers to provide a heat and water content similar to that provided normally by the nose and upper airways. The absolute humidity of air retrieved from and returned to the ventilated patient is an important measurable outcome of the heat and moisture exchangers' humidifying performance. Eight different heat and moisture exchangers were studied using a respiratory system analog. The system included a heated chamber (acrylic glass, maintained at 37 degrees C), a preserved swine lung, a hygrometer, circuitry and a ventilator. Humidity and temperature levels were measured using eight distinct interposed heat and moisture exchangers given different tidal volumes, respiratory frequencies and flow-rate conditions. Recovery of absolute humidity (%RAH) was calculated for each setting. Increasing tidal volumes led to a reduction in %RAH for all heat and moisture exchangers while no significant effect was demonstrated in the context of varying respiratory rate or inspiratory flow. Our data indicate that heat and moisture exchangers are more efficient when used with low tidal volume ventilation. The roles of flow and respiratory rate were of lesser importance, suggesting that their adjustment has a less significant effect on the performance of heat and moisture exchangers.

  8. Charge-constrained auxiliary-density-matrix methods for the Hartree–Fock exchange contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlot, Patrick; Izsak, Robert; Borgoo, Alex


    Three new variants of the auxiliary-density-matrix method (ADMM) of Guidon, Hutter, and VandeVondele [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 6, 2348 (2010)] are presented with the common feature thatthey have a simplified constraint compared with the full orthonormality requirement of the earlier ADMM1 method...

  9. Dependence of various SOL widths on plasma current and density in NSTX H-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, J; Maingi, R; Boedo, J; Soukhanovskii, V A


    The dependence of various SOL widths on the line-averaged density ({ovr n}{sub e}) and plasma current (l{sub p}) for the quiescent H-mode plasmas with Type-V ELMs in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) was investigated. It is found that the heat flux SOL width ({lambda}{sub q}), measured by the IR camera, is virtually insensitive to {ovr n}{sub e} and has a strong negative dependence on l{sub p}. This insensitivity of {lambda}{sub q} to {ovr n}{sub e} is consistent with the scaling law from JET H-mode plasmas that shows a very weak dependence on the upstream density. The electron temperature, ion saturation current density, electron density, and electron pressure decay lengths ({lambda}{sub Te}, {lambda}{sub jsat}, {lambda}{sub ne}, and {lambda}{sub pe}, respectively) measured by the probe showed that {lambda}{sub Te} and {lambda}{sub jsat} have strong negative dependence on l{sub p}, whereas {lambda}{sub ne} and {lambda}{sub pe} revealed only a little or no dependence. The dependence of {lambda}{sub Te} on l{sub p} is consistent with the scaling law in the literature while {lambda}{sub ne} and {lambda}{sub pe} dependence shows a different trend.

  10. Degradation of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Operated at High Current Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Youkun; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    In this work the durability of solid oxide cells for co-electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide (45 % H2O + 45 % CO2 + 10 % H2) at high current densities was investigated. The tested cells are Ni-YSZ electrode supported, with a YSZ electrolyte and either a LSM-YSZ or LSCF-CGO oxygen electrode....... A current density of -1.5 and -2.0 A/cm2 was applied to the cell and the gas conversion was 45 % and 60 %, respectively. The cells were operated for a period of up to 700 hours. The electrochemical analysis revealed significant performance degradation for the ohmic process, oxygen ion interfacial transfer...

  11. High power density vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with ion implanted isolated current aperture. (United States)

    Higuchi, Akira; Naito, Hideyuki; Torii, Kousuke; Miyamoto, Masahiro; Morita, Takenori; Maeda, Junya; Miyajima, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Harumasa


    We report on GaAs-based high power density vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs) with ion implanted isolated current apertures. A continuous-wave output power of over 380 mW and the power density of 4.9 kW/cm2 have been achieved at 15 °C from the 100-μm-diameter aperture, which is the highest output characteristic ever reported for an ion implanted VCSEL. A high background suppression ratio of over 40 dB has also been obtained at the emission wavelength of 970 nm. The ion implantation technique provides an excellent current isolation in the apertures and would be a key to realize high power output from a VCSEL array.

  12. Influences of urban fabric on pyroclastic density currents at Pompeii (Italy): 1. Flow direction and deposition (United States)

    Gurioli, L.; Zanella, E.; Pareschi, M. T.; Lanza, R.


    To assess ways in which the products of explosive eruptions interact with human settlements, we performed volcanological and rock magnetic analyses on the deposits of the A.D. 79 eruption at the Pompeii excavations (Italy). During this eruption the Roman town of Pompeii was covered by 2.5 m of fallout pumice and then partially destroyed by pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on the fine matrix of the deposits allowed the quantification of the variations in flow direction and emplacement mechanisms of the parental PDCs that entered the town. These results, integrated with volcanological field investigations, revealed that the presence of buildings, still protruding through the fallout deposits, strongly affected the distribution and accumulation of the erupted products. All of the PDCs that entered the town, even the most dilute ones, were density stratified currents in which interaction with the urban fabric occurred in the lower part of the current. The degree of interaction varied mainly as a function of obstacle height and density stratification within the current. For examples, the lower part of the EU4pf current left deposits up to 3 m thick and was able to interact with 2- to 4-m-high obstacles. However, a decrease in thickness and grain size of the deposits across the town indicates that even though the upper portion of the current was able to decouple from the lower portion, enabling it to flow over the town, it was not able to fully restore the sediment supply to the lower portion in order to maintain the deposition observed upon entry into the town.

  13. A numerical shallow-water model for gravity currents for a wide range of density differences (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki A.; Koyaguchi, Takehiro; Suzuki, Yujiro J.


    Gravity currents with various contrasting densities play a role in mass transport in a number of geophysical situations. The ratio of the density of the current, ρ c, to the density of the ambient fluid, ρ a, can vary between 100 and 103. In this paper, we present a numerical method of simulating gravity currents for a wide range of ρ c/ ρ a using a shallow-water model. In the model, the effects of varying ρ c/ ρ a are taken into account via the front condition (i.e., factors describing the balance between the driving pressure and the ambient resistance pressure at the flow front). Previously, two types of numerical models have been proposed to solve the front condition. These are referred to here as the Boundary Condition (BC) model and the Artificial Bed (AB) model. The front condition is calculated as a boundary condition at each time step in the BC model, whereas it is calculated by setting a thin artificial bed ahead of the front in the AB model. We assessed the BC and AB models by comparing their numerical results with the analytical results for a simple case of homogeneous currents. The results from the BC model agree well with the analytical results when ρ c/ ρ a≲102, but the model tends to overestimate the speed of the front position when ρ c/ρ a≳102. In contrast, the AB model generates good approximations of the analytical results for ρ c/ρ a≳ 102, given a sufficiently small artificial bed thickness, but fails to reproduce the analytical results when ρ c/ ρ a≲102. Therefore, we propose a numerical method in which the BC model is used for currents with ρ c/ ρ a≲102 and the AB model is used for currents with ρ c/ρ a≳ 102.

  14. Determination of critical current density in melt-processed HTS bulks from levitation force measurements


    Kordyuk, A. A.; Nemoshkalenko, V. V.; Viznichenko, R. V.; Habisreuther, T.; Gawalek, W.


    A simple approach to describe the levitation force measurements on melt-processed HTS bulks was developed. A couple of methods to determine the critical current density $J_c$ were introduced. The averaged $ab$-plane $J_c$ values for the field parallel to this plane were determined. The first and second levitation force hysteresis loops calculated with these $J_c$ values coincide remarkably well with the experimental data.

  15. Comparisons of Simulated and Observed Stormtime Magnetic Intensities and Ion Densities in the Ring Current (United States)

    Chen, M. W.; Guild, T. B.; Lemon, C. L.; Schulz, M.


    Recent progress in ring current and plasma sheet modeling has shown the importance of a self-consistent treatment of particle transport and magnetic and electric fields in the inner magnetosphere. For example, the feedback of the ring current tends to mitigate the build-up of the asymmetric ring current and associated magnetic depressions during storm main phase. Models with and without self-consistency can lead to significantly different magnitudes and spatial distributions of plasma pressure and magnetic intensity during disturbed times. In this study we compare simulated and observed stormtime magnetic intensities and ion densities at geosynchronous altitude to test how well self-consistent simulations can simultaneously reproduce these quantities. We simulate the ring current and plasma sheet for conditions corresponding to the 12-14 August 2000 storm using the self-consistent Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium (RCM-E) [ Lemon et al., JGR, 2004]. Using the empirical IMF-dependent model of Tsyganenko and Mukai [JGR, 2003], we specify the plasma sheet pressure and density at 10 RE as the plasma boundary location in the RCM- E. We compare the simulated magnetic intensity at geosynchronous altitude (6.6 RE) with the magnetic intensity measured by magnetometers on the GOES G8, G10, and G11 satellites. The simulated ion densities at different magnetic local times are compared with those from the re-analysis model of LANL/MPA densities of O'Brien and Lemon [Space Weather, 2007]. This is a first step towards a more extensive comparison that will include other datasets, such as ion and magnetic field data from Polar, at locations closer to the Earth than geosynchronous altitude.

  16. A new wavelet transform to sparsely represent cortical current densities for EEG/MEG inverse problems. (United States)

    Liao, Ke; Zhu, Min; Ding, Lei


    The present study investigated the use of transform sparseness of cortical current density on human brain surface to improve electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG) inverse solutions. Transform sparseness was assessed by evaluating compressibility of cortical current densities in transform domains. To do that, a structure compression method from computer graphics was first adopted to compress cortical surface structure, either regular or irregular, into hierarchical multi-resolution meshes. Then, a new face-based wavelet method based on generated multi-resolution meshes was proposed to compress current density functions defined on cortical surfaces. Twelve cortical surface models were built by three EEG/MEG softwares and their structural compressibility was evaluated and compared by the proposed method. Monte Carlo simulations were implemented to evaluate the performance of the proposed wavelet method in compressing various cortical current density distributions as compared to other two available vertex-based wavelet methods. The present results indicate that the face-based wavelet method can achieve higher transform sparseness than vertex-based wavelet methods. Furthermore, basis functions from the face-based wavelet method have lower coherence against typical EEG and MEG measurement systems than vertex-based wavelet methods. Both high transform sparseness and low coherent measurements suggest that the proposed face-based wavelet method can improve the performance of L1-norm regularized EEG/MEG inverse solutions, which was further demonstrated in simulations and experimental setups using MEG data. Thus, this new transform on complicated cortical structure is promising to significantly advance EEG/MEG inverse source imaging technologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling Bubble Flow and Current Density Distribution in an Alkaline Electrolysis Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandra S. Jupudi


    Full Text Available The effect of bubbles on the current density distribution over the electrodes of an alkaline electrolyzer cell is studied using a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model. Model includes Eulerian-Eulerian two-phase flow methodology to model the multiphase flow of Hydrogen and Oxygen with water and the behavior of each phase is accounted for using first principle. Hydrogen/Oxygen evolution, flow field and current density distribution are incorporated in the model to account for the complicated physics involved in the process. Fluent 6.2 is used to solve two-phase flow and electrochemistry is incorporated using UDF (User Defined Function feature of Fluent. Model is validated with mesh refinement study and by comparison with experimental measurements. Model is found to replicate the effect of cell voltage and inter-electrode gap (distance between the electrodes on current density accurately. Further, model is found to capture the existence of optimum cell height. The validated model is expected to be a very useful tool in the design and optimization of alkaline electrolyzer cells.

  18. Effect of current density on electron beam induced charging in MgO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughariou, Aicha [LaMaCoP, Universite de Sfax, Faculte des Sciences, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)]. E-mail:; Hachicha, Olfa [LaMaCoP, Universite de Sfax, Faculte des Sciences, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Kallel, Ali [LaMaCoP, Universite de Sfax, Faculte des Sciences, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Blaise, Guy [LPS, Universite Paris-Sud XI, Batiment 510, Orsay 91405 (France)


    It is well known that the presence of space charge in an insulator is correlated with an electric breakdown. Many studies have been carried out on the experimental characterization of space charges. In this paper, we outline the dependence on the current density of the charge-trapping phenomenon in magnesium oxide. Our study was performed with a dedicated scanning electron microscope (SEM) on the electrical property evolution of surface of magnesium oxide (1 0 0) (MgO) single crystal, during a 1.1, 5 and 30 keV electron irradiation. The types of charges trapped on the irradiated areas and the charging kinetics are determined by measuring the total secondary electron emission (SEE) {sigma} during the injection process by means of two complementary detectors. At low energies 1.1 and 5 keV, two different kinds of self-regulated regime ({sigma} = 1) were observed as a function of current density. At 30 keV energy, the electron emission appears to be stimulated by the current density, due to the Poole-Frenkel effect.

  19. Microwave field frequency and current density modulated skyrmion-chain in nanotrack. (United States)

    Ma, Fusheng; Ezawa, Motohiko; Zhou, Yan


    Magnetic skyrmions are promising candidates as information carriers for the next-generation spintronic devices because of their small size, facile current-driven motion and topological stability. The controllable nucleation and motion of skyrmions in magnetic nanostructures will be essential in future skyrmionic devices. Here, we present the microwave assisted nucleation and motion of skyrmion-chains in magnetic nanotrack by micromagnetic simulation. A skyrmion-chain is a one-dimensional cluster of equally spaced skyrmions. A skyrmion-chain conveys an integer bit n when it consists of n skyrmions. A series of skyrmion-chains with various lengths is generated and moved in the nanotrack driven by spin-polarized current. The period, length and spacing of the skyrmion-chains can be dynamically manipulated by controlling either the frequency of the microwave field or the time dependent spin-polarized current density. A skyrmion-chain behaves as a massless particle, where it stops without delay when the current is stopped. Their velocity is found to be linearly dependent on the current density and insensitive to the frequency and amplitude of the excitation microwave field. Uniform motion of trains of skyrmion-chains in nanotrack offers a promising approach for spintronic multi-bit memories containing series of skyrmion-chains to represent data stream.

  20. Reduction in threshold current density of 355 nm UV laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Kengo; Takeda, Kenichiro; Nonaka, Kentaro; Ichikawa, Tomoki; Iwaya, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Akasaki, Isamu [Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University (Japan); Amano, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Akasaki Research Center, Nagoya University (Japan); Yoshida, Harumasa; Kuwabara, Masakazu; Yamashita, Yoji; Kan, Hirofumi [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (Japan)


    We have investigated the characteristics of 355 nm UV laser diodes. Two laser diode structures were prepared on a grooved AlGaN template as well as on a flat AlGaN template. The threading dislocation densities on the grooved and flat AlGaN were 2.5 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} and 6.5 x 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}, respectively. The threshold current density of the laser diode on the grooved AlGaN was 6 kA/cm{sup 2}, while no lasing was observed from the laser diode on the flat AlGaN. We also estimated the internal quantum efficiency as well as the injection efficiency in the UV laser diode structures by considering internal quantum efficiency of both optical and electrical excitation. At a carrier density of 1.2 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, the internal quantum efficiency of the laser diode structure on the grooved AlGaN was about 50%. This is twice that of the laser diode on the flat AlGaN. At the same time, the internal quantum efficiency estimated from the optical excitation also reached about 50%, even at a carrier density of 3 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. This implies that the injection efficiency in our UV laser diode structure was only 25%. Improving the injection efficiency should be effective for significantly reducing the threshold current density. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Public magnetic field exposure based on internal current density for electric low voltage systems. (United States)

    Keikko, Tommi; Seesvuori, Reino; Hyvönen, Martti; Valkealahti, Seppo


    A measurement concept utilizing a new magnetic field exposure metering system has been developed for indoor substations where voltage is transformed from a medium voltage of 10 or 20 kV to a low voltage of 400 V. The new metering system follows the guidelines published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. It can be used to measure magnetic field values, total harmonic distortion of the magnetic field, magnetic field exposure ratios for public and workers, load current values, and total harmonic distortion of the load current. This paper demonstrates how exposure to non-sinusoidal magnetic fields and magnetic flux density exposure values can be compared directly with limit values for internal current densities in a human body. Further, we present how the magnetic field and magnetic field exposure behaves in the vicinity of magnetic field sources within the indoor substation and in the neighborhood. Measured magnetic fields around the substation components have been used to develop a measurement concept by which long-term measurements in the substations were performed. Long-term measurements revealed interesting and partly unexpected dependencies between the measured quantities, which have been further analyzed. The principle of this paper is to substitute a demanding exposure measurement with measurements of the basic quantities like the 50 Hz fundamental magnetic field component, which can be estimated based on the load currents for certain classes of substation lay-out.

  2. Resuspension and Shelf-Deep Ocean Exchange in the Northern California Current: New Insights From Underwater Gliders (United States)

    Erofeev, A.; Barth, J. A.; Shearman, R. K.; Pierce, S. D.


    Shelf-deep ocean exchange is dominated by wind-driven upwelling and downwelling in the northern California Current. The interaction of strong, along-shelf jets with coastline and bottom topographic features can also create significant cross-margin exchange. We are using data from over 60,000 kilometers of autonomous underwater glider tracks to understand the temporal and spatial distribution of shelf-deep ocean exchange off central Oregon. Year-round glider observations of temperature, salinity, depth-averaged currents, chlorophyll fluorescence, light backscatter, and colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence from a single cross-margin transect are used to examine shelf-deep ocean exchange mechanisms. During summer, cross-margin exchange is dominated by wind-driven upwelling and the relaxation or reversal of the dominant southward winds. This process has been fairly well observed and studied due to the relatively low sea states and winds during summer. There is far less data from fall and winter off Oregon, a time of strong winds and large waves. We use autonomous underwater gliders to sample during the winter, including through the fall and spring transitions. Glider observations of suspended material detected via light backscatter, show time-space variations in resuspension in the bottom boundary layer due to winds, waves and currents. Examples of shelf-deep ocean exchange are shown by layers with high light backscatter separating from the bottom near the shelf break and extending into the interior along isopycnals. We describe these features and events in relationship to wind-forcing, along-shelf flows, and other forcing mechanisms.

  3. Effects of the current boundary conditions at the plasma-gun gap on density in SSPX (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Roman; Lodestro, L. L.; Meyer, W. H.


    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) was a toroidal magnetic-confinement device without toroidal magnetic-field coils or a central transformer but which generated core-plasma currents by dynamo processes driven by coaxial plasma-gun injection into a flux-conserving vessel. Record electron temperatures in a spheromak (Te˜500eV) were achieved, and final results of the SSPX program were reported in [1]. Plasma density, which depended strongly on wall conditions, was an important parameter in SSPX. It was observed that density rises with Igun and that confinement improved as the density was lowered. Shortly after the last experiments, a new feature was added to the Corsica code's solver used to reconstruct SSPX equilibria. Motivated by n=0 fields observed in NIMROD simulations of SSPX, an insulating boundary condition was implemented at the plasma-gun gap. Using this option we will perform new reconstructions of SSPX equilibria and look for correlations between the location of the separatrix (which moves up the gun wall and onto the insulating gap as Igun increases) and plasma density and magnetic-flux amplification [2].[4pt] [1] H. S. McLean, APS, DPP, Dallas, TX, 2008.[0pt] [2] E. B. Hooper et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 1064 (2007).

  4. Two-step ionization in non-equilibrium SF sub 6 discharges at high current density

    CERN Document Server

    Bychkov, Yu A; Lacour, B; Pasquiers, S; Puech, V; Yastremski, A


    In the pressure range 10-100 mbar, the discharge development in SF sub 6 has been investigated in the photo-triggered excitation scheme for current density in the range 10-1000 A cm sup - sup 2 and pulse duration of about 60 ns. Thanks to the homogeneity of the photo-triggered discharge, a self-consistent zero-dimensional model can be used to predict the temporal evolution of the electrical parameters. From a detailed comparison between the experimental results and the modelling predictions, evidence for the occurrence of a two-step ionization process in high current density discharges in SF sub 6 is reported and the corresponding collision cross-section is estimated. Moreover, it is shown that the amount of the two-step ionization is directly correlated to the density of the electrical charge transferred to the plasma per unit surface. This two-step ionization becomes the main source of electron multiplication whenever the transferred charge per unit surface is higher than 15 mu C cm sup - sup 2.

  5. Lab Experiments Probe Interactions Between Dilute Pyroclastic Density Currents and 3D Barriers (United States)

    Fauria, K.; Andrews, B. J.; Manga, M.


    We conducted scaled laboratory experiments of unconfined dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) to examine interactions between three - dimensional obstacles and dilute PDCs. While it is known that PDCs can surmount barriers by converting kinetic energy into potential energy, the signature of topography on PDC dynamics is unclear. To examine the interplay between PDCs and topography, we turbulently suspended heated and ambient-temperature 20 μm talc powder in air within an 8.5 x 6.1 x 2.6 m tank. Experimental parameters (Froude number, densimetric and thermal Richardson number, particle Stokes and Settling numbers) were scaled such that the experimental currents were dynamically similar to natural PCS. The Reynolds number, however, is much smaller than in natural currents, but still large enough for the flows to be turbulent. We placed cylindrical and ridge-like objects in the path of the currents, illuminated the currents with orthogonal laser sheets, and recorded each experiment with high definition cameras. We observed currents surmounting ridge-like barriers (barrier height = current height). Slanted ridges redirected the currents upward and parallel to the upstream face of the ridges (~45° from horizontal). Down stream of the slanted ridges, ambient-temperature currents reattached to the floor. By comparison, hot currents reversed buoyancy and lifted off. These observations suggest that obstacles enhance air entrainment, a process key to affecting runout distance and the depletion of fine particles in ignimbrites. Moreover, we observed vortex shedding in the wake of cylinders. Our experiments demonstrate that barriers of various shapes affect PDC dynamics and can shorten PDC runout distances. Understanding the effects of topography on PDCs is required for interpreting many deposits because processes such as vortex shedding and topographically-induced changes in turbulent length scales and entrainment likely leave depositional signatures.

  6. High current density Esaki tunnel diodes based on GaSb-InAsSb heterostructure nanowires. (United States)

    Ganjipour, Bahram; Dey, Anil W; Borg, B Mattias; Ek, Martin; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Dick, Kimberly A; Wernersson, Lars-Erik; Thelander, Claes


    We present electrical characterization of broken gap GaSb-InAsSb nanowire heterojunctions. Esaki diode characteristics with maximum reverse current of 1750 kA/cm(2) at 0.50 V, maximum peak current of 67 kA/cm(2) at 0.11 V, and peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) of 2.1 are obtained at room temperature. The reverse current density is comparable to that of state-of-the-art tunnel diodes based on heavily doped p-n junctions. However, the GaSb-InAsSb diodes investigated in this work do not rely on heavy doping, which permits studies of transport mechanisms in simple transistor structures processed with high-κ gate dielectrics and top-gates. Such processing results in devices with improved PVR (3.5) and stability of the electrical properties.

  7. Effect of suspended kelp culture on water exchange as estimated by in situ current measurement in Sanggou Bay, China (United States)

    Zeng, Dingyong; Huang, Daji; Qiao, Xudong; He, Yuqing; Zhang, Tao


    Water exchange between Sanggou Bay and the Yellow Sea in China was estimated based on current profiles measured by four bottom-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers at the entrance of the bay during the kelp seeding and kelp harvesting periods. Hydrodynamics in the bay were dominated by tidal currents, especially semi-diurnal constituents. The effect of suspended kelp culture on the water exchange was investigated in terms of the tidal flux and tidal prism of the bay during a semi-diurnal period. Suspended kelp culture was found to significantly affect water exchange by changing the spatial pattern of the tidal flux but not the tidal prism. The inward tidal flux was reduced by 10% to 70% in the upper layers in the kelp seeding to kelp harvesting periods. Meanwhile, the inward tidal flux was increased by 10% to 140% in the lower layers. The mean inward tidal prism was 2.31 × 108 m3 and 2.17 × 108 m3 during the kelp seeding period and kelp harvesting period, respectively. Comparing with previous numerical simulations, our results did not show a prominent reduction in total water exchange across the entrance of the bay by suspended kelp culture.

  8. Force-free collisionless current sheet models with non-uniform temperature and density profiles (United States)

    Wilson, F.; Neukirch, T.; Allanson, O.


    We present a class of one-dimensional, strictly neutral, Vlasov-Maxwell equilibrium distribution functions for force-free current sheets, with magnetic fields defined in terms of Jacobian elliptic functions, extending the results of Abraham-Shrauner [Phys. Plasmas 20, 102117 (2013)] to allow for non-uniform density and temperature profiles. To achieve this, we use an approach previously applied to the force-free Harris sheet by Kolotkov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 112902 (2015)]. In one limit of the parameters, we recover the model of Kolotkov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 112902 (2015)], while another limit gives a linear force-free field. We discuss conditions on the parameters such that the distribution functions are always positive and give expressions for the pressure, density, temperature, and bulk-flow velocities of the equilibrium, discussing the differences from previous models. We also present some illustrative plots of the distribution function in velocity space.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. R. Roriz

    Full Text Available Abstract This work aims to verify the possibility of using depleted batteries as a source of manganese dioxide applying the electrolytic process. An electrolyte solution containing the following metal ions was used: Ca (270 mgL-1, Ni (3.000 mgL-1, Co (630 mgL-1, Mn (115.3 mgL-1, Ti (400 mgL-1 and Pb (20 mgL-1. The production of electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD was performed through electrolysis at 98 °C (± 2 °C applying different current densities (ranging from 0.61 to 2.51 The materials obtained were analyzed through X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, specific surface area (BET and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The best results regarding the current efficiency, purity grade and specific surface area were obtained with a current density ranging between 1.02 and 1.39 The allotropic εMnO2 variety was found in all tests.

  10. Effects on magnetic reconnection of a density asymmetry across the current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Tanaka


    Full Text Available The magnetopause (MP reconnection is characterized by a density asymmetry across the current sheet. The asymmetry is expected to produce characteristic features in the reconnection layer. Here we present a comparison between the Cluster MP crossing reported by Retinò et al. (2006 and virtual observations in two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation results. The simulation, which includes the density asymmetry but has zero guide field in the initial condition, has reproduced well the observed features as follows: (1 The prominent density dip region is detected at the separatrix region (SR on the magnetospheric (MSP side of the MP. (2 The intense electric field normal to the MP is pointing to the center of the MP at the location where the density dip is detected. (3 The ion bulk outflow due to the magnetic reconnection is seen to be biased towards the MSP side. (4 The out-of-plane magnetic field (the Hall magnetic field has bipolar rather than quadrupolar structure, the latter of which is seen for a density symmetric case. The simulation also showed rich electron dynamics (formation of field-aligned beams in the proximity of the separatrices, which was not fully resolved in the observations. Stepping beyond the simulation-observation comparison, we have also analyzed the electron acceleration and the field line structure in the simulation results. It is found that the bipolar Hall magnetic field structure is produced by the substantial drift of the reconnected field lines at the MSP SR due to the enhanced normal electric field. The field-aligned electrons at the same MSP SR are identified as the gun smokes of the electron acceleration in the close proximity of the X-line. We have also analyzed the X-line structure obtained in the simulation to find that the density asymmetry leads to a steep density gradient in the in-flow region, which may lead to a non-stationary behavior of the X-line when three-dimensional freedom is taken into account.

  11. Current-density-functional approach to large quantum dots in intense magnetic fields (United States)

    Pi, M.; Barranco, M.; Emperador, A.; Lipparini, E.; Serra, Ll.


    Within current-density-functional theory, we have studied a quantum dot made of 210 electrons confined in a disk geometry. The ground state of this large dot exhibits some features as a function of the magnetic field (B) that can be attributed in a clear way to the formation of compressible and incompressible states of the system. The orbital and spin angular momenta, the total energy, ionization and electron chemical potentials of the ground state, as well as the frequencies of far-infrared edge modes are calculated as a function of B, and compared with available experimental and theoretical results.

  12. Density and current profiles in Uq (A2(1)) zero range process (United States)

    Kuniba, A.; Mangazeev, V. V.


    The stochastic R matrix for Uq (An(1)) introduced recently gives rise to an integrable zero range process of n classes of particles in one dimension. For n = 2 we investigate how finitely many first class particles fixed as defects influence the grand canonical ensemble of the second class particles. By using the matrix product stationary probabilities involving infinite products of q-bosons, exact formulas are derived for the local density and current of the second class particles in the large volume limit.

  13. Optimization of the epitaxial design of high current density resonant tunneling diodes for terahertz emitters (United States)

    Baba, Razvan; Stevens, Benjamin J.; Mukai, Toshikazu; Hogg, Richard A.


    We discuss the numerical simulation of high current density InGaAs/AlAs/InP resonant tunneling diodes with a view to their optimization for application as THz emitters. We introduce a figure of merit based upon the ratio of maximum extractable THz power and the electrical power developed in the chip. The aim being to develop high efficiency emitters as output power is presently limited by catastrophic failure. A description of the interplay of key parameters follows, with constraints on strained layer epitaxy introduced. We propose an optimized structure utilizing thin barriers paired with a comparatively wide quantum well that satisfies strained layer epitaxy constraints.

  14. Migrational polarization in high-current density molten salt electrochemical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunstein, J.; Vallet, C.E.


    Electrochemical flux equations based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes have been derived in terms of experimental transport coefficients for binary molten salt mixtures analogous to those proposed for high temperature batteries and fuel cells. The equations and some numerical solutions indicate steady state composition gradients of significant magnitude. The effects of migrational separation must be considered along with other melt properties in the characterization of electrode behavior, melt composition, operating temperatures and differences of phase stability, wettability and other physicochemical properties at positive and negative electrodes of high current density devices with mixed electrolytes.

  15. A discontinuous functional for linear response time-dependent density functional theory: the exact-exchange kernel and approximate forms

    CERN Document Server

    Hellgren, M


    We present a detailed study of the exact-exchange (EXX) kernel of time-dependent density functional theory with an emphasis on its discontinuity at integer particle numbers. It was recently found that this exact property leads to sharp peaks and step features in the kernel that diverge in the dissociation limit of diatomic systems [Hellgren and Gross, Phys. Rev. A, 022514 (2012)]. To further analyze the discontinuity of the kernel we here make use of two different approximations to the EXX kernel: the PGG approximation and a common energy denominator approximation (CEDA). It is demonstrated that whereas the PGG approximation neglects the discontinuity the CEDA includes it explicitly. By studying model molecular systems it is shown that the so-called field counter-acting effect in the density functional description of molecular chains can be viewed in terms of the discontinuity of the static kernel. The role of the frequency dependence is also investigated, highlighting its importance for long-range charge tra...

  16. Density-matrix renormalization-group study of current and activity fluctuations near nonequilibrium phase transitions. (United States)

    Gorissen, Mieke; Hooyberghs, Jef; Vanderzande, Carlo


    Cumulants of a fluctuating current can be obtained from a free-energy-like generating function, which for Markov processes equals the largest eigenvalue of a generalized generator. We determine this eigenvalue with the density-matrix renormalization group for stochastic systems. We calculate the variance of the current in the different phases, and at the phase transitions, of the totally asymmetric exclusion process. Our results can be described in the terms of a scaling ansatz that involves the dynamical exponent z . We also calculate the generating function of the dynamical activity (total number of configuration changes) near the absorbing-state transition of the contact process. Its scaling properties can be expressed in terms of known critical exponents.

  17. Current-phase relations in low carrier density graphene Josephson junctions (United States)

    Kratz, Philip; Amet, Francois; Watson, Christopher; Moler, Kathryn; Ke, Chung; Borzenets, Ivan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Deacon, Russell; Yamamoto, Michihisa; Bomze, Yuriy; Tarucha, Seigo; Finkelstein, Gleb

    Ideal Dirac semimetals have the unique property of being gate tunable to arbitrarily low electron and hole carrier concentrations near the Dirac point, without suffering from conduction channel pinch-off or Fermi level pinning to band edges and deep-level charge traps, which are common in typical semiconductors. SNS junctions, where N is a Dirac semimetal, can provide a versatile platform for studying few-mode superconducting weak links, with potential device applications for superconducting logic and qubits. We will use an inductive readout technique, scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, to measure the current-phase relations of high-mobility graphene SNS junctions as a function of temperature and carrier density, complementing magnetic Fraunhofer diffraction analysis from transport measurements which previously have assumed sinusoidal current-phase relations for junction Andreev modes. Deviations from sinusoidal behavior convey information about resonant scattering processes, dissipation, and ballistic modes in few-mode superconducting weak links.

  18. Demonstration of Current Profile Shaping using Double Dog-Leg Emittance Exchange Beam Line at Argonne Wakefield Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Gwanghui [Argonne, HEP; Cho, Moo-Hyun [POSTECH; Conde, Manoel [Argonne, HEP; Doran, Darrell [Argonne, HEP; Gai, Wei [Argonne, HEP; Jing, Chunguang [Euclid Techlabs, Solon; Kim, Kwang-Je [Argonne, HEP; Liu, Wanming [Argonne, HEP; Namkung, Won [POSTECH; Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois U.; Power, John [Argonne, HEP; Sun, Yin-E [Argonne, HEP; Whiteford, Charles [Argonne, HEP; Wisniewski, Eric [Argonne, HEP; Zholents, Alexander [Argonne, HEP


    Emittance exchange (EEX) based longitudinal current profile shaping is the one of the promising current profile shaping technique. This method can generate high quality arbitrary current profiles under the ideal conditions. The double dog-leg EEX beam line was recently installed at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) to explore the shaping capability and confirm the quality of this method. To demonstrate the arbitrary current profile generation, several different transverse masks are applied to generate different final current profiles. The phase space slopes and the charge of incoming beam are varied to observe and suppress the aberrations on the ideal profile. We present current profile shaping results, aberrations on the shaped profile, and its suppression.

  19. Phenomenological scattering-rate model for the simulation of the current density and emission power in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlov, S. S. [Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, pr. Nauki 45, Kiev-03028 (Ukraine); Flores, Y. V.; Elagin, M.; Semtsiv, M. P.; Masselink, W. T. [Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schrottke, L.; Grahn, H. T. [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5–7, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Tarasov, G. G. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, pr. Nauki 45, Kiev-03028 (Ukraine)


    A phenomenological scattering-rate model introduced for terahertz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) [Schrottke et al., Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25, 045025 (2010)] is extended to mid-infrared (MIR) QCLs by including the energy dependence of the intersubband scattering rates for energies higher than the longitudinal optical phonon energy. This energy dependence is obtained from a phenomenological fit of the intersubband scattering rates based on published lifetimes of a number of MIR QCLs. In our approach, the total intersubband scattering rate is written as the product of the exchange integral for the squared moduli of the envelope functions and a phenomenological factor that depends only on the transition energy. Using the model to calculate scattering rates and imposing periodical boundary conditions on the current density, we find a good agreement with low-temperature data for current-voltage, power-current, and energy-photon flux characteristics for a QCL emitting at 5.2 μm.

  20. Seasonal Variation in Sea Turtle Density and Abundance in the Southeast Florida Current and Surrounding Waters (United States)

    Bovery, Caitlin M.; Wyneken, Jeanette


    Assessment and management of sea turtle populations is often limited by a lack of available data pertaining to at-sea distributions at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. Assessing the spatial and temporal distributions of marine turtles in an open system poses both observational and analytical challenges due to the turtles’ highly migratory nature. Surface counts of marine turtles in waters along the southern part of Florida’s east coast were made in and adjacent to the southeast portion of the Florida Current using standard aerial surveys during 2011 and 2012 to assess their seasonal presence. This area is of particular concern for sea turtles as interest increases in offshore energy developments, specifically harnessing the power of the Florida Current. While it is understood that marine turtles use these waters, here we evaluate seasonal variation in sea turtle abundance and density over two years. Density of sea turtles observed within the study area ranged from 0.003 turtles km-2 in the winter of 2011 to 0.064 turtles km-2 in the spring of 2012. This assessment of marine turtles in the waters off southeast Florida quantifies their in-water abundance across seasons in this area to establish baselines and inform future management strategies of these protected species. PMID:26717520

  1. Inverse current source density method in two dimensions: inferring neural activation from multielectrode recordings. (United States)

    Łęski, Szymon; Pettersen, Klas H; Tunstall, Beth; Einevoll, Gaute T; Gigg, John; Wójcik, Daniel K


    The recent development of large multielectrode recording arrays has made it affordable for an increasing number of laboratories to record from multiple brain regions simultaneously. The development of analytical tools for array data, however, lags behind these technological advances in hardware. In this paper, we present a method based on forward modeling for estimating current source density from electrophysiological signals recorded on a two-dimensional grid using multi-electrode rectangular arrays. This new method, which we call two-dimensional inverse Current Source Density (iCSD 2D), is based upon and extends our previous one- and three-dimensional techniques. We test several variants of our method, both on surrogate data generated from a collection of Gaussian sources, and on model data from a population of layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons. We also apply the method to experimental data from the rat subiculum. The main advantages of the proposed method are the explicit specification of its assumptions, the possibility to include system-specific information as it becomes available, the ability to estimate CSD at the grid boundaries, and lower reconstruction errors when compared to the traditional approach. These features make iCSD 2D a substantial improvement over the approaches used so far and a powerful new tool for the analysis of multielectrode array data. We also provide a free GUI-based MATLAB toolbox to analyze and visualize our test data as well as user datasets.

  2. Longitudinal and Transverse Cross-Sectional Microstructure and Critical Current Density in Nb(3)Sn Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Pong, I; Scheuerlein, C; Oberli, L R


    The longitudinal and transverse cross-sectional microstructures of several internal tin Nb(3)Sn strands have been systematically investigated. The critical current densities of these strands were then correlated with their design parameters. It is observed that the occurrence of certain coarse grain structures is related to the location of the filaments with respect to the subelements as well as to the strand. Experimental evidence suggests that the existence of these coarse grains is related to Sn distribution during the early stages of the heat treatment. It is also noticed that some coarse grains have high aspect ratio features, confirming the need to study the longitudinal fracture surface. We report in this paper the observation of some unusual grain sizes and morphologies. It appears that, of the high-Sn content Nb(3)Sn conductors investigated in this paper, a strand's global composition has a weaker influence on the critical current density (J(c)) than local and structural factors, such as the local Cu...

  3. Modeling of electrochemical machining with the use of a curvilinear electrode and a stepwise dependence of the current efficiency on the current density (United States)

    Kotlyar, L. M.; Minazetdinov, N. M.


    An analytical solution of the problem of electrochemical machining of metals by a curvilinear cathode tool with allowance for a discontinuous function that describes the dependence of the current efficiency on the current density is obtained. According to the hydrodynamic interpretation, the original problem reduces to the problem of the theory of ideal fluid flows with a free surface. It is demonstrated that the use of the proposed dependence of the current efficiency on the current density ensures the existence of three domains on an unknown treated surface; these domains have different laws of the distribution of the charge fraction spent on metal dissolution. Results calculated for various particular cases are presented.

  4. Modeling space-charge-limited currents in organic semiconductors: Extracting trap density and mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuña, Javier


    We have developed and have applied a mobility edge model that takes drift and diffusion currents to characterize the space-charge-limited current in organic semiconductors into account. The numerical solution of the drift-diffusion equation allows the utilization of asymmetric contacts to describe the built-in potential within the device. The model has been applied to extract information of the distribution of traps from experimental current-voltage measurements of a rubrene single crystal from Krellner showing excellent agreement across several orders of magnitude in the current. Although the two contacts are made of the same metal, an energy offset of 580 meV between them, ascribed to differences in the deposition techniques (lamination vs evaporation) was essential to correctly interpret the shape of the current-voltage characteristics at low voltage. A band mobility of 0.13cm 2V-1s-1 for holes is estimated, which is consistent with transport along the long axis of the orthorhombic unit cell. The total density of traps deeper than 0.1 eV was 2.2×1016cm -3. The sensitivity analysis and error estimation in the obtained parameters show that it is not possible to accurately resolve the shape of the trap distribution for energies deeper than 0.3 eV or shallower than 0.1 eV above the valence-band edge. The total number of traps deeper than 0.3 eV, however, can be estimated. Contact asymmetry and the diffusion component of the current play an important role in the description of the device at low bias and are required to obtain reliable information about the distribution of deep traps. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  5. Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide: IV dependence of the Faradaic efficiency and current density on the microstructure and thickness of tin electrode (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Sharma, Pranav P.; Harris, Bradley H.; Zhou, Xiao-Dong


    Central to the conversion of CO2 in a full electrochemical cell is its cathode microstructure, which governs gas diffusion, charge exchange and transfer, and subsequently carbon dioxide reduction reaction. In this article, we report the effects of microstructure of Sn catalyst layer on the Faradaic efficiency towards formate formation as a function of Nafion loading, thickness of the catalyst layer, and catalyst particle size. Electrode with 17-20 wt.% Nafion was found to exhibit the highest partial current density towards the formation of formate when the average particle size of Sn catalysts ranged from 100 nm to 1.5 μm. This Nafion fraction is lower than what was reported, 30-36 wt.%, in the cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Moreover, the partial current density for formate formation was observed to increase with the thickness of catalyst layer, but eventually saturated because the reaction zone was limited by mass transfer. The Faradaic efficiency towards the formation of formate exhibited nearly thickness-independence due to the counteractive effects caused by increasing local proton concentration and decreasing electrical field when catalyst layer thickness was increased.

  6. Effects of volcano profile on dilute pyroclastic density currents: Numerical simulations (United States)

    Doronzo, D. M.; Valentine, G. A.; Dellino, P.; de Tullio, M. D.


    Explosive activity and lava dome collapse at stratovolcanoes can lead to pyroclastic density currents (PDCs; mixtures of volcanic gas, air, and volcanic particles) that produce complex deposits and pose a hazard to surrounding populations. Two-dimensional numerical simulations of dilute PDCs (characterized by a turbulent suspended load and deposition through a bed load) are carried out with the Euler-Lagrange approach of multiphase physics. The fluid phase is modeled as a dusty gas (1.88 kg/m3 dense), and the solid phase is modeled as discrete particles (1 mm, 5 mm, and 10 mm; 1500 kg/m3 dense and irregularly-shaped), which are two-way coupled to the gas, i.e. they affect the fluid turbulence. The initial PDC, which enters a volcano domain 5 km long and 1.9 km high, has the following characteristics: thickness of 200 m, velocity of 20 m/s, temperature of 573 K, turbulence of 5 %, and sediment concentration of 3 % by volume. The actual physics of flow boundary zone is simulated at the PDC base, by monitoring the sediment flux toward the substrate, which acts through the flow boundary zone, and the grain-size distribution. Also, the PDC velocity and dynamic pressure are calculated. The simulations show that PDC transport, deposition, and hazard potential are sensitive to the shape of the volcano slope (profile) down which they flow. In particular, three generic volcano profiles, straight, concave-upward, and convex-upward are focused on. Dilute PDCs that flow down a constant slope gradually decelerate over the simulated run-out distance (5 km in the horizontal direction) due to a combination of sedimentation, which reduces the density of the PDC, and mixing with the atmosphere. However, dilute PDCs down a concave-upward slope accelerate high on the volcano flanks and have less sedimentation until they begin to decelerate over the shallow lower slopes. A convex-upward slope causes dilute PDCs to lose relatively more of their pyroclast load on the upper slopes of a

  7. Plasma Shape and Current Density Profile Control in Advanced Tokamak Operating Scenarios (United States)

    Shi, Wenyu

    The need for new sources of energy is expected to become a critical problem within the next few decades. Nuclear fusion has sufficient energy density to potentially supply the world population with its increasing energy demands. The tokamak is a magnetic confinement device used to achieve controlled fusion reactions. Experimental fusion technology has now reached a level where tokamaks are able to produce about as much energy as is expended in heating the fusion fuel. The next step towards the realization of a nuclear fusion tokamak power plant is ITER, which will be capable of exploring advanced tokamak (AT) modes, characterized by a high fusion gain and plasma stability. The extreme requirements of the advanced modes motivates researchers to improve the modeling of the plasma response as well as the design of feedback controllers. This dissertation focuses on several magnetic and kinetic control problems, including the plasma current, position and shape control, and data-driven and first-principles-driven modeling and control of plasma current density profile and the normalized plasma pressure ratio betaN. The plasma is confined within the vacuum vessel by an external electromagnetic field, produced primarily by toroidal and poloidal field coils. The outermost closed plasma surface or plasma boundary is referred to as the shape of the plasma. A central characteristic of AT plasma regimes is an extreme elongated shape. The equilibrium among the electromagnetic forces acting on an elongated plasma is unstable. Moreover, the tokamak performance is improved if the plasma is located in close proximity to the torus wall, which guarantees an efficient use of available volume. As a consequence, feedback control of the plasma position and shape is necessary. In this dissertation, an Hinfinity-based, multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) controller for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is developed, which is used to control the plasma position, shape, and X

  8. Action-potential discharge in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons: current source-density analysis. (United States)

    Richardson, T L; Turner, R W; Miller, J J


    1. The site of origin of evoked action-potential discharge in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was investigated using the in vitro rat hippocampal slice preparation. 2. Action-potential discharge in pyramidal cells was evoked by stimulation of efferent pyramidal cell fibers in the alveus (antidromic) or afferent synaptic inputs in stratum oriens (SO) or stratum radiatum (SR). Laminar profiles of evoked extracellular field potentials were recorded at 25-micron intervals along the entire dendrosomatic axis of the pyramidal cell and a one-dimensional current source-density analysis was applied. 3. Suprathreshold stimulation of the alveus evoked an antidromic population spike response and current sink with the shortest peak latency in stratum pyramidale or proximal stratum oriens. A biphasic positive/negative potential associated with a current source/sink was recorded in dendritic regions, with both components increasing in peak latency with distance from the border of stratum pyramidale. 4. Suprathreshold stimulation of SO or SR evoked a population spike response superimposed upon the underlying synaptic depolarization at all levels of the dendrosomatic axis. The shortest latency population spike and current sink were recorded in stratum pyramidale or proximal stratum oriens. In dendritic regions, a biphasic positive/negative potential and current source/sink conducted with increasing latency from the border of stratum pyramidale. 5. A direct comparison of alvear- and SR-evoked responses revealed a basic similarity in population spike potentials and associated sink/source relationships at both the somatic and dendritic level and a similar shift in peak latency of spike components along the pyramidal cell axis. 6. It is concluded that the initial site for generation of a spike along the dendrosomatic axis of the pyramidal cell following antidromic or orthodromic stimulation is in the region of the cell body layer (soma or axon hillock). Action-potential discharge in

  9. Research of the Ion Current Density Influence on the Glass-Ceramics Surface Defects Forming under Ion-Beam Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Pozdnyakov


    Full Text Available Development of modern optics is primarily determined by manufacturing accuracy of the working surfaces of optical parts. Therefore, at the last stage of manufacturing optical parts the ion-beam treatment is applied. This method uses spraying the high-energy ions of heavy gases on the surface of a solid body. After an intense ion treatment there are microscopic defects, resembling chips, on the surface of polycrystalline glass. The aim of this work is to study distribution of the surface density of defects by sizes, depending on the density of ion current.Accelerator with an anode layer and a focused ion beam was used as an ion source. The accelerator worked on argon and created ion beam with Gaussian distribution of current density along the radius. The excess positive charge of the ion beam was compensated owing to ionization of residual gas. To eliminate the influence of slow ions with peripheral regions of the ion beam, the etching was performed through a circular aperture with a diameter of 40 mm.Surface treatment of the sample was carried out at the discharge voltage of 3800 V and current of 50 mA for 30 min. The maximum ion current density on the sample surface was 20.2 A/m2 and a power density was of 5.4·104 W/m2 .Distribution of defects by size was measured in three areas of the treated surface corresponding to different densities of ion current, namely: 20.2 A/m2 , 11.3A/m2 , and 3.4 A/m2 . Their number per area unit defines a density of defects.The results show that with increasing ion current density the density of defects on the surface of polycrystalline glass decreases. Thus a view of distribution function of defect density according to size is changed: density of small defects is reduced, and density of large ones increases. Also with increasing ion current density is observed an increase in the size of defects: a 6 times increase of the average size of defects results in 1.6 times increasing ion current density.These data will

  10. Mammographic density-a review on the current understanding of its association with breast cancer. (United States)

    Huo, C W; Chew, G L; Britt, K L; Ingman, W V; Henderson, M A; Hopper, J L; Thompson, E W


    There has been considerable recent interest in the genetic, biological and epidemiological basis of mammographic density (MD), and the search for causative links between MD and breast cancer (BC) risk. This report will critically review the current literature on MD and summarize the current evidence for its association with BC. Keywords 'mammographic dens*', 'dense mammary tissue' or 'percent dens*' were used to search the existing literature in English on PubMed and Medline. All reports were critically analyzed. The data were assigned to one of the following aspects of MD: general association with BC, its relationship with the breast hormonal milieu, the cellular basis of MD, the generic variations of MD, and its significance in the clinical setting. MD adjusted for age, and BMI is associated with increased risk of BC diagnosis, advanced tumour stage at diagnosis and increased risk of both local recurrence and second primary cancers. The MD measures that predict BC risk have high heritability, and to date several genetic markers associated with BC risk have been found to also be associated with these MD risk predictors. Change in MD could be a predictor of the extent of chemoprevention with tamoxifen. Although the biological and genetic pathways that determine and perhaps modulate MD remain largely unresolved, significant inroads are being made into the understanding of MD, which may lead to benefits in clinical screening, assessment and treatment strategies. This review provides a timely update on the current understanding of MD's association with BC risk.

  11. Modelling the electric field and the current density generated by cerebellar transcranial DC stimulation in humans. (United States)

    Parazzini, Marta; Rossi, Elena; Ferrucci, Roberta; Liorni, Ilaria; Priori, Alberto; Ravazzani, Paolo


    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the cerebellum (or cerebellar tDCS) modulates working memory, changes cerebello-brain interaction, and affects locomotion in humans. Also, the use of tDCS has been proposed for the treatment of disorders characterized by cerebellar dysfunction. Nonetheless, the electric field (E) and current density (J) spatial distributions generated by cerebellar tDCS are unknown. This work aimed to estimate E and J distributions during cerebellar tDCS. Computational electromagnetics techniques were applied in three human realistic models of different ages and gender. The stronger E and J occurred mainly in the cerebellar cortex, with some spread (up to 4%) toward the occipital cortex. Also, changes by ±1cm in the position of the active electrode resulted in a small effect (up to 4%) in the E and J spatial distribution in the cerebellum. Finally, the E and J spreads to the brainstem and the heart were negligible, thus further supporting the safety of this technique. Despite inter-individual differences, our modeling study confirms that the cerebellum is the structure mainly involved by cerebellar tDCS. Modeling approach reveals that during cerebellar tDCS the current spread to other structures outside the cerebellum is unlike to produce functional effects. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.


    The NDCX-II accelerator for target heating experiments has been designed to use a large diameter ({approx_equal} 10.9 cm) Li{sup +} doped alumino-silicate source with a pulse duration of 0.5 {micro}s, and beam current of {approx_equal} 93 mA. Characterization of a prototype lithium alumino-silicate sources is presented. Using 6.35mm diameter prototype emitters (coated on a {approx_equal} 75% porous tungsten substrate), at a temperature of {approx_equal} 1275 C, a space-charge limited Li{sup +} beam current density of {approx_equal} 1 mA/cm{sup 2} was measured. At higher extraction voltage, the source is emission limited at around {approx_equal} 1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, weakly dependent on the applied voltage. The lifetime of the ion source is {approx_equal} 50 hours while pulsing the extraction voltage at 2 to 3 times per minute. Measurements show that the life time of the ion source does not depend only on beam current extraction, and lithium loss may be dominated by neutral loss or by evaporation. The life time of a source is around {ge} 10 hours in a DC mode extraction, and the extracted charge is {approx_equal} 75% of the available Li in the sample. It is inferred that pulsed heating may increase the life time of a source.

  13. Current guidelines for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in therapy and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subedi BH


    Full Text Available Bishnu H Subedi,1,2 Parag H Joshi,1 Steven R Jones,1 Seth S Martin,1 Michael J Blaha,1 Erin D Michos1 1Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, 2Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Many studies have suggested that a significant risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD is low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Therefore, increasing HDL-C with therapeutic agents has been considered an attractive strategy. In the prestatin era, fibrates and niacin monotherapy, which cause modest increases in HDL-C, reduced ASCVD events. Since their introduction, statins have become the cornerstone of lipoprotein therapy, the benefits of which are primarily attributed to decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Findings from several randomized trials involving niacin or cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have challenged the concept that a quantitative elevation of plasma HDL-C will uniformly translate into ASCVD benefits. Consequently, the HDL, or more correctly, HDL-C hypothesis has become more controversial. There are no clear guidelines thus far for targeting HDL-C or HDL due to lack of solid outcomes data for HDL specific therapies. HDL-C levels are only one marker of HDL out of its several structural or functional properties. Novel approaches are ongoing in developing and assessing agents that closely mimic the structure of natural HDL or replicate its various functions, for example, reverse cholesterol transport, vasodilation, anti-inflammation, or inhibition of platelet aggregation. Potential new approaches like HDL infusions, delipidated HDL, liver X receptor agonists, Apo A-I upregulators, Apo A mimetics, and gene therapy are in early phase trials. This review will outline current therapies and describe future directions for HDL therapeutics. Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, lipids, cholesterol, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, therapy

  14. Flux pinning and Critical current density in La2-xSrxCuO4+d (United States)

    Mohottala, Hashini; Wells, B. O.; Budnick, J. I.; Hines, W. A.; Moodenbaugh, A. R.; Chou, F. C.


    We have studied the magnetic characteristics of the critical states in a series of samples of the type La2-xSrxCuO4+d that is doped with both Sr and excess O incorporated using electrochemistry. These samples spontaneously phase separate and show both a superconducting phase with TC near 40 K and a magnetic phase with TM near 40 K. Our previous studies established that the superconducting phase is similar to an optimally doped sample while the magnetic phase is consistent with the static spin density wave reported for x=1/8 Sr or Ba doped samples. Magnetization data at various temperatures showed large reversibility in all the samples. The critical current densities JC(0) values were at least an order of magnitude smaller than that of the reported values for YBa2Cu3O7-d and La2-xSrxCuO4. At higher fields JC(H) was smaller indicating the existence of weak flux pinning in the system. Based on our magnetization data we conclude that the vortex lattice pinning is different from non-phase separated cuprates. This work was partially supported by the US-DOE through contract DE-FG02-00ER45801 and the Cottrell Scholar Program of the Research Corporation.

  15. Current densities due to electron-hole puddles in graphene flakes at the charge neutrality point (United States)

    Lima, Leandro; Lewenkopf, Caio


    Graphene flakes show a typical conductivity minimum of about e2 / h , almost independent of sample mobility, at the charge neutrality point. This is at odds with the notion that as the mobility increases, and graphene becomes more ballistic, its density of states (DOS) and conductivity at the charge neutrality point should vanish. The observed conductivity minimum is often attributed to the presence of electron-hole charge puddles, that give rise to an effective local-dependent chemical potential. In this way, the local chemical potential fluctuates creating p and n-doped regions and the electronic transport is facilitated by Klein tunneling through the p and n-doped domains. Although very attractive, there is little quantitative support for this this picture. We revisit this problem and analyze the transport properties using a self-consistent recursive Green's functions technique with spin resolution that includes the electronic interaction modeled by a mean field Hubbard term. We calculate electronic current densities between neighboring carbon sites near the p-n interface and relate the electronic propagation to the puddles charge, size and shapes.

  16. Higher critical current density achieved in Bi-2223 High-Tc superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Shalaby


    Full Text Available Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223 were prepared using a solid state reaction method at different sintering times and temperatures. Structural phase identifications have been done using X-Ray analysis and refinement by Reitveld method which proves the coexistence of Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 phases. The critical transition temperature Tc and critical current density Jc values were measured using superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID and by the magneto-optics technique. A remarkable rapid decrease to the diamagnetic signal in the magnetization versus temperature M(T at 110 K and Jc around 1.2 × 107 A/m2 at 5 K are confirmed for the Bi-2223 compound.

  17. Measurements of beam current density and proton fraction of a permanent-magnet microwave ion source. (United States)

    Waldmann, Ole; Ludewigt, Bernhard


    A permanent-magnet microwave ion source has been built for use in a high-yield, compact neutron generator. The source has been designed to produce up to 100 mA of deuterium and tritium ions. The electron-cyclotron resonance condition is met at a microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz and a magnetic field strength of 87.5 mT. The source operates at a low hydrogen gas pressure of about 0.15 Pa. Hydrogen beams with a current density of 40 mA/cm(2) have been extracted at a microwave power of 450 W. The dependence of the extracted proton beam fraction on wall materials and operating parameters was measured and found to vary from 45% for steel to 95% for boron nitride as a wall liner material. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  18. Direct numerical simulations of particle-laden density currents with adaptive, discontinuous finite elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Parkinson


    Full Text Available High-resolution direct numerical simulations (DNSs are an important tool for the detailed analysis of turbidity current dynamics. Models that resolve the vertical structure and turbulence of the flow are typically based upon the Navier–Stokes equations. Two-dimensional simulations are known to produce unrealistic cohesive vortices that are not representative of the real three-dimensional physics. The effect of this phenomena is particularly apparent in the later stages of flow propagation. The ideal solution to this problem is to run the simulation in three dimensions but this is computationally expensive. This paper presents a novel finite-element (FE DNS turbidity current model that has been built within Fluidity, an open source, general purpose, computational fluid dynamics code. The model is validated through re-creation of a lock release density current at a Grashof number of 5 × 106 in two and three dimensions. Validation of the model considers the flow energy budget, sedimentation rate, head speed, wall normal velocity profiles and the final deposit. Conservation of energy in particular is found to be a good metric for measuring model performance in capturing the range of dynamics on a range of meshes. FE models scale well over many thousands of processors and do not impose restrictions on domain shape, but they are computationally expensive. The use of adaptive mesh optimisation is shown to reduce the required element count by approximately two orders of magnitude in comparison with fixed, uniform mesh simulations. This leads to a substantial reduction in computational cost. The computational savings and flexibility afforded by adaptivity along with the flexibility of FE methods make this model well suited to simulating turbidity currents in complex domains.

  19. The influence of current speed and vegetation density on flow structure in two macrotidal eelgrass canopies (United States)

    Lacy, Jessica R.; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy


    The influence of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on near-bed currents, turbulence, and drag was investigated at three sites in two eelgrass canopies of differing density and at one unvegetated site in the San Juan archipelago of Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Eelgrass blade length exceeded 1 m. Velocity profiles up to 1.5 m above the sea floor were collected over a spring-neap tidal cycle with a downward-looking pulse-coherent acoustic Doppler profiler above the canopies and two acoustic Doppler velocimeters within the canopies. The eelgrass attenuated currents by a minimum of 40%, and by more than 70% at the most densely vegetated site. Attenuation decreased with increasing current speed. The data were compared to the shear-layer model of vegetated flows and the displaced logarithmic model. Velocity profiles outside the meadows were logarithmic. Within the canopies, most profiles were consistent with the shear-layer model, with a logarithmic layer above the canopy. However, at the less-dense sites, when currents were strong, shear at the sea floor and above the canopy was significant relative to shear at the top of the canopy, and the velocity profiles more closely resembled those in a rough-wall boundary layer. Turbulence was strong at the canopy top and decreased with height. Friction velocity at the canopy top was 1.5–2 times greater than at the unvegetated, sandy site. The coefficient of drag CD on the overlying flow derived from the logarithmic velocity profile above the canopy, was 3–8 times greater than at the unvegetated site (0.01–0.023 vs. 2.9 × 10−3).

  20. Effects of exchange-correlation potentials on the density-functional description of C60 versus C240 photoionization (United States)

    Choi, Jinwoo; Chang, EonHo; Anstine, Dylan M.; Madjet, Mohamed El-Amine; Chakraborty, Himadri S.


    We study the photoionization properties of the C60 versus C240 molecule in a spherical jellium frame of the density-functional method. Two prototypical approximations of the exchange-correlation (xc) functional are used: (i) the Gunnarsson-Lundqvist parametrization [Gunnarsson and Lundqvist, Phys. Rev. B 13, 4274 (1976), 10.1103/PhysRevB.13.4274] with a correction for the electron self-interaction (SIC) introduced artificially from the outset and (ii) a gradient-dependent augmentation of approximation (i) using the van Leeuwen and Baerends model potential [van Leeuwen and Baerends, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2421 (1994), 10.1103/PhysRevA.49.2421], in lieu of SIC, that restores electrons' asymptotic properties intrinsically within the formalism. Ground-state results from the two schemes for both molecules show differences in the shapes of mean-field potentials and bound-level properties. The choice of an xc scheme also significantly alters the dipole single-photoionization cross sections obtained by an ab initio method that incorporates linear-response dynamical correlations. Differences in the structures and ionization responses between C60 and C240 uncover the effect of molecular size on the underlying physics. Analysis indicates that the collective plasmon resonances with the gradient-based xc option produce results noticeably closer to the experimental data available for C60.

  1. Screened-exchange density functional approach to Auger recombination and impact ionization rates in InGaAs (United States)

    Picozzi, Silvia; Asahi, Ryoji; Geller, Clint; Freeman, Arthur


    We present an ab-initio modeling approach for Auger recombination and impact ionization in semiconductors directed at i) quantitative rate determinations and 2) elucidating trends with respect to alloy composition, carrier concentration and temperature. We present a fully first-principles formalism (S.Picozzi, R.Asahi, C.B. Geller and A.J.Freeman, Phys.Rev.Lett. 89, 197601 (2002); Phys.Rev.B 65, 113206 (2002).), based on accurate energy bands and wave functions within the screened exchange local density approximation and the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method (E.Wimmer, H.Krakauer, M.Weinert, A.J.Freeman, Phys.Rev.B 24, 864 (1981)). Results are presented for electron- and hole-initiated impact ionization processes and Auger recombinations for p-type and n-type InGaAs. Anisotropy and composition effects in the related rates are discussed in terms of the underlying band-structures. Calculated Auger lifetimes, in general agreement with experiments, are studied for different recombination mechanisms (i.e. CCCH, CHHL, CHHS, involving conduction electrons (C), heavy- (H) and light-hole (L), spin split-off (S) band) in order to understand the dominant mechanism.

  2. Characterization of the Nova Scotia Coastally-Trapped Current and Monitoring of the Associated Density Front Using Underwater Gliders (United States)

    Dever, M.; Hebert, D.; Greenan, B. J. W.; Sheng, J.


    Repeated glider transects across the Scotian Shelf, near Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, completed between 2011 and 2015 provide a dataset with high temporal and spatial resolutions. This new dataset is used to characterize the seasonal variability of the Nova Scotia Current (NSC): a southwestward, coastally-trapped, alongshore current flowing from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Maine. Alongshore currents are estimated by scaling the geostrophic flow, derived from the density field, with the drift experienced by the glider during each dives. The results are compared to concurrent ADCP observations to assess the reliability of the technique and then used to characterize the alongshore circulation across the Halifax Line. It demonstrates that most of the alongshore transport is associated with the density front separating the low-density NSC from denser shelf water. An automated algorithm is then developed to monitor the major characteristics of the density front (e.g. width, frontal depth, density gradient). We find that the persistent summer stratification explains the lag observed between the seasonal pulse of buoyant water coming for the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the fall and the maximum alongshore current in the winter. This reveals that the density gradient is not the only major parameter explaining the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the NSC: the geometry of the density front also plays an important role. This makes wind forcing a potential major driving mechanism of the NSC, as alongshore winds can significantly affect the geometry of the density front via Ekman transport.

  3. Analysis of plasma equilibrium based on orbit-driven current density profile in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K., E-mail: [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Alam, M.M. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Jiang, Y.Z. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mitarai, O. [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Kurihara, K.; Kawamata, Y.; Sueoka, M.; Takechi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Hasegawa, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Araki, K.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nagata, T. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); and others


    Highlights: • High energy particle guiding center orbit is calculated as a contour plot of conserved variable. • Current density profile is analyzed based on the orbit-driven current. • Plasma equilibrium is reconstructed by considering the hollow current profile. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven (ECCD) steady-state plasma on QUEST (B{sub t} = 0.25 T, R = 0.68 m, a = 0.40 m), plasma current seems to flow in the open magnetic surface outside of the closed magnetic surface in the low-field region according to plasma current fitting (PCF) method. We consider that the current in the open magnetic surface is due to orbit-driven current by high-energy particles in RF-driven plasma. So based on the analysis of current density profile based on the orbit-driven current, plasma equilibrium is to be calculated. We calculated high energy particles guiding center orbits as a contour plot of conserved variable in Hamiltonian formulation and considered particles initial position with different levels of energy and pitch angles that satisfy resonance condition. Then the profile of orbit-driven current is estimated by multiplying the particle density on the resonance surface and the velocity on the orbits. This analysis shows negative current near the magnetic axis and hollow current profile is expected even if pressure driven current is considered. Considering the hollow current profile shifted toward the low-field region, the equilibrium is fitted by J-EFIT coded by MATLAB.

  4. Development of gradient-corrected exchange-correlation functionals in the density functional theory; Developpement de fonctionnelles corrigees du gradient en theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembarki, A.


    In this work, we have developed some gradient-corrected exchange-correlation functionals. This study is in keeping with the density functional theory (DFT) formalism. In the first part of this memory, a description of Hartree-Fock (HF), post-HF and density functional theories is given. The second part is devoted the study the different approximations of DFT exchange-correlation functionals which have been proposed in the last years. In particular, we have underlined the approximations used for the construction of these functionals. The third part of this memory consists in the development of new gradient-corrected functionals. In this study, we have established a new relation between exchange energy, correlation energy and kinetic energy. We have deduced two new possible forms of exchange or correlation functionals, respectively. In the fourth part, we have studied the exchange potential, for which the actual formulation does not satisfy some theoretical conditions, such as the asymptotic behavior -1/r. Our contribution lies in the development of an exchange potential with a correct asymptotic -1/r behavior for large values of r. In this chapter, we have proposed a model which permits the obtention of the exchange energy from the exchange potential, using the virial theorem. The fifth part of this memory is devoted the application of these different functionals to simple systems (H{sub 2}O, CO, N{sub 2}O, H{sub 3}{sup +} and H{sub 5}{sup +}) in order to characterize the performance of DFT calculations in regards to those obtained with post-HF methods. (author). 215 refs., 8 figs., 28 tabs.

  5. Electrodeposition of hierarchically structured three-dimensional nickel-iron electrodes for efficient oxygen evolution at high current densities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Xunyu; Zhao, Chuan


    Large-scale industrial application of electrolytic splitting of water has called for the development of oxygen evolution electrodes that are inexpensive, robust and can deliver large current density (>500 mA cm(-2...

  6. Numerically simulated cardiac exposure to electric current densities induced by TASER X-26 pulses in adult men (United States)

    Leitgeb, N.; Niedermayr, F.; Neubauer, R.; Loos, G.


    There is still an ongoing debate whether or not electronic stun devices (ESDs) induce cardiac fibrillation. To assess the ventricular fibrillation risk of law enforcing electronic control devices, quantitative estimates of cardiac electric current densities induced by delivered electric pulses are essential. Numerical simulations were performed with the finite integration technique and the anatomical model of a standardized European man (NORMAN) segmented into 2 mm voxels and 35 different tissues. The load-dependent delivery of TASER X-26 pulses has been taken into account. Cardiac exposure to electric current densities of vertically and horizontally aligned dart electrodes was quantified and different hit scenarios compared. Since fibrillation thresholds critically depend on exposed volume, the provided quantitative data are essential for risk assessment. The maximum cardiac rms current densities amounted to 7730 A m-2. Such high current densities and exposed cardiac volumes do not exclude ventricular fibrillation.

  7. Numerically simulated cardiac exposure to electric current densities induced by TASER X-26 pulses in adult men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitgeb, N; Niedermayr, F; Neubauer, R; Loos, G, E-mail: norbert.leitgeb@tugraz.a [Institute of Clinical Engineering with European Notified Body of Medical Devices, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 18, A-8010 Graz (Austria)


    There is still an ongoing debate whether or not electronic stun devices (ESDs) induce cardiac fibrillation. To assess the ventricular fibrillation risk of law enforcing electronic control devices, quantitative estimates of cardiac electric current densities induced by delivered electric pulses are essential. Numerical simulations were performed with the finite integration technique and the anatomical model of a standardized European man (NORMAN) segmented into 2 mm voxels and 35 different tissues. The load-dependent delivery of TASER X-26 pulses has been taken into account. Cardiac exposure to electric current densities of vertically and horizontally aligned dart electrodes was quantified and different hit scenarios compared. Since fibrillation thresholds critically depend on exposed volume, the provided quantitative data are essential for risk assessment. The maximum cardiac rms current densities amounted to 7730 A m{sup -2}. Such high current densities and exposed cardiac volumes do not exclude ventricular fibrillation.

  8. Measuring the acoustoelectric interaction constant using ultrasound current source density imaging (United States)

    Li, Qian; Olafsson, Ragnar; Ingram, Pier; Wang, Zhaohui; Witte, Russell


    Ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI) exploits the acoustoelectric (AE) effect, an interaction between ultrasound pressure and electrical resistivity, to map electrical conduction in the heart. The conversion efficiency for UCSDI is determined by the AE interaction constant K, a fundamental property of all materials; K directly affects the magnitude of the detected voltage signal in UCSDI. This paper describes a technique for measuring K in biological tissue, and reports its value for the first time in cadaver hearts. A custom chamber was designed and fabricated to control the geometry for estimating K, which was measured in different ionic salt solutions and seven cadaver rabbit hearts. We found K to be strongly dependent on concentration for the divalent salt CuSO4, but not for the monovalent salt NaCl, consistent with their different chemical properties. In the rabbit heart, K was determined to be 0.041±0.012%/MPa, similar to the measurement of K in physiological saline (0.034±0.003%/MPa). This study provides a baseline estimate of K for modeling and experimental studies that involve UCSDI to map cardiac conduction and reentry currents associated with arrhythmias.

  9. First test of BNL electron beam ion source with high current density electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, Alexander, E-mail:; Alessi, James G., E-mail:; Beebe, Edward N., E-mail: [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Shornikov, Andrey; Mertzig, Robert; Wenander, Fredrik; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)


    A new electron gun with electrostatic compression has been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) Test Stand at BNL. This is a collaborative effort by BNL and CERN teams with a common goal to study an EBIS with electron beam current up to 10 A, current density up to 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} and energy more than 50 keV. Intensive and pure beams of heavy highly charged ions with mass-to-charge ratio < 4.5 are requested by many heavy ion research facilities including NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL and HIE-ISOLDE at CERN. With a multiampere electron gun, the EBIS should be capable of delivering highly charged ions for both RHIC facility applications at BNL and for ISOLDE experiments at CERN. Details of the electron gun simulations and design, and the Test EBIS electrostatic and magnetostatic structures with the new electron gun are presented. The experimental results of the electron beam transmission are given.

  10. Metal based gas diffusion layers for enhanced fuel cell performance at high current densities (United States)

    Hussain, Nabeel; Van Steen, Eric; Tanaka, Shiro; Levecque, Pieter


    The gas diffusion layer strongly influences the performance and durability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. A major drawback of current carbon fiber based GDLs is the non-controlled variation in porosity resulting in a random micro-structure. Moreover, when subjected to compression these materials show significant reduction in porosity and permeability leading to water management problems and mass transfer losses within the fuel cell. This study investigated the use of uniform perforated metal sheets as GDLs in conjunction with microchannel flowfields. A metal sheet design with a pitch of 110 μm and a hole diameter of 60 μm in combination with an MPL showed superior performance in the high current density region compared to a commercially available carbon paper based GDL in a single cell environment. Fuel cell testing with different oxidants (air, heliox and oxygen) indicate that the metal sheet offers both superior diffusion and reduced flooding in comparison to the carbon based GDL. The presence of the MPL has been found to be critical to the functionality of the metal sheet suggesting that the MPL design may represent an important optimisation parameter for further improvements in performance.

  11. Pyroclastic density currents at Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy): a case study of the 1930 eruption (United States)

    Di Roberto, A.; Bertagnini, A.; Pompilio, M.; Bisson, M.


    Pyroclastic density currents (PDC) related to paroxysmal eruptions have caused a large number of casualties in the recent history of Stromboli. We combine here a critical review of historical chronicles with detailed stratigraphic, textural, and petrographic analyses of PDC deposits emplaced at Stromboli over the last century to unravel the origin of currents, their flow mechanism and the depositional dynamics. We focus on the 1930 PDC as they are well described in historical accounts and because the 1930 eruption stands as the most voluminous and destructive paroxysm of the last 13 centuries. Stromboli PDC deposits are recognizable from their architecture and the great abundance of fresh, well-preserved juvenile material. General deposit features indicate that Stromboli PDC formed due to the syn-eruptive gravitational collapse of hot pyroclasts rapidly accumulated over steep slopes. Flow channelization within the several small valleys cut on the flanks of the volcano can enhance the mobility of PDC, as well as the production of fine particles by abrasion and comminution of hot juvenile fragments, thereby increasing the degree of fluidization. Textural analyses and historical accounts also indicate that PDC can be fast (15-20 m/s) and relatively hot (360-700 °C). PDC can thus flow right down the slopes of the volcano, representing a major hazard. For this reason, they must be adequately taken into account when compiling risk maps and evaluating volcanic hazard on the Island of Stromboli.

  12. Surface layer structure of AISI 1020 steel at different stages of dry sliding under electric current of high density


    Aleutdinov, K. A.; Rubtsov, Valery Evgenjevich; Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.


    Wear intensity of the sliding electric contact steel 1020/steel 1045 depending on sliding time is presented at the contact current density higher than 100 A/cm{2} without lubricant. It is shown that wear intensity of 1020 steel decreases at increasing of sliding time. Wear intensity is stabilized after some sliding time. This time (burn-in time) decreases at reduction of current density. Structural changes are realized in surface layer. Signs of liquid phase are observed on sliding surface. T...

  13. Influence of the initial parameters of the magnetic field and plasma on the spatial structure of the electric current and electron density in current sheets formed in helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Markov, V. S.; Frank, A. G., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)


    The influence of the initial parameters of the magnetic field and plasma on the spatial structure of the electric current and electron density in current sheets formed in helium plasma in 2D and 3D magnetic configurations with X-type singular lines is studied by the methods of holographic interferometry and magnetic measurements. Significant differences in the structures of plasma and current sheets formed at close parameters of the initial plasma and similar configurations of the initial magnetic fields are revealed.

  14. A novel model for through-silicon via (TSV) filling process simulation considering three additives and current density effect (United States)

    Wang, Fuliang; Zhao, Zhipeng; Wang, Feng; Wang, Yan; Nie, Nantian


    Through-silicon via (TSV) filling by electrochemical deposition is still a challenge for 3D IC packaging, and three-component additive systems (accelerator, suppressor, and leveler) were commonly used in the industry to achieve void-free filling. However, models considering three additive systems and the current density effect have not been fully studied. In this paper, a novel three-component model was developed to study the TSV filling mechanism and process, where the interaction behavior of the three additives (accelerator, suppressor, and leveler) were considered, and the adsorption, desorption, and consumption coefficient of the three additives were changed with the current density. Based on this new model, the three filling types (seam void, ‘V’ shape, and key hole) were simulated under different current density conditions, and the filling results were verified by experiments. The effect of the current density on the copper ion concentration, additives surface coverage, and local current density distribution during the TSV filling process were obtained. Based on the simulation and experimental results, the diffusion–adsorption–desorption–consumption competition behavior between the suppressor, the accelerator, and the leveler were discussed. The filling mechanisms under different current densities were also analyzed.

  15. Simulation-Based Validation for Four-Dimensional Multi-Channel Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Witte, Russell S.


    Ultrasound current source density imaging (UCSDI), which has application to the heart and brain, exploits the acoustoelectric (AE) effect and Ohm's law to detect and map an electrical current distribution. In this study, we describe 4-D UCSDI simulations of a dipole field for comparison and validation with bench-top experiments. The simulations consider the properties of the ultrasound pulse as it passes through a conductive medium, the electric field of the injected dipole, and the lead field of the detectors. In the simulation, the lead fields of detectors and electric field of the dipole were calculated by the finite element (FE) method, and the convolution and correlation in the computation of the detected AE voltage signal were accelerated using 3-D fast Fourier transforms. In the bench-top experiment, an electric dipole was produced in a bath of 0.9% NaCl solution containing two electrodes, which injected an ac pulse (200 Hz, 3 cycles) ranging from 0 to 140 mA. Stimulating and recording electrodes were placed in a custom electrode chamber made on a rapid prototype printer. Each electrode could be positioned anywhere on an x-y grid (5 mm spacing) and individually adjusted in the depth direction for precise control of the geometry of the current sources and detecting electrodes. A 1-MHz ultrasound beam was pulsed and focused through a plastic film to modulate the current distribution inside the saline-filled tank. AE signals were simultaneously detected at a sampling frequency of 15 MHz on multiple recording electrodes. A single recording electrode is sufficient to form volume images of the current flow and electric potentials. The AE potential is sensitive to the distance from the dipole, but is less sensitive to the angle between the detector and the dipole. Multi-channel UCSDI potentially improves 4-D mapping of bioelectric sources in the body at high spatial resolution, which is especially important for diagnosing and guiding treatment of cardiac and

  16. Structure-property relationships in non-epitaxial chalcogenide heterostructures: the role of interface density on charge exchange (United States)

    Bauers, S. R.; Ditto, J.; Moore, D. B.; Johnson, D. C.


    A homologous series of quasi-2D ([PbSe]1+δ)m(TiSe2)m nanolayered heterostructures are prepared via self-assembly of designed precursors with 1 rock salt structured PbSe layers alternating with TiSe2 layers, and that grain size increases with m. The compounds are all metallic with upturns in resistivity at low temperature suggesting electron localization, with room temperature resistivity of 1-3 10-5 Ω m, negative Hall coefficients and Seebeck coefficients between -50 and -100 μV K-1. A decrease in the mobile carrier concentration with temperature is observed for all m and the rate increases with increasing low-dimensionality. Decreasing the interface density also decreases the average carrier concentration while increasing the electron mobility. The Seebeck coefficients systematically increase in magnitude as m is increased, but the net effect to the power factor is small due to a compensating increase in resistivity. The observed transport behavior is not described by the simple rigid band models with charge transfer between constituents used previously. Charge exchange between constituents stabilizes the intergrowth, but also introduces mobile carriers and interfacial band bending that must play a role in the transport behavior of the heterostructures. As chemical potentials equilibrate in high m heterostructures there is a decrease in total coulombic stabilization as there are fewer interfaces, so m = 1 is likely to be most stable. This rationalizes why the structurally similar misfit layer compounds with m = 1 are often the only intergrowths that can be prepared. Charge transfer and band bending at interfaces should occur in other heterostructures with similar type II broken-gap band alignments and are important considerations regarding both their stability and transport properties.

  17. High current density PQQ-dependent alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase bioanodes. (United States)

    Aquino Neto, Sidney; Hickey, David P; Milton, Ross D; De Andrade, Adalgisa R; Minteer, Shelley D


    In this paper, we explore the bioelectrooxidation of ethanol using pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH and AldDH) enzymes for biofuel cell applications. The bioanode architectures were designed with both direct electron transfer (DET) and mediated electron transfer (MET) mechanisms employing high surface area materials such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and MWCNT-decorated gold nanoparticles, along with different immobilization techniques. Three different polymeric matrices were tested (tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (TBAB)-modified Nafion; octyl-modified linear polyethyleneimine (C8-LPEI); and cellulose) in the DET studies. The modified Nafion membrane provided the best electrical communication between enzymes and the electrode surface, with catalytic currents as high as 16.8 ± 2.1 µA cm(-2). Then, a series of ferrocene redox polymers were evaluated for MET. The redox polymer 1,1'-dimethylferrocene-modified linear polyethyleneimine (FcMe2-C3-LPEI) provided the best electrochemical response. Using this polymer, the electrochemical assays conducted in the presence of MWCNTs and MWCNTs-Au indicated a Jmax of 781 ± 59 µA cm(-2) and 925 ± 68 µA cm(-2), respectively. Overall, from the results obtained here, DET using the PQQ-dependent ADH and AldDH still lacks high current density, while the bioanodes that operate via MET employing ferrocene-modified LPEI redox polymers show efficient energy conversion capability in ethanol/air biofuel cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence of current free double layer in high density helicon discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguli, A. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Sahu, B. B. [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Dronacharya College of Engineering, Gurgaon 123506 (India); Tarey, R. D. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India)


    This paper investigates the formation of double layer (DL) in helicon plasmas. In the experiment, argon plasma production is using the excitation of m = -1 helicon mode with magnetic mirror field with high mirror ratio of {approx}1:1.7. We have specifically used the radio frequency compensated Langmuir probe (LP) to measure the relevant plasma parameters simultaneously so as to investigate the details about the plasma production. The DL, which consists of both warm and bulk populations towards higher potential region and only dense bulk plasmas towards the lower potential region downstream the antenna, is present in the transition region. LP measurements also show an abrupt fall of density along with a potential drop of about 20 V and (e {Delta}V{sub p}/k T{sub e}) Almost-Equal-To 12 within a few cm. The potential drop is equal to the difference of the electron temperatures between the two plasma regions forming the DL, which is present in the plateau region of mirror, unlike in several prior studies on the DL formation in the region of strong gradients in the magnetic field. The DL is strong, current-free, electric double-layer with estimated thickness of about 10 Debye lengths.

  19. Effect of Co addition on the critical current density of MgB{sub 2} superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirat, G.; Kizilaslan, O.; Aksan, M.A., E-mail:; Yakinci, M.E.


    In this study, the (MgB{sub 2}){sub 1−x}Co{sub x} samples, where x=0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.8, were prepared by using the solid-state reaction technique. Effect of the Co-addition on the structural, magnetic, critical current density, J{sub c}, and flux pinning properties of the superconducting MgB{sub 2} system was investigated. A magnetic transition was observed with increasing the Co-concentration in MgB{sub 2}. For the pure MgB{sub 2}, J{sub c} was obtained to be 2.78×10{sup 4} A cm{sup −2} at 5 K and 1.7 kOe, but J{sub c} was suppressed by addition of Co to the system. It was found that a large amount of Co in MgB{sub 2} did not act as pinning centers which improves J{sub c}. The magnetic behavior observed by the Co-addition originates from the magnetic properties of cobalt itself.

  20. Effect of Co addition on the critical current density of MgB2 superconductor (United States)

    Kirat, G.; Kizilaslan, O.; Aksan, M. A.; Yakinci, M. E.


    In this study, the (MgB2)1-xCox samples, where x=0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.8, were prepared by using the solid-state reaction technique. Effect of the Co-addition on the structural, magnetic, critical current density, Jc, and flux pinning properties of the superconducting MgB2 system was investigated. A magnetic transition was observed with increasing the Co-concentration in MgB2. For the pure MgB2, Jc was obtained to be 2.78×104 A cm-2 at 5 K and 1.7 kOe, but Jc was suppressed by addition of Co to the system. It was found that a large amount of Co in MgB2 did not act as pinning centers which improves Jc. The magnetic behavior observed by the Co-addition originates from the magnetic properties of cobalt itself.

  1. Enhancement of transport critical current density of epitaxial Nb film by lithography (United States)

    Yamada, H.; Harada, N.; Kanayama, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Yamasaki, H.; Hamajima, T.


    The critical current density, JC, of a superconductor is controlled by the pinning interaction between the flux line lattice and pinning centers. Artificial flux pinning centers are necessary for high- TC superconductors, because JC decreases markedly when a magnetic field of a few Tesla is applied at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Here, we discuss the effects of groove-shaped artificial pinning centers introduced by microlithography. Superconducting Nb film was deposited epitaxially on Al 2O 3(1 1 0 2) substrates and grooves with a period of 4-μm were introduced. The micro-fabricated film had about 2-fold greater transport JC = 4.1 × 10 9 A/m 2 as compared with the value of JC = 2.1 × 10 9 A/m 2 of the standard film at 4.2 K, 0.1 T. This JC enhancement was observed over a wide temperature range of 4.2-9.0 K.

  2. High critical current density in YBCO coated conductors prepared by thermal co-evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindi, M [Edison Termoelettrica SpA, Foro Buonaparte 31, I-20121 Milan (Italy); Botarelli, A [Europa Metalli SpA, Superconductor Division, via Repubblica 257, I-55052 Fornaci di Barga, Lucca (Italy); Gauzzi, A [IMEM-CNR, Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43010 Parma (Italy); Gianni, L [Edison Termoelettrica SpA, Foro Buonaparte 31, I-20121 Milan (Italy); Ginocchio, S [Edison Termoelettrica SpA, Foro Buonaparte 31, I-20121 Milan (Italy); Holzapfel, B [Institut fuer Festkoerper-und Werkstoffsforschung, Helmholtzstrasse 20, Dresden (Germany); Baldini, A [Europa Metalli SpA, Superconductor Division, via Repubblica 257, I-55052 Fornaci di Barga, Lucca (Italy); Zannella, S [Edison Termoelettrica SpA, Foro Buonaparte 31, I-20121 Milan (Italy)


    We report on the in situ preparation of Y Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} films uniformly deposited over large areas,>20 x 20 cm{sup 2}, at 690 C by thermal co-evaporation onto Ni-5 at.% W biaxially textured tapes buffered with e-beam evaporated CeO{sub 2}. Typically, the thickness of the YBCO and CeO{sub 2} layers was 0.9 and 0.1 {mu}m, respectively. Deposition rates were 0.2 and 2.5 nm s{sup -1}, respectively. X-ray diffraction {theta}-2{theta} Bragg-Brentano and pole figure measurements, and Nomarsky optical and SEM microscopy analysis show good biaxial texture of both layers, sharp interfaces and the absence of cracks. Midpoint critical temperatures, T{sub c}, fall reproducibly in the 87-88 K range with transition widths {delta}T{sub c} = 1 K. Remarkably high transport critical current densities, J{sub c}, in the 2.0-2.5 MA cm{sup -2} range are achieved at 77 K in 1 cm long samples. The above deposition route appears to be promising for the development of long-length YBCO coated conductors thanks to the relatively low deposition temperature, the high degree of uniformity over large areas and the simple single buffer layer architecture.

  3. Deconvolution of the density of states of tip and sample through constant-current tunneling spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Pfeifer


    Full Text Available We introduce a scheme to obtain the deconvolved density of states (DOS of the tip and sample, from scanning tunneling spectra determined in the constant-current mode (z–V spectroscopy. The scheme is based on the validity of the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB approximation and the trapezoidal approximation of the electron potential within the tunneling barrier. In a numerical treatment of z–V spectroscopy, we first analyze how the position and amplitude of characteristic DOS features change depending on parameters such as the energy position, width, barrier height, and the tip–sample separation. Then it is shown that the deconvolution scheme is capable of recovering the original DOS of tip and sample with an accuracy of better than 97% within the one-dimensional WKB approximation. Application of the deconvolution scheme to experimental data obtained on Nb(110 reveals a convergent behavior, providing separately the DOS of both sample and tip. In detail, however, there are systematic quantitative deviations between the DOS results based on z–V data and those based on I–V data. This points to an inconsistency between the assumed and the actual transmission probability function. Indeed, the experimentally determined differential barrier height still clearly deviates from that derived from the deconvolved DOS. Thus, the present progress in developing a reliable deconvolution scheme shifts the focus towards how to access the actual transmission probability function.

  4. Photoelectrolysis of water at high current density - Use of ultraviolet laser excitation (United States)

    Bocarsly, A. B.; Bolts, J. M.; Cummins, P. G.; Wrighton, M. S.


    The behavior of TiO2 and SrTiO3 photoanodes in cells for the photoelectrolysis of H2O has been investigated for high-intensity 351-,364-nm excitation from an Ar ion laser. Intensities up to 380 W/sq cm have been used. For TiO2 a small amount of surface decomposition is found after irradiation at high intensity, whereas SrTiO3 undergoes no detectable changes. Current-voltage properties for both electrodes are essentially independent of light intensity up to the level of 380 W/sq cm, and there is little if any change in quantum efficiency for electron flow. Photocurrent densities have been shown to exceed 5 A/sq cm for O2 evolution. Data show that the energy storage rate associated with the SrTiO3 photoelectrolysis can exceed 30 W/sq cm; this represents the highest demonstrated rate of sustained optical-to-chemical energy conversion.

  5. Field and temperature scaling of the critical current density in commercial REBCO coated conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Senatore, Carmine; Bonura, Marco; Kulich, Miloslav; Mondonico, Giorgio


    Scaling relations describing the electromagnetic behaviour of coated conductors (CCs) greatly simplify the design of REBCO-based devices. The performance of REBCO CCs is strongly influenced by fabrication route, conductor architecture and materials, and these parameters vary from one manufacturer to the others. In the present work we have examined the critical surface for the current density, Jc(T,B,θ ), of coated conductors from six different manufacturers: American Superconductor Co. (US), Bruker HTS GmbH (Germany), Fujikura Ltd. (Japan), SuNAM Co. Ltd. (Korea), SuperOx ZAO (Russia) and SuperPower Inc. (US). Electrical transport and magnetic measurements were performed at temperatures between 4.2 K and 77 K and in magnetic field up to 19 T. Experiments were conducted at three different orientations of the field with respect to the crystallographic c-axis of the REBCO layer, θ = 0deg , 45deg and 90deg , in order to probe the angular anisotropy of Jc. In spite of the large variability of CCs performance, ...

  6. Investigation of electrodes under flow of a submicrosecond current pulse with linear density up to 3 MA/cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branitskii, A. V.; Grabovskii, E. V.; Dzhangobegov, V. V.; Laukhin, Ya. N.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M., E-mail:; Sasorov, P. V. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation Troitsk Institute For Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation); Tkachenko, S. I. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University) (Russian Federation); Frolov, I. N. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation Troitsk Institute For Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation)


    The states of current-carrying elements at the transmission of megaampere current into load are studied. It is determined that the expansion velocity of plasma generated at the outer surface of cylindrical tubes produced of stainless steel, at flowing through them of submicrosecond current pulses with linear density of 3 MA/cm is 5.5 km/s. The evolution of various modes of instability is analyzed.

  7. Calcium transient and sodium-calcium exchange current in human versus rabbit sinoatrial node pacemaker cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; van Borren, Marcel M. G. J.; Wilders, Ronald


    There is an ongoing debate on the mechanism underlying the pacemaker activity of sinoatrial node (SAN) cells, focusing on the relative importance of the "membrane clock" and the "Ca(2+) clock" in the generation of the small net membrane current that depolarizes the cell towards the action potential

  8. Preliminary scaling laws for plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density in the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma (United States)

    Roth, J. R.


    Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of bumpy torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied included the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings, the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

  9. Ionomer equivalent weight structuring in the cathode catalyst layer of automotive fuel cells: Effect on performance, current density distribution and electrochemical impedance spectra (United States)

    Herden, Susanne; Hirschfeld, Julian A.; Lohri, Cyrill; Perchthaler, Markus; Haase, Stefan


    To improve the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with segmented cathode electrodes have been manufactured. Electrodes with a higher and lower ionomer equivalent weight (EW) were used and analyzed using current density and temperature distribution, polarization curve, temperature sweep and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. These were performed using automotive metallic bipolar plates and operating conditions. Measurement data were used to manufacture an optimized segmented cathode electrode. We were able to show that our results are transferable from a small scale hardware to automotive application and that an ionomer EW segmentation of the cathode leads to performance improvement in a broad spectrum of operating conditions. Furthermore, we confirmed our results by using in-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  10. Air-Sea and Lateral Exchange Processes in East Indian Coastal Current off Sri Lanka (United States)


    project, which is funded under the Northern Arabian Sea circulation autonomously researched (NAScar) DRI. The PIs seek long term collaboration with...scale processes in the southern BoB during the southwest monsoons, including regional circulation , internal waves and mixing in the upper ocean, all...and in Sri Lankan coastal waters (R/V Samuddrika). The measurements include thermohaline stratification, currents and the kinetic energy

  11. Mismatch Negativity in Recent-Onset and Chronic Schizophrenia: A Current Source Density Analysis (United States)

    Fulham, W. Ross; Michie, Patricia T.; Ward, Philip B.; Rasser, Paul E.; Todd, Juanita; Johnston, Patrick J.; Thompson, Paul M.; Schall, Ulrich


    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a component of the event-related potential elicited by deviant auditory stimuli. It is presumed to index pre-attentive monitoring of changes in the auditory environment. MMN amplitude is smaller in groups of individuals with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. We compared duration-deviant MMN in 16 recent-onset and 19 chronic schizophrenia patients versus age- and sex-matched controls. Reduced frontal MMN was found in both patient groups, involved reduced hemispheric asymmetry, and was correlated with Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and negative symptom ratings. A cortically-constrained LORETA analysis, incorporating anatomical data from each individual's MRI, was performed to generate a current source density model of the MMN response over time. This model suggested MMN generation within a temporal, parietal and frontal network, which was right hemisphere dominant only in controls. An exploratory analysis revealed reduced CSD in patients in superior and middle temporal cortex, inferior and superior parietal cortex, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and superior and middle frontal cortex. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed. For the early phase of the MMN, patients had reduced bilateral temporal and parietal response and no lateralisation in frontal ROIs. For late MMN, patients had reduced bilateral parietal response and no lateralisation in temporal ROIs. In patients, correlations revealed a link between GAF and the MMN response in parietal cortex. In controls, the frontal response onset was 17 ms later than the temporal and parietal response. In patients, onset latency of the MMN response was delayed in secondary, but not primary, auditory cortex. However amplitude reductions were observed in both primary and secondary auditory cortex. These latency delays may indicate relatively intact information processing upstream of the primary auditory cortex, but impaired primary auditory cortex or cortico-cortical or

  12. Early effect of NEURAPAS® balance on current source density (CSD of human EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Klaus


    Full Text Available Abstract Psychiatric patients often suffer from stress, anxiety and depression. Various plant extracts are known to fight stress (valerian, anxiety (passion flower or depression (St. John's wort. NEURAPAS® balance is a mixture of these three extracts and has been designed to cover this complex of psychiatric conditions. The study was initiated to quantitatively assess the effect of this combination on brain electric activity. Method Quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG current source density (CSD recording from 16 healthy male and female human volunteers (average age 49 years was used in a randomized, placebo-controlled cross over study. Recordings were performed 0. 5, 1. 5, 3 and 4 hours after administration of the preparations under the conditions of 6 min eyes open and 5 min d2 concentration test, mathematical calculation test and memory test, respectively. All variables (electric power within 6 frequency ranges at 17 electrode positions were fed into a linear discriminant analysis (eyes open condition. In the presence of mental load these variables were used to construct brain maps of frequency changes. Results Under the condition of mental load, centro-parietal spectral power remained statistically significantly lower within alpha1, alpha2 and beta1 frequencies in the presence of verum in comparison to placebo. Discriminant analysis revealed a difference to placebo 3 and 4 hours after intake of 6 tablets of NEURAPAS® balance. Data location within the polydimensional space was projected into the area of the effects of sedative and anti-depressive reference drugs tested earlier under identical conditions. Results appeared closer to the effects of fluoxetine than to St. John's wort. Conclusions Analysis of the neurophysiological changes following the intake of NEURAPAS® balance revealed a similarity of frequency changes to those of calming and anti-depressive drugs on the EEG without impairment of cognition. Trial registration Clinical

  13. Geomagnetic paleointensity in historical pyroclastic density currents: Testing the effects of emplacement temperature and postemplacement alteration (United States)

    Bowles, Julie A.; Gee, Jeffrey S.; Jackson, Mike J.; Avery, Margaret S.


    Thellier-type paleointensity experiments were conducted on welded ash matrix or pumice from the 1912 Novarupta (NV) and 1980 Mt. St. Helens (MSH) pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) with the intention of evaluating their suitability for geomagnetic paleointensity studies. PDCs are common worldwide, but can have complicated thermal and alteration histories. We attempt to address the role that emplacement temperature and postemplacement hydrothermal alteration may play in nonideal paleointensity behavior of PDCs. Results demonstrate two types of nonideal behavior: unstable remanence in multidomain (MD) titanomagnetite, and nonideal behavior linked to fumarolic and vapor phase alteration. Emplacement temperature indirectly influences MSH results by controlling the fraction of homogenous MD versus oxyexsolved pseudo-single domain titanomagnetite. NV samples are more directly influenced by vapor phase alteration. The majority of NV samples show distinct two-slope behavior in the natural remanent magnetization—partial thermal remanent magnetization plots. We interpret this to arise from a (thermo)chemical remanent magnetization associated with vapor phase alteration, and samples with high water content (>0.75% loss on ignition) generate paleointensities that deviate most strongly from the true value. We find that PDCs can be productively used for paleointensity, but that—as with all paleointensity studies—care should be taken in identifying potential postemplacement alteration below the Curie temperature, and that large, welded flows may be more alteration-prone. One advantage in using PDCs is that they typically have greater areal (spatial) exposure than a basalt flow, allowing for more extensive sampling and better assessment of errors and uncertainty.

  14. Localization of endocardial ectopic activity by means of noninvasive endocardial surface current density reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai Dakun; Liu Chenguang; Eggen, Michael D; He Bin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, MN (United States); Iaizzo, Paul A, E-mail: [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, MN (United States)


    Localization of the source of cardiac ectopic activity has direct clinical benefits for determining the location of the corresponding ectopic focus. In this study, a recently developed current-density (CD)-based localization approach was experimentally evaluated in noninvasively localizing the origin of the cardiac ectopic activity from body-surface potential maps (BSPMs) in a well-controlled experimental setting. The cardiac ectopic activities were induced in four well-controlled intact pigs by single-site pacing at various sites within the left ventricle (LV). In each pacing study, the origin of the induced ectopic activity was localized by reconstructing the CD distribution on the endocardial surface of the LV from the measured BSPMs and compared with the estimated single moving dipole (SMD) solution and precise pacing site (PS). Over the 60 analyzed beats corresponding to ten pacing sites (six for each), the mean and standard deviation of the distance between the locations of maximum CD value and the corresponding PSs were 16.9 mm and 4.6 mm, respectively. In comparison, the averaged distance between the SMD locations and the corresponding PSs was slightly larger (18.4 {+-} 3.4 mm). The obtained CD distribution of activated sources extending from the stimulus site also showed high consistency with the endocardial potential maps estimated by a minimally invasive endocardial mapping system. The present experimental results suggest that the CD method is able to locate the approximate site of the origin of a cardiac ectopic activity, and that the distribution of the CD can portray the propagation of early activation of an ectopic beat.

  15. Non-axisymmetric equilibrium reconstruction and suppression of density limit disruptions in a current-carrying stellarator (United States)

    Ma, Xinxing; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Knowlton, S. F.; Maurer, D. A.


    Non-axisymmetric equilibrium reconstructions have been routinely performed with the V3FIT code in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH), a stellarator/tokamak hybrid. In addition to 50 external magnetic measurements, 160 SXR emissivity measurements are incorporated into V3FIT to reconstruct the magnetic flux surface geometry and infer the current distribution within the plasma. Improved reconstructions of current and q profiles provide insight into understanding the physics of density limit disruptions observed in current-carrying discharges in CTH. It is confirmed that the final scenario of the density limit of CTH plasmas is consistent with classic observations in tokamaks: current profile shrinkage leads to growing MHD instabilities (tearing modes) followed by a loss of MHD equilibrium. It is also observed that the density limit at a given current linearly increases with increasing amounts of 3D shaping fields. Consequently, plasmas with densities up to two times the Greenwald limit are attained. Equilibrium reconstructions show that addition of 3D fields effectively moves resonance surfaces towards the edge of the plasma where the current profile gradient is less, providing a stabilizing effect. This work is supported by US Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  16. Effect of Current Density on Thermodynamic Properties of Nanocrystalline Palladium Capped Samarium Hydride Thin Film Switchable Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar


    Full Text Available A 55 nm samarium film capped with a 10 nm palladium overlayer switched from a metallic reflecting to a semiconducting, transparent in visible state during ex-situ hydrogen loading via electrochemical means in 1 M KOH electrolytic aqueous solution at room temperature. The switching between metal to semiconductor was accompanied by measurement of transmittance during hydrogen loading/unloading. The effect of current density on switching and thermodynamic properties was studied between dihydride state (FCC phase and trihydride state (hexagonal phase. From the plateau of partial pressure of hydrogen at x=2.6, enthalpy of formation was calculated at different current densities. The diffusion coefficients and switching kinetics are shown to depend on applied current density.

  17. Influence of High-Current-Density Impulses on the Compression Behavior: Experiments with Iron and a Nickel-Based Alloy (United States)

    Demler, E.; Gerstein, G.; Dalinger, A.; Epishin, A.; Rodman, D.; Nürnberger, F.


    Difficulties of processing of high strength and/or brittle materials by plastic deformation, e.g., by forging, require to develop new industrial technologies. In particular, the feasible deformation rates are limited for low-ductile metallic materials. For this reason, processes were investigated to improve the deformability in which electrical impulses are to be applied to lower the yield strength. However, owing to the impulse duration and low current densities, concomitant effects always occur, e.g., as a result of Joule heating. Current developments in power electronics allow now to transmit high currents as short pulses. By reducing the impulse duration and increasing the current density, the plasticity of metallic materials can be correspondingly increased. Using the examples of polycrystalline iron and a single-crystal, nickel-based alloy (PWA 1480), current advances in the development of methods for forming materials by means of high-current-density impulses are demonstrated. For this purpose, appropriate specimens were loaded in compression and, using novel testing equipment, subjected to a current strength of 10 kA with an impulse duration of 2 ms. For a pre-defined strain, the test results show a significant decrease in the compressive stress during the compression test and a significant change in the dislocation distribution following the current impulse treatment.

  18. Design and Micromagnetic Simulation of Fe/L10-FePt/Fe Trilayer for Exchange Coupled Composite Bit Patterned Media at Ultrahigh Areal Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warunee Tipcharoen


    Full Text Available Exchange coupled composite bit patterned media (ECC-BPM are one candidate to solve the trilemma issues, overcome superparamagnetic limitations, and obtain ultrahigh areal density. In this work, the ECC continuous media and ECC-BPM of Fe/L10-FePt/Fe trilayer schemes are proposed and investigated based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The switching field, Hsw, of the hard phase in the proposed continuous ECC trilayer media structure is reduced below the maximum write head field at interlayer exchange coupling between hard and soft phases, Aex, higher than 20 pJ/m and its value is lower than that for continuous L10-FePt single layer media and L10-FePt/Fe bilayer. Furthermore, the Hsw of the proposed ECC-BPM is lower than the maximum write head field with exchange coupling coefficient between neighboring dots of 5 pJ/m and Aex over 10 pJ/m. Therefore, the proposed ECC-BPM trilayer has the highest potential and is suitable for ultrahigh areal density magnetic recording technology at ultrahigh areal density. The results of this work may be gainful idea for nanopatterning in magnetic media nanotechnology.

  19. Water mass exchanges between the Norwegian and Iceland seas over the Jan Mayen Ridge using in-situ current measurements (United States)

    Mork, Kjell Arne; Drinkwater, Kenneth F.; Jónsson, Steingrímur; Valdimarsson, Héðinn; Ostrowski, Marek


    The Jan Mayen Ridge, with bottom depths of 1000 m and less, runs southwards from Jan Mayen and separates the warmer and saltier Atlantic Water in the Norwegian Sea from the colder and fresher Arctic water in the Iceland Sea. During the International Polar Year (IPY, 2007-2008), three current meter moorings were deployed with the purpose to investigate water mass exchanges between the Norwegian and Iceland seas over the Ridge and their forcing mechanisms. These are the first in-situ current measurements for this region. The results showed relatively weak currents on the Ridge that frequently shifted direction except near-bottom and at the western slope of the Ridge. All current measurements showed low eddy activity and tidal velocities (less than 0.05 ms- 1). Wind-forced near-inertial motion generated from transient atmospheric low pressure systems were observed in the mixed layer being strongest during autumn and winter when ocean velocities reached 0.7 ms- 1. Near surface currents on the Ridge are influenced by local winds on a time scale of 6 days and longer, but during the two-year deployment no pronounced seasonal variation was observed, mainly due to a lack of seasonality in the local winds. In a 2000 m deep channel that cuts the Ridge, there was pronounced seasonal variation in the currents at all depths below 40 m with stronger flow toward the Iceland Sea during winter compared to summer. The variability of the deep current was found to be influenced by the large-scale wind stress curl. There was a weak net flow with averaged velocities of ~ 0.01 ms- 1 over the Ridge that was directed westward in the upper layer, signifying a small net transport of modified Atlantic Water into the Iceland Sea.

  20. The effects of incident electron current density and temperature on the total electron emission yield of polycrystalline CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhaj, M; Tondu, T; Inguimbert, V [ONERA/DESP 2, Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse Cedex (France); Barroy, Pierre; Silva, Francois; Gicquel, Alix, E-mail: Mohamed.Belhaj@onera.f [LIMHP, Universite Paris 13, CNRS Institut Galilee, 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)


    The effects of temperature and incident electron current density on the total electron emission yield (TEEY) of polycrystalline diamond deposited by the chemical vapour deposition technique (CVD) were investigated at low electron beam fluence. It was found that the TEEY reversibly increases with the temperature and reversibly decreases with the current density. This behaviour is explained on the basis of a dynamic competition between the accumulation of holes (positive space charge), which internally reduces the secondary electron emission, and the thermally activated conductivity that tends to reduce the space charge formation.

  1. Surface layer structure of AISI 1020 steel at different stages of dry sliding under electric current of high density (United States)

    Aleutdinov, K. A.; Rubtsov, V. Ye; Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.


    Wear intensity of the sliding electric contact steel 1020/steel 1045 depending on sliding time is presented at the contact current density higher than 100 A/cm2 without lubricant. It is shown that wear intensity of 1020 steel decreases at increasing of sliding time. Wear intensity is stabilized after some sliding time. This time (burn-in time) decreases at reduction of current density. Structural changes are realized in surface layer. Signs of liquid phase are observed on sliding surface. This liquid isn't a result of melting. It is established using Auger spectrometry that the contact layer contains up to 50 at.% of oxygen.

  2. Critical current density behaviors across a grain boundary inclined to current with different angles in YBa2Cu3O7-δ bicrystal junctions (United States)

    Tao, Hua; Wei-Wei, Xu; Zheng-Ming, Ji; Da-Yuan, Guo; Qing-Yun, Wang; Xiang-Rong, Ma; Rui-Yu, Liang


    The critical current density behaviors across a bicrystal grain boundary (GB) inclined to the current direction with different angles in YBa2Cu3O7-δ bicrystal junctions in magnetic fields are investigated. There are two main reasons for the difference in critical current density in junctions at different GB inclined angles in the same magnetic field: (i) the GB plane area determines the current carrying cross section; (ii) the vortex motion dynamics at the GB affects the critical current value when the vortex starts to move along the GB by Lorentz force. Furthermore, the vortex motion in a bicrystal GB is studied by investigating transverse (Hall) and longitudinal current-voltage characteristics (I-V xx and I-V xy ). It is found that the I-V xx curve diverges from linearity at a high driving current, while the I-V xy curve keeps nearly linear, which indicates the vortices inside the GB break out of the GB by Lorentz force. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61501222, 61371036, and 61571219) and the School Scientific Research Fund of Nanjing Institute of Technology, China (Grant Nos. YKJ201418).

  3. European seismological data exchange, access and processing: current status of the Research Infrastructure project NERIES (United States)

    Giardini, D.; van Eck, T.; Bossu, R.; Wiemer, S.


    The EC Research infrastructure project NERIES, an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative in seismology for 2006-2010 has passed its mid-term point. We will present a short concise overview of the current state of the project, established cooperation with other European and global projects and the planning for the last year of the project. Earthquake data archiving and access within Europe has dramatically improved during the last two years. This concerns earthquake parameters, digital broadband and acceleration waveforms and historical data. The Virtual European Broadband Seismic Network (VEBSN) consists currently of more then 300 stations. A new distributed data archive concept, the European Integrated Waveform Data Archive (EIDA), has been implemented in Europe connecting the larger European seismological waveform data. Global standards for earthquake parameter data (QuakeML) and tomography models have been developed and are being established. Web application technology has been and is being developed to make a jump start to the next generation data services. A NERIES data portal provides a number of services testing the potential capacities of new open-source web technologies. Data application tools like shakemaps, lossmaps, site response estimation and tools for data processing and visualisation are currently available, although some of these tools are still in an alpha version. A European tomography reference model will be discussed at a special workshop in June 2009. Shakemaps, coherent with the NEIC application, are implemented in, among others, Turkey, Italy, Romania, Switzerland, several countries. The comprehensive site response software is being distributed and used both inside and outside the project. NERIES organises several workshops inviting both consortium and non-consortium participants and covering a wide range of subjects: ‘Seismological observatory operation tools', ‘Tomography', ‘Ocean bottom observatories', 'Site response software training

  4. Energy transmission transformer for a wireless capsule endoscope: analysis of specific absorption rate and current density in biological tissue. (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Nagato, Tomohiro; Tsuji, Toshio; Koshiji, Kohji


    This paper reports on the electromagnetic influences on the analysis of biological tissue surrounding a prototype energy transmission system for a wireless capsule endoscope. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by electromagnetic simulator in a model consisting of primary coil and a human trunk including the skin, fat, muscle, small intestine, backbone, and blood. First, electric and magnetic strength in the same conditions as the analytical model were measured and compared to the analytical values to confirm the validity of the analysis. Then, SAR and current density as a function of frequency and output power were analyzed. The validity of the analysis was confirmed by comparing the analytical values with the measured ones. The SAR was below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). At the same time, the results for current density show that the influence on biological tissue was lowest in the 300-400 kHz range, indicating that it was possible to transmit energy safely up to 160 mW. In addition, we confirmed that the current density has decreased by reducing the primary coil's current.

  5. Influence of Electrolyte Modulus on the Local Current Density at a Dendrite Tip on a Lithium Metal Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, KJ; Higa, K; Srinivasan, V; Balsara, NP


    Understanding and controlling the electrochemical deposition of lithium is imperative for the safe use of rechargeable batteries with a lithium metal anode. Solid block copolymer electrolyte membranes are known to enhance the stability of lithium metal anodes by mechanically suppressing the formation of lithium protrusions during battery charging. Time-resolved hard X-ray microtomography was used to monitor the internal structure of a symmetric lithium-polymer cell during galvanostatic polarization. The microtomography images were used to determine the local rate of lithium deposition, i.e. local current density, in the vicinity of a lithium globule growing through the electrolyte. Measurements of electrolyte displacement enabled estimation of local stresses in the electrolyte. At early times, the current density was maximized at the globule tip, as expected from simple current distribution arguments. At later times, the current density was maximized at the globule perimeter. We show that this phenomenon is related to the local stress fields that arise as the electrolyte is deformed. The local current density, normalized for the radius of curvature, decreases with increasing compressive stresses at the lithium-polymer interface. To our knowledge, our study provides the first direct measurement showing the influence of local mechanical stresses on the deposition kinetics at lithium metal electrodes.

  6. The Merapi 2010 eruption: An interdisciplinary impact assessment methodology for studying pyroclastic density current dynamics (United States)

    Jenkins, S.; Komorowski, J.-C.; Baxter, P. J.; Spence, R.; Picquout, A.; Lavigne, F.; Surono


    The large explosive eruption of Merapi volcano, Indonesia, in 2010 presented a key, and rare, opportunity to study the impacts of a major explosive eruption in a densely populated area. Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) produced throughout the 2010 eruption were unusually destructive, causing near complete devastation across a 22 km2 swath of the densely populated southern flanks and casualties to the end of their runout at 15.5 km from the volcano. The majority (> 120) of the more than 200 fatalities occurred more than 12 km from the volcano, where many people were caught in PDCs as they were evacuating. The 2010 eruption (VEI 4) exhibited a range of PDC behaviour in a complex multi-stage event that marked a change in eruption behaviour at Merapi, being the first eruption of this magnitude and style since 1872. This shift in style may mark a change in regime, and so understanding the potential impact of such large explosive eruptions is essential for future risk-assessment at Merapi. We describe a new impact assessment methodology that allowed us to collect important empirical geological, damage and casualty information and reconstruct impact dynamics associated with the PDCs. In contrast to previous PDC impact studies, we combined remote, field, laboratory and GIS assessments and were able to enter the affected areas safely and before their disturbance by rains or human activity. By integrating the results of our geological, damage and medical studies, we could reconstruct the spatial and temporal dynamics of the PDCs and their main hazard characteristics. Our interdisciplinary methods and preliminary findings are discussed here. In the areas damaged by PDCs, we used empirical damage data and calculations of material and structural resistance to lateral force to estimate approximate dynamic pressures. Dynamic pressures associated with the 5 November paroxysm exceeded 15 kPa more than 6 km from source and rapidly attenuated over a distance of less than 1 km at

  7. A Counter-Current Heat-Exchange Reactor for the Thermal Stimulation of Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manja Luzi-Helbing


    Full Text Available Since huge amounts of CH4 are bound in natural gas hydrates occurring at active and passive continental margins and in permafrost regions, the production of natural gas from hydrate-bearing sediments has become of more and more interest. Three different methods to destabilize hydrates and release the CH4 gas are discussed in principle: thermal stimulation, depressurization and chemical stimulation. This study focusses on the thermal stimulation using a counter-current heat-exchange reactor for the in situ combustion of CH4. The principle of in situ combustion as a method for thermal stimulation of hydrate bearing sediments has been introduced and discussed earlier [1,2]. In this study we present the first results of several tests performed in a pilot plant scale using a counter-current heat-exchange reactor. The heat of the flameless, catalytic oxidation of CH4 was used for the decomposition of hydrates in sand within a LArge Reservoir Simulator (LARS. Different catalysts were tested, varying from diverse elements of the platinum group to a universal metal catalyst. The results show differences regarding the conversion rate of CH4 to CO2. The promising results of the latest reactor test, for which LARS was filled with sand and ca. 80% of the pore space was saturated with CH4 hydrate, are also presented in this study. The data analysis showed that about 15% of the CH4 gas released from hydrates would have to be used for the successful dissociation of all hydrates in the sediment using thermal stimulation via in situ combustion.

  8. Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging in live rabbit hearts using clinical intracardiac catheter (United States)

    Li, Qian

    Ultrasound Current Source Density Imaging (UCSDI) is a noninvasive modality for mapping electrical activities in the body (brain and heart) in 4-dimensions (space + time). Conventional cardiac mapping technologies for guiding the radiofrequency ablation procedure for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias have certain limitations. UCSDI can potentially overcome these limitations and enhance the electrophysiology mapping of the heart. UCSDI exploits the acoustoelectric (AE) effect, an interaction between ultrasound pressure and electrical resistivity. When an ultrasound beam intersects a current path in a material, the local resistivity of the material is modulated by the ultrasonic pressure, and a change in voltage signal can be detected based on Ohm's Law. The degree of modulation is determined by the AE interaction constant K. K is a fundamental property of any type of material, and directly affects the amplitude of the AE signal detected in UCSDI. UCSDI requires detecting a small AE signal associated with electrocardiogram. So sensitivity becomes a major challenge for transferring UCSDI to the clinic. This dissertation will determine the limits of sensitivity and resolution for UCSDI, balancing the tradeoff between them by finding the optimal parameters for electrical cardiac mapping, and finally test the optimized system in a realistic setting. This work begins by describing a technique for measuring K, the AE interaction constant, in ionic solution and biological tissue, and reporting the value of K in excised rabbit cardiac tissue for the first time. K was found to be strongly dependent on concentration for the divalent salt CuSO4, but not for the monovalent salt NaCl, consistent with their different chemical properties. In the rabbit heart tissue, K was determined to be 0.041 +/- 0.012 %/MPa, similar to the measurement of K in physiologic saline: 0.034 +/- 0.003 %/MPa. Next, this dissertation investigates the sensitivity limit of UCSDI by quantifying the relation

  9. Analysis of current density and specific absorption rate in biological tissue surrounding transcutaneous transformer for an artificial heart. (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Nukaya, Masayuki; Tsuji, Toshio; Koshiji, Kohji


    This paper reports on the current density and specific absorption rate (SAR) analysis of biological tissue surrounding an air-core transcutaneous transformer for an artificial heart. The electromagnetic field in the biological tissue is analyzed by the transmission line modeling method, and the current density and SAR as a function of frequency, output voltage, output power, and coil dimension are calculated. The biological tissue of the model has three layers including the skin, fat, and muscle. The results of simulation analysis show SARs to be very small at any given transmission conditions, about 2-14 mW/kg, compared to the basic restrictions of the International Commission on nonionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP; 2 W/kg), while the current density divided by the ICNIRP's basic restrictions gets smaller as the frequency rises and the output voltage falls. It is possible to transfer energy below the ICNIRP's basic restrictions when the frequency is over 250 kHz and the output voltage is under 24 V. Also, the parts of the biological tissue that maximized the current density differ by frequencies; in the low frequency is muscle and in the high frequency is skin. The boundary is in the vicinity of the frequency 600-1000 kHz.

  10. Charge and current density profiles of a degenerate magnetized free-electron gas near a hard wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kettenis, M.M.; Suttorp, L.G.


    The charge and current densities of a completely degenerate free-electron gas in a uniform magnetic field are found to have a damped oscillatory spatial dependence near a wall that is parallel to the magnetic field. For large distances from the wall the behaviour of the associated profile functions

  11. Effect of preionization, fluorine concentration, and current density on the discharge uniformity in F2 excimer laser gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathew, D.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Boller, Klaus J.; Peters, P.J.M.


    The discharge homogeneity in F2-based excimer laser gas mixtures and its dependence on various key parameters, such as the degree of preionization, preionization delay time, F2 concentration and current density, is investigated in a small x-ray preionized discharge chamber. The spatial and temporal

  12. The role of relativity in the optical response of gold within the time-dependent current-density-functional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaniello, P; de Boeij, PL


    We included relativistic effects in the formulation of the time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the calculation of linear response properties of metals [P. Romaniello and P. L. de Boeij, Phys. Rev. B (to be published)]. We treat the dominant scalar-relativistic effects using the

  13. Experimental investigation of the effect of titanium dioxide and barium titanate additives on DC transient currents in low density polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, M.S; Henk, Peter O; Henriksen, Mogens


    The effect of titanium dioxide as a semiconductive additive and barium titanate as a highly polar additive on the DC transient currents in low-density polyethylene is investigated. Experiments were made using thick specimens under a high electric field (>25×106 V/m) and a constant temperature of 40...

  14. Spatial localization of sources in the rat subthalamic motor region using an inverse current source density method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Kees Joab; Janssen, Marcus L.F.; Zwartjes - de Klerk, D.G.M; Temel, Yasin; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Veltink, Petrus H.; Benazzouz, Abdelhamid; Heida, Tjitske


    Objective: In this study we introduce the use of the current source density (CSD) method as a way to visualize the spatial organization of evoked responses in the rat subthalamic nucleus (STN) at fixed time stamps resulting from motor cortex stimulation. This method offers opportunities to visualize

  15. High Current, High Density Arc Plasma as a New Source for WiPAL (United States)

    Waleffe, Roger; Endrizzi, Doug; Myers, Rachel; Wallace, John; Clark, Mike; Forest, Cary; WiPAL Team


    The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Lab (WiPAL) has installed a new array of nineteen plasma sources (plasma guns) on its 3 m diameter, spherical vacuum vessel. Each gun is a cylindrical, molybdenum, washer-stabilized, arc plasma source. During discharge, the guns are maintained at 1.2 kA across 100 V for 10 ms by the gun power supply establishing a high density plasma. Each plasma source is fired independently allowing for adjustable plasma parameters, with densities varying between 1018 -1019 m-3 and electron temperatures of 5-15 eV. Measurements were characterized using a 16 tip Langmuir probe. The plasma source will be used as a background plasma for the magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), the Terrestrial Reconnection Experiment (TREX), and as the plasma source for a magnetic mirror experiment. Temperature, density, and confinement results will be presented. This work is supported by the DoE and the NSF.

  16. The use of segmented cathodes to determine the spoke current density distribution in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poolcharuansin, Phitsanu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); The Technological Plasma Research Unit, Department of Physics, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham 44150 (Thailand); Estrin, Francis Lockwood; Bradley, James W., E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)


    The localized target current density associated with quasi-periodic ionization zones (spokes) has been measured in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge using an array of azimuthally separated and electrical isolated probes incorporated into a circular aluminum target. For a particular range of operating conditions (pulse energies up to 2.2 J and argon pressures from 0.2 to 1.9 Pa), strong oscillations in the probe current density are seen with amplitudes up to 52% above a base value. These perturbations, identified as spokes, travel around the discharge above the target in the E×B direction. Using phase information from the angularly separated probes, the spoke drift speeds, angular frequencies, and mode number have been determined. Generally, at low HiPIMS pulse energies E{sub p} < 0.8 J, spokes appear to be chaotic in nature (with random arrival times), however as E{sub p} increases, coherent spokes are observed with velocities between 6.5 and 10 km s{sup −1} and mode numbers m = 3 or above. At E{sub p} > 1.8 J, the plasma becomes spoke-free. The boundaries between chaotic, coherent, and no-spoke regions are weakly dependent on pressure. During each HiPIMS pulse, the spoke velocities increase by about 50%. Such an observation is explained by considering spoke velocities to be determined by the critical ionization velocity, which changes as the plasma composition changes during the pulse. From the shape of individual current density oscillations, it appears that the leading edge of the spoke is associated with a slow increase in local current density to the target and the rear with a more rapid decrease. The measurements show that the discharge current density associated with individual spokes is broadly spread over a wide region of the target.

  17. Observations of an early Agulhas current retroflection event in 2001: A temporary cessation of inter-ocean exchange south of Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, H.M.; Lutjeharms, J.R.E.; Rouault, M.; Whittle, C.P.; de Ruijter, W.P.M.


    The exchange of heat and salt between the South Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean,at the Southern terminus of the Agulhas current, forms a crucial link in the global ocean circulation. It has been surmised that upstream retroflections in this current could produce temporary interruptions to the

  18. Observations of an early Agulhas current retroflection event in 2001: A temporary cessation of inter-ocean exchange south of Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aken, H.M.; Lutjeharms, J.R.E.; Rouault, M.; Whittle, C.; de Ruijter, W.P.M.


    The exchange of heat and salt between the South Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean, at the southern terminus of the Agulhas current, forms a crucial link in the global ocean circulation. It has been surmised that upstream retroflections in this current could produce temporary interruptions to the

  19. Cooling of Water in a Flask: Convection Currents in a Fluid with a Density Maximum (United States)

    Velasco, S.; White, J. A.; Roman, F. L.


    The effect of density inversion on the convective flow of water in a spherical glass flask cooled with the help of an ice-water bath is shown. The experiment was carried out by temperature measurements (cooling curves) taken at three different heights along the vertical diameter of the flask. Flows inside the flask are visualized by seeding the…

  20. Transport studies in polymer electrolyte fuel cell with porous metallic flow field at ultra high current density (United States)

    Srouji, Abdul-Kader

    Achieving cost reduction for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) requires a simultaneous effort in increasing power density while reducing precious metal loading. In PEFCs, the cathode performance is often limiting due to both the slow oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and mass transport limitation caused by limited oxygen diffusion and liquid water flooding at high current density. This study is motivated by the achievement of ultra-high current density through the elimination of the channel/land (C/L) paradigm in PEFC flow field design. An open metallic element (OME) flow field capable of operating at unprecedented ultra-high current density (3 A/cm2) introduces new advantages and limitations for PEFC operation. The first part of this study compares the OME with a conventional C/L flow field, through performance and electrochemical diagnostic tools such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results indicate the uniqueness of the OME's mass transport improvement. No sign of operation limitation due to flooding is noted. The second part specifically examines water management at high current density using the OME flow field. A unique experimental setup is developed to measure steady-state and transient net water drag across the membrane, in order to characterize the fundamental aspects of water transport at high current density with the OME. Instead of flooding, the new limitation is identified to be anode side dry-out of the membrane, caused by electroosmotic drag. The OME improves water removal from the cathode, which immediately improves oxygen transport and performance. However, the low water content in the cathode reduces back diffusion of water to the membrane, and electroosmotic drag dominates at high current density, leading to dry-out. The third part employs the OME flow field as a tool that avoids C/L effects endemic to a typical flow field, in order to study oxygen transport resistance at the catalyst layer of a PEFC. In open literature, a

  1. Effect of electrodeposition current density on the microstructure and the degradation of electroformed iron for degradable stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moravej, Maryam [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering and University Hospital Research Center, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Que. G1V 0A6 (Canada); Department of Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pavillon Adrien-Pouliot, 1065 avenue de la Medecine, Local 1745-E, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Que. G1V 0A6 (Canada); Amira, Sofiene [Aluminium Technology Centre, Industrial Materials Institute, National Research Council Canada, 501, boul. de l' Universite Est, Saguenay, Que. G7H 8C3 (Canada); Prima, Frederic [Laboratory for Physical Metallurgy, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6 (France); Rahem, Ahmed [Aluminium Technology Centre, Industrial Materials Institute, National Research Council Canada, 501, boul. de l' Universite Est, Saguenay, Que. G7H 8C3 (Canada); Fiset, Michel [Department of Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Pavillon Adrien-Pouliot, 1065 avenue de la Medecine, Local 1745-E, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Que. G1V 0A6 (Canada); and others


    Pure iron has become one of the most interesting candidate materials for degradable metallic stents due to its high mechanical properties and moderate degradation. In this work we studied the effect of electrodeposition current density on microstructure and degradation of pure iron films electrodeposited on Ti alloy substrate for degradable metallic stent application. Iron sheets were produced by electrodeposition using four different current densities 1, 2, 5 and 10 A dm{sup -2}. The films were then studied by SEM (scanning electron microscope) and EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) to observe the surface morphology, grain size and orientation. Potentiodynamic polarization and static immersion tests were used to determine the corrosion rate and to study the degradation behavior of iron films, respectively. The current density was found to significantly influence the texture, the grain size and the grain shape of the electrodeposited iron. At current densities of 1, 5 and 10 A dm{sup -2}, weak textures corresponding to Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 1 0 1 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 1 1 1 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 1 1 2 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket in the normal (electrodeposition) direction were obtained, respectively. At these current densities, average grain sizes smaller than 3 {mu}m were also obtained. However, at 2 A dm{sup -2}, a strong Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 1 1 1 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket //ND texture with density of 7.4 MUD was obtained with larger average grain size of 4.4 {mu}m. The microstructure of iron samples changed after annealing at 550 Degree-Sign C because of the induced recrystallization. Different corrosion rates were obtained from potentiodynamic polarization curves of iron films deposited at different current densities because of their microstructures. Fe-2 showed the lowest corrosion rate due to its larger grains size and its texture. The corrosion rates of all

  2. An experimental investigation of the dynamics of submarine leveed channel initiation as sediment-laden density currents experience sudden unconfinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, Joel C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hilley, George E [STANFORD UNIV; Fildani, Andrea [CHEVRON ETC


    Leveed submarine channels play a critical role in the transfer of sediment from the upper continental slopes to interslope basins and ultimately deepwater settings. Despite a reasonable understanding of how these channels grow once established, how such channels initiate on previously unchannelized portions of the seafloor remains poorly understood. We conducted a series of experiments that elucidate the influence of excess density relative to flow velocity on the dynamics of, and depositional morphologies arising from, density currents undergoing sudden unconfinement across a sloped bed. Experimental currents transported only suspended sediment across a non-erodible substrate. Under flow conditions ranging from supercritical to subcritical (bulk Richardson numbers of 0.02 to 1.2) our experiments failed to produce deposits resembling or exhibiting the potential to evolve into self-formed leveed channels. In the absence of excess density, a submerged sediment-laden flow produced sharp crested lateral deposits bounding the margins of the flow for approximately a distance of two outlet widths down basin. These lateral deposits terminated in a centerline deposit that greatly exceeded marginal deposits in thickness. As excess density increased relative to the outlet velocity, the rate of lateral spreading of the flow increased relative to the downstream propagation of the density current, transitioning from a narrow flow aligned with the channel outlet to a broad radially expanding flow. Coincident with these changes in flow dynamics, the bounding lateral deposits extended for shorter distances, had lower, more poorly defined crests that were increasingly wider in separation than the initial outlet, and progressively became more oblong rather than linear. Based on our results, we conclude that leveed channels cannot initiate from sediment-laden density currents under strictly depositional conditions. Partial confinement of these currents appears to be necessary to

  3. Effect of Magnetic Flux Density and Applied Current on Temperature, Velocity and Entropy Generation Distributions in MHD Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kiyasatfar


    Full Text Available In the present study, simulation of steady state, incompressible and fully developed laminar flow has been conducted in a magneto hydrodynamic (MHD pump. The governing equations are solved numerically by finite-difference method. The effect of the magnetic flux density and current on the flow and temperature distributions in a MHD pump is investigated. The obtained results showed that controlling the flow and the temperature is possible through the controlling of the applied current and the magnetic flux. Furthermore, the effects of the magnetic flux density and current on entropy generation in MHD pump are considered. Our presented numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data showed in literature.

  4. Microstructural and crystallographic imperfections of MgB2 superconducting wire and their correlation with the critical current density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shahabuddin


    Full Text Available A comprehensive study of the effects of structural imperfections in MgB2 superconducting wire has been conducted. As the sintering temperature becomes lower, the structural imperfections of the MgB2 material are increased, as reflected by detailed X-ray refinement and the normal state resistivity. The crystalline imperfections, caused by lattice disorder, directly affect the impurity scattering between the π and σ bands of MgB2, resulting in a larger upper critical field. In addition, low sintering temperature keeps the grain size small, which leads to a strong enhancement of pinning, and thereby, enhanced critical current density. Owing to both the impurity scattering and the grain boundary pinning, the critical current density, irreversibility field, and upper critical field are enhanced. Residual voids or porosities obviously remain in the MgB2, however, even at low sintering temperature, and thus block current transport paths.

  5. Energy exchange between the jets of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and synoptic eddies in the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea (United States)

    Koshlyakov, Mikhail; Savchenko, Darya; Tarakanov, Roman


    Energy exchange between the jets of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and ocean synoptic eddies in the surface layer of the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea is studied on the base of the satellite altimeter data for the period from 1993 to 2014 with the assumption that every ACC jet is enclosed between some fixed isopleths of the ocean surface absolute dynamics topography (ADT). All the ACC jets are dynamically unstable what results in the jet meandering, formation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies inside the meanders, intensification of the eddies up to reaching their maximum energy, subsequent eddy attenuation and their reverse merging with the mother jets. Corresponding fluctuations of the kinetic energy of the ACC jets and the eddies, generated by different jets, in the surface ocean layer were computed and analysed for the above mentioned 22 years period. As a main result of the analysis, if was confirmed that the kinetic energy of the ACC jets depends strongly on the intensivity of jet meandering and processes of eddy formation and reverse eddy absorption by the jets. Mean and extreme energy parameters of the jets and eddies were also estimated. The northern and middle jets of the South Polar Current are in the lead with respect to the formation of the ocean synoptic eddies.

  6. Diagnostics of the cesium amount in an RF negative ion source and the correlation with the extracted current density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail:; Falter, H.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Franzen, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bandyopadhyay, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heinemann, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kraus, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); McNeely, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Riedl, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Speth, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tanga, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wilhelm, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)


    The formation of negative ions in plasma sources by the surface process requires covering the extraction grid with a material of low work function. This can be achieved by cesium evaporation but for operational reasons the consumption of cesium should be minimised. In order to quantify the amount of cesium in the RF discharge optical emission spectroscopy is used as diagnostic tool. Suitable diagnostic lines and their analysis to obtain particle densities and particle fluxes are described. Influences of argon admixtures to hydrogen and deuterium discharges on cesium emission are shown. A correlation of the cesium emission with the extracted negative ion current density is discussed.

  7. Effects of Duty Cycle, Current Frequency, and Current Density on Corrosion Behavior of the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings on 6061 Al Alloy in Artificial Seawater (United States)

    Vakili-Azghandi, Mojtaba; Fattah-alhosseini, Arash


    In this study, the effects of duty cycle, current frequency, and current density on corrosion behavior of the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings on 6061 Al alloy in artificial seawater (3.5 wt pct NaCl solution) were investigated. To serve this purpose, the electrical parameters of a unipolar pulsed current were applied during the PEO process on 6061 Al alloy in alkaline silicate electrolyte with and without Al2O3 nanoparticles. The coating morphology and microstructure were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion behavior and electrochemical response of the specimens treated by plasma electrolytic oxidation were analyzed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the potentiodynamic polarization in artificial seawater. It was found that PEO coatings formed in the presence of Al2O3 nanoparticle had lower porosity and exhibited better corrosion behavior compared with the coatings formed in the absence of Al2O3 nanoparticle in the structure. This can be attributed to the nanoparticles' incorporation and penetration through the PEO coatings. On the other hand, the decrease in the current density and increases in the duty cycle and frequency lead to further reduction of the nanoparticles' incorporation and distribution on the coating surface.

  8. Immobilization of bilirubin oxidase on graphene oxide flakes with different negative charge density for oxygen reduction. The effect of GO charge density on enzyme coverage, electron transfer rate and current density. (United States)

    Filip, Jaroslav; Andicsová-Eckstein, Anita; Vikartovská, Alica; Tkac, Jan


    Previously we showed that an effective bilirubin oxidase (BOD)-based biocathode using graphene oxide (GO) could be prepared in 2 steps: 1. electrostatic adsorption of BOD on GO; 2. electrochemical reduction of the BOD-GO composite to form a BOD-ErGO (electrochemically reduced GO) film on the electrode. In order to identify an optimal charge density of GO for BOD-ErGO composite preparation, several GO fractions differing in an average flake size and ζ-potential were prepared using centrifugation and consequently employed for BOD-ErGO biocathode preparation. A simple way to express surface charge density of these particular GO nanosheets was developed. The values obtained were then correlated with biocatalytic and electrochemical parameters of the prepared biocathodes, i.e. electrocatalytically active BOD surface coverage (Γ), heterogeneous electron transfer rate (kS) and a maximum biocatalytic current density. The highest bioelectrocatalytic current density of (597±25)μAcm(-2) and the highest Γ of (23.6±0.9)pmolcm(-2) were obtained on BOD-GO composite having the same moderate negative charge density, but the highest kS of (79.4±4.6)s(-1) was observed on BOD-GO composite having different negative charge density. This study is a solid foundation for others to consider the influence of a charge density of GO on direct bioelectrochemistry/bioelectrocatalysis of other redox enzymes applicable for construction of biosensors, bioanodes, biocathodes or biofuel cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Exchange rate in a Dynamic-Optimizing Current Account Model with Nominal Rigidities: A Quantitative Investigation


    Kollmann, R.


    This paper studies dynamic-optimizing model of a semi-small open economy with sticky nominal prices and wages. The model exhibits exchange rate overshooting in response to money supply shocks. The predicted variability of nominal and real exchange rates is roughly consistent with that of G-7 effective exchange rates during the post-Bretton Woods era. The model predicts that a positive domestic money supply shock lowers the domestic nominal interest rate, that it raises output and that it lead...

  10. Adolescent erythrocytes: influence of high density lipoproteins-cholesterol (HDL-c) plasmatic levels on Na+/Li+ exchange kinetics. (United States)

    Serrani, Raquel; Taborda, Diego; DeMaria, Ines; Corchs, Juan


    An inverse relationship between HDL-c plasmatic levels and Li+ flux (Na+-Li+ exchange mediated) has been reported in normotensive individuals with hypertensive ancestors as well as in essential hypertensive subjects. This lipoprotein reaction with plasmatic membrane components induces modifications in membrane transport mechanisms as well as in cellular enzymes. In this paper we present data on Li+ flux (Na+-Li+ exchange mediated) in red blood cells from normotensive individuals without hypertensive ancestors. Kinetic analysis of Li+ efflux as a function of Na+(extracell) concentration was carried out. Vmax and Km values were determined. HDL-c plasmatic levels were also determined. Vmax showed a significant inverse correlation with HDL-c levels. No significant correlation of Km values with HDL-c levels was observed. The data presented support previous data showing that variable Vmax is sensitive to cellular environmental factors. Otherwise the Km variable not influenced by these factors is sensitive to hereditary influences.

  11. Nitric acid oxidation of Si to form ultrathin silicon dioxide layers with a low leakage current density (United States)

    Kobayashi Asuha, Hikaru; Maida, Osamu; Takahashi, Masao; Iwasa, Hitoo


    Ultrathin silicon dioxide (SiO2) layers with excellent electrical characteristics can be formed using the nitric acid oxidation of Si (NAOS) method, i.e., by immersion of Si in nitric acid (HNO3) solutions. The SiO2 layer formed with 61 wt % HNO3 at its boiling temperature of 113 °C has a 1.3 nm thickness with a considerably high density leakage current. When the SiO2 layer is formed in 68 wt % HNO3 (i.e., azeotropic mixture with water), on the other hand, the leakage current density (e.g., 1.5 A/cm2 at the forward gate bias, VG, of 1 V) becomes as low as that of thermally grown SiO2 layers, in spite of the nearly identical SiO2 thickness of 1.4 nm. Due to the relatively low leakage current density of the NAOS oxide layer, capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves can be measured in spite of the ultrathin oxide thickness. However, a hump is present in the C-V curve, indicating the presence of high-density interface states. Fourier transformed infrared absorption measurements show that the atomic density of the SiO2 layers increases by 7% with an increase in the HNO3 concentration from 61 to 68 wt %. Measurements of valence band spectra clarify that this concentration increase causes the enhancement of the valence band discontinuity at the Si/SiO2 interface from 4.1 to 4.3 eV. When postmetallization annealing (PMA) treatment is performed at 400 °C in hydrogen on chemical SiO2/Si(100)> metal-oxide-semiconductor diodes, the leakage current density markedly increases, and this increase is attributed to a reaction between the Al electrode and the chemical SiO2 layer, resulting in a decrease in the SiO2 thickness. With PMA at 200 °C in hydrogen, on the other hand, the SiO2 thickness decreases only slightly to 1.3 nm. In this case, the leakage current density greatly decreases (e.g., 0.4 A/cm2 at VG=1 V and 5×10-3 A/cm2 at VG=-1 V), and consequently it becomes 1/3-1/10 of those for thermally grown SiO2 layers with the same thickness. The hump in the C-V curves disappears after

  12. A theoretical analysis of the electromigration-induced void morphological evolution under high current density (United States)

    Wang, Yuexing; Yao, Yao


    In this work, analysis of electromigration-induced void morphological evolution in solder interconnects is performed based on mass diffusion theory. The analysis is conducted for three typical experimentally observed void shapes: circular, ellipse, and cardioid. Void morphological evolution is governed by the competition between the electric field and surface capillary force. In the developed model, both the electric field and capillary force on the void's surface are solved analytically. Based on the mass conversation principle, the normal velocity on the void surface during diffusion is obtained. The void morphological evolution behavior is investigated, and a physical model is developed to predict void collapse to a crack or to split into sub-voids under electric current. It is noted that when the electric current is being applied from the horizontal direction, a circular void may either move stably along the electric current direction or collapse to a finger shape, depending on the relative magnitude of the electric current and surface capillary force. However, the elliptical-shaped void will elongate along the electric current direction and finally collapse to the finger shape. On the other hand, the cardioid-shaped void could bifurcate into two sub-voids when the electric current reaches a critical value. The theoretical predictions agree well with the experimental observations.

  13. Sleepwalking episodes are preceded by arousal-related activation in the cingulate motor area: EEG current density imaging. (United States)

    Januszko, Piotr; Niemcewicz, Szymon; Gajda, Tomasz; Wołyńczyk-Gmaj, Dorota; Piotrowska, Anna Justyna; Gmaj, Bartłomiej; Piotrowski, Tadeusz; Szelenberger, Waldemar


    To investigate local arousal fluctuations in adults who received ICSD-2 diagnosis of somnambulism. EEG neuroimaging (eLORETA) was utilized to compare current density distribution for 4s epochs immediately preceding sleepwalking episode (from -4.0 s to 0 s) to the distribution during earlier 4s epochs (from -8.0 s to -4.0 s) in 20 EEG segments from 15 patients. Comparisons between eLORETA images revealed significant (t>4.52; psleepwalking, with greater current density within beta 3 frequency range (24-30 Hz) in Brodmann areas 33 and 24. Sleepwalking motor events are associated with arousal-related activation of cingulate motor area. These results support the notion of blurred boundaries between wakefulness and NREM sleep in sleepwalking. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Visualizing the mechanism that determines the critical current density in polycrystalline superconductors using time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory.


    Carty, G. J.; Hampshire, D. P.


    In polycrystalline superconducting materials optimized for high critical current density (JC) in high magnetic fields, the mechanism that determines JC has long remained uncertain because of the complicated manner in which the fluxon-fluxon and fluxon-microstructure forces combine. In this work, the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations are used to produce visualizations of fluxons at JC that show the disorder in the pinned part of the flux-line lattice and the motion of those fluxons alon...

  15. Particle-vibration coupling and exchange-current effects on the magnetic electron-scattering form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krewald, S.; Lallena, A.M.; Dehesa, J.S.


    Inelastic electron-scattering form factors of magnetic states in closed-shell nuclei are calculated taking into account the combined effect of the mesonic degrees of freedom and the two-particle-two-hole components of the nuclear wave functions which come from the particle-core vibration coupling. The one-body nucleon- and two-body meson-exchange current contribution to the form factor are evaluated with the same realistic mean field. Application to various high-spin magnetic states of oxygen and lead is made. The comparison with experiment shows an excellent agreement for the states 14/sup -/(6.74 MeV) and 12/sup -/sub(t)(7.06 MeV) in lead, while such is not the case for the second 12/sup -//sub 2/(6.43 MeV) state in lead and the 4/sup -/(18.98 MeV) state in oxygen essentially due to mixing configuration effects and the non-consideration of 3p3h excitations, respectively. (orig.).

  16. Angular dependence of critical current density and magnetoresistance of sputtered high-T{sub c}-films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerkens, A.; Frenck, H.J.; Ewert, S. [Technical Univ. of Cottbus (Germany)] [and others


    The angular dependence of the critical current density and the magnetoresistance of high-T{sub c}-films in high and low magnetic fields and for different temperatures were measured to investigate the flux pinning and the superconducting properties. A comparison of the results for the different superconductors shows their increasing dependence on the angle {Theta} between the magnetic field and the c-axis of the film due to the anisotropy of the chosen superconductor. Furthermore the influence of the current direction to the {Theta}-rotation plane is discussed.

  17. Temperature dependence of persistent spin currents in a spin-orbit-coupled electron gas: A density-matrix approach (United States)

    Bencheikh, K.; Vignale, G.


    We present a simple analytical method, based on the canonical density matrix, for the calculation of the equilibrium spin current as a function of temperature in a two-dimensional electron gas with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling terms. We find that the persistent spin current is extremely robust against thermal disorder: its variation with temperature is exponentially small (∝e-TF/T) at temperatures much smaller than the Fermi temperature TF and changes to a power law TF/T for T≫TF .

  18. Obtaining source current density related to irregularly structured electromagnetic target field inside human body using hybrid inverse/FDTD method. (United States)

    Han, Jijun; Yang, Deqiang; Sun, Houjun; Xin, Sherman Xuegang


    Inverse method is inherently suitable for calculating the distribution of source current density related with an irregularly structured electromagnetic target field. However, the present form of inverse method cannot calculate complex field-tissue interactions. A novel hybrid inverse/finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method that can calculate the complex field-tissue interactions for the inverse design of source current density related with an irregularly structured electromagnetic target field is proposed. A Huygens' equivalent surface is established as a bridge to combine the inverse and FDTD method. Distribution of the radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field on the Huygens' equivalent surface is obtained using the FDTD method by considering the complex field-tissue interactions within the human body model. The obtained magnetic field distributed on the Huygens' equivalent surface is regarded as the next target. The current density on the designated source surface is derived using the inverse method. The homogeneity of target magnetic field and specific energy absorption rate are calculated to verify the proposed method.

  19. Development of large high current density superconducting solenoid magnets for use in high energy physics experiments. [Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.A.


    The development of a unique type of large superconducting solenoid magnet, characterized by very high current density windings and a two-phase helium tubular cooling system is described. The development of the magnet's conceptual design and the construction of two test solenoids are described. The successful test of the superconducting coil and its tubular cooling refrigeration system is presented. The safety, environmental and economic impacts of the test program on future developments in high energy physics are shown. Large solid angle particle detectors for colliding beam physics will analyze both charged and neutral particles. In many cases, these detectors will require neutral particles, such as gamma rays, to pass through the magnet coil with minimum interaction. The magnet coils must be as thin as possible. The use of superconducting windings allows one to minimize radiation thickness, while at the same time maximizing charged particle momentum resolution and saving substantial quantities of electrical energy. The results of the experimental measurements show that large high current density solenoid magnets can be made to operate at high stored energies. The superconducting magnet development described has a positive safety and environmental impact. The use of large high current density thin superconducting solenoids has been proposed in two high energy physics experiments to be conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and Cornell University as a result of the successful experiments described.

  20. Enhanced critical current density in the pressure-induced magnetic state of the high-temperature superconductor FeSe (United States)

    Jung, Soon-Gil; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Park, Eunsung; Lee, Sangyun; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan; Chareev, Dmitriy A.; Vasiliev, Alexander N.; Park, Tuson


    We investigate the relation of the critical current density (Jc) and the remarkably increased superconducting transition temperature (Tc) for the FeSe single crystals under pressures up to 2.43 GPa, where the Tc is increased by ~8 K/GPa. The critical current density corresponding to the free flux flow is monotonically enhanced by pressure which is due to the increase in Tc, whereas the depinning critical current density at which the vortex starts to move is more influenced by the pressure-induced magnetic state compared to the increase of Tc. Unlike other high-Tc superconductors, FeSe is not magnetic, but superconducting at ambient pressure. Above a critical pressure where magnetic state is induced and coexists with superconductivity, the depinning Jc abruptly increases even though the increase of the zero-resistivity Tc is negligible, directly indicating that the flux pinning property compared to the Tc enhancement is a more crucial factor for an achievement of a large Jc. In addition, the sharp increase in Jc in the coexisting superconducting phase of FeSe demonstrates that vortices can be effectively trapped by the competing antiferromagnetic order, even though its antagonistic nature against superconductivity is well documented. These results provide new guidance toward technological applications of high-temperature superconductors. PMID:26548444

  1. Microstructure and Properties of Ni and Ni/Al2O3 Coatings Electrodeposited at Various Current Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Góral A.


    Full Text Available The study presents investigations of an influence of various direct current densities on microstructure, residual stresses, texture, microhardness and corrosion resistance of the nickel coatings electrodeposited from modified Watt’s baths. The properties of obtained coatings were compared to the nano-crystalline composite Ni/Al2O3 coatings prepared under the same plating conditions. The similarities and differences of the obtained coatings microstructures visible on both their surfaces and cross sections and determined properties were presented. The differences in the growth character of the Ni matrix and in the microstructural properties were observed. All electrodeposited Ni and Ni/Al2O3 coatings were compact and well adhering to the steel substrates. The thickness and the microhardness of the Ni and Ni/Al2O3 deposits increased significantly with the current density in the range 2 - 6 A/dm2. Residual stresses are tensile and they reduced as the current density increased. The composite coatings revealed better protection from the corrosion of steel substrate than pure nickel in solution 1 M NaCl.

  2. Optimization of C/N and current density in a heterotrophic/biofilm-electrode autotrophic denitrification reactor (HAD-BER). (United States)

    Tong, Shuang; Chen, Nan; Wang, Heng; Liu, Hengyuan; Tao, Chen; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Baogang; Hao, Chunbo; Pu, Jiaoyang; Zhao, Jiamin


    In this study, central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to optimize the C/N and current density in a heterotrophic/biofilm-electrode autotrophic denitrification reactor (HAD-BER). Results showed that nitrate could be effectively reduced over a wide range of C/Ns (0.84-1.3535) and current densities (96.8-370.0 mA/m(2)); however, an optimum C/N of 1.13 and optimum current density of 239.6 mA/m(2) were obtained by RSM. Moreover, the HAD-BER performance under the optimum conditions resulted in almost 100% nitrate-N removal efficiency and low nitrite-N and ammonia-N accumulation. Furthermore, under the optimum conditions, H2 generated from water electrolysis matched the CO2 produced by heterotrophic denitrification by stoichiometric calculation. Therefore, CCD and RSM could be used to acquire optimum operational conditions and improve the nitrate removal efficiency and energy consumption in the HAD-BER. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High Current Density InAsSb/GaSb Tunnel Field Effect Transistors


    Dey, Anil; Borg, Mattias; Ganjipour, Bahram; Ek, Martin; Dick Thelander, Kimberly; Lind, Erik; Nilsson, Peter; Thelander, Claes; Wernersson, Lars-Erik


    Steep-slope devices, such as tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), have recently gained interest due to their potential for low power operation at room temperature. The devices are based on inter-band tunneling which could limit the on-current since the charge carriers must tunnel through a barrier to traverse the device. The InAs/GaSb heterostructure forms a broken type II band alignment which enables inter-band tunneling without a barrier, allowing high on-currents. We ha...

  4. 76 FR 68808 - Exchange Visitor Program-Cap on Current Participant Levels and Moratorium on New Sponsor... (United States)


    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-28810] DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7677] Exchange Visitor Program--Cap on... January 1, 2012, the Department is restricting the size of the Exchange Visitor Program (J-1visa) category...) program allows foreign post-secondary students to come to the United States during their major academic...

  5. Particle image velocimetry measurements and numerical modeling of a saline density current

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, G


    Full Text Available between the current and the less dense ambient fluid to be investigated. Reynolds stress, Reynolds flux, and shear production of turbulent kinetic-energy profiles revealed local maxima at the bed, as well as at the interface with the ambient fluid...

  6. Correlations of current parameters with flash density from winter thunderstorms in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Ishii, M.; Saito, M.


    characterized by higher charge, specific energy, and peak current. On the contrary, inactive winter thunderstorms produce not only fewer discharges but also show lower transferred charge amounts. Average charge and specific energy of individual flashes from very active winter thunderstorms with more than 1000...

  7. Electrical conductivity of the hippocampal CA1 layers and application to current-source-density analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsheimer, J.


    The microstructure of the layers in the hippocampal CA1 area suggests that differences may exist between the electrical conductivities of these layers. In order to quantify these differences a sinusoidal current was applied to hippocampal slices in a bathing medium and potential differences were

  8. Density-matrix simulation of small surface codes under current and projected experimental noise (United States)

    O'Brien, T. E.; Tarasinski, B.; DiCarlo, L.


    We present a density-matrix simulation of the quantum memory and computing performance of the distance-3 logical qubit Surface-17, following a recently proposed quantum circuit and using experimental error parameters for transmon qubits in a planar circuit QED architecture. We use this simulation to optimize components of the QEC scheme (e.g., trading off stabilizer measurement infidelity for reduced cycle time) and to investigate the benefits of feedback harnessing the fundamental asymmetry of relaxation-dominated error in the constituent transmons. A lower-order approximate calculation extends these predictions to the distance-5 Surface-49. These results clearly indicate error rates below the fault-tolerance threshold of the surface code, and the potential for Surface-17 to perform beyond the break-even point of quantum memory. However, Surface-49 is required to surpass the break-even point of computation at state-of-the-art qubit relaxation times and readout speeds.

  9. Mammographic density and breast cancer risk: current understanding and future prospects (United States)


    Variations in percent mammographic density (PMD) reflect variations in the amounts of collagen and number of epithelial and non-epithelial cells in the breast. Extensive PMD is associated with a markedly increased risk of invasive breast cancer. The PMD phenotype is important in the context of breast cancer prevention because extensive PMD is common in the population, is strongly associated with risk of the disease, and, unlike most breast cancer risk factors, can be changed. Work now in progress makes it likely that measurement of PMD will be improved in the near future and that understanding of the genetics and biological basis of the association of PMD with breast cancer risk will also improve. Future prospects for the application of PMD include mammographic screening, risk prediction in individuals, breast cancer prevention research, and clinical decision making. PMID:22114898

  10. Relationship between anode material, supporting electrolyte and current density during electrochemical degradation of organic compounds in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán-Duque, Fernando L. [Grupo de diagnóstico y control de la contaminación, Facultad de ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Palma-Goyes, Ricardo E. [Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquía Udea, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); González, Ignacio [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No 186, C.P 09340, México D.F (Mexico); Peñuela, Gustavo [Grupo de diagnóstico y control de la contaminación, Facultad de ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Torres-Palma, Ricardo A., E-mail: [Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquía Udea, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia)


    Highlights: • Pathway and efficiency are linked to the current-electrode–electrolyte interaction. • Unlike BDD, IrO{sub 2} route was independent of current but dependent on the electrolyte. • IrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} routes were via IrO{sub 3} and chlorine species, respectively. • BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} systems were favored at low and high currents, respectively. - Abstract: Taking crystal violet (CV) dye as pollutant model, the electrode, electrolyte and current density (i) relationship for electro-degrading organic molecules is discussed. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Iridium dioxide (IrO{sub 2}) used as anode materials were tested with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or NaCl as electrolytes. CV degradation and generated oxidants showed that degradation pathways and efficiency are strongly linked to the current density-electrode–electrolyte interaction. With BDD, the degradation pathway depends on i: If i < the limiting current density (i{sub lim}), CV is mainly degraded by ·OH radicals, whereas if i > i{sub lim}, generated oxidants play a major role in the CV elimination. When IrO{sub 2} was used, CV removal was not dependent on i, but on the electrolyte. Pollutant degradation in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on IrO{sub 2} seems to occur via IrO{sub 3}; however, in the presence of NaCl, degradation was dependent on the chlorinated oxidative species generated. In terms of efficiency, the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte showed better results than NaCl when BDD anodes were employed. On the contrary, NaCl was superior when combined with IrO{sub 2}. Thus, the IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} and BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} systems were better at removing the pollutant, being the former the most effective. On the other hand, pollutant degradation with the BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} systems is favored at low and high current densities, respectively.

  11. Long-range corrected density functional theory with accelerated Hartree-Fock exchange integration using a two-Gaussian operator [LC-ωPBE(2Gau)]. (United States)

    Song, Jong-Won; Hirao, Kimihiko


    Since the advent of hybrid functional in 1993, it has become a main quantum chemical tool for the calculation of energies and properties of molecular systems. Following the introduction of long-range corrected hybrid scheme for density functional theory a decade later, the applicability of the hybrid functional has been further amplified due to the resulting increased performance on orbital energy, excitation energy, non-linear optical property, barrier height, and so on. Nevertheless, the high cost associated with the evaluation of Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange integrals remains a bottleneck for the broader and more active applications of hybrid functionals to large molecular and periodic systems. Here, we propose a very simple yet efficient method for the computation of long-range corrected hybrid scheme. It uses a modified two-Gaussian attenuating operator instead of the error function for the long-range HF exchange integral. As a result, the two-Gaussian HF operator, which mimics the shape of the error function operator, reduces computational time dramatically (e.g., about 14 times acceleration in C diamond calculation using periodic boundary condition) and enables lower scaling with system size, while maintaining the improved features of the long-range corrected density functional theory.

  12. Sedimentology and geomorphology of the deposits from the August 2006 pyroclastic density currents at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador. (United States)

    Douillet, Guilhem Amin; Tsang-Hin-Sun, Ève; Kueppers, Ulrich; Letort, Jean; Pacheco, Daniel Alejandro; Goldstein, Fabian; Von Aulock, Felix; Lavallée, Yan; Hanson, Jonathan Bruce; Bustillos, Jorge; Robin, Claude; Ramón, Patricio; Hall, Minard; Dingwell, Donald B

    The deposits of the pyroclastic density currents from the August 2006 eruption of Tungurahua show three facies associations depending on the topographic setting: the massive, proximal cross-stratified, and distal cross-stratified facies. (1) The massive facies is confined to valleys on the slopes of the volcano. It contains clasts of >1 m diameter to fine ash material, is massive, and interpreted as deposited from dense pyroclastic flows. Its surface can exhibit lobes and levees covered with disk-shaped and vesicular large clasts. These fragile large clasts must have rafted at the surface of the flows all along the path in order to be preserved, and thus imply a sharp density boundary near the surface of these flows. (2) The proximal cross-stratified facies is exposed on valley overbanks on the upper part of the volcano and contains both massive coarse-grained layers and cross-stratified ash and lapilli bedsets. It is interpreted as deposited from (a) dense pyroclastic flows that overflowed the gentle ridges of valleys of the upper part of the volcano and (b) dilute pyroclastic density currents created from the dense flows by the entrainment of air on the steep upper flanks. (3) The distal cross-stratified facies outcrops as spatially limited, isolated, and wedge-shaped bodies of cross-stratified ash deposits located downstream of cliffs on valleys overbanks. It contains numerous aggrading dune bedforms, whose crest orientations reveal parental flow directions. A downstream decrease in the size of the dune bedforms, together with a downstream fining trend in the grain size distribution are observed on a 100-m scale. This facies is interpreted to have been deposited from dilute pyroclastic density currents with basal tractional boundary layers. We suggest that the parental flows were produced from the dense flows by entrainment of air at cliffs, and that these diluted currents might rapidly deposit through "pneumatic jumps". Three modes are present in the grain

  13. Doubling the critical current density of high temperature superconducting coated conductors through proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Y.; LeRoux, M.; Miller, D. J.; Wen, J. G.; Kwok, W. K.; Welp, U. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rupich, M. W.; Li, X.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Fleshler, S.; Malozemoff, A. P. [American Superconductor Corp., 64 Jackson Road, Devens, Massachusetts 01434 (United States); Kayani, A. [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008-5252 (United States); Ayala-Valenzuela, O.; Civale, L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS-K764, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)


    The in-field critical current of commercial YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} coated conductors can be substantially enhanced by post-fabrication irradiation with 4 MeV protons. Irradiation to a fluence of 8 × 10{sup 16} p/cm{sup 2} induces a near doubling of the critical current in fields of 6 T || c at a temperature of 27 K, a field and temperature range of interest for applications, such as rotating machinery. A mixed pinning landscape of preexisting precipitates and twin boundaries and small, finely dispersed irradiation induced defects may account for the improved vortex pinning in high magnetic fields. Our data indicate that there is significant head-room for further enhancements.

  14. Observations of an early Agulhas current retroflection event in 2001: a temporary cessation of inter-ocean exchange south of Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aken, HM


    Full Text Available The exchange of heat and salt between the South Indian Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean, at the southern terminus of the Agulhas current, forms a crucial link in the global ocean circulation. It has been surmised that upstream retroflections...

  15. The role of relativity in the optical response of gold within the time-dependent current-density-functional theory. (United States)

    Romaniello, P; de Boeij, P L


    We included relativistic effects in the formulation of the time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the calculation of linear response properties of metals [P. Romaniello and P. L. de Boeij, Phys. Rev. B (to be published)]. We treat the dominant scalar-relativistic effects using the zeroth-order regular approximation in the ground-state density-functional theory calculations, as well as in the time-dependent response calculations. The results for the dielectric function of gold calculated in the spectral range of 0-10 eV are compared with experimental data reported in literature and recent ellipsometric measurements. As well known, relativistic effects strongly influence the color of gold. We find that the onset of interband transitions is shifted from around 3.5 eV, obtained in a nonrelativistic calculation, to around 1.9 eV when relativity is included. With the inclusion of the scalar-relativistic effects there is an overall improvement of both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function over the nonrelativistic ones. Nevertheless some important features in the absorption spectrum are not well reproduced, but can be explained in terms of spin-orbit coupling effects. The remaining deviations are attributed to the underestimation of the interband gap (5d-6sp band gap) in the local-density approximation and to the use of the adiabatic local-density approximation in the response calculation.

  16. Ni/YSZ electrode degradation studied by impedance spectroscopy: Effects of gas cleaning and current density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    on the anode degradation, tests were set-up both with and without gas cleaning. Gas cleaning was done by passing the H2 over porous nickel at room temperature. It was found that cleaning of the inlet H2 gas more than halved the anode degradation under current load. For tests at OCV the increase in the Ni...... at OCV prior to fuel cell testing provided fuel cell tests with minimal/negligible anode degradation compared to tests where fuel cell testing was started immediately after initial characterization of the cells....

  17. Inside pyroclastic density currents - uncovering the enigmatic flow structure and transport behaviour in large-scale experiments (United States)

    Breard, Eric C. P.; Lube, Gert


    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are the most lethal threat from volcanoes. While there are two main types of PDCs (fully turbulent, fully dilute pyroclastic surges and more concentrated pyroclastic flows encompassing non-turbulent to turbulent transport) pyroclastic flows, which are the subject of the present study, are far more complex than dilute pyroclastic surges and remain the least understood type despite their far greater hazard, greater runout length and ability to transport vast quantities of material across the Earth's surface. Here we present large-scale experiments of natural volcanic material and gas in order to provide the missing quantitative view of the internal structure and gas-particle transport mechanisms in pyroclastic flows. We show that the outer flow structure with head, body and wake regions broadly resembles current PDC analogues of dilute gravity currents. However, the internal structure, in which lower levels consist of a concentrated granular fluid and upper levels are more dilute, contrasts significantly with the internal structure of fully dilute gravity currents. This bipartite vertical structure shows strong analogy to current conceptual models of high-density turbidity currents, which are responsible for the distribution of coarse sediment in marine basins and of great interest to the hydrocarbon industry. The lower concentrated and non-turbulent levels of the PDC (granular-fluid basal flow) act as a fast-flowing carrier for the more dilute and turbulent upper levels of the current (ash-cloud surge). Strong kinematic coupling between these flow parts reduces viscous dissipation and entrainment of ambient air into the lower part of the ash-cloud surge. This leads to a state of forced super-criticality whereby fast and destructive PDCs can endure even at large distances from volcanoes. Importantly, the basal flow/ash-cloud surge coupling yields a characteristically smooth rheological boundary across the non

  18. Overlay of neuromagnetic current-density images and morphological MR images (United States)

    Fuchs, Manfred; Wischmann, Hans-Aloys; Doessel, Olaf


    Neuromagnetic imaging is a relatively new diagnostic tool for examination of electric activities in the nervous system. It is based on the noninvasive detection of extremely weak magnetic fields around the human body with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detectors. `Equivalent current dipoles' and linear estimation reconstructions of current distributions both with spherical volume conductor models are used to localize the neural activity. For practical use in medical diagnosis a combination of the abstract neuromagnetic images with magnetic resonance (MR)- or computer tomography (CT)-images is required in order to match the functional activity with anatomy and morphology. The neuromagnetic images can be overlayed onto three-dimensional morphological images with spatially arbitrarily selectable slices. The matching of both imaging modalities is discussed. Based on the detection of auditory evoked magnetic fields, neuromagnetic images are reconstructed with linear estimation theory algorithms. The MR images are used as a-priori information of the volume conductor geometry and they allow an attachment of functional and morphological properties.

  19. Metallic amorphous electrodeposited molybdenum coating from aqueous electrolyte: Structural, electrical and morphological properties under current density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemla, Fatima [LEPCM, Department of Physics, University of Batna (Algeria); Cherrad, Djellal, E-mail: [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and Their Characterizations, University of Setif (Algeria)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Although difficulties related to electrodeposition of Mo films, we have successfully coated onto a cooper substrate. • A good formation of bcc Mo phase and lattice parameter was very accurate. • It seems that electrical properties of our samples are good and suitable as back contact for thin film solar cells. • It seems that grain size, microstrain and dislocation density are all managed and correlated to retain the resistivity to a considerable minimum value. - Abstract: Molybdenum coatings are extensively utilized as back contact for CIGS-based solar cells. However, their electrodeposition from aqueous electrolyte still sophisticates, since long time, owing to the high reactivity with oxygen. In this study, we present a successful 30 min electrodeposition experiment of somewhat thick (∼0.98–2.9 μm) and of moderate surface roughness RMS (∼47–58 nm), metallic bright Mo coating from aqueous electrolyte containing molybdate ions. XRD analysis and Hall Effect measurements have been used to confirm the presence of Mo. The crystal structure of deposits was slightly amorphous in nature to body centred cubic structure (bcc) Mo (110), (211) and (220) face. Lattice parameters exhibit some weak fluctuated tensile stress when compared to the reference lattice parameter. Additionally, our calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with some previous works from literature. Discussions on the grain growth prove that they are constrained by grain boundary energy not the thickness effect. Further discussions were made on the electrical resistivity and surface morphology. Resonance scattering of Fermi electrons are expected to contribute towards the variation in the film resistivity through the carrier mobility limitation. However, studied samples might be qualified as candidates for solar cell application.

  20. The flow structure of pyroclastic density currents: evidence from particle models and large-scale experiments (United States)

    Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Büttner, Ralf; Dioguardi, Fabio; Doronzo, Domenico Maria; La Volpe, Luigi; Mele, Daniela; Sonder, Ingo; Sulpizio, Roberto; Zimanowski, Bernd


    Pyroclastic flows are ground hugging, hot, gas-particle flows. They represent the most hazardous events of explosive volcanism, one striking example being the famous historical eruption of Pompeii (AD 79) at Vesuvius. Much of our knowledge on the mechanics of pyroclastic flows comes from theoretical models and numerical simulations. Valuable data are also stored in the geological record of past eruptions, i.e. the particles contained in pyroclastic deposits, but they are rarely used for quantifying the destructive potential of pyroclastic flows. In this paper, by means of experiments, we validate a model that is based on data from pyroclastic deposits. It allows the reconstruction of the current's fluid-dynamic behaviour. We show that our model results in likely values of dynamic pressure and particle volumetric concentration, and allows quantifying the hazard potential of pyroclastic flows.

  1. Current net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in a young mixed forest: any heritage from the previous ecosystem? (United States)

    Violette, Aurélie; Heinesch, Bernard; Erpicum, Michel; Carnol, Monique; Aubinet, Marc; François, Louis


    For 15 years, networks of flux towers have been developed to determine accurate carbon balance with the eddy-covariance method and determine if forests are sink or source of carbon. However, for prediction of the evolution of carbon cycle and climate, major uncertainties remain on the ecosystem respiration (Reco, which includes the respiration of above ground part of trees, roots respiration and mineralization of the soil organic matter), the gross primary productivity (GPP) and their difference, the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of forests. These uncertainties are consequences of spatial and inter-annual variability, driven by previous and current climatic conditions, as well as by the particular history of the site (management, diseases, etc.). In this study we focus on the carbon cycle in two mixed forests in the Belgian Ardennes. The first site, Vielsalm, is a mature stand mostly composed of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) from 80 to 100 years old. The second site, La Robinette, was covered before 1995 with spruces. After an important windfall and a clear cutting, the site was replanted, between 1995 and 2000, with spruces (Piceas abies) and deciduous species (mostly Betula pendula, Aulnus glutinosa and Salix aurita). The challenge here is to highlight how initial conditions can influence the current behavior of the carbon cycle in a growing stand compared to a mature one, where initial conditions are supposed to be forgotten. A modeling approach suits particularly well for sensitivity tests and estimation of the temporal lag between an event and the ecosystem response. We use the forest ecosystem model ASPECTS (Rasse et al., Ecological Modelling 141, 35-52, 2001). This model predicts long-term forest growth by calculating, over time, hourly NEE. It was developed and already validated on the Vielsalm forest. Modelling results are confronted to eddy-covariance data on both sites from 2006 to 2011. The main difference between both

  2. Dependence of superconducting layer thickness on critical current density of IBAD/CVD-processed YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himeki, K.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E.S. [Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Matsushita, T., E-mail: [Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Shikimachi, K.; Watanabe, T.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 20-1, Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Yamada, Y.; Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)


    The thickness dependence of the critical current characteristics was investigated for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-d}elta (YBCO) coated conductors fabricated by Ion Beam Assist Deposition (IBAD)/Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) method in the range of 0.18-0.90 mum to find out the optimum thickness for various applications. The transport and magnetization critical current densities were estimated using the electric field criterion of E{sub c} = 1.0 x 10{sup -4} V/m and E{sub c} = 1.0 x 10{sup -9} V/m, respectively. The critical current density decreased with increase thickness in the low magnetic field region in the both electric field region because of the structural degradation of superconducting layer. This decreasing rate was lower than in Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD)-processed YBCO coated conductors. It is found that the thickness dependence of irreversibility field B{sub i} differed between the low and normal electric field region. In the low electric field region, B{sub i} increased with increasing thickness. On the other hand, B{sub i} is almost independent of the thickness in the normal electric field region. The thickness dependence of B{sub i} was also superior to that of PLD-processed YBCO coated conductors.

  3. A process study of the interaction of tidal currents, tidal mixing and density gradients in a region of freshwater influence (United States)

    Xing, Jiuxing; Chen, Shengli


    A three dimensional unstructured grid model of the west coast of Britain is used to study the process of the interaction of tidal currents, tidal mixing and density gradient in the Liverpool Bay region. Calculations with M2 tidal forcing and omitting freshwater discharge show that tidal currents in the region are strong (of order 1 ms- 1), with tidal current ellipses essentially rectilinear in the surface and bottom. In the absence of tidal forcing, the freshwater is confined to a thin surface layer. With the inclusion of tidal mixing the surface layer thickens, and in the shallow water area mixed layer occupies the whole water depth. This has a significant effect of reducing its lateral spread. A detailed study of time series of velocity, salinity and turbulence reveals that at flood tide, more saline water is advected into the coastal region and rapid vertical mixing occurs, whereas at ebb tide, fresher water is advected over more saline water. The induced strong pycnocline uncouples surface and bottom layers leading to more circular tidal ellipses which rotate in opposite directions in the vertical, as found in observations. The three dimensional nature of the model reveals that this process involves both horizontal and vertical density gradients, and shows significant horizontal variability in the Liverpool Bay region.

  4. Microstructural Evolution and Migration Mechanism Study in a Eutectic Sn-37Pb Lap Joint Under High Current Density (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihao; Cao, Huijun; Yang, Haifeng; Xiao, Yong; Li, Mingyu; Yu, Yuxi; Yao, Shun


    The microstructural evolution in eutectic Sn-37Pb solder under high current density seriously threatens the reliability of solder interconnections, but atomic electromigration has often been confused with thermomigration. In this paper, after decoupling the effect of the non-uniform temperature distribution in a Cu/Sn-37Pb/Cu lap joint from the current stress, the microstructural evolution was investigated under an average current density of 1.84 × 104 A cm-2 for 0-24 h. The decomposition and recombination of the Pb-rich phase occurred at the cathode and the anode, respectively. The corresponding migration mechanism was proposed from the viewpoint of energy and was explained by the interactions among the potential energies of ripening, electron wind force, and back stress. Our study may be helpful for understanding the migration mechanism and reliability of eutectic two-phase solder joints and provides supporting data for interpreting the acceleration tests of Sn-37Pb solder joints under electromigration.

  5. Distribution of the critical current density and flux trapping in YBa2Cu3O7-delta ramp-edge Josephson junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, A.; Husemann, K.D.; Mayer, B.; Nissel, T.; Gross, R.; Verhoeven, M.A.J.; Verhoeven, M.A.J.; Gerritsma, G.J.


    We have studied the spatial distribution of the critical current density in YBa2Cu3O7−δ ramp edge Josephson junctions using low‐temperature scanning electron microscopy. Applying this technique allows the imaging of the critical current density distribution with a spatial resolution of about 1 μm.

  6. Electrochemical sulfide removal from synthetic and real domestic wastewater at high current densities. (United States)

    Pikaar, Ilje; Rozendal, René A; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jürg; Rabaey, Korneel


    Hydrogen sulfide generation is the key cause of sewer pipe corrosion, one of the major issues in water infrastructure. Current abatement strategies typically involve addition of various types of chemicals to the wastewater, which incurs large operational costs. The transport, storage and application of these chemicals also constitute occupational and safety hazards. In this study, we investigated high rate electrochemical oxidation of sulfide at Ir/Ta mixed metal oxide (MMO) coated titanium electrodes as a means to remove sulfide from wastewater. Both synthetic and real wastewaters were used in the experiments. Electrochemical sulfide oxidation by means of indirect oxidation with in-situ produced oxygen appeared to be the main reaction mechanism at Ir/Ta MMO coated titanium electrodes. The maximum obtained sulfide removal rate was 11.8 ± 1.7 g S m(-2) projected anode surface h(-1) using domestic wastewater at sulfide concentrations of ≥ 30 mg L(-1) or higher. The final products of the oxidation were sulfate, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur. Chloride and acetate concentrations did not entail differences in sulfide removal, nor were the latter two components affected by the electrochemical oxidation. Hence, the use of electrodes to generate oxygen in sewer systems may constitute a promising method for reagent-free removal of sulfide from wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quench Analysis of High Current Density Nb3Sn Conductors in Racetrack Coil Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Bajas, H; Bordini, B; Bottura, L; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Feuvrier, J; Chiuchiolo, A; Perez, J C; Willering, G


    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) requires the development of new type of superconducting cables based on advanced Nb3Sn strands. In the framework of the FP7 European project EUCARD the cables foreseen for the HL-LHC project have been tested recently in a simplified racetrack coil configuration, the so-called Short Model Coil (SMC). In 2013 to 2014, two SMCs wound with 40-strand (RRP 108/127) cables, with different heat treatment processes, reached during training at 1.9 K a current and peak magnetic field of 15.9 kA, 13.9T,and 14.3 kA, 12.7 Trespectively. Using the measured signals from the voltage taps, the behavior of the quenches is analyzed in terms of transverse and longitudinal propagation velocity and hot spot temperature. These measurements are compared with both analytical and numerical calculations from adiabatic models.The coherence of the results from the presented independent methods helps in estimating the relevance of the material properties and the adiabatic assump...

  8. Simultaneous enhancement of open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and fill factor in polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhicai; Zhong, Chengmei; Wu, Hongbin; Su, Shijian; Cao, Yong [Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Huang, Xun; Chen, Liwei [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 398 Ruoshui Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wong, Wai-Yeung [Institute of Molecular Functional Materials (Areas of Excellence Scheme, University Grants Committee, Hong Kong) and Department of Chemistry and Centre for Advanced Luminescence Materials, Hong Kong Baptist University, Waterloo Road, Hong Kong (China)


    Simultaneous enhancement of open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and fill factor in highly efficient polymer solar cells by incorporating an alcohol/water-soluble conjugated polymer as cathode interlayer is domonstrated. When combined with a low-bandgap polymer PTB7 as the electron donor material, the power efficiency of the devices is improved to certified 8.370%. Due to drastic improvement in efficiency and easy utilization, this method opens new opportunities for PSCs from various material systems to improve towards 10% efficiency. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. The effects of body posture, anatomy, age and pregnancy on the calculation of induced current densities at 50 Hz. (United States)

    Dimbylow, Peter; Findlay, Richard


    This paper presents calculations of the induced current density in the body at 50 Hz from applied electric and magnetic fields. An extensive ensemble of 25 voxel models has been used to investigate the effects of body posture, anatomy, age and pregnancy. This set includes six adult models, eight child models and seven pregnant female models at various stages of gestation. The four postures investigated in the HPA adult model, NORMAN, were the standard position with the arms at the side, with the arms vertically above the head, the arms horizontally to the side and sitting.

  10. Visualizing the mechanism that determines the critical current density in polycrystalline superconductors using time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory (United States)

    Carty, George J.; Hampshire, Damian P.


    In polycrystalline superconducting materials optimized for high critical current density (JC) in high magnetic fields, the mechanism that determines JC has long remained uncertain because of the complicated manner in which the fluxon-fluxon and fluxon-microstructure forces combine. In this work, the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations are used to produce visualizations of fluxons at JC that show the disorder in the pinned part of the flux-line lattice and the motion of those fluxons along grain boundaries that cause dissipation. Calculated values of JC are consistent with experimental data.

  11. Calculation of the intrinsic spectral density of current fluctuations in nanometric Schottky-barrier diodes at terahertz frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahi, F.Z. [Science and Technology Institute, University of Bechar, 08000 Bechar (Algeria)], E-mail:; Helmaoui, A. [Science and Technology Institute, University of Bechar, 08000 Bechar (Algeria); Varani, L. [Institut d' Electronique du Sud (CNRS UMR 5214), Universite Montpellier II, 34095 Montpellier (France); Shiktorov, P.; Starikov, E.; Gruzhinskis, V. [Semiconductor Physics Institute, 01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)


    An analytical model for the noise spectrum of nanometric Schottky-barrier diodes (SBD) is developed. The calculated frequency dependence of the spectral density of current fluctuations exhibits resonances in the terahertz domain which are discussed and analyzed as functions of the length of the diode, free carrier concentration, length of the depletion region and applied voltage. A good agreement obtained with direct Monte Carlo simulations of GaAs SBDs operating from barrier-limited to flat-band conditions fully validates the proposed approach.

  12. Separation Test Method for Investigation of Current Density Effects on Bond Wires of SiC Power MOSFET Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede


    and average temperature during the test. By analyzing the output characteristics of the linear region of MOSFET, the constraint relations among the gate voltage, on-state voltage drop and junction temperature are revealed in this paper. The one-to-one correspondence between gate voltage and conduction power...... loss can be used to adjust the current density under fixed temperature swing and average temperature. The commercial Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET modules are tested to experimentally verify the proposed method. Finally, the effectiveness of proposed test method is validated by the experimental results....

  13. Suppression of external quantum efficiency roll-off of nanopatterned organic-light emitting diodes at high current densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwae, Hiroyuki; Kasahara, Takashi [Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Nitta, Atsushi; Yoshida, Kou; Inoue, Munetomo [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Matsushima, Toshinori; Adachi, Chihaya, E-mail: [JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shoji, Shuichi [Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Mizuno, Jun [JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Research Organization for Nano and Life Innovation, Waseda University, 513 Waseda Tsurumaki-cho, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan)


    We developed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with nanopatterned current flow regions using electron-beam lithography with the aim of suppressing singlet–polaron annihilation (SPA). Nanopatterns composed of lines and circles were used in the current flow regions of nano-line and nano-dot OLEDs, respectively. Excitons partially escape from the current flow regions where SPA takes place. As such, current densities where external quantum efficiencies were half of their initial values (J{sub 0}) increased as line width and circle diameter were decreased to close to the exciton diffusion length. Circles were more efficient at enhancing exciton escape and increasing J{sub 0} than lines. The J{sub 0} increase in the nano-dot OLEDs containing nanopatterned circles with a diameter of 50 nm was approximately 41-fold that of a conventional OLED with a current flow region of 4 mm{sup 2}. The dependence of J{sub 0} on the size and shape of the nanopatterns was well explained by an SPA model that considered exciton diffusion. Nanopatterning of OLEDs is a feasible method of obtaining large J{sub 0}.

  14. Coherent Interlayer Tunneling and Negative Differential Resistance with High Current Density in Double Bilayer Graphene-WSe2 Heterostructures. (United States)

    Burg, G William; Prasad, Nitin; Fallahazad, Babak; Valsaraj, Amithraj; Kim, Kyounghwan; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Wang, Qingxiao; Kim, Moon J; Register, Leonard F; Tutuc, Emanuel


    We demonstrate gate-tunable resonant tunneling and negative differential resistance between two rotationally aligned bilayer graphene sheets separated by bilayer WSe2. We observe large interlayer current densities of 2 and 2.5 μA/μm2 and peak-to-valley ratios approaching 4 and 6 at room temperature and 1.5 K, respectively, values that are comparable to epitaxially grown resonant tunneling heterostructures. An excellent agreement between theoretical calculations using a Lorentzian spectral function for the two-dimensional (2D) quasiparticle states, and the experimental data indicates that the interlayer current stems primarily from energy and in-plane momentum conserving 2D-2D tunneling, with minimal contributions from inelastic or non-momentum-conserving tunneling. We demonstrate narrow tunneling resonances with intrinsic half-widths of 4 and 6 meV at 1.5 and 300 K, respectively.

  15. On Lunar Exospheric Column Densities and Solar Wind Access Beyond the Terminator from ROSAT Soft X-ray Observations of Solar Wind Charge Exchange (SWCX) (United States)

    Collier, M. R.; Snowden, S. L.; Sarantos, M.; Benna, M.; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, T.; Farrell, W. M.; Fatemi, S.; Hills, H. K.; Hodges, R. R.; Holmstrom, M.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. S.; Read, A.; Robertson, I. P.; Sembay, S. F.; Sibeck, D. G.; Stubbs, T. J.; Travnicek, P. M.


    We analyze the ROSAT PSPC soft X-ray image of the Moon taken on 29 June 1990 by examining the radial profile of the count rate in three wedges, two wedges (one north and one south) 13-32 degrees off (19 degrees wide) the terminator towards the dark side and one wedge 38 degrees wide centered on the antisolar point. The radial profiles of both the north and the south wedges show substantial limb brightening that is absent in the 38 degree wide antisolar wedge. An analysis of the soft X-ray intensity increase associated with the limb brightening shows that its magnitude is consistent with that expected due to solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) with the tenuous lunar atmosphere based on lunar exospheric models and hybrid simulation results of solar wind access beyond the terminator. Soft X-ray imaging thus can independently infer the total lunar limb column density including all species, a property that before now has not been measured, and provide a large-scale picture of the solar wind-lunar interaction. Because the SWCX signal appears dominated by exospheric species arising from solar wind implantation, this technique can also monitor how the exosphere varies with solar wind conditions. Now along with Mars, Venus, and Earth, the Moon represents another solar system body at which solar wind charge exchange has been observed.

  16. Topographic controls on pyroclastic density current dynamics: Insight from 18 May 1980 deposits at Mount St. Helens, Washington (USA) (United States)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Bendaña, Sylvana; Self, Stephen; Pollock, Nicholas


    Our ability to interpret the deposits of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) is critical for understanding the transport and depositional processes that control PDC dynamics. This paper focuses on the influence of slope on flow dynamics and criticality as recorded in PDC deposits from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens (USA). PDC deposits are found along the steep flanks (10°-30°) and across the pumice plain ( 5°) up to 8 km north of the volcano. Granulometry, componentry and descriptions of depositional characteristics (e.g., bedform morphology) are recorded with distance from source. The pumice plain deposits are primarily thick (3-12 m), massive and poorly-sorted, and represent deposition from a series of concentrated PDCs. By contrast, the steep flank deposits are stratified to cross-stratified, suggesting deposition from PDCs where turbulence strongly influenced transport and depositional processes. We propose that acceleration of the concentrated PDCs along the steep flanks resulted in thinning of the concentrated, basal region of the current(s). Enhanced entrainment of ambient air, and autofluidization from upward fluxes of air from substrate interstices and plunging breakers across rugged, irregular topography further inflated the currents to the point that the overriding turbulent region strongly influenced transport and depositional mechanisms. Acceleration in combination with partial confinement in slot canyons and high surface roughness would also increase basal shear stress, further promoting shear and traction transport in the basal region of the current. Conditions along the steep flank resulted in supercritical flow, as recorded by regressive bedforms, which gradually transitioned to subcritical flow downstream as the concentrated basal region thickness increased as a function of decreasing slope and flow energy. We also find that (1) PDCs were erosive into the underlying granular substrate along high slopes (> 25°) where currents were

  17. Electrochemical oxidation of humic acid and sanitary landfill leachate: Influence of anode material, chloride concentration and current density. (United States)

    Fernandes, A; Santos, D; Pacheco, M J; Ciríaco, L; Lopes, A


    The influence of applied current density and chloride ion concentration on the ability of Ti/Pt/PbO2 and Ti/Pt/SnO2-Sb2O4 anodes for the electrochemical oxidation of humic acid and sanitary landfill leachate samples was assessed and compared with that of BDD anode. For the experimental conditions used, results show that both organic load and nitrogen removal rates increase with the applied current density and chloride ion concentration, although there is an optimum COD/[Cl-]0 ratio below which there is no further increase in COD removal. Metal oxide anodes present a similar performance to that of BDD, being the results obtained for Ti/Pt/PbO2 slightly better than for Ti/Pt/SnO2-Sb2O4. Contrary to BDD, Ti/Pt/PbO2 promotes lower nitrate formation and is the most suitable material for total nitrogen elimination. The importance of the optimum ratio of Cl-/COD/NH4 +initial concentrations is discussed.

  18. Surface properties of AZ91 magnesium alloy after PEO treatment using molybdate salts and low current densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzato, Luca, E-mail: [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Brunelli, Katya [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Napolitani, Enrico [MATIS-IMM-CNR and Dipartimento di Astronomia e Fisica, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Magrini, Maurizio; Dabalà, Manuele [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Low concentrations of molybdate stopped PEO process at the first step. • High concentrations of molybdate produce the start of the second and third stages. • The layer after the first step is thin but dense and homogeneous. • The sample treated with low amount of molybdate is the one with best corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process is a recently developed electrochemical method used to produce on the surface of various metals oxide ceramic coatings that improve corrosion and wear properties of the substrate. In this work, PEO process was applied on AZ91 magnesium alloy using low current densities (0.05 A/cm{sup 2}) and an alkaline solution of silicates with different concentrations of sodium molybdate (0.3–3 g/l). The effect of the low current densities of process and of molybdate salts on the corrosion resistance of the coatings was studied with potentiodynamic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in chloride and sulfate environment. The morphology, the phases and the chemical composition of the coatings were examined using a scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS, X-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The corrosion properties of the PEO coated samples were remarkably improved if compared with the uncoated samples. The addition of sodium molybdate, in determinate conditions, had a positive effect on the characteristics of the coatings in terms of corrosion resistance.

  19. Hypoxia over the Continental Margin in the Northern California Current: The Role of Shelf-Deep Ocean Exchange (United States)

    Barth, J. A.; Chan, F.; Pierce, S. D.; Adams, K.; Shearman, R. K.; Erofeev, A.


    Near-bottom waters over the continental shelf off Oregon in the northern California Current have become increasingly hypoxic over the last decade, including the appearance of anoxia in summer 2006. Observed ecosystem impacts include the absence of fish and invertebrate die-offs. Near-bottom, inner-shelf hypoxia is driven by upwelling of low-oxygen, nutrient-rich source water onto the continental shelf, followed by the decay of organic matter from surface phytoplankton blooms. We are using data from moorings, ship surveys, and from over 60,000 kilometers of autonomous underwater glider tracks to understand the temporal and spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen over the continental margin off Oregon. The inshore side of Heceta Bank, a submarine bank that deflects the coastal upwelling jet seaward creating a region of weaker velocities inshore, is particularly vulnerable to hypoxia. Near-bottom dissolved oxygen variability is driven by changes in both the dissolved oxygen concentrations in offshore upwelling source water and local wind forcing. "Source water" is defined as being seaward of the continental shelf break on density surfaces that upwell onto the continental shelf. The strength and depth of the onshore source water flux due to wind-driven upwelling can vary through the upwelling season, influencing near-bottom shelf hypoxia. Late in the upwelling season, upwelled source waters can become lower in oxygen due to off-shelf flux of continental shelf water that has undergone respiration and is, therefore, lower in oxygen than unmodified upwelling source water. For present day source water dissolved oxygen concentrations ( 2.3 ml/l), hypoxia over the inner shelf on the inshore side of Heceta Bank during the summer upwelling season is observed about 50% of the time. Given the recent declining trend in source water dissolved oxygen concentration, in 50 years the frequency of the hypoxia over the inner shelf on the inshore side of Heceta Bank is predicted to be

  20. A density functional theory study of hydrogen adsorption on Be-, Mg-, and Ca-exchanged LTL zeolite clusters. (United States)

    Fellah, Mehmet Ferdi


    Hydrogen molecule adsorption on frameworks consisting of alkaline earth metal atoms (Be, Mg, or Ca) in LTL zeolite was investigated via density functional theory. A 24T zeolite cluster model was used in this study. HOMO and LUMO energy, chemical potential, chemical hardness, electronegativity, adsorption energy, and adsorption enthalpy values were calculated. The Mg-LTL and Ca-LTL clusters were found to have much lower chemical potentials and adsorption energies than those of the Be-LTL cluster. Additionally, the calculations indicated that the Mg-LTL and Ca-LTL clusters are softer (considering their lower chemical hardness values) and more chemically reactive than the Be-LTL cluster. The calculated hydrogen adsorption enthalpies were -14.7 and -9.4 kJ/mol for the Mg-LTL and Ca-LTL clusters, respectively, which are significantly larger than the enthalpy of liquefaction for the hydrogen molecule. These results imply that the Mg-LTL and Ca-LTL zeolite structures are promising cryoadsorbents for hydrogen storage. Graphical abstract Hydrogen adsorption was theoretically investigated on Be-, Ca- and Mg-LTL clusters. Ca- and Mg-LTL zeolites are potential cryoadsorbent materials for hydrogen storage.

  1. Generator localization by current source density (CSD): Implications of volume conduction and field closure at intracranial and scalp resolutions (United States)

    Tenke, Craig E.; Kayser, Jürgen


    The topographic ambiguity and reference-dependency that has plagued EEG/ERP research throughout its history are largely attributable to volume conduction, which may be concisely described by a vector form of Ohm’s Law. This biophysical relationship is common to popular algorithms that infer neuronal generators via inverse solutions. It may be further simplified as Poisson’s source equation, which identifies underlying current generators from estimates of the second spatial derivative of the field potential (Laplacian transformation). Intracranial current source density (CSD) studies have dissected the “cortical dipole” into intracortical sources and sinks, corresponding to physiologically-meaningful patterns of neuronal activity at a sublaminar resolution, much of which is locally cancelled (i.e., closed field). By virtue of the macroscopic scale of the scalp-recorded EEG, a surface Laplacian reflects the radial projections of these underlying currents, representing a unique, unambiguous measure of neuronal activity at scalp. Although the surface Laplacian requires minimal assumptions compared to complex, model-sensitive inverses, the resulting waveform topographies faithfully summarize and simplify essential constraints that must be placed on putative generators of a scalp potential topography, even if they arise from deep or partially-closed fields. CSD methods thereby provide a global empirical and biophysical context for generator localization, spanning scales from intracortical to scalp recordings. PMID:22796039

  2. Dune bedforms produced by dilute pyroclastic density currents from the August 2006 eruption of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador. (United States)

    Douillet, Guilhem Amin; Pacheco, Daniel Alejandro; Kueppers, Ulrich; Letort, Jean; Tsang-Hin-Sun, Ève; Bustillos, Jorge; Hall, Minard; Ramón, Patricio; Dingwell, Donald B

    A series of pyroclastic density currents were generated at Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador) during a period of heightened activity in August 2006. Dense pyroclastic flows were confined to valleys of the drainage network, while dilute pyroclastic density currents overflowed on interfluves where they deposited isolated bodies comprising dune bedforms of cross-stratified ash exposed on the surface. Here, the description, measurement, and classification of more than 300 dune bedforms are presented. Four types of dune bedforms are identified with respect to their shape, internal structure, and geometry (length, width, thickness, stoss and lee face angles, and stoss face length). (1) "Elongate dune bedforms" have smooth shapes and are longer (in the flow direction) than wide or thick. Internal stratification consists of stoss-constructional, thick lensoidal layers of massive and coarse-grained material, alternating with bedsets of fine laminae that deposit continuously on both stoss and lee sides forming aggrading structures with upstream migration of the crests. (2) "Transverse dune bedforms" show linear crests perpendicular to the flow direction, with equivalent lengths and widths. Internally, these bedforms exhibit finely stratified bedsets of aggrading ash laminae with upstream crest migration. Steep truncations of the bedsets are visible on the stoss side only. (3) "Lunate dune bedforms" display a barchanoidal shape and have stratification patterns similar to those of the transverse ones. Finally, (4) "two-dimensional dune bedforms" are much wider than long, exhibit linear crests and are organized into trains. Elongate dune bedforms are found exclusively in proximal deposition zones. Transverse, lunate, and two-dimensional dune bedforms are found in distal ash bodies. The type of dune bedform developed varies spatially within an ash body, transverse dune bedforms occurring primarily at the onset of deposition zones, transitioning to lunate dune bedforms in intermediate

  3. Quantifying volcanic hazard at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) with uncertainty assessment: 2. Pyroclastic density current invasion maps (United States)

    Neri, Augusto; Bevilacqua, Andrea; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Isaia, Roberto; Aspinall, Willy P.; Bisson, Marina; Flandoli, Franco; Baxter, Peter J.; Bertagnini, Antonella; Iannuzzi, Enrico; Orsucci, Simone; Pistolesi, Marco; Rosi, Mauro; Vitale, Stefano


    Campi Flegrei (CF) is an example of an active caldera containing densely populated settlements at very high risk of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). We present here an innovative method for assessing background spatial PDC hazard in a caldera setting with probabilistic invasion maps conditional on the occurrence of an explosive event. The method encompasses the probabilistic assessment of potential vent opening positions, derived in the companion paper, combined with inferences about the spatial density distribution of PDC invasion areas from a simplified flow model, informed by reconstruction of deposits from eruptions in the last 15 ka. The flow model describes the PDC kinematics and accounts for main effects of topography on flow propagation. Structured expert elicitation is used to incorporate certain sources of epistemic uncertainty, and a Monte Carlo approach is adopted to produce a set of probabilistic hazard maps for the whole CF area. Our findings show that, in case of eruption, almost the entire caldera is exposed to invasion with a mean probability of at least 5%, with peaks greater than 50% in some central areas. Some areas outside the caldera are also exposed to this danger, with mean probabilities of invasion of the order of 5-10%. Our analysis suggests that these probability estimates have location-specific uncertainties which can be substantial. The results prove to be robust with respect to alternative elicitation models and allow the influence on hazard mapping of different sources of uncertainty, and of theoretical and numerical assumptions, to be quantified.

  4. Unified analytical expressions for calculating resonant frequencies, transimpedances, and equivalent input noise current densities of tuned receiver front ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qing Zhong


    Unified analytical expressions have been derived for calculating the resonant frequencies, transimpedance and equivalent input noise current densities of the four most widely used tuned optical receiver front ends built with FETs and p-i-n diodes. A more accurate FET model has been used to improve...... the accuracy of the analysis. The Miller capacitance has been taken into account, and its impact on the performances of the tuned front ends has been demonstrated. The accuracy of the expressions has been verified by Touchstone simulations. The agreement between the calculated and simulated performances...... of the front ends is very good. The expressions can be used to investigate the performances of different tuned front ends in a very simple way and provide a good starting point for further computer optimizations of the front ends...

  5. Degradation of solid oxide cells during co-electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide at high current densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Youkun; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    In this work, the durability of Ni–YSZ based solid oxide cells was investigated during co-electrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide (45% H2O + 45% CO2 + 10% H2) at current density of −1.5 or −2.0 A cm−2. The cell consists of ∼300 μm Ni–YSZ support, ∼10 μm Ni–YSZ electrode, ∼10 μm YSZ electrolyte...... and ∼15 μm LSM–YSZ oxygen electrode. The gas conversion was 45% at −1.5 A cm−2 and 60% at −2.0 A cm−2, and the operating durations were up to 700 h. The detailed electrochemical analysis revealed significant increase of the ohmic resistance, oxide ion transport resistance in the Ni–YSZ composite...

  6. Atomistic Structural Dynamics and Current Density Variations during the Transformation from Crystalline to Amorphous States in Tantalum Nanocontacts (United States)

    Murata, Satoshi; Kizuka, Tokushi


    Pulsed voltages were applied to crystalline tantalum (Ta) nanocontacts (NCs) having a width of approximately 1 nm in a transmission electron microscope and the structural dynamics during their transformation to amorphous states was observed in situ at atomic resolution with simultaneous conductance measurements. Amorphization was caused when a Ta NC was the grain boundary, i.e., the orientations of the two regions adjacent to the contact boundary were different. The amorphous states transformed into crystalline states when the two regions were oriented along the same direction upon the application of the same pulsed voltage. Thus, it was found that the structural transformation of Ta NCs by pulsed voltages depends on the orientational relationship at the contact boundaries. The current density at the minimum cross-sectional area of the amorphized states decreased to 0.71-0.91 relative to that of the crystalline states.

  7. High current density electrodeposition of silver from silver-containing liquid metal salts with pyridine-N-oxide ligands. (United States)

    Sniekers, Jeroen; Brooks, Neil R; Schaltin, Stijn; Van Meervelt, Luc; Fransaer, Jan; Binnemans, Koen


    New cationic silver-containing ionic liquids were synthesized and used as non-aqueous electrolytes for the electrodeposition of silver layers. In the liquid state of these ionic liquids, a silver (i) cation is coordinated by pyridine-N-oxide (py-O) ligands in a 1 : 3 metal-to-ligand ratio, although in some cases a different stoichiometry of the silver center crystallized out. As anions, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Tf2N), trifluoromethanesulfonate (OTf), methanesulfonate (OMs) and nitrate were used, yielding compounds with the formulae [Ag(py-O)3][Tf2N], [Ag(py-O)3][OTf], [Ag(py-O)3][OMs] and [Ag(py-O)3][NO3], respectively. The compounds were characterized by CHN analysis, FTIR, NMR, DSC, TGA and the electrodeposition of silver was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, linear potential scans, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). With the exception of [Ag(py-O)3][Tf2N], which melts at 108 °C, all the silver(i) compounds have a melting point below 80 °C and were tested as electrolytes for silver electrodeposition. Interestingly, very high current densities were observed at a potential of -0.5 V vs. Ag/Ag(+) for the compounds with fluorine-free anions, i.e. [Ag(py-O)3][NO3] (current density of -10 A dm(-2)) and [Ag(py-O)3][OMs] (-6.5 A dm(-2)). The maximum current density of the compound with the fluorinated anion trifluoromethanesulfonate, [Ag(py-O)3][OTf], was much lower: -2.5 A dm(-2) at -0.5 V vs. Ag/Ag(+). Addition of an excess of ligand to [Ag(py-O)3][OTf] resulted in the formation of the room-temperature ionic liquid [Ag(py-O)6][OTf]. A current density of -5 A dm(-2) was observed at -0.5 V vs. Ag/Ag(+) for this low viscous silver salt. The crystal structures of several silver complexes could be determined by X-ray diffraction, and it was found that several of them had a stoichiometry different from the 1 : 3 metal-to-ligand ratio used in their synthesis. This indicates that the compounds form crystals

  8. Efficiency roll-off suppression in organic light-emitting diodes at high current densities using gold bowtie nanoantennas (United States)

    Zhao, Yukun; Yun, Feng; Wu, Zhaoxin; Li, Yufeng; Jiao, Bo; Huang, Yaping; Li, Sanfeng; Feng, Lungang; Guo, Maofeng; Ding, Wen; Zhang, Ye; Dou, Juan


    In this study, large-scale gold (Au) bowtie nanoantennas have been utilized to suppress the efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) numerically and experimentally. Compared with the OLED without nanoantennas, the experimental roll-off ratio of the OLED with Au bowtie nanoantennas significantly decreases from 59.4 to 51.3% at a high current density of 1000 mA/cm2. We attribute the roll-off suppression to the localized surface plasmon (LSP) effect, which leads to a shorter radiative lifetime. The insufficient coupling between radiated light and LSP resonance could also be improved by a strong resonance coupling between the tips of bowtie nanoantennas.

  9. The role of interfacial defects in enhancing the critical current density of YBa2Cu3O7-delta coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltyn, Stephen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Haiyan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Civale, Leonardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maiorov, Boris A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The critical current density (J{sub c}) of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}0{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) films can approach 10 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K in self field , but only for very thin films. We have shown previously that strong thickness dependence results if J{sub c} is enhanced near the film-substrate interface. In the present work we investigate interfacial enhancement using laser-deposited YBCO films on NdGaO{sub 3} substrates, and find that we can adjust deposition conditions to switch the enhancement on and off. Interestingly, we find that the 'on' state is accompanied by interfacial misfit dislocations, establishing an unambiguous correlation between enhanced J{sub c} and dislocations at the film-substrate interface.

  10. Influences of urban fabric on pyroclastic density currents at Pompeii (Italy): 2. Temperature of the deposits and hazard implications (United States)

    Zanella, E.; Gurioli, L.; Pareschi, M. T.; Lanza, R.


    During the A.D. 79 eruption of Vesuvius, Italy, the Roman town of Pompeii was covered by 2.5 m of pyroclastic fall pumice and then partially destroyed by pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). Thermal remanent magnetization measurements performed on the lithic and roof tile fragments embedded in the PDC deposits allow us to quantify the variations in the temperature (Tdep) of the deposits within and around Pompeii. These results reveal that the presence of buildings strongly influenced the deposition temperature of the erupted products. The first two currents, which entered Pompeii at a temperature around 300-360°C, show drastic decreases in the Tdep, with minima of 100-140°C, found in the deposits within the town. We interpret these decreases in temperature as being the result of localized interactions between the PDCs and the city structures, which were only able to affect the lower part of the currents. Down flow of Pompeii, the lowermost portion of the PDCs regained its original physical characteristics, emplacing hot deposits once more. The final, dilute PDCs entered a town that was already partially destroyed by the previous currents. These PDCs left thin ash deposits, which mantled the previous ones. The lack of interaction with the urban fabric is indicated by their uniform temperature everywhere. However, the relatively high temperature of the deposits, between 140 and 300°C, indicates that even these distal, thin ash layers, capped by their accretionary lapilli bed, were associated with PDCs that were still hot enough to cause problems for unsheltered people.

  11. Current density and catalyst-coated membrane resistance distribution of hydro-formed metallic bipolar plate fuel cell short stack with 250 cm2 active area (United States)

    Haase, S.; Moser, M.; Hirschfeld, J. A.; Jozwiak, K.


    An automotive fuel cell with an active area of 250 cm2 is investigated in a 4-cell short stack with a current and temperature distribution device next to the bipolar plate with 560 current and 140 temperature segments. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this current scan shunt module. The applied fuel cell consists of bipolar plates constructed of 75-μm-thick, welded stainless-steel foils and a graphitic coating. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this module with a 6% deviation in in-plane conductivity. The current density distribution is evaluated up to 2.4 A cm-2. The entire cell's investigated volumetric power density is 4.7 kW l-1, and its gravimetric power density is 4.3 kW kg-1 at an average cell voltage of 0.5 V. The current density distribution is determined without influencing the operating cell. In addition, the current density distribution in the catalyst-coated membrane and its effective resistivity distribution with a finite volume discretisation of Ohm's law are evaluated. The deviation between the current density distributions in the catalyst-coated membrane and the bipolar plate is determined.

  12. Electrodialytic remediation of harbour sediment in suspension - Evaluation of effects induced by changes in stirring velocity and current density on heavy metal removal and pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne


    . The influence on the metal removal was investigated by changing current densities and stirring velocity of the sediment suspension. Using a current density of 1.0 mA/cm2 gave the highest metal removal. The sediment suspension was partly oxidised when mixed into a suspension for the electrodialytic remediation...... experiments and was further oxidised during the experiments. Even at low stirring velocities, oxic conditions were obtained. The metal removal was dependent on the achieved pH in the sediment and the highest metal removal and corresponding low pH was obtained by using a current density of 1.0 mA/cm2...... and a stirring velocity of the sediment suspension of 1000 rpm. The highest removal obtained was 98% Cd, 78% Zn, 65% Pb and 44% Cu after 14 days of remediation. The metal removal was more dependent on the stirring velocity than on the current density. When manually stirring the sediment suspension or using...

  13. Simultaneous visualization of oxygen partial pressure, current density, and water droplets in serpentine fuel cell during power generation for understanding reaction distributions (United States)

    Takanohashi, Kazuhiro; Suga, Takeo; Uchida, Makoto; Ueda, Toshihide; Nagumo, Yuzo; Inukai, Junji; Nishide, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro


    Understanding the reaction distributions inside a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is essential for the higher performance and durability. We have developed a new see-through cell and visualized the distributions of oxygen partial pressure and current density inside a running PEFC at the temperature of 40 and 80 °C and the relative humidity of 53%. The oxygen utilization was changed from 0% to 80% by changing the current density. At higher oxygen utilizations, the current density was higher and therefore the water generation. Generated water droplets in the flow channel were also visualized, allowing for the simultaneous visualization of the distribution of the oxygen partial pressure, current density, and water droplets. By combining the observations of all three parameters, the reactions inside a membrane-electrode assembly were discussed.

  14. Multi-dimensional collective effects in high-current relativistic beams relevant to High Density Laboratory Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvets, Gennady


    In summary, an analytical model describing the self-pinching of a relativistic charge-neutralized electron beam undergoing the collisionless Weibel instability in an overdense plasma has been developed. The model accurately predicts the final temperature and size of the self-focused filament. It is found that the final temperature is primarily defined by the total beam’s current, while the filament’s radius is shown to be smaller than the collisionless skin depth in the plasma and primarily determined by the beam’s initial size. The model also accurately predicts the repartitioning ratio of the initial energy of the beam’s forward motion into the magnetic field energy and the kinetic energy of the surrounding plasma. The density profile of the final filament is shown to be a superposition of the standard Bennett pinch profile and a wide halo surrounding the pinch, which contains a significant fraction of the beam’s electrons. PIC simulations confirm the key assumption of the analytic theory: the collisionless merger of multiple current filaments in the course of the Weibel Instability provides the mechanism for Maxwellization of the beam’s distribution function. Deviations from the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution are explained by incomplete thermalization of the deeply trapped and halo electrons. It is conjectured that the simple expression derived here can be used for understanding collsionless shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification in astrophysical plasmas.

  15. Nanofiber-deposited porous platinum enables glucose fuel cell anodes with high current density in body fluids (United States)

    Frei, Maxi; Erben, Johannes; Martin, Julian; Zengerle, Roland; Kerzenmacher, Sven


    The poisoning of platinum anodes by body-fluid constituents such as amino acids is currently the main hurdle preventing the application of abiotic glucose fuel cells as battery-independent power supply for medical implants. We present a novel anode material that enables continuous operation of glucose oxidation anodes in horse serum for at least 30 days at a current density of (7.2 ± 1.9) μA cm-2. The fabrication process is based on the electro-deposition of highly porous platinum onto a 3-dimensional carbon nanofiber support, leading to approximately 2-fold increased electrode roughness factors (up to 16500 ± 2300). The material's superior performance is not only related to its high specific surface area, but also to an improved catalytic activity and/or poisoning resistance. Presumably, this results from the micro- and nanostructure of the platinum deposits. This represents a major step forward in the development of implantable glucose fuel cells based on long-term stable platinum electrodes.

  16. Effect of the deviation of the current density profile center on the three-dimensional non-transferred arc plasma torch


    Guo, Z; Yin, S; Qian, Z; Liao, H; Gu, S


    In this study, the three-dimensional steady-state non-transferred plasma arc was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with user defined functions (UDFs). A two-equation current density profile was developed to simulate the complex plasma flow inside the torch. The effect of the deviation distance (distance between the cathode tip center and the current density profile center) on the plasma flow features was systematically investigated for the first time. It is found that the ...

  17. Analysis of specific absorption rate and current density in biological tissues surrounding energy transmission transformer for an artificial heart: using magnetic resonance imaging-based human body model. (United States)

    Higaki, Naoya; Shiba, Kenji


    The transcutaneous energy transmission system used for artificial hearts is a transmission system that uses electromagnetic induction. Use of the TETS improves quality of life and reduces the risk of infection caused by percutaneous connections. This article reports the changes in the electromagnetic effects of TETS that influence a human body when the locations of the air-core coils of the transcutaneous transformer are changed. The specific absorption rate and current density in a model consisting of a human trunk that included 24 different organs are analyzed using an electromagnetic simulator. The air-core coils are located on the pectoralis major muscle near the collarbone in model 1, whereas they are located on the axillary region of the serratus anterior muscle, which overlies the rib in model 2. The maximum current densities in models 1 and 2 are 5.2 A/m(2) and 6.1 A/m(2), respectively. The current density observed in model 2 slightly exceeds the limiting value prescribed by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). When the volumes of biological tissues whose current densities exceed the limiting value of current density for general public exposure are compared, the volume in model 2 (156.1 cm(3)) is found to be larger than that in model 1 (93.7 cm(3)). Hence, it is speculated that the presence of the ribs caused an increase in the current density. Therefore, it is concluded that model 1 satisfies the ICNIRP standards.

  18. The effect of feeding frequency, water temperature, and stocking density on the growth of river puffer Takifugu obscurus reared in a zero-exchange water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang-Yeol Yoo


    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of daily feeding frequency (Exp I, water temperature (Exp II, and stocking density (Exp III on the growth of river puffer, Takifugu obscurus, juvenile fish of 10 and 40 g in body weight were examined to develop effective techniques to produce river puffer in a non-exchange water system. In Exp I, fish were fed commercial floating feed with 45 % protein one to five times per day to apparent satiation each by hand daily for 8 weeks at 25 °C. In both the 10- and 40-g size groups, the final body weight, daily feed consumption, and weight gain of fish fed one meal per day were significantly lower than those of fish fed five meals per day (P < 0.05. However, there were no significant differences in the final body weight, daily feed consumption, and weight gain among fish fed two, three, and five meals per day. Feed efficiency showed decreasing tendency with increasing size of fish. In Exp II, fish of 10 and 40 g in initial body weight were reared with the commercial feed at 15–30 °C for 8 weeks. The weight gain of fish increased with raising water temperature up to 25 °C and decreased drastically at 30 °C for both sizes. The Q10 of specific growth rate was decreased with raising water temperature from 5.04 (temperature interval, 15–20 °C to 0.66 (25–30 °C for the 10-g fish and from 4.98 to 0.31 for the 40-g fish. In Exp III, the effect of stocking density on growth was examined with fish of 10 and 40 g in initial body weight. The final body weight for initial stocking densities of 4, 8, and 12 kg/m3 was significantly higher than that of 20 kg/m3 for the 10-g fish, and the final stocking density reached 10.1, 19.2, 28.7, and 39.9 kg/m3, respectively. For the 40-g fish, the final body weight for initial stocking densities of 3 and 6 kg/m3 was significantly higher than that of 9 and 15 kg/m3 and the final stocking density reached 7.38, 13.5, 17.1, and 27.5 kg/m3, respectively (P < 0.05. In both

  19. Behavior of Lithium Metal Anodes under Various Capacity Utilization and High Current Density in Lithium Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Shuhong; Zheng, Jianming; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Xing; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cao, Ruiguo; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu


    Lithium (Li) metal batteries (LMBs) are regarded as the most promising power sources for electric vehicles. Besides the Li dendrite growth and low Li Coulombic efficiency, how to well match Li metal anode with a high loading (normally over 3.0 mAh cm-2) cathode is another key challenge to achieve the real high energy density battery. In this work, we systematically investigate the effects of the Li metal capacity usage in each cycle, manipulated by varying the cathode areal loading, on the stability of Li metal anode and the cycling performance of LMBs using the LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) cathode and an additive-containing dual-salt/carbonate-solvent electrolyte. It is demonstrated that the Li||NMC cells show decent long-term cycling performance even with NMC areal capacity loading up to ca. 4.0 mAh cm-2 and at a charge current density of 1.0 mA cm-2. The increase of the Li capacity usage in each cycle causes variation in the components of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer on Li metal anode and generates more ionic conductive species from this electrolyte. Further study reveals for the first time that the degradation of Li metal anode and the thickness of SEI layer on Li anode show linear relationship with the areal capacity of NMC cathode. Meanwhile, the expansion rate of consumed Li and the ratio of SEI thickness to NMC areal loading are kept almost the same value with increasing cathode loading, respectively. These fundamental findings provide new perspectives on the rational evaluation of Li metal anode stability for the development of rechargeable LMBs.

  20. Novel algorithm for identifying T-wave current density alternans using synthesized 187-channel vector-projected body surface mapping. (United States)

    Nakai, Kenji; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Futagawa, Keisuke; Shoda, Morio; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Ken; Okabayashi, Hitoshi; Itoh, Manabu; Kasanuki, Hiroshi


    The noninvasive evaluation of ventricular T-wave alternans (TWA) in patients with lethal ventricular arrhythmias is an important issue. In this study, we propose a novel algorithm to identify T-wave current density alternans (TWCA) using synthesized 187-channel vector-projected body surface mapping (187-ch SAVP-ECG). We recorded 10 min of 187-ch SAVP-ECG using a Mason-Likar lead system in the supine position. A recovery time (RT) dispersion map was obtained by averaging the 187-ch SAVP-ECG. The TWCA value was determined from the relative changes in the averaged current density in the T-wave zone (Tpeak ± 50 ms) for two T-wave types. We registered 20 ECG recordings from normal controls and 11 ECG recordings from nine subjects with long QT syndrome (LQT). We divided LQT syndrome subjects into two groups: group 1 provided 9 ECG recordings without visually apparent TWAs, and group 2 provided 2 ECG recordings with visually apparent TWAs. The QTc interval values in the LQT groups were higher than those in the control (515 ± 60 ms in LQT G-1, 600 ± 27 ms in LQT G-2 vs. 415 ± 19 ms in control, P < 0.001). The RTendc dispersion values among the LQT subjects were higher than those of the control subjects (48 ± 19 ms in LQT G-1, 65 ± 30 ms in LQT G-2 vs. 24 ± 10 ms in control, P < 0.01). The mean TWCA value was significantly higher in the LQT G-2 group with visually apparent TWCAs (0.5 ± 0.2% in control, 2.1 ± 1.2% in LQT G-1, and 32.3 ± 6.9% in LQT G-2). Interestingly, the two-dimensional distribution of TWCA in LQT was inhomogeneous and correlated with the distribution of increased RT dispersion. We conclude that a novel algorithm using 187-ch SAVP-ECG might provide new insights into body surface TWCA.

  1. On the accuracy of van der Waals inclusive density-functional theory exchange-correlation functionals for ice at ambient and high pressures. (United States)

    Santra, Biswajit; Klimes, Jirí; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Alfè, Dario; Slater, Ben; Michaelides, Angelos; Car, Roberto; Scheffler, Matthias


    Density-functional theory (DFT) has been widely used to study water and ice for at least 20 years. However, the reliability of different DFT exchange-correlation (xc) functionals for water remains a matter of considerable debate. This is particularly true in light of the recent development of DFT based methods that account for van der Waals (vdW) dispersion forces. Here, we report a detailed study with several xc functionals (semi-local, hybrid, and vdW inclusive approaches) on ice Ih and six proton ordered phases of ice. Consistent with our previous study [B. Santra, J. Klimeš, D. Alfè, A. Tkatchenko, B. Slater, A. Michaelides, R. Car, and M. Scheffler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 185701 (2011)] which showed that vdW forces become increasingly important at high pressures, we find here that all vdW inclusive methods considered improve the relative energies and transition pressures of the high-pressure ice phases compared to those obtained with semi-local or hybrid xc functionals. However, we also find that significant discrepancies between experiment and the vdW inclusive approaches remain in the cohesive properties of the various phases, causing certain phases to be absent from the phase diagram. Therefore, room for improvement in the description of water at ambient and high pressures remains and we suggest that because of the stern test the high pressure ice phases pose they should be used in future benchmark studies of simulation methods for water.

  2. On lunar exospheric column densities and solar wind access beyond the terminator from ROSAT soft X-ray observations of solar wind charge exchange (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Snowden, S. L.; Sarantos, M.; Benna, M.; Carter, J. A.; Cravens, T. E.; Farrell, W. M.; Fatemi, S.; Hills, H. Kent; Hodges, R. R.; Holmström, M.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. Scott; Read, A.; Robertson, I. P.; Sembay, S. F.; Sibeck, D. G.; Stubbs, T. J.; Travnicek, P.; Walsh, B. M.


    We analyze the Röntgen satellite (ROSAT) position sensitive proportional counter soft X-ray image of the Moon taken on 29 June 1990 by examining the radial profile of the surface brightness in three wedges: two 19° wedges (one north and one south) 13-32° off the terminator toward the dark side and one wedge 38° wide centered on the antisolar direction. The radial profiles of both the north and the south wedges show significant limb brightening that is absent in the 38° wide antisolar wedge. An analysis of the soft X-ray intensity increase associated with the limb brightening shows that its magnitude is consistent with that expected due to solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) with the tenuous lunar atmosphere based on lunar exospheric models and hybrid simulation results of solar wind access beyond the terminator. Soft X-ray imaging thus can independently infer the total lunar limb column density including all species, a property that before now has not been measured, and provide a large-scale picture of the solar wind-lunar interaction. Because the SWCX signal appears to be dominated by exospheric species arising from solar wind implantation, this technique can also determine how the exosphere varies with solar wind conditions. Now, along with Mars, Venus, and Earth, the Moon represents another solar system body at which SWCX has been observed.

  3. Electronic characteristics of doped InAs/GaAs quantum dot photodetector: temperature dependent dark current and noise density (United States)

    Liao, Chung-Chi; Tang, Shiang-Feng; Chen, Tzu-Chiang; Chiang, Cheng-Der; Yang, San-Te; Su, Wen-Kuan


    The noise characteristics associated with dark current, photoconductive gain (PC), capture probability in doped InAs dots embedded in In 0.1Ga 0.9As/GaAs spacer layer have been proposed. The photoconductive and photovoltaic behaviors of the InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) from the intersubband transition measurements are also clearly observed. Through noise measurement in dynamic signal analyzer (HP35670A) 1, the electronic bandpass filter frequencies are set up ranging from 3 to 10 KHz in a low noise current preamplifier (SR570) 2. The lock-in amplifier (SR830) 3 can be also used to measure and calibrate the noise density by means of the mean average deviation (MAD) contrast with noise spectra from HP35670A. The InAs/GaAs QDIP studied in this work belongs to n +-n-n + structure with the top and free blocking barrier layers. It is observed that the owing blocking layer of QDIP not only suppress dark current successfully but also probably reduce the photocurrent 4-6. By systematically optoelectronic measurements and simulations, the modified model of noise current, photoconductive gain, and capture probability in the quantum devices have been proposed. It is shown that photoconductive gain is almost independent of bias under the lower bias, then increasing exponentially under higher bias and below the temperature of 80K. In contrast to quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP), a higher photoconductive gain of the quantum dot infrared photodetector has been demonstrated and attributed to the longer lifetimes of excited carriers in quantum dots 7-10. At 80K, a photoconductive gain of tens of thousand is shown in the regions of higher biases. It is clear to note that the highest detectivity of the QDIP surprisingly approach to 3.0×10 12 cmHz 1/2/W at -0.6V under measured temperature 20 K. Under 80K, the average D* is obtained ~10 10 cmHz 1/2/W. To our knowledge, this is the one of highest D* data in the world.

  4. Current and future pharmacologic options for the management of patients unable to achieve low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol goals with statins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Harchaoui, Karim; Akdim, Fatima; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Trip, Mieke D.; Kastelein, John J. P.


    Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering is the mainstay of the current treatment guidelines in the management of cardiovascular risk. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are Currently the most effective LDL-C-lowering drugs. However, a substantial number of patients do not reach

  5. Simulation of Field Dependence of Critical Current Densities of Bulk High Tc Superconducting Materials regarding Thermally Activated Flux Motion (United States)

    Santosh, M.; Naik, S. Pavan Kumar; Koblischka, M. R.


    In the upcoming generation, bulk high temperature superconductors (HTS) will play a crucial and a promising role in numerous industrial applications ranging from Maglev trains to magnetic resonance imaging, etc. Especially, the bulk HTS as permanent magnets are suitable due to the fact that they can trap magnetic fields being several orders of magnitude higher than those of the best hard ferromagnets. The bulk HTS LREBa2Cu3O7-δ (LREBCO or LRE-123, LRE: Y, Gd, etc.,) materials could obtain very powerful compact superconducting super-magnets, which can be operated at the cheaper liquid nitrogen temperature or below due to higher critical temperatures (i.e., ∼90 K). As a result, the new advanced technology can be utilized in a more attractive manner for a variety of technological and medical applications which have the capacity to revolutionize the field. An understanding of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density (J c(H)) is important to develop better adapted materials. To achieve this goal, a variety of Jc (H) behaviours of bulk LREBCO samples were modelled regarding thermally activated flux motion. In essence, the Jc (H) curves follows a certain criterion where an exponential model is applied. However, to fit the complete Jc (H) curve of the LRE-123 samples an unique model is necessary to explain the behavior at low and high fields. The modelling of the various superconducting materials could be understood in terms of the pinning mechanisms.

  6. Enhancement in the critical current density of C-doped MgB2 wire using a polyacrylic acid dopant. (United States)

    Lee, Seung Muk; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Chang Min; Kim, Won; Joo, Jinho; Lim, Jun Hyung; Kim, Chan-Joong; Hong, Gye-Won


    C-doped MgB2 wires were fabricated from a polyacrylic acid (PAA) using a conventional in-situ PIT technique. The effects of the PAA content on the lattice parameter, microstructure, critical temperature (Tc) and critical current density (Jc) were examined. With increasing PAA content, the amount of MgO in the sample increased but the crystallinity, a-axis lattice parameter, and Tc of MgB2 wires decreased, indicating that the C that decomposed from PAA during heat treatment had substituted for B. All doped samples exhibited a higher Jc than the undoped sample at high magnetic field, and the Jc(B) property improved with increasing PAA content: for the 7 wt% doped sample, the Jc was approximately 3-times higher than that of the pristine sample (1.28 kA/cm2 vs. 3.43 kA/cm2) at 5 K and 6.6 T. The improved Jc(B) of the doped sample was attributed to the decreased grain size, enlarged lattice distortion and increased C doping level.

  7. The effect of silver doping on the critical current density of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O ceramic superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargar Shoushtari, M.; Bahrami, Amir; Farbod, Mansoor [Department of Physics, College of Science, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran)


    In this research, the effect of silver doping on Bi{sub 1.6}Pb{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} ceramic superconductor has been investigated. The solid-state reaction method and two different silver doping methods has been used, namely, doping during making processes of samples (batch 1) and doping after making Bi{sub 1.6}Pb{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} superconductor (batch 2). We observed that by adding silver to BPSCCO compound, partial melting temperature of the compound is decreased. The critical current density (J{sub c}) in both batches is affected by Ag doping. The investigation of SEM images of samples has shown that the all surfaces of the samples are porous and the grains are plate like. It seems that the BPSCCO grains in batch 1 samples are coated with silver but in the samples of batch 2, the silver also sits between the BPSCCO grains. The XRD patterns studies indicated that the silver peaks form separate phase and also by adding silver to BSCCO, the BPSCCO peaks do not show considerable shift. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Transport current density at temperatures up to 25 K of Cu/Ag composite sheathed 122-type tapes and wires (United States)

    Liu, Shifa; Lin, Kaili; Yao, Chao; Zhang, Xianping; Dong, Chiheng; Wang, Dongliang; Awaji, Satoshi; Kumakura, Hiroaki; Ma, Yanwei


    The fabrication of iron-based superconductors with high transport critical current density (J c) and low cost is a crucial determinant of whether they can be used for practical applications. In this paper, Cu/Ag composite sheathed Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (Sr122) tapes and Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (Ba122) round wires were fabricated via an ex situ powder-in-tube method and heat-treated by the hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing process respectively. In order to thoroughly reveal the application potential of Cu/Ag composite sheathed ‘122’ iron pnictide superconductors, transport J c of tapes and wires in high fields at temperatures up to 25 K was measured. High transport J c of 4.4 × 104 A cm-2 at 4.2 K and 3.6 × 103 A cm-2 at 20 K in 10 T was achieved in Cu/Ag composite sheathed Sr122 tapes. Transport J c of Ba122 wires is 9.4 × 103 A cm-2 at 4.2 K and 1.9 × 103 A cm-2 at 20 K in 10 T. These results demonstrate the great potential of Cu/Ag composite sheathed ‘122’ iron pnictide superconducting tapes and wires for high-field applications at intermediate temperatures around 20 K, which can be easily obtained by using cryocoolers.

  9. Anomalous diurnal variation of atmospheric potential gradient and air-Earth current density observed at Maitri, Antarctica (United States)

    Jeeva, K.; Gurubaran, S.; Williams, E. R.; Kamra, A. K.; Sinha, A. K.; Guha, A.; Selvaraj, C.; Nair, K. U.; Dhar, Ajay


    The scope of this paper is to explore the mechanisms operating over Maitri (70.76°S, 11.74°E, 117 m above mean sea level), a coastal Antarctic station, that produce an anomalous fair-weather diurnal pattern of the atmospheric electric potential gradient (PG) and air-Earth current density (AEC). The anomaly in the diurnal variations of AEC and the PG is displaying an ostensible minimum at 10 UT and a diminished response to the thunderstorm over the African continent in the 14-16 UT time frame. The data sets (2005-2014, except 2012) of the PG, and to some extent, AEC, from Maitri, are used to explore this anomaly. It follows that the fair-weather electrical phenomena over Maitri can be ascribed to global electrified convection on the one hand and to regional phenomena like convection due to the replacement of warm air by katabatic winds on the other hand. The katabatic winds originate on the polar plateau and blow from 130° at Maitri which are likely to transport various elements from the mountain slopes, and space charge from the polar plateau is expected to produce various disturbances in the PG and AEC monitored over the coastal Antarctica. This mechanism may be responsible for peaks in the early UT hours and also for the anomalous behavior of atmospheric electrical parameters observed at Maitri. Maitri data are compared with that of Carnegie cruise and Vostok to explain the source of anomaly.

  10. Algorithms for Computing the Magnetic Field, Vector Potential, and Field Derivatives for a Thin Solenoid with Uniform Current Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstrom, Peter Lowell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A numerical algorithm for computing the field components Br and Bz and their r and z derivatives with open boundaries in cylindrical coordinates for radially thin solenoids with uniform current density is described in this note. An algorithm for computing the vector potential Aθ is also described. For the convenience of the reader, derivations of the final expressions from their defining integrals are given in detail, since their derivations are not all easily found in textbooks. Numerical calculations are based on evaluation of complete elliptic integrals using the Bulirsch algorithm cel. The (apparently) new feature of the algorithms described in this note applies to cases where the field point is outside of the bore of the solenoid and the field-point radius approaches the solenoid radius. Since the elliptic integrals of the third kind normally used in computing Bz and Aθ become infinite in this region of parameter space, fields for points with the axial coordinate z outside of the ends of the solenoid and near the solenoid radius are treated by use of elliptic integrals of the third kind of modified argument, derived by use of an addition theorem. Also, the algorithms also avoid the numerical difficulties the textbook solutions have for points near the axis arising from explicit factors of 1/r or 1/r2 in the some of the expressions.

  11. Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb3Sn conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, Christopher; Sung, Zu Hawn; Lee, Peter J; Sailer, Bernd; Thoener, Manfred; Schlenga, Klaud; Ballarino, Amalia; Bottura, Luca; Bordini, Bernardo; Scheuerlein, Christian; Larnalestier, David C


    High critical current density ( Jc) Nb3Sn A15 multifilamentary wires require a large volume fraction of small grain (SG), superconducting A15 phase, as well as Cu stabilizer with high Residual Resistance Ratio (RRR) to provide electromagnetic stabilization and protection. In powder-in-tube (PIT) wires the unreacted Nb7.5 wt%Ta outer layer of the tubular filaments acts as a diffusion barrier and protects the interfilamentary Cu stabilizer from Sn contamination. A high RRR requirement generally imposes a restricted A15 reaction heat treatment to prevent localized full reaction of the filament that could allow Sn to reach the Cu. In this study we investigate recent high quality PIT wires that achieve a Jc (12 T, 4.2 K) up to ∼2500 A mm−2 and find that the minimum diffusion barrier thickness decreases as the filament aspect ratio increases from ∼1 in the inner rings of filaments to 1.3 in the outer filament rings. We found that just 2–3 diffusion barrier breaches can degrade RRR from 300 to 150 or less. U...

  12. Improved critical current densities in bulk FeSe superconductor using ball milled powders and high temperature sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhar, M.; Furutani, K.; Murakami, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Superconducting Materials Laboratory, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Kumar, Dinesh; Rao, M.S. Ramachandra [Department of Physics, Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre and Materials Science Research Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Koblischka, M.R. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Saarland University, Saarbruecken (Germany)


    The present study is investigating the effect of high temperature sintering combined with ball milled powders for the preparation of FeSe material via solid state sintering technique. The commercial powders of Fe (99.9% purity) and Se (99.9% purity) were mixed in a nominal ratio Fe:Se = 1:1 and thoroughly ground and ball-milled in a glove box during 6 h. Then, the powder mixture was pressed into pellets of 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thickness using an uniaxial pressure of 100 MPa. The samples were sealed in quartz tubes and sintered at 600 C for 24 h. Then, the pellets were again thoroughly ground and ball-milled in the glove box and pressed into pellets, and the final sintering was performed at two different temperatures, namely at 900 C for 24 h and at 950 C for 24 h. X-ray diffraction results confirmed that both samples showed mainly of the β-FeSe with tetragonal structure. The temperature dependence of magnetization (M-T) curves revealed a sharp superconducting transition T{sub c,} {sub onset} = 8.16 K for the sample sintered at 900 C. Further, scanning electron microscopy observations proved that samples sintered at 900 C show a platelike grain structure with high density. As a result, improved irreversibility fields around 5 T and the critical current density (J{sub c}) values of 6252 A cm{sup -2} at 5 K and self-field are obtained. Furthermore, the normalized volume pinning force versus the reduced field plots indicated a peak position at 0.4 for the sample sintered at 900 C. Improved flux pinning and the high J{sub c} values are attributed to the textured microstructure of the material, produced by a combination of high temperature sintering and ball milling. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Phys. Status Solidi A published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Analysis of current density and specific absorption rate in biological tissue surrounding an air-core type of transcutaneous transformer for an artificial heart. (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Nukaya, Masayuki; Tsuji, Toshio; Koshiji, Kohji


    This paper reports on the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the current density analysis of biological tissue surrounding an air-core type of transcutaneous transformer for an artificial heart. The electromagnetic field in the biological tissue surrounding the transformer was analyzed by the transmission-line modeling method, and the SAR and current density as a function of frequency (200k-1 MHz) for a transcutaneous transmission of 20 W were calculated. The model's biological tissue has three layers including the skin, fat and muscle. As a result, the SAR in the vicinity of the transformer is sufficiently small and the normalized SAR value, which is divided by the ICNIRP's basic restriction, is 7 x 10(-3) or less. On the contrary, the current density is slightly in excess of the ICNIRP's basic restrictions as the frequency falls and the output voltage rises. Normalized current density is from 0.2 to 1.2. In addition, the layer in which the current's density is maximized depends on the frequency, the muscle in the low frequency (700 kHz). The result shows that precision analysis taking into account the biological properties is very important for developing the transcutaneous transformer for TAH.

  14. Scanning micro-Hall probe mapping of magnetic flux distributions and current densities in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, W.; Heinrich, B. [Simon Fraser Univ., British Columbia (Canada); Zhou, H. [CTF Systems, Inc., British Columbia (Canada)] [and others


    Mapping of the magnetic flux density B{sub z} (perpendicular to the film plane) for a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin-film sample was carried out using a scanning micro-Hall probe. The sheet magnetization and sheet current densities were calculated from the B{sub z} distributions. From the known sheet magnetization, the tangential (B{sub x,y}) and normal components of the flux density B were calculated in the vicinity of the film. It was found that the sheet current density was mostly determined by 2B{sub x,y}/d, where d is the film thickness. The evolution of flux penetration as a function of applied field will be shown.

  15. A Quantitative Tunneling/Desorption Model for the Exchange Current at the Porous Electrode/Beta - Alumina/Alkali Metal Gas Three Phase Zone at 700-1300K (United States)

    Williams, R. M.; Ryan, M. A.; Saipetch, C.; LeDuc, H. G.


    The exchange current observed at porous metal electrodes on sodium or potassium beta -alumina solid electrolytes in alkali metal vapor is quantitatively modeled with a multi-step process with good agreement with experimental results.

  16. Effect of S doping on the critical current density and vortex dynamics in FeSe single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yue, E-mail:; Pyon, Sunseng; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi


    Highlights: • J{sub c} and vortex pinning in S-doped FeSe single crystals are reported for the first time. • The value of J{sub c} for FeSe is found to be enhanced from 4 × 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 2 K under self-field to 6 × 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} after S doping. • Strong point-like pinning from nanometer-sized defects or imperfections are dominant in both pure and S-doped FeSe, while S doping reduces the size of flux bundle and enhances the effective pinning energy. - Abstract: We report a detailed study of the S doping effect on the critical current density, J{sub c}, and vortex pinning in FeSe single crystal. The value of J{sub c} for FeSe is found to be enhanced from ∼4 × 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 2 K under self-field to ∼6 × 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} after S doping. Similar field decaying rates of J{sub c} and the absence of fishtail effect in both FeSe and FeSe{sub 0.86}S{sub 0.14} single crystals indicate the similar pinning mechanism for both crystals, i.e., the dominance of strong point-like pinning from nanometer-sized defects or imperfections. On the other hand, vortex dynamics study manifests that the S doping reduces the size of flux bundle and enhances the effective pinning energy, which may come from the lattice distortion caused by S doping.

  17. Conductance-based refractory density approach: comparison with experimental data and generalization to lognormal distribution of input current. (United States)

    Chizhov, Anton V


    The conductance-based refractory density (CBRD) approach is an efficient tool for modeling interacting neuronal populations. The model describes the firing activity of a statistical ensemble of uncoupled Hodgkin-Huxley-like neurons, each receiving individual Gaussian noise and a common time-varying deterministic input. However, the approach requires experimental validation and extension to cases of distributed input signals (or input weights) among different neurons of such an ensemble. Here the CBRD model is verified by comparing with experimental data and then generalized for a lognormal (LN) distribution of the input weights. The model with equal weights is shown to reproduce efficiently the post-spike time histograms and the membrane voltage of experimental multiple trial response of single neurons to a step-wise current injection. The responses reveal a more rapid reaction of the firing-rate than voltage. Slow adaptive potassium channels strongly affected the shape of the responses. Next, a computationally efficient CBRD model is derived for a population with the LN input weight distribution and is compared with the original model with equal input weights. The analysis shows that the LN distribution: (1) provides a faster response, (2) eliminates oscillations, (3) leads to higher sensitivity to weak stimuli, and (4) increases the coefficient of variation of interspike intervals. In addition, a simplified firing-rate type model is tested, showing improved precision in the case of a LN distribution of weights. The CBRD approach is recommended for complex, biophysically detailed simulations of interacting neuronal populations, while the modified firing-rate type model is recommended for computationally reduced simulations.

  18. Controlling Blend Morphology for Ultra-High Current Density in Non-Fullerene Acceptor Based Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xin


    Due to the high absorption coefficient and modulated band gap of non-fullerene small molecule acceptors (NFAs), photons can be utilized more efficiently in near-infrared (NIR) range. In this report, we highlight a system with a well-known polymer donor (PTB7-Th) blended with a narrow bandgap non-fullerene acceptor (IEICO-4F) as active layer and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) as the solvent additive. The optimization of the photoactive layer nanomorphology yields short-circuit current density value (Jsc) of 27.3 mA/cm2, one of the highest value in OSCs reported to date, which competes with other types of solution processed solar cells such as perovskite or quantum dot devices. Along with decent open-circuit voltage (0.71V) and fill factor values (66%), a power conversion efficiency of 12.8% is achieved for the champion devices. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) patterns and resonant soft X-ray scattering (R-SoXS) elucidate that the origin of this high photocurrent is mainly due to increased π-π coherence length of the acceptor, the domain spacing as well as the mean-square composition variation of the blend. Optoelectronic measurements confirm a balanced hole and electron mobility and reduced trap-assisted recombination for the best devices. These findings unveil the relevant solvent processing-nanostructure-electronic properties correlation in low band gap non-fullerene based solar cells, which provide a helpful guide for maximizing photocurrent that can pave the way for high efficiency organic solar cells.

  19. The study of dynamics of electrons in the presence of large current densities; Etude de la dynamique des electrons en presence de fortes densites de courant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, G


    The runaway electron effect is considered in different fields: nuclear fusion, or the heating of the solar corona. In this thesis, we are interested in runaway electrons in the ionosphere. We consider the issue of electrons moving through an ionospheric gas of positive ions and neutrals under the influence of a parallel electric field. We develop a kinetic model of collisions including electrons/electrons, electrons/ions and electrons/neutrals collisions. We use a Fokker-Planck approach to describe binary collisions between charged particles with a long-range interaction. A computational example is given illustrating the approach to equilibrium and the impact of the different terms. Then, a static electric field is applied in a new sample run. In this run, the electrons move in the z direction, parallel to the electric field. The first results show that all the electron distribution functions are non-Maxwellian. Furthermore, runaway electrons can carry a significant part of the total current density up to 20% of the total current density. Nevertheless, we note that the divergence free of the current density is not conserved. We introduce major changes in order to take into account the variation of the different moments of the ion distribution functions. We observe that the electron distribution functions are still non-Maxwellian. Runaway electrons are created and carry the current density. The core distribution stay at rest. As these electrons undergo less collisions, they increase the plasma conductivity. We make a parametric study. We fit the electron distribution function by two Maxwellian. We show that the time to reach the maximal current density is a key point. Thus, when we increase this time, we modify the temperatures. The current density plays a primary role. When the current density increases, all the moments of the distributions increase: electron density and mean velocity of the suprathermal distribution and the electron temperature of the core and

  20. An analysis of the gradient-induced electric fields and current densities in human models when situated in a hybrid MRI-LINAC system (United States)

    Liu, Limei; Trakic, Adnan; Sanchez-Lopez, Hector; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart


    MRI-LINAC is a new image-guided radiotherapy treatment system that combines magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a linear accelerator (LINAC) in a single unit. One drawback is that the pulsing of the split gradient coils of the system induces an electric field and currents in the patient which need to be predicted and evaluated for patient safety. In this novel numerical study the in situ electric fields and associated current densities were evaluated inside tissue-accurate male and female human voxel models when a number of different split-geometry gradient coils were operated. The body models were located in the MRI-LINAC system along the axial and radial directions in three different body positions. Each model had a region of interest (ROI) suitable for image-guided radiotherapy. The simulation results show that the amplitudes and distributions of the field and current density induced by different split x-gradient coils were similar with one another in the ROI of the body model, but varied outside of the region. The fields and current densities induced by a split classic coil with the surface unconnected showed the largest deviation from those given by the conventional non-split coils. Another finding indicated that the distributions of the peak current densities varied when the body position, orientation or gender changed, while the peak electric fields mainly occurred in the skin and fat tissues.

  1. Genetic inhibition of Na+-Ca2+ exchanger current disables fight or flight sinoatrial node activity without affecting resting heart rate. (United States)

    Gao, Zhan; Rasmussen, Tyler P; Li, Yue; Kutschke, William; Koval, Olha M; Wu, Yiming; Wu, Yuejin; Hall, Duane D; Joiner, Mei-ling A; Wu, Xiang-Qiong; Swaminathan, Paari D; Purohit, Anil; Zimmerman, Kathy; Weiss, Robert M; Philipson, Kenneth D; Song, Long-sheng; Hund, Thomas J; Anderson, Mark E


    The sodium-calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1) is predominantly expressed in the heart and is implicated in controlling automaticity in isolated sinoatrial node (SAN) pacemaker cells, but the potential role of NCX1 in determining heart rate in vivo is unknown. To determine the role of Ncx1 in heart rate. We used global myocardial and SAN-targeted conditional Ncx1 knockout (Ncx1(-/-)) mice to measure the effect of the NCX current on pacemaking activity in vivo, ex vivo, and in isolated SAN cells. We induced conditional Ncx1(-/-) using a Cre/loxP system. Unexpectedly, in vivo and ex vivo hearts and isolated SAN cells showed that basal rates in Ncx1(-/-) (retaining ≈20% of control level NCX current) and control mice were similar, suggesting that physiological NCX1 expression is not required for determining resting heart rate. However, increases in heart rate and SAN cell automaticity in response to isoproterenol or the dihydropyridine Ca(2+) channel agonist BayK8644 were significantly blunted or eliminated in Ncx1(-/-) mice, indicating that NCX1 is important for fight or flight heart rate responses. In contrast, the pacemaker current and L-type Ca(2+) currents were equivalent in control and Ncx1(-/-) SAN cells under resting and isoproterenol-stimulated conditions. Ivabradine, a pacemaker current antagonist with clinical efficacy, reduced basal SAN cell automaticity similarly in control and Ncx1(-/-) mice. However, ivabradine decreased automaticity in SAN cells isolated from Ncx1(-/-) mice more effectively than in control SAN cells after isoproterenol, suggesting that the importance of NCX current in fight or flight rate increases is enhanced after pacemaker current inhibition. Physiological Ncx1 expression is required for increasing sinus rates in vivo, ex vivo, and in isolated SAN cells, but not for maintaining resting heart rate.

  2. Flow structure and transport characteristics of feeding and exchange currents generated by upside-down Cassiopea jellyfish. (United States)

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Dollinger, Makani; Hamlet, Christina L; Colin, Sean P; Miller, Laura A


    Quantifying the flows generated by the pulsations of jellyfish bells is crucial for understanding the mechanics and efficiency of their swimming and feeding. Recent experimental and theoretical work has focused on the dynamics of vortices in the wakes of swimming jellyfish with relatively simple oral arms and tentacles. The significance of bell pulsations for generating feeding currents through elaborate oral arms and the consequences for particle capture are not as well understood. To isolate the generation of feeding currents from swimming, the pulsing kinematics and fluid flow around the benthic jellyfish Cassiopea spp. were investigated using a combination of videography, digital particle image velocimetry and direct numerical simulation. During the rapid contraction phase of the bell, fluid is pulled into a starting vortex ring that translates through the oral arms with peak velocities that can be of the order of 10 cm s(-1). Strong shear flows are also generated across the top of the oral arms throughout the entire pulse cycle. A coherent train of vortex rings is not observed, unlike in the case of swimming oblate medusae such as Aurelia aurita. The phase-averaged flow generated by bell pulsations is similar to a vertical jet, with induced flow velocities averaged over the cycle of the order of 1-10 mm s(-1). This introduces a strong near-horizontal entrainment of the fluid along the substrate and towards the oral arms. Continual flow along the substrate towards the jellyfish is reproduced by numerical simulations that model the oral arms as a porous Brinkman layer of finite thickness. This two-dimensional numerical model does not, however, capture the far-field flow above the medusa, suggesting that either the three-dimensionality or the complex structure of the oral arms helps to direct flow towards the central axis and up and away from the animal.

  3. Numerical modeling of a sub Plinian eruption at La Soufrière de Guadeloupe: implications for pyroclastic density currents hazard assessment. (United States)

    Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Neri, Augusto; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe


    We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of a sub-Plinian eruptive scenario at La Soufrière de Guadeloupe, aimed at assessing the capability of pyroclastic density currents to reach the inhabited regions on the volcano slopes, in case of the future resumption of the explosive activity. The selected eruptive scenario is similar to that hypothesized for the 1530 a.D. eruption, but several eruptive conditions have been analyzed to account for different behaviours of the eruptive column and percentages of collapse. Numerical results describe, in 3D and in time, the formation, instability and partial collapse of the eruptive column, and the simultaneous formation of a convective plume and several branched pyroclastic density currents. The proximal volcano morphology, characterized by the presence of ancient caldera rims and the remnants of the old edifice, controls the areal distribution of the collapsed material and the paths of channelized flows along the incised topography. The analysis of the 3D runs suggests that partial collapse scenarios produce steeply stratified pyroclastic density currents, which are strongly controlled by the topography and whose propagation is likely driven by the dynamics of the dense, basal layer. Although vertical grid size still does not allow the resolution of the dynamics of such concentrated flows, preliminary georeferenced maps of pyroclastic density currents' hazardous actions (temperature and dynamic pressure) provide interesting and useful information which can serve as a basis for elaborating a quantitative framework for the assessment of their impact on vulnerable infrastructures, networks, and population.

  4. Analytical results for the time-dependent current density distribution of expanding ultracold gases after a sudden change of the confining potential (United States)

    Boumaza, R.; Bencheikh, K.


    Using the so-called operator product expansion to lowest order, we extend the work in Campbell et al (2015 Phys. Rev. Lett 114 125302) by deriving a simple analytical expression for the long-time asymptotic one-body reduced density matrix during free expansion for a one-dimensional system of bosons with large atom number interacting through a repulsive delta potential initially confined by a potential well. This density matrix allows direct access to the momentum distribution and also to the mass current density. For initially confining power-law potentials we give explicit expressions, in the limits of very weak and very strong interaction, for the current density distributions during the free expansion. In the second part of the work we consider the expansion of ultracold gas from a confining harmonic trap to another harmonic trap with a different frequency. For the case of a quantum impenetrable gas of bosons (a Tonks–Girardeau gas) with a given atom number, we present an exact analytical expression for the mass current distribution (mass transport) after release from one harmonic trap to another harmonic trap. It is shown that, for a harmonically quenched Tonks–Girardeau gas, the current distribution is a suitable collective observable and under the weak quench regime, it exhibits oscillations at the same frequencies as those recently predicted for the peak momentum distribution in the breathing mode. The analysis is extended to other possible quenched systems.

  5. Synthesis and Biochemical effects of magnetite nanoparticle by surfactant-free electrochemical method in an aqueous system:the current density effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Aliahmad


    Full Text Available Obejective(s: In this research, magnetite nanoparticles with an average size of 23-36 nm were successfully synthesized via surfactant-free electrochemical method using iron as the anode and water as the electrolyte in a closed aqueous system in the presence of NaOH at room temperature. Methods: The effect of the current density on product formation and particle size was investigated. Particle size was controlled by adjusting the current density. It was found that particle size decreases by decreasing the current density. In addition, the effect of current density  on the structural and optical properties of nanostructures were studied by X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared, and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques.  Results: The results obtained from the magnetization property study of samples at room temperature showed coactivity and saturation manetization of 0-100 Oe and 27.2- 40.5 emu. g-1, respectively. Finally, the results of biological activity study of nanoparticles on liver and kidney function in male wistar rats demonstrated that oral administration of NPs caused significant alterations to the levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase in serum. Conclusions: No significant changes were detected in the groups treated with 10 and 100 ppm/ day nanostructure (P>0.05. There was a significant increase in the serum level of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen level (p

  6. Modeling and control of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with the air compressor according to requested electrical current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekbala Mohammad Rahim


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to design and investigate the dynamic behavior of a PEM fuel cell system. Dynamic analysis of a PEM fuel cell system has been done in Matlab\\Simulink software according to electrical current that has been applied from hybrid system. In addition, dynamical fuel cell system has been explained according to oriented control that is started from air injection compressor model. Also hydrogen valve actuator has been controlled according to the compressor model. The results of the fuel cell dynamic model as well as the applied compressor model are fully validated based on the available results in the open literature. Finally, the effects of several operating parameters of the fuel cell system such as anode and cathode pressures, cell voltage, compressor voltage, compressor mass flow rate variation with respect to inlet pressure ratio, net and stack powers on the dynamic behavior of the hybrid system are investigated. The results show that the model can predict the dynamic behavior of the fuel cell system accurately and it can be used directly for any control purposes.

  7. Exchange processes at geosphere-biosphere interface. Current SKB approach and example of coupled hydrological-ecological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerman, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Biometry and Technology


    The design of the repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel proposed by SKB is based on a multi-barrier system, in which the geosphere and biosphere are the utmost barrier surrounding the engineer barriers. This report briefly reviews the current approach taken by SKB to account for hydrological and ecological processes at the geosphere-biosphere interface (GBI) and their future plans in this area. A simple analysis was performed to shift the focus of performance assessment involving geosphere-biosphere interface modelling from the very simplistic assumption that the quaternary sediments are bypassed to one in which a more detailed model for sub-surface flows is included. This study indicated that, for many assumed ecosystem descriptions, the presence of the GBI leads to lower maximum doses to individual humans compared to a case when the GBI is neglected. This effect is due to the additional 'barrier' offered by the GBI. The main exposure pathways were assumed to occur through the food web. However, particularly the leakage on land through the stream-network and lakes can lead to higher doses due to ecosystem interaction with arable land. A scenario that gives particularly long duration of doses occurs due to land rise and with the transformation of the former bay and lake bed sediments into agricultural land. This effect is due to the significant retention or accumulation in aquatic sediment, which causes high activities to build up with time. Particularly, in combination with changing conditions in climate, humans life-style or geographic conditions (land rise, deforestation,etc.) doses to individual humans can be large.

  8. Foraminiferal area density as a proxy for ocean acidification over the last 200 years in the California Current System (United States)

    Osborne, E.; Thunell, R.


    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in an increase in atmospheric CO2 from 280 ppm to 400 ppm over the last 250 years. It is estimated that approximately one-third of this anthropogenically produced CO2 is sequestered in the global ocean, increasing the inventory of bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen ions (H+) and consuming carbonate (CO32-) as a result of carbonate buffering reactions. This increase in [H+] lowers seawater pH, the phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). Estimates indicate that mean seawater pH has already decreased by 0.1 pH units since 1750 and IPCC reports indicate it is likely that CO2 concentrations will reach 790 ppm by 2100 further reducing pH by 0.3 units. Marine calcifiers, such as foraminifera, utilize CO32- dissolved in seawater during calcification, a process that is highly sensitive to changes in pH due to the chemical reactions described above. The reduction in surface ocean carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]) caused by OA has impaired calcification of planktonic foraminifera and other marine calcifiers. It has been proposed that planktonic foraminiferal shell weight or shell thickness is positively correlated with ambient [CO32-] and has been used as proxy to reconstruct past changes in the surface ocean carbonate system. An ideal location for the application of this proxy is the California Current System (CSS), an Eastern Boundary Upwelling System (EBUS), which is characterized as having naturally lower pH. Upwelling introduces CO2-enriched bottom waters to the surface ocean, intensifying the effects of increasing dissolved CO2 as a result of anthropogenic activities. Upwelling produces a wide range of surface water [CO32-] making the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) an ideal site to carry out a foraminiferal shell weight calibration study. Area density (ρA) is a new method for collecting size-normalized shell weights that will be used in this study. Species-specific calibrations have been derived for two symbiont

  9. Voltage and oxide thickness dependent tunneling current density and tunnel resistivity model: Application to high-k material HfO2 based MOS devices (United States)

    Maity, N. P.; Maity, Reshmi; Baishya, Srimanta


    In this paper presents a straightforward efficient investigation of tunneling current density for ultra thin oxide layer based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices to realization the gate current as a function of applied potential and oxide thickness. Solutions to the Schrödinger's wave equation are evolved for the different potential energy regions of the MOS device considering appropriate effective mass for each region. For finding approximate mathematical solutions to linear differential equations using spatially changeable coefficients the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation technique is considered. A p-substrate based n-channel MOS device has been analyzed consisting of SiO2 material as the oxide dielectric along with high-k material HfO2. The tunnel resistivity is correspondingly assessed employing this tunneling current density model. Synopsys Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) tool results are employed to validate the analytical model. Tremendous agreements among the results are observed.

  10. Contactin regulates the current density and axonal expression of tetrodotoxin-resistant but not tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels in DRG neurons. (United States)

    Rush, Anthony M; Craner, Matthew J; Kageyama, Takashi; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G; Ranscht, Barbara


    Contactin, a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored predominantly neuronal cell surface glycoprotein, associates with sodium channels Nav1.2, Nav1.3 and Nav1.9, and enhances the density of these channels on the plasma membrane in mammalian expression systems. However, a detailed functional analysis of these interactions and of untested putative interactions with other sodium channel isoforms in mammalian neuronal cells has not been carried out. We examined the expression and function of sodium channels in small-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from contactin-deficient (CNTN-/-) mice, compared to CNTN+/+ litter mates. Nav1.9 is preferentially expressed in isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive neurons and thus we used this marker to subdivide small-diameter DRG neurons. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recording, we observed a greater than two-fold reduction of tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 current densities in IB4+ DRG neurons cultured from CNTN-/- vs. CNTN+/+ mice. Current densities for TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium channels were unaffected. Contactin's effect was selective for IB4+ neurons as current densities for both TTX-R and TTX-S channels were not significantly different in IB4- DRG neurons from the two genotypes. Consistent with these results, we have demonstrated a reduction in Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 immunostaining on peripherin-positive unmyelinated axons in sciatic nerves from CNTN-/- mice but detected no changes in the expression for the two major TTX-S channels Nav1.6 and Nav1.7. These data provide evidence of a role for contactin in selectively regulating the cell surface expression and current densities of TTX-R but not TTX-S Na+ channel isoforms in nociceptive DRG neurons; this regulation could modulate the membrane properties and excitability of these neurons.

  11. Impact of current paths on measurement of tunneling magnetoresistance and spin torque critical current densities in GaMnAs-based magnetic tunnel junctions


    Hamida, Aymen Ben; Bergmann, Florian; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans Werner


    GaMnAs-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices are characterized by in-plane and perpendicular-toplane magnetotransport at low temperatures. Perpendicular-to-plane transport reveals the typical tunneling magnetotransport (TMR) signal. Interestingly, a similar TMR signature is observed in the in-plane transport signal. Here, low-ohmic shunting of the MTJ by the top contact results in significant perpendicular-to-plane current paths. This effect allows the determination of TMR ratios of MT...

  12. Effect of 520 MeV Kr{sup 20+} ion irradiation on the critical current density of Bi-2212 single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terai, Takayuki; Ito, Yasuyuki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kishio, Kouji


    Change in magnetic properties of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+y} (Bi-2212) single crystals due to Kr{sup 20+} ion irradiation is reported, focused on critical current density and irreversibility magnetic field. The Bi-2212 single crystal specimens (3x3x0.3 mm{sup 3}) were prepared by the floating zone method. Each specimen was irradiated with 520 MeV Kr{sup 20+} ions of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} in the fluence. Magnetic hysteresis was measured at 4.2K-60K with a vibrating sample magnetometer before and after irradiation. Very large enhancement was observed in critical current density and irreversibility magnetic field above 20K. (author)

  13. The Influence of Current Density and Frequency on the Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings on Ti6Al4V (United States)

    Khanmohammadi, H.; Allahkaram, S. R.; Igual Munoz, A.; Towhidi, N.


    The effect of processing current density and frequency on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of the PEO coatings was studied. Coatings were characterized using FESEM, EDS, potentiodynamic polarization and EIS. The results indicated that the surface roughness, porosity and Al/Ti chemical value on the surface of the coatings increase with an increase in the current density and a decrease in the frequency of the PEO process. Corrosion investigations showed a relation between a mixed structural parameter (that contains thickness, porosity percentage and average pore diameter of the coatings) and the corrosion resistance of the PEO coatings. EIS data showed that higher coating thickness, lower surface porosity percentage and smaller pore diameter lead to the higher corrosion resistance.

  14. Enhancement of the critical current density in FeO-coated MgB2 thin films at high magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei E. Surdu


    Full Text Available The effect of depositing FeO nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm onto the surface of MgB2 thin films on the critical current density was studied in comparison with the case of uncoated MgB2 thin films. We calculated the superconducting critical current densities (Jc from the magnetization hysteresis (M–H curves for both sets of samples and found that the Jc value of FeO-coated films is higher at all fields and temperatures than the Jc value for uncoated films, and that it decreases to ~105 A/cm2 at B = 1 T and T = 20 K and remains approximately constant at higher fields up to 7 T.

  15. Extension of the source-sink potential approach to Hartree-Fock and density functional theory: A new tool to visualize the ballistic current through molecules (United States)

    Fias, Stijn; Stuyver, Thijs


    The recent source and sink potential approach by Pickup et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 143, 194105 (2015)] is extended to Hartree-Fock and density functional theory, allowing the calculation of the transmission and the visualization of ballistic currents through molecules at these levels of theory. This visualization allows the study of the transmission process in real-space, providing an important tool to better understand the conduction process.

  16. Variation of the external quantum efficiency with temperature and current density in red, blue, and deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (United States)

    Park, Jun Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Dong Yeong; Cho, Jaehee; Schubert, E. Fred; Kim, Jungsub; Lee, Jinsub; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Youngsoo; Kim, Jong Kyu


    The temperature-dependent external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) were investigated for a 620 nm AlGaInP red light-emitting diodes (LEDs), a 450 nm GaInN blue LED, and a 285 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LED. We observed distinct differences in the variation of the EQE with temperature and current density for the three types of LEDs. Whereas the EQE of the AlGaInP red LED increases as temperature decreases below room temperature, the EQEs of GaInN blue and AlGaN DUV LEDs decrease for the same change in temperature in a low-current density regime. The free carrier concentration, as determined from the dopant ionization energy, shows a strong material-system-specific dependence, leading to different degrees of asymmetry in carrier concentration for the three types of LEDs. We attribute the EQE variation of the red, blue, and DUV LEDs to the different degrees of asymmetry in carrier concentration, which can be exacerbated at cryogenic temperatures. As for the EQE variation with temperature in a high-current density regime, the efficiency droop for the AlGaInP red and GaInN blue LEDs becomes more apparent as temperature decreases, due to the deterioration of the asymmetry in carrier concentration. However, the EQE of the AlGaN DUV LED initially decreases, then reaches an EQE minimum point, and then increases again due to the field-ionization of acceptors by the Poole-Frenkel effect. The results elucidate that carrier transport phenomena allow for the understanding of the droop phenomenon across different material systems, temperatures, and current densities.

  17. Variation of the external quantum efficiency with temperature and current density in red, blue, and deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Dong Yeong; Kim, Jong Kyu, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaehee, E-mail: [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Semiconductor Physics Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Schubert, E. Fred [Department for Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Kim, Jungsub; Lee, Jinsub; Kim, Yong-Il; Park, Youngsoo [LED Business, Samsung Electronics, Yongin 446-920 (Korea, Republic of)


    The temperature-dependent external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) were investigated for a 620 nm AlGaInP red light-emitting diodes (LEDs), a 450 nm GaInN blue LED, and a 285 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LED. We observed distinct differences in the variation of the EQE with temperature and current density for the three types of LEDs. Whereas the EQE of the AlGaInP red LED increases as temperature decreases below room temperature, the EQEs of GaInN blue and AlGaN DUV LEDs decrease for the same change in temperature in a low-current density regime. The free carrier concentration, as determined from the dopant ionization energy, shows a strong material-system-specific dependence, leading to different degrees of asymmetry in carrier concentration for the three types of LEDs. We attribute the EQE variation of the red, blue, and DUV LEDs to the different degrees of asymmetry in carrier concentration, which can be exacerbated at cryogenic temperatures. As for the EQE variation with temperature in a high-current density regime, the efficiency droop for the AlGaInP red and GaInN blue LEDs becomes more apparent as temperature decreases, due to the deterioration of the asymmetry in carrier concentration. However, the EQE of the AlGaN DUV LED initially decreases, then reaches an EQE minimum point, and then increases again due to the field-ionization of acceptors by the Poole-Frenkel effect. The results elucidate that carrier transport phenomena allow for the understanding of the droop phenomenon across different material systems, temperatures, and current densities.

  18. A Novel and Generalized Lithium-Ion-Battery Configuration utilizing Al Foil as Both Anode and Current Collector for Enhanced Energy Density. (United States)

    Ji, Bifa; Zhang, Fan; Sheng, Maohua; Tong, Xuefeng; Tang, Yongbing


    A novel battery configuration based on an aluminum foil anode and a conventional cathode is developed. The aluminum foil plays a dual role as both the active anode material and the current collector, which enhances the energy density of the packaged battery, and reduces the production cost. This generalized battery configuration has high potential for application in next-generation lithium-ion batteries. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Degradation of solid oxide cells during co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2: Carbon deposition under high current densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Youkun; Ebbesen, Sune Dalgaard; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    above the experimental conversions. The observed carbon formation may be caused by the gas diffusion limitations at high current densities. Carbon nano-fibers were only observed close to the YSZ electrolyte indicating a large overpotential gradient at the TPBs close to the electrolyte......During co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2 using solid oxide cells (SOCs) the risk of carbon deposition in the Ni-YSZ electrode under high current densities (∼ 2.0 A/cm2) was studied in this work. Five galvanostatic tests were performed at current density between 1.5 and 2.25 A/cm2 and the average...... conversions of the reactants were no more than 66.8 %. Ni-YSZ electrode delamination and carbon nano-fibers could be observed after test at the Ni-YSZ | YSZ electrolyte interface for two of the cells. Thermodynamic calculation shows that the reactant conversion needed for carbon formation is above 99 %, far...

  20. Analysis of the current density characteristics in through-mask electrochemical micromachining (TMEMM for fabrication of micro-hole arrays on invar alloy film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-som JIN


    Full Text Available Invar alloy consisting of 64% iron and 36% nickel has been widely used for the production of shadow masks for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs because of its low thermal expansion coefficient (1.86 × 10−6 cm/°C. To fabricate micro-hole arrays on 30 μm invar alloy film, through-mask electrochemical micromachining (TMEMM was developed and combined with a portion of the photolithography etching process. For precise hole shapes, patterned photoresist (PR film was applied as an insulating mask. To investigate the relationship between the current density and the material removal rate, the principle of the electrochemical machining was studied with a focus on the equation. The finite element method (FEM was used to verify the influence of each parameter on the current density on the invar alloy film surface. The parameters considered were the thickness of the PR mask, inter-electrode gap (IEG, and electrolyte concentration. Design of experiments (DOE was used to figure out the contribution of each parameter. A simulation was conducted with varying parameters to figure out their relationships with the current density. Optimization was conducted to select the suitable conditions. An experiment was carried out to verify the simulation results. It was possible to fabricate micro-hole arrays on invar alloy film using TMEMM, which is a promising method that can be applied to fabrications of OLEDs shadow masks.

  1. Scaling law for voltage-current curve of a superconductor tape with a power-law dependence of electric field on a magnetic-field-dependent sheet current density (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Du-Xing


    Systematic theoretical study on the voltage (V) vs. current (I) curves of high-Tc superconductor (HTS) thin tapes has not been done till now, although their measurements are frequently used for determining critical current Ic at electric field E ≡ V /lv =Ec =10-4 V/m, lv being the voltage tap distance. On the other hand, it is well recognized that such tapes obey a power-law dependence of local electric field on local sheet current density with a Kim-model critical sheet current density, from which the V vs. I curve may be calculated as a function of current ramp rate R. Such calculations are carried out in the present work with a scaling law deduced, which states that if E/Ec vs. I/Ic is a solution at given apparent power-law exponent na and R/Ec, then this R/Ec multiplied by a constant C leads to another solution with E/Ec and I/Ic multiplied by C and C1/na , respectively. In the help of the scaling law, condition-dependent V vs. I may be studied systematically and completely based on a limited amount of numerical computations and V - I curve measurements may be performed under properly controlled conditions to become a more powerful tool for HTS research.

  2. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin


    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  3. A study on the effect of free cash flow and profitability current ratio on dividend payout ratio: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Parsian


    Full Text Available Decision making about dividend payout is one of the most important decision that companies should encounter. Identifying factors that influence dividends can help managers in making an appropriate dividend policy. In the other side, companies’ dividend payouts over time and with a stable manner may influence on stock price, future earnings growth and finally investor's evaluation about owners' equity. Hence, investigating the factors influencing dividend payout ratio is of high importance. In this research, we investigate the effects of various factors on dividend payout ratio of Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE listed companies. We use time series regression (panel data in order to test the hypothesis of this study. This study provides empirical evidences by choosing a sample of 102 companies over the time span of 2005-2010. The result shows that independent variables of free cash flow and profitability current ratio have negative and significant impact on dividend payout ratio; whereas, the independent variable of leverage ratio has a positive and significant impact on dividend payout ratio. The other independent ratio such as size of the company, growth opportunities and systematic risk do not have any significant influence on dividend payout ratio.

  4. Passive restriction of blood flow and counter-current heat exchange via lingual retia in the tongue of a neonatal gray whale Eschrichtius robustus (Cetacea, Mysticeti). (United States)

    Ekdale, Eric G; Kienle, Sarah S


    Retia mirabilia play broad roles in cetacean physiology, including thermoregulation during feeding and pressure regulations during diving. Vascular bundles of lingual retia are described within the base of the tongue of a neonatal female gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). Each rete consists of a central artery surrounded by four to six smaller veins. The retia and constituent vessels decrease in diameter as they extend anteriorly within the hyoglossus muscle from a position anterior to the basihyal cartilage toward the apex of the tongue. The position of the retia embedded in the hyoglossus and the anterior constriction of the vessels differs from reports of similar vascular bundles that were previously identified in gray whales. The retia likely serve as a counter-current heat exchange system to control body temperature during feeding. Cold blood flowing toward the body center within the periarterial veins would accept heat from warm blood in the central artery flowing toward the anterior end of the tongue. Although thermoregulatory systems have been identified within the mouths of a few mysticete species, the distribution of such vascular structures likely is more widespread among baleen whales than has previously been described. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of electromagnetic transitions in $^8$Be with meson-exchange currents derived from chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, S. [University of South Carolina; Wiringa, Robert B. [ANL; Pieper, Steven C. [ANL; Schiavilla, Rocco [Old Dominion U., JLAB


    We report quantum Monte Carlo calculations of electromagnetic transitions in $^8$Be. The realistic Argonne $v_{18}$ two-nucleon and Illinois-7 three-nucleon potentials are used to generate the ground state and nine excited states, with energies that are in excellent agreement with experiment. A dozen $M1$ and eight $E2$ transition matrix elements between these states are then evaluated. The $E2$ matrix elements are computed only in impulse approximation, with those transitions from broad resonant states requiring special treatment. The $M1$ matrix elements include two-body meson-exchange currents derived from chiral effective field theory, which typically contribute 20--30\\% of the total expectation value. Many of the transitions are between isospin-mixed states; the calculations are performed for isospin-pure states and then combined with the empirical mixing coefficients to compare to experiment. In general, we find that transitions between states that have the same dominant spatial symmetry are in decent agreement with experiment, but those transitions between different spatial symmetries are often significantly underpredicted.

  6. Well-posedness of the conductivity reconstruction from an interior current density in terms of Schauder theory

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Yong-Jung


    We show the well-posedness of the conductivity image reconstruction problem with a single set of interior electrical current data and boundary conductivity data. Isotropic conductivity is considered in two space dimensions. Uniqueness for similar conductivity reconstruction problems has been known for several cases. However, the existence and the stability are obtained in this paper for the first time. The main tool of the proof is the method of characteristics of a related curl equation.

  7. Decreasing the Spin Orbit Torque-critical current density to reverse perpendicular magnetization in CoxTb1-x ferrimagnetic based alloys (United States)

    Rojas-Sanchez, J.-Carlos; Pham, T.-H.; Vallobra, P.; Lacour, D.; Malinowski, G.; Hehn, M.; Mangin, S.; Cyrille, M.-C.; Je, S.-G.; Gaudin, G.; Boulle, O.

    We show the SOT-switching of perpendicularly magnetized //W(3nm)/CoxTb1-x(3.5nm)/AlOx(3nm) structure. Ferrimagnetic alloys allow us to tune the net magnetic moment by varying the Co concentration. Samples were grown by sputtering on Si-SiO2 substrates and characterized by MOKE and SQUID measurements which allow us to estimate the critical compensation where the net moment reaches zero at room temperature. Then we studied the magnetization reversal in Hall crosses by analyzing the anomalous Hall Effect (AHE) when applying in-plane current pulses and an in-plane field Hx parallel to the current direction. A minimum Hx of the order of 1 mT is needed for fully reverse the magnetization. The full reversal of magnetization has been observed in all our samples. More importantly, critical current densities for switching were found to decrease systematic when decreasing the Co concentration even in the Tb rich compositions samples. Our results bring out the role of different concentration of Co in CoxTb1-x alloys on SOT-switching providing a method to reduce the current density using ferrimagnetic alloys.

  8. Ionic liquid gating on atomic layer deposition passivated GaN: Ultra-high electron density induced high drain current and low contact resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hong; Du, Yuchen; Ye, Peide D., E-mail: [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)


    Herein, we report on achieving ultra-high electron density (exceeding 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}) in a GaN bulk material device by ionic liquid gating, through the application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to passivate the GaN surface. Output characteristics demonstrate a maximum drain current of 1.47 A/mm, the highest reported among all bulk GaN field-effect transistors, with an on/off ratio of 10{sup 5} at room temperature. An ultra-high electron density exceeding 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2} accumulated at the surface is confirmed via Hall-effect measurement and transfer length measurement. In addition to the ultra-high electron density, we also observe a reduction of the contact resistance due to the narrowing of the Schottky barrier width on the contacts. Taking advantage of the ALD surface passivation and ionic liquid gating technique, this work provides a route to study the field-effect and carrier transport properties of conventional semiconductors in unprecedented ultra-high charge density regions.

  9. An N-terminal deletion variant of HCN1 in the epileptic WAG/Rij strain modulates HCN current densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin eWemhöner


    Full Text Available Rats of the Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij strain show symptoms resembling human absence epilepsy. Thalamocortical neurons of WAG/Rij rats are characterized by an increased HCN1 expression, a negative shift in Ih activation curve, and an altered responsiveness of Ih to cAMP. We cloned HCN1 channels from rat thalamic cDNA libraries of the WAG/Rij strain and found an N-terminal deletion of 37 amino acids. In addition, WAG-HCN1 has a stretch of six amino acids, directly following the deletion, where the wild-type sequence (GNSVCF is changed to a polyserine motif. These alterations were found solely in thalamus mRNA but not in genomic DNA. The truncated WAG-HCN1 was detected late postnatal in WAG/Rij rats and was not passed on to rats obtained from pairing WAG/Rij and non-epileptic August Copenhagen Irish (ACI rats. Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed 2.2-fold increased current amplitude of WAG-HCN1 compared to rat HCN1. While WAG-HCN1 channels did not have altered current kinetics or changed regulation by protein kinases, fluorescence imaging revealed a faster and more pronounced surface expression of WAG-HCN1. Using co-expression experiments, we found that WAG-HCN1 channels suppress heteromeric HCN2 and HCN4 currents. Moreover, heteromeric channels of WAG HCN1 with HCN2 have a reduced cAMP sensitivity. Functional studies revealed that the gain-of-function of WAG-HCN1 is not caused by the N-terminal deletion alone, thus requiring a change of the N-terminal GNSVCF motif. Our findings may help to explain previous observations in neurons of the WAG/Rij strain and indicate that WAG HCN1 may contribute to the genesis of absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats.

  10. An N-terminal deletion variant of HCN1 in the epileptic WAG/Rij strain modulates HCN current densities. (United States)

    Wemhöner, Konstantin; Kanyshkova, Tatyana; Silbernagel, Nicole; Fernandez-Orth, Juncal; Bittner, Stefan; Kiper, Aytug K; Rinné, Susanne; Netter, Michael F; Meuth, Sven G; Budde, Thomas; Decher, Niels


    Rats of the Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) strain show symptoms resembling human absence epilepsy. Thalamocortical neurons of WAG/Rij rats are characterized by an increased HCN1 expression, a negative shift in I h activation curve, and an altered responsiveness of I h to cAMP. We cloned HCN1 channels from rat thalamic cDNA libraries of the WAG/Rij strain and found an N-terminal deletion of 37 amino acids. In addition, WAG-HCN1 has a stretch of six amino acids, directly following the deletion, where the wild-type sequence (GNSVCF) is changed to a polyserine motif. These alterations were found solely in thalamus mRNA but not in genomic DNA. The truncated WAG-HCN1 was detected late postnatal in WAG/Rij rats and was not passed on to rats obtained from pairing WAG/Rij and non-epileptic August Copenhagen Irish rats. Heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes revealed 2.2-fold increased current amplitude of WAG-HCN1 compared to rat HCN1. While WAG-HCN1 channels did not have altered current kinetics or changed regulation by protein kinases, fluorescence imaging revealed a faster and more pronounced surface expression of WAG-HCN1. Using co-expression experiments, we found that WAG-HCN1 channels suppress heteromeric HCN2 and HCN4 currents. Moreover, heteromeric channels of WAG-HCN1 with HCN2 have a reduced cAMP sensitivity. Functional studies revealed that the gain-of-function of WAG-HCN1 is not caused by the N-terminal deletion alone, thus requiring a change of the N-terminal GNSVCF motif. Our findings may help to explain previous observations in neurons of the WAG/Rij strain and indicate that WAG-HCN1 may contribute to the genesis of absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats.

  11. A Method to Increase Current Density in a Mono Element Internal Tin Processed Superconductor Utilizing Zr Oxide to Refine Grain Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A. Zeitlin, Eric Gregory


    The effect of Oxygen on (Nb1Zr)3Sn multifilament conductors manufactured by the Mono Element Internal Tin (MEIT) process was explored to improve the current density by refining the grain size. This followed work first done by General Electric on the Nb3Sn tape process. Techniques to fabricate the more difficult Nb1Zr composites are described and allowed fabrication of long lengths of .254 mm diameter wire from an 88.9 mm diameter billet. Oxygen was incorporated through the use of SnO2 mixed with tin powder and incorporated into the core. These were compared to samples with Ti+Sn and Cu+Sn cores. Heat treatments covered the range of 700 C to 1000 C. Current density vs. H, grain size, and reaction percentages are provided for the materials tested. The Oxygen gave superior results in the temperature range of 815-1000 C. It also stabilized the filament geometry of the array in comparison to the other additions at the higher temperatures. At 815 C a peak in layer Jc yielded values of 2537 A/mm2 at 12 T and 1353 A/mm2 at 15T, 8-22% and 30-73% greater respectively than 700 C values. Results with Oxygen at high temperature show the possibility of high speed continuous reaction of the composite versus the current batch or react in place methods. In general the Ti additions gave superior results at the lower reaction temperature. Future work is suggested to determine if the 815 C reaction temperature can lead to higher current density in high tin (Nb1Zr+Ox)3Sn conductors. A second technique incorporated oxygen directly into the Nb1Zr rods through heat treatment with Nb2O5 at 1100 C for 100 hours in vacuum prior to extrusion. The majority of the filaments reduced properly in the composite but some local variations in hardness led to breakage at smaller diameters.

  12. Design of a Probe for Strain Sensitivity Studies of Critical Current Densities in SC Wires and Tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanaraj, N.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Rusy, A.; Lombardo, V.; /Fermilab


    The design of a variable-temperature probe used to perform strain sensitivity measurements on LTS wires and HTS wires and tapes is described. The measurements are intended to be performed at liquid helium temperatures (4.2 K). The wire or tape to be measured is wound and soldered on to a helical spring device, which is fixed at one end and subjected to a torque at the free end. The design goal is to be able to achieve {+-} 0.8 % strain in the wire and tape. The probe is designed to carry a current of 2000A.

  13. The non-Boussinesq lock exchange problem (United States)

    Linden, Paul; Lowe, Ryan; Rottman, James


    The results of an experimental study of the non-Boussinesq lock exchange problem are described. The experiments were performed in a rectangular channel using water and a Sodium Iodide solution as the two fluids, which gave a maximum density difference of about 60experiments is to resolve some recent controversy about how gravity currents evolve from a flow at rest to the well-known steady-state gravity current made famous by Benjamin (1968). It has been argued, based on two-dimensional shallow-water theory, that Benjamin’s steady-state energy-conserving gravity current cannot evolve from the lock-exchange (or any physically reasonable) initial conditions. The experiments show that this is not true. A theory for the non-Boussinesq problem is derived that is valid for the lock-exchange problem for large times after the flow is initiated. This theory requires the formulation of a two-layer theory for hydraulic jumps in non-Boussinesq fluids. The results of the model are compared with our lock-exchange experiments and with two previous non-Boussinesq sets of lock exchange experiments, both of which use a combination of exotic gases or gases and liquids as the working fluids, with good qualitative agreement.

  14. Energy of the surface layer deterioration of 1020 steel and copper at dry sliding against 1045 steel with a high electric current density (United States)

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Rubtsov, V. E.


    Dry sliding of copper and 1020 steel against 1045 steel under the influence of the contact current density higher than 250 A/cm2 is carried out by using the pin-on-ring testing scheme. The change in the surface layer structure and the formation of a tribolayer consisting of iron, copper, and FeO oxide are shown. It is noted that the thin contact layer contains near 40 at % of oxygen. The specific wear rate is calculated based on the data of wear and current-voltage characteristics of the contact. A limited applicability of this parameter for the description of the surface layer deterioration is shown. We propose a wear parameter close to it, which characterizes more correctly the specimen tribolayer deterioration. These wear characteristics increase with a current density increase. It is established that the work of tribolayer deterioration can be close to a half of energy generated in contact. Some increase in the work of tribolayer deterioration due to a reduction in heat flow to the specimen is noted. It is shown that these wear characteristics of copper are considerably lower than that of 1020 steel. It is explained by the presence of copper in the tribolayer of the copper specimen that allows an easier stress relaxation to be realized.

  15. Influence Analysis of Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE), Net Profit Margin (NPM), Debt To Equity Ratio (DER), and current ratio (CR), Against Corporate Profit Growth In Automotive In Indonesia Stock Exchange


    Mohd. Heikal; Muammar Khaddafi; Ainatul Ummah


    The purpose of this research to analyze the effect of Return On Asset, Return On Equity, Net Profit Margin, Debt To Equity Ratio and Current Ratio toward growth income either simultaneously or partially on automotive companies that were listed in Indonesia stock exchange. Independent variables used in this research were Return On Asset, Return On Equity, Net Profit Margin, Debt To Equity Ratio and Current Ratio and dependent variable in this research was growth incom. The data used in this re...

  16. A 13 kA current lead, measuring 1.5 m in length. The lower part consists of a high-temperature superconductor (Bi-2223), operating at between 50 K and 4.5 K, while the heat-exchanger upper part allows the current to be brought from room temperature to 50 K.

    CERN Multimedia


    A 13 kA current lead, measuring 1.5 m in length. The lower part consists of a high-temperature superconductor (Bi-2223), operating at between 50 K and 4.5 K, while the heat-exchanger upper part allows the current to be brought from room temperature to 50 K.

  17. Transmission Electron Microscopy Characterization of Ni(V) Metallization Stressed Under High Current Density in Flip Chip Solder Joints (United States)

    Tsai, M. Y.; Lin, Y. L.; Lin, Y. W.; Ke, J. H.; Kao, C. R.


    The Ni(V) under bump metallization (UBM) in flip chip solder joints is known to be consumed in a two-stage process during current stressing. The Ni(V) UBM transforms first to the “consumed Ni(V)” state. Then, this consumed Ni(V) transforms to a so-called porous structure. In this study, the details of the consumed Ni(V) and the porous structure were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Bright-field images showed that the consumed Ni(V) was a continuous layer without columnar structures and that the porous structure had many voids in the matrix. The compositional analyses showed that V atoms were immobile and trapped in the original Ni(V) layer. Cu and Sn atoms diffused into the original Ni(V) layer, and Ni atoms diffused outward. Selected-area diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of the porous structure showed that it was composed of an amorphous matrix with fine crystalline Cu6Sn5 and VSn2 phases.

  18. Barter exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    Although barter is often perceived as something that proceeded money, barter is still used. The focus of the paper is on barter exchanges. Barter exchanges are used both in developing countries as well as in developed countries (including the U.S.). They are used by both organizations...... and individuals. They usually allow to exchange good but some include also services. Some exchanges allow only for bi-directional barter, i.e. when only two parties are involved in the exchange. But probably most of the barter exchanges use barter money; this makes it easier to exchange goods and services...

  19. The magnetization and the critical current density in NdO0.82F0.18FeAs superconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Ghorbani


    Full Text Available The magnetization and the critical current density of newly discovered NdO0.82F0.18FeAs superconductor with a critical temperature, Tc,, of 51.5 K has been studied as a function of applied magnetic field and temperature. It was found that this compound exhibits a standard superconductivity with diamagnetic onset close to Tc at a very low applied magnetic field. It was shown that there was a strong paramagnetic behavior at applied magnetic larger than 50 kOe. This behavior is clearly shown in magnetization curves as a function of applied magnetic field.

  20. Surface Morphology Study of Nanostructured Lead-Free Solder Alloy Sn-Ag-Cu Developed by Electrodeposition: Effect of Current Density Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakinah Mohd Yusof


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Nanostructured lead-free solder Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC was developed by electrodeposition method at room temperature. Electrolite bath which comprised of the predetermined quantity of tin methane sulfonate, copper sulfate and silver sulfate were added sequentially to MSA solution. The methane sulphonic acid (MSA based ternary Sn-Ag-Cu bath was developed by using tin methane sulfonate as a source of Sn ions while the Cu+ and Ag+ ions were obtained from their respective sulfate salts. The rate of the electrodeposition was controlled by variation of current density. The addition of the buffer, comprising of sodium and ammonium acetate helped in raising the pH solution. During the experimental procedure, the pH of solution, composition of the electrolite bath, and the electrodeposition time were kept constant. The electrodeposited rate, deposit composition and microstructure were investigated as the effect of current density. The electrodeposited solder alloy was characterized for their morphology using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM. In conclusion, vary of current density will play significant role in the surface morphology of nanostructured lead-free solder SAC developed. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New

  1. Power Laws from Linear Neuronal Cable Theory: Power Spectral Densities of the Soma Potential, Soma Membrane Current and Single-Neuron Contribution to the EEG (United States)

    Pettersen, Klas H.; Lindén, Henrik; Tetzlaff, Tom; Einevoll, Gaute T.


    Power laws, that is, power spectral densities (PSDs) exhibiting behavior for large frequencies f, have been observed both in microscopic (neural membrane potentials and currents) and macroscopic (electroencephalography; EEG) recordings. While complex network behavior has been suggested to be at the root of this phenomenon, we here demonstrate a possible origin of such power laws in the biophysical properties of single neurons described by the standard cable equation. Taking advantage of the analytical tractability of the so called ball and stick neuron model, we derive general expressions for the PSD transfer functions for a set of measures of neuronal activity: the soma membrane current, the current-dipole moment (corresponding to the single-neuron EEG contribution), and the soma membrane potential. These PSD transfer functions relate the PSDs of the respective measurements to the PSDs of the noisy input currents. With homogeneously distributed input currents across the neuronal membrane we find that all PSD transfer functions express asymptotic high-frequency power laws with power-law exponents analytically identified as for the soma membrane current, for the current-dipole moment, and for the soma membrane potential. Comparison with available data suggests that the apparent power laws observed in the high-frequency end of the PSD spectra may stem from uncorrelated current sources which are homogeneously distributed across the neural membranes and themselves exhibit pink () noise distributions. While the PSD noise spectra at low frequencies may be dominated by synaptic noise, our findings suggest that the high-frequency power laws may originate in noise from intrinsic ion channels. The significance of this finding goes beyond neuroscience as it demonstrates how power laws with a wide range of values for the power-law exponent α may arise from a simple, linear partial differential equation. PMID:25393030

  2. Cerebellar, but not Motor or Parietal, High-Density Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Facilitates Motor Adaptation. (United States)

    Doppelmayr, Michael; Pixa, Nils Henrik; Steinberg, Fabian


    Although motor adaptation is a highly relevant process for both everyday life as well as rehabilitation many details of this process are still unresolved. To evaluate the contribution of primary motor (M1), parietal and cerebellar areas to motor adaptation processes transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been applied. We hypothesized that anodal stimulation of the cerebellum and the M1 improves the learning process in mirror drawing, a task involving fine grained and spatially well-organized hand movements. High definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) allows a focal stimulation to modulate brain processes. In a single-session double-blind study, we compared the effects of different anodal stimulation procedures. The groups received stimulation either at the cerebellum (CER), at right parietal (PAR), or at left M1, and a SHAM group was included. Participants (n=83) had to complete several mirror drawing tasks before, during, and after stimulation. They were instructed to re-trace a line in the shape of a pentagonal star as fast and accurate as possible. Tracing time (seconds) and accuracy (deviation in mm) have been evaluated. The results indicated that cerebellar HD-tDCS can facilitate motor adaptation in a single session. The stimulation at M1 showed only a tendency to increase motor adaptation and these effects were visible only during the first part of the stimulation. Stimulating the right parietal area, relevant for visuospatial processing did not lead to increased performance. Our results suggest that motor adaptation relies to a great extent on cerebellar functions and HD-tDCS can speed up this process. (JINS, 2016, 22, 928-936).

  3. PYFLOW_2.0. A new open-source software for quantifying impact parameters and deposition rates of dilute pyroclastic density currents (United States)

    Dioguardi, Fabio; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Mele, Daniela


    Dilute pyroclastic density currents (DPDCs) are one of the hazardous events that can happen during explosive eruptions. They are ground-hugging turbulent gas-particle flows that move down volcano slopes under the combined action of density contrast and gravity. DPDCs are dangerous for human lives and infrastructures both because they exert a dynamic pressure in their direction of motion and transport volcanic ash particles, which remain in the atmosphere during and after the passage of DPDC until they settle on the ground. Deposits formed by the passage of a DPDC show peculiar characteristics that can be linked to flow field variables. This has been the subject of extensive investigations in the past years leading to the formulation of a sedimentological model (Dellino et al. 2008), which has been used for evaluating the impact parameters of past eruptions on a statistical basis for hazard assessment purposes. The model has been recently translated in a Fortran code (PYFLOW, Dioguardi and Dellino, 2014). Here we present the latest release of this code (PYFLOW_2.0) which, besides significant improvements in the code structure, computation times and the introduction of a user friendly data input method, allows to calculate the deposition time and rate of the ash and lapilli layer formed by a DPDC by linking deposit (e.g. componentry, grainsize) to flow (e.g. flow average density and shear velocity) characteristics as calculated by the aforementioned sedimentological model. The deposition rate is calculated by summing the contributions of each grainsize class of all components constituting the deposit (e.g. juvenile particles, crystals, etc.), which are in turn computed as a function of particle density, terminal velocity, concentration and deposition probability. Here we apply the concept of deposition probability, previously introduced for estimating the deposition rates of turbidity currents (Stow and Bowen, 1980), to DPDCs, although with a different approach, i

  4. Impact zone dynamics of dilute mono- and polydisperse jets and their implications for the initial conditions of pyroclastic density currents (United States)

    Sweeney, Matthew R.; Valentine, Greg A.


    The fluid dynamics at the impact zone of an impinging jet dictate the initial conditions for the resulting downstream flow. Current understanding of this impact zone is limited to small scale, single phase, or monodisperse impinging jet experiments with a focus on industrial and engineering applications. Here, we present multifield numerical modeling results of mono- and polydisperse impinging jets with length scales and physical parameters relevant to large explosive volcanic eruptions. Our modeling shows that particle behavior is sensitive to whether a jet is monodisperse or polydisperse. For a monodisperse jet, the downstream flow behavior can be predicted by the coupling between the particles and gas, which we characterize by a form of the Stokes number (Stimp) where the time scale of changes in fluid motion is defined by the length scale and velocity change associated with vertical deceleration as a mixture approaches an impact surface. We find that the length scale of deceleration is sensitive to the mixture Mach number, as high Mach number flows produce standing shocks upstream of the impact site. For low Stimp monodisperse cases, the particles make the transition from axial to radial flow easily, and the flow continues downstream relatively unimpeded and well mixed. In contrast, in situations where the monodisperse particles are sufficiently poorly coupled (high Stimp), the particles rebound and/or concentrate at the impact zone, which results in a radial acceleration of gas as it is expelled from the concentrating mixture. In polydisperse jets, larger particles become better coupled to the gas in the free jet zone when in the presence of smaller, well-coupled particles due to particle-particle drag. However, the larger particles still lose significant momentum in the impact zone, which results in a lag effect where the smaller particles and gas are expelled and advance radially at a greater velocity. Although the simulations are simplified compared with

  5. Density functional theory investigation of the polarizability and second hyperpolarizability of polydiacetylene and polybutatriene chains: Treatment of exact exchange and role of correlation (United States)

    Champagne, Benoît; Bulat, Felipe A.; Yang, Weitao; Bonness, Sean; Kirtman, Bernard


    The static polarizability and second hyperpolarizability of increasingly large polydiacetylene and polybutatriene (PBT) chains have been evaluated using the optimized effective potential for exact exchange (OEP-EXX) method developed by Yang and Wu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143002 (2002)], where the unknown part of the effective potential is expressed as a linear combination of Gaussian functions. Various conventional atomic orbital basis sets were employed for the exchange potential (X basis) as well as for the Kohn-Sham orbitals [molecular orbital (MO) basis]. Our results were compared to coupled-perturbed Hartree-Fock (CPHF) calculations and to ab initio correlated values obtained at various levels of approximation. It turns out that (a) small conventional basis sets are, in general, unsatisfactory for the X basis; (b) the performance of a given X basis depends on the MO basis and is generally improved when using a larger MO basis; (c) these effects are exaggerated for the second hyperpolarizability compared to the polarizability; (d) except for the second hyperpolarizability of PBT chains, using 6-311++G** for the X basis gives reasonable agreement with the CPHF results for all MO basis sets; (e) our results suggest that in the limit of a complete X basis the OEP-EXX values may approach the CPHF data; and (f) in general, the quality of a given conventional X basis degrades with the length of the oligomer, which correlates with the fact that the number of X basis functions becomes a smaller fraction of the number required to reproduce exactly the finite-basis-set Hartree-Fock energies. Linear and especially nonlinear electric field responses constitute a very stringent test for assessing the quality of functionals and potentials; appropriately tailored basis sets are needed to describe the latter. Finally, this study further highlights the importance of electron correlation effects on linear and nonlinear responses, for which correlated functionals with OEP are

  6. Comparison of H-mode plasma simulations using toroidal velocity models depending on plasma current density and ion temperature in presence of an ITB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyarit Chatthong


    Full Text Available Two different approaches for predicting plasma toroidal velocity (v are developed and used in self-consistent simulations of H-mode plasmas with the presence of ITB using BALDUR integrated predictive modelling code. In the first approach, the toroidal velocity depends on the plasma current density; while in the second approach the toroidal velocity is directly proportional to the ion temperature. The profile of v is used to calculate the ExB flow shear which is a main mechanism for plasma transport suppression, leading to the ITB formation. In all simulations, the core transport model is a combination of NCLASS neoclassical transport and semi-empirical Mixed Bohm/gyro-Bohm model that includes the ITB effects. The boundary condition is set at top of the pedestal and is estimated using a pedestal model based on a combination of magnetic and flow shear stabilization pedestal width scaling and an infinite-n ballooning pressure gradient. Two toroidal velocity models are used to simulate the time evolution of plasma temperature and density profiles of 10 JET discharges. The root mean square error (RMSE is used to compare simulation results of those 10 JET discharges with experimental data. It is found that RMSE of Ti , Te , ne are 28.1%, 31.8%, and 15.0% for the first toroidal velocity model and 25.5%, 30.2%, and 15.1% for the second toroidal velocity model, respectively. Furthermore, this suite of codes is used to predict the ITER performance under standard type I ELMy H-mode. It is found that the simulation yields formation of a narrow ITB near r/a = 0.7 in the simulation using the current density dependent model and a wide ITB from r/a = 0.5 to 0.8 in the simulation using the ion temperature dependent model. The average of central ion temperature, total fusion power output and alpha power are predicted to be 36 keV, 159 MW and 492 MW for the current density dependent model and 49 keV, 218 MW and 786 MW for the ion temperature dependent

  7. Effects of trap density on drain current LFN and its model development for E-mode GaN MOS-HEMT (United States)

    Panda, D. K.; Lenka, T. R.


    In this paper the drain current low-frequency noise (LFN) of E-mode GaN MOS-HEMT is investigated for different gate insulators such as SiO2, Al2O3/Ga2O3/GdO3, HfO2/SiO2, La2O3/SiO2 and HfO2 with different trap densities by IFM based TCAD simulation. In order to analyze this an analytical model of drain current low frequency noise is developed. The model is developed by considering 2DEG carrier fluctuations, mobility fluctuations and the effects of 2DEG charge carrier fluctuations on the mobility. In the study of different gate insulators it is observed that carrier fluctuation is the dominant low frequency noise source and the non-uniform exponential distribution is critical to explain LFN behavior, so the analytical model is developed by considering uniform distribution of trap density. The model is validated with available experimental data from literature. The effect of total number of traps and gate length scaling on this low frequency noise due to different gate dielectrics is also investigated.

  8. Larger late sodium current density as well as greater sensitivities to ATX II and ranolazine in rabbit left atrial than left ventricular myocytes. (United States)

    Luo, Antao; Ma, Jihua; Song, Yejia; Qian, Chunping; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Peihua; Wang, Leilei; Fu, Chen; Cao, Zhenzhen; Shryock, John C


    An increase of cardiac late sodium current (INa.L) is arrhythmogenic in atrial and ventricular tissues, but the densities of INa.L and thus the potential relative contributions of this current to sodium ion (Na(+)) influx and arrhythmogenesis in atria and ventricles are unclear. In this study, whole-cell and cell-attached patch-clamp techniques were used to measure INa.L in rabbit left atrial and ventricular myocytes under identical conditions. The density of INa.L was 67% greater in left atrial (0.50 ± 0.09 pA/pF, n = 20) than in left ventricular cells (0.30 ± 0.07 pA/pF, n = 27, P ATX II) increased INa.L with an EC50 value of 14 ± 2 nM and a Hill slope of 1.4 ± 0.1 (n = 9) in atrial myocytes and with an EC50 of 21 ± 5 nM and a Hill slope of 1.2 ± 0.1 (n = 12) in ventricular myocytes. Na(+) channel open probability (but not mean open time) was greater in atrial than in ventricular cells in the absence and presence of ATX II. The INa.L inhibitor ranolazine (3, 6, and 9 μM) reduced INa.L more in atrial than ventricular myocytes in the presence of 40 nM ATX II. In summary, rabbit left atrial myocytes have a greater density of INa.L and higher sensitivities to ATX II and ranolazine than rabbit left ventricular myocytes.

  9. Oceanic density fronts steering bottom-current induced sedimentation deduced from a 50 ka contourite-drift record and numerical modeling (off NW Spain) (United States)

    Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Zhang, Wenyan; Hofmann, Antonia L.; Löwemark, Ludvig A.; Schwenk, Tilmann


    How the various bottom-near hydrographic and sedimentary processes control the formation of contourite drifts, i.e. of bottom-current related confined deep-sea depocenters, usually remains widely speculative. This study uses a transect of six sediment cores and a sediment echosounder profile across a whole contourite system off NW Spain to address the sediment dynamics responsible for the depositional pattern. This "mounded patch"-type contourite drift (18 km long, 20 km wide) with a 150-m deep channel (moat) has formed around an 800-m high structural obstacle. Deposition on the contourite drift in the past was characterized by alternating calm and high-energy bottom-flow conditions. Calm conditions (Last Glacial period: 27-17 cal ka BP; late Holocene times: water masses (Labrador Sea Water, Mediterranean Outflow Water) provide a powerful mechanism for contouritic deposition, rather than the core of a water mass itself. These gravity-driven density fronts lead to local re-suspension of sands stored inside the drift's moat and to subsequent upward transport towards the drift's crest. Here, the oceanic density fronts produce additional km-scale eddies. These migrating eddies provide an efficient mechanism for further widespread sediment re-distribution. In comparison with paleoceanographic reconstructions, a downward migration or expansion of the Mediterranean Outflow Water by about 300 m led most probably to such temporary contouritic sand deposition. We finally propose a conceptual model to explain how seafloor obstacles redirect and perturbate bottom currents. This model proposes not only a sharp contact between two water masses but also the transition zone between those as an important high-energy regime, offering oceanic density fronts a travel medium. These fronts are strong enough to distribute fine sands across highly pronounced seabed topography. On the respective time scale, the moat itself seems to act as the main source for those sands, making a remote

  10. PYFLOW 2.0. A new open-source software for quantifying the impact and depositional properties of dilute pyroclastic density currents (United States)

    Dioguardi, Fabio; Dellino, Pierfrancesco


    Dilute pyroclastic density currents (DPDC) are ground-hugging turbulent gas-particle flows that move down volcano slopes under the combined action of density contrast and gravity. DPDCs are dangerous for human lives and infrastructures both because they exert a dynamic pressure in their direction of motion and transport volcanic ash particles, which remain in the atmosphere during the waning stage and after the passage of a DPDC. Deposits formed by the passage of a DPDC show peculiar characteristics that can be linked to flow field variables with sedimentological models. Here we present PYFLOW_2.0, a significantly improved version of the code of Dioguardi and Dellino (2014) that was already extensively used for the hazard assessment of DPDCs at Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius (Italy). In the latest new version the code structure, the computation times and the data input method have been updated and improved. A set of shape-dependent drag laws have been implemented as to better estimate the aerodynamic drag of particles transported and deposited by the flow. A depositional model for calculating the deposition time and rate of the ash and lapilli layer formed by the pyroclastic flow has also been included. This model links deposit (e.g. componentry, grainsize) to flow characteristics (e.g. flow average density and shear velocity), the latter either calculated by the code itself or given in input by the user. The deposition rate is calculated by summing the contributions of each grainsize class of all components constituting the deposit (e.g. juvenile particles, crystals, etc.), which are in turn computed as a function of particle density, terminal velocity, concentration and deposition probability. Here we apply the concept of deposition probability, previously introduced for estimating the deposition rates of turbidity currents (Stow and Bowen, 1980), to DPDCs, although with a different approach, i.e. starting from what is observed in the deposit (e.g. the weight

  11. Hall voltage drives pulsing counter-currents of the sliding charge density wave and of quantized normal carriers at self-filled Landau levels (United States)

    Orlov, Andrey P.; Sinchenko, Aleksander A.; Monceau, Pierre; Brazovskii, Serguei; Latyshev, Yuri I.


    Remnant pockets of carriers left over after formation of a charge density wave (CDW) were brought, by virtue of transverse electric and magnetic fields, to a current-carrying state at quantized Landau Levels. The generated Hall voltage polarizes and puts to sliding the flexible CDW background. The screening from the CDW allows for a so strong redistribution of normal electrons density under the action of the Lorentz force alone, that an integer filling of the lowest Landau level might be reached at one edge at the expense of the full depletion at another edge of the Hall bar. With the Hall field exceeding the sliding threshold, the regime of exactly compensated collective and normal counter-currents develops in the open-circuit direction across the bar. The annihilation of the two currents proceeds via a regular sequence of phase slips which are the space-time vortices of the CDW phase around the enforced amplitude nodes. The resulting spontaneous generation of coherent high ( GHz) frequency signals was detected by observations of multiple Shapiro steps. This picture results from studies of micron-sized Hall bars in crystals of NbSe3 prepared by means of focused ion beams. The interpretation is confirmed and illustrated by a numerical solution of the derived equations. The depinning pulse propagates from edges to the bulk and the sliding sets in, accompanied by the generation of periodic phase slips near the Hall bar edge where the CDW phase is advanced in steps of 2π at expense of the CDW amplitude passing through zero.

  12. Degradation Mechanisms of Magnesium Metal Anodes in Electrolytes Based on (CF3SO2)2N(-) at High Current Densities. (United States)

    Yoo, Hyun Deog; Han, Sang-Don; Bolotin, Igor L; Nolis, Gene M; Bayliss, Ryan D; Burrell, Anthony K; Vaughey, John T; Cabana, Jordi


    The energy density of rechargeable batteries utilizing metals as anodes surpasses that of Li ion batteries, which employ carbon instead. Among possible metals, magnesium represents a potential alternative to the conventional choice, lithium, in terms of storage density, safety, stability, and cost. However, a major obstacle for metal-based batteries is the identification of electrolytes that show reversible deposition/dissolution of the metal anode and support reversible intercalation of ions into a cathode. Traditional Grignard-based Mg electrolytes are excellent with respect to the reversible deposition of Mg, but their limited anodic stability and compatibility with oxide cathodes hinder their applicability in Mg batteries with higher voltage. Non-Grignard electrolytes, which consist of ethereal solutions of magnesium(II) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Mg(TFSI)2), remain fairly stable near the potential of Mg deposition. The slight reactivity of these electrolytes toward Mg metal can be remedied by the addition of surface-protecting agents, such as MgCl2. Hence, ethereal solutions of Mg(TFSI)2 salt with MgCl2 as an additive have been suggested as a representative non-Grignard Mg electrolyte. In this work, the degradation mechanisms of a Mg metal anode in the TFSI-based electrolyte were studied using a current density of 1 mA cm(-2) and an areal capacity of ∼0.4 mAh cm(-2), which is close to those used in practical applications. The degradation mechanisms identified include the corrosion of Mg metal, which causes the loss of electronic pathways and mechanical integrity, the nonuniform deposition of Mg, and the decomposition of TFSI(-) anions. This study not only represents an assessment of the behavior of Mg metal anodes at practical current density and areal capacity but also details the outcomes of interfacial passivation, which was detected by simple cyclic voltammetry experiments. This study also points out the absolute absence of any passivation at

  13. Vacuum expectation values of the current density and energy-momentum tensor for a charged scalar field in curved spacetime with toroidally compactified spatial dimensions (United States)

    Saharian, Aram; Kotanjyan, Anna; Sargsyan, Hayk; Simonyan, David


    The models with compact spatial dimensions appear in a number of fundamental physical theories. In particular, the idea of compactified dimensions has been extensively used in supergravity and superstring theories. In quantum field theory, the modification of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum by the periodicity conditions imposed on the field operator along compact dimensions leads to a number of interesting physical effects. A well known example of this kind, demonstrating the close relation between quantum phenomena and global geometry, is the topological Casimir effect. In models with extra compact dimensions, the Casimir energy creates a nontrivial potential for the compactification radius. This can serve as a stabilization mechanism for moduli fields and for the effective gauge couplings. The Casimir effect has also been considered as a possible origin for the dark energy in Kaluza-Klein-type and braneworld models. In the resent presentation we investigate the effects of the gravity and topology on the local properties of the quantum vacuum for a charged scalar field in the presence of a classical gauge field. Vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor and current density are investigated for a charged scalar field in dS spacetime with toroidally compact spatial dimensions in the presence of a classical constant gauge field. Due to the nontrivial topology, the latter gives rise to Aharonov-Bohm-like effect on the vacuum characteristics. The vacuum current density, energy density and stresses are even periodic functions of the magnetic flux enclosed by compact dimensions. For small values of the comoving lengths of compact dimensions, compared with the dS curvature radius, the effects of gravity on the topological contributions are small and the expectation values are expressed in terms of the corresponding quantities in the Minkowski bulk by the standard conformal relation. For large values of the comoving lengths, depending on the field mass, two

  14. CC chemokine ligand 2 upregulates the current density and expression of TRPV1 channels and Nav1.8 sodium channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Der-Jang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation or nerve injury-induced upregulation and release of chemokine CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2 within the dorsal root ganglion (DRG is believed to enhance the activity of DRG nociceptive neurons and cause hyperalgesia. Transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1 and tetrodotoxin (TTX-resistant Nav1.8 sodium channels play an essential role in regulating the excitability and pain transmission of DRG nociceptive neurons. We therefore tested the hypothesis that CCL2 causes peripheral sensitization of nociceptive DRG neurons by upregulating the function and expression of TRPV1 and Nav1.8 channels. Methods DRG neuronal culture was prepared from 3-week-old Sprague–Dawley rats and incubated with various concentrations of CCL2 for 24 to 36 hours. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were performed to record TRPV1 agonist capsaicin-evoked inward currents or TTX-insensitive Na+ currents from control or CCL2-treated small DRG sensory neurons. The CCL2 effect on the mRNA expression of TRPV1 or Nav1.8 was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay. Results Pretreatment of CCL2 for 24 to 36 hours dose-dependently (EC50 value = 0.6 ± 0.05 nM increased the density of capsaicin-induced currents in small putative DRG nociceptive neurons. TRPV1 mRNA expression was greatly upregulated in DRG neurons preincubated with 5 nM CCL2. Pretreating small DRG sensory neurons with CCL2 also increased the density of TTX-resistant Na+ currents with a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 value = 0.7 ± 0.06 nM. The Nav1.8 mRNA level was significantly increased in DRG neurons pretreated with CCL2. In contrast, CCL2 preincubation failed to affect the mRNA level of TTX-resistant Nav1.9. In the presence of the specific phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or Akt inhibitor IV, CCL2 pretreatment failed to increase the current density of capsaicin-evoked inward currents or TTX-insensitive Na+ currents and

  15. A hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell using an ion-exchange membrane as an electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duin, P.J. van; Kruissink, C.A.


    Using an acidic type of water leached ion exchange membrane, cell current outputs of the order of 100 mA▪cm-2 at 0,6 V cell voltage have been obtained; the removal of produced water largely limits the cell performance. Cells using the alkaline type of membrane exhibit much smaller current densities,

  16. Spatial distribution of superconducting and charge-density-wave order parameters in cuprates and its influence on the quasiparticle tunnel current (Review Article) (United States)

    Gabovich, Alexander M.; Voitenko, Alexander I.


    The state of the art concerning tunnel measurements of energy gaps in cuprate oxides has been analyzed. A detailed review of the relevant literature is made, and original results calculated for the quasiparticle tunnel current J(V) between a metallic tip and a disordered d-wave superconductor partially gapped by charge density waves (CDWs) are reported, because it is this model of high-temperature superconductors that becomes popular owing to recent experiments in which CDWs were observed directly. The current was calculated suggesting the scatter of both the superconducting and CDW order parameters due to the samples' intrinsic inhomogeneity. It was shown that peculiarities in the current-voltage characteristics inherent to the case of homogeneous superconducting material are severely smeared, and the CDW-related features transform into experimentally observed peak-dip-hump structures. Theoretical results were used to fit data measured for YBa2Cu3O7-δ and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The fitting demonstrated a good qualitative agreement between the experiment and model calculations. The analysis of the energy gaps in high-Tc superconductors is important both per se and as a tool to uncover the nature of superconductivity in cuprates not elucidated so far despite of much theoretical effort and experimental progress.

  17. Electrochemical evaluation of sulfur poisoning in a methane-fuelled solid oxide fuel cell: Effect of current density and sulfur concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Johnson, Gregory B.; Hjalmarsson, Per


    A Ni/ScYSZ based SOFC was tested at 1, 0.5, 0.25, and 0 (OCV) A cm−2 in methane fuel containing 0–100 ppm H2S. Analysis of cell voltage loss during short-term H2S poisoning showed that SOFC performance loss was generally larger at higher current loads. Separating the effect of H2S on catalytic re...... in the anode, leading to less available fuel and a higher fuel utilization. All poisoning effects were reversible after removing H2S from the fuel.......A Ni/ScYSZ based SOFC was tested at 1, 0.5, 0.25, and 0 (OCV) A cm−2 in methane fuel containing 0–100 ppm H2S. Analysis of cell voltage loss during short-term H2S poisoning showed that SOFC performance loss was generally larger at higher current loads. Separating the effect of H2S on catalytic...... reforming and electrochemical activity by evaluating the relevant area specific resistances and charge transfer processes based on impedance spectroscopy revealed that the poisoning of electrochemical activity was not dependent on current density. Two major anode processes were significantly affected...

  18. Merging field mapping and modeling to interpret the lithofacies variations from unsteady ash-rich pyroclastic density currents on uneven topography (United States)

    Doronzo, Domenico; Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Sulpizio, Roberto; Lucchi, Federico


    In order to obtain significant volcanological results from computer simulations of explosive eruptions, one either needs a systematic statistical approach to test a wide range of initial and boundary conditions, or needs using a well-constrained field case study. Here we followed the second approach, using data obtained from field mapping of the Grotta dei Palizzi 2 pyroclastic deposits (Vulcano Island, Italy) as input for numerical modeling. This case study deals with impulsive phreatomagmatic explosions that generated ash-rich pyroclastic density currents, interacting with the high topographic obstacle of the La Fossa Caldera rim. We demonstrate that by merging field data with 3D numerical simulation it is possible to highlight the details of the dynamical current-terrain interaction, and to interpret the lithofacies variations of the associated deposits as a function of topography-induced sedimentation rate. Results suggest that a value of the sedimentation rate lower than 5 kg/m2s at the bed load can still be sheared by the overlying current, producing tractional structures in the deposit. Instead, a sedimentation rate in excess of that threshold can preclude the formation of tractional structures, producing thick massive deposits. We think that the approach used in this study could be applied to other case studies to confirm or refine such threshold value of the sedimentation rate, which is to be considered as an upper value as for the limitations of the numerical model.

  19. Density functional theory studies on the solvent effects in Al(H2O)63+water-exchange reactions: the number and arrangement of outer-sphere water molecules. (United States)

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Jing; Dong, Shaonan; Zhang, Fuping; Wang, Ye; Bi, Shuping


    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations combined with cluster models are performed at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level for investigating the solvent effects in Al(H 2 O) 6 3+ water-exchange reactions. A "One-by-one" method is proposed to obtain the most representative number and arrangement of explicit H 2 Os in the second hydration sphere. First, all the possible ways to locate one explicit H 2 O in second sphere (N m ' = 1) based on the gas phase structure (N m ' = 0) are examined, and the optimal pathway (with the lowest energy barrier) for N m ' = 1 is determined. Next, more explicit H 2 Os are added one by one until the inner-sphere is fully hydrogen bonded. Finally, the optimal pathways with N m ' = 0-7 are obtained. The structural and energetic parameters as well as the lifetimes of the transition states are compared with the results obtained with the "Independent-minimum" method and the "Independent-average" method, and all three methods show that the pathway with N m ' = 6 may be representative. Our results give a new idea for finding the representative pathway for water-exchange reactions in other hydrated metal ion systems.

  20. Bubble Formation within Filaments of Melt-Processed Bi2212 wires and its strongly negative effect on the Critical Current Density

    CERN Document Server

    Kametani, F; Jiang, J; Scheuerlein, C; Malagoli, A; Di Michiel, M; Huang, Y; Miao, H; Parrell, J A; Hellstrom, E E; Larbalestier, D C


    Most studies of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) show that the critical current density Jc is limited by the connectivity of the filaments, but what determines the connectivity is still elusive. Here we report on the role played by filament porosity in limiting Jc. By a microstructural investigation of wires quenched from the melt state, we find that porosity in the unreacted wire agglomerates into bubbles that segment the Bi2212 melt within the filaments into discrete sections. These bubbles do not disappear during subsequent processing because they are only partially filled by Bi2212 grains as the Bi2212 forms on cooling. Correlating the microstructure of quenched wires to their final, fully processed Jc values shows an inverse relation between Jc and bubble density. Bubbles are variable between conductors and perhaps from sample to sample, but they occur frequently and almost completely fill the filament diameter, so they exert a strongly variable but always negative effect on Jc. Bubbles reduce the continuous Bi221...

  1. Development of the female voxel phantom, NAOMI, and its application to calculations of induced current densities and electric fields from applied low frequency magnetic and electric fields. (United States)

    Dimbylow, Peter


    This paper outlines the development of a 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI (aNAtOMIcal model), designed to be representative of the average adult female. The primary medical imaging data were derived from a high-resolution MRI scan of a 1.65 m tall, 23 year old female subject with a mass of 58 kg. The model was rescaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the International Commission on Radiological Protection reference adult female. There are 41 tissue types in the model. The application of NAOMI to the calculations of induced current densities and electric fields from applied low frequency magnetic and electric fields is described. Comparisons are made with values from the male voxel model, NORMAN. The calculations were extended from 50 Hz up to 10 MHz. External field reference levels are compared with the ICNIRP guidelines.

  2. Improvement of Short-Circuit Current Density in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Sputtered Nanocolumnar TiO2 Compact Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chien Chen


    Full Text Available The effect of a nanocolumnar TiO2 compact layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was examined. Such a compact layer was sputtered on a glass substrate with an indium tin oxide (ITO film using TiO2 powder as the raw material, with a thickness of ~100 nm. The compact layer improved the short-circuit current density and the efficiency of conversion of solar energy to electricity by the DSSC by 53.37% and 59.34%, yielding values of 27.33 mA/cm2 and 9.21%, respectively. The performance was attributed to the effective electron pathways in the TiO2 compact layer, which reduced the back reaction by preventing direct contact between the redox electrolyte and the conductive substrate.

  3. Critical current density and vortex pinning mechanism of Li x (NH3) y Fe2Te{}_{1.2}Se{}_{0.8} single crystals (United States)

    Wang, Shaohua; Sun, Shanshan; Lei, Hechang


    We grew Li x (NH3) y Fe2Te{}1.2Se{}0.8 single crystals successfully using the low-temperature ammonothermal method, and the onset superconducting transition temperature {T}{{c}}{onset} is increased to 21 K compared to 14 K in the parent compound FeTe{}0.6Se{}0.4. The derived critical current density J c increases remarkably to 2.6 × 105 A/cm2 at 2 K. Further analysis indicates that the dominant pinning mechanism in Li x (NH3) y Fe2Te{}1.2Se{}0.8 single crystal is the interaction between vortex and surface-like defects with normal core, by variations in the charge-carrier mean free path l near the defects (δ l pinning). Moreover, flux creep is important to the vortex dynamics of this material.

  4. Effect of various mechanical deformation processes on critical current density and microstructure in MgB{sub 2} tapes and wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Sihai; Pan, Alexey V; Liu Huakun; Horvat, Joseph; Dou Shixue [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)


    MgB{sub 2} tapes and wires have been prepared by the in situ reaction method. Two cycle drawing and groove-rolling were used for the mechanic deformation of the samples. The critical current density, J{sub c}, as a function of applied magnetic field, B{sub a}, was measured and compared for all the prepared samples. The influence of the different processing at its different stages on the MgB{sub 2} microstructure was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Weak links introduced in the superconducting core after the second cycle mechanical deformation could not be re-joined with a consecutive heat treatment. Accordingly, for these samples J{sub c}(B{sub a}) turned out to decrease significantly faster in an increasing field than for samples prepared with one-cycle processing.

  5. Effect of various mechanical deformation processes on critical current density and microstructure in MgB sub 2 tapes and wires

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Si Hai; LiuHuaKun; Horvat, J; DouShiXue


    MgB sub 2 tapes and wires have been prepared by the in situ reaction method. Two cycle drawing and groove-rolling were used for the mechanic deformation of the samples. The critical current density, J sub c , as a function of applied magnetic field, B sub a , was measured and compared for all the prepared samples. The influence of the different processing at its different stages on the MgB sub 2 microstructure was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Weak links introduced in the superconducting core after the second cycle mechanical deformation could not be re-joined with a consecutive heat treatment. Accordingly, for these samples J sub c (B sub a) turned out to decrease significantly faster in an increasing field than for samples prepared with one-cycle processing.

  6. Heat convection at the density maximum point of water (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Korganci, Nuri


    Water exhibits a maximum in density at normal pressure at around 4° degree temperature. This paper demonstrates that during cooling, at around 4 °C, the temperature remains constant for a while because of heat exchange associated with convective currents inside the water. Superficial approach implies it as a new anomaly of water, but actually it is not.

  7. Heat Convection at the Density Maximum Point of Water (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Korganci, Nuri


    Water exhibits a maximum in density at normal pressure at around 4° degree temperature. This paper demonstrates that during cooling, at around 4 °C, the temperature remains constant for a while because of heat exchange associated with convective currents inside the water. Superficial approach implies it as a new anomaly of water, but actually it…

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of Flow and Temperature Distributions of Density Currents in a River-Reservoir System under Upstream Releases with Different Durations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen


    Full Text Available A calibrated three-dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code model was applied to simulate unsteady flow patterns and temperature distributions in the Bankhead river-reservoir system in Alabama, USA. A series of sensitivity model runs were performed under daily repeated large releases (DRLRs with different durations (2, 4 and 6 h from Smith Dam Tailrace (SDT when other model input variables were kept unchanged. The density currents in the river-reservoir system form at different reaches, are destroyed at upstream locations due to the flow momentum of the releases, and form again due to solar heating. DRLRs (140 m3/s with longer durations push the bottom cold water further downstream and maintain a cooler bottom water temperature. For the 6-h DRLR, the momentum effect definitely reaches Cordova (~43.7 km from SDT. Positive bottom velocity (density currents moving downstream is achieved 48.4%, 69.0% and 91.1% of the time with an average velocity of 0.017, 0.042 and 0.053 m/s at Cordova for the 2-h, 4-h and 6-h DRLR, respectively. Results show that DRLRs lasting for at least 4 h maintain lower water temperatures at Cordova. When the 4-h and 6-h DRLRs repeat for more than 6 and 10 days, respectively, bottom temperatures at Cordova become lower than those for the constant small release (2.83 m3/s. These large releases overwhelm the mixing effects due to inflow momentum and maintain temperature stratification at Cordova.

  9. The conversion of CO2 and CH4 to acetic acid over the Au-exchanged ZSM-5 catalyst: a density functional theory study. (United States)

    Panjan, Wasinee; Sirijaraensre, Jakkapan; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Pantu, Piboon; Limtrakul, Jumras


    The direct conversion of methane and carbon dioxide to acetic acid is one of the most challenging research topics. Using the density functional theory (M06-L) the study reveals the catalytic activity of the Au(I)-ZSM-5 zeolite in this reaction. The Au(I)-ZSM-5 is represented by a 34T quantum cluster model. The activation of the C-H bond over the Au-ZSM-5 zeolite would readily take place via the homolytic σ-bond activation with an energy barrier of 10.5 kcal mol(-1), and subsequent proton transfer from the Au cation to the zeolitic oxygen, yielding the stable methyl-gold complex adsorbed on the zeolite Brønsted acid. The conversion of CO(2) on this bi-functional catalyst involves the Brønsted acid site playing a role in the protonation of CO(2) and the methyl-gold complex acting as a methylating agent. The activation energy of 52.9 kcal mol(-1) is predicted.

  10. The Pomici di Avellino eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (3.9 ka BP). Part II: sedimentology and physical volcanology of pyroclastic density current deposits (United States)

    Sulpizio, R.; Bonasia, R.; Dellino, P.; Mele, D.; di Vito, M. A.; La Volpe, L.


    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) generated during the Plinian eruption of the Pomici di Avellino (PdA) of Somma-Vesuvius were investigated through field and laboratory studies, which allowed the detailed reconstruction of their eruptive and transportation dynamics and the calculation of key physical parameters of the currents. PDCs were generated during all the three phases that characterised the eruption, with eruptive dynamics driven by both magmatic and phreatomagmatic fragmentation. Flows generated during phases 1 and 2 (EU1 and EU3pf, magmatic fragmentation) have small dispersal areas and affected only part of the volcano slopes. Lithofacies analysis demonstrates that the flow-boundary zones were dominated by granular-flow regimes, which sometimes show transitions to traction regimes. PDCs generated during eruptive phase 3 (EU5, phreatomagmatic fragmentation) were the most voluminous and widespread in the whole of Somma-Vesuvius’ eruptive history, and affected a wide area around the volcano with deposit thicknesses of a few centimetres up to more than 25 km from source. Lithofacies analysis shows that the flow-boundary zones of EU5 PDCs were dominated by granular flows and traction regimes. Deposits of EU5 PDC show strong lithofacies variation northwards, from proximally thick, massive to stratified beds towards dominantly alternating beds of coarse and fine ash in distal reaches. The EU5 lithofacies also show strong lateral variability in proximal areas, passing from the western and northern to the eastern and southern volcano slopes, where the deposits are stacked beds of massive, accretionary lapilli-bearing fine ash. The sedimentological model developed for the PDCs of the PdA eruption explains these strong lithofacies variations in the light of the volcano’s morphology at the time of the eruption. In particular, the EU5 PDCs survived to pass over the break in slope between the volcano sides and the surrounding volcaniclastic apron-alluvial plain

  11. Alternative Splicing at C Terminus of CaV1.4 Calcium Channel Modulates Calcium-dependent Inactivation, Activation Potential, and Current Density (United States)

    Tan, Gregory Ming Yeong; Yu, Dejie; Wang, Juejin; Soong, Tuck Wah


    The CaV1.4 voltage-gated calcium channel is predominantly expressed in the retina, and mutations to this channel have been associated with human congenital stationary night blindness type-2. The L-type CaV1.4 channel displays distinct properties such as absence of calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and slow voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI) due to the presence of an autoinhibitory domain (inhibitor of CDI) in the distal C terminus. We hypothesized that native CaV1.4 is subjected to extensive alternative splicing, much like the other voltage-gated calcium channels, and employed the transcript scanning method to identify alternatively spliced exons within the CaV1.4 transcripts isolated from the human retina. In total, we identified 19 alternative splice variations, of which 16 variations have not been previously reported. Characterization of the C terminus alternatively spliced exons using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology revealed a splice variant that exhibits robust CDI. This splice variant arose from the splicing of a novel alternate exon (43*) that can be found in 13.6% of the full-length transcripts screened. Inclusion of exon 43* inserts a stop codon that truncates half the C terminus. The CaV1.4 43* channel exhibited robust CDI, a larger current density, a hyperpolarized shift in activation potential by ∼10 mV, and a slower VDI. Through deletional experiments, we showed that the inhibitor of CDI was responsible for modulating channel activation and VDI, in addition to CDI. Calcium currents in the photoreceptors were observed to exhibit CDI and are more negatively activated as compared with currents elicited from heterologously expressed full-length CaV1.4. Naturally occurring alternative splice variants may in part contribute to the properties of the native CaV1.4 channels. PMID:22069316

  12. First field test of the theory of ignition and dissipation in sediment density currents - results from Squamish prodelta, British Columbia, Canada. (United States)

    Hizzett, Jamie; Hughes Clarke, John; Cartigny, Matthieu; Talling, Peter; Clare, Michael; Sumner, Esther


    Turbidity currents are one of the most important sediment transport processes on Earth and pose a potential hazard to seafloor infrastructure. These flows are driven downslope due to the collective density of their suspended sediment and are hypothesised to either entrain more sediment, causing them to erode sediment and accelerate ('ignition'), or deposit sediment, causing them to decelerate ('dissipation'). This paradigm has major implications for geohazard assessments and protecting seafloor infrastructure. We present the first field-scale study to test the 'ignition-dissipation' hypothesis and to analyse how turbidity currents evolve through erosion and deposition of sediment from the seafloor. A dataset of 93 near-daily bathymetric surveys was collected by John Hughes Clarke et al., in 2011 of the Squamish delta in the Howe Sound, BC, Canada. The near-daily resolution of the dataset is the first of its kind, and contains 106 mass wasting events and 30 turbidity currents. The data enables the analysis of the volume and location of sediment erosion and deposition along the full length of the flow path for three different turbidity currents. The three flows in this study originated in different ways: a small delta lip failure; a large delta lip failure; and an event with no discernible head scarp. The small lip failure transformed from a dissipative flow into an ignitive flow midslope, entraining 470 m3 of sediment during ignition, before dissipating once again. The large lip failure remained a dissipative flow, entraining relatively little sediment, blanketing the upper Southern channel with sediment. On the day following the large lip failure, a flow was initiated in in ~60 m water depth that could not be linked with a delta lip failure or other obvious source. The flow ignited and eroded the entirety of the upper channel to reach a flow volume of ~8200 m3. The dissipative or waning phase of both the small lip failure and event of unknown origin occur when the

  13. PYFLOW: A computer code for the calculation of the impact parameters of Dilute Pyroclastic Density Currents (DPDC) based on field data (United States)

    Dioguardi, Fabio; Dellino, Pierfrancesco


    PYFLOW is a computer code designed for quantifying the hazard related to Dilute Pyroclastic Density Currents (DPDC). DPDCs are multiphase flows that form during explosive volcanic eruptions. They are the major source of hazard related to volcanic eruptions, as they exert a significant stress over buildings and transport significant amounts of volcanic ash, which is hot and unbreathable. The program calculates the DPDC's impact parameters (e.g. dynamic pressure and particle volumetric concentration) and is founded on the turbulent boundary layer theory adapted to a multiphase framework. Fluid-dynamic variables are searched with a probabilistic approach, meaning that for each variable the average, maximum and minimum solutions are calculated. From these values, PYFLOW creates probability functions that allow to calculate the parameter at a given percentile. The code is written in Fortran 90 and can be compiled and installed on Windows, Mac OS X, Linux operating systems (OS). A User's manual is provided, explaining the details of the theoretical background, the setup and running procedure and the input data. The model inputs are DPDC deposits data, e.g. particle grainsize, layer thickness, particles shape factor and density. PYFLOW reads input data from a specifically designed input file or from the user's direct typing by command lines. Guidelines for writing input data are also contained in the package. PYFLOW guides the user at each step of execution, asking for additional data and inputs. The program is a tool for DPDC hazard assessment and, as an example, an application to the DPDC deposits of the Agnano-Monte Spina eruption (4.1 ky BP) at Campi Flegrei (Italy) is presented.

  14. Large critical current densities and pinning forces in CSD-grown superconducting GdBa2Cu3O7-x -BaHfO3 nanocomposite films (United States)

    Cayado, Pablo; Erbe, Manuela; Kauffmann-Weiss, Sandra; Bühler, Carl; Jung, Alexandra; Hänisch, Jens; Holzapfel, Bernhard


    GdBa2Cu3O7-x -BaHfO3 (GdBCO-BHO) nanocomposite (NC) films containing 12 mol% BHO nanoparticles were prepared by chemical solution deposition (CSD) following the TFA route on SrTiO3 (STO) single crystals and buffered metallic tapes supplied by two different companies: Deutsche Nanoschicht GmbH and SuperOx. We optimized the preparation of our GdBCO-BHO solutions with acetylacetone making the film synthesis very robust and reproducible, and obtained 220 nm films with excellent superconducting properties. We show the structural, morphological and superconducting properties of the films after a careful optimization of the processing parameters (growth temperature, oxygen partial pressure and heating ramp). The films reach critical temperatures (T c) of ˜94 K, self-field critical current densities (J c) of >7 MA cm- 2 and maximum pinning force densities (F p) of ˜16 GN m- 3 at 77 K on STO and T c of ˜94.5 K and J c > 1.5 MA cm- 2 on buffered metallic tapes. The transport properties under applied magnetic fields are significantly improved with respect to the pristine GdBCO films. The GdBCO-BHO NC films on STO present epitaxial c-axis orientation with excellent out-of-plane and in-plane texture. The films are, in general, very dense with a low amount of pores and only superficial indentations. On the other hand, we present, for the first time, a systematic study of CSD-grown GdBCO-BHO NC films on buffered metallic tapes. We have used the optimized growth conditions for STO as a reference and identified some limitations on the film synthesis that should be overcome for further improvement of the films’ superconducting properties.

  15. Visualization of the current density in Josephson junctions with 0- and {pi}-facets; Visualisierung der Stromverteilung in Josephsonkontakten mit 0- und {pi}-Facetten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerlich, Christian


    With Low-Temperature-Electron-Microscopy (LTSEM) it is possible to analyse the transport properties of solids at low temperatures. In particular it is possible to image the supercurrent density j{sub s} in Josephson junctions. This was demonstrated by comparing TTREM-images with calculated values for j{sub s}. In this thesis ramp-type Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4-y}/Nb-Josephson-junctions (NCCO/Nb) and Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer Nb/Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/NiCu/Nb, so-called SIFS (superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor) Josephson junctions were studied.It was demonstrated that LTSEM provides direct imaging of the sign change of the order parameter in superconductors with d{sub x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}}-symmetry. This was a controversial issue over the last decade. A step like variation in the thickness of the F-layer allows the fabrication of linear and annular Josephson junctions with different numbers of 0 and {pi} facets. With the LTSEM 0-, {pi}-, 0-{pi}-, 0-{pi}-0-, 0/2-{pi}-0/2-, 20 x (0-{pi})- as well as square-shaped-, circular- and annular-Josephson-junctions were studied. It was demonstrated, that these junctions are of good quality and have critical current densities up to 42 A/cm{sup 2} at T=4.2 K, which is a record value for SIFS junctions with a NiCu F-layer so far. By comparing the measurements with simulations a first indication of a semifluxon at the 0-{pi}-boundary was found. (orig.)

  16. Heat exchanger design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Thulukkanam, Kuppan


    Completely revised and updated to reflect current advances in heat exchanger technology, Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Second Edition includes enhanced figures and thermal effectiveness charts, tables, new chapter, and additional topics--all while keeping the qualities that made the first edition a centerpiece of information for practicing engineers, research, engineers, academicians, designers, and manufacturers involved in heat exchange between two or more fluids.See What's New in the Second Edition: Updated information on pressure vessel codes, manufacturer's association standards A new c

  17. EEG-Based Quantification of Cortical Current Density and Dynamic Causal Connectivity Generalized across Subjects Performing BCI-Monitored Cognitive Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristos Courellis


    Full Text Available Quantification of dynamic causal interactions among brain regions constitutes an important component of conducting research and developing applications in experimental and translational neuroscience. Furthermore, cortical networks with dynamic causal connectivity in brain-computer interface (BCI applications offer a more comprehensive view of brain states implicated in behavior than do individual brain regions. However, models of cortical network dynamics are difficult to generalize across subjects because current electroencephalography (EEG signal analysis techniques are limited in their ability to reliably localize sources across subjects. We propose an algorithmic and computational framework for identifying cortical networks across subjects in which dynamic causal connectivity is modeled among user-selected cortical regions of interest (ROIs. We demonstrate the strength of the proposed framework using a “reach/saccade to spatial target” cognitive task performed by 10 right-handed individuals. Modeling of causal cortical interactions was accomplished through measurement of cortical activity using (EEG, application of independent component clustering to identify cortical ROIs as network nodes, estimation of cortical current density using cortically constrained low resolution electromagnetic brain tomography (cLORETA, multivariate autoregressive (MVAR modeling of representative cortical activity signals from each ROI, and quantification of the dynamic causal interaction among the identified ROIs using the Short-time direct Directed Transfer function (SdDTF. The resulting cortical network and the computed causal dynamics among its nodes exhibited physiologically plausible behavior, consistent with past results reported in the literature. This physiological plausibility of the results strengthens the framework's applicability in reliably capturing complex brain functionality, which is required by applications, such as diagnostics and BCI.

  18. Modeling the spatial distribution of AD 79 pumice fallout and pyroclastic density current and derived deposits of Somma-Vesuvius (Campania, Italy) integrating primary deposition and secondary redistribution (United States)

    Vogel, Sebastian; Märker, Michael


    The spatial distributions of primary deposits and related reworked ones from Plinian fallout and from pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) of the AD 79 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius were independently modeled for the Sarno River plain (Campania, Italy). The simulation takes into consideration both primary deposition of the volcanic products and their secondary redistribution by geomorphic processes of erosion, transport, and redeposition. We hypothesize that the pre-eruption topography controlled both the intial volcanic deposition of PDCs and the subsequent processes redistributing material of the pumice fallout and PDC deposits, and thus significantly controlled the thickness of the final volcaniclastic deposits. The methodology applied is based on a reconstructed pre-AD 79 digital elevation model of the Sarno River plain, an extensive tephrostratigraphic dataset from about 1,200 core drillings and a predictive modeling technique. The two models produce contrasting spatial distribution patterns for both the AD 79 deposits from fallout plus their derivates, versus from PDCs and their derivatives. The contrast allows determination of the most important factors controlling the thickness of the AD 79 volcaniclastic deposits. This provides new insights into the process dynamics during and immediately after the AD 79 Plinian eruption including primary deposition, erosion, and redistribution.

  19. Stimulation effect of electric current density (ECD) on microbial community of a three dimensional particle electrode coupled with biological aerated filter reactor (TDE-BAF). (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Li, Xing; Song, Ting; Yu, Yanzhen; Qi, Jingyao


    Improving the stimulation effect of electric current density (ECD) on microbial community is critical in designing and operating TDE-BAF. This study investigated the effect of ECD at 0.00, 4.08, 6.12, 12.20, 14.25, 16.30 and 20.20A·m-2 on the removal performance, diversity and structure of microbial community in TDE-BAF. Results indicated that the ECD of 14.25A·m-2 exhibited the highest COD, TOC and NH4+-N average removal rates with 93.33%, 91.26% and 93.87%, respectively; Under high ECD, especially exceeding 14.25A·m-2, the inhibition of growth and activity because of plasmatorrhexis was in agreement with the sharp biomass decline; there was no significant relation between community richness and diversity and removal efficiency below optimum ECD, while above optimal ECD, it was just the opposite; Microbial communities mainly including Hydrogenophaga, Saprospiraceae_uncultured, Delftia, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Pseudoxanthomonas, and Nitrosospira and physicochemical properties well explained the excellent removal performance at the optimum ECD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Critical current density and ac harmonic voltage generation in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin films by the screening technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, Israel O., E-mail: iperez@mda.cinvestav.m [Applied Physics Department, Cinvestav Unidad Merida, Km 6 Ant., Carretera a Progreso, A.P. 73, C.P. 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Gamboa, Fidel; Sosa, Victor [Applied Physics Department, Cinvestav Unidad Merida, Km 6 Ant., Carretera a Progreso, A.P. 73, C.P. 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)


    The temperature and field dependence of harmonics in voltage V{sub n}=V{sub n}{sup '}-iV{sub n}{sup ''} using the screening technique have been measured for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} superconducting thin films. Using the Sun model we obtained the curves for the temperature-dependent critical current density J{sub c}(T). In addition, we applied the criterion proposed by Acosta et al. to compute J{sub c}(T). Also, we made used of the empirical law J{sub c{proportional_to}}(1-T/T{sub c}){sup n} as an input in our calculations to reproduce experimental harmonic generation up to the fifth harmonic. We found that most models fit well the fundamental voltage but higher harmonics are poorly reproduced. Such behavior suggests the idea that higher harmonics contain information concerning complex processes like flux creep or thermally assisted flux flow.

  1. High Current Density Chronopotentiometric Electrosynthesis and SEM Characterization of Hexanethiol-Monolayer-Protected Silver Planar Nanotriangles (Ag@C6SH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJafar Vatan Khah Dowlat Sara


    Full Text Available This work reports for the first time electrosynthesis of hexanethiol capped silver nanotriangles cores (Ag@C6SH NCs by a rapid, clean, and simple Double Pulse Chronopotentiometric (DCP method in nonaqueous media, using a Taguchi orthogonal array L8 design to identify the optimized experimental conditions. It was found that the size and shape of the product could be tuned by the current density, electrolysis time, electrode distance, and amount of NaBH4% used. The Ag@C6SH NCs in different shapes and sizes (in the range of 30 to 44 nm as an average estimation were synthesized, under different experimental conditions. Finally, the as-prepared nanoclusters electrosynthesized at optimized conditions were characterized by SEM, XRD, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The average particle size of the triangular/pyramidal shape (Ag@C6SH NCs, obtained under optimized experimental conditions, was 30.5±2.0 nm but the majority of nanoparticles in TC3 SEM are so much finer.

  2. Carbon nanotube-assisted electrodeposition. Part II: Superior pseudo-capacitive behavior of manganese oxide film electrodeposited at high current densities (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ali; Molaei, Foroogh


    A practical approach for controlling the morphology and electrochemical properties of electroactive materials is proposed. In this study, manganese oxide films were galvanostatically deposited in the presence of a small amount of carbon nanotube (CNT). The resulting film cannot be considered as a CNT-based nanocomposite, as no CNT is detected by electron microscopy. However, the manganese oxide electrodeposited delivers an excellent pseudo-capacitive behavior to be used as a superior supercapacitor. The samples prepared by applying a current density of 3.0 mA cm-2 showed a specific capacitance of 280 F g-1. As it seems that the capacitance of this electrode is related to the chemisorption of the alkali cation, an extremely high specific capacitance of 434 F g-1 was achieved in a saturated medium of Li electrolyte. This high specific capacitance can be attributed to a bulk process. The presence of carbon nanotubes results in the formation of nanostructured films which provide a better accessibility for capacitive behavior. Although the exact mechanism for this phenomenon is still vague, the presence of carbon nanotubes (probably as a solid charge carrier) close to the electrode surface is apparently responsible for a different pathway for the electrodeposition process.

  3. Emplacement of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) in a deep-sea environment: The Val d'Aveto Formation case (Northern Apennines, Italy) (United States)

    Di Capua, Andrea; Groppelli, Gianluca


    The occurrence of PDC deposits in a foredeep basin sequence, named Val d'Aveto Formation (32-29 Ma, Northern Apennines, Italy), provides new information on the behavior of pyroclastic density currents entering the water. In this work, stratigraphic, petrographic and mineralogical features that characterize three pyroclastic deposits have been described and analyzed in the field (facies and lithological analysis on the blocky-size fraction) and in the laboratory (image analyses on the blocky-size detritus, optical analyses of the microtextures, mineralogical analyses through X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectometry (SEM-EDS). The deposits are lapilli- to blocky-size, with a blocky-size fraction constituted of accidental detritus. In thin sections, their groundmass texture varies from porphyritic to eutaxitic where coarser particles become close each others. Growth rims have been also detected around plagioclase crystals. Pyrite habits and oxidation, and plagioclase albitization are consistent with hydrothermal temperature conditions of 200 °C. All these results have been compared with the information provided by modern examples of PDC deposits and laboratory experiments on the behavior of water/hot particles mixing. Grain-to-grain collision has been considered as the main flow mechanism that sustained and avoided the disaggregation of the PDCs entering the water.

  4. The effects of exchange rate on balance trade and on monetary aggregates of macedonia and the impact of the current world crisis in its economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Kadishe Limani


    Full Text Available Macedonia is a country that is close related to the European Union countries where the majority of the Macedonian foreign trade is with the European Union countries (52%. So the Macedonian economy is in a high level dependency of Euro.  Since Denar is connected closely to Euro, and the level of its usage in everyday economic activity is close to the usage of Denar, it is obvious to be discussed as a dilemma whether Macedonia should have Euro as its currency. However, the problem lies in that whether it is the right time for such action as the best solution for Macedonian economy, keeping in mind the fact that in the international arena there is present a second crisis that is the crisis of Euro-Zone. Based on various sources and on our econometric results, in this paper is argued and supported the main hypothesis that the fix exchange rate for Macedonia is a more optimal choice in comparison with the unilateral euroisation and flexible exchange rate. Thus, during the research we found out some arguments that support the existing regime, such as: under a flexible regime an eventual devaluation of the Denar is more possible, which can lead to more negative effects on the economy than benefits. Thus, devaluation of the Denar will have no significant effects on the balance trade (export and imports and GDP. This means that the competitiveness of a country relies on the other factors. In addition an eventual devaluation of the Denar, it will not have significant effects on monetary aggregates (M2 and M4 due to the asset substitution from Denar deposits to foreign deposits and vice-versa.

  5. Criterion of mixed convection occurrence in laminar regime in a tubular exchanger with constant flux density; Critere d'apparition de la convection mixte en regime laminaire dans un echangeur tubulaire a densite de flux constante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuf, M.; Legrand, A.; Fillaudeau, L.; Leuliet, J.C. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), Lab. Genie des Procedes et Technologie Alimentaire, LGPTA, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Berthou, M. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches


    In food industries, the thermal processing of highly viscous products in continuous processes has become more and more usual. These processes must ensure the microbiological security of the product and a better quality thanks to a thermal process as much homogenous as possible. In this context, the aim of this work is to study the occurrence of mixed convection for Newtonian fluids in laminar flow. An horizontal heat exchanger with constant flux density (impedance heating tube system) and with a circular section (L 6 m, internal diameter = 36 mm) has been used. In a first step, the parameters influencing the occurrence of mixed convection have been identified in order to group them in the form of a similitude invariant in the (Gr/Re){sub mp} ratio. An empirical correlation between this number (Gr/Re){sub mp} and the length of occurrence of mixed convection (L{sup *}) has been established and validated experimentally. The first particularity of this similitude invariant is based on the introduction of the parietal Nusselt number calculated in pure forced convection (Nu{sub xCF}). The second original aspect concerns the length of occurrence of mixed convection which was not considered as a constant but as a datum depending on the conditions of the experiment and on the geometry. (J.S.)

  6. From hot rocks to glowing avalanches: Numerical modelling of gravity-induced pyroclastic density currents and hazard maps at the Stromboli volcano (Italy) (United States)

    Salvatici, Teresa; Di Roberto, Alessio; Di Traglia, Federico; Bisson, Marina; Morelli, Stefano; Fidolini, Francesco; Bertagnini, Antonella; Pompilio, Massimo; Hungr, Oldrich; Casagli, Nicola


    Gravity-induced pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) can be produced by the collapse of volcanic crater rims or due to the gravitational instability of materials deposited in proximal areas during explosive activity. These types of PDCs, which are also known as ;glowing avalanches;, have been directly observed, and their deposits have been widely identified on the flanks of several volcanoes that are fed by mafic to intermediate magmas. In this research, the suitability of landslide numerical models for simulating gravity-induced PDCs to provide hazard assessments was tested. This work also presents the results of a back-analysis of three events that occurred in 1906, 1930 and 1944 at the Stromboli volcano by applying a depth-averaged 3D numerical code named DAN-3D. The model assumes a frictional internal rheology and a variable basal rheology (i.e., frictional, Voellmy and plastic). The numerical modelling was able to reproduce the gravity-induced PDCs' extension and deposit thicknesses to an order of magnitude of that reported in the literature. The best results when compared with field data were obtained using a Voellmy model with a frictional coefficient of f = 0.19 and a turbulence parameter ξ = 1000 m s- 1. The results highlight the suitability of this numerical code, which is generally used for landslides, to reproduce the destructive potential of these events in volcanic environments and to obtain information on hazards connected with explosive-related, mass-wasting phenomena in Stromboli Island and at volcanic systems characterized by similar phenomena.

  7. The Effects of Vent Location, Event Scale, and Time Forecasts on Pyroclastic Density Current Hazard Maps at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bevilacqua


    Full Text Available This study presents a new method for producing long-term hazard maps for pyroclastic density currents (PDC originating at Campi Flegrei caldera. Such method is based on a doubly stochastic approach and is able to combine the uncertainty assessments on the spatial location of the volcanic vent, the size of the flow and the expected time of such an event. The results are obtained by using a Monte Carlo approach and adopting a simplified invasion model based on the box model integral approximation. Temporal assessments are modeled through a Cox-type process including self-excitement effects, based on the eruptive record of the last 15 kyr. Mean and percentile maps of PDC invasion probability are produced, exploring their sensitivity to some sources of uncertainty and to the effects of the dependence between PDC scales and the caldera sector where they originated. Conditional maps representative of PDC originating inside limited zones of the caldera, or of PDC with a limited range of scales are also produced. Finally, the effect of assuming different time windows for the hazard estimates is explored, also including the potential occurrence of a sequence of multiple events. Assuming that the last eruption of Monte Nuovo (A.D. 1538 marked the beginning of a new epoch of activity similar to the previous ones, results of the statistical analysis indicate a mean probability of PDC invasion above 5% in the next 50 years on almost the entire caldera (with a probability peak of ~25% in the central part of the caldera. In contrast, probability values reduce by a factor of about 3 if the entire eruptive record is considered over the last 15 kyr, i.e., including both eruptive epochs and quiescent periods.

  8. The effects of vent location, event scale and time forecasts on pyroclastic density current hazard maps at Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Andrea; Neri, Augusto; Bisson, Marina; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Flandoli, Franco; Isaia, Roberto; Rosi, Mauro; Vitale, Stefano


    This study presents a new method for producing long-term hazard maps for pyroclastic density currents (PDC) originating at Campi Flegrei caldera. Such method is based on a doubly stochastic approach and is able to combine the uncertainty assessments on the spatial location of the volcanic vent, the size of the flow and the expected time of such an event. The results are obtained by using a Monte Carlo approach and adopting a simplified invasion model based on the box model integral approximation. Temporal assessments are modelled through a Cox-type process including self-excitement effects, based on the eruptive record of the last 15 kyr. Mean and percentile maps of PDC invasion probability are produced, exploring their sensitivity to some sources of uncertainty and to the effects of the dependence between PDC scales and the caldera sector where they originated. Conditional maps representative of PDC originating inside limited zones of the caldera, or of PDC with a limited range of scales are also produced. Finally, the effect of assuming different time windows for the hazard estimates is explored, also including the potential occurrence of a sequence of multiple events. Assuming that the last eruption of Monte Nuovo (A.D. 1538) marked the beginning of a new epoch of activity similar to the previous ones, results of the statistical analysis indicate a mean probability of PDC invasion above 5% in the next 50 years on almost the entire caldera (with a probability peak of 25% in the central part of the caldera). In contrast, probability values reduce by a factor of about 3 if the entire eruptive record is considered over the last 15 kyr, i.e. including both eruptive epochs and quiescent periods.

  9. The impact of steam and current density on carbon formation from biomass gasification tar on Ni/YSZ, and Ni/CGO solid oxide fuel cell anodes (United States)

    Mermelstein, Joshua; Millan, Marcos; Brandon, Nigel

    The combination of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and biomass gasification has the potential to become an attractive technology for the production of clean renewable energy. However the impact of tars, formed during biomass gasification, on the performance and durability of SOFC anodes has not been well established experimentally. This paper reports an experimental study on the mitigation of carbon formation arising from the exposure of the commonly used Ni/YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) and Ni/CGO (gadolinium-doped ceria) SOFC anodes to biomass gasification tars. Carbon formation and cell degradation was reduced through means of steam reforming of the tar over the nickel anode, and partial oxidation of benzene model tar via the transport of oxygen ions to the anode while operating the fuel cell under load. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that a threshold current density of 365 mA cm -2 was required to suppress carbon formation in dry conditions, which was consistent with the results of experiments conducted in this study. The importance of both anode microstructure and composition towards carbon deposition was seen in the comparison of Ni/YSZ and Ni/CGO anodes exposed to the biomass gasification tar. Under steam concentrations greater than the thermodynamic threshold for carbon deposition, Ni/YSZ anodes still exhibited cell degradation, as shown by increased polarization resistances, and carbon formation was seen using SEM imaging. Ni/CGO anodes were found to be more resilient to carbon formation than Ni/YSZ anodes, and displayed increased performance after each subsequent exposure to tar, likely due to continued reforming of condensed tar on the anode.

  10. Three-Dimensional Grain Shape-Fabric from Unconsolidated Pyroclastic Density Current Deposits: Implications for Extracting Flow Direction and Insights on Rheology (United States)

    Hawkins, T. T.; Brand, B. D.; Sarrochi, D.; Pollock, N.


    One of the greatest challenges volcanologists face is the ability to extrapolate information about eruption dynamics and emplacement conditions from deposits. Pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits are particularly challenging given the wide range of initial current conditions, (e.g., granular, fluidized, concentrated, dilute), and rapid flow transformations due to interaction with evolving topography. Analysis of particle shape-fabric can be used to determine flow direction, and may help to understand the rheological characteristics of the flows. However, extracting shape-fabric information from outcrop (2D) apparent fabric is limited, especially when outcrop exposure is incomplete or lacks context. To better understand and quantify the complex flow dynamics reflected in PDC deposits, we study the complete shape-fabric data in 3D using oriented samples. In the field, the prospective sample is carved from the unconsolidated deposit in blocks, the dimensions of which depend on the average clast size in the sample. The sample is saturated in situ with a water-based sodium silicate solution, then wrapped in plaster-soaked gauze to form a protective cast. The orientation of the sample is recorded on the block faces. The samples dry for five days and are then extracted in intact blocks. In the lab, the sample is vacuum impregnated with sodium silicate and cured in an oven. The fully lithified sample is first cut along the plan view to identify orientations of the long axes of the grains (flow direction), and then cut in the two plains perpendicular to grain elongation. 3D fabric analysis is performed using high resolution images of the cut-faces using computer assisted image analysis software devoted to shape-fabric analysis. Here we present the results of samples taken from the 18 May 1980 PDC deposit facies, including massive, diffuse-stratified and cross-stratified lapilli tuff. We show a relationship between the strength of iso-orientation of the elongated

  11. Pyroclastic density currents associated with the 2008-2009 eruption of Chaitén Volcano (Chile): forest disturbances, deposits, and dynamics (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Hoblitt, Richard P.; Moreno, Hugo


    Explosive activity at Chaitén Volcano in May 2008 and subsequent dome collapses over the following nine months triggered multiple, small-volume pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). The explosive activity triggered PDCs to the north and northeast, which felled modest patches of forest as far as 2 km from the caldera rim. Felled trees pointing in the down-current direction dominate the disturbance zones. The PDC on the north flank of Chaitén left a decimeters-thick, bipartite deposit having a basal layer of poorly sorted, fines-depleted pumice-and-lithic coarse ash and lapilli, which transitions abruptly to fines-enriched pumice-and-lithic coarse ash. The deposit contains fragments of mostly uncharred organics near its base; vegetation protruding above the deposit is uncharred. The nature of the forest disturbance and deposit characteristics suggest the PDC was dilute, of relatively low temperature (-1. It was formed by directionally focused explosions throughout the volcano's prehistoric, intracaldera lava dome. Dilute, low-temperature PDCs that exited the caldera over a low point on the east-southeast caldera rim deposited meters-thick fill of stratified beds of pumice-and-lithic coarse ash and lapilli. They did not fell large trees more than a few hundred of meters from the caldera rim and were thus less energetic than those on the north and northeast flanks. They likely formed by partial collapses of the margins of vertical eruption columns. In the Chaitén River valley south of the volcano, several-meter-thick deposits of two block-and-ash flow (BAF) PDCs are preserved. Both have a coarse ash matrix that supports blocks and lapilli predominantly of lithic rhyolite dome rock, minor obsidian, and local bedrock. One deposit was emplaced by a BAF that traveled an undetermined distance downvalley between June and November 2008, apparently triggered by partial collapse of a newly effused lava dome on that started growing on 12 May. A second, and larger, BAF related

  12. Syn-eruptive, soft-sediment deformation of dilute pyroclastic density current deposits: triggers from granular shear, dynamic pore pressure, ballistic impacts and shock waves (United States)

    Douillet, Guilhem Amin; Kueppers, Ulrich; Taisne, Benoit; Tsang-Hin-Sun, Ève; Müller, Sebastian K.; Dingwell, Donald B.


    Dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) represent peculiar transport mechanisms sharing similarities with turbidity currents, wind-blown transport and granular flows. Outcrops of syn-eruptive, soft-sediment deformation are compiled from seven volcanic centers in order to provide a broad perspective on the variety of structures: Ubehebe craters (USA), Tungurahua (Ecuador), Soufrière Hills (Montserrat), Laacher See (Germany), Lago di Albano (Italy), Tower Hill and Purrumbete lake (both Australia). The interpretation of the variety of triggers enlightens the understanding of the sedimentary environment and basal boundary processes for PDCs: 1/ Isolated, cm-scale, overturned beds with vortex forms have been interpreted to be the signature of shear instabilities occurring at the boundary of two granular media. They may represent the frozen record of granular, pseudo Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. 2/ The occurrence of degassing pipes together with basal intrusive dikes suggest fluidization during flow stages. This, in turn, can facilitate the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz structures. The occurrence of injection dikes at the base of flow units in some outcrops compared with suction-driven local uplifts in others indicates the role of dynamic pore pressure and local changes between depletive and accumulative dynamics of flows. 3/ Isolated slumps as well as sinking pseudonodules are driven by their excess weight and occur after deposition but penecontemporaneous to the eruption. 4/ Impact of ballistic blocks can trigger local displacement or liquefaction. Based on the deformation depth, these can yield precise insights into depositional unit boundaries. Such impact structures may also be at the origin of some of the steep truncation planes visible at the base of the so-called "chute and pool" structures. 5/ Finally, the passage of shock waves emanating from the vent may be preserved in the form of trains of isolated, fine-grained overturned beds, which may disturb

  13. Correlations between critical current density, j{sub c}, critical temperature, T{sub c}, and structural quality of Y{sub 1}B{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} thin superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrzanowski, J.; Xing, W.B.; Atlan, D. [Simon Fraser Univ., British Columbia (Canada)] [and others


    Correlations between critical current density (j{sub c}) critical temperature (T{sub c}) and the density of edge dislocations and nonuniform strain have been observed in YBCO thin films deposited by pulsed laser ablation on (001) LaAlO{sub 3} single crystals. Distinct maxima in j{sub c} as a function of the linewidths of the (00{ell}) Bragg reflections and as a function of the mosaic spread have been found in the epitaxial films. These maxima in j{sub c} indicate that the magnetic flux lines, in films of structural quality approaching that of single crystals, are insufficiently pinned which results in a decreased critical current density. T{sub c} increased monotonically with improving crystalline quality and approached a value characteristic of a pure single crystal. A strong correlation between j{sub c} and the density of edge dislocations N{sub D} was found. At the maximum of the critical current density the density of edge dislocations was estimated to be N{sub D}{approximately}1-2 x 10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2}.

  14. Exchange Network (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  15. Five-minute grid of marine bird biomass density surveyed off central California - Davidson Current season, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set Da0_mass.shp) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Da0_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/ of 76 species...

  16. Enhanced critical current density of in situ processed MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductors with MgB{sub 4} additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H.; Jun, B. H.; Lee, Y. J.; Kim, C. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, W. N. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    The effects of MgB{sub 4} addition on the superconducting properties and the microstructure of in situ processed MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductors were studied. MgB{sub 4} powder of 1-20 wt.% was mixed with (Mg + 2B) powder and then pressed into pellets. The pellets of (Mg + 2B + xMgB{sub 4}) were heat-treated at 650 ℃ for 1 h in flowing argon. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis for the heat-treated samples showed that the major formed phase in all samples was MgB{sub 2} and the minor phases were MgB{sub 4} and MgO. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) values showed that the grain size of MgB{sub 2} decreased as the amount of MgB{sub 4} addition increased. MgB{sub 4} particles included in a MgB{sub 2} matrix is considered to suppress the grain growth of MgB{sub 2}. The onset temperatures (T{sub c},onset) of MgB{sub 2} with MgB{sub 4} addition (0-10 wt.%) was between 37-38 K. The 20 wt.% MgB{sub 4} addition slightly reduced the T{sub c},onset of MgB{sub 2} to 36.5 K. This result indicates that MgB{sub 4} addition did not influence the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) of MgB{sub 2} significantly. On the other hand, the small additions of 1-5 wt.% MgB{sub 4} increased the critical current density (J{sub c}) of MgB{sub 2}. The Jc enhancement by MgB{sub 4} addition is attributed not only to the grain size refinement but also to the possible flux pinning of MgB{sub 4} particles dispersed in a MgB{sub 2} matrix.

  17. Probabilistic hazard analysis of dense Pyroclastic Density Currents at Vesuvius (Italy) via parametric uncertainty characterization of TITAN2D numerical simulator (United States)

    Tierz, Pablo; Ramona Stefanescu, Elena; Sandri, Laura; Patra, Abani; Marzocchi, Warner; Sulpizio, Roberto


    Probabilistic hazard assessments of Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDCs) are of great interest for decision-making purposes. However, there is a limited number of published works available on this topic. Recent advances in computation and statistical methods are offering new opportunities beyond the classical Monte Carlo (MC) sampling which is known as a simple and robust method but it usually turns out to be slow and computationally intractable. In this work, Titan2D numerical simulator has been coupled to Polynomial Chaos Quadrature (PCQ) to propagate the simulator parametric uncertainty and compute VEI-based probabilistic hazard maps of dense PDCs formed as a result of column collapse at Vesuvius volcano, Italy. Due to the lack of knowledge about the exact conditions under which these PDCs will form, Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) are assigned to the simulator input parameters (Bed Friction Angle and Volume) according to three VEI sizes. Uniform distributions were used for both parameters since there is insufficient information to assume that any value in the range is more likely that any other value. Reasonable (and compatible) ranges for both variables were constrained according to past eruptions at Vesuvius volcanic system. On the basis of reasoning above a number of quadrature points were taken within those ranges, which resulted in one execution of the TITAN2D code at each quadrature point. With a computational cost several orders of magnitude smaller than MC, exceedance probabilities for a given threshold of flow depth (and conditional to the occurrence of VEI3, VEI4 and VEI5 eruptions) were calculated using PCQ. Moreover, PCQ can be run at different threshold values of the same output variable (flow depth, speed, kinetic energy, …) and, therefore, it can serve to compute Exceedance Probability curves (aka hazard curves) at singular points inside the hazard domain, representing the most important and useful scientific input to quantitative risk

  18. Field-trip guide for exploring pyroclastic density current deposits from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington (United States)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Pollock, Nicholas; Sarocchi, Damiano; Dufek, Josef; Clynne, Michael A.


    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are one of the most dangerous phenomena associated with explosive volcanism. To help constrain damage potential, a combination of field studies, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling are used to establish conditions that influence PDC dynamics and depositional processes, including runout distance. The objective of this field trip is to explore field relations that may constrain PDCs at the time of emplacement.The PDC deposits from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens are well exposed along the steep flanks (10–30° slopes) and across the pumice plain (5–12° slopes) as far as 8 km north of the volcano. The pumice plain deposits represent deposition from a series of concentrated PDCs and are primarily thick (3–12 m), massive, and poorly sorted. In contrast, the steep east-flank deposits are stratified to cross-stratified, suggesting deposition from PDCs where turbulence strongly influenced transport and depositional processes.The PDCs that descended the west flank were largely nondepositional; they maintained a higher flow energy and carrying capacity than PDCs funneled through the main breach, as evidenced by the higher concentration of large blocks in their deposits. The PDC from the west flank collided with PDCs funneled through the breach at various points along the pumice plain. Evidence for flow collision will be explored and debated throughout the field trip.Evidence for substrate erosion and entrainment is found (1) along the steep eastern flank of the volcano, which has a higher degree of rough, irregular topography relative to the west flanks where PDCs were likely nonerosive, (2) where PDCs encountered debris-avalanche hummocks across the pumice plain, and (3) where PDCs eroded and entrained material deposited by PDCs produced during earlier phases of the eruption. Two features interpreted as large-scale (tens of meters wide) levees and a large (~200 m wide) channel scour-and-fill feature

  19. Field-trip guide to Mount St. Helens, Washington - An overview of the eruptive history and petrology, tephra deposits, 1980 pyroclastic density current deposits, and the crater (United States)

    Pallister, John S.; Clynne, Michael A.; Wright, Heather M.; Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Vallance, James W.; Sherrod, David R.; Kokelaar, B. Peter


    master teacher.” The 1980 eruption and studies both before and after 1980 played a major role in the establishment of the modern U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program and our understanding of flank collapses, debris avalanches, cryptodomes, blasts, pyroclastic density currents, and lahars, as well as the dynamics of magma ascent and eruption.

  20. New load cycling strategy for enhanced durability of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Sobi; Jeppesen, Christian; Steenberg, Thomas


    The objective of this paper is to develop a new operational strategy to increase the lifetime of a high temperature proton exchange membrane (HT-PEMFCs) fuel cell system by using load cycling patterns to reduce the phosphoric acid loss from the fuel cell. Four single cells were operated under...... different current cycling profile, while one cell was operated at constant current density for comparison. Polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were recorded during the course of the tests and analysed. Two different current densities, 0.2 Acm-2 for the lower end and 0.......8 Acm-2 for the higher end, were selected for the load cycling operation. The relaxation time, which is the period of time spent at low current density operation, is varied to understand how the performance over prolonged period behaves. The duration of the high current density operation is selected...

  1. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg


    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  2. Transendothelial lipoprotein exchange and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jan Skov; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Jensen, Kurt Svarre


    OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria associates with increased risk of atherosclerosis in individuals without diabetes. We hypothesized that transendothelial lipoprotein exchange is elevated among such individuals, possibly explaining increased intimal lipoprotein accumulation and thus atherosclerosis....... METHODS: Using an in vivo isotope technique, transendothelial exchange of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was measured in 77 non-diabetic individuals. Autologous 131-iodinated LDL was reinjected intravenously, and the 1-h fractional escape rate was calculated as index of transendothelial exchange. RESULTS......: There was no difference in transendothelial LDL exchange between subjects with microalbuminuria versus normoalbuminuria (mean (95% confidence interval) 3.8%/h (3.3-4.3%/h) versus 4.2%/h (3.7-4.7%/h); P=0.33). In contrast, there was a positive correlation between transendothelial LDL exchange and (logarithmically...

  3. Charge-exchange plasma generated by an ion thruster (United States)

    Kaufman, H. R.


    The use of high voltage solar arrays greatly reduces or eliminates power processing requirements in space electric propulsion systems. This use also requires substantial areas of solar array to be at high positive potential relative to space and most of the spacecraft. The charge exchange plasma conducts electrons from the ion beam to such positive surfaces, and thereby electrically load the high voltage solar array. To evaluate this problem, the charge-exchange plasma generated by an ion beam was investigated experimentally. Based upon the experimental data, a simple model was derived for the charge-exchange plasma. This model is conservative in the sense that both the electron/ion density and the electron current density should be equal to, or less than, the preducted value for all directions in the hemisphere upstream of the ion beam direction. Increasing the distance between a positive potential surface (such as a high voltage solar array) and the thruster is the simplest way to control interactions. Both densities and currents vary as the inverse square of this distance.

  4. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.


    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  5. Ground penetrating radar and terrestrial laser scanner surveys on deposits of dilute pyroclastic density current deposits: insights for dune bedform genesis (United States)

    Rémi Dujardin, Jean; Amin Douillet, Guilhem; Abolghasem, Amir; Cordonnier, Benoit; Kueppers, Ulrich; Bano, Maksim; Dingwell, Donald B.


    Dune bedforms formed by dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDC) are often described or interpreted as antidunes and chute and pools. However, the interpretation remains essentially speculative and is not well understood. This is largely due to the seeming impossibility of in-situ measurements and experimental scaling, as well as the lack of recent, 3D exposures. Indeed, most dune bedform cross-stratifications from the dilute PDC record outcrop in 2D sections. The 2006 eruption of Tungurahua has produced well-developed bedforms that are well-exposed on the surface of the deposits with easy access. We performed a survey of these deposits combining ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiling with terrestrial laser scanning of the surface. The GPR survey was carried in dense arrays (from 10 to 25 cm spacing between profiles) over ca. 10 m long bedforms. GPR profiles were corrected for topography from photogrammetry data. An in-house software, RadLab (written in matlab), was used for common processing of individual profiles and 2D & 3D topographic migration. Each topography-corrected profile was then loaded into a seismic interpretation software, OpenDtect, for 3D visualization and interpretation. Most bedforms show high lateral stability that is independent of the cross-stratification pattern (that varies between stoss-aggrading bedsets, stoss-erosive bedsets and stoss-depositional lensoidal layers). Anecdotic bedforms have their profiles that evolve laterally (i.e. in a direction perpendicular to the flow direction). Cannibalization of two dune bedforms into a single one on one end of the profile can evolve into growth of a single bedform at the other lateral end. Also, lateral variation in the migration direction occurs, i.e. a single bedform can show upstream aggradation at one lateral end of the bedform, but show downstream migration at the other end. Some bedforms have great variations in their internal structure. Several episodes of growth and erosion can be

  6. A numerical study of the effects of bell pulsation dynamics and oral arms on the exchange currents generated by the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana. (United States)

    Hamlet, Christina; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Miller, Laura A


    Mathematical and experimental studies of the flows generated by jellyfish have focused primarily on mechanisms of swimming. More recent work has also considered the fluid dynamics of feeding from currents generated during swimming. Here we capitalize on the benthic lifestyle of the upside-down jellyfish (Cassiopea xamachana) to explore the fluid dynamics of feeding uncoupled from swimming. A two-dimensional mathematical model is developed to capture the fundamental characteristics of the motion of the unique concave bell shape. Given the prominence of the oral arms, this structure is included and modeled as a porous layer that perturbs the flow generated by bell contractions. The immersed boundary method is used to solve the fluid-structure interaction problem. Velocity fields obtained from live organisms using digital particle image velocimetry were used to validate the numerical simulations. Parameter sweeps were used to numerically explore the effects of changes in pulse dynamics and the properties of the oral arms independently. Numerical experiments allow the opportunity to examine physical effects and limits within and beyond the biologically relevant range to develop a better understanding of the system. The presence of the prominent oral arm structures in the field of flow increased the flux of new fluid from along the substrate to the bell. The numerical simulations also showed that the presence of pauses between bell expansion and the next contraction alters the flow of the fluid over the bell and through the oral arms.

  7. Co[sub 2] exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of opuntia ficus-indica under current and elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.


    This project involved placing mature cladodes (flattened stem segments) of Opuntia ficus-indica in growth chambers containing 360 or 720 ppM CO[sub 2]. After nine weeks, the new daughter cladodes initiated on the planted cladodes averaged 7% higher in biomass but 8% less is area, leading to a specific stem mass for this Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species that was 16% higher under the elevated CO[sub 2] condition. This is similar to be less dramatic than the increase in specific leaf mass for C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] plants under elevated CO[sub 2], which generally ranges from 28% to 40%. Another contrast with C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] Plants was the reliance of the new organs of the CAM plant on biomass translocated from existing organs instead of derived directly from current photosynthate. In this regard, 18% less dry weight was translocated from basal cladodes into daughter cladodes of Q. ficus-indica at 720 ppM CO[sub 2] compared with 360 ppM.

  8. Co{sub 2} exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of opuntia ficus-indica under current and elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations. Carbon Dioxide Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.


    This project involved placing mature cladodes (flattened stem segments) of Opuntia ficus-indica in growth chambers containing 360 or 720 ppM CO{sub 2}. After nine weeks, the new daughter cladodes initiated on the planted cladodes averaged 7% higher in biomass but 8% less is area, leading to a specific stem mass for this Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species that was 16% higher under the elevated CO{sub 2} condition. This is similar to be less dramatic than the increase in specific leaf mass for C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} plants under elevated CO{sub 2}, which generally ranges from 28% to 40%. Another contrast with C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} Plants was the reliance of the new organs of the CAM plant on biomass translocated from existing organs instead of derived directly from current photosynthate. In this regard, 18% less dry weight was translocated from basal cladodes into daughter cladodes of Q. ficus-indica at 720 ppM CO{sub 2} compared with 360 ppM.

  9. A method to relate steady-state ionic currents, conductances, and membrane potential in ion exchange membranes with unknown thermodynamic properties. (United States)

    Sandblom, J P


    A method is presented by which the steady-state properties of an homogeneous, permselective membrane at uniform temperature can be predicted without knowledge of its thermodynamic properties other than assuming that they are functions only of local mole fractions in the membrane. By making this assumption, it is shown how the ionic conductances can be calculated at any point in the membrane from two sets of measurements, (a) R(symm), the steady-state resistance of the membrane measured between identical solutions and (b) V(0), the potential difference between nonidentical solutions for zero current. These two parameters are measured at different external solution compositions (e.g. a varying sodium-potassium ratio ranging from zero to infinity). From these measurements it is shown how the flux equations may be integrated without a knowledge of mobilities, activity coefficients, and other interior membrane parameters. The application of the method to fixed site membranes with variable mobilities is described and the theory for this particular case has also been verified experimentally in glass membranes.1 A possible application to biological membranes is discussed and a comparison is made between the present treatment and previous treatments used to calculate the steady-state properties of cell membranes, notably the theory of Teorell, Meyer, and Sievers and the constant field theory.

  10. Diamagnetic currents (United States)

    Macris, N.; Martin, Ph. A.; Pulé, J. V.


    We study the diamagnetic surface currents of particles in thermal equilibrium submitted to a constant magnetic field. The current density of independent electrons with Boltzmann (respectively Fermi) statist